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Sample records for psychologically normal people

  1. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  2. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  3. The Comparison of Hardiness and Coping Styles with Psychological Stress in Addicted and Normal People

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    Rahim Molazadeh, E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the hardiness and coping styles with stress in addicted and normal people in the city of Rasht. Method: The method of this study was causal comparative research. In sampling one hundred addicts were selected by multistage cluster sampling and one hundred normal ones selected by available sampling, then the Kobasa personal views survey and Moos and Billings coping styles questionnaires were administered among both groups. The Pearson correlation coefficients, independent samples t-test and regression analysis were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences between the mean scores of hardiness and emotion focused coping style in addicted and normal people, but there was no significant difference on problem focused coping style. Regression analysis also showed that hardiness can be a significant predictor for emotion focused coping style. Conclusion: The findings of this research show the important role of some of the personality characteristics such as hardiness and coping styles with stress that may correlate with the tendency to addiction and substance abuse in people.

  4. Psychological well-being in people with multiple sclerosis in an Iranian population

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    Dehnavi, Sedigheh Rezaei; Heidarian, Fatemeh; Ashtari, Fereshteh; Shaygannejad, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: To date, few results on well-being in individuals with neurological disease have been published, while several studies in other groups have indicated that well-being may not be the only absence of psychological distress, but also positive psychological function. The aim of the present study was to compare the psychological well-being (PWB) between the people with Multiple sclerosis (MS) and normal individuals and identify correlated demographic factors to PWB in people with MS dis...

  5. Behavioral finance: Finance with normal people

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    Meir Statman

    2014-06-01

    Behavioral finance substitutes normal people for the rational people in standard finance. It substitutes behavioral portfolio theory for mean-variance portfolio theory, and behavioral asset pricing model for the CAPM and other models where expected returns are determined only by risk. Behavioral finance also distinguishes rational markets from hard-to-beat markets in the discussion of efficient markets, a distinction that is often blurred in standard finance, and it examines why so many investors believe that it is easy to beat the market. Moreover, behavioral finance expands the domain of finance beyond portfolios, asset pricing, and market efficiency and is set to continue that expansion while adhering to the scientific rigor introduced by standard finance.

  6. Are normal narcissists psychologically healthy?: self-esteem matters.

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    Sedikides, Constantine; Rudich, Eric A; Gregg, Aiden P; Kumashiro, Madoka; Rusbult, Caryl

    2004-09-01

    Five studies established that normal narcissism is correlated with good psychological health. Specifically, narcissism is (a) inversely related to daily sadness and dispositional depression, (b) inversely related to daily and dispositional loneliness, (c) positively related to daily and dispositional subjective well-being as well as couple well-being, (d) inversely related to daily anxiety, and (e) inversely related to dispositional neuroticism. More important, self-esteem fully accounted for the relation between narcissism and psychological health. Thus, narcissism is beneficial for psychological health only insofar as it is associated with high self-esteem. Explanations of the main and mediational findings in terms of response or social desirability biases (e.g., defensiveness, repression, impression management) were ruled out. Supplementary analysis showed that the links among narcissism, self-esteem, and psychological health were preponderantly linear. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  7. Guidelines for psychological practice with transgender and gender nonconforming people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In 2015, the American Psychological Association adopted Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Clients in order to describe affirmative psychological practice with transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) clients. There are 16 guidelines in this document that guide TGNC-affirmative psychological practice across the lifespan, from TGNC children to older adults. The Guidelines are organized into five clusters: (a) foundational knowledge and awareness; (b) stigma, discrimination, and barriers to care; (c) lifespan development; (d) assessment, therapy, and intervention; and (e) research, education, and training. In addition, the guidelines provide attention to TGNC people across a range of gender and racial/ethnic identities. The psychological practice guidelines also attend to issues of research and how psychologists may address the many social inequities TGNC people experience. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Illness beliefs and psychological outcome in people with Parkinson's disease.

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    Simpson, Jane; Lekwuwa, Godwin; Crawford, Trevor

    2013-06-01

    Illness beliefs are important predictors of psychological outcome in people with chronic illness and evidence suggests these could also be significant in furthering our understanding of psychological functioning in people with Parkinson's disease. Illness beliefs are specific, dynamic representations of an illness and cover dimensions such as cause, identity, consequences and controllability. Eighty-one people with Parkinson's disease completed a series of questionnaires to provide demographic, clinical and psychosocial data, which were then used to assess the relative impact of illness beliefs on their psychological functioning. Psychological functioning was assessed by measuring levels of depression, anxiety, stress, positive affect and emotional well-being. Hierarchical block regression indicated that illness beliefs were important independent predictors across some but not all outcomes and the results emphasised the importance of testing new predictors against more established predictors of outcome such as physical functioning and self-esteem. The illness beliefs most important in psychological outcome in people with PD were causal beliefs (particularly in psychosocial causes) and illness coherence (the level of understanding of the illness). The therapeutic potential of psychosocial variables was discussed given that these can be modified during therapy and this change can positively influence psychological outcome.

  9. Psychological well-being in people with multiple sclerosis in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Rezaei Dehnavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, few results on well-being in individuals with neurological disease have been published, while several studies in other groups have indicated that well-being may not be the only absence of psychological distress, but also positive psychological function. The aim of the present study was to compare the psychological well-being (PWB between the people with Multiple sclerosis (MS and normal individuals and identify correlated demographic factors to PWB in people with MS disorder. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was performed in July 2012 on 55 people with MS who were referred to MS clinic (located at the Kashani Hospital, Isfahan Neurosciences Research Centre and 83 normal individuals with matched mean of age, level of education, and gender. The participants filled up the 18-item Ryff′s PWB and demographic profile. The data were analyzed by SPSS software based on the independent t-test, and ANOVA. Results: There is significant different in all PWB dimensions between people with MS and normal groups. There were no significant differences in PWB in people with MS in relation to gender and marital status, but individuals with higher level of education scored higher in total PWB, positive relationship with others and purpose in life. Conclusion: People with MS are at risk of lower level of PWB. Interventional programs for improving PWB are strongly recommended.

  10. Neuropsychological and psychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

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    Jackson, Cerian F; Makin, Selina M; Baker, Gus A

    2015-07-22

    Many people with epilepsy report experiencing psychological difficulties such as anxiety, depression and neuropsychological deficits including memory problems. Research has shown that these difficulties are often present not only for people with chronic epilepsy but also for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Despite this, there are very few published interventions that detail means to help people with newly diagnosed epilepsy manage these problems. To identify and assess possible psychological and neuropsychological interventions for adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We searched the following databases on 30 June 2015: the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid), SCOPUS, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). This review includes all randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials, prospective cohort controlled studies, and prospective before and after studies which include psychological or neuropsychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We excluded studies that included people with epilepsy and any other psychological disorder or neurological condition. We excluded studies carried out which recruited only children. We used the standard methodological procedure expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently completed data extraction and risk of bias analysis. The results of this were cross-checked and third author resolved any discrepancies. In the event of missing data, we contacted the study authors. Meta-analysis was not completed due to differences in the intervention and outcomes reported in the two studies. We included two randomised controlled trials assessing psychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. One study assessed a cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) in an adolescent

  11. Hans Driesch and the problems of "normal psychology". Rereading his Crisis in Psychology (1925).

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    Allesch, Christian G

    2012-06-01

    In 1925, the German biologist and philosopher Hans Driesch published a booklet entitled The Crisis in Psychology. It was originally published in English and was based on lectures given at various universities in China, Japan and the USA. The "crisis" in psychology of that time, in Driesch's opinion, lies in the necessity to decide about "the road which psychology is to follow in the future". This necessity refers to five "critical points", namely (1) to develop the theory of psychic elements to a theory of meaning by phenomenological analysis, (2) the overcoming of association theory, (3) to acknowledge that the unconscious is a fact and a "normal" aspect of mental life, (4) to reject "psychomechanical parallelism" or any other epiphenomenalistic solution of the mind-body problem, and (5) the extension of psychical research to new facts as described by parapsychology, for instance. Driesch saw close parallels between the development of modern psychology and that of biology, namely in a theoretical shift from "sum-concepts" like association and mechanics, to "totality-concepts" like soul and entelechy. The German translation of 1926 was entitled Grundprobleme der Psychologie (Fundamental Problems of Psychology) while "the crisis in psychology" forms just the subtitle of this book. This underlines that Driesch's argumentation--in contrast to that of Buehler--dealt with ontological questions rather than with paradigms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Games people play the psychology of human relationships

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    Berne, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The bestselling Games People Play is the book that has helped millions of people understand the dynamics of relationships, by psychiatrist Eric Berne.We all play games. In every encounter with other people we are doing so. The nature of these games depends both on the situation and on who we meet.Eric Berne's classic Games People Play is the most accessible and insightful book ever written about the games we play: those patterns of behaviour that reveal hidden feelings and emotions. Wise and witty, it shows the underlying motivations behind our relationships and explores the roles that we try to play - and are forced to play.Games People Play gives you the keys to unlock the psychology of others - and yourself. You'll become more honest, more effective, and a true team player.'A brilliant, amusing, and clear catalogue of the psychological theatricals that human beings play over and over again' Kurt VonnegutEric Berne was a prominent psychiatrist and bestselling author.After inventing his groundbreaking Transa...

  13. "Community Psychology Is for Poor, Black People": Pedagogy and Teaching of Community Psychology in South Africa

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    Carolissen, Ronelle; Rohleder, Poul; Bozalek, Vivienne; Swartz, Leslie; Leibowitz, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The term "community" holds historical connotations of political, economic, and social disadvantage in South Africa. Many South African students tend to interpret the term "community" in ways that suggest that community and community psychology describe the experiences of exclusively poor, black people. Critical pedagogies that…

  14. Sensation seeking in opium abusers compared to normal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that it is possible to identify people at risk of substance abuse using some personality variables. Identification of these people might help social planners to deal with these people specifically in their prevention attempts. The aim of this study was to compare the sensation seeking of opium addicted and non-addicted people using the sensation seeking scale. Such a comparison might help to identify personality variables that are effective in turning toward substance abuse. In order to measure the sensation seeking of subjects “Sensation Seeking Scale” (SSS were used. 31 opium abusers were matched to 31 normal controls according to the following variables: age, education, father and mother education. Results showed that opium abusers obtain higher scores on the total sensation seeking score ,“variety seeking” and “experience seeking” subscales.

  15. Psychological Neuromodulatory Treatments for Young People with Chronic Pain

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    Jordi Miró

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of young people with chronic pain is a complex endeavor. Many of these youth do not obtain adequate relief from available interventions. Psychological neuromodulatory treatments have been shown to have potential benefit for adults with chronic pain. Here, we review and summarize the available information about the efficacy of three promising psychological neuromodulatory treatments—neurofeedback, meditation and hypnosis—when provided to young people with chronic pain. A total of 16 articles were identified and reviewed. The findings from these studies show that hypnotic treatments are effective in reducing pain intensity for a variety of pediatric chronic pain problems, although research suggests variability in outcomes as a function of the specific pain problem treated. There are too few studies evaluating the efficacy of neurofeedback or meditation training in young people with chronic pain to draw firm conclusions regarding their efficacy. However, preliminary data indicate that these treatments could potentially have positive effects on a variety of outcomes (e.g., pain intensity, frequency of pain episodes, physical and psychological function, at least in the short term. Clinical trials are needed to evaluate the effects of neurofeedback and meditation training, and research is needed to identify the moderators of treatment benefits as well as better understand the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of all three of these treatments. The findings from such research could enhance overall treatment efficacy by: (1 providing an empirical basis for better patient-treatment matching; and (2 identifying specific mechanisms that could be targeted with treatment.

  16. Psychological interventions for people with cystic fibrosis and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasscoe, Claire A; Quittner, Alexandra L

    2008-07-16

    With increasing survival estimates for cystic fibrosis (CF) long-term management has become an important focus. Psychological interventions are largely concerned with adherence to treatment, emotional and social adjustments and quality of life. We are unaware of any relevant systematic reviews. Assess whether psychological interventions for CF provide significant psychosocial and physical benefits in addition to standard care. Trials were identified from two Cochrane trial registers (CF and Genetic Disorders Group; Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group), Ovid MEDLINE and PsychINFO; unpublished trials were located through professional networks and Listserves. Most recent search: September 2007. Randomised controlled trials of a broad range of psychological interventions in children and adults with CF and their immediate family. Two authors independently selected relevant trials and assessed their methodological quality. The review includes 13 studies (five new at this update) representing data from 529 participants. Studies mainly assessed behavioural and educational interventions:1. gene pre-test education counselling for relatives of those with CF;2. biofeedback, massage and music therapy to assist physiotherapy;3. behavioural and educational interventions to improve dietary intake and airway clearance;4. self-administration of medication and education to promote independence, knowledge and quality of life; and5. systemic interventions promoting psychosocial functioning.A substantial proportion of outcomes were educational or behavioural relating to issues of adherence, change in physical status or other specific treatment concerns during the chronic phase of the disease. Some evidence was found for relative's acceptance of a genetic test for carrier status when using home-based rather than clinic-based information leaflets and testing. There is some evidence that behavioural interventions improve emotional outcomes in people with CF and their carers, and that

  17. Understandings of psychological difficulties in people with the Huntington's disease gene and their expectations of psychological therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theed, Rachael; Eccles, Fiona J R; Simpson, Jane

    2018-06-01

    This study sought to investigate how people who had tested positive for the Huntington's disease (HD) gene mutation understood and experienced psychological distress and their expectations of psychological therapy. A qualitative methodology was adopted involving semi-structured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). A total of nine participants (five women and four men) who had opted to engage in psychological therapy were recruited and interviewed prior to the start of this particular psychological therapeutic intervention. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using IPA whereby themes were analysed within and across transcripts and classified into superordinate themes. Three superordinate themes were developed: Attributing psychological distress to HD: 'you're blaming everything on that now'; Changes in attributions of distress over time: 'in the past you'd just get on with it'; and Approaching therapy with an open mind, commitment, and hope: 'a light at the end of the tunnel'. Understandings of psychological distress in HD included biological and psychological explanations, with both often being accepted simultaneously by the same individual but with biomedical accounts generally dominating. Individual experience seemed to reflect a dynamic process whereby people's understanding and experience of their distress changed over time. Psychological therapy was accepted as a positive alternative to medication, providing people with HD with hope that their psychological well-being could be enhanced. People with the Huntington's disease gene mutation have largely biomedical understandings of their psychological distress. This largely biomedical understanding does not, however, preclude them for being interested in the potential gains resulting from psychological therapy. The mechanisms of psychological therapy should be explained in detail before therapy and explored along with current attributions of distress. © 2017 The British

  18. Normal people working in normal organizations with normal equipment: system safety and cognition in a mid-air collision.

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    de Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues; Gomes, José Orlando; Huber, Gilbert Jacob; Vidal, Mario Cesar

    2009-05-01

    A fundamental challenge in improving the safety of complex systems is to understand how accidents emerge in normal working situations, with equipment functioning normally in normally structured organizations. We present a field study of the en route mid-air collision between a commercial carrier and an executive jet, in the clear afternoon Amazon sky in which 154 people lost their lives, that illustrates one response to this challenge. Our focus was on how and why the several safety barriers of a well structured air traffic system melted down enabling the occurrence of this tragedy, without any catastrophic component failure, and in a situation where everything was functioning normally. We identify strong consistencies and feedbacks regarding factors of system day-to-day functioning that made monitoring and awareness difficult, and the cognitive strategies that operators have developed to deal with overall system behavior. These findings emphasize the active problem-solving behavior needed in air traffic control work, and highlight how the day-to-day functioning of the system can jeopardize such behavior. An immediate consequence is that safety managers and engineers should review their traditional safety approach and accident models based on equipment failure probability, linear combinations of failures, rules and procedures, and human errors, to deal with complex patterns of coincidence possibilities, unexpected links, resonance among system functions and activities, and system cognition.

  19. [Psychological barriers to professional inclusion of people with mental disabilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberon, S

    2014-06-01

    Mental health in the workplace today are ubiquitous and cause significant dysfunction in organizations (turnover, absenteeism, presenteeism, early retirement, long sick…). Statements of professional unfitness for depression is of particular concern. The human and financial costs associated with the support of mental disability is important, in France it is estimated to 14 billion euros. Mental disorder in the workplace also has a significant impact on the individual. If not always leads to actual inability to work, it usually causes, from the disclosure of the disorder, professional inequalities related to perceived environmental work disability. Therefore, this type of public remains largely on the sidelines of a stable occupation and all forms of recognition and undergo disqualifications and some forms of exclusion. Instead of saving, the workplace can promote relapse and even constitute a real obstacle to improving health. These exclusionary behavior result in persistent employment resistance in France and elsewhere, especially because of the prejudice of employers. These resistances persist despite legal obligations in this regard (e.g. in France: Law of 11 February 2005 on Equal Rights and Opportunities). To address the issue of sustainable professional inclusion (recruitment, integration and job preservation) of people with mental disabilities, studies are especially developed for the rehabilitation in the workplace of this public or accompanying us in their professional reintegration into protected workplaces. We propose a reflection on the adaptation of knowledge about psychological processes of hiring discrimination in the particular employment situation of people with mental disabilities in ordinary workplaces. Researches on social representations, stereotypes and prejudices applied in the workplace help to understand the negative attitudes and resistance to the hiring of people with mental disabilities despite regulations. Representations of

  20. Centralizing the Experiences of LGB People of Color in Counseling Psychology

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    Moradi, Bonnie; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the Major Contribution on centralizing the experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people of color in counseling psychology. The roles of LGB people of color in LGB sociopolitical movements and their invisibility in the psychological literature are discussed as a context for this series of articles. This article…

  1. Interrelations of stress, optimism and control in older people's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Susan Jane; McLean, Louise Anne

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the influence of perceived stress, optimism and perceived control of internal states on the psychological adjustment of older adults. The sample consisted of 212 older adults, aged between 58 and 103 (M = 80.42 years, SD = 7.31 years), living primarily in retirement villages in Melbourne, Victoria. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised, Perceived Control of Internal States Scale and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life-Bref. Optimism significantly mediated the relationship between older people's perceived stress and psychological health, and perceived control of internal states mediated the relationships among stress, optimism and psychological health. The variables explained 49% of the variance in older people's psychological adjustment. It is suggested that strategies to improve optimism and perceived control may improve the psychological adjustment of older people struggling to adapt to life's stressors. © 2014 ACOTA.

  2. Applicative Research on Psychological Demand of Audience and the TAXI for People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Caixia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether TAXI for People from Beijing traffic channel, the only special program customized for taxi driver in Beijing, knows about the psychological feature of the certain taxi group is an important factor that affects the development of program. Based on demand theory of psychology, this article uses the questionnaire method to find out the psychological feature and lifestyle of audience, and discusses the degree to the TAXI for People which meets the psychological demand of taxi driver audience by analysis on the program content. It is said from the research that the TAXI for People basically meets the psychological demand from taxi drivers. However, this program shall focus more on their basic needs and provide the opportunity for the audience to participate in the program and activity.

  3. Beliefs, attitudes and phobias among Mexican medical and psychology students towards people with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Lucero Soto; Ana Lilia Armendariz-Anguiano; Montserrat Bacardí-Gascón; A. Jiménez Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of stigmatizing attitude among healthcare personnel towards obese people has been reported. Objective: To evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and phobias that Mexican medical and psychology students have towards obese people. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 528 students enrolled at the Autonomous University of Baja California in psychology and medical schools. Weight, height and waist circumference were evaluated. Beliefs about obesity were assess...

  4. Comparison of anxiety as reported by older people with intellectual disabilities and by older people with normal intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, H.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Evenhuis, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Older people with intellectual disabilities (ID) may experience more and different symptoms of anxiety than older people with normal intelligence. Study questions: (1) Is the reported severity of anxiety in this group similar to that in the general older population; (2) Are specific

  5. [Construction of a psychological aging scale for healthy people].

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    Lin, Fei; Long, Yao; Zeng, Ni; Wu, Lei; Huang, Helang

    2017-04-28

    To construct a psychological aging scale, and to provide a tool and indexes for scientific evaluation on aging.
 Methods: The age-related psychological items were collected through literature screening and expert interview. The importance, feasibilityand the degree of authority for the psychological index system were graded by two rounds of Delphi method. Using analytic hierarchy process, the weight of dimensions and items were determined. The analysis for internal consistency reliability, correlation and exploratory factor was performed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the scales.
 Results: By two rounds of Delphi method, 17 experts offered the results as follows: the coefficient of expert authorities was 0.88±0.06, the coordination coefficients for the importance and feasibility in second round were 0.456 (Pemotion, personality and motivation. The weight coefficients for the 4 dimensions were 0.338, 0.250, 0.166 and 0.258, respectively. The Cronbach's α coefficient for the scale was 0.822, the reliability was 0.817, the content validity index (CVI) was 0.847, and the cumulative contribution rate for the 5 factors was51.42%.
 Conclusion: The psychological aging scale is satisfied, which can provide reference for the evaluation for aging. The indicators were representative and well-recognized.

  6. MORAL VALUES AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELFARE OF PEOPLE LEADING A WAVE LIFESTYLE

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    Assel Alimakhanovna Issakhanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The moral values of the modern personality are manifested through its value orientations. Vagrancy in the modern world has acquired a large-scale character. More and more people are beginning to lead a vagrancy lifestyle, moving away from social reality, not coping with the onslaught of globalization and economic instability. The problem of vagrancy is considered by many authors, but this does not become less relevant. This article examines the psychological self-awareness of the well-being of the personalities of people leading a stray lifestyle through self-assessment of moral indicators, as well as the relationship between psychological well-being and the morality of the individual. Most relevant, the problem of value orientation becomes in adulthood. It is in adulthood that most of the tramps begin to lead a wandering lifestyle. In this connection, the value orientations of people leading the vagrancy lifestyle change, making adjustments to the behavioral element of the personality and changing the sense of psychological well-being. Methodology. In the process of research, psychological methods and a survey were used to identify the problems faced by people leading a vagrancy lifestyle. Results. People without a fixed place of residence are a problem not only of a social nature but also of a psychological one leading to the degradation of the individual and society as a whole in all its areas of social interaction.

  7. Are young people hospitalised with psychosis interested in psychological therapy?

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    Mitchison, Deborah; Jakes, Simon; Kelly, Siobhan; Rhodes, John

    2015-01-01

    Psychotic clients may be difficult to engage in psychological therapy, and many potential participants decline to participate in controlled trials of cognitive behavioural therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate psychotic patients' perspectives regarding therapy. The design was qualitative and used thematic analysis to investigate emerging themes. Methods A total of 46 inpatients with psychosis were interviewed about their views on therapy. Interview summaries were submitted to thematic analysis. A total of 41% of participants were rated as interested, 36% were rated as not interested and 23% appeared ambivalent, or their interest in therapy was unable to be assessed. Themes related to interest in therapy included the desire to build skills, to address (usually non-psychotic) symptoms and for a therapeutic relationship. Themes related to not wanting therapy included a denial of psychological problems, distrust in the healthcare system and psychologists and low perceived efficacy in therapy. A large minority of psychotic patients may be interested in therapy, although mostly not to address psychotic symptoms. Future research on pre-treatment approaches to disconfirm negative perceptions and increase interest in therapy is warranted. The reasons why some patients with psychosis are not interested in receiving psychological therapy may relate to past negative experiences with psychologists, negative perceptions of psychologists as a group and low perceived efficacy of therapy. These barriers may be addressed through interactions with psychotic patients during an admission to a hospital that disconfirms these perceptions and provides a positive alternative experience with a psychologist. Patients who are hospitalized with psychosis may be interested in receiving psychological therapy; however, the reason for this likely will not be to address psychotic symptoms. Rather, the therapist should be willing to work with the patient on a range of other presenting

  8. The psychological effects of videogames on young people: A review

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    McLean, Lavinia; Griffiths, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Research has indicated that most young people spend more time watching screen media than in any other activity apart from sleeping (Strasberg, 2004). In Ireland, a large longitudinal study of children has indicated that over half of nine-year old children are playing video games daily, while the international adolescence literature indicates that the rate of game play is growing year on year (Gentile, 2008). There is a concern that the effects of video game playing are larger than the effects...

  9. Social, Psychological and Health Concerns of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Mysore District, Karnataka.

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    Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Siddanna, Sunitha

    2016-03-01

    One of the significant health and social problem the world facing today is Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AiDS). The patients affected with HIV and their family may face various psychosocial problems during diagnosis and treatment due to the stigma associated with this disease. The objective of the study was to identify social, psychological and health concerns of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and its association with the demographic factors in Mysore District, Karnataka, India. A questionnaire based study was conducted among 194 participants in Mysore District, Karnataka state who were receiving care and support services. A 22-item questionnaire provided information regarding social, psychological and health concerns of PLWHA in Mysore district. A general linear regression model was used for assessing the predictors of social, psychological and health concerns. The main social concern was that of "Fear of Losing a loved one" whereas the main psychological concern was "Too much worry", "No cure for AIDS" was the highly rated health concern. Males had more social, psychological and health concerns when compared to females but was not statistically significant. Employed people were having fewer psychological concerns when compared to unemployed people. Unemployed people were having fewer health concerns than employed people. For every unit increase in age there were fewer social and health concerns and both these findings were statistically significant. PLWHA in the present study reported that they were concerned about social, psychological and health issues in spite of the fact they were attending counseling. Health care workers, including those in public health sector should be educated about the importance of these factors that influence the health of the population they are caring for.

  10. Psychological health damage as an environmental effect: Metropolitan Edison Co. v. People Against Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, E.H.

    1984-01-01

    The Supreme court took a narrow view of the term environmental in Metropolitan Edison Co. v. People Against Nuclear Energy when it stated that the purpose of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is to protect the physical environment. Psychological health damage caused by the perception of the risk of a nuclear accident is not an environmental effect cognizable under NEPA unless their is a demonstrable relationship. Litigants seeking the protection of NEPA must carefully examine the origin and nature of alleged psychological harms and frame their complains to establish a close relationship between a change in the physical environment and the alleged psychological harm

  11. [Study on FTIR spectra of finger nails of normal people and patients of esophagus cancer].

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    Wang, Hong-Yan; Lü, Yin; Wang, Fan; Ma, Xiao-Dong; Jiang, Shi-Ping; Wang, Wei; Li, Cheng-Xiang

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the application of human finger nails in the diagnosis of cancer, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to study the finger nails from some normal people and some with esophagus cancer and others with an operation for curing esophagus cancer five months ago. The results showed that there are obvious differences between FTIR spectra in them in spectral parameters such as frequency, intensity and band shape etc. The changes in the phosphate symmetric stretching vibration v(s) (PO2-) and asymmetric stretching vibration v(a)s(PO2-) modes are uniform, the v(s) (PO2-) and v(a)s(PO2-) absorption peaks of cancerous ones shift to high wave number compared with those of normal people, while those with operation shift to low wave number compared with those of cancerous ones. The C-O stretching vibration mode of protein located at 1 164 cm(-1) is composed of three absorption peaks located at 1 173.3, 1 158.0 and 1 151.1 cm(-1) respectively, meanwhile, the intensities and the wave numbers of the three peaks of cancerous ones all increase compared with normal people. The wave numbers of amide I and amide II of cancerous ones are both lower than those of normal people, while those with operation are between the cancerous ones and normal people, which suggest that the contents of protein and alpha-helix in finger nails of normal people, cancerous ones and the ones with operation are discriminative. The peak of bending vibration delta(CH2) mode of CH2 groups of protein lipid of cancerous ones shifts to high wave number slightly and the intensity of the peak weakens compared with that of normal people, which indicate that the methylene chain in the finger nails membrane lipids of cancerous ones is more ordered than that of normal people. Nevertheless, the peak of stretching vibration v(s) (CH2) of cancerous ones is lower than that of normal people, while that of the ones with operation is between cancerous ones and normal ones. As a result, the

  12. Exploring Norms About Citizenship in Stories of Young People with "Psychological Vulnerabilities"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavaud, Manon Alice

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores how norms about citizenship come into play at a residence for young people with “psychological vulnerabilities” in Denmark. The theoretical framework consists of a difference-centred approach (Moosa-Mitha 2005), the concept of lived citizenship (Lister 2007), a narrative app...

  13. Anybody Hear Us? Attempting to Meet the Psychological Care Needs of Older People: an Ethnographic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Zia Tabatabaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Older people who live in residential settings need some psychological support because of vicissitudes of life they faced with. The aim of this study is to explore psychological care needs of older people in a residential home. We used an ethnographic approach from May 2011 till January 2012. Through purposeful sampling, 14 knowledgeable participants were selected. Data were gathered from participant observations, in-depth interviews, review of related documents and field notes. Thematic analysis revealed three key themes including: (a Feelings of sadness (b Emotional desires and (c Choice and control. Findings of current study provided rich and useful information that is useful in charting new guideline for policy makers and care providers in order to support elderly residents' psychological care needs.

  14. A Brief Analysis of Abraham Maslow's Original Writing of "Self-Actualizing People: A Study of Psychological Health"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Nedra H.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    This article analyzes Abraham Maslow's original writing of "Self-Actualizing People: A Study of Psychological Health." The review of literature in this article reveals that Maslow's hierarchy of needs have had profound effects in the area of psychology. In addition, the authors present information regarding self-actualized people, theorists of…

  15. Reformulating Psychological Difficulties in People with Parkinson’s Disease: The Potential of a Social Relational Approach to Disablism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Simpson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research investigating the psychological difficulties experienced by people with Parkinson's disease (PD is dominated by individualistic neurobiological and psychological perspectives. Therefore, this opinion paper draws on a reformulation of the social model of disability, Thomas' (1999 and (2007 social relational approach to disablism, to offer an alternative way of conceptualising psychological difficulties experienced by people with PD. This opinion paper explores the ways in which socially imposed restrictions and stigma may contribute to psychological difficulties by using Thomas' (2007 concept of psychoemotional disablism. By using the lens of psychoemotional disablism, this paper demonstrates that people with PD can be exposed to stigmatising attitudes and interactions which could contribute to restrictions, feelings of shame, and psychological difficulties such as depression. Accordingly, it is argued that further attention to the link between psychological difficulties and social dimensions of disablism in PD is needed in both research arenas and clinical practice to broaden understandings and interventions for people with PD.

  16. Satisfaction with life and psychological well-being in people with gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabito-Alcón, María F; Rodríguez-Molina, José M

    2016-01-01

    Satisfaction with life and psychological well-being have been extensively studied as measures of mental health, which has led to the development of two major traditions, the hedonic and eudaimonic. A difference has been found between subjective emotional well-being, which is often called psychological well-being, and cognitive well-being, or satisfaction with life. The aim of this study was to explore satisfaction with life and psychological wellbeing in people diagnosed with gender dysphoria (GD), and compare their results to those of the general population. We also looked for gender-related differences. The Fordyce Happiness Measures (or Fordyce Emotions Questionnaire) and the adaptation to Castilian Spanish of the Likert-type 5-item Satisfaction with Life Scale were applied to a control sample of 40 students and a group of 61 people with GD. Descriptive statistics and the t test for independent samples were calculated. The data were analyzed with SPSS v. 15. The results indicated that the GD group had lower scores on the satisfaction with life and psychological well-being scales than the control group. No gender differences were found in satisfaction with life or psychological well-being.

  17. Youth, normality and belonging - How young people construct and understand youth, identity and normality in their local environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk; Gravesen, David Thore; Mikkelsen, Sidse Hølvig

    of social media such as My Stories on Snapchat. The idea of individualisation, which by many a sociologist is considered one of the late modernity’s most significant characteristics of the norm- and tradition free youth, appear to be a bit simplified in the light of this research, as the young informants...... construct meaning and a sense of belonging in a contingent late modern society? The classic distinction between the normal and the outsiders, by Howard Becker (Becker, 2013) is used in our analysis to initially shed a light on and ultimately come closer to an understanding of the young people...... the youth groupings is only a few kilometres, the symbolic distance should rather be measured in light years. Relevance for Nordic Educational Research: The understanding of young people’s take on youth, normality and sense of belonging, will shed light on important issues regarding socializing practices...

  18. Improving psychology students' attitudes toward people with schizophrenia: A quasi-randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Lorenza; Rinaldi, Angela; Costanzo, Regina; De Leo, Renata; Schioppa, Giustina; Petrillo, Miriam; Read, John

    2016-01-01

    Despite scientific evidence that the majority of people with schizophrenia (PWS) have personal histories of traumatic life events and adversities, their needs for psychological support often remain unmet. Poor availability of nonpharmacological therapies in schizophrenia may be partly because of professionals' attitudes toward people diagnosed with this disorder. As future health professionals, psychology students represent a target population for efforts to increase the probability that PWS will be offered effective psychological therapies. This quasi-randomized controlled study investigated the effect of an educational intervention, addressing common prejudices via scientific evidence and prerecorded audio-testimony from PWS, on the attitudes of psychology students toward PWS. Students in their fifth year of a master's degree in Psychology at the Second University of Naples, Italy were randomly assigned to an experimental group-which attended two 3-hr sessions a week apart-or to a control group. Compared with their baseline assessment, at 1-month reassessment the 76 educated students endorsed more psychosocial causes and more of them recommended psychologists in the treatment of schizophrenia. They were also more optimistic about recovery, less convinced that PWS are recognizable and unpredictable, and more convinced that treatments, pharmacological and psychological, are useful. No significant changes were found, from baseline to 1-month reassessment, in the 112 controls. At 1-month reassessment, educated students were more optimistic about recovery and less convinced that PWS are unpredictable than controls. These findings suggest that psychology students' attitudes toward PWS can be improved by training initiatives including education and indirect contact with users. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Jacki; Stoner, Charlotte R; Wenborn, Jennifer; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Moniz-Cook, Esme; Orrell, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Family caregivers of people living with dementia can have both positive and negative experiences of caregiving. Despite this, existing outcome measures predominately focus on negative aspects of caregiving such as burden and depression. This review aimed to evaluate the development and psychometric properties of existing positive psychology measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia to determine their potential utility in research and practice. A systematic review of positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people with dementia was conducted. The databases searched were as follows: PsychINFO, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed. Scale development papers were subject to a quality assessment to appraise psychometric properties. Twelve positive outcome measures and six validation papers of these scales were identified. The emerging constructs of self-efficacy, spirituality, resilience, rewards, gain, and meaning are in line with positive psychology theory. There are some robust positive measures in existence for family caregivers of people living with dementia. However, lack of reporting of the psychometric properties hindered the quality assessment of some outcome measures identified in this review. Future research should aim to include positive outcome measures in interventional research to facilitate a greater understanding of the positive aspects of caregiving and how these contribute to well-being.

  20. The Role of Wellbeing and Wellness: A Positive Psychological Model in Supporting Young People With ASCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Roncaglia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last 10 years sport psychology expanded its applicability in a variety of fields which have helped to address some of the challenges related to high level performance and sport competition. When we talk about performance in its wider sense, sport psychology is able to help develop a better understanding on how strategies can be adopted in improving general human performance levels. This includes increasing the knowledge of key concepts such as motivation, self-confidence and resilience. Furthermore performance in its wider sense helps in the understanding of the impact of stress and arousal and how these can affect both positively and negatively performance levels including appreciating individual differences as well as dynamics between groups of individuals. In this paper performance rather than solely be related to the field of competitive or professional sport has been discussed in people with ASCs and aims to explore how by adopting a positive psychological model in the formulation of individual assessments and subsequent interventions have led to improvement in individual skills, participation, engagement and ultimately quality of life. Positive psychological principles, such as the role of wellbeing and wellness, the PERMA Model has increased our understanding of human potentials, performance and wellbeing. The aim of this paper is to present and reflect on the applicability and benefits of adopting sport psychology models, the PERMA model and positive psychological principles in special education and care settings with the presentation and discussion of their theoretical and some practical implementation in two case studies.

  1. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF MOUNTAIN PEOPLE AS A SUBJECT OF SPECIAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Khrushch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the influence of natural and social-economic factors on the formation of the psychology of mountain people. A special mountain environment, living and housekeeping conditions, religious beliefs, and traditions mold stamina, pride, industriousness, and courage. The research into the psyche of Ukrainian mountain people living in the highest areas of Ivano-Frankivsk, Chernivtsi and Transcarpathian regions in the totalitarian period was openly scorned if not completely forbidden. For a long time, no research was done on the ethnic identity formation and rich feelings of hutsuls — a numerous ethnic community. Far too little attention was paid to hutsuls’ most important psychological traits of character — bravery, freedom of mind, dignity, respect for others, industriousness, stamina etc.

  2. The Study and Comparison of Irrational Beliefs in Addicted and Normal People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Aminpoor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Irrational beliefs have some destructive and serious effects on individuals’ behavior at home, work environment, and in social environment also implicate emotional deep effects (depression, grief, self teasing, self reproaching, and contrition. The main aim of present study was the comparison of irrational beliefs in addicted and normal people. Method: the research method was causal comparative research and taking into account the subject importance and its role in individuals tendency toward addiction a sample of 120 persons (60 addicted people and 60 normal ones was selected based on available samplingand similar in order of age and the Joens irrational beliefs questionnaire was administered among selected sample. In order to analyze data, independent samples t test, and ANOVA were run. Results: There was significant difference between the mean score of irrational beliefs with consideration of group (addicted and normal group, also, in addicted people there was significant difference between the mean score of irrational beliefs with consideration of education level, and economical status. Conclusion: The mean score of irrational beliefs in addicted people is more than normal ones. Taking into consideration that individuals can change their behaviors and feelings through changing their beliefs, so one must replace irrational beliefs with rational ones based on educational qualifications.

  3. Reply to: Are There More Gifted People than Would Be Expected on a Normal Distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, James J.

    2014-01-01

    The author responds to the article by Warne, Godwin, and Smith (2013) on the question of whether there are more gifted people than would be expected in a Gaussian normal distribution. He asserts that the answer to this question is yes, based on (a) data that he and his colleagues have collected, (b) data that are already available and quoted by…

  4. Protecting Young People From Junk Food Advertising: Implications of Psychological Research for First Amendment Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Graff, Samantha K.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, one third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, yet food and beverage companies continue to target them with advertising for products that contribute to this obesity crisis. When government restrictions on such advertising are proposed, the constitutional commercial speech doctrine is often invoked as a barrier to action. We explore incongruities between the legal justifications for the commercial speech doctrine and the psychological research on how food advertising affects young people. A proper interpretation of the First Amendment should leave room for regulations to protect young people from advertising featuring calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. PMID:22390435

  5. Protecting young people from junk food advertising: implications of psychological research for First Amendment law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Graff, Samantha K

    2012-02-01

    In the United States, one third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, yet food and beverage companies continue to target them with advertising for products that contribute to this obesity crisis. When government restrictions on such advertising are proposed, the constitutional commercial speech doctrine is often invoked as a barrier to action. We explore incongruities between the legal justifications for the commercial speech doctrine and the psychological research on how food advertising affects young people. A proper interpretation of the First Amendment should leave room for regulations to protect young people from advertising featuring calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages.

  6. [Activity involvement and extraversion as predictors of psychological wellbeing in older people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Laura; Dumitrache, Cristina G; Rubio-Herrera, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between extraversion and wellbeing has been discussed in the literature, however, the impact that this trait has on the wellbeing of older people has been studied to a lesser extent. The relationship between extraversion, participation in activities and psychological wellbeing in older people is analysed in this study. The sample comprised 139 individuals over 55 years from rural and urban areas of the province of Granada who completed the extraversion subscale of the NEO-FFI and the Ryff Scales of the Psychological Wellbeing, as well as responding to questions that evaluated their social participation. A greater social participation was found in rural areas and among women. The activities more frequently performed by the participants were educational and religious activities, walking, everyday chores, crafts, and home improvements. A low positive correlation between extraversion and wellbeing was observed. The multiple regression analysis revealed that extraversion explained 19.9% of the variance in psychological wellbeing, which increased to 25.3% when social participation, gender, and the origin of the sample were considered. Psychological wellbeing appears to be associated with personality traits, such as extraversion. In addition this personality trait is linked to the number and type of activities the elderly perform which also contributes to wellbeing in old age. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychological Therapy for People with Tinnitus: A Scoping Review of Treatment Components

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Dean M.; Hall, Deborah A.; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Hoare, Derek J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tinnitus is associated with depression and anxiety disor- ders, severely and adversely affecting the quality of life and functional health status for some people. With the dearth of clinical psychologists embedded in audiology services and the cessation of training for hearing therapists in the UK, it is left to audiologists to meet the psychological needs of many patients with tinnitus. However, there is no universally standardized training or manualized intervention specifically...

  8. Psychological and emotional development, intellectual capabilities, and body image in short normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, E; Sartori, A; Ceccarelli, A; Marchi, S

    2002-04-01

    It is well established that children with short stature frequently have problems in cognitive development, personality, self-esteem and social relations. This is partly due to the fact that many parents view them as more vulnerable than other children of normal stature and do not allow them to face the normal experiences that correspond to their actual age. The aim of the present study was to assess, through the administration of appropriate psychological tools, a series of psychological and cognitive characteristics [i.e. anxiety, depression, good adjustment, social functioning, feeling of guilt, interpersonal relationship, intelligence quotient (IQ)], as well as variables linked to development of body image, in a group of children suffering from normal growth variants [familial short stature (FSS), no. 10, 4 males/6 females; with constitutional growth delay (CGD), no. 4,4 males; height standard deviation score (HSDS) ranging between -2.4 and -1.9] and in a control group children of normal stature (HSDS between -0.1 and +0.1). Children with short stature significantly differed from normal statured controls as far as Colored Progressive Matrices (CPMs, centiles), IQ (IQ, obtained using the Goodenough test), "Good Adjustment" (Draw-a-Person index, DAP), "Feelings of Guilt" (DAP index), "Height" (as emerges from drawings of the body) are concerned. Significant relationships were found between the height of the subjects (in centiles) and cognitive skills, measured both using CPMs (r=0.408; p=0.017) and Draw-a-Man (DAM) (r=0.359; p=0.037) and between height and feelings of guilt (r=0.325; p=0.027), measured using DAP. CPM scores correlated positively with the "Good Adjustment" index of DAP (r=0.354; p=0.05) and negatively with Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) (r=-0.609; p=0.01), "School Anxiety" index (r=-0.427; p=0.05) and "Total Anxiety" index (r=-0.436; p=0.05) of the Anxiety Scale Questionnaire for the Age of Development, and with 2 indices of DAP, namely

  9. Psychological interventions for housebound people with psychosis: service user and therapist perspectives in South East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iredale, Catherine; Fornells-Ambrojo, Miriam; Jolley, Suzanne

    2016-06-01

    People with psychosis often have difficulty leaving their homes to perform tasks of daily living, which also limits their access to clinic-based interventions to support recovery. Home-based psychological therapy may offer a solution. To examine service user and therapist perspectives on (i) houseboundness in psychosis and (ii) the value of home-based psychological interventions, as a first step towards a systematic evaluation. Semistructured interviews with 10 service users and 12 therapists from a large inner city mental health NHS Foundation Trust were thematically analysed. Houseboundness most commonly resulted from anxiety, paranoia and amotivation, indicating the potential usefulness of targeted psychological therapies. Home-based therapy was offered unsystematically, with variable goals. Although beneficial for engagement and assessment, little gain was reported from undertaking a full course of therapy at home. Home visits could be offered by psychological therapists to engage and assess housebound service users, but home-based therapy may be best offered on a short-term basis, targeting paranoia, anxiety and amotivation to increase access to other resources. Given the increased cost associated with home-based psychological interventions, a systematic evaluation of their impact is warranted.

  10. Generational Differences in Internalized Transnegativity and Psychological Distress Among Feminine Spectrum Transgender People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Kasey B; Dolezal, Curtis; Bockting, Walter O

    2018-01-01

    This study examined internalized transnegativity and psychological distress in two age groups of transgender individuals who identified their gender identity on the feminine spectrum (rather than congruent with their male sex assigned at birth). Due to greater visibility and acceptance of gender diversity in the United States, we hypothesized that internalized transnegativity would be lower in the younger compared with the older group, and that the younger generation would, therefore, report lower levels of psychological distress than the older generation. The study sample consisted of trans-feminine individuals (N = 440) who completed a online survey of the U.S. transgender population and comprised a younger group aged 18-24 years (n = 133) and an older group aged 40 years and older (n = 307). Internalized transnegativity was assessed using the Transgender Identity Survey, and psychological distress was assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory 18. We used regression and mediation analysis to examine differences between the two groups. Contrary to our expectations, the older group reported significantly lower levels of both internalized transnegativity and psychological distress compared with the younger group. Internalized transnegativity partially mediated the relationship between age group and psychological distress. Despite greater visibility of transgender people and increasing acceptance of gender diversity in the United States, the younger trans-feminine individuals reported more psychological distress than the older transfeminine individuals, which was, in part, related to internalized transnegativity. Trans-feminine individuals may benefit from culturally sensitive and clinically competent mental health services to alleviate internalized transnegativity and psychological distress.

  11. Psychological Therapy for People with Tinnitus: A Scoping Review of Treatment Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dean M; Hall, Deborah A; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Hoare, Derek J

    Tinnitus is associated with depression and anxiety disorders, severely and adversely affecting the quality of life and functional health status for some people. With the dearth of clinical psychologists embedded in audiology services and the cessation of training for hearing therapists in the UK, it is left to audiologists to meet the psychological needs of many patients with tinnitus. However, there is no universally standardized training or manualized intervention specifically for audiologists across the whole UK public healthcare system and similar systems elsewhere across the world. The primary aim of this scoping review was to catalog the components of psychological therapies for people with tinnitus, which have been used or tested by psychologists, so that they might inform the development of a standardized audiologist-delivered psychological intervention. Secondary aims of this article were to identify the types of psychological therapy for people with tinnitus, who were reported but not tested in any clinical trial, as well as the job roles of clinicians who delivered psychological therapy for people with tinnitus in the literature. The authors searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; LILACS; KoreaMed; IndMed; PakMediNet; CAB Abstracts; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; ISRCTN; ClinicalTrials.gov; IC-TRP; and Google Scholar. In addition, the authors searched the gray literature including conference abstracts, dissertations, and editorials. No records were excluded on the basis of controls used, outcomes reached, timing, setting, or study design (except for reviews-of the search results. Records were included in which a psychological therapy intervention was reported to address adults (≤18 years) tinnitus-related distress. No restrictive criteria were placed upon the term tinnitus. Records were excluded in which the intervention included biofeedback

  12. Beliefs, attitudes and phobias among Mexican medical and psychology students towards people with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Lucero; Armendariz-Anguiano, Ana Lilia; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez Cruz, A

    2014-07-01

    A high prevalence of stigmatizing attitude among healthcare personnel towards obese people has been reported. To evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and phobias that Mexican medical and psychology students have towards obese people. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 528 students enrolled at the Autonomous University of Baja California in psychology and medical schools. Weight, height and waist circumference were evaluated. Beliefs about obesity were assessed with the BAOP scale, attitudes towards obese people by the ATOP scale and obesity phobias by the F-scale. Participants achieved a mean F-scale score of 3.4. Only seven per cent showed neutral or positive attitudes towards obesity (≤2.5). Less fat phobia was associated with beliefs that obesity was not a result of the person's self-control (p = 0.0001) and had better attitudes towards obese people (p = 0.0001). Men had higher risk of fat phobia (OR = 1.5). High prevalence of phobias and negative attitudes towards obesity was observed. Men had higher stigma. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychological functioning of people living with chronic pain: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Anne L J; Mathias, Jane L; Denson, Linley A

    2015-09-01

    Chronic pain (CP; >3 months) is a common condition that is associated with significant psychological problems. Many people with CP do not fit into discrete diagnostic categories, limiting the applicability of research that is specific to a particular pain diagnosis. This meta-analysis synthesized the large extant literature from a general CP, rather than diagnosis-specific, perspective to systematically identify and compare the psychological problems most commonly associated with CP. Four databases were searched from inception to December 2013 (PsychINFO, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, and PubMed) for studies comparing the psychological functioning of adults with CP to healthy controls. Data from 110 studies were meta-analysed and Cohen's d effect sizes calculated. The CP group reported experiencing significant problems in a range of psychological domains (depression, anxiety, somatization, anger/hostility, self-efficacy, self-esteem and general emotional functioning), with the largest effects observed for pain anxiety/concern and somatization; followed by anxiety and self-efficacy; and then depression, anger/hostility, self-esteem and general emotional functioning. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that individuals with CP are more likely to experience physically focussed psychological problems than other psychological problems and that, unlike self-efficacy, fear of pain is intrinsically tied to the CP experience. This challenges the prevailing view that, for individuals with CP, problems with depression are either equal to, or greater than, problems with anxiety, thereby providing important information to guide therapeutic targets. Positive clinical implications: This is the first time that the CP literature has been synthesized from a general perspective to examine psychological functioning in the presence of CP and provide practical recommendations for assessment and therapy. Individuals with CP were most likely to experience psychological problems

  14. Psychological and social adjustment to blindness: understanding from two groups of blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunde-Ayinmode, Mosunmola F; Akande, Tanimola M; Ademola-Popoola, Dupe S

    2011-01-01

    Blindness can cause psychosocial distress leading to maladjustment if not mitigated. Maladjustment is a secondary burden that further reduces quality of life of the blind. Adjustment is often personalized and depends on nature and quality of prevailing psychosocial support and rehabilitation opportunities. This study was aimed at identifying the pattern of psychosocial adjustment in a group of relatively secluded and under-reached totally blind people in Ilorin, thus sensitizing eye doctors to psychosocial morbidity and care in the blind. A cross-sectional descriptive study using 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and a pro forma designed by the authors to assess the psychosocial problems and risk factors in some blind people in Ilorin metropolis. The study revealed that most of the blind people were reasonably adjusted in key areas of social interaction, marriage, and family. Majority were considered to be poorly adjusted in the areas of education, vocational training, employment, and mobility. Many were also considered to be psychologically maladjusted based on the high rate of probable psychological disorder of 51%, as determined by SRQ. Factors identified as risk factors of probable psychological disorder were poor educational background and the presence of another medical disorder. Most of the blind had no access to formal education or rehabilitation system, which may have contributed to their maladjustment in the domains identified. Although their prevailing psychosocial situation would have been better prevented yet, real opportunity still exists to help this group of people in the area of social and physical rehabilitation, meeting medical needs, preventive psychiatry, preventive ophthalmology, and community health. This will require the joint efforts of medical community, government and nongovernment organizations to provide the framework for delivery of these services directly to the communities.

  15. Longitudinal predictors of psychological distress and self-esteem in people with ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, L H; Atkins, L; Landau, S; Brown, R G; Leigh, P N

    2006-11-14

    To identify predictors of psychological distress (measured by anxiety and depression) and low self-esteem and to determine whether these change over time in people with ALS. We interviewed 50 patients with ALS living with a spouse/partner; further interviews were held at median intervals of 6 and then 5 months. Although carers were interviewed, we report the patients' data. Patients completed measures about their social support and marital relationship; the functional impact of ALS; everyday cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes; symptoms of anxiety and depression; and self-esteem. The ALS Severity Scale was also completed. From the initial sample of 50, 26 patients were interviewed on all three occasions. At the first interview, negative social support and bulbar impairment were most predictive of psychological distress; pre-illness marital intimacy was the best predictor of patients' self-esteem. Over time, negative social support and pre-illness marital intimacy retained an ability to predict patients' affective state and self-esteem. Social factors are important in determining longer-term psychological well-being in people with ALS who are in the relatively early stages of the disease.

  16. PREDICTORS OF SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF THE UNEMPLOYED AND PEOPLE WITH REGULAR EMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rail M Shamionov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of a study on the socio-psychological adaptation predictors of the unemployed in relation to people with regular employment. It is assumed that adaptation of the employed and the unemployed is determined by various socio-psychological phenomena; definition of the phenomena will allow to develop programmes of adaptation for the unemployed with preservation of motivation for self-realization. In total, 362 people (33% of whom were male took part in the study, including 196 unemployed. Standardized methods and scales developed by the authors for assessing the subject position characteristics and adaptive readiness of a person were used. It was found that the unemployed are characterized by lower indicators of socio-psychological adaptation and characteristics that are of paramount importance for adaptation - self-acceptance, acceptance of others, emotional comfort. Socio-demographic characteristics, scales of subjective position, adaptive readiness, subjective well-being and values were consistently introduced to the regression equation. It is shown that adaptive readiness and values are the strongest predictors for the employed, while indicators of subjective well-being and value are more significant for the unemployed. The general predictors of adaptation are the level of education, happiness (positively and negative affect (negatively. In other cases, the predictors are strictly differentiated.

  17. Job satisfaction of people with intellectual disabilities: the role of basic psychological need fulfillment and workplace participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge on what contributes to job satisfaction of people with intellectual disabilities is limited. Using self-determination theory, we investigated whether fulfillment of basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, relatedness, competence) affected job satisfaction, and explored

  18. P2-26: Comparison between Normal People and Schizophrenic Patients on Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yl-Woo Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was tested to compare face recognition of normal people and schizophrenic patients. Frontal male faces were used as stimuli, which were Northeast Asian and Southeast Asian. Normal people and patients with positive/negative symptom of schizophrenia participated in this research, and all participants were Korean. Participants were instructed to memorize a stimulus (target presented briefly, and recognize it later among another stimuli (fillers. In recognition task, five faces were presented with a target or without as fillers. The results showed that while schizophrenic patients had difficulty recognizing targets, all participants performed best in the condition of other ethnic target-own ethnic fillers. These results suggest that own ethnicity effect could not be observed, and imply that face processing of schizophrenic patients might be disrupted by perception level rather than memory level.

  19. Anxiety, depression, and fall-related psychological concerns in community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Samantha L; Kneebone, Ian I; Farquharson, Lorna

    2013-12-01

    Establish the association between affect and fall-related psychological concerns (fear of falling, fall-related self-efficacy, balance confidence, and outcome expectancy). A total of 205 community-dwelling older people (mean age 81, SD 7.5 years) completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-15, Geriatric Anxiety Inventory, Modified Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling, Falls-Efficacy Scale- International, Activity-Specific Balance Confidence Scale, and the Consequences of Falling Scale. Hierarchical regression models showed that anxiety was independently associated with all fall-related psychological concerns; depression was only associated with falls efficacy. Associations between fall-related psychological concerns and age, gender, accommodation,medications, self-rated physical health, falls history, mobility, and sensory aids are also discussed. This is the first study that investigates the association between affect and the four fall-related psychological concerns. Anxiety was a significant factor associated with all four, whereas depression was only associated with activity avoidance. Implications for healthcare providers are discussed. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normally-hearing children

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    Abdollah Ghasempour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Families who have a child with hearing deficiency deal with different challenges, and mothers have a greater responsibility towards these children because of their traditional role of caregiver; so, they deal with more psychological problems. The aim of this study was to compare the psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normal children.Methods: In this cross-sectional and post event study (causal-comparative method, 30 mothers of deaf students and 30 mothers of normal students from elementary schools of Ardabil, Iran, were selected using available sampling. The Ryff psychological well-being (1989 and Billings and Moos coping styles (1981 questionnaires were used in this study. The data were analyzed using MANOVA test.Results: We found that in mother's of deaf children, psychological well-being and its components was significantly lower than mothers of normal children (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively. There was a significant difference between two groups in terms of cognitive coping style, too (p<0.01. However, mothers of deaf children used less cognitive coping style.Conclusions: It seems that child's hearing loss affects on mothers psychological well-being and coping styles; this effect can be visible as psychological problems and lower use of adaptive coping styles.

  1. The Provision of Psychological Therapy to People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Investigation into Some of the Relevant Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Five factors are proposed as important in influencing the provision of psychological therapy to people with intellectual disabilities (IDs): the perceived effectiveness of psychological therapy, individual clinician competence, service resources (number of trained clinicians), the level of the clients disability and the diagnostic…

  2. Positive psychological interventions for people with epilepsy: An assessment on factors related to intervention participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Siew-Tim; Lim, Kheng-Seang; Tang, Venus; Low, Wah-Yun

    2018-03-01

    Positive psychological interventions (PPI) are increasingly employed as a coping strategy with physical and mental conditions, including neurological diseases. Its effectiveness on improving wellbeing in people with epilepsy (PWE) has been shown in a few studies. This study aimed to explore factors related to participants' willingness to engage in psychological interventions from the perspective of patients with epilepsy. Participants answered a needs assessment questionnaire eliciting information about their illness perception (Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief-IPQ)), emotions (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), willingness to participate in psychological interventions, preferences in types of PPI and intervention designs, as well as barriers in seeking mental health services. A total of 154 patients with epilepsy participated, with a mean age of 37.3years (range 16-86years). Most patients had focal epilepsy (68.2%), and drug-resistant (59.1%). Majority (71.4%) of them indicated a strong willingness to participate in PPI. Out of nine types of PPI, character strengths, mindfulness-based and expressive-based interventions were highly preferred. Those with negative illness perception (p=0.001), anxiety (p=0.004), and being unemployed (p=0.048) were more willing to participate in PPI. Most participants preferred group rather than individual session, and a shorter duration (30min) was favored by most. This study captured the self-report willingness to participate in psychological interventions. Findings suggested that psychological interventions delivered in short-group session were highly preferred. Future study is required to determine the feasibility of such design for patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Current Australian speech-language pathology practice in addressing psychological well-being in people with aphasia after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Jasvinder K; Douglas, Jacinta; Rose, Miranda L

    2015-06-01

    Psychological well-being is essential to overall health; however, there is a paucity of research on how to address psychological well-being in stroke survivors with aphasia. This study describes the current beliefs, attitudes and practices of Australian speech-language pathologists in addressing psychological well-being in people with aphasia after stroke. A 26-item web-based survey consisting of open and closed questions was distributed to Australian speech-language pathologists through four electronic databases. Australian speech-language pathologists (n = 111) utilized counselling and clinical approaches to address psychological well-being in people with post-stroke aphasia. The majority of speech-language pathologists did not feel comfortable with addressing psychological well-being in people with aphasia and sought support from other health professionals in this practice. Self-perception of being under-skilled was the main barrier identified to adequate practice in this domain, followed by inadequate time, inadequate staffing and people with aphasia declining referral to counselling. The main facilitators reported by speech-language pathologists to address psychological well-being included personal interest, personal and professional experience and availability of counselling health professionals for people with aphasia. There were small-to-medium statistically significant correlations between speech-language pathologists reporting additional training in counselling and perceived knowledge of, confidence in and satisfaction with managing psychological well-being in people with aphasia. This study identifies factors requiring attention in order to enable speech-language pathologists to facilitate improved psychological well-being in people with aphasia.

  4. The compare psychological profiles of people based on MMPI-2’s scales

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    Mojtaba Habibi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of screening and identifying people at risk of mental disorders in order to determine the prevalence of mental disorders and carry out activities to the prevention and treatment, the present study aimed to compare psychological profiles of people based on MMPI-2’s scales according to birth order, age and educational level in general population of 18-80 years old. Current study is analytical- cross sectional. Statistical population included all Iranian people between 18 to 80 years old who had minimum 8 classes of education and had no history of mental illness or brain injury. Among this population, 1418 individuals were selected by ratio sampling method from Tehran, Isfahan, Mashhad, Tabriz and Shiraz cities and they were assessed by Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI-2. Results showed there is significant difference between people according to their age in scales of L (Lying, D (Depression, Ma (Mania, Pt (Psychastenia, Sc(Schizophrenia, and Si(Social Introversion, and there was significant difference based on level of education in scales of F (Infrequency, K (Defensiveness, Pa (Paranoia, Pt (Psychastenia, Sc (Schizophrenia and Si (Social Introversion. However, there was no significant differences between individuals based on birth order in validity and clinical scale of MMPI-2. Education and age are important factors which can influence mental health. It can be inferred that people with high level of education in comparison of people with low educational level have fewer mental disorders and higher mental wellbeing. Furthermore, people of different ages show different patterns of mental disorders.

  5. Exploring Norms About Citizenship in Stories of Young People with "Psychological Vulnerabilities"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavaud, Manon Alice

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores how norms about citizenship come into play at a residence for young people with “psychological vulnerabilities” in Denmark. The theoretical framework consists of a difference-centred approach (Moosa-Mitha 2005), the concept of lived citizenship (Lister 2007), a narrative...... approach (Gubrium and Holstein 2009) and positioning theory (Davies and Harré 1990). Based on interviews and observations looking at stories of the young people and the staff members, the analysis is structured around two themes: “getting up in the morning” and improving social skills, which seem to refer...... to ideals about adulthood. Finally, the chapter discusses whether these norms are being challenged and the possible consequences of deviating from these ideals....

  6. Explaining financial and prosocial biases in favor of attractive people: Interdisciplinary perspectives from economics, social psychology, and evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Henry, Andrea; Nickels, Nora

    2017-01-01

    Financial and prosocial biases in favor of attractive adults have been documented in the labor market, in social transactions in everyday life, and in studies involving experimental economic games. According to the taste-based discrimination model developed by economists, attractiveness-related financial and prosocial biases are the result of preferences or prejudices similar to those displayed toward members of a particular sex, racial, ethnic, or religious group. Other explanations proposed by economists and social psychologists maintain that attractiveness is a marker of personality, intelligence, trustworthiness, professional competence, or productivity. Evolutionary psychologists have argued that attractive adults are favored because they are preferred sexual partners. Evidence that stereotypes about attractive people are causally related to financial or prosocial biases toward them is weak or nonexistent. Consistent with evolutionary explanations, biases in favor of attractive women appear to be more consistent or stronger than those in favor of attractive men, and biases are more consistently reported in interactions between opposite-sex than same-sex individuals. Evolutionary explanations also account for increased prosocial behavior in situations in which attractive individuals are simply bystanders. Finally, evolutionary explanations are consistent with the psychological, physiological, and behavioral changes that occur when individuals are exposed to potential mates, which facilitate the expression of courtship behavior and increase the probability of occurrence of mating. Therefore, multiple lines of evidence suggest that mating motives play a more important role in driving financial and prosocial biases toward attractive adults than previously recognized.

  7. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF INVOLVEMENT OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN EXTREMIST GROUPS IN THE INTERNET ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Kruzhkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the article is to consider the psychological characteristics of involvement of youth in extremist community through the Internet.Methods. The theoretical analysis and modeling were used as the main methods.Results. The Internet is described as a means and space of psychological influence on young people, which can be both positive and negative. Absorption of teenagers, boys and young men, in a virtual space essentially converts their activity and, as a result, transform the leading activity, which in turn leads to different mental tumors. Three main effects from the exposure of the Internet are found out: «the effect of the goals of drift», mythology and «the effect of excitement»; their impact on the individual in each age periods is noted. Consideration of the main motivational reasons, taking into account the specifics of building human interaction with the environment made it possible to identify and describe the main types of behavioural patterns exhibited by young people on the Internet. The degree of activity of young people in the network is described from the perspective of integrated strategies of behaviour: information blocking, changes in the distance, control, transformations. Risk groups of users, the most susceptible to extremist manipulations are designated. «Vulnerability areas» of representatives of each group are summarized and described; a step-by-step algorithm of victims’ involvement in extremist communities by recruiters is described.Scientific novelty of the present study consists in discussion of one of the most acute problems of the present – the changed conditions of a growing and socialization of younger generation; constant stay in network virtual space is an integral part of today’s existence, wherein unformed and immature person is very vulnerable to the influence of extremist content. To prevent the increased potential threat of involvement of young people in destructive, asocial

  8. Reaction to the Special Issue on Centralizing the Experiences of LGB People of Color in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    This reaction article comments on the Major Contribution "Centralizing the Experiences of LGB People of Color in Counseling Psychology." The content analysis of the published literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people of color from 1998 to 2007 provides much-needed information that will help psychologists set future research agendas and…

  9. When artificial social agents try to persuade people : the role of social agency on the occurrence of psychological reactance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roubroeks, M.A.J.; Ham, J.R.C.; Midden, C.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    In the near future, robotic agents might employ persuasion to influence people’s behavior or attitudes, just as human agents do in many situations. People can comply with these requests, but, people can also experience psychological reactance, which may lead to the complete opposite of the proposed

  10. Does empowerment mediate the effects of psychological factors on mental health, well-being, and recovery in young people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealish, Annmarie; Tai, Sara; Hunter, Andrew; Emsley, Richard; Murrells, Trevor; Morrison, Anthony P

    2017-09-01

    There is consensus that empowerment is key to recovery from mental health problems, enabling a person to take charge of their life and make informed choices and decisions about their life. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which empowerment affects mental health in young people. The current study involved young people aged 16-29 years and examined empowerment as a potential mediator of the relationship between psychological factors (psychosocial, cognition, coping, and control) and mental health, well-being, and recovery from personal problems. A cross-sectional, Internet-based questionnaire study recruited 423 young people aged between 16 and 29 attending universities in England (n = 336) and Ireland (n = 87). Psychological factors, mental well-being, empowerment, and recovery from personal problems were measured using self-report measures. Mediation analysis in both the single and one over-arching mediator models revealed that empowerment mediates the relationship between psychological factors (psychosocial, self-efficacy, thinking style, coping, and control) and mental health, well-being, and recovery from general life problems. This study demonstrates the importance of empowerment, showing that it mediates the relationship between psychological processes and mental health, well-being, and recovery in young people. Clinical implications for working with young people within mental health services, and facilitating their empowerment are discussed. Empowerment is currently a poorly defined concept. This study demonstrates how empowerment mediates the relationship between psychological processes and mental health, well-being, and recovery in young people. Clinicians working with young people might benefit from a structured means of understanding and assessing the different ways in which individuals manage their thinking styles. Empowerment in young people is influenced by the manner in which clinicians facilitate them in establishing social

  11. Psychological correlates of formal carers of people with intellectual disability: a Portuguese sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Daily work with people with mental disabilities is extremely demanding, both physically and psychologically. This study aims to characterize different workers of institutions that deliver care to people with intellectual disabilities regarding their stress vulnerability, personality type, coping strategies and psychopathological symptoms and explore associations between these variables and some sociodemographic and professionals variables. Methods: 68 professionals from institutions that work with people with mental disabilities, aged between 19 to 62 years (M = 36.3, SD = 11.65, answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the 23-Stress Vulnerability Questionnaire (23-QVS, the Eysenck Personality Inventory-12 (EPI-12, the Brief Cope, and the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI. Results: In this sample of workers, higher levels of stress vulnerability were associated with higher levels of neuroticism and of psychopathological symptoms. Women presented higher levels of somatization, younger professionals and with less education were more vulnerable to stress. Work overload was associated to stress vulnerability and to psychopathological symptoms. Conclusions: This study confirms that workers of institutions that receive people with intellectual disabilities present higher levels of stress vulnerability and higher risk of developing psychopathological symptoms. It is urgent to implement intervention measures (preventive and/or therapeutic to relieve these professionals stress, improving their mental health. It seems that workers with higher levels of neuroticism might benefit more from these interventions.

  12. Comparing Sensory Information Processing and Alexithymia between People with Substance Dependency and Normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashapoor, Sajjad; Hosseini-Kiasari, Seyyedeh Tayebeh; Daneshvar, Somayeh; Kazemi-Taskooh, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Sensory information processing and alexithymia are two important factors in determining behavioral reactions. Some studies explain the effect of the sensitivity of sensory processing and alexithymia in the tendency to substance abuse. Giving that, the aim of the current study was to compare the styles of sensory information processing and alexithymia between substance-dependent people and normal ones. The research method was cross-sectional and the statistical population of the current study comprised of all substance-dependent men who are present in substance quitting camps of Masal, Iran, in October 2013 (n = 78). 36 persons were selected randomly by simple randomly sampling method from this population as the study group, and 36 persons were also selected among the normal population in the same way as the comparison group. Both groups was evaluated by using Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS) and adult sensory profile, and the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) test was applied to analyze data. The results showed that there are significance differences between two groups in low registration (P processing and difficulty in describing emotions (P process sensory information in a different way than normal people and show more alexithymia features than them.

  13. The relationship between psychological comfort space and self-esteem in people with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunikata, Hiroko; Shiraishi, Yuko; Nakajima, Kazuo; Tanioka, Tetsuya; Tomotake, Masahito

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a causal model of the sense of having psychological comfortable space that is call 'ibasho' in Japanese and self-esteem in people with mental disorders who had difficulty in social activities. The subjects were 248 schizophrenia patients who were living in the community and receiving day care treatment. Data were collected from December 2007 to April 2009 using the Scale for the Sense of ibasho for persons with mentally ill (SSI) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and analyzed for cross-validation of construct validity by conducting covariance structure analysis. A relationship between the sense of having comfortable space and self-esteem was investigated. Multiple indicator models of the sense of having psychological comfortable space and self-esteem were evaluated using structural equation modeling. Furthermore, the SSI scores were compared between the high- and low-self-esteem groups. The path coefficient from the sense of having comfortable space to self-esteem was significant (0.80). High-self-esteem group scored significantly higher in the SSI subscales, 'the sense of recognizing my true self' and 'the sense of recognizing deep person-to-person relationships' than the low-self-esteem group. It was suggested that in order to help people with mental disorders improve self-esteem, it might be useful to support them in a way they can enhance the sense of having comfortable space.

  14. [Psychological and behavioral predictors of the quality of life of people with multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juczyński, Z; Adamiak, G

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between some psychological and behavioural variables associated with disease, and health related quality of life. A survey was conducted on a sample of 44 people with multiple sclerosis. Quality of life was defined as life satisfaction and subjective assessment of current health status. The following methods were used: The Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener et al.) and Visual Analogue Scale (single-item self-ratings of health) to measure the quality of life; Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale--MHLC (Wallston et al.); Acceptance of Illness Scale (Felton et al.); Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg); Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (Watson and Greer) and Health Behaviour Inventory (Juczyński). A series of step-wise regression models and discriminant function analysis on future quality of life variables were calculated, taking as predictors psychological and behavioural variables. High self-esteem, engagement in a large number of health behaviour and acceptance of illness were most predictive of good health related quality of life of people with multiple sclerosis.

  15. Oppression and discrimination among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and Transgendered people and communities: a challenge for community psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Gary W; Schneider, Margaret

    2003-06-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) people continue to experience various forms of oppression and discrimination in North America and throughout the world, despite the social, legal, and political advances that have been launched in an attempt to grant LGBT people basic human rights. Even though LGBT people and communities have been actively engaged in community organizing and social action efforts since the early twentieth century, research on LGBT issues has been, for the most part, conspicuously absent within the very field of psychology that is explicitly focused on community research and action--Community Psychology. The psychological and social impact of oppression, rejection, discrimination, harassment, and violence on LGBT people is reviewed, and recent advances in the areas of LGBT health, public policy, and research are detailed. Recent advances within the field of Community Psychology with regard to LGBT research and action are highlighted, and a call to action is offered to integrate the knowledge and skills within LGBT communities with Community Psychology's models of intervention, prevention, and social change in order to build better theory and intervention for LGBT people and communities.

  16. Young people at risk of psychosis: a user-led exploration of interpersonal relationships and communication of psychological difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Rory; Morrison, Anthony P

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to qualitatively explore experiences and perceptions of interpersonal relationships and interpersonal communication among young people at risk of psychosis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using a qualitative grounded theory approach. Participants had entered into a service providing psychological interventions for young people assessed to be at a high risk of developing psychosis (Northwest UK). Our sample comprised one female and seven male participants (n = 8), ranging in age from 16 to 28 years, with a mean age of 22.4 years. Analyses identified three central themes: difficulty with interpersonal relationships and reduced opportunities for helpful communication, difficulty talking to others about psychological problems, and experiences of talking to others about psychological problems. Individuals at risk of psychosis may have experienced significant difficulties with interpersonal relationships. Such difficulties may contribute directly to the development of unusual psychological experiences, and to an inability or reluctance to communicate these to others. In addition, commonly held stigmatizing ideas associated with unusual psychological experiences may contribute to a fear among at-risk individuals that they are 'going mad', and this may lead to concealment of their difficulties, and to delayed help-seeking. For at-risk individuals, helpful communication of psychological distress offers significant benefits, including improved psychological and emotional well-being and reduced risk of psychosis. Thus, while concealment of distress may directly impact on the development of unusual psychological difficulties, communication of such difficulties may be central to recovery.

  17. Public skepticism of psychology: why many people perceive the study of human behavior as unscientific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2012-01-01

    Data indicate that large percentages of the general public regard psychology's scientific status with considerable skepticism. I examine 6 criticisms commonly directed at the scientific basis of psychology (e.g., psychology is merely common sense, psychology does not use scientific methods, psychology is not useful to society) and offer 6 rebuttals. I then address 8 potential sources of public skepticism toward psychology and argue that although some of these sources reflect cognitive errors (e.g., hindsight bias) or misunderstandings of psychological science (e.g., failure to distinguish basic from applied research), others (e.g., psychology's failure to police itself, psychology's problematic public face) reflect the failure of professional psychology to get its own house in order. I offer several individual and institutional recommendations for enhancing psychology's image and contend that public skepticism toward psychology may, paradoxically, be one of our field's strongest allies.

  18. Psychological problems of families and health workers dealing with people infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, M

    1991-03-01

    The psychological problems of the families of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected people, and of the health workers taking care of them, have been addressed in a few empirical studies and in several anecdotal reports and theoretical contributions. Apparently, HIV-1 infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are able to elicit a wide range of emotional reactions, from rejection and refusal to provide care to immersion in the infected person's needs and burnout. Since irrational fears and attitudes play an important role in conditioning these reactions, education may not be sufficient to change behaviour. Counselling sessions and mutual support groups are often the most appropriate contexts where fears and concerns can receive an individually tailored response, and where formal and informal caregivers can be helped to manage stress.

  19. Between orientalism and normalization: cross-cultural lessons from Japan for a critical history of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Erica

    2007-05-01

    Cross-cultural research performs a vital role within the confirmation of psychological "truths." Its differentiations work simultaneously to establish their general applicability and the superiority of Anglo-U.S. ways of living and relating. Taking three examples of how "Japan" figures within English language psychological accounts (i.e., group/individual, shame/guilt societies, and attachment styles), I indicate how the apparent stability of these truths suppressed the violent history of their generation. Moreover, I suggest how resisting the assimilation of cultural specificity into a discourse of mere variation can challenge the hegemony of Anglo-U.S. psychology and reframe the vexed question of specificity versus universality.

  20. Relation of psychological distress to the international normalized ratio in patients with venous thromboembolism with and without oral anticoagulant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Känel, R; Vökt, F; Biasiutti, F Demarmels; Stauber, S; Wuillemin, W A; Lukas, P S

    2012-08-01

    Psychological distress might affect the international normalized ratio (INR), but effects might vary depending on oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy. To investigate the association of psychological distress with INR and clotting factors of the extrinsic pathway in patients with and without OAC therapy. We studied 190 patients with a previous venous thromboembolism (VTE); 148 had discontinued OAC therapy and 42 had ongoing OAC therapy. To assess psychological distress, all patients completed validated questionnaires to measure symptoms of depression, anxiety, worrying, anger and hostility. INR, fibrinogen, factor (F)II:C, FV:C, FVII:C and FX:C were measured as part of outpatient thrombophilia work-up. In VTE patients without OAC therapy, the odds of a reduced INR (therapy, INR was unrelated to a negative affect; however, lower FVII:C related to anxiety and worrying as well as lower FX:C related to anger and hostility were observed in patients with OAC therapy compared with those without OAC therapy. Psychological distress was associated with a reduced INR in VTE patients without OAC therapy. The direction of the association between psychological distress and activity in some clotting factors of the extrinsic coagulation pathway might differ depending on whether VTE patients are under OAC therapy or not. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  1. Comparison of Apraxia between Patients with Senile Dementia of Alzheimer Type and Normal Aged People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Yadegari

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In addition to memory deficits and aphasia, many patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD are apraxic which may bring about disturbances in their daily living. The purpose of present study was investigating the presence of any apraxic disorder in patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT and comparison with normal aged people. Materials & Methods: In this case–control and analytical study 14 SDAT patients were compared with 20 normal ageing people that they were matched with patients according to age and education. Patients were selected from Iranian Alzheimer Association clients with psychiatrist diagnostic confirmation and MMSE scores between 15-27 and compared with controls with MMSE scores between 25-30. Apraxia Test was administered on both groups. The Test included 4 subtests: conceptual movements gestured conceptual movements, oral and respiratory movements & pantomime of movements of object manipulations. Data was analyzed by using Kolmogoroff – Smirnoff test, Man – Witney, T-test for independent groups and pearsonian correlation coefficient. Results: Findings showed that apraxia scores were significantly (P<0/001 different between groups so that (SDAT patients were diagnosed as apraxic and controls were not. Besides, comparison of subtests scores of (SDAT patients revealed that conceptual movements scores were significantly (P<0/001 less than the other subtests (more apraxic and oral and respiratory movements scores were significantly (P<0/001 higher than the other subtests (less apraxic. Conclusion: Apraxia could be considered as one of the neuropsychological signs early in the disease development. It can be applied complementarily for differential diagnosis. Also apraxia subgroup scoring could be used for apraxia categorization, understanding observed disorders and determining possible rehabilitation ways.

  2. A comparison of body image, marital satisfaction, and public health among breast cancer patients with breast evacuation, breast keeping and normal people in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Esfandiari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose and background: despite outstanding breakthroughs in medical sciences, breast cancer is still considered one of the most important disease and the most prevalent women cancer and the second reason of death among them. The present study was conducted aiming to compare public health and marital satisfaction among breast cancer patients with breast evacuation, breast keeping and normal women in Tehran. Material and methods: the method of the present study, due to the lack of interference to alter the research variables, was causal comparative. The statistical population included all women with breast cancer and normal women in the city of Tehran. From these people in each group (breast cancer patients with breast evacuation, breast keeping and normal people 80 individuals were selected through available sampling from clients of medical centers and special hospitals in Tehran during October 2012 to December 2013. The applied instruments were the questionnaires of public health, body image, and marital satisfaction. The achieved data were analyzed via one-way ANOVA and Tukey test by SPSS software. Findings: the results of the analysis showed that there is a significant difference between the mean scores of marital satisfaction, body image and public health in three groups (women with cancer who evacuated their breast, those who didn't and normal ones(p<0.01. Conclusion: according to the findings of the present study the women with breast cancer are in more different state in variables of marital satisfaction, mental health and body image comparing to normal group. So it seems necessary for cancer treatment centers to consider psychological treatment courses for these people.

  3. The ways of reduction of peopled psychological distress during the post-accidents on the atomic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageeva, L.

    1996-01-01

    The study of people's status in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident shows that independently from the place of residence they experienced a strong psychological distress which was caused by fears before the accident consequences. This paper gives the characteristics of fears influencing on the growth of the given phenomenon and proposals how to eliminate the same situations in the future

  4. Meaningful activities for improving the wellbeing of people with dementia: beyond mere pleasure to meeting fundamental psychological needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R; Szymczynska, Paulina

    2016-03-01

    Dementia is being increasingly recognised as a major public health issue for our ageing populations. A critical aspect of supporting people with dementia is facilitating their participation in meaningful activities. However, research to date has not drawn on theories of ageing from developmental psychology that would help undergird the importance of such meaningful activity. For the first time, we connect existing activity provision for people with dementia with developmental psychology theories of ageing. We reviewed the literature in two stages: first, we narratively searched the literature to demonstrate the relevance of psychological theories of ageing for provision of meaningful activities for people with dementia, and in particular focused on stage-based theories of adult development (Carl Jung and Erik Erikson), gerotranscendence (Tornstam), selective optimisation with compensation (Baltes and Baltes), and optimisation in primary and secondary control (Heckhausen and Schulz). Second, we systematically searched PubMed and PsycINFO for studies with people with dementia that made use of the aforementioned theories. The narrative review highlights that activity provision for people with dementia goes beyond mere pleasure to meeting fundamental psychological needs. More specifically, that life review therapy and life story work address the need for life review; spiritual/religious activities address the need for death preparation; intergenerational activities address the need for intergenerational relationships; re-acquaintance with previously conducted leisure activities addresses the need for a sense of control and to achieve life goals; and pursuit of new leisure activities addresses the need to be creative. The systematic searches identified two studies that demonstrated the utility of applying Erikson's theory of psychosocial development to dementia care. We argue for the importance of activity provision for people with dementia to help promote wellbeing

  5. The (ab)normal-social-personality catena: Exploring The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology during the interwar years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ian J

    2018-05-01

    This article is a cocitation network analysis of The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology ( JASP ) from 1925 to 1942. The analysis was conducted to help shed light on the historical roots of the intellectual and institutional relationships among social, personality, and abnormal psychology. JASP was a main venue for the boundary work of early- to mid-twentieth-century American psychologists. One of the main goals of these various research communities was to appropriate psychoanalytic and sociological concepts into preferred methods and approaches that favored an individualistic, quantifiable, and ultimately normal subject. Five major research communities are identified using the citations, and historically contextualized: Community #1, Measuring Social Aspects; Community #2, Psychometrics; Community #3, Operationalizing Psychoanalysis; Community #4, Introversion Studies; and Community #5, Experimental Social Psychology. This analysis demonstrates how disciplinary psychologists, at least within JASP , were united by the work of delimiting their research from closely aligned fields studying the same concepts-even while psychologists' methodological commitments to experimentalism or psychological testing might have ostensibly divided them. Possible future research incorporating post-World War II research and dynamic networking approaches is recommended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Determinants of subjective well-being in people with psychosis referred for psychological therapy in South London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyd, Annabel; Jolley, Suzanne; Johns, Louise

    2016-11-01

    Improving subjective well-being (SWB) for people with mental health problems is a United Kingdom national health priority and is increasingly important in justifying funding of mental health services. Aside from the economic advantages, maximizing SWB confers obvious individual and clinical benefits for people with severe mental illness, such as psychosis. Gaining a better understanding of well-being and its determinants will enable current evidence-based interventions to be targeted and refined appropriately. This study therefore sought to identify the cross-sectional correlates of SWB in an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies for people with Severe Mental Illness psychosis demonstration site, to inform a future longitudinal investigation. Participants with a psychosis or bipolar spectrum diagnosis referred to the demonstration site (n = 410) rated SWB as part of their initial assessment before starting psychological therapy. Potential influencing factors including age, gender, ethnicity, employment status, illness duration, perceived social support, perceived coping, and psychotic symptoms (voices and beliefs) were also assessed. Regression analyses showed that unemployment (β = -.16, p therapy to meet national requirements to prioritize well-being outcomes. Average well-being in people with psychosis was lower than SWB previously reported for the general population. Unemployment, lack of social support, poorer coping, and distressing beliefs were all associated with lower levels of well-being in people with psychosis. Psychological interventions targeting the positive symptoms of psychosis may impact on well-being. Greater focus on promoting social contact and inclusion and facilitating a return to employment may further improve well-being outcomes following psychological intervention. The cross-sectional design of the study does not allow for firm conclusions about the causal relationship between well-being and associated factors in psychosis. The

  7. A normal colposcopy examination fails to provide psychological reassurance for women who have had low-grade abnormal cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, S C; Sharp, L; Little, J; Gray, N M; Walker, L G; Whynes, D K; Cruickshank, M E

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, each year, large numbers of women are referred for colposcopy following low-grade abnormal cervical cytology. Many have no visible abnormality on examination. The risk of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (CIN2/3) in these women is low. It is unknown whether, for women, a normal colposcopy resolves the anxiety which often follows the receipt of an abnormal cytology result. We investigated the prevalence of adverse psychological outcomes over 30 months following a normal colposcopy. This cohort study was nested within the UK TOMBOLA randomized controlled trial. Women aged 20-59 years, with recent low-grade cytology, who had a satisfactory colposcopy examination and normal transformation zone, completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Process Outcome Specific Measure (POSM) at recruitment and during follow-up (12, 18, 24 and 30 months post-recruitment). Outcomes included percentages reporting significant anxiety (HADS anxiety subscale score ≥11), significant depression (HADS depression subscale score ≥8) or worries about the result of the next cytology test, cervical cancer, having sex, future fertility and general health at each time point (point prevalence) and during follow-up (cumulative prevalence). The study included 727 women. All psychological measures (except depression) had high prevalence at recruitment, falling substantially by 12 months. During follow-up, the cumulative prevalence of significant anxiety was 27% and significant depression was 21%. The most frequently reported worry was that the next cytology test would be abnormal (cumulative prevalence of 71%; point prevalence of ≥50% at 12 and 18 months). The cumulative prevalence values of worries about cervical cancer, having sex and future fertility were 33%, 20% and 16%, respectively. For some women who have low-grade cytology, a normal colposcopy does not appear to provide psychological reassurance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Clinical and psychological features of normal-weight women with subthreshold anorexia nervosa: a pilot case-control observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Anna; Ferraris, Cinzia; Martinelli, Valentina; Pinelli, Giovanna; Repossi, Ilaria; Trentani, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Weight preoccupations have been frequently reported in normal-weight subjects. Subthreshold anorexia nervosa (s-AN, all DSM IV TR criteria except amenorrhea or underweight) is a form of eating disorder not otherwise specified that has received scarce scientific attention. Under a case-control design we compared the general characteristics, body composition, and psychopathological features of normal-weight patients with s-AN with those of BMI- and sex-matched controls. Participants in this pilot study included 9 normal-weight women who met the DSM IV TR criteria for s-AN and 18 BMI-matched normal-weight controls. The general characteristics of the study participants were collected by questionnaire. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Behavioral and psychological measures included the standardized symptom checklist (SCL-90-R) and the eating disorder inventory (EDI-2). There were no differences in age, education, employment status, marital status, and history of previous slimming treatment in the two study groups. In addition, anthropometric measures and body composition of s-AN patients and BMI-matched normal weight controls were not significantly different. In the s-AN subgroup, we found a significant relationship between waist circumference and the SCL-90-R obsessivity-compulsivity scale (n=9, r=-0.69, pstudy cohort. These pilot results suggest that psychopathological criteria (particularly related to the obsessivity-compulsivity dimension) may be more useful than anthropometric measures for screening of s-AN in normal-weight women.

  9. Job satisfaction of people with intellectual disabilities: the role of basic psychological need fulfillment and workplace participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P

    2018-05-01

    Knowledge on what contributes to job satisfaction of people with intellectual disabilities is limited. Using self-determination theory, we investigated whether fulfillment of basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, relatedness, competence) affected job satisfaction, and explored associations between workplace participation, need fulfillment and job satisfaction. A total of 117 persons with intellectual disabilities, recruited from a Dutch care organization, were interviewed on need fulfillment at work and job satisfaction. Data on workplace participation was obtained from staff. Questionnaires were based on well-established instruments. Basic psychological need fulfillment predicted higher levels of job satisfaction. Level of workplace participation was not associated with need fulfillment or job satisfaction. Allowing workers with intellectual disabilities to act with a sense of volition, feel effective, able to meet challenges, and connected to others is essential and contributes to job satisfaction. It is needed to pay attention to this, both in selection and design of workplaces and in support style. Implications for rehabilitation Knowledge on factors that contribute to job satisfaction is necessary to improve employment situations and employment success of people with intellectual disabilities. In order to achieve job satisfaction, it is essential that workplaces allow for fulfillment of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence of people with intellectual disabilities. People with intellectual disabilities are able to report on their needs and satisfaction, and it is important that their own perspective is taken into account in decisions regarding their employment situation.

  10. Healing by Gentle Touch Ameliorates Stress and Other Symptoms in People Suffering with Mental Health Disorders or Psychological Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Weze

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on healing by gentle touch in clients with various illnesses indicated substantial improvements in psychological well-being, suggesting that this form of treatment might be helpful for people with impaired quality of mental health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of healing by gentle touch in subjects with self-reported impairments in their psychological well-being or mental health. One hundred and forty-seven clients who identified themselves as having psychological problems received four treatment sessions. Pre- to post-treatment changes in psychological and physical functioning were assessed by self-completed questionnaires which included visual analogue scales (VAS and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D. Participants recorded reductions in stress, anxiety and depression scores and increases in relaxation and ability to cope scores (all P < 0.0004. Improvements were greatest in those with the most severe symptoms initially. This open study provides strong circumstantial evidence that healing by gentle touch is safe and effective in improving psychological well-being in participants with self-reported psychological problems, and also that it safely complements standard medical treatment. Controlled trials are warranted.

  11. Examining Effects of Anticipated Stigma, Centrality, Salience, Internalization, and Outness on Psychological Distress for People with Concealable Stigmatized Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Diane M.; Williams, Michelle K.; Quintana, Francisco; Gaskins, Jennifer L.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Pishori, Alefiyah; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Perez, Giselle; Chaudoir, Stephenie R.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how stigmatized identities contribute to increased rates of depression and anxiety is critical to stigma reduction and mental health treatment. There has been little research testing multiple aspects of stigmatized identities simultaneously. In the current study, we collected data from a diverse, urban, adult community sample of people with a concealed stigmatized identity (CSI). We targeted 5 specific CSIs – mental illness, substance abuse, experience of domestic violence, experience of sexual assault, and experience of childhood abuse – that have been shown to put people at risk for increased psychological distress. We collected measures of the anticipation of being devalued by others if the identity became known (anticipated stigma), the level of defining oneself by the stigmatized identity (centrality), the frequency of thinking about the identity (salience), the extent of agreement with negative stereotypes about the identity (internalized stigma), and extent to which other people currently know about the identity (outness). Results showed that greater anticipated stigma, greater identity salience, and lower levels of outness each uniquely and significantly predicted variance in increased psychological distress (a composite of depression and anxiety). In examining communalities and differences across the five identities, we found that mean levels of the stigma variables differed across the identities, with people with substance abuse and mental illness reporting greater anticipated and internalized stigma. However, the prediction pattern of the variables for psychological distress was similar across the substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and childhood abuse identities (but not sexual assault). Understanding which components of stigmatized identities predict distress can lead to more effective treatment for people experiencing psychological distress. PMID:24817189

  12. Examining effects of anticipated stigma, centrality, salience, internalization, and outness on psychological distress for people with concealable stigmatized identities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M Quinn

    Full Text Available Understanding how stigmatized identities contribute to increased rates of depression and anxiety is critical to stigma reduction and mental health treatment. There has been little research testing multiple aspects of stigmatized identities simultaneously. In the current study, we collected data from a diverse, urban, adult community sample of people with a concealed stigmatized identity (CSI. We targeted 5 specific CSIs--mental illness, substance abuse, experience of domestic violence, experience of sexual assault, and experience of childhood abuse--that have been shown to put people at risk for increased psychological distress. We collected measures of the anticipation of being devalued by others if the identity became known (anticipated stigma, the level of defining oneself by the stigmatized identity (centrality, the frequency of thinking about the identity (salience, the extent of agreement with negative stereotypes about the identity (internalized stigma, and extent to which other people currently know about the identity (outness. Results showed that greater anticipated stigma, greater identity salience, and lower levels of outness each uniquely and significantly predicted variance in increased psychological distress (a composite of depression and anxiety. In examining communalities and differences across the five identities, we found that mean levels of the stigma variables differed across the identities, with people with substance abuse and mental illness reporting greater anticipated and internalized stigma. However, the prediction pattern of the variables for psychological distress was similar across the substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and childhood abuse identities (but not sexual assault. Understanding which components of stigmatized identities predict distress can lead to more effective treatment for people experiencing psychological distress.

  13. Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Jacqueline; Spain, Debbie; Furuta, Marie; Murrells, Trevor; Norman, Ian

    2017-01-24

    Increasing evidence indicates that individuals who develop severe mental illness (SMI) are also vulnerable to developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), due to increased risk of exposure to traumatic events and social adversity. The effectiveness of trauma-focused psychological interventions (TFPIs) for PTSD in the general population is well-established. TFPIs involve identifying and changing unhelpful beliefs about traumatic experiences, processing of traumatic memories, and developing new ways of responding to cues associated with trauma. Little is known about the potential feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of TFPIs for individuals who have a SMI and PTSD. To evaluate the effectiveness of psychological interventions for PTSD symptoms or other symptoms of psychological distress arising from trauma in people with SMI. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Study-Based Register (up until March 10, 2016), screened reference lists of relevant reports and reviews, and contacted trial authors for unpublished and/or specific outcome data. We included all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which investigated TFPIs for people with SMI and PTSD, and reported useable data. Three review authors (DS, MF, IN) independently screened the titles and abstracts of all references identified, and read short-listed full text papers. We assessed risk of bias in each case. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for binary outcomes, and the mean difference (MD) and 95% CI for continuous data, on an intention-to-treat basis. We assessed quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) and created 'Summary of findings' tables. Four trials involving a total of 300 adults with SMI and PTSD are included. These trials evaluated three active intervention therapies: trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (TF-CBT), eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR

  14. A survey of psychological support provision for people with inflammatory arthritis in secondary care in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dures, Emma; Almeida, Celia; Caesley, Judy; Peterson, Alice; Ambler, Nicholas; Morris, Marianne; Pollock, Jon; Hewlett, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    The consequences of inflammatory arthritis can include depression, anxiety and low mood, reducing patients' quality of life and increasing pressure on the healthcare system. Treatment guidelines recommend psychological support, but data are lacking on the provision available. A postal survey concerning psychological support provision was sent to rheumatology units in 143 acute trusts across England. Nurses from 73 rheumatology units (51%) responded. Overall, 73% rated their unit's psychological support provision as 'inadequate' and only 4% rated it as 'good'. Few units believed that psychological support did not fall within their remit (12%), yet only 8% had a psychologist in the team. Most units (68%) did not routinely screen patients to identify psychological difficulties. Referral to other service providers was reported in 42% of units, with 3% very satisfied with this provision. Within units, services containing elements of psychological support ranged from occupational therapy (81%) to psychology/counselling (14%). Psychological approaches used by team members ranged from shared decision making (77%) to cognitive-behavioural approaches (26%). The current barriers to providing psychological support were lack of clinical time and available training (86% and 74%, respectively), and delivery costs (74%). Future facilitators included management support (74%) and availability of skills training (74%). Rheumatology units viewed psychological support provision as part of their remit but rated their overall provision as inadequate, despite some team members using psychological skills. To improve provision, clinicians' training needs must be addressed and organizational support generated, and further research needs to define adequate psychological support provision from the patient perspective. © 2014 The Authors. Musculoskeletal Care published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Evaluation of Youth Mental Health First Aid USA: A program to assist young people in psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakre, Jennifer M; Lucksted, Alicia; Browning-McNee, Lea Ann

    2016-05-01

    Youth Mental Health First Aid USA (YMHFA) is a manualized training program designed to educate members of the public on common emotional problems and psychological disorders among youth and to provide trainees with tools anyone can use to assist young people in psychological distress. The present study used a pre versus post design to assess the ability of social service employees to generate appropriate strategies to use in hypothetical situations featuring a young person in distress, before versus after participation in the 8-hr YMHFA training. Trainee responses demonstrated significant overall improvement (M = 1.32, SD = 0.80 pretraining vs. M = 1.87, SD = 1.1 posttraining, t = 6.6, p psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Domain Specificity and Everyday Biological, Physical, and Psychological Thinking in Normal, Autistic, and Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C.; Siegal, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Examined reasoning in normal, autistic, and deaf individuals. Found that deaf individuals who grow up in hearing homes without fluent signers show selective impairments in theory of mind similar to those of autistic individuals. Results suggest that conversational differences in the language children hear accounts for distinctive patterns of…

  17. Physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Takamatsu, Ako; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-02-25

    Time spent walking and relaxing in a forest environment ("forest bathing" or "forest therapy") has well demonstrated anti-stress effects in healthy adults, but benefits for ill or at-risk populations have not been reported. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy (relaxation and stress management activity in the forest) on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. Blood pressure and several physiological and psychological indices of stress were measured the day before and approximately 2 h following forest therapy. Both pre- and post-treatment measures were conducted at the same time of day to avoid circadian influences. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), urinary adrenaline, and serum cortisol were all significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy (ptherapy. These results highlight that forest is a promising treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure into the optimal range and possibly prevent progression to clinical hypertension in middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

  18. Physiological and Psychological Effects of Forest Therapy on Middle-Aged Males with High-Normal Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Ochiai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Time spent walking and relaxing in a forest environment (“forest bathing” or “forest therapy” has well demonstrated anti-stress effects in healthy adults, but benefits for ill or at-risk populations have not been reported. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy (relaxation and stress management activity in the forest on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. Blood pressure and several physiological and psychological indices of stress were measured the day before and approximately 2 h following forest therapy. Both pre- and post-treatment measures were conducted at the same time of day to avoid circadian influences. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, urinary adrenaline, and serum cortisol were all significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy (p < 0.05. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “relaxed” and “natural” according to the Semantic Differential (SD method. Profile of Mood State (POMS negative mood subscale scores for “tension-anxiety,” “confusion,” and “anger-hostility,” as well as the Total Mood Disturbance (TMD score were significantly lower following forest therapy. These results highlight that forest is a promising treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure into the optimal range and possibly prevent progression to clinical hypertension in middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

  19. Are There More Gifted People Than Would Be Expected in a Normal Distribution? An Investigation of the Overabundance Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Russell T.; Godwin, Lindsey R.; Smith, Kyle V.

    2013-01-01

    Among some gifted education researchers, advocates, and practitioners, it is sometimes believed that there is a larger number of gifted people in the general population than would be predicted from a normal distribution (e.g., Gallagher, 2008; N. M. Robinson, Zigler, & Gallagher, 2000; Silverman, 1995, 2009), a belief that we termed the…

  20. Changes in Social Exclusion Indicators and Psychological Distress Among Homeless People Over a 2.5-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Straaten, Barbara; Rodenburg, Gerda; Van der Laan, Jorien; Boersma, Sandra N; Wolf, Judith R L M; Van de Mheen, Dike

    2018-01-01

    Although homelessness is inherently associated with social exclusion, homeless individuals are rarely included in conventional studies on social exclusion. Use of longitudinal survey data from a cohort study on homeless people in four major Dutch cities ( n  = 378) allowed to examine: changes in indicators of social exclusion among homeless people over a 2.5-year period after reporting to the social relief system, and associations between changes in indicators of social exclusion and changes in psychological distress. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to investigate the associations between changes in indicators of social exclusion and changes in psychological distress. Improvements were found in various indicators of social exclusion, whereas financial debts showed no significant improvement. Changes in unmet care needs, health insurance, social support from family and relatedness to others were related to changes in psychological distress. This study demonstrated improvements in various indicators of social exclusion among homeless people over a period of 2.5 years, and sheds light on the concept of social exclusion in relation to homelessness.

  1. Using Older People's Life Stories to Teach Developmental Psychology and Aging: Benefits and Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Fabà, Josep; Celdrán, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to design and implement an experiential learning assignment in an undergraduate developmental psychology and aging course and to explore students' perceptions of it. One hundred and forty-three first-year students enrolled in an introductory course on developmental psychology across the life span recorded, transcribed,…

  2. Association between memory complaints and incident Alzheimer's disease in elderly people with normal baseline cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, M. I.; Jonker, C.; Bouter, L. M.; Adèr, H. J.; Schmand, B.

    1999-01-01

    Results of previous studies suggest that memory complaints may predict cognitive decline and dementia among elderly people in whom cognitive impairment is already apparent. However, cognitive decline is often a gradual process, and elderly people may notice that their memory deteriorates before

  3. 'The Trouble with Normal': (Re)Imagining Sexuality Education with Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Leanne; O'Sullivan, Mary; Enright, Eimear

    2018-01-01

    What do young people believe sexuality education ought to be about? It is within the absence of a sustained and critical consideration of the possibilities and politics of engaging in research with rather than for young people in the reimagining of sexuality education that this paper is positioned. Data were generated as part of an 18-month Youth…

  4. [Concept Analysis for Psychological Insulin Resistance in Korean People with Diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youngshin

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the concept for psychological insulin resistance in the Korean population with diabetes. The Hybrid model was used to perform the concept analysis of psychological insulin resistance. Results from both the theoretical review with 26 studies and a field study including 19 participants with diabetes were included in final process. The preceding factors of psychological insulin resistance were uncontrolled blood glucose and change in daily life. The concept of psychological insulin resistance was found to have three categories with 8 attributes such as emotional factors (negative feeling), cognitive factors (low awareness and knowledge, low confidence for self-injection) and supportive factors (economic burden, dependency life, embarrassing, feeling about supporters, feeling of trust in, vs mistrust of health care providers). The 8 attributes included 30 indicators. The psychological insulin resistance of population with diabetes in Korea was defined as a complex phenomenon associated with insulin therapy that can be affected by emotional factors, cognitive factors, and supportive relational factors. Based on the results, a tool for measuring psychological insulin resistance of Koreans with diabetes and effective programs for enhancing insulin adherence should be developed in future studies.

  5. The comparison of Educable and Normal Primary Students’ Parents Using Mental Health, Self-esteem and Psychological Well-being Structure in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jafari Nodoushan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presence of mentally retarded children in every family affects on the structure and mental health of family specially parents. The purpose of this research is the comparison of the mean of psychological well-being, mental health and self-esteem between parents of normal and educable students. Materials & Methods: This was causal- comparative and retrospective study and the instruments were three questionnaire of self-esteem, public mental health GHQ and psychological well-being. Self-esteem questionnaire is including three scales of academic performance, social evaluation and external evaluation. The GHQ questionnaire is consisted of 28 items while psychological well-being questionnaire include 19 item for life satisfaction, 13 item for happiness and optimism, 8 item for growth and development, 8 item for positive relationship with others and 10 item for autonomy. The results were analysed by SPSS software. Results: This research showed that normal students parents have more psychological well-being than educable students’ parents, moreover two groups of educable and normal students parents are equal in mental health and self-esteem structure and there isn't significant difference between them. Conclusion: This research showed that psychological well-being in educable students’ parents is lower than normal students’ parents. Thus it is suggested that educational organization of exceptional children arrange courses for improving psychological well-being of educable students’ parents.

  6. Suicidal Behavior Among People Living with HIV (PLHIV) in Medical Care in Estonia and Factors Associated with Receiving Psychological Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemsalu, Liis; Rüütel, Kristi; Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Lõhmus, Liilia; Raidvee, Aire; Uusküla, Anneli

    2017-06-01

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed suicidal behavior (ideation and/or attempts, ever and in the past 12 months) among PLHIV receiving outpatient HIV medical care in Estonia and associations between suicidal behavior and psychological treatment. The cross-sectional study collected data from January to November 2013 using a self-report questionnaire. Eight hundred PLHIV participated, 39 % (n = 306) of whom had been suicidal. Lifetime prevalence was 36 % for suicidal ideation and 20 % for attempts. Younger age, incarceration, having ever abused alcohol and also injected drugs, having lived with HIV for more than 10 years, and being depressed were associated with lifetime suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior within the past 12 months was reported by 20 % (n = 156) of respondents. Of these, 27 % received psychological treatment (counseling and/or psychotherapy), 20 % had taken antidepressants, and 49 % sedatives. Individuals perceiving a need for treatment were significantly more likely to receive psychological treatment when experiencing suicidal behavior (OR 25.65, 95 % CI 2.92-225.47). In conclusion, suicidal behavior is frequent among PLHIV but psychological treatment is not often received. One of the barriers to treatment is patients' lack of perceived need for help.

  7. Correlation between psychological factors and the cerebellar volume of normal young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Soon-Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analiza la relación entre el volumen del cerebelo de adultos normales en la tercera década de la vida (20-29 años y varios factores psicológicos. El volumen del cerebelo de 118 sujetos (media de edad 23 ± 2,6 años, incluyendo 58 varones (media de edad 24 ± 2,8 años y 60 mujeres (media de edad, 21,9 ± 2,1 años, fue medido utilizando la imagen por resonancia magnética (IRM. Todos los participantes completaron los siguientes tests: Cuestionario de 90 Síntomas (SCL-90-R, Cuestionario de Personalidad de Tipo A, El cuestionario de Ansiedad Estado Korean YZ, El Cuestionario de 16 Factores de la Personalidad (16PF, y la Escala Autoadministrada de Depresión (EAD. Utilizando regresión linear, se analizó la relación entre el volumen del cerebelo y factores psicológicos. Sin considerar las diferencias entre géneros, en cuanto crecía la tendencia hacia la personalidad tipo A y se incrementaba el estado de ansiedad y la fuerza del superego, disminuía el volumen del cerebelo. Cuando se incrementaba la fuerza del ego, se incrementaba el volumen del cerebelo. Cuando se consideraban las diferencias de género, cuando incrementaba la ansiedad fóbica y ambición en varones, disminuía el volumen del cerebelo. En mujeres, cuando incrementaba la hostilidad, tensión y la ansiedad estado, disminuía el volumen del cerebelo.

  8. "I Don't Feel Trapped Anymore…i Feel Like a Bird": People with Learning Disabilities' Experience of Psychological Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nicola; Lewis, Karin; Davies, Bronwen

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are very few studies that investigate the qualitative experiences of people with a learning disability who have engaged in psychological therapy. Indeed, having a learning disability has traditionally been an exclusion criterion for good quality research about psychological treatments ("Psychotherapy and Learning Disability.…

  9. The problem group? Psychological wellbeing of unmarried people living alone in the Republic of Korea

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    Jeong Hwa Ho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of unmarried one-person households has increased rapidly among young adults living in the Republic of Korea since 2000. How this rise in solo living is related to psychological wellbeing is of importance to both individuals and society as a whole. Objective: This study examined how living alone is related to psychological wellbeing and how this association differs across attitudes toward marriage among young adults aged 25-39. Methods: We relied on repeated cross-sectional data from the Korea Social Survey (2010 and 2012 to compare unmarried solo residents to both unmarried and married individuals living with family members. Psychological wellbeing was measured in terms of life satisfaction and suicidal ideation over the past twelve months. Results: In general, unmarried solo residents experienced greater life satisfaction than did unmarried family coresidents. Of those with a positive attitude toward marriage, unmarried solo residents had lower life satisfaction than did married family coresidents. For those with a non-positive attitude toward marriage, however, there was no difference in the level of life satisfaction between unmarried solo residents and married family coresidents. Suicidal ideation did not differ by living arrangement. Conclusions: Unmarried solo living does not necessarily relate to lower psychological wellbeing among young adults in Korea. Life stage and attitudes toward marriage should be considered when examining the association between living arrangements and psychological wellbeing.

  10. Bases, Stages and 'Working Your Way Up': Young People's Talk About Non-Coital Practices and 'Normal' Sexual Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Lewis; Cicely Marston; Kaye Wellings

    2013-01-01

    While the symbolic importance of 'losing your virginity' has been described in many settings, meanings of non-coital sexual experiences, such as oral sex and hand-genital contact, are often missing from theorisation of sexual transitions. Drawing on data from a qualitative mixed methods study with young people aged 16-18 in England (the 'sixteen18 project'), we explore normative expectations about non-coital sex and sexual trajectories. Our study demonstrates how gendered talk about a 'normal...

  11. Non-suicidal self-injury in trans people: associations with psychological symptoms, victimization, interpersonal functioning, and perceived social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Witcomb, Gemma; Thurston, Megan; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of systematic research in the area of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in trans people. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of NSSI in trans people and the associations with intra- and interpersonal problems. Participants were 155 untreated individuals with a diagnosis of transsexualism (according to International Classification of Disease-10 criteria) attending a national gender identity clinic. All participants completed the Self-Injury Questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale, the Experiences of Transphobia Scale, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-32, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. The sample consisted of 66.5% trans women and 33.5% trans men and 36.8% of them had a history of engaging in NSSI. The prevalence of NSSI was significantly higher in trans men (57.7%) compared with trans women (26.2%). Trans individuals with NSSI reported more psychological and interpersonal problems and perceived less social support compared with trans individuals without NSSI. Moreover, the probability of having experienced physical harassment related to being trans was highest in trans women with NSSI (compared with those without NSSI). The study found that with respect to psychological symptoms, trans women reported significantly more intrapersonal and interpersonal symptoms compared with trans men. Finally, the results of the regression analysis showed that the probability of engaging in NSSI by trans individuals was significantly positively related to a younger age, being trans male, and reporting more psychological symptoms. The high levels of NSSI behavior and its association with interpersonal and interpersonal difficulties and lack of social support need to be taken into consideration when assessing trans individuals. The effect of cross-sex hormones and sex reassignment surgery on psychological functioning, including NSSI behavior

  12. FEATURES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SPACE SOVEREIGNTY MAINTAINED BY PEOPLE WITH DIFFERENT ATTITUDE TO SOLITUDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Alekseevna Garipova

    2017-06-01

    Practical implications. The results can be useful for developing psychocorrection sessions and trainings. The data can be helpful for specialists of Family Psychological Support centers and for instructors of “Ecological Psychology”, “Family Relations Psychology” disciplines. The study carried out is likely to be highly educational since many respondents participating in the survey admitted that they had never considered personal boundaries violation to be the reason for marital conflicts. They also lacked information concerning psychological space, how to regulate personal space boundaries and how to respond to other family members behavior in an adequate manner.

  13. The Role of Social Work Practice and Policy in the Lived and Intimate Citizenship of Young People with Psychological Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the concepts of lived and intimate citizenship and applying a weak theory approach, Warming shows how social work practices at a residence for young people with psychological disorders constitute a social intervention with contested and multidimensional (action-related, emotional......, affective, positioning-related) outcomes for clients’ rights, participation and belonging. Although the clients describe their stay as empowering and characterised by recognition, they also experience discrimination and exclusion. Indeed, the chapter’s socio-spatial analysis show how their time...

  14. Psychological and Educational Recommendations for Working with Young People with Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-López, Helena; López-Justicia, Maria D.; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the consequences of Retinitis Pigmentosa, a retinal degenerative disease with progressive reduction of the visual field, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and night blindness. Retinitis Pigmentosa is addressed from both a psychological and an educational standpoint, focusing on the impact on learning, emotional well-being,…

  15. Zinc status, psychological and nutritional assessment in old people recruited in five European countries: Zincage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, Fiorella; Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Gagliardi, Cristina; Dedoussis, George; Herbein, George; Fulop, Tamas; Monti, Daniela; Rink, Lothar; Jajte, Jolanta; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    The paper shows the results on the relationship between zinc status, psychological dimensions (cognitive functions, mood, perceived stress) and nutritional aspects in European healthy old subjects recruited for ZINCAGE Project (supported by the European Commission in the Sixth Framework Programme). The old healthy subjects were recruited in Italy, Greece, Germany, France, Poland taking into account the different dietary habits between Northern and Southern European Countries and the pivotal role played by zinc for psychological functions. Measures of the cognitive status, mood and perceived stress level were obtained at baseline, using the "Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)"; the "Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS - 15 items)" and the "Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)", respectively. Nutritional status was assessed using "Frequency Food Questionnaire". The sample included 853 old subjects, classified in 4 groups of age: 60-69-years-old (n = 359); 70-74-years-old (n = 225); 75-79-years-old (n = 153); 80-84-years-old (n = 116). Subjects were studied on the basis of plasma zinc, in which zinc relationship between marginal zinc deficiency and impaired psychological dimensions occurred in Greece than in other European countries due to low intake and less variety of foods rich of zinc. This phenomenon was independent by the age, suggesting that a correct zinc intake from a wide range of foods may be useful to maintain a satisfactory plasma zinc levels as well as psychological status in elderly with subsequent achievement of healthy ageing.

  16. Psychological Help-Seeking Attitudes and Barriers to Help-Seeking in Young People in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koydemir, Selda; Erel, Ozge; Yumurtaci, Duygu; Sahin, Gozde Nur

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research sought to understand the needs of Turkish university students related to adjustment to university, the sources they seek help from, their attitudes about and barriers to psychological help-seeking. Data analysis of interview transcriptions from 15 undergraduates identified several themes. Interpersonal problems,…

  17. "Rare place where I feel normal": Perceptions of a social support conference among parents of and people with Moebius syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Kathleen R; Frandrup, Erika; Locke, Taylor; Thompson, Hanna; Weber, Natalie; Yates, Jacqueline; Zike, Nicholas; Hemmesch, Amanda R

    2017-05-01

    Moebius syndrome is a rare congenital disorder resulting in impaired facial and eye movement. People with rare diseases like Moebius syndrome experience stigma and a lack of specialized information. Support conferences may provide important forms of social support for people with rare disorders. To examine reasons for attending, benefits, and limitations of support conferences. 50 adults with Moebius syndrome and 57 parents of people with Moebius syndrome completed open-ended items in an online study. Mixed- methods content analysis revealed that companionship and informational support were most frequently mentioned as reasons for and benefits of attending. Finances were the most frequently mentioned reason for not attending. Parents were more likely than people with Moebius to describe instrumental support as a conference benefit. When describing conference limitations, parents were significantly more concerned by lack of information relevance, while people with Moebius noted more often that conference attributes were not relevant to their age. Being surrounded by others who share one's condition offers a unique opportunity for destigmatizing companionship support, which normalizes, reduces isolation, and promotes solidarity. Ways to increase facilitators and decrease barriers to accessing support for rare disorders should be investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between memory complaints and incident Alzheimer's disease in elderly people with normal baseline cognition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, M.I.; Jonker, C.; Bouter, L.M.; Adèr, H.J.; Schmand, B.

    1999-01-01

    In the community-based Amsterdam Study of the Elderly, a sample of 3,778 nondemented persons, 65-84 yrs old, was divided into 2 cognitive categories: normal, and borderline and impaired. At baseline, the presence or absence of memory complaints was assessed with a single question. At follow-up,

  19. Internet-Based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Psychological Distress Experienced by People With Hearing Problems: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molander, Peter; Hesser, Hugo; Weineland, Sandra; Bergwall, Kajsa; Buck, Sonia; Hansson-Malmlöf, Johan; Lantz, Henning; Lunner, Thomas; Andersson, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    Psychological distress and psychiatric symptoms are prevalent among people with hearing loss or other audiological conditions, but psychological interventions for these groups are rare. This article describes the study protocol for a randomized controlled trial for evaluating the effect of a psychological treatment delivered over the Internet for individuals with hearing problems and concurrent psychological distress. Participants who are significantly distressed will be randomized to either an 8-week Internet-delivered acceptance-based cognitive behavioral therapy (i.e., acceptance and commitment therapy [ACT]), or wa it-list control. We aim to include measures of distress associated with hearing difficulties, anxiety, and depression. In addition, we aim to measure acceptance associated with hearing difficulties as well as quality of life. The results of the trial may further our understanding of how to best treat people who present problems with both psychological distress and hearing in using the Internet.

  20. Possible use of psychological corrective measures for people with abnormal sexual preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babina S.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the possibility of psychological corrective measures aimed at persons with abnormal sexual preferences. We reviewed domestic and foreign scientific publications described the treatment of sexual disorders and the basic directions of the therapy, and indicated its positive and negative aspects. We have studied progress notes and etiology of "personality disorders and behavior in adulthood" disease class, "disorders of sexual preference" disease subsection and analyzed the efficiency of the psychopharmacological treatment, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and psychotherapy for each violation of sexual preference. The most productive methods of therapeutic intervention are identified. This analysis allows making the most appropriate scheme of psychological correction and treatment for persons with abnormalities of sexual preference.

  1. [Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: High incidence in people over 80 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, Josep Maria; Altimiras, Jacint; Alonso, Francisco; Roura, Pere; Alfonso, Sebastián; Bajo, Lorena

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus is usually observed in adults over 60 years of age. The highest incidence of cases is between 70 and 80 years-old, and it could be under-diagnosed in over 80 year-olds. A description is presented on the overall incidence and age group incidence, the delay in the diagnosis, and main outcomes. A descriptive study was performed on patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, in the population of Osona County during the years 2010-2015. The annual incidence rate was 4.43 per 100,000 inhabitants. The incidence increased with age; from 8.09 per 100,000 in the 60 to 69 years age group, to 23.61 per 100,000 in the 70-79 years age group of, and to 37.02 per 100,000 in the 80-89 years age. The delay in the diagnosis was 15.01 ± 10.35 months. All the patients improved after surgery, but only 73.3% of the patients maintained the improvement after one year. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus is an age related disease and probably underdiagnosed in the elderly. An early diagnosis and a clinical suspicion are essential in patients over 80 years old. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Normal temporal binding window but no sound-induced flash illusion in people with one eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Stefania S; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2018-04-19

    Integrating vision and hearing is an important way in which we process our rich sensory environment. Partial deprivation of the visual system from the loss of one eye early in life results in adaptive changes in the remaining senses (e.g., Hoover et al. in Exp Brain Res 216:565-74, 2012). The current study investigates whether losing one eye early in life impacts the temporal window in which audiovisual events are integrated and whether there is vulnerability to the sound-induced flash illusion. In Experiment 1, we measured the temporal binding window with a simultaneity judgement task where low-level auditory and visual stimuli were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies. People with one eye did not differ in the width of their temporal binding window, but they took longer to make judgements compared to binocular viewing controls. In Experiment 2, we measured how many light flashes were perceived when a single flash was paired with multiple auditory beeps in close succession (sound induced flash illusion). Unlike controls, who perceived multiple light flashes with two, three or four beeps, people with one eye were not susceptible to the sound-induced flash illusion. In addition, they took no longer to respond compared to both binocular and monocular (eye-patched) viewing controls. Taken together, these results suggest that the lack of susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion in people with one eye cannot be accounted for by the width of the temporal binding window. These results provide evidence for adaptations in audiovisual integration due to the reduction of visual input from the loss of one eye early in life.

  3. Effect of different exercise programs on the psychological and cognitive functions of people with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of different exercise programs on the psychological and cognitive functions in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Forty-five patients with PD participated in the study. The participants were randomized in three intervention programs: Group-1 (n=15, cognitive-activities, Group-2 (n=15, multimodal exercise and Group-3 (n=15, exercises for posture and gait. The clinical, psychological and cognitive functions were assessed before and after 4 months of intervention. Univariate analysis did not reveal significant interactions between groups and time (p>0.05. However, univariate analysis for time revealed differences in stress level and memory. Participants showed less physical stress (p<0.01 and overall stress (p < 0.04 and higher performance in episodic declarative memory (p < 0.001 after exercise. These findings suggest that group work with motor or non-motor activities can improve cognitive and psychological functions of patients with PD.

  4. High proportions of older people with normal nutritional status have poor protein intake and low diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyväkorpi, S K; Pitkälä, K H; Puranen, T M; Björkman, M P; Kautiainen, H; Strandberg, T E; Soini, H H; Suominen, M H

    2016-01-01

    The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) is a well-validated instrument examining the nutritional status of older people. The aim of this study was to examine how older people's energy and nutrient intakes are associated with the MNA and to determine how sensitive and specific MNA is in identifying those having low energy and protein intakes. This cross-sectional study combined data from five nutritional studies (N=900): both home-dwelling and institutionalized older people without and with disabilities. Their nutritional status was assessed with MNA, and nutrient intakes were retrieved from 1 to 3day food diaries. Nutrient intakes were divided according to MNA status (normal nutritional status, at-risk of malnutrition, malnourished). Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of MNA of various cut-off points were tested with recommended protein and energy intakes. ROC curves was constructed. Energy, protein and most nutrient intakes showed logical linear trends according to MNA classes. However, more than three-fourths of the participants with MNA>23.5 had lower than recommended protein intakes. Sensitivity of MNA ranged from 0.32 to 0.82 for recommended energy (F:1570kcal/d/M:2070kcal/d) and protein intakes (1.0g/kg BW or 1.2g/kgBW) cut-off points, and specificity from 0.75 to 0.25, respectively. AUC values were low (0.52-0.53). MNA status was consistently associated with nutrient intakes and diet quality. However, a high proportion of older people even with normal nutritional status had poor energy and protein intakes. Thus, MNA does not identify all those with poor nutrient intakes who may be at risk of developing malnutrition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 'I don't feel trapped anymore…I feel like a bird': People with Learning Disabilities' Experience of Psychological Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nicola; Lewis, Karin; Davies, Bronwen

    2016-09-01

    There are very few studies that investigate the qualitative experiences of people with a learning disability who have engaged in psychological therapy. Indeed, having a learning disability has traditionally been an exclusion criterion for good quality research about psychological treatments (Psychotherapy and Learning Disability. Council Report CR116. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2004; Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 19, 2005 and 5). The current research was developed in response to a clinical psychology service recognizing the need to evaluate their psychological service and, as part of this evaluation, the importance of consulting with service users about their experience of psychological therapies. The overall aim of gaining this feedback would be to improve the service offered and to ensure that people receive the best psychological care. Six service users with a learning disability were interviewed about their experience of individual psychological therapy. The interviews were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Themes were generated from the interviews which highlighted both positive and negative feedback on the psychological therapy process. The feedback covered areas such as access to therapy, feelings about therapy, preparing for therapy, skill development and collaborative working, accessibility and making therapy fun, challenges to confidentiality, positive feelings towards the therapist, aspects of the therapeutic relationship, therapy being challenging but helpful, and positive outcomes. These results have contributed to the evidence base that people with a learning disability are able to meaningfully engage in research and provide essential feedback on the services that they receive. No longer can people be excluded from individual psychological therapy or research just because of their label. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stansfeld, J.; Stoner, C.R.; Wenborn, J.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Moniz-Cook, E.; Orrell, M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Family caregivers of people living with dementia can have both positive and negative experiences of caregiving. Despite this, existing outcome measures predominately focus on negative aspects of caregiving such as burden and depression. This review aimed to evaluate the development and

  7. Prevalence of sarcopenia among older community-dwelling people with normal health and nutritional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Kerstin Khalaj; Dittmar, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed whether sarcopenia, a risk factor for disability in the aged, also occurs in healthy community-dwelling elders with normal nutritional state. As indicators, body cell mass (BCM) and lean body mass (LBM) were determined in 110 Germans (ages 60-83) using bioimpedance analysis. Nutritional status, muscle function, anthropometry, and physical activity level were investigated. Sarcopenia was already present in well nourished healthy elders. Its prevalence depended on the measure of muscle mass used (BCM percent, 22 percent males, 20 percent females; LBM percent, 4 percent males, 11 percent females). In conclusion, screening for presence of sarcopenia is needed in healthy, well-nourished elderly populations requiring an international standardization. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  8. Social inequality in psychological distress among young people in five countries with little economic disparity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Meilstrup, Charlotte

    in the family (high, medium, low) and 2) parents’ occupational social class (OSC) measured by father’s and mother’s occupation (highest ranking parent: high, medium, low, unclassifiable). We performed age-adjusted multilevel logistic regression analyses stratified by sex and country. Results The overall country......) for psychological distress was 1.36 (95% CI 1.25-1.48) in the medium FAS-group and 2.07 (95% CI 1.78-2.40) in the low FAS-group. The association appeared in all countries although only significant in Iceland and Sweden (girls only). OSC: The Odds Ratio (OR) for psychological distress was 1.01 (95% CI 0.......89-1.15) in the medium OSC-group, 1.37 (1.24-1.52) in the low OSC-group and 1.66 (95% CI 1.49-1.85) in the unclassifiable OSC-group. For girls this finding was robust and significant across all countries except Sweden. For boys the association was graded but not significant. Implications A socioeconomic gradient...

  9. The Efficacy of Psychological Interventions for Managing Fatigue in People With Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Zaw Zaw Phyo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMultiple sclerosis (MS is a complex, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Fatigue is commonly reported by people with MS (PwMS. MS-related fatigue severely affects daily activities, employment, socioeconomic status, and quality of life.ObjectiveWe conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether psychological interventions are effective in managing fatigue in PwMS.Data sourcesWe performed systematic searches of Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL to identify relevant articles published from database inception to April 5, 2017. Reference lists from relevant reviews were also searched.Study selection and designTwo independent reviewers screened the papers, extracted data, and appraised the included studies. A clinical psychologist verified whether interventions were psychological approaches. A narrative synthesis was conducted for all included studies. For relevant randomized controlled trials that reported sufficient information to determine standardized mean differences (SMDs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs, meta-analyses were conducted using a random-effects model.ResultsOf the 353 identified articles, 20 studies with 1,249 PwMS were included in this systematic review. Narrative synthesis revealed that psychological interventions reduced fatigue in PwMS. Meta-analyses revealed that cognitive behavioral therapy decreased levels of fatigue compared with non-active controls (SMD = −0.32; 95% CI: −0.63 to −0.01 and compared with active controls (relaxation or psychotherapy (SMD = −0.71; 95% CI: −1.05 to −0.37. Meta-analyses further showed that both relaxation (SMD = −0.90; 95% CI: −1.30 to −0.51, and mindfulness interventions (SMD = −0.62; 95% CI: −1.12 to −0.12, compared with non-active control, decreased fatigue levels. The estimates of heterogeneity for the four meta-analyses varied between none and moderate.ConclusionThis study found that the use of

  10. Comparative Dermatoglyphic Study between Autistic Patients and Normal People in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mansoureh; Fayyazi-Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Mahdavi-Shahri, Nasser

    2017-07-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder originating from early childhood; nevertheless, its diagnosis is in older ages. In addition to heredity, environmental factors are also of great significance in the etiology of the disease. Dermatoglyphic patterns, albeit varied, remain stable for a lifetime and yield a large number of patterns upon examination. Studies have shown a significant association between dermatoglyphics and some diseases, especially genetic ones. We compared fingerprints between patients with autism and normal individuals in a Fars population living in Khorasan-Razavi Province, Iran, in 2015. The right and left hand fingerprints of 104 autistic individuals (case group; age range=5-15 y) were collected using a fingerprint scanner. The same process was performed for 102 healthy individuals, in the age range of 6 to 25 years. All dermatoglyphic patterns and ridge counts were determined. The data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney nonparametric test and binomial distribution. There was a significant difference in the distribution of the dermatoglyphic patterns on the right and left thumbs and the index fingers between the case and control groups (Pbiometric parameters in the screening of children with autism.

  11. A longitudinal study of cerebral blood flow and intelligences in normal elderly people living in retirement house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Kitani, Mitsuhiro; Okada, Kazunori; Arimoto, Satao

    1986-01-01

    It is well known that the number of the neuron in the brain gradually reduced with advancing age, but speed of decline of brain functions differs among individuals. We have reported that social environmental factors had significant influences to cerebral blood flow (CBF) and mental function. In this paper, we report 2.5 years longitudinal study concerning with CBF and intelligences in twenty normal elderly people, mean age of 76 years old at the first measurement, living in retirement house. 1) Mean CBF measured by Xe 133 inhalation method did not alter significantly during the observation period. 2) Performance intelligence evaluated by Kohs' block design test had reduced at the point of begining but no more reduction was observed during the period. 3) Verbal intelligence evaluated by Hasegawa's intelligence scale for aged which was within normal range at the begining, slightly (-7.5 %) but significantly (p < 0.05) reduced during the period. 4) Performance intelligence tended to reduce in subjects who showed reduction of CBF. There were no significant correlation between both intelligences and CBF. CBF could be maintained even in elderly people living in retirement house which has less social stimuli during relatively short observation period in so far as they maintain active daily life. The speed of reduction of performance intelligence may be getting slow after certain age and verbal intelligence gradually decreases perhaps by disuse of the mental function. (author)

  12. Brain regions involved in ingestive behavior and related psychological constructs in people undergoing calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahathuduwa, Chanaka N; Boyd, Lori A; Davis, Tyler; O'Boyle, Michael; Binks, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Human food intake is regulated by physiological energy homeostatic mechanisms and hedonic mechanisms. These are affected by both very short-term and longer-term calorie restriction (CR). To date, there are parallel discussions in the literature that fail to integrate across these disciplines and topics. First, much of the available neuroimaging research focusses on specific functional paradigms (e.g. reward, energy homeostasis). These paradigms often fail to consider more complex and inclusive models that examine how potential brain regions of interest interact to influence ingestion. Second, the paradigms used focus primarily on short-term CR (fasting) which has limited generalizability to clinical application. Finally, the behavioral literature, while frequently examining longer-term CR and related psychological constructs in the context of weight management (e.g. hedonic restraint, 'liking', 'wanting' and food craving), fails to adequately tie these phenomena to underlying neural mechanisms. The result is a less than complete picture of the brain's role in the complexity of the human experience of ingestion. This disconnect highlights a major limitation in the CR literature, where attempts are persistently made to exert behavioral control over ingestion, without fully understanding the complex bio behavioral systems involved. In this review we attempt to summarize all potential brain regions important for human ingestion, present a broad conceptual overview of the brain's multifaceted role in ingestive behavior, the human (psychological) experiences related to ingestion and to examine how these factors differ according to three forms of CR. These include short-term fasting, extended CR, and restrained eating. We aim to bring together the neuroimaging literature with the behavioral literature within a conceptual framework that may inform future translational research. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Dermatoglyphic Study between Autistic Patients and Normal People in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Kazemi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder originating from early childhood; nevertheless, its diagnosis is in older ages. In addition to heredity, environmental factors are also of great significance in the etiology of the disease. Dermatoglyphic patterns, albeit varied, remain stable for a lifetime and yield a large number of patterns upon examination. Studies have shown a significant association between dermatoglyphics and some diseases, especially genetic ones. We compared fingerprints between patients with autism and normal individuals in a Fars population living in Khorasan-Razavi Province, Iran, in 2015. The right and left hand fingerprints of 104 autistic individuals (case group; age range=5–15 y were collected using a fingerprint scanner. The same process was performed for 102 healthy individuals, in the age range of 6 to 25 years. All dermatoglyphic patterns and ridge counts were determined. The data were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney nonparametric test and binomial distribution. There was a significant difference in the distribution of the dermatoglyphic patterns on the right and left thumbs and the index fingers between the case and control groups (P<0.05. The patients had a significantly higher count of loops on their right and left thumbs and their index fingers. A significant decrease in ridge counts for the right and left thumbs and the index fingers was observed in the patients compared to the controls. The results suggested that the patterns were associated with the risk of autism. The patterns may be drawn upon as biometric parameters in the screening of children with autism.

  14. "For me it's just normal" - Strategies of children and young people from rainbow families against de-normalization. The case of Slovenia and Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli Streib Brzič

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some findings from an international study called “School is out – Experiences of children from rainbow families in school” which explored how children and young people from rainbow families anticipate, experience and deal with schools as heteronormative spaces. In the research, the term de-normalisation was developed to describe the processes by which children with LGBT-identified parents are perceived and constructed as not normal, as classified beyond the ‘hetero-normative normality’, which is expressed through ‘othering’ by others, for example in interaction. To avoid, prevent or reduce the impacts of de-normalisation processes, the interviewed children and youth have developed different strategies which we present in two frames: one involving disclosure and concealment and the other involving verbalisations and justifications. Based on these insights and findings, the article also outlines ideas on the resilience factors against de-normalisation and emphasises the importance of children and youth not standing alone against it.

  15. Psychological pathway to suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS in China: A structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Chenchang; Yao, Xing; Yang, Yinmei; Yan, Hong; Li, Shiyue

    2017-11-29

    People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have higher rates of suicide than does the general population. It is critical to interpret the intricate relationships among various psychological variables that increase the risk of suicidal ideation among PLWHA in China. An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from Jul to Aug 2016 in Nanjing, China, using a self-reporting questionnaire. A total of 465 PLWHA participated. Sociodemographic, psychological variables and suicide information about the participants were collected. Structural equation modeling (SEM)-path analysis was used to analyze the cross-sectional data. The final structural equation model had a highly satisfactory fit. Among PLWHA, perceived stigma had the greatest accumulated total effect on suicidal ideation, with both a direct effect and indirect effect through self-esteem and depression. Additionally, self-esteem had the second greatest total effect on suicidal ideation and was influenced by social support. Depression contributed directly to suicidal ideation and partly mediated the association of perceived stigma and self-esteem with suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that self-esteem and depression, particularly perceived stigma, play important roles in suicidal ideation among PLWHA. Enhancing personal self-esteem or social support might also reduce perceived stigma and may be an important target for intervention to decrease suicidal ideation among PLWHA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bringing free will down to Earth: people's psychological concept of free will and its role in moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Andrew E; Dillon, Kyle D; Malle, Bertram F

    2014-07-01

    Belief in free will is widespread, and this belief is supposed to undergird moral and legal judgment. Despite the importance of the free will concept, however, there remains widespread confusion regarding its definition and its connection to blame. We address this confusion by testing two prominent models of the folk concept of free will-a metaphysical model, in which free will involves a soul as an uncaused "first mover," and a psychological model, in which free will involves choice, alignment with desires, and lack of constraints. We test the predictions of these two models by creating agents that vary in their capacity for choice and the presence of a soul. In two studies, people's judgments of free will and blame for these agents show little to no basis in ascriptions of a soul but are powerfully predicted by ascriptions of choice capacity. These results support a psychological model of the folk concept of free will. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on the Pulmonary Functions, Respiratory Symptoms and Psychological Status of People Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aweto, Happiness Anulika; Aiyegbusi, Ayoola Ibifubara; Ugonabo, Adaora Justina; Adeyemo, Titilope Adenike

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary complications, respiratory symptoms and depression are common occurrences which contribute to the morbidity and mortality seen in individuals living with HIV/AIDS. This study investigated the effect of aerobic exercise on the pulmonary functions, respiratory symptoms and psychological status of people living with HIV. This study was conducted in Lagos, Nigeria from October 2014 to May 2015. Forty eligible individuals with HIV aged 18 yr and above participated, of which 33 cooperated to the end. They were recruited from the HIV/AIDS Prevention and Intervention Initiative (APIN) Clinic, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria and were randomly assigned to either the study or the control group. The study group received aerobic exercise training three times a week for six weeks and counselling while the control group received only counselling. Pulmonary functions, respiratory symptoms and psychological status were evaluated at baseline and at six weeks. Inferential statistics of paired and independent t-test were used to analyse the data. Comparison of mean changes in the pulmonary variables of the study group with those of the control group showed significant differences in all but in the respiratory rate (RR) - [Forced Expiratory Volume in one second: P=0.001, Forced Vital Capacity: P=0.001, Peak Expiratory Flow: P=0.001]. There were also significant differences between the mean changes in respiratory symptoms (P=0.001) and depressive symptoms (P=0.001) of study group and those of the control group. Aerobic exercise training significantly improved pulmonary functions as well as significantly reduced respiratory and depressive symptoms in people living with HIV.

  18. Social, psychological and psychosomatic disorders in the people with combat stress in their medical histories

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    L. V. Gracheva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors examined three groups of patients – military men (40 men in each group with combat stress of different intensity in their medical histories (two main groups and a  control group – without combat stress. The results showed that the military men with a high level combat stress in the past (more than 5 years ago more frequently demonstrated socialmental disadaptation against the background of subclinical chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The conclusion is that this group of people requires dynamic followup and adequate medicopsychological aid.

  19. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  20. Selective attention and control of action: comparative psychology of an artificial, evolved agent and people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Robert; Ward, Ronnie

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the selective attention abilities of a simple, artificial, evolved agent and considered implications of the agent's performance for theories of selective attention and action. The agent processed two targets in continuous time, catching one and then the other. This task required many cognitive operations, including prioritizing the first target (T1) over the second (T2); selectively focusing responses on T1, while preventing T2 from interfering with responses; creating a memory for the unselected T2 item, so that it could be efficiently processed later; and reallocating processing towards T2 after catching T1. The evolved agent demonstrated all these abilities. Analysis shows that the agent used reactive inhibition to selectively focus behavior. That is, the more salient T2, the more strongly responses towards T2 were inhibited and the slower the agent was to subsequently reallocate processing towards T2. Reactive inhibition was also suggested in two experiments with people, performing a virtually identical catch task. The presence of reactive inhibition in the simple agent and in people suggests that it is an important mechanism for selective processing.

  1. Effect of Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy on Psychological Sequels in Hypertensive People (HBP Patients

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    Sedighe Gozal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common, chronic and relapsing disease which is indeed one of the major public health issues. In our study, we employed quasi-experimental research method.Total 30 patients were randomly divided into two groups; test (n= 15 and control group (n= 15. To collect the required information we gave some depression, anxiety and stress-related questionnaire to the members of both the groups to fill up in the pre-test, post-test and follow-up phases. The test group received the treatment program in eight sessions of 90 minutes each. The results showed that there was a significant difference between levels of depression, and stress in two groups and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy has significantly reduced depression and stress in patients within the test group. But no significant difference was observed for the component of anxiety. Thus the program could be referred as effective in reducing psychological consequences in patients with hypertension.

  2. Clinical and psychological features of addict people with an incomplete suicide attempt

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    Zhuravlyova T.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of social, psychological and clinical aspects of suicidal behaviour of alcohol addicts and drug addicts with incomplete suicide attempts, admitted to the Department of crisis states and psychosomatic disorders, Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Ambulance Service from November 2014 to June 2015. The majority of addicts (70% showed an affective kind of suicidal actions. During an acute post-suicidal period all examined patients revealed value-oriented approach to life. Conflict becomes irrelevant as a result of expressed fear of death and fear of social and transcendental consequences of an suicide act. Alcohol addicts feel guilty towards relatives and others, and need of their support. They have significantly increased fear to loss of social identity. Drug addicts have maintained negative view of near and distant future events, they consider the act of suicide as an effective and radical way of solving life problems. Based on our findings we concluded that the risk of repeat suicide attempts in patients with alcohol dependence can be caused by the weakness of self-management skills and lack of microsocial environmental support, while a similar risk in persons with drug addiction can be due to negative view of their own future and the degree of social maladjustment.

  3. Referral for psychological therapy of people with long term conditions improves adherence to antidepressants and reduces emergency department attendance: Controlled before and after study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lusignan, Simon; Chan, Tom; Tejerina Arreal, Maria C.; Parry, Glenys; Dent-Brown, Kim; Kendrick, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background Referral to psychological therapies is recommended for people with common mental health problems (CMHP) however its impact on healthcare utilisation in people with long term conditions (LTCs) is not known. Method Routinely collected primary care, psychological therapy clinic and hospital data were extracted for the registered population of 20 practices (N = 121199). These data were linked using the SAPREL (Secure and Private Record Linkage) method. We linked the 1118 people referred to psychological therapies with 6711 controls, matched for age, gender and practice. We compared utilisation of healthcare resources by people with LTCs, 6 months before and after referral, and conducted a controlled before and after study to compare health utilisation with controls. We made the assumption that collection of a greater number of repeat prescriptions for antidepressants was associated with greater adherence. Results Overall 21.8% of people with an LTC had CMHP vs. 18.8% without (p < 0.001). People with LTCs before referral were more likely to use health care resources (2-tailed t-test p < 0.001). Cases with LTCs showed referral to the psychological therapies clinic was associated with increased antidepressant medication prescribing (mean differences 0.62, p < 0.001) and less use of emergency department than controls (mean difference −0.21, p = 0.003). Conclusions Referral to improved access to psychological therapies (IAPT) services appears of value to people with LTC. It is associated with the issue of a greater number of prescriptions for anti-depressant medicines and less use of emergency services. Further studies are needed to explore bed occupancy and outpatient attendance. PMID:23639304

  4. A comparison study of lipid profile levels between skin tags affected people and normal population in Tehran, Iran

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    Abbas Rasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For many years the association of skin tags and endocrynopathies has been postulated, although many reports are available but it has never been evaluated to mean normal population. Dyslipidemia is a frequent disorder among people and seemed to be necessary for screening within skin tag condition. This study is designed to find any possible association between skin tags and dyslipidemia. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to June 2011, 168 patients enrolled the study. Among the remaining 152 patients, there were 89 females (58.5% and 63 males (%41.5. Based on the TLGS study 136 men and 220 women enrolled the control group of study. The mean age was 28.4 years. Patients trained to have normal free diet for at least 1 month then referred to the laboratory. Blood samples were taken over 12 hours fasting with 2 hours intervals. Hypertriglyceridemia was defined as plasma level ≥160 mg/dl for men and ≥130 mg/dl for women. Hypercholesterolemia pointed at its value >200 mg/dl. Normal HDL levels was defined as >39 mg/dl for men and >35 mg/dl to women. Results: Mean skin tag number was 12.6 per subject. The most frequent localizations of skin tags were neck and upper chest (mean number: 13.4, 48.9% followed by axilla (mean number: 11.6, 33% and breast (10.2, 10.1% in the patient group. The mean cholesterol level of case group was 192.2 ± 33.1 mg/dl, while it was 187.0 ± 42 mg/dl in the control group. The mean ± SD for triglyceride was 132.1 ± 69 mg/dl in comparison to 129 ± 74 in the control group. Conclusion: The study showed no significant differences between normal population and patients′ lipid profile.

  5. Psychological profile of young people at risk of social exclusion in the city of León in Nicaragua

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    Maria Mercedes Diaz Rodriguez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The city of León has pioneered the development of community health programs, developing comprehensive health programs such as the project ‘A New Initiative for the Americas’, a university hospital, a hospital ‘Mother´s Friend’, teaching assistance municipality, including many others. In the last five years, a group of professionals from different fields of medicine, psychology, and social work has focused on the task of working together with the community, National Police, My Family, MINED, as well as national and international NGOs to study the youth phenomenon and its impact on society. There have been five meetings with teenagers and young people promoted by the Departmental Board of Save the Children and Youth Leonesa, where the UNAN León is actively participating. Based on these meetings, a possibility of a descriptive cross-sectional study on the characterization of young people at risk of social exclusion of the peripheral area of the city of Leon arose, and the results are revealing.

  6. Some behavioral aspects of energy descent: How a biophysical psychology might help people transition through the lean times ahead

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    Raymond eDe Young

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We may soon face biophysical limits to perpetual growth. Energy supplies may tighten and then begin a long slow descent while defensive expenditures rise to address problems caused by past resource consumption. The outcome may be significant changes in daily routines at the individual and community level. It is difficult to know when this scenario might begin to unfold but it clearly would constitute a new behavioral context, one that the behavioral sciences least attends to. Even if one posits a less dramatic scenario, people may still need to make many urgent and perhaps unsettling transitions. And while a robust response would be needed, it is not at all clear what should be the details of that response. Since it is likely that no single response will fix things everywhere, for all people or for all time it would be useful to conduct many social experiments. Indeed, a culture of small experiments should be fostered which, at the individual and small group level, can be described as behavioral entrepreneurship. This may have begun, hidden in plain sight, but more social experiments are needed. To be of help, it may be useful to both package behavioral insights in a way that is practitioner-oriented and grounded in biophysical trends and to propose a few key questions that need attention. This paper begins the process of developing a biophysical psychology, incomplete as it is at this early stage.

  7. Some behavioral aspects of energy descent: how a biophysical psychology might help people transition through the lean times ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    We may soon face biophysical limits to perpetual growth. Energy supplies may tighten and then begin a long slow descent while defensive expenditures rise to address problems caused by past resource consumption. The outcome may be significant changes in daily routines at the individual and community level. It is difficult to know when this scenario might begin to unfold but it clearly would constitute a new behavioral context, one that the behavioral sciences least attends to. Even if one posits a less dramatic scenario, people may still need to make many urgent and perhaps unsettling transitions. And while a robust response would be needed, it is not at all clear what should be the details of that response. Since it is likely that no single response will fix things everywhere, for all people or for all time, it would be useful to conduct many social experiments. Indeed, a culture of small experiments should be fostered which, at the individual and small group level, can be described as behavioral entrepreneurship. This may have begun, hidden in plain sight, but more social experiments are needed. To be of help, it may be useful to both package behavioral insights in a way that is practitioner-oriented and grounded in biophysical trends and to propose a few key questions that need attention. This paper begins the process of developing a biophysical psychology, incomplete as it is at this early stage.

  8. Some behavioral aspects of energy descent: how a biophysical psychology might help people transition through the lean times ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    We may soon face biophysical limits to perpetual growth. Energy supplies may tighten and then begin a long slow descent while defensive expenditures rise to address problems caused by past resource consumption. The outcome may be significant changes in daily routines at the individual and community level. It is difficult to know when this scenario might begin to unfold but it clearly would constitute a new behavioral context, one that the behavioral sciences least attends to. Even if one posits a less dramatic scenario, people may still need to make many urgent and perhaps unsettling transitions. And while a robust response would be needed, it is not at all clear what should be the details of that response. Since it is likely that no single response will fix things everywhere, for all people or for all time, it would be useful to conduct many social experiments. Indeed, a culture of small experiments should be fostered which, at the individual and small group level, can be described as behavioral entrepreneurship. This may have begun, hidden in plain sight, but more social experiments are needed. To be of help, it may be useful to both package behavioral insights in a way that is practitioner-oriented and grounded in biophysical trends and to propose a few key questions that need attention. This paper begins the process of developing a biophysical psychology, incomplete as it is at this early stage. PMID:25404926

  9. Effectiveness of school-based humanistic counselling for psychological distress in young people: Pilot randomized controlled trial with follow-up in an ethnically diverse sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Peter; Sewell, Ros; Cooper, Mick; Osman, Sarah; Fugard, Andrew J B; Pybis, Joanne

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to pilot a test of the effectiveness of school-based humanistic counselling (SBHC) in an ethnically diverse group of young people (aged 11-18 years old), with follow-up assessments at 6 and 9 months. Pilot randomized controlled trial, using linear-mixed effect modelling and intention-to-treat analysis to compare changes in levels of psychological distress for participants in SBHC against usual care (UC). ISRCTN44253140. In total, 64 young people were randomized to either SBHC or UC. Participants were aged between 11 and 18 (M = 14.2, SD = 1.8), with 78.1% of a non-white ethnicity. The primary outcome was psychological distress at 6 weeks (mid-therapy), 12 weeks (end of therapy), 6-month follow-up and 9-month follow-up. Secondary measures included emotional symptoms, self-esteem and attainment of personal goals. Recruitment and retention rates for the study were acceptable. Participants in the SBHC condition, as compared with participants in the UC condition, showed greater reductions in psychological distress and emotional symptoms, and greater improvements in self-esteem, over time. However, at follow-up, only emotional symptoms showed significant differences across groups. The study adds to the pool of evidence suggesting that SBHC can be tested and that it brings about short-term reductions in psychological and emotional distress in young people, across ethnicities. However, there is no evidence of longer-term effects. School-based humanistic counselling can be an effective means of reducing the psychological distress experienced by young people with emotional symptoms in the short term. The short-term effectiveness of school-based humanistic counselling is not limited to young people of a White ethnicity. There is no evidence that school-based humanistic counselling has effects beyond the end of therapy. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Implementing nutrition guidelines for older people in residential care homes: a qualitative study using Normalization Process Theory

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    Bamford Claire

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimizing the dietary intake of older people can prevent nutritional deficiencies and diet-related diseases, thereby improving quality of life. However, there is evidence that the nutritional intake of older people living in care homes is suboptimal, with high levels of saturated fat, salt, and added sugars. The UK Food Standards Agency therefore developed nutrient- and food-based guidance for residential care homes. The acceptability of these guidelines and their feasibility in practice is unknown. This study used the Normalization Process Theory (NPT to understand the barriers and facilitators to implementing the guidelines and inform future implementation. Methods We conducted a process evaluation in five care homes in the north of England using qualitative methods (observation and interviews to explore the views of managers, care staff, catering staff, and domestic staff. Data were analyzed thematically and discussed in data workshops; emerging themes were then mapped to the constructs of NPT. Results Many staff perceived the guidelines as unnecessarily restrictive and irrelevant to older people. In terms of NPT, the guidelines simply did not make sense (coherence, and as a result, relatively few staff invested in the guidelines (cognitive participation. Even where staff supported the guidelines, implementation was hampered by a lack of nutritional knowledge and institutional support (collective action. Finally, the absence of observable benefits to clients confirmed the negative preconceptions of many staff, with limited evidence of reappraisal following implementation (reflexive monitoring. Conclusions The successful implementation of the nutrition guidelines requires that the fundamental issues relating to their perceived value and fit with other priorities and goals be addressed. Specialist support is needed to equip staff with the technical knowledge and skills required for menu analysis and development and to

  11. A comparison of foot kinematics in people with normal- and flat-arched feet using the Oxford Foot Model.

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    Levinger, Pazit; Murley, George S; Barton, Christian J; Cotchett, Matthew P; McSweeney, Simone R; Menz, Hylton B

    2010-10-01

    Foot posture is thought to influence predisposition to overuse injuries of the lower limb. Although the mechanisms underlying this proposed relationship are unclear, it is thought that altered foot kinematics may play a role. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate differences in foot motion between people with normal- and flat-arched feet using the Oxford Foot Model (OFM). Foot posture in 19 participants was documented as normal-arched (n=10) or flat-arched (n=9) using a foot screening protocol incorporating measurements from weightbearing antero-posterior and lateral foot radiographs. Differences between the groups in triplanar motion of the tibia, rearfoot and forefoot during walking were evaluated using a three-dimensional motion analysis system incorporating a multi-segment foot model (OFM). Participants with flat-arched feet demonstrated greater peak forefoot plantar-flexion (-13.7° ± 5.6° vs -6.5° ± 3.7°; p=0.004), forefoot abduction (-12.9° ± 6.9° vs -1.8° ± 6.3°; p=0.002), and rearfoot internal rotation (10.6° ± 7.5° vs -0.2°± 9.9°; p=0.018) compared to those with normal-arched feet. Additionally, participants with flat-arched feet demonstrated decreased peak forefoot adduction (-7.0° ± 9.2° vs 5.6° ± 7.3°; p=0.004) and a trend towards increased rearfoot eversion (-5.8° ± 4.4° vs -2.5° ± 2.6°; p=0.06). These findings support the notion that flat-arched feet have altered motion associated with greater pronation during gait; factors that may increase the risk of overuse injury. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigating Burnout and Psychological Well-Being of Staff Working with People with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour: The Role of Personality

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    Chung, Man Cheung; Harding, Carly

    2009-01-01

    Background: The present research extended previous research by broadening the dimensions of personality traits, and focusing on burnout and psychological well-being among staff working with people with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey in which 103 staff completed questionnaires…

  13. Creating psychological connections between intervention recipients: development and focus group evaluation of a group singing session for people with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Mark; Warmoth, Krystal; Code, Chris; Dean, Sarah; Goodwin, Victoria A; Stein, Ken; Sugavanam, Thavapriya

    2016-02-23

    The study sought to identify key design features that could be used to create a new framework for group-based health interventions. We designed and tested the first session of a group intervention for stroke survivors with aphasia which was aimed at nurturing new psychological connections between group members. The intervention session, a participant focus group and interviews with intervention facilitators were held in a local community music centre in the South West of England. A convenience sample of 10 community-dwelling people with poststroke aphasia participated in the session. Severity of aphasia was not considered for inclusion. Participants took part in a 90-min group singing session which involved singing songs from a specially prepared song book. Musical accompaniment was provided by the facilitators. Participants and group facilitators reported their experiences of participating in the session, with a focus on activities within the session related to the intervention aims. Researcher observations of the session were also made. Two themes emerged from the analysis, concerning experiences of the session ('developing a sense of group belonging') and perceptions of its design and delivery ('creating the conditions for engagement'). Participants described an emerging sense of shared social identity as a member of the intervention group and identified fixed (eg, group size, session breaks) and flexible (eg, facilitator responsiveness) features of the session which contributed to this emergence. Facilitator interviews and researcher observations corroborated and expanded participant reports. Engagement with health intervention content may be enhanced in group settings when intervention participants begin to establish positive and meaningful psychological connections with other group members. Understanding and actively nurturing these connections should be a core feature of a general framework for the design and delivery of group interventions. Published by the

  14. Creating psychological connections between intervention recipients: development and focus group evaluation of a group singing session for people with aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Mark; Warmoth, Krystal; Code, Chris; Dean, Sarah; Goodwin, Victoria A; Stein, Ken; Sugavanam, Thavapriya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study sought to identify key design features that could be used to create a new framework for group-based health interventions. We designed and tested the first session of a group intervention for stroke survivors with aphasia which was aimed at nurturing new psychological connections between group members. Setting The intervention session, a participant focus group and interviews with intervention facilitators were held in a local community music centre in the South West of England. Participants A convenience sample of 10 community-dwelling people with poststroke aphasia participated in the session. Severity of aphasia was not considered for inclusion. Intervention Participants took part in a 90-min group singing session which involved singing songs from a specially prepared song book. Musical accompaniment was provided by the facilitators. Primary and secondary outcome measures Participants and group facilitators reported their experiences of participating in the session, with a focus on activities within the session related to the intervention aims. Researcher observations of the session were also made. Results Two themes emerged from the analysis, concerning experiences of the session (‘developing a sense of group belonging’) and perceptions of its design and delivery (‘creating the conditions for engagement’). Participants described an emerging sense of shared social identity as a member of the intervention group and identified fixed (eg, group size, session breaks) and flexible (eg, facilitator responsiveness) features of the session which contributed to this emergence. Facilitator interviews and researcher observations corroborated and expanded participant reports. Conclusions Engagement with health intervention content may be enhanced in group settings when intervention participants begin to establish positive and meaningful psychological connections with other group members. Understanding and actively nurturing these connections

  15. The influence of health-specific social network site use on the psychological well-being of cancer-affected people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Seyedezahra Shadi; Blount, Yvette; Abedin, Babak

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to explore and examine how and in what ways the use of social network sites (SNSs) can improve health outcomes, specifically better psychological well-being, for cancer-affected people. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with users of the Ovarian Cancer Australia Facebook page (OCA Facebook), the exemplar SNS used in this study. Twenty-five women affected by ovarian cancer who were users of OCA Facebook were interviewed. A multi-theory perspective was employed to interpret the data. Most of the study participants used OCA Facebook daily. Some users were passive and only observed created content, while other users actively posted content and communicated with other members. Analysis showed that the use of this SNS enhanced social support for users, improved the users' experiences of social connectedness, and helped users learn and develop social presence, which ultimately improved their psychological well-being. The strong theoretical underpinning of our research and empirically derived results led to a new understanding of the capacity of SNSs to improve psychological well-being. Our study provides evidence showing how the integration of these tools into existing health services can enhance patients' psychological well-being. This study also contributes to the body of knowledge on the implications of SNS use for improving the psychological well-being of cancer-affected people. This research assessed the relationship between the use of SNSs, specifically OCA Facebook, and the psychological well-being of cancer-affected people. The study confirmed that using OCA Facebook can improve psychological well-being by demonstrating the potential value of SNSs as a support service in the healthcare industry. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Understanding the experiences of people with disfigurements: An integration of four models of social and psychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, G

    2000-05-01

    Both psychological (Cash, 1996; Partridge, 1998; Leary et al ., 1998) and sociological (Goffman, 1968) models have been used to explain the personal and social consequences of cosmetic blemishes. In this study, people with the skin disease vitiligo were asked to describe a situation in which their condition had recently affected their lives. Consistent with theories of body image disturbance, incidents usually involved a triggering event when concerns about appearance were raised due to bodily exposure or enacted stigma. These events led respondents to be vigilant to others' behaviour, to be self-conscious and to attribute the cause of the event to their appearance. Theories of social anxiety could be used to account for how the respondents used impression management strategies such as avoidance and concealment. Respondents described how they could be uncertain as to how to deal with others' behaviour, illustrating the relevance of social skills models. In addition, avoidance/concealment had a number of social and personal costs, including the loss of valued activities, reluctance to develop intimate relationships and continuing anxiety. Thus, theories of body image, social anxiety, social skills and the sociology of stigma could be used to understand the respondents' experiences. It seems likely that therapeutic interventions based on different models are useful because they influence different aspects of the above process.

  17. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  18. Gender differences in the physical and psychological manifestation of childhood trauma and/or adversity in people with psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun eSweeney

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The link between childhood trauma and/or adversity and risk of psychosis is well known. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of childhood trauma and/or adversity in people who have psychotic disorders and to investigate the association between childhood trauma and/or adversity and a range of social and health measures. Participants (n=391, 42% male were specifically asked about any experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity. Respondents provided information about education, employment, physical health and health service utilisation. Univariate analyses revealed that childhood trauma and/or adversity was associated with poorer levels of self-reported physical health and social problems. This includes the experience of chronic pain, headaches, arthritis, asthma and victimisation/stigma in men. Participants with a childhood trauma and/or adversity history indicated higher rates of lifetime suicide attempts with women reporting more lifetime depressive symptoms. Multivariate analyses revealed differing profiles in relation to physical and psychological health variable between males and females. Males with the experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity were significantly more likely to report cardiovascular/stroke issues, migraines and anhedonia. Females with the experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity were more likely to report a lifetime history of elevated mood and to be married or in a defacto relationship. There has been very little research into the assessment and treatment of the effects of childhood trauma and/or adversity in adults with psychosis. Childhood trauma and/or adversity may contribute to higher rates of self-reported poor health in men and is associated with increased depression in women. Our findings suggest that interventions to address the effects of past trauma are urgently needed.

  19. The impact of psychological factors on self-reported sleep disturbance among people living in the vicinity of wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Leila; Nezhad-Ahmadi, Mohammad-Reza; Gohari, Mahmood; Bigelow, Philip; McColl, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    Canada's wind energy capacity has grown from approximately 137MW (MW) in 2000 to over 9700MW in 2014, and this progressive development has made Canada the fifth-largest market in the world for the installation of new wind turbines (WTs). Although wind energy is now one of the fastest growing sources of power in Canada and many other countries, the growth in both number and size of WTs has raised questions regarding potential health impacts on individuals who live close to such turbines. This study is the first published research using a prospective cohort design, with noise and sleep measurements obtained before and after installation of WTs to investigate effect of such turbines on self-reported sleep disturbances of nearby residents. Subjective assessment of sleep disturbance was conducted in Ontario, Canada through standard sleep and sleepiness scales, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Epworth daytime Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Both audible and infra-sound noises were also measured inside the bedroom. Descriptive and comparison analyses were performed to investigate the effect of WT exposure on sleep data. Results of the analysis show that participants reported poorer sleep quality if they had a negative attitude to WTs, if they had concerns related to property devaluation, and if they could see turbines from their properties. This study provides evidence for the role of individual differences and psychological factors in reports of sleep disturbance by people living in the vicinity of WTs. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Relationship Between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Chronic Pain in People Seeking Treatment for Chronic Pain: The Mediating Role of Psychological Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerblom, Sophia; Perrin, Sean; Rivano Fischer, Marcelo; McCracken, Lance M

    2018-06-01

    The symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic pain are thought to interact to increase the severity and impact of both conditions, but the mechanisms by which they interact remain unclear. This study examines the relationship between PTSD and chronic pain and whether indices of Psychological Flexibility mediate the relationship between these 2 conditions. Standardized self-report measures of PTSD, pain severity, pain interference, depression, and psychological flexibility (pain-related acceptance, committed action, cognitive fusion, and values-based action) were obtained from 315 people seeking treatment for chronic pain who also reported at least 1 traumatic experience. People seeking treatment for chronic pain and reporting symptoms consistent with a current diagnosis of PTSD had significantly higher levels of pain severity, pain interference, depression, and cognitive fusion and lower levels of pain-related acceptance and committed action than those reporting symptoms below the diagnostic threshold for PTSD. Pain-related acceptance, committed action, cognitive fusion, and depression mediated the relationship between PTSD and pain severity/interference, with pain-related acceptance being the strongest mediator from the Psychological Flexibility model. Processes from the Psychological Flexibility model were identified as mediators of the relationship between PTSD and chronic pain in people seeking treatment for chronic pain. The Psychological Flexibility model may be useful as an overarching model to help understand the relationship between PTSD and chronic pain. It is possible that targeting pain-related acceptance, committed action, and cognitive fusion (among other processes) in the treatment of chronic pain may produce corresponding improvements in comorbid symptoms of PTSD when these are present and may reduce impacts of PTSD on outcomes of chronic pain. Conversely, targeting of these processes in the treatment of PTSD may produce similar

  1. Illuminating the Psychological Experience of Elderly Loneliness from a Societal Perspective: A Qualitative Study of Alienation between Older People and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anna; Chau, Anson K C; Fang, Yang; Woo, Jean

    2017-07-21

    Loneliness is a common experience among older people that is associated with health risks and negative well-being. As a psychological phenomenon, it has typically been defined in Western research literature as the discrepancy between desired and actual interpersonal relations. In our qualitative study in Hong Kong, we offer insight into ageing and loneliness in an urban environment of the non-Western world and propose to reconceptualise loneliness by exploring older people's experience of alienation at the societal level as an important but often neglected dimension of their loneliness. Thirty-seven community-dwelling, Chinese adults aged 65 and above were interviewed in focus groups and their accounts analysed and interpreted using a phenomenological approach. Findings revealed that focus group participants perceived insufficient care for older people, a growing distance between themselves and society, and their disintegrating identity in society to be primary sources of societal alienation. In response, older people adopted a more passive lifestyle, attributed marginalisation and inequality to old age, and developed negative feelings including unease towards ageing, vulnerability and helplessness, and anger. The emergence of these key components and underlying themes of societal alienation illuminated neglected facets of the psychological phenomenon of loneliness and highlighted new implications for policy, practice, and research from a societal perspective to address older people's loneliness in urban settings.

  2. Review of psychological consequences of nuclear accidents and empirical study on peoples reactions to radiation protection activities in an imagined situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haukkala, A.; Eraenen, L.

    1994-10-01

    The report consist of two parts: a review of studies on psychological consequences of nuclear and radiation accidents in population and an empirical study of peoples reactions to protection actions in an event of hypothetical accident. Review is based on research results from two nuclear reactor accidents (Three Mile Island 1979, Chernobyl 1986) and a radiation accident in Goiania, Brazil 1987. (53 refs, 2 figs.,7 tabs.)

  3. Effects of experience-based group therapy on cognitive and physical functions and psychological symptoms of elderly people with mild dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hwan-hee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of experience-based group therapy consisting of cooking and physical activities for elderly people with mild dementia on their cognitive and physical function, as well as on their psychological symptoms. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 12 older adults with mild dementia (3 males, 9 females; 76.75 ? 3.61?years) who voluntarily consented to participate in the study. [Methods] In total, 12 subjects received experience-b...

  4. Comparison of Cognitive, Psychological and Social Characteristics, between Parents Who Have More Than One Exceptional Child with Parents of Normal Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mousavy-Khatat

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal" mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0 mso-tstyle-colband-size:0 mso-style-noshow:yes mso-style-priority:99 mso-style-parent:"" mso-padding-alt:0mm 5.4pt 0mm 5.4pt mso-para-margin-top:0mm mso-para-margin-right:0mm mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt mso-para-margin-left:0mm line-height:115% mso-pagination:widow-orphan font-size:11.0pt font-family:"Times New Roman","serif" mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman" mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman" mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin mso-bidi-font-family:"XB Niloofar" mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi} Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the cognitive, psychological and social characteristics between parents who have more than one exceptional child and those parents with normal child. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional and comparative study, 80 families who had more than one exceptional child were conveniently selected and 53 families with normal child were selected using multi-stage sampling in schools of Uromia city, western Iran. The Cognitive, Psychological and Social Characteristics of Parents with more than One Special Child Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and Evaluation and Nurturing Relationship Issues Communication and Happiness (ENRICH were used. Compromise Xi Chi, Yu-Man Whitney and t tests were used for data analysis. Results: Among cognitive, psychological and social variables, job (Father and Mother (P<0.001 education (Father & Mother time of disability awareness (P<0.001 parents' level of interest to marriage (P<0.001 parents' relationship before birth (P<0.001 parents' relationship during pregnancy (P<0.001 Mothers' mental health (physical symptoms P=0.037, depression P=0.041, social dysfunction P=0.04, anxiety and insomnia P=0.001 and marital satisfaction (P=0.030 were statistically significant between the two

  5. Effect of psychological intervention on health-related quality of life in people with systemic lupus erythematosus: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liang

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: The results show that psychological interventions can effectively improve the health-related quality of life in patients with SLE. The full benefit and clinical performance of psychological care requires further investigation by a series of multicenter, large-sample size randomized controlled trails.

  6. People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aref

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to analyze a part of the findings of documentation survey and field work carried out for five years in two cities and 67villages in Komeijan region of Markazi province, Iran, from some new perspectives such as ritual morphography, dramatic origin studies, eastern Scapegoat’s and anthropology of rituals. Using methods of current, and interviewing with 119 of the eldest native settlers ,as informants, and regarding the biochronology of man’s life in this region from the primitive form to civility which have been assigned to go back from the third millennium B.C.up to the present time, the morphography of 48 popular Dramatic Rituals has been determined. Among the findings of the study, one of the Archetypal Dramatic rituals, called Qaraiskurmah in the field of Anthropology of rituals, is Scapegoat’s. All these show the high IQ, innovative mind, and creative artistic tastes of the people in this region of Iran, whether they are Turkish, Persia, or Tats speakers.

  7. Socioecological psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.

  8. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    ASE: Attend, Socialize, Enjoy Bob Kibble reflects on the enriching effects of the annual meeting Bob Kibble is a teacher trainer at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. I remember my first ASE meeting in Reading. Perhaps in 1978 or thereabouts. I had been teaching for a few years and thought I'd check out this local convention of science teachers. It was indeed a revelation that so many people had so much to say about teaching science. There was talk about N and F levels and the 'I level grill'. Someone had ordered something called a BBC machine (later revealed to me as the latest in hi-tech teaching). I remember it well. But it was a lonely affair for a recent recruit. People seemed to know each other and there was much friendly exchanging. However, nobody knew me and I knew nobody else. The professional revelations were accompanied by a personal isolation. A strange set of memories indeed for a new recruit, unskilled and clumsy in the social arena. Bob practising for the ASE singalong session this year. This year I went to the ASE Centenary meeting in Guildford, my sixteenth ASE annual meeting. Things have changed since the early days. Thursday started with a formal Cathedral service in celebration of 100 years of the ASE. I sat next to a lady from Oxford and behind my good friend Dave from Croydon. Things snowballed from there. I went to a workshop on the water cycle and was brought face to face with my own misconceptions about the life story of a water molecule. Got a freebie coloured bracelet as well. Thanks Margaret. A chap from Bournemouth gave me loads of ideas about how best to set up a shared lesson observation scheme as well as how to run a professional development workshop. Thanks Stuart. At a third session I joined Brenda from Cambridge and we spent an enjoyable hour discovering ways to approach the teaching of light and in particular Ibn al Haytham's revelations courtesy of a chap from Kingston. That afternoon I was invited to present a talk to

  9. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    microscopes, chemical analyses etc. The NHM has big labs—like a university—in the basement. I write papers, give talks... For the public galleries of the NHM my group provides expert input to exhibitions-when the meteorite pavilion was recently refurbished we suggested a layout, wrote text and selected samples, but this was then 'edited' by the exhibition designers. I'm also working on a new website with virtual meteorite specimens. As an expert on Martian meteorites I often get interviewed by the media: for example, I am on a new Channel 4 programme called Destination Mars. I have also just finished a general interest book—it's called Search for Life; the NHM have just published it (in March). And do you get to go to exciting places? As a researcher I go to conferences I am just off to the States this week. I went to Antarctica ten years ago meteorite collecting and I am hoping to go to Australia this year. It is good fun but they really do need an expert who can recognise a meteorite. I'll be going to the Nullarbor region of Australia for 2 3 weeks depending on the weather if it's too green there is too much grass, so you can't see the meteorites. How do you find people respond to meteorites? People love touching rocks from outer space, especially primary school children. You can see how they are burnt on the outside. When you feel the weight of them it really brings it home: iron meteorites are heavy! They'll often say 'Wow, it fell from the sky' as they glance upwards, half expecting another one to come crashing through the ceiling. Everyone finds it amazing that a solid object has come as if from nowhere. And they are so old. They can't believe how old they are. We want to know where we come from. There is always lots of media coverage about what is happening in the sky (eclipses and the like). It's there and it's a bit of a mystery. If we can get to grips with how our planets and how our own Sun formed it can put us in the picture as to where we have come from and

  10. Effectiveness of psychological interventions to improve quality of life in people with long-term conditions: rapid systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Niall; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2018-03-27

    Long-term conditions may negatively impact multiple aspects of quality of life including physical functioning and mental wellbeing. The rapid systematic review aimed to examine the effectiveness of psychological interventions to improve quality of life in people with long-term conditions to inform future healthcare provision and research. EBSCOhost and OVID were used to search four databases (PsychInfo, PBSC, Medline and Embase). Relevant papers were systematically extracted by one researcher using the predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria based on titles, abstracts, and full texts. Randomized controlled trial psychological interventions conducted between 2006 and February 2016 to directly target and assess people with long-term conditions in order to improve quality of life were included. Interventions without long-term condition populations, psychological intervention and/or patient-assessed quality of life were excluded. From 2223 citations identified, 6 satisfied the inclusion/exclusion criteria. All 6 studies significantly improved at least one quality of life outcome immediately post-intervention. Significant quality of life improvements were maintained at 12-months follow-up in one out of two studies for each of the short- (0-3 months), medium- (3-12 months), and long-term (≥ 12 months) study duration categories. All 6 psychological intervention studies significantly improved at least one quality of life outcome immediately post-intervention, with three out of six studies maintaining effects up to 12-months post-intervention. Future studies should seek to assess the efficacy of tailored psychological interventions using different formats, durations and facilitators to supplement healthcare provision and practice.

  11. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  12. Improving Mobile Phone Speech Recognition by Personalized Amplification: Application in People with Normal Hearing and Mild-to-Moderate Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Anna Chi Shan; Sung, John Ka Keung; Lee, Tan; Wong, Terence Ka Cheong; van Hasselt, Andrew

    In this study, the authors evaluated the effect of personalized amplification on mobile phone speech recognition in people with and without hearing loss. This prospective study used double-blind, within-subjects, repeated measures, controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness of applying personalized amplification based on the hearing level captured on the mobile device. The personalized amplification settings were created using modified one-third gain targets. The participants in this study included 100 adults of age between 20 and 78 years (60 with age-adjusted normal hearing and 40 with hearing loss). The performance of the participants with personalized amplification and standard settings was compared using both subjective and speech-perception measures. Speech recognition was measured in quiet and in noise using Cantonese disyllabic words. Subjective ratings on the quality, clarity, and comfortableness of the mobile signals were measured with an 11-point visual analog scale. Subjective preferences of the settings were also obtained by a paired-comparison procedure. The personalized amplification application provided better speech recognition via the mobile phone both in quiet and in noise for people with hearing impairment (improved 8 to 10%) and people with normal hearing (improved 1 to 4%). The improvement in speech recognition was significantly better for people with hearing impairment. When the average device output level was matched, more participants preferred to have the individualized gain than not to have it. The personalized amplification application has the potential to improve speech recognition for people with mild-to-moderate hearing loss, as well as people with normal hearing, in particular when listening in noisy environments.

  13. Positive psychology interventions in people aged 50-79 years: long-term effects of placebo-controlled online interventions on well-being and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proyer, René T; Gander, Fabian; Wellenzohn, Sara; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    Various positive psychology interventions have been experimentally tested, but only few studies addressed the effects of such activities in participants aged 50 and above. We tested the impact of four self-administered positive psychology interventions in an online setting (i.e., gratitude visit, three good things, three funny things, and using signature strengths in a new way) on happiness and depressive symptoms in comparison with a placebo control exercise (i.e., early memories). A total of 163 females aged 50-79 tried the assigned interventions or the placebo control exercise for one week and completed measures on happiness and depressive symptoms at five times (pre- and post-test, 1, 3, and 6 months). Three out of the four interventions (i.e., gratitude visit, three good things, and using signature strengths in a new way) increased happiness, whereas two interventions (three funny things and using signature strengths in a new way) led to a reduction of depressive symptoms on at one post-measure. Positive psychology interventions yield similar results for people aged 50 and above as for younger people. The dissemination of such interventions via the Internet offers a valuable opportunity for older age groups as well.

  14. Social Media Use and Well-Being in People with Physical Disabilities: Influence of SNS and Online Community Uses on Social Support, Depression, and Psychological Disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H Erin; Cho, Jaehee

    2018-04-13

    This study examined the relationships across social media use, social support, depression, and general psychological disposition among people with movement or mobility disabilities in Korea. First, with survey data (n = 91) collected from users of social network sites (SNSs) and online communities, hypotheses regarding positive associations between intensity of an individual's engagement in social media and four different types of social support-emotional, instrumental, informational, and appraisal support-were tested as well as hypotheses regarding mediation effects of the social support variables in the association between social media use and depression. Second, through focus group interviews (n = 15), influences of social media use on social support were more thoroughly explored as well as their influences on general psychological disposition. Results from hierarchical regression analyses confirmed that both intensity of SNS use and online community use significantly predicted instrumental, informational, and appraisal support, while they did not predict emotional support. Further regression and Sobel tests showed that higher levels of intensity of SNS use and of online community use both led to lower levels of depression through the mediation of instrumental and informational support. Analysis of the interviews further revealed the positive roles of social media use in building social support and healthy psychological dispositions. However, analysis also revealed some negative consequences of and limitations to social media use for those with physical disabilities. These findings expand our knowledge of the context and implications of engaging in online social activities for people with physical disabilities.

  15. The association between psychological well-being and problematic use of Internet communicative services among young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Silvia; Lecchi, Stefano; Fioravanti, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on problematic Internet use have focused almost exclusively on the fact that presence of negative functioning, such as social anxiety, depressive symptoms, or loneliness, represents a risk factor for unhealthy use of the web. For this reason the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between psychological well-being dimensions and problematic use of Internet communicative services. In the current study 495 undergraduate students were recruited. The Italian adaptations of the Psychological Well-being Scales and the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 (GPIUS2) were used to assess psychological well-being dimensions and generalized problematic Internet use, respectively. Psychological well-being dimensions explained a significant portion of variance for the GPIUS2 total score levels, after controlling for sex, age, and occupational status. The levels of Autonomy, Environmental Mastery, and Positive Relations with Others acted as significant negative predictors of the tendency to use the web for regulating negative feelings, compulsive use of the web, and the negative outcomes that can arise as a result. The overall findings of the present study provide preliminary evidence that low psychological well-being is associated with problematic use of Internet communicative services.

  16. Can psychobiotics intake modulate psychological profile and body composition of women affected by normal weight obese syndrome and obesity? A double blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Antonino; Costacurta, Micaela; Merra, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Paola; Cioccoloni, Giorgia; Marchetti, Massimiliano; Varvaras, Dimitrios; Docimo, Raffaella; Di Renzo, Laura

    2017-06-10

    Evidence of probiotics effects on gut function, brain activity and emotional behaviour were provided. Probiotics can have dramatic effects on behaviour through the microbiome-gut-brain axis, through vagus nerve. We investigated whether chronic probiotic intake could modulate psychological state, eating behaviour and body composition of normal weight obese (NWO) and preobese-obese (PreOB/OB) compared to normal weight lean women (NWL). 60 women were enrolled. At baseline and after a 3-week probiotic oral suspension (POS) intake, all subjects underwent evaluation of body composition by anthropometry and dual X-ray absorptiometry, and psychological profile assessment by self-report questionnaires (i.e. EDI-2, SCL90R and BUT). Statistical analysis was carried out using paired t test or a non-parametric Wilcoxon test to evaluate differences between baseline and after POS intake, one-way ANOVA to compare all three groups and, where applicable, Chi square or t test were used to assess symptoms. Of the 48 women that concluded the study, 24% were NWO, 26% were NWL and 50% were PreOB/OB. Significant differences in body composition were highlighted among groups both at baseline and after a POS (p women. At baseline and after POS intake, all subjects tested were negative to SCL90R_GSI scale, but after treatment subjects positive to BUT_GSI scale were significantly reduced (8.33%) (p women. Further research is needed on a larger population and for a longer period of treatment before definitive conclusions can be made. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Id: NCT01890070.

  17. Chronic diseases among older people and co-resident psychological morbidity: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honyashiki, Mina; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Llibre-Rodrigues, Juan J; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph; Prince, Martin J

    2011-11-01

    This is the first study to investigate the associations between chronic health conditions of older people and their impact on co-resident psychological morbidity using population-based samples in low and middle income countries (LAMICs). Single-phase cross-sectional catchment area surveys were undertaken in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic and Venezuela, and in rural and urban catchment areas in Mexico, Peru, India and China. All residents aged 65 years and over were interviewed with a co-resident key informant. Exposures were structured clinical diagnoses (10/66 and DSM-IV dementia and ICD-10 depression), self-reported diagnosis (stroke) and physical impairments. Mediating variables were dependence and disability (WHODAS 2.0), and the outcome was co-resident psychological morbidity assessed using SRQ-20. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the prevalence ratios (PRs) for the associations between health conditions and psychological morbidity in each site, and meta-analysis was used to pool the estimates. 11,988 pairs comprising a participant and a co-resident informant were included in the analysis. After meta-analysis, independent effects were noted for depression (PR2.11; 95% CI 1.82-2.45), dementia (PR 1.98; 95% CI 1.72-2.28), stroke (PR 1.42; 95% CI 1.17-1.71) and physical impairments (PR 1.17; 95% CI 1.13-1.21). The effects were partly mediated through disability and dependence. The mean population attributable fraction of total chronic conditions was 30.1%. The prevalence of co-resident psychological morbidity is higher among co-residents of older people with chronic conditions. This effect was prominent for, but not confined to, depression and dementia. Attention needs to be directed to chronic conditions.

  18. Healthcare Engagement as a Potential Source of Psychological Distress among People without Religious Beliefs: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Samuel R; Lomax, James W; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2017-04-05

    Research into religion and mental health is increasing, but nonbelievers in terms of religion are often overlooked. Research has shown that nonbelievers experience various forms of psychological distress and that the negative perception of nonbelievers by others is a potential source of distress. This review builds on that research by identifying another potential source of psychological distress for nonbelievers: engagement with the healthcare system. Poor understanding of nonbelievers by healthcare professionals may lead to impaired communication in the healthcare setting, resulting in distress. Attempts by nonbelievers to avoid distress may result in different patterns of healthcare utilization. Awareness of these concerns may help healthcare providers to minimize distress among their nonbelieving patients.

  19. Role of Identity Integration on the Relationship between Perceived Racial Discrimination and Psychological Adjustment of Multiracial People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kelly F.; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Guevarra, Rudy, Jr.; Harrington, Blair A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations between perceived racial discrimination, multiracial identity integration (i.e., racial distance and racial conflict), and psychological adjustment (i.e., distress symptoms, positive affect, and negative affect) of 263 multiracial adults, using an online cross-sectional survey design. As hypothesized, higher levels of…

  20. Review: Understanding barriers to online experience for people with physical and sensory disabilities using discursive social psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon

    2010-01-01

    A significant number of Internet users have physical or sensory disabilities. Work that addresses this group of users, as Bowker’s does, is rare. Bowker founded her work on philosophical, psychological, and linguistic theories, and conducted a qualitative analysis on her data. The paper presents the

  1. A phenomenological study of spontaneous spiritual and paranormal experiences in a 21st-century sample of normal people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Fredrick James

    2012-02-01

    Summary.-This paper presents a phenomenological study using the methodology of Woodard's phenomenological and perceptual research. This method examines individuals' internal meanings during spontaneous spiritual and paranormal experiences, as described from their point of view. A group of 40 adults was phenomenologically interviewed after they responded to a newspaper announcement in New Hampshire asking for volunteers who had had spiritual and paranormal experiences. Using the method, Six Individual Situated Structures and a General Structure were identified and examined. Nine major themes were explicated during the participants' spontaneous experiencing: unexpectedness, contrariness to belief, certainty, contradictory experiencing, language as a barrier to expression, external influences, internal dialogue, evil as separateness, and some social psychological influences. Several themes observed in hypnotic experiencing, such as the characteristics of the Adequate Personality in Perceptual Psychology, are interpreted and discussed. This research illustrates how subjective experience can be adequately researched in a qualitative manner outside the confines of the laboratory setting. Limitations of the study and suggestions for further research are given.

  2. Cumulative increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus with increasing triglyceride glucose index in normal-weight people: The Rural Chinese Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Bingyuan; Liu, Yu; Sun, Xizhuo; Luo, Xinping; Wang, Chongjian; Li, Linlin; Zhang, Lu; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhou, Junmei; Han, Chengyi; Zhao, Jingzhi; Hu, Dongsheng

    2017-03-01

    Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increased in metabolically obese but normal-weight people. However, we have limited knowledge of how to prevent T2DM in normal-weight people. We aimed to evaluate the association between triglyceride glucose (TyG) index and incident T2DM among normal-weight people in rural China. We included data from 5706 people with normal body mass index (BMI) (18.5-23.9 kg/m 2 ) without baseline T2DM in a rural Chinese cohort followed for a median of 6.0 years. A Cox proportional-hazard model was used to assess the risk of incident T2DM by quartiles of TyG index and difference in TyG index between follow-up and baseline (TyG-D), estimating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A generalized additive plot was used to show the nonparametric smoothed exposure-response association between risk of T2DM and TyG index as a continuous variable. TyG was calculated as ln [fasting triglyceride level (mg/dl) × fasting plasma glucose level (mg/dl)/2]. Risk of incident T2DM was increased with quartiles 2, 3 and 4 versus quartile 1 of TyG index (adjusted HR [aHR] 2.48 [95% CI 1.20-5.11], 3.77 [1.83-7.79], and 5.30 [2.21-12.71], P trend  index). Risk of incident T2DM was increased with quartile 4 versus quartile 1 of TyG-D (aHR 3.91 [2.22-6.87]). The results were consistent when analyses were restricted to participants without baseline metabolic syndrome and impaired fasting glucose level. The generalized additive plot showed cumulative increased risk of T2DM with increasing TyG index. Risk of incident T2DM is increased with increasing TyG index among rural Chinese people, so the index might be an important indicator for identifying people at high risk of T2DM.

  3. The effect of randomised exposure to different types of natural outdoor environments compared to exposure to an urban environment on people with indications of psychological distress in Catalonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Triguero-Mas

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have reported associations between short-term exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE and health benefits. However, they lack insight into mechanisms, often have low external and ecological validity, and have rarely focused on people with some psycho-physiological affection. The aim of this study was to use a randomized, case-crossover design to investigate: (i the effects of unconstrained exposure to real natural and urban environments on psycho-physiological indicators of people with indications of psychological distress, (ii the possible differential effects of 30 and 30+180 minutes exposures, and (iii the possible mechanisms explaining these effects.People (n = 26 with indications of psychological distress were exposed to green (Collserola Natural Park, blue (Castelldefels beach and urban (Eixample neighbourhood environments in Catalonia. They were exposed to all environments in groups for a period of 30+180 minutes between October 2013 and January 2014. During the exposure period, participants were instructed to do what they would usually do in that environment. Before, during (at 30 and 30+180 minutes and after each exposure, several psycho-physiological measures were taken: mood (measured as Total Mood Disturbance, TMD, attention capacity (measured as backwards digit-span task, stress levels (measures as salivary cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, autonomous nervous system (assessed as heart rate variability and the indicators: low frequency power (LF, high frequency power (HF, ratio between LF and HF (LF:HF, and coefficients of component variance of LF, HF, and LF:HF. We also measured several potential mediators: air pollution, noise, physical activity, social interactions, and self-perceived restoration experience.When compared with responses to urban environment, we found statistically significantly lower TMD [-4.78 (-7.77, -1.79 points difference], and salivary cortisol [-0.21 (-0

  4. Skin flora: Differences between people affected by Albinism and those with normally pigmented skin in Northern Tanzania - cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprono, Samson K; Masenga, John E; Chaula, Baraka M; Naafs, Bernard

    2012-07-30

    Skin flora varies from one site of the body to another. Individual's health, age and gender determine the type and the density of skin flora. A 1  cm² of the skin on the sternum was rubbed with sterile cotton swab socked in 0.9% normal saline and plated on blood agar. This was cultured at 35 °C. The bacteria were identified by culturing on MacConkey agar, coagulase test, catalase test and gram staining. Swabs were obtained from 66 individuals affected by albinism and 31 individuals with normal skin pigmentation. Those with normal skin were either relatives or staying with the individuals affected by albinism who were recruited for the study. The mean age of the 97 recruited individuals was 30.6 (SD ± 14.9) years. The mean of the colony forming units was 1580.5 per cm2. Those affected by albinism had a significantly higher mean colony forming units (1680  CFU per cm²) as compared with 453.5  CFU per cm² in those with normally pigmented skin (p = 0.023). The skin type and the severity of sun- damaged skin was significantly associated with a higher number of colony forming units (p = 0.038). Individuals affected by albinism have a higher number of colony forming units which is associated with sun- damaged skin.

  5. Healthcare Engagement as a Potential Source of Psychological Distress among People without Religious Beliefs: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel R. Weber

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research into religion and mental health is increasing, but nonbelievers in terms of religion are often overlooked. Research has shown that nonbelievers experience various forms of psychological distress and that the negative perception of nonbelievers by others is a potential source of distress. This review builds on that research by identifying another potential source of psychological distress for nonbelievers: engagement with the healthcare system. Poor understanding of nonbelievers by healthcare professionals may lead to impaired communication in the healthcare setting, resulting in distress. Attempts by nonbelievers to avoid distress may result in different patterns of healthcare utilization. Awareness of these concerns may help healthcare providers to minimize distress among their nonbelieving patients.

  6. Psychological well-being of people living with HIV/AIDS under the new epidemic characteristics in China and the risk factors: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Wu, Ming; Qu, Peng; Lu, Chunming; Wang, Lie

    2014-11-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic in China is growing and the main transmission mode has changed from contaminated blood products to sexual contact. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of anxiety (SAS; Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale) and depression (CES-D; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) under the new epidemic characteristics and to examine associated factors. The sample size (N=800) was calculated on the basis of the lowest prevalence of psychological disorders among PLWHA and was enlarged taking into consideration a loss of response. Participants were sampled randomly among all PLWHA registered in Liaoning Province. Questionnaires pertaining to the SAS, CES-D, and related factors were distributed between December 2010 and April 2011; 772 effective responses were received. The prevalence of anxiety (SAS ≥40) and depression (CES-D ≥16) were 49.0% and 73.1%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that SAS was associated with self-rated health, condom use at the last sexual contact, perceived social support, alcohol consumption, and transmission; CES-D was associated with self-rated health, perceived social support, job, and sex. PLWHA under the new epidemic characteristics in China suffer from serious psychological problems. To improve their psychological well-being, efforts should be focused on improving perceptions of their health condition and increasing perceived social support.

  7. [System and anthropological analysis of psychology of loneliness of the people enduring social isolation (on the example of prisoners in the prisons of East Kazakhstan)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizatullina, A G

    2014-02-01

    This article contains the material reflecting the results of the author's theoretical analysis of the loneliness phenomenon and an empirical study of its features in a particular social group - the prisoners. The analysis focused from the point of system-anthropological approach, actively developed by a group of Siberian scientists, considering the whole loneliness and loneliness of people who are hold at forced social isolation as a kind of integrity loss. The study accounted for age and gender differences in this population group. The research was conducted in the East Kazakhstan region of the Republic of Kazakhstan during 2007-2012. There was used a range of experimental psychological research methods in this study. Empirical research has shown that our hypothetical assumptions about the senses experience of loneliness in terms of system- anthropological psychology is justified. Identified indicators of the social isolation degree between prisoners in both gender groups were significantly higher in comparison with representative comparison groups. Manifestations of imbalance personal qualities male and female prisoners was confirmed the results obtained by the method of APDP, demonstrated a significant excess severity scales for pessimism , emotional lability , impulsivity, and anxiety. Most respondents in both gender groups of prisoners compared to general population showed a pronounced tendency to increased anxiety and depression , that indicates the negative effects of loneliness on the patients psychological status. This is confirmed by a statistically significant excess of the anxiety level and depression in both gender groups of prisoners.

  8. Effects of experience-based group therapy on cognitive and physical functions and psychological symptoms of elderly people with mild dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwan-Hee

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of experience-based group therapy consisting of cooking and physical activities for elderly people with mild dementia on their cognitive and physical function, as well as on their psychological symptoms. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 12 older adults with mild dementia (3 males, 9 females; 76.75 ± 3.61 years) who voluntarily consented to participate in the study. [Methods] In total, 12 subjects received experience-based group therapy for 2 hours per session once per week, totaling 10 sessions. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination-Korean (MMSE-K), and physical function was evaluated using the Geriatric Physical health condition measurement Tool (GPT). The Geriatric Depression Scale Korean Version (GDS-K) and Geriatric Quality of Life-Dementia (GQOL-D) were used to measure psychological symptoms. [Results] There were significant differences between the MMSE-K, GPT, GDS-K, and GQOL-D scores of before and after group therapy. [Conclusion] In conclusion, it is regarded that cognitive function, physical function, and psychological health improved through experience-based group therapy.

  9. CONFIRMATION OF THE BASIC PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS IN EXERCISE SCALE (BPNES WITH A SAMPLE OF PEOPLE WHO DO HEALTHY EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Moreno-Murcia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to cross-validate the psychometric properties of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES by Vlachopoulos and Michailidou, 2006 in a Spanish context. Two studies were conducted. Confirmatory factor analysis results confirmed the hypothesized three-factor solution In addition, we documented evidence of reliability, analysed as internal consistency and temporal stability. Future studies should analyse the scale's validity and reliability with different populations and check their experimental effect

  10. Are people living next to mobile phone base stations more strained? Relationship of health concerns, self-estimated distance to base station, and psychological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augner, Christoph; Hacker, Gerhard W

    2009-12-01

    Coeval with the expansion of mobile phone technology and the associated obvious presence of mobile phone base stations, some people living close to these masts reported symptoms they attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Public and scientific discussions arose with regard to whether these symptoms were due to EMF or were nocebo effects. The aim of this study was to find out if people who believe that they live close to base stations show psychological or psychobiological differences that would indicate more strain or stress. Furthermore, we wanted to detect the relevant connections linking self-estimated distance between home and the next mobile phone base station (DBS), daily use of mobile phone (MPU), EMF-health concerns, electromagnetic hypersensitivity, and psychological strain parameters. Fifty-seven participants completed standardized and non-standardized questionnaires that focused on the relevant parameters. In addition, saliva samples were used as an indication to determine the psychobiological strain by concentration of alpha-amylase, cortisol, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and substance P. Self-declared base station neighbors (DBS base station neighbors are more strained than others. EMF-related health concerns cannot explain these findings. Further research should identify if actual EMF exposure or other factors are responsible for these results.

  11. State anxiety, psychological stress and positive well-being responses to yoga and aerobic exercise in people with schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Hert, Marc; Knapen, Jan; Wampers, Martien; Demunter, Hella; Deckx, Seppe; Maurissen, Katrien; Probst, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Worsening of schizophrenia symptoms is related to stress and anxiety. People with schizophrenia often experience difficulties in coping with stress and possess a limited repertoire of coping strategies. A randomised comparative trial was undertaken in patients with schizophrenia to evaluate changes in state anxiety, psychological stress and subjective well-being after single sessions of yoga and aerobic exercise compared with a control condition. Forty participants performed a single 30-min yoga session, 20-min of aerobic exercise on a bicycle ergometre at self-selected intensity and a 20-min no exercise control condition in random order. After single sessions of yoga and aerobic exercise individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder showed significantly decreased state anxiety (p stress (p exercise control condition. Effect sizes ranged from 0.82 for psychological stress after aerobic exercise to 1.01 for state anxiety after yoga. The magnitude of the changes did not differ significantly between yoga and aerobic exercise. People with schizophrenia and physiotherapists can choose either yoga or aerobic exercise in reducing acute stress and anxiety taking into account the personal preference of each individual.

  12. How Do People Become W.E.I.R.D.? Migration Reveals the Cultural Transmission Mechanisms Underlying Variation in Psychological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; Magid, Kesson; Hussain, Delwar

    2016-01-01

    Cultural psychologists have shown that people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD) countries often exhibit different psychological processing to people from less-WEIRD countries. The former exhibit more individualistic and less collectivistic social orientation, and more analytic and less holistic cognition, than non-Westerners. Yet the mechanisms responsible for maintaining this cultural variation are unclear. Immigration is an ideal 'natural experiment' for uncovering such mechanisms. We used a battery of psychological measures previously shown to vary cross-culturally to compare the social orientation and cognitive style of 286 residents of East London from three cultural backgrounds: (i) 1st-generation British Bangladeshi immigrants; (ii) 2nd-generation British Bangladeshis raised in the UK to Bangladeshi-raised parents; and (iii) non-migrants whose parents were born and raised in the UK. Model comparison revealed that individualism and dispositional attribution, typical of Western societies, are driven primarily by horizontal cultural transmission (e.g. via mass media), with parents and other family members having little or no effect, while collectivism, social closeness and situational attribution were driven by a mix of vertical/oblique cultural transmission (e.g. via family contact) and horizontal cultural transmission. These individual-level transmission dynamics can explain hitherto puzzling population-level phenomena, such as the partial acculturation of 2nd-generation immigrants on measures such as collectivism (due to the mix of vertical and horizontal cultural transmission), or the observation in several countries of increasing individualism (which is transmitted horizontally and therefore rapidly) despite little corresponding change in collectivism (which is transmitted partly vertically and therefore more slowly). Further consideration of cultural transmission mechanisms, in conjunction with the study of migrant

  13. Psychological Treatment of Depression in People Aged 65 Years and Over: A Systematic Review of Efficacy, Safety, and Cost-Effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Jonsson

    Full Text Available Depression in elderly people is a major public health concern. As response to antidepressants is often unsatisfactory in this age group, there is a need for evidence-based non-pharmacological treatment options. Our objectives were twofold: firstly, to synthesize published trials evaluating efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of psychological treatment of depression in the elderly and secondly, to assess the quality of evidence.The electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAL, Scopus, and PsycINFO were searched up to 23 May 2016 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs of psychological treatment for depressive disorders or depressive symptoms in people aged 65 years and over. Two reviewers independently assessed relevant studies for risk of bias. Where appropriate, the results were synthesized in meta-analyses. The quality of the evidence was graded according to GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation.Twenty-two relevant RCTs were identified, eight of which were excluded from the synthesis due to a high risk of bias. Of the remaining trials, six evaluated problem-solving therapy (PST, five evaluated other forms of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT, and three evaluated life review/reminiscence therapy. In frail elderly with depressive symptoms, the evidence supported the efficacy of PST, with large but heterogeneous effect sizes compared with treatment as usual. The results for life-review/reminiscence therapy and CBT were also promising, but because of the limited number of trials the quality of evidence was rated as very low. Safety data were not reported in any included trial. The only identified cost-effectiveness study estimated an incremental cost per additional point reduction in Beck Depression Inventory II score for CBT compared with talking control and treatment as usual.Psychological treatment is a feasible option for frail elderly with depressive symptoms. However, important questions

  14. How Do People Become W.E.I.R.D.? Migration Reveals the Cultural Transmission Mechanisms Underlying Variation in Psychological Processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mesoudi

    Full Text Available Cultural psychologists have shown that people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD countries often exhibit different psychological processing to people from less-WEIRD countries. The former exhibit more individualistic and less collectivistic social orientation, and more analytic and less holistic cognition, than non-Westerners. Yet the mechanisms responsible for maintaining this cultural variation are unclear. Immigration is an ideal 'natural experiment' for uncovering such mechanisms. We used a battery of psychological measures previously shown to vary cross-culturally to compare the social orientation and cognitive style of 286 residents of East London from three cultural backgrounds: (i 1st-generation British Bangladeshi immigrants; (ii 2nd-generation British Bangladeshis raised in the UK to Bangladeshi-raised parents; and (iii non-migrants whose parents were born and raised in the UK. Model comparison revealed that individualism and dispositional attribution, typical of Western societies, are driven primarily by horizontal cultural transmission (e.g. via mass media, with parents and other family members having little or no effect, while collectivism, social closeness and situational attribution were driven by a mix of vertical/oblique cultural transmission (e.g. via family contact and horizontal cultural transmission. These individual-level transmission dynamics can explain hitherto puzzling population-level phenomena, such as the partial acculturation of 2nd-generation immigrants on measures such as collectivism (due to the mix of vertical and horizontal cultural transmission, or the observation in several countries of increasing individualism (which is transmitted horizontally and therefore rapidly despite little corresponding change in collectivism (which is transmitted partly vertically and therefore more slowly. Further consideration of cultural transmission mechanisms, in conjunction with the study of

  15. How Do People Become W.E.I.R.D.? Migration Reveals the Cultural Transmission Mechanisms Underlying Variation in Psychological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; Magid, Kesson; Hussain, Delwar

    2016-01-01

    Cultural psychologists have shown that people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD) countries often exhibit different psychological processing to people from less-WEIRD countries. The former exhibit more individualistic and less collectivistic social orientation, and more analytic and less holistic cognition, than non-Westerners. Yet the mechanisms responsible for maintaining this cultural variation are unclear. Immigration is an ideal ‘natural experiment’ for uncovering such mechanisms. We used a battery of psychological measures previously shown to vary cross-culturally to compare the social orientation and cognitive style of 286 residents of East London from three cultural backgrounds: (i) 1st-generation British Bangladeshi immigrants; (ii) 2nd-generation British Bangladeshis raised in the UK to Bangladeshi-raised parents; and (iii) non-migrants whose parents were born and raised in the UK. Model comparison revealed that individualism and dispositional attribution, typical of Western societies, are driven primarily by horizontal cultural transmission (e.g. via mass media), with parents and other family members having little or no effect, while collectivism, social closeness and situational attribution were driven by a mix of vertical/oblique cultural transmission (e.g. via family contact) and horizontal cultural transmission. These individual-level transmission dynamics can explain hitherto puzzling population-level phenomena, such as the partial acculturation of 2nd-generation immigrants on measures such as collectivism (due to the mix of vertical and horizontal cultural transmission), or the observation in several countries of increasing individualism (which is transmitted horizontally and therefore rapidly) despite little corresponding change in collectivism (which is transmitted partly vertically and therefore more slowly). Further consideration of cultural transmission mechanisms, in conjunction with the study of migrant

  16. The psychometric properties of the Chinese version-reintegration to normal living index (C-RNLI) for identifying participation restriction among community-dwelling frail older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Justina Yat-Wa; Ma, Ka Wai

    2017-01-31

    The Reintegration to Normal Living Index (RNLI) was developed to measure reintegration to normal living after major traumas/illnesses. Its psychometric properties remain unknown when used to measure participation restriction under the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (WHO-ICF) framework. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Chinese version-RNLI to measure WHO-ICF participation restriction among community-dwelling pre-frail and frail older people. A cross-sectional study was conducted in community and day-care centres in Hong Kong between May 2015 and January 2016. Through face-to-face interviews, information was collected on the participants' demographic background, medical history, frailty status, depressive mood, functional performance in daily activities, and participation restriction. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct and convergent validity of the C-RNLI were assessed. Two hundred and ninety-nine pre-frail or frail community-dwelling older people with a mean age of 79.53 were recruited. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the C-RNLI has a two-factor structure comprised of "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events". The test-retest coefficient was 0.71. The Cronbach's alpha of the total C-RNLI score, and those of the factors "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events" were 0.88, 0.82 and 0.84, respectively. Pre-frail older people had significantly higher scores for the factors "participation in physical activities" (z = -5.05, older people. Older people from community centres had significantly higher scores for the factors "participation in physical activities" (z = -4.48, older people from day-care centres. The factors "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events" of the C-RNLI were significantly convergent with depressive mood (r s  = -0

  17. Predictors of unmet needs and psychological distress in adolescent and young adult siblings of people diagnosed with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, F E J; Patterson, P; White, K J; Butow, P; Bell, M L

    2015-03-01

    Predictors of psychological distress and unmet needs amongst adolescents and young adults (AYAs) who have a brother or sister diagnosed with cancer were examined. There were 106 AYAs (12-24 years old) who completed questionnaires covering demographics, psychological distress (Kessler 10), unmet needs (Sibling Cancer Needs Instrument) and family relationships (Family Relationship Index; Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire; Sibling Perception Questionnaire (SPQ)). Three models were analysed (demographic variables, cancer-specific variables and family functioning variables) using multiple linear regression to determine the role of the variables in predicting psychological distress and unmet needs. Unmet needs were higher for AYA siblings when treatment was current or a relapse had occurred. Higher scores on the SPQ-Interpersonal subscale indicating a perceived decrease in the quality of relationships with parents and others were associated with higher levels of distress and unmet needs. The age and gender of the AYA sibling, whether it was their brother or sister who was diagnosed with cancer, the age difference between them, the number of parents living with the AYA sibling, parental birth country, time since diagnosis, Family Relationship Index, Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire and the SPQ-Communication subscale did not significantly impact outcome variables. These results highlight the variables that can assist in identifying AYA siblings of cancer patients who are at risk and have a greater need for psychosocial assistance. Variables that may be associated with increased distress and unmet needs are reported to assist with future research. The results are also useful in informing the development of targeted psychosocial support for AYA siblings of cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A Pilot Study of the Psychological Impact of the Mindfulness-Based Stress-Reduction Program On People Who Stutter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Veer, S.; Brouwers, A.; Evers, W.; Tomic, W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In general, people who stutter feel hampered in their communication with others and suffer from stress and anxiety when they have to speak. The Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program has proved to be successful in reducing stress, fear and anxiety in many studies involving a

  19. Evaluation of normal values of Ca-15-3 and PSA for the people of Northern State of Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bafaraj, S.M.I.

    2007-06-01

    In this study blood samples were collected from 665 female from Northern State of Sudan, 606 of those females are married and only 59 females are singles. These samples were used to estimate the normal CA 15-3 which was found to be similar to the international one and that is ranged from zero to 35 mlu/ml. When the same techniques were used using samples collected from patients who have been clinically diagnosed as breast cancer, CA 15-3 levels were found to be higher in most of these samples and the other finding is that the risk of getting breast cancer is starting from age 25 years. On the other hand , 650 males were participated in this study to estimate normal value of PSA, of them 553 were married. And again the levels estimated for this marker was found to be the same as that used globally which is ranged from zero to four ng/ml. When blood samples from prostate patients were assayed for PSA, the results showed high levels of this marker in almost all the samples as expected but the important finding is that prostate cancer is age depend. At the end of the project, many recommendations highlighted to be considered in the near future.(Author)

  20. Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in people living with HIV in Resource poor settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Ruth; Chibanda, Dixon; Brakarsh, Jonathan; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is pervasive in low- and middle-income countries. There is evidence to suggest that post-traumatic stress disorder is more common among people living with HIV than non-infected matched controls. We carried out a systematic review of interventions for adult post-traumatic stress disorder from resource poor settings with a focus on people living with HIV. We included all studies that investigated interventions for adult post-traumatic stress disorder from resource poor settings with a focus on interventions that were either randomised controlled trials or observational cohort studies carried out from 1980 to May 2015. Of the 25 articles that were identified for full review, two independent reviewers identified seven studies that met our study inclusion criteria. All randomised controlled trials (RCT) (n = 6) used cognitive behavioural therapy-based interventions and focused on people living with HIV in resource poor settings. There was only one study focusing on the use of lay counsellors to address post-traumatic stress disorder but core competencies were not described. There were no intervention studies from Africa, only an observational cohort study from Rwanda. Rigorously evaluated interventions for adult post-traumatic stress disorder in people living with HIV are rare. Most were undertaken in resource poor settings located in high-income countries. There is a need for research on the development and implementation of appropriate interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in people living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The nature and structure of psychological distress in people at high risk for melanoma: a factor analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparian, Nadine A; Sansom-Daly, Ursula; McDonald, Roderick P; Meiser, Bettina; Butow, Phyllis N; Mann, Graham J

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of two commonly used measures of psychological distress, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Impact of Events Scale (IES) in a sample of individuals at high risk of developing melanoma due to strong family history. One hundred thirty-two individuals with a known family-specific CDKN2A mutation (74% response rate) completed a mailed, self-administered questionnaire including the HADS and the IES. Initial correlational analyses were followed by both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, according to a predetermined procedure for order of analyses. Exploratory factor analyses found that neither a two-, three- or four-factor solution satisfactorily accounted for all IES items in the present sample. By contrast, a unidimensional account of the data emerged to best account for all IES items, leaving no items unaccounted for. In contrast, the traditional two-factor (anxiety and depression) structure of the HADS appeared to fit the data well. The traditional, two-factor (intrusion and avoidance) structure of the IES was not borne out within this familial melanoma cohort. Assessment of a single dimension of emotional distress in response to melanoma risk may facilitate more meaningful explorations of psychological adjustment in this context. These findings also raise questions about whether a post-traumatic stress framework is indeed the most appropriate framework to capture the unique nature of melanoma- or cancer-related distress. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. of psychological stress (ID 1598, 1601), maintenance of normal sleep (ID 1222, 1737, 2004) and reduction of menstrual discomfort (ID 1599) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to L-theanine from Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (tea) and improvement of cognitive function, alleviation of psychological stress, maintenance of normal sleep and reduction of menstrual discomfort. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States...

  3. Using self-efficacy theory to develop interventions that help older people overcome psychological barriers to physical activity: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ling-Ling; Arthur, Antony; Avis, Mark

    2008-11-01

    Only a fifth of older people undertake a level of physical activity sufficient to lead to health benefit. Misconceptions about the ageing process and beliefs about the costs and benefits of exercise in late life may result in unnecessary self-imposed activity restriction. Thus, adhering to a physical activity can be difficult particularly when the benefits of exercise are often not immediate. Many of the barriers to engaging in physical activity among older people are attitudinal. It is therefore important to take account of the non-physical aspects of physical activity intervention programmes, such as increasing confidence. Self-efficacy is a widely applied theory used to understand health behaviour and facilitate behavioural modification, such as the increase of physical activity. This paper aims to examine the ways in which self-efficacy theory might be used in intervention programmes designed to overcome psychological barriers for increasing physical activity among older people. A number of studies have demonstrated that exercise self-efficacy is strongly associated with the amount of physical activity undertaken. Evidence from some trials supports the view that incorporating the theory of self-efficacy into the design of a physical activity intervention is beneficial. Physical activity interventions aimed at improving the self perception of exercise self-efficacy can have positive effects on confidence and the ability to initiate and maintain physical activity behaviour. There are a number of ways for nurses to facilitate older people to draw on the four information sources of self-efficacy: performance accomplishments, vicarious learning, verbal encouragement, and physiological and affective states. Research challenges that future studies need to address include the generalisability of exercise setting, the role of age as an effect modifier, and the need for more explicit reporting of how self-efficacy is operationalised in interventions.

  4. Undetectable plasma viral load predicts normal survival in HIV-2-infected people in a West African village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricard Dominique

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been no previous studies of the long-term survival and temporal changes in plasma viral load among HIV-2 infected subjects. Methods 133 HIV-2 infected and 158 HIV-uninfected subjects from a rural area in North-west Guinea-Bissau, West Africa were enrolled into a prospective cohort study in 1991 and followed-up to mid-2009. Data were collected on four occasions during that period on HIV antibodies, CD4% and HIV-2 plasma viral load. Results Median age (interquartile range [IQR] of HIV-2 infected subjects at time of enrollment was 47 (36, 60 years, similar to that of HIV-uninfected control subjects, 49 (38, 62 (p = 0.4. Median (IQR plasma viral load and CD4 percentage were 347 (50, 4,300 copies/ml and 29 (22, 35 respectively. Overall loss to follow-up to assess vital status was small, at 6.7% and 6.3% for HIV-2 infected and uninfected subjects respectively. An additional 17 (12.8% and 16 (10.1% of HIV-2 infected and uninfected subjects respectively were censored during follow-up due to infection with HIV-1. The mortality rate per 100 person-years (95% CI was 4.5 (3.6, 5.8 among HIV-2 infected subjects compared to 2.1 (1.6, 2.9 among HIV-uninfected (age-sex adjusted rate ratio 1.9 (1.3, 2.8, p Viral load measurements were available for 98%, 78%, 77% and 61% HIV-2 infected subjects who were alive and had not become super-infected with HIV-1, in 1991, 1996, 2003 and 2006 respectively. Median plasma viral load (RNA copies per ml (IQR did not change significantly over time, being 150 (50, 1,554; n = 77 in 1996, 203 (50, 2,837; n = 47 in 2003 and 171 (50, 497; n = 31 in 2006. Thirty seven percent of HIV-2 subjects had undetectable viraemia ( Conclusions A substantial proportion of HIV-2 infected subjects in this cohort have stable plasma viral load, and those with an undetectable viral load (37% at study entry had a normal survival rate. However, the sequential laboratory findings need to be interpreted with caution given

  5. Implementing monitoring technologies in care homes for people with dementia: A qualitative exploration using Normalization Process Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alex; Wilson, Christine Brown; Stanmore, Emma; Todd, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Ageing societies and a rising prevalence of dementia are associated with increasing demand for care home places. Monitoring technologies (e.g. bed-monitoring systems; wearable location-tracking devices) are appealing to care homes as they may enhance safety, increase resident freedom, and reduce staff burden. However, there are ethical concerns about the use of such technologies, and it is unclear how they might be implemented to deliver their full range of potential benefits. This study explored facilitators and barriers to the implementation of monitoring technologies in care homes. Embedded multiple-case study with qualitative methods. Three dementia-specialist care homes in North-West England. Purposive sample of 24 staff (including registered nurses, clinical specialists, senior managers and care workers), 9 relatives and 9 residents. 36 semi-structured interviews with staff, relatives and residents; 175h of observation; resident care record review. Data collection informed by Normalization Process Theory, which seeks to account for how novel interventions become routine practice. Data analysed using Framework Analysis. Findings are presented under three main themes: 1. Reasons for using technologies: The primary reason for using monitoring technologies was to enhance safety. This often seemed to override consideration of other potential benefits (e.g. increased resident freedom) or ethical concerns (e.g. resident privacy); 2. Ways in which technologies were implemented: Some staff, relatives and residents were not involved in discussions and decision-making, which seemed to limit understandings of the potential benefits and challenges from the technologies. Involvement of residents appeared particularly challenging. Staff highlighted the importance of training, but staff training appeared mainly informal which did not seem sufficient to ensure that staff fully understood the technologies; 3. Use of technologies in practice: Technologies generated frequent

  6. Comparison of visual working memory in deaf and hearing-impaired students with normal counterparts: A research in people without sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Tangestani Zadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The hearing defects in deaf and hearing-impaired students also affect their cognitive skills such as memory in addition to communication skills. Hence, the aim of this study was to compare visual working memory in deaf and hearing-impaired students with that in normal counterparts.Method: In the present study, which was a causal-comparative study using the André Rey test, 30 deaf and 30 hearing-impaired students were compared with 30 students in a normal group, and they were matched based on gender, intelligence, educational grade, and socioeconomic status.Findings: Findings show that there is significant difference between the three groups’ subjects (p0.05.Conclusion: Function of deaf or hard-of-hearing students in the visual working memory task was weaker in comparison with the normal counterparts, while the two deaf and hard-of-hearing groups have similar functions. With a better identification and understanding of the factors that affect the development of this cognitive ability, we can offer new methods of teaching and reduce many of the disadvantages of this group of people in the different fields of cognitive science.

  7. The effectiveness of simple psychological and exercise interventions for high prevalence mental health problems in young people: a factorial randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moller Bridget

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of mental illness in young people is the highest of any age group, with the onset of depression, anxiety and substance use peaking between 18 and 24 years. Effective treatments that target sub-threshold or mild to moderate levels of disorder in young people are required to reduce the risk of persistence and recurrence. The aims of this study are to evaluate whether treatments that are less intensive than cognitive-behaviour therapy, such as problem solving therapy and exercise treatments, are acceptable and effective in managing depression and anxiety symptoms in young people and to identify possible attributes in those who are likely to respond to these treatments. Methods/design This is a factorial randomised controlled trial conducted at a large, metropolitan youth mental health service. Participants are young help-seekers aged 15-25 years with sub-threshold or mild to moderate levels of depression and anxiety (with or without comorbid substance use. The interventions comprise 4 treatment combinations delivered by psychologists over 6 sessions on a weekly basis: a psychological intervention (problem solving therapy versus supportive counselling and an exercise intervention (behavioural exercise versus psychoeducation. Structured assessments occur at baseline, mid-point, end-point (6 weeks and at a 6- and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcomes are depression and anxiety symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Secondary outcomes include remission (defined as no longer meeting the diagnostic criteria for a disorder if threshold level was reached at baseline, or no longer scoring in the clinical range on scale scores if sub-threshold at baseline, substance use, and functioning. Discussion The effectiveness of less complex psychological and exercise interventions in young help-seekers with sub-threshold or mild to moderate presentations of high prevalence disorders is yet to be

  8. The effectiveness of the training of the positive psychology on the growth of devotion and trust to the life in the normal women of bafq city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan ZareeiMahmoodAbadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was the considering of the impression of the positive couple-therapy on the increasing the life expectancy and marriage closeness of the normal women in Bafq. The way & kind of the quasi-experimental was pre-test –post-test with the group of control. The sample included thirty (30 people that were chosen to target . & were put on the two groups of experiment &control to random .each two groups on the level pre-test completed the life expectancy questionnaire of the Schneider and marriage closeness of the walker & tompson .Then, for the experiment al group is done eight session for two hours . About positive teaching. And finally, After execution, each two questionnaire was done by groups of experiment & control as post-test. For analysis of test data , was used the way of analysis statistical of covariance it showed that positive is effective on the increasing al life expectancy and marriage closeness. : Positive teaching , life expectancy , marriage closeness ,women.

  9. Normalizing the Supernormal: The Formation of the “Gesellschaft Für Psychologische Forschung” (“Society for Psychological Research”), c. 1886–1890

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces the formation of the German “Gesellschaft für psychologische Forschung” (“Society for Psychological Research”), whose constitutive branches in Munich and Berlin were originally founded as inlets for alternatives to Wundtian experimental psychology from France and England, that is, experimental researches into hypnotism and alleged supernormal phenomena. By utilizing the career trajectories of Max Dessoir and Albert von Schrenck-Notzing as founding members of the “Gesellschaft,” this paper aims to open up novel perspectives regarding extra-scientific factors involved in historically determining the epistemological and methodological boundaries of nascent psychology in Germany. PMID:23169462

  10. Skeletal muscle neuronal nitric oxide synthase micro protein is reduced in people with impaired glucose homeostasis and is not normalized by exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Scott J; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Canny, Benedict J; McConell, Glenn K

    2007-10-01

    Skeletal muscle inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) protein is greatly elevated in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas endothelial NOS is at normal levels. Diabetic rat studies suggest that skeletal muscle neuronal NOS (nNOS) micro protein expression may be reduced in human insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein expression is reduced in people with impaired glucose homeostasis and whether exercise training increases nNOSmicro protein expression in these individuals because exercise training increases skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein in rats. Seven people with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) and 7 matched (sex, age, fitness, body mass index, blood pressure, lipid profile) healthy controls aged 36 to 60 years participated in this study. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies for nNOSmicro protein determination were obtained, aerobic fitness was measured (peak pulmonary oxygen uptake [Vo(2) peak]), and glucose tolerance and insulin homeostasis were assessed before and after 1 and 4 weeks of cycling exercise training (60% Vo(2) peak, 50 minutes x 5 d wk(-1)). Skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein was significantly lower (by 32%) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes compared with that in controls before training (17.7 +/- 1.2 vs 26.2 +/- 3.4 arbitrary units, P glucose homeostasis have reduced skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein content. However, because exercise training improves insulin sensitivity without influencing skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein expression, it seems that changes in skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein are not central to the control of insulin sensitivity in humans and therefore may be a consequence rather than a cause of diabetes.

  11. Predictors of non-pharmacological intervention effect on cognitive function and behavioral and psychological symptoms of older people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ting-Jung; Tsai, Hui-Te; Hwang, An-Chun; Chen, Liang-Yu; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2017-04-01

    Our previous work showed that non-pharmacological interventions could effectively reduce the severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), while the factors influencing the effect of intervention were less explored. Therefore, the main purpose of the present study was to investigate the predictors of the non-pharmacological intervention effect for old veterans with dementia and BPSD. A total of 141 old veterans with dementia living in two veterans' homes in northern Taiwan were recruited. The participants received an organized non-pharmacological intervention program of physical activity/exercise, music therapy, reality orientation, art therapy, reminiscence therapy and horticultural therapy once every week for 6 months. All participants were evaluated by the Barthel Index, Lawton-Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI), and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia before and after the intervention. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with improvement/maintenance of cognition (measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination), and improvement of BPSD (measured by NPI) and its subdomains during the intervention period. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the improvement/maintenance of cognitive function was independently associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score at baseline (odds ratio [OR] 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.97, P = 0.008), whereas participants with antipsychotic use were less likely to gain the effect (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.17-1.04, P = 0.061). In addition, the improvement of BPSD was associated with a higher baseline total NPI score (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.15-1.55, P < 0.001), and the result was consistent in different NPI subdomains (psychotic domain: OR 1.96, 95% CI 0.83-4.58, P = 0.123; affective domain: OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.25-2.13, P < 0.001; behavior domain: OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.53-3.30, P < 0

  12. Functional social support, psychological capital, and depressive and anxiety symptoms among people living with HIV/AIDS employed full-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Pang, Ran; Sun, Wei; Wu, Ming; Qu, Peng; Lu, Chunming; Wang, Lie

    2013-12-01

    Psychological distress (e.g., depression and anxiety) has been regarded as the main cause of leaving work for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in workplaces. This study aims to explore the associations of functional social support (FSS) and psychological capital (PC) with depressive and anxiety symptoms among PLWHA employed full-time. This cross-sectional study was performed in Liaoning, China, during the period of December 2010-April 2011. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire, and the Psychological Capital Questionnaire were completed by PLWHA employed full-time. Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed relationships between variables. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were performed to explore the mediating roles of PC and its components (self-efficacy, hope, optimism, resilience). Of 320 participants surveyed, 66.3% had depressive symptoms, and 45.6% had anxiety symptoms. Significant negative associations of FSS and PC with depressive and anxiety symptoms were revealed. PC (a*b = -0.209, BCa 95% CI: -0.293, -0.137, p < 0.05), hope (a*b = -0.103, BCa 95% CI: -0.192, -0.034, p < 0.05), and optimism (a*b = -0.047, BCa 95% CI: -0.106, -0.008, p < 0.05) significantly mediated the association between FSS and depressive symptoms. PC (a*b = -0.151, BCa 95% CI: -0.224, -0.095, p < 0.05) and self-efficacy (a*b = -0.080, BCa 95% CI: -0.158, -0.012, p < 0.05) significantly mediated the FSS-anxiety symptoms association. FSS and PC could help reduce depressive and anxiety symptoms among PLWHA employed full-time. PC fully mediates the associations of FSS with depressive and anxiety symptoms. In addition to enhancing FSS, PC development could be included in the prevention and treatment strategies for depressive and anxiety symptoms targeted at PLWHA employed full-time.

  13. Effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving physical and psychological outcomes of fall-related injuries in people with dementia: a narrative systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Robalino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The annual prevalence of falls in people with dementia ranges from 47 to 90%. Falls are a common reason for hospital admission in people with dementia, and there is limited research evidence regarding the care pathways experienced by this population. In addition to immediate management of an injury, prevention of further falls is likely to be an important part of any successful intervention. This review aims to assess the effectiveness of interventions for improving the physical and psychological wellbeing of people with dementia who have sustained a fall-related injury. Methods Systematic review methodologies were employed utilising searches across multiple databases (MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Health Management Information Consortium, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro and citation chaining. Studies including people with a known diagnosis of dementia living in the community and who present at health services with a fall, with or without injury, were included. Outcomes of interest included mobility, recurrent falls, activities of daily living, length of hospital stay, and post-discharge residence. Results were independently reviewed and quality assessed by two researchers, and data extracted using a customised form. A narrative synthesis was performed due to heterogeneity of the included studies. Results Seven studies were included. Interventions clustered into three broad categories: multidisciplinary in-hospital post-surgical geriatric assessment; pharmaceuticals; and multifactorial assessment. Multidisciplinary care and early mobilisation showed short-term improvements for some outcomes. Only an annual administration of zoledronic acid showed long-term reduction in recurrent falls. Conclusions Due to high heterogeneity across the studies, definitive conclusions could not be reached. Most post-fall interventions were not aimed at patients with

  14. Minority ethnic community participation in needs assessment and service development in primary care: perceptions of Pakistani and Bangladeshi people about psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Joe; Hedges, Clive

    1999-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: To promote community participation in exploring perceptions of psychological distress amongst Pakistani and Bangladeshi people, in order to develop appropriate services. DESIGN: Training and facilitation of resident community members (as community project workers), to define and conduct qualitative research involving semistructured interviews in their own communities, informing primary care led commissioning and service decision making. Setting A socio-economically disadvantaged inner-city locality in the UK. Participants One-hundred and four South Asian people (49 of Pakistani and 55 of Bangladeshi origin), interviewed by 13 resident community members. RESULTS: All community project workers completed training leading to a National Vocational Qualification, and successfully executed the research. Most study respondents located their main sources of stress within pervasive experience of racism and socio-economic disadvantage. They were positive about 'talking' and neutral listening as helpful, but sought strategies beyond non-directive counselling services that embraced practical welfare advice and social support. The roles of primary health care professionals were believed to be restricted to physical ill health rather than personal distress. The importance of professionals' sex, age, ethnicity and social status were emphasized as affecting open communication. Practical recommendations for the re-orientation and provision of services were generated and implemented in response to the findings, through dialogue with a primary care commissioning group, Health and Local Authority, and voluntary agencies. CONCLUSIONS: The work illustrates the feasibility and value of a community participation approach to research and service development in addressing a challenging and neglected area of minority ethnic health need. It offers one model for generating responsive service change in the context of current health policy in the UK, whilst also imparting skills and

  15. Field Psychometric Testing of the Instrument for Assessment of Psychological Predictors of Well-Being and Quality of Life in People with HIV or AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remor, Eduardo; Fuster-RuizdeApodaca, Maria José; Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Gómez-Martínez, Sandra; Fumaz, Carmina R; González-Garcia, Marian; Ubillos-Landa, Silvia; Aguirrezabal-Prado, Arrate; Molero, Fernando; Ruzafa-Martínez, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The Screenphiv, a screening measure for psychological issues related to HIV, was psychometrically tested in a study involving 744 HIV-infected people in Spain. Participants ages 18-82 (M = 43.04, 72 % men, 28 % women) completed an assessment protocol that included the Screenphiv and the MOS-HIV. A trained interviewer also collected relevant illness-related clinical data and socio-demographics from the participants. A confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the goodness of fit of the Screenphiv's theoretical model and confirmed six first-order factors and two second-order factors [RMSEA (IC 90 %) = 0.07 (0.07-0.08)]. No floor or ceiling effects were observed for the scores. Cronbach's alphas were acceptable for all of the factors (from 0.65 to 0.92). Criterion-related validity also achieved; Screenphiv scores were related to socio-demographic and clinical variables and MOS-HIV summary scores. The Screenphiv is a reliable and valid measure, ready to use in research and clinical settings in Spain.

  16. Effect of Pet Insects on the Psychological Health of Community-Dwelling Elderly People: A Single-Blinded, Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hae-Jin; Youn, Chang-Ho; Kim, Seong-Hyun; Kim, So-Yun

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that animal-assisted therapy has positive effects on mental health, especially in elderly people. Caring for insects is easy, relatively inexpensive, and does not require much space. The aim of this 8-week randomized, controlled, single-blinded study was to investigate the effect of pet insects on the psychological health of community-dwelling elderly people. Elderly subjects (≥65 years old) attending a community center in Daegu, Korea, were enrolled in the study between April and May 2014 and randomized at a 1:1 ratio to receive insect therapy and health advice or only health advice. The insect group received 5 crickets in a cage with sufficient fodder and a detailed instruction manual. At baseline and at 8 weeks, all subjects underwent psychometric tests via a direct interview [Beck Anxiety Inventory, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, Insomnia Severity Index, Fatigue Severity Scale, and Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument] and laboratory analyses of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, biological antioxidant potential, and derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites). The insect-caring (n = 46) and control (n = 48) groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. The insect-caring group had significantly lower GDS-15 scores at week 8 (3.20 vs. 4.90, p = 0.004) and, after adjustment for baseline values, a significantly greater change in GDS-15 scores relative to baseline (-1.12 vs. 0.20, p = 0.011). They also had a significantly greater change in MMSE scores relative to baseline (1.13 vs. 0.31, p = 0.045). The two groups did not differ in terms of other psychometric and laboratory tests. No serious risks or adverse events were reported. Caring for insects, which is cost-effective and safe, was associated with a small to medium positive effect on depression and cognitive function in community

  17. Understanding the challenges to implementing case management for people with dementia in primary care in England: a qualitative study using Normalization Process Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, Claire; Poole, Marie; Brittain, Katie; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Fox, Chris; Iliffe, Steve; Manthorpe, Jill; Robinson, Louise

    2014-11-08

    Case management has been suggested as a way of improving the quality and cost-effectiveness of support for people with dementia. In this study we adapted and implemented a successful United States' model of case management in primary care in England. The results are reported elsewhere, but a key finding was that little case management took place. This paper reports the findings of the process evaluation which used Normalization Process Theory to understand the barriers to implementation. Ethnographic methods were used to explore the views and experiences of case management. Interviews with 49 stakeholders (patients, carers, case managers, health and social care professionals) were supplemented with observation of case managers during meetings and initial assessments with patients. Transcripts and field notes were analysed initially using the constant comparative approach and emerging themes were then mapped onto the framework of Normalization Process Theory. The primary focus during implementation was on the case managers as isolated individuals, with little attention being paid to the social or organizational context within which they worked. Barriers relating to each of the four main constructs of Normalization Process Theory were identified, with a lack of clarity over the scope and boundaries of the intervention (coherence); variable investment in the intervention (cognitive participation); a lack of resources, skills and training to deliver case management (collective action); and limited reflection and feedback on the case manager role (reflexive monitoring). Despite the intuitive appeal of case management to all stakeholders, there were multiple barriers to implementation in primary care in England including: difficulties in embedding case managers within existing well-established community networks; the challenges of protecting time for case management; and case managers' inability to identify, and act on, emerging patient and carer needs (an essential, but

  18. The Comparison of two models of marker – placement for identifying the rear foot angle in normal people with and without shoes during the stance phase of walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the two models of marker placement for identifying of rear foot angle in normal people with and without shoes during the different stage of stance phase of walking. Methods: Fifteen male students in Birjand University were selected based on Navicular Drop Index. After marker placement based on Clarke and Nigg models, the rear foot angle were recorded with two-dimensional analysis (Panasonic Camera from behind position while subjects walked with 1.7 m/s on a treadmill with and without shoes. For statistical analysis, independent samples t-test was used (p≤0.05. Results: The Results showed a significant difference in rear foot angle during the stance phase between the two models of Clarke and Nigg during walking with and without shoes (p≤0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, due to their specific features care must be considered when using any of these two models to investigate the angular kinematics of the foot.

  19. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Discursive psychology examines how psychological issues are made relevant and put to use in everyday talk. Unlike traditional psychological perspectives, discursive psychology does not approach the question of what psychology comprises and explains from an analyst's perspective. Instead, the focus

  20. Integrated psychological therapy for people with bipolar disorder and co-morbid alcohol use: A feasibility and acceptability randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Jones

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Co-morbid substance misuse, particularly alcohol, is common in bipolar disorder (BD and associated with worse treatment outcomes. Research into psychological interventions for substance misuse in BD is at an early stage and no studies have specifically targeted problematic alcohol use. This paper describes the context and protocol for a feasibility and acceptability randomised controlled trial (RCT evaluating a novel intervention combining motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural therapy (MI-CBT for participants with BD and problematic alcohol use, developed in collaboration with people with lived experience of both issues. Methods and design: An RCT will assess the feasibility and acceptability of MI-CBT in addition to treatment as usual (TAU compared with TAU alone. Participants will be recruited from across the North West of England through NHS services and self-referral. The primary outcomes will be the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention assessed by recruitment to target, adherence to intervention, retention rate at follow-up, absence of adverse events and qualitative analysis of participants' reported experiences of intervention. The effect size of the impact of the intervention on alcohol use and mood outcomes will also be estimated. In addition, we will explore a number of potential process variables in therapy. Discussion: This is the first RCT evaluating MI-CBT for BD and problematic alcohol use. Given the prevalence and impact of alcohol problems in BD this novel integrated intervention may have potential to offer important improvements in clinical and functional outcomes. Keywords: Bipolar, Alcohol, Substance, Motivational interviewing, Trial registration number: ISRCTN14774583

  1. Effect of psychological intervention in the form of relaxation and guided imagery on cellular immune function in normal healthy subjects. An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, R; Kristensen, J S; Hokland, P

    1991-01-01

    The present study measured the effects of relaxation and guided imagery on cellular immune function. During a period of 10 days 10 healthy subjects were given one 1-hour relaxation procedure and one combined relaxation and guided imagery procedure, instructing the subjects to imagine their immune...... on the immune defense and could form the basis of further studies on psychological intervention and immunological status. Udgivelsesdato: 1990-null...

  2. Review of psychological consequences of nuclear accidents and empirical study on peoples reactions to radiation protection activities in an imagined situation.; Katsaus ydinonnettomuuksien psykologisiin seurauksiin sekae empiirinen tutkimus saeteilysuojelutoimenpiteiden vaikutuksista kaeyttaeytymiseen kuvitteelisessa tilanteessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haukkala, A; Eraenen, L [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Psychology

    1994-10-01

    The report consist of two parts: a review of studies on psychological consequences of nuclear and radiation accidents in population and an empirical study of peoples reactions to protection actions in an event of hypothetical accident. Review is based on research results from two nuclear reactor accidents (Three Mile Island 1979, Chernobyl 1986) and a radiation accident in Goiania, Brazil 1987. (53 refs, 2 figs.,7 tabs.).

  3. A frequência do HPV na mucosa oral normal de indivíduos sadios por meio da PCR The frequency of human papillomavirus findings in normal oral mucosa of healthy people by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Esquenazi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Os papilomavírus humanos (HPV são DNA vírus pertencentes à família papilomaviridae com grupos de baixo e alto risco que infectam a pele e a mucosa podendo induzir a formação de tumores epiteliais benignos e malignos. Na mucosa oral, estes vírus têm sido associados a papilomas orais, hiperplasias epiteliais focais, leucoplasias e neoplasias orais. OBJETIVO: Estudar a frequência do HPV em mucosa oral de indivíduos normais. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Trabalho prospectivo em coorte transversal. Participaram desse estudo 100 indivíduos voluntários, faixa etária de 20 a 31 anos, estudantes universitários, sem história, queixas ou lesões visíveis ao exame físico de cavidade oral e orofaringe. Foram submetidos a questionário com perguntas referentes à epidemiologia da infecção pelo HPV. Foi colhido material de mucosa oral por raspado com escova e analisado pelo PCR. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram ausência de HPV em todas as amostras. CONCLUSÃO: Parece ter havido participação do alto nível socioeconômico com alimentação rica em carotenoides e vitamina C, baixo consumo tabágico e etílico e comportamento heterossexual predominantemente monogâmico com uso regular de preservativos.The human papillomavirus (HPV is a DNA virus, which belongs to papillomaviridae family, being of low and high risk, which infect the skin and mucous membranes and can induce benign and malign tumor formation. In the oral mucosa they have been associated with oral papilloma, focal epithelial hyperplasia, leucoplakia and oral neoplasia. AIM: to study the frequency of HPV finding in oral mucosa of normal people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study, cross-sectional cohort. One hundred volunteers, young adults, healthy, aged between 20 and 31 years, university students with no history, no complains, without oral or oropharyngeal lesions. They were submitted to a questionnaire with questions regarding HPV infection epidemiology. The samples were

  4. Environmental Psychology: An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L.; Berg, van den A.E.; Groot, de J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers a research-based introduction to the psychological relationship between humans and their built and natural environments and discusses how sustainable environments can be created to the benefit of both people and nature •Explores the environment's

  5. Mechanisms of action in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in people with physical and/or psychological conditions: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Modi; Abbott, Rebecca; Dunn, Barnaby; Dickens, Chris; Keil, Tina Frieda; Henley, William; Kuyken, Willem

    2017-07-01

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in studying the effects of mindfulness-based interventions for people with psychological and physical problems. However, the mechanisms of action in these interventions that lead to beneficial physical and psychological outcomes have yet to be clearly identified. The aim of this paper is to review, systematically, the evidence to date on the mechanisms of action in mindfulness interventions in populations with physical and/or psychological conditions. Searches of seven databases (PsycINFO, Medline (Ovid), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, ClinicalTrials.gov) were undertaken in June 2014 and July 2015. We evaluated to what extent the studies we identified met the criteria suggested by Kazdin for establishing mechanisms of action within a psychological treatment (2007, 2009). We identified four trials examining mechanisms of mindfulness interventions in those with comorbid psychological and physical health problems and 14 in those with psychological conditions. These studies examined a diverse range of potential mechanisms, including mindfulness and rumination. Of these candidate mechanisms, the most consistent finding was that greater self-reported change in mindfulness mediated superior clinical outcomes. However, very few studies fully met the Kazdin criteria for examining treatment mechanisms. There was evidence that global changes in mindfulness are linked to better outcomes. This evidence pertained more to interventions targeting psychological rather than physical health conditions. While there is promising evidence that MBCT/MBSR intervention effects are mediated by hypothesised mechanisms, there is a lack of methodological rigour in the field of testing mechanisms of action for both MBCT and MBSR, which precludes definitive conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The peculiarities of connection between social capital and psychological health of the people with different economic status: the analysis of research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександра Андріївна Ніздрань

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and methodological foundations and the organization of the empirical research of the connection between social capital and psychological health of persons with low level of economic status were proved. The peculiarities of the state of psychological health and the development of social capital constituents depending on the level of economic well-being of a person were revealed. The model of the influence of social capital as a factor of the psychological health of persons with low level of economic status was given

  7. Broadening the Boundaries of Psychology through Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues for community psychology to be included within the discipline boundaries of psychology. In doing this, it will enable psychology to begin to address some of the large scale social issues affecting people's well-being. It will be necessary, however, to incorporate aspects of other disciplines, make explicit the political…

  8. Impact of Lifestyle and Metformin Interventions on the Risk of Progression to Diabetes and Regression to Normal Glucose Regulation in Overweight or Obese People With Impaired Glucose Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, William H; Pan, Qing; Edelstein, Sharon L; Mather, Kieren J; Perreault, Leigh; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Dabelea, Dana M; Horton, Edward; Kahn, Steven E; Knowler, William C; Lorenzo, Carlos; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Venditti, Elizabeth; Ye, Wen

    2017-12-01

    Both lifestyle and metformin interventions can delay or prevent progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in people with impaired glucose regulation, but there is considerable interindividual variation in the likelihood of receiving benefit. Understanding an individual's 3-year risk of progressing to DM and regressing to normal glucose regulation (NGR) might facilitate benefit-based tailored treatment. We used the values of 19 clinical variables measured at the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) baseline evaluation and Cox proportional hazards models to assess the 3-year risk of progression to DM and regression to NGR separately for DPP lifestyle, metformin, and placebo participants who were adherent to the interventions. Lifestyle participants who lost ≥5% of their initial body weight at 6 months and metformin and placebo participants who reported taking ≥80% of their prescribed medication at the 6-month follow-up were defined as adherent. Eleven of 19 clinical variables measured at baseline predicted progression to DM, and 6 of 19 predicted regression to NGR. Compared with adherent placebo participants at lowest risk of developing diabetes, participants at lowest risk of developing diabetes who adhered to a lifestyle intervention had an 8% absolute risk reduction (ARR) of developing diabetes and a 35% greater absolute likelihood of reverting to NGR. Participants at lowest risk of developing diabetes who adhered to a metformin intervention had no reduction in their risk of developing diabetes and a 17% greater absolute likelihood of reverting to NGR. Participants at highest risk of developing DM who adhered to a lifestyle intervention had a 39% ARR of developing diabetes and a 24% greater absolute likelihood of reverting to NGR, whereas those who adhered to the metformin intervention had a 25% ARR of developing diabetes and an 11% greater absolute likelihood of reverting to NGR. Unlike our previous analyses that sought to explain population risk, these

  9. Positive psychology interventions in people aged 50–79 years: long-term effects of placebo-controlled online interventions on well-being and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Proyer, Rene T; Gander, Fabian; Wellenzohn, Sara; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Various positive psychology interventions have been experimentally tested, but only few studies addressed the effects of such activities in participants aged 50 and above. Method: We tested the impact of four self-administered positive psychology interventions in an online setting (i.e., gratitude visit, three good things, three funny things, and using signature strengths in a new way) on happiness and depressive symptoms in comparison with a placebo control exercise (i.e., ear...

  10. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  11. Coping strategies as mediators of the effect of the START (strategies for RelaTives) intervention on psychological morbidity for family carers of people with dementia in a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ryan; Cooper, Claudia; Barber, Julie; Rapaport, Penny; Griffin, Mark; Livingston, Gill

    2014-10-01

    Family carers of people with dementia frequently become depressed or anxious. In observational studies, more emotion-focused and less dysfunctional coping predict fewer psychological symptoms, but no randomised controlled trial (RCT) has directly investigated emotion-focused coping as mediator of effectiveness of a successful psychological intervention. We hypothesised that emotion-focused coping would mediate the START psychological intervention׳s effects in an RCT. We tested whether mediated effects were moderated by severity of baseline symptoms. 260 family carers from NHS dementia services were randomised to START (manualised coping skills intervention), or treatment-as-usual (TAU). Blinded raters administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-T) and Brief COPE inventory at baseline, 4 and 8 months. HADS-T improved in the intervention group when compared to TAU at all levels of psychological distress. We tested whether coping was a mediator and for moderated mediation, and (post-hoc) subgroup treatment effects on coping. Data were available for 187 carers (71.9%) for the mediation analysis. The reduced HADS-T score in the intervention group was mediated by increased emotion-focused coping only among carers with higher (16+) baseline HADS-T scores (mediated effect=-0.63 [-1.11, -0.15]; proportion of overall effect=33% [3%, 64%]). We did not measure plausible psychosocial treatment mechanisms other than coping. START benefited family carers both in preventing and treating psychological morbidity, through different mechanisms of action. The most psychologically distressed carers increased their emotion-focused coping and did not decrease their dysfunctional coping, while others benefited but not through this mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 未婚先孕人流者的心理状况调查%Investigation of psychological states of unmarried people who accept abortion surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    那丽娜; 欧红霞

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨未婚先孕人流者的心理状况及其与术后躯体不适的相关性. 方法:选取在妇产科门诊进行手术的患者共169例,分为已婚组和未婚组,对所有接受调查的患者进行90项症状自评量表(SCL-90)的调查,并由专业的妇产科医生根据临床妇科体检和相应辅助检查报告术中和术后躯体不适情况. 结果:以年龄和怀孕次数为控制变量,协方差分析结果显示,未婚组与已婚组SCL-90总分以及各因子分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在术后躯体不适上,未婚组与已婚组[(18.39±3.78)与(18.01±2.74)]差异无统计学意义(P =0.625);SCL-90总分及各因子分与术后躯体不适存在显著相关. 结论:未婚女性心理健康程度与已婚女性不存在显著差异,未婚女性与已婚女性在术后躯体不适上不存在显著差异,接受人流手术的患者的心理健康水平与术后躯体不适存在显著相关.%Objective:To explore the psychological states of unmarried people who accept abortion surgery and their relationship to postoperative physical discomfort. Method: One hundred and sixty - nine subjects were chosen from the obstetrics and gynecology outpatient who received operation, the subjects were divided into unmarried and married groups. and all assessed using symptom checlist 90 ( SCL-90) . Professional obstetrics doctors recorded the intraoperative and postoperative physical discomfort based on clinical gynecological examination and corresponding auxiliary inspection. Results: Unmarried and married group showed no significant difference on SCL-90 total and all factor scores (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the postoperative physical discomfort between the two groups (18. 39 ±3.78 vs. 18.01 ±274, P = 0.625). SCL-90 total or each factor score was significantly positively correlated with postoperative body discomfort (P < 0.05). Conclusion:Unmarried and married women have no significant difference on the

  13. The Mental Health and Psychological Well-Being of Refugee Children and Young People: An Exploration of Risk, Resilience and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shaheen; Thomas, Miles

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates the perceptions of refugee children, refugee parents and school staff regarding the positive adaptation of refugee children in a new social context and the effects on mental health and psychological well-being. This included an exploration of resilience and the role of risk and protective factors. Few studies have…

  14. 'Sharing things with people that I don't even know': help-seeking for psychological symptoms in injured Black men in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Sara F; Rich, John A; Webster, Jessica L; Richmond, Therese S

    2018-04-01

    Psychological distress is common in survivors of traumatic injury, yet across United States' trauma systems, it is rare that standard injury care integrates psychological evaluation and professional mental healthcare. The purpose of this study was to explore help-seeking for psychological symptoms in injured Black men living in Philadelphia. A subset of a cohort of 551 injured Black men admitted to a Trauma Center in Philadelphia participated in qualitative interviews that explored their perceptions of psychological symptoms after injury and the factors that guided their decision to seek professional mental health help. Data from 32 participants were analyzed for narrative and thematic content. Three overarching themes emerged: (1) facilitators of help-seeking, (2) barriers to help-seeking, and (3) factors underlying the decision not to consider professional help. Five participants felt that their injury-related psychological distress was severe enough to merit professional help despite any perceived barriers. Seventeen participants identified systemic and interpersonal obstacles to professional help that prevented them from seeking this kind of care. These included: financial constraints, limited access to mental healthcare services, and fear of the judgments of mental healthcare professionals. Ten participants would not consider professional help; these men perceived a lack of need and sufficiency in their existing social support networks. Research is needed to inform or identify interventions that diminish the impact of barriers to care, and identify from whom, where, and how professional mental health help might be more effectively offered to injured Black men in recovery environments like Philadelphia.

  15. Impact of polymorphisms in WFS1 on prediabetic phenotypes in a population-based sample of middle-aged people with normal and abnormal glucose regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, T; Andersen, G; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Recently, variants in WFS1 have been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to examine metabolic risk phenotypes of WFS1 variants in glucose-tolerant people and in individuals with abnormal glucose regulation. METHODS: The type 2 diabetes-associated WFS1 variant rs7...

  16. New Developments in the Psychological Management of Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Stephen; Williams, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    After reviewing how psychological treatment for chronic pain comes to have its current form, and summarizing treatment effectiveness, we explore several areas of development. We describe third wave therapies, such as mindfulness; we discuss what the research literature aggregated can tell us about what trials are more useful to conduct; and we outline some areas of promise and some failures to deliver on promise. The article is drawn together using the framework of the normal psychology of pain, identifying some of its most important implications for improving life for people with chronic pain. PMID:26174216

  17. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  18. Assessing joint space and condylar position in the people with normal function of temporomandibular joint with cone-beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Dalili

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The assessment of joint spaces in right and left sides should be done independently. Overall, the measured joint spaces except Sjs are not different in two sexes. The data from this study could be a useful and comparable reference for the clinical assessment of condylar position in patients with normal functional joints.

  19. Low normal thyroid function attenuates serum alanine aminotransferase elevations in the context of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in white people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; van den Berg, Eline H.; van der Klauw, Melanie; Blokzijl, Hans

    Objectives: Thyroid hormones play a key role in hepatic lipid metabolism. Although hypothyroidismis associated with increased prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the relationship of NAFLD with low normal thyroid function is unclear. We tested the association of serum alanine

  20. The Chains on All My People Are the Chains on Me: Restrictions to Collective Autonomy Undermine the Personal Autonomy and Psychological Well-Being of Group Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachanoff, Frank J; Taylor, Donald M; Caouette, Julie; Khullar, Thomas H; Wohl, Michael J A

    2018-01-11

    Four studies assessed the potentially detrimental effects that restrictions to collective autonomy (i.e., a group's freedom to determine and practice its own identity) may have for the personal autonomy and psychological well-being of group members. In Study 1, using 3 distinct samples (NSample1a = 123, NSample1b = 129, NSample1c = 370), correlational and cross-cultural evidence indicates that perceived restrictions to the collective autonomy of one's group is directly associated with reduced personal autonomy, and indirectly associated with diminished well-being through personal autonomy. In Study 2 (N = 411), a longitudinal assessment of group members over 3 time-points during a 4-month period found that group members who perceived greater collective autonomy restriction also experienced reduced personal autonomy, and in turn, reduced psychological well-being over time. In Study 3 (N = 255), group members described a time during which their ingroup had (or did not have) its collective autonomy unduly restricted by other groups. Participants who were primed to think that their group lacked collective autonomy reported reduced feelings of personal autonomy, and reduced psychological well-being (compared with those primed to think their group had collective autonomy). In Study 4 (N = 389), collective autonomy was manipulated within the context of an intensive laboratory simulation. Collective autonomy-restricted group members experienced less personal autonomy than those who did not have their collective autonomy restricted. Together these findings suggest that restrictions to a group's collective autonomy may have detrimental consequences for the personal autonomy and psychological well-being of group members. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. What leads some people to think they are HIV-positive before knowing their diagnosis? A systematic review of psychological and behavioural correlates of HIV-risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeli, Michael; Baker, Laura L E; Pady, Kirsten; Jones, Bethanie; Wroe, Abigail L

    2016-08-01

    Current HIV-risk perception refers to the extent to which individuals think they might be HIV-positive. This belief, distinct from the perceived risk about being infected with HIV in the future, is likely to have a range of important consequences. These consequences may include both psychological effects (e.g., impacts on well-being) and behavioural effects (e.g., HIV testing uptake). Given these possible outcomes, and the suggested importance of risk perception in health behaviour models, understanding the behavioural and psychological antecedents of current HIV-risk perception is crucial. This systematic review investigates the relationship between behavioural and psychological factors and current HIV-risk perception (in individuals who are unaware of their actual HIV status). Eight studies were eligible for inclusion in the review (five quantitative and three qualitative studies). Drug risk behaviour and sexual risk behaviour (both self and partner) were often associated with current HIV-risk perception, although other studies failed to show a relationship between one's own sexual risk behaviour and risk perception. Psychological factors were only rarely assessed in relation to current HIV-risk perception. Where these variables were included, there was evidence that experiencing symptoms perceived to be consistent with HIV and prompts to test were associated with increased current HIV-risk perception. These findings are consistent with the Common-Sense Model (CSM) of illness representation and self-regulation. Methodological quality criteria were rarely met for the included studies. In addition, it was often difficult to ascertain whether potentially includable studies were eligible due to imprecise definitions of HIV-risk perception. Research and practice implications are discussed, with particular emphasis on the role of risk appraisals as a potential mediator of the relationship between HIV-risk behaviour, symptoms and current HIV-risk perception.

  2. Understanding "people" people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Timothy; Waldroop, James

    2004-06-01

    Nearly all areas of business--not just sales and human resources--call for interpersonal savvy. Relational know-how comprises a greater variety of aptitudes than many executives think. Some people can "talk a dog off a meat truck," as the saying goes. Others are great at resolving interpersonal conflicts. Some have a knack for translating high-level concepts for the masses. And others thrive when they're managing a team. Since people do their best work when it most closely matches their interests, the authors contend, managers can increase productivity by taking into account employees' relational interests and skills when making personnel choices and project assignments. After analyzing psychological tests of more than 7,000 business professionals, the authors have identified four dimensions of relational work: influence, interpersonal facilitation, relational creativity, and team leadership. This article explains each one and offers practical advice to managers--how to build a well-balanced team, for instance, and how to gauge the relational skills of potential employees during interviews. To determine whether a job candidate excels in, say, relational creativity, ask her to describe her favorite advertising campaign, slogan, or image and tell you why she finds it to be so effective. Understanding these four dimensions will help you get optimal performance from your employees, appropriately reward their work, and assist them in setting career goals. It will also help you make better choices when it comes to your own career development. To get started, try the authors' free online assessment tool, which will measure both your orientation toward relational work in general and your interest level in each of its four dimensions.

  3. The effects of a multi-component dyadic intervention on the psychological distress of family caregivers providing care to people with dementia: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prick, A.J.C.; de Lange, J.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Pot, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Earlier research showed that multi-component dyadic interventions - including a combination of intervention strategies and addressing both the person with dementia and caregiver - have a beneficial impact on the mental and physical health of people with dementia and their family

  4. Should economic psychology care about personality structure?

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstätter, Hermann

    1993-01-01

    Since economic psychology is primarily interested in (a) how people in general react to the economic aspects of their environment, and (b) how these reactions change the economic components of their environment, as yet individual differences are not an important issue in economic-psychological research. After a brief look at how economic psychology used to deal with individual differences in the past, some suggestions are given, based on literature from social psychology, economic psychology,...

  5. Pilot study: Mindful Eating and Living (MEAL): weight, eating behavior, and psychological outcomes associated with a mindfulness-based intervention for people with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, Jeanne; Smith, Bruce W; Shelley, Brian M; Sloan, Anita Lee; Leahigh, Lisa; Begay, Debbie

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to pilot a brief (6-week) group curriculum for providing mindfulness training to obese individuals, called Mindful Eating and Living (MEAL). Participants were recruited through a local Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) in spring 2006. Data was collected at three time points: baseline, completion of intervention (6 weeks), and 3-month follow-up (12 weeks). Six weekly two-hour group classes (with two monthly follow-up classes). Content included training in mindfulness meditation, mindful eating, and group discussion, with emphasis on awareness of body sensations, emotions, and triggers to overeat. Key variables assessed included changes in weight, body-mass index (BMI), eating behavior, and psychological distress. In addition, physiological markers of cardiovascular risk were evaluated including C-reactive protein (hsCRP), adiponectin, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Ten obese patients enrolled with a mean BMI of 36.9 kg/m² [SD±6.2]. The mean weight was 101 kg/m² and the mean age was 44 years (SD=8.7; range=31-62). Compared to baseline data, participants showed statistically significant increases in measures of mindfulness and cognitive restraint around eating, and statistically significant decreases in weight, eating disinhibition, binge eating, depression, perceived stress, physical symptoms, negative affect, and C-reactive protein. This study provides preliminary evidence that a eating focused mindfulness-based intervention can result in significant changes in weight, eating behavior, and psychological distress in obese individuals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The normal and pathological language

    OpenAIRE

    Espejo, Luis D.

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary development of normal and pathological psychology has achieved in recent decades, thanks to the dual method of objective observation and oral survey enabled the researcher spirit of neuro-psychiatrist penetrate the intimate mechanism of the nervous system whose supreme manifestation is thought. It is normal psychology explaining the complicated game of perceptions: their methods of transmission, their centers of projection, its transformations and its synthesis to construct ...

  7. Cognitive Psychology and Mathematical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Brian

    1981-01-01

    This review illustrates aspects of cognitive psychology relevant to the understanding of how people think mathematically. Developments in memory research, artificial intelligence, visually mediated processes, and problem-solving research are discussed. (MP)

  8. Psychological Stress and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on or fail to adhere to potentially helpful therapy, engage in risky behaviors such as drug use, or do not maintain a healthy lifestyle, resulting in premature death. How can people who have cancer learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients ...

  9. Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

    Cross-Cultural psychology refers to the collective efforts of researchers who work among people who live in different societies, with different languages and different forms of government. There are a number of benefits to the study of human behavior which can be accrued by carrying out research in various cultures, largely concerned with better…

  10. [The delayed word recall task using ADAS-Jcog word booklet effectively divides patients with mild cognitive impairment from normal elderly people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Naoko; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Sayaka; Mogi, Nanaka; Iguchi, Akihisa

    2007-07-01

    A new screening test for detecting mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with higher sensitivity that can easily be administered at the bedside is necessary. In this study, we proposed the delayed recall task using the word booklet of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive component-Japanese version (ADAS-Jcog) and compared the score of the task in patients with MCI with that of cognitive normal elderly (NE) and patients with AD. Thirty six patients with MCI, 13 very mild AD, 104 mild AD, 13 moderate AD, and age- and education-matched 19 NE, recruited from the memory clinic of Nagoya University Hospital, were evaluated by the ADAS-Jcog word recall task which consisted of immediate recall (IR), a classical method on ADAS-Jcog, and delayed recall (DR) that has been newly introduced. Compared with controls, patients with MCI were significantly impaired on both IR and DR. On the other hand, DR is more sensitive than IR for distinguishing MCI from NE. The highest sensitivity (94.4%) and specificity (68.4%) were achieved when the results of IR were combined with those of DR. The result suggests that the delayed word recall task using the word booklet of ADAS-Jcog may be a useful tool as a screening method for the detection of MCI.

  11. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what......Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...

  12. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  13. Kantian Psychologism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377312894

    2017-01-01

    For more than a hundred years now, the dominant view amongst scholars has been that Kant's philosophy has nothing to do with psychology, or, at the very least, that psychology is inessential to Kant's philosophical project. In the early reception of Kant's work, however, psychology played a central

  14. Psychological therapies for thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anie, Kofi A; Massaglia, Pia

    2014-03-06

    Thalassaemia is a group of genetic blood disorders characterised by the absence or reduction in the production of haemoglobin. Severity is variable from less severe anaemia, through thalassaemia intermedia, to profound severe anaemia (thalassaemia major). In thalassaemia major other complications include growth retardation, bone deformation, and enlarged spleen. Blood transfusion is required to treat severe forms of thalassaemia, but this results in excessive accumulation of iron in the body (iron overload), removed mostly by a drug called desferrioxamine through 'chelation therapy'. Non-routine treatments are bone marrow transplantation (which is age restricted), and possibly hydroxyurea, designed to raise foetal haemoglobin level, thus reducing anaemia. In addition, psychological therapies seem appropriate to improving outcome and adherence to medical treatment. To examine the evidence that in people with thalassaemia, psychological treatments improve the ability to cope with the condition, and improve both medical and psychosocial outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Searches on the Internet were also performed.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 11 November 2013. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the use of psychological intervention to no (psychological) intervention in people with thalassaemia. No trials of psychological therapies have been found in the literature for inclusion in this review. There are currently no results to be reported. As a chronic disease with a considerable role for self-management, psychological support seems appropriate for managing thalassaemia. However, from the information currently available, no conclusions

  15. Bem-estar psicológico de jovens de 18 a 24 anos: fatores associados Psychological well-being of young people 18 to 24 years of age and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigação visou identificar os fatores associados ao bem-estar psicológico em jovens de 18 a 24 anos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Em estudo transversal de base populacional, 1.621 jovens responderam a um questionário estruturado com questões referentes a dados sociodemográficos, prática de religião, trabalho remunerado, uso de substâncias e o Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI para avaliação dos transtornos psiquiátricos. A Escala de Faces de Andrews avaliou o bem-estar psicológico. A regressão de Poisson foi utilizada para análise multivariada. Dos entrevistados, 85,3% apresentaram bem-estar psicológico, que esteve associado ao não uso de drogas ilícitas, ao trabalho remunerado, à prática de religião, às classes socioeconômicas A e B, à alta escolaridade e a não presença de transtornos psiquiátricos. Programas que visem à redução da pobreza, incentivo à educação, identificação e prevenção de uso de drogas em jovens são de extrema importância para a melhoria do bem-estar psicológico e prevenção da saúde.This study aimed to identify factors associated with psychological well-being among young people 18 to 24 years of age in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. In a population-based cross-sectional study, 1,621 subjects answered a structured questionnaire on socio-demographic data, religion, employment, and substance use, as well as the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI to assess psychiatric disorders. The Faces Scale (Andrews was used to evaluate psychological well-being. Poisson regression was used for multivariate analysis. Of the total sample, 85.3% displayed psychological well-being, which was positively associated with non-use of illicit drugs, current employment, religion, socioeconomic status (classes A and B, higher educational levels, and absence of psychiatric disorders. Programs to reduce poverty and encourage education and

  16. Bem-estar subjetivo e senso de ajustamento psicológico em idosos que sofreram acidente vascular cerebral: uma revisão Subjective well being and perceived psychological adjustment among old people affected by stroke: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóris Firmino Rabelo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um levantamento dos estudos brasileiros e estrangeiros publicados entre 1996 e 2005 que relacionavam bem-estar subjetivo, senso de ajustamento psicológico e acidente vascular cerebral, com o objetivo de identificar variáveis mediadoras dessa relação em idosos. Estudos transversais e prospectivos indicaram que os afetados por acidente vascular cerebral apresentam menor bem-estar subjetivo quando comparados com a população geral. Boa capacidade cognitiva, suporte social efetivo, continuidade de uma ocupação produtiva, manutenção da competência em atividades instrumentais de vida diária e humor positivo são fatores que podem melhorar o bem-estar subjetivo e psicológico. Variáveis que podem piorar o bem-estar subjetivo e psicológico são incapacidade funcional, déficits cognitivos, depressão, dificuldade em restabelecer a identidade e restrição à possibilidade de desempenhar atividades e papéis que contribuem para a auto-definição. O conhecimento das implicações psicológicas de sofrer acidente vascular cerebral pode beneficiar pacientes, familiares e profissionais no gerenciamento do evento.We gathered data from Brazilian and foreign studies published between 1996 and 2005 which related subjective well-being, sense of psychological adjustment and stroke. The objective was identifying mediator variables of this relation among old people. Prospective and cross-sectional studies indicated that those affected by stroke showed less subjective well-being than the general population. Good cognitive capacity, effective social support, continuity of a productive occupation, keeping the competence in instrumental activities of daily living and good mood are factors which can affect positively the subjective and psychological well-being. Variables which can affect negatively the subjective and psychological well-being are functional incapacity, cognitive deficits, depression, difficulty in re-establishing the identity and

  17. The psychology of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2002-10-01

    The influence of globalization on psychological functioning is examined. First, descriptions of how globalization is occurring in various world regions are presented. Then the psychological consequences of globalization are described, with a focus on identity issues. Specifically, it is argued that most people worldwide now develop a bicultural identity that combines their local identity with an identity linked to the global culture; that identity confusion may be increasing among young people in non-Western cultures as a result of globalization; that some people join self-selected cultures to maintain an identity that is separate from the global culture; and that a period of emerging adulthood increasingly extends identity explorations beyond adolescence, through the mid- to late twenties.

  18. Beneficios psicológicos de un programa proactivo de ejercicio físico para personas mayores (Psychological benefits of a proactive physical exercise program for elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Silva Piñeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have addressed the benefits of physical activity in elderly people. However, the physical activity models followed have not always taken into account the role of active articipation. In general, these models have been mainly influenced by directive methodologies and emphasise physical training; these aspects offer greater group control and less organizational effort. The main aim of this study was to compare two physical activity programs for elderly people and determine their effect on mood, self- esteem, and enjoyment with physical activity. The study participants were 72 women between 55 years and 70 years (M = 64.10; DT = 9.40 from the municipalities of Arousa Norte (Galicia, Spain. The results show that the supervised exercise programs benefitted the participants’ psychological health, which differed according to the type of program. Thus, a unique physical exercise model cannot be endorsed in adulthood, because the role of the participants and the way they interact within exercise programs varies, leading to differing effects on health and therefore on everyday life. New multidimensional proposals should be developed that combine physical, mental, and social aspects within a movement-based approach.

  19. Mathematical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Games To Explain Aspects of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Raquel; Shapiro, Ronald G.

    This workshop presents a collection of demonstrations of various psychological concepts. It provides a technique to increase people's interest in the field of psychology and to teach some basic principles about psychology for use on a daily basis. The workshop covers sensation; perception; learning; memory; responding; thinking; interference;…

  1. [The psychological consequences of precarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, André

    2011-05-01

    Psychological suffering does not just effect people in a situation of exclusion and precarity. However, it does assume in these people considerable importance, representing profound suffering and hampering their efforts to reintegrate into society. Re-establishing a sociallink and putting in place support networks are two solutions to implement.

  2. Associations of ikigai as a positive psychological factor with all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged and elderly Japanese people: findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Kozo; Sakata, Kiyomi; Ohsawa, Masaki; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Yaegashi, Yumi; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2009-07-01

    To determine whether presence of ikigai as a positive psychological factor is associated with decreased risks for all-cause and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged and elderly Japanese men and women. From 1988 to 1990, a total of 30,155 men and 43,117 women aged 40 to 79 years completed a lifestyle questionnaire including a question about ikigai. Mortality follow-up was available for a mean of 12.5 years and was classified as having occurred in the first 5 years or the subsequent follow-up period. Associations between ikigai and all-cause and cause-specific mortality were assessed using a Cox's regression model. Multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) were adjusted for age, body mass index, drinking and smoking status, physical activity, sleep duration, education, occupation, marital status, perceived mental stress, and medical history. During the follow-up period, 10,021 deaths were recorded. Men and women with ikigai had decreased risks of mortality from all causes in the long-term follow-up period; multivariate HRs (95% confidence intervals, CIs) were 0.85 (0.80-0.90) for men and 0.93 (0.86-1.00) for women. The risk of cardiovascular mortality was reduced in men with ikigai; the multivariate HR (95% CI) was 0.86 (0.76-0.97). Furthermore, men and women with ikigai had a decreased risk for mortality from external causes; multivariate HRs (95% CIs) were 0.74 (0.59-0.93) for men and 0.67 (0.51-0.88) for women. The findings suggest that a positive psychological factor such as ikigai is associated with longevity among Japanese people.

  3. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  4. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  5. Narrating psychological distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinken, Jörg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients......' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress could provide useful information about their suitability for self-help. The aim of this study was to explore whether the syntactic integration of clauses into narrative in texts written by prospective psychotherapy patients was related to mild...... to moderate psychological distress. Cross-clausal syntax of texts by 97 people who had contacted a primary care mental health service was analyzed. Severity of symptoms associated with mental health difficulties was assessed by a standardized scale (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation outcome measure...

  6. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  7. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive

  8. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not

  9. Environmental psychology matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Environmental psychology examines transactions between individuals and their built and natural environments. This includes investigating behaviors that inhibit or foster sustainable, climate-healthy, and nature-enhancing choices, the antecedents and correlates of those behaviors, and interventions to increase proenvironmental behavior. It also includes transactions in which nature provides restoration or inflicts stress, and transactions that are more mutual, such as the development of place attachment and identity and the impacts on and from important physical settings such as home, workplaces, schools, and public spaces. As people spend more time in virtual environments, online transactions are coming under increasing research attention. Every aspect of human existence occurs in one environment or another, and the transactions with and within them have important consequences both for people and their natural and built worlds. Environmental psychology matters.

  10. Globalization and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chi-Yue; Kwan, Letty Yan-Yee

    2016-04-01

    In globalized societies, people often encounter symbols of diverse cultures in the same space at the same time. Simultaneous exposure to diverse cultures draws people's attention to cultural differences and promotes catergorical perceptions of culture. Local cultural identification and presence of cultural threat increase the likelihood of resisting inflow of foreign cultures (exclusionary reactions). When cultures are seen as intellectual resources, foreign cultural exposure affords intercultural learning and enhances individual creativity (integrative reactions). Psychological studies of globalization attest to the utility of treating cultures as evolving, interacting systems, rather than static, independent entities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  12. Forensic psychology and correctional psychology: Distinct but related subfields of psychological science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Tess M S

    2018-02-12

    This article delineates 2 separate but related subfields of psychological science and practice applicable across all major areas of the field (e.g., clinical, counseling, developmental, social, cognitive, community). Forensic and correctional psychology are related by their historical roots, involvement in the justice system, and the shared population of people they study and serve. The practical and ethical contexts of these subfields is distinct from other areas of psychology-and from one another-with important implications for ecologically valid research and ethically sound practice. Forensic psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the law to help resolve legal, contractual, or administrative matters. Correctional psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the justice system to inform the classification, treatment, and management of offenders to reduce risk and improve public safety. There has been and continues to be great interest in both subfields-especially the potential for forensic and correctional psychological science to help resolve practical issues and questions in legal and justice settings. This article traces the shared and separate developmental histories of these subfields, outlines their important distinctions and implications, and provides a common understanding and shared language for psychologists interested in applying their knowledge in forensic or correctional contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Perceived Social Support and Assertiveness as a Predictor of Candidates Psychological Counselors' Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Bünyamin

    2016-01-01

    In this research, to what extent the variables of perceived social support (family, friends and special people) and assertiveness predicted the psychological well-being levels of candidate psychological counselors. The research group of this study included totally randomly selected 308 candidate psychological counselors including 174 females…

  14. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  15. Household composition and psychological health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...

  16. The nature and psychological content of information psychological impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny G. Baranov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of theoretical analysis of «information-psychological impact» category. The study aims to determine the role and place of impacts of such kind in the upbringing process, and in education in general. The paper contrasts comparative analysis of existing scientific approaches to understanding the nature and psychological content of the concept of “information” and psychological impact. Based on the data mentioned above, the conclusion is made that the psychological impact is the influence of surrounding elements of the physical and social environment on the people, which change the course of their mental processes, mental state, psychological structure of consciousness and behaviour. In addition, the purposeful psychological impact carried out either by an individual or a collective entity can be direct or indirect (e.g. information psychological. Based on the performed analysis the conclusion is made that depending on their purpose and nature of influence, information and psychological impact can be manipulative (subject-object or developmental (subject-subject. Manipulative impact creates temporary, unstable mental forms, while developing impact creates stable personality forms. Both kinds of information and psychological influences can be observes in the educational process. The teacher selects types of influence based on his/her own pedagogical qualifications and teaching objectives: to develop the personality of the student or to form behavioural stereotypes.

  17. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  18. Why we eat what we eat : Psychological influences on eating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sproesser, Gurdrun

    2012-01-01

    The present dissertation addresses psychological influences on eating behavior.Understanding why people eat what they eat in everyday life, that is, motives for eating behavior, is crucial for the development of interventions to promote normal eating and to prevent eating disorders. Furthermore, enhancing knowledge about both, individual and situational factors facilitating (pull factors) or impeding (push factors) healthy eating is essential for the prevention and treatment of obesity and it...

  19. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation therapy , hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments can also be combined. Review of well- ... Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics ... Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS Take Part in Online ...

  20. [Psychological harassment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.

  1. Psychological counselling in problematic diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek, F. J.; Skinner, T. C.

    2002-01-01

    -destructive behaviour, but future research should substantiate these preliminary findings. Behaviour family therapy proved beneficial in terms of resolving family conflicts, but did not impact glycaemic control. Conclusions: Evidence to support the effect of psychological treatment in problematic diabetes is still......Background: In past decades clinicians have increasingly recognized the importance of psychological support for people with diabetes and their families, and many have recommended integrating psychological counselling into routine diabetes care. It is therefore important to consider whether...... psychological interventions in diabetes are effective in improving clinical outcomes. Methods: This review was limited to the literature reporting on the treatment of five common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management: depression, eating disorders, anxiety/stress, self...

  2. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  3. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  4. Attitudes to Exercise and Diabetes in Young People with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryninks, Kirsty; Sutton, Eileen; Thomas, Elizabeth; Jago, Russell; Shield, Julian P H; Burren, Christine P

    2015-01-01

    To investigate young people's attitudes to, and understanding of, physical activity on glycaemic control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Four focus groups with 11-14 and 15-16 year olds were conducted with twelve young people with Type 1 Diabetes, from within a larger study investigating physical activity and fitness. Qualitative analysis of the focus group data was performed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Four superordinate themes were identified: Benefits of Exercise, Knowledge and Understanding, Information and Training and "You can do anything". Young people felt that exercising helped them to manage their diabetes and had a beneficial psychological and physical impact on their bodies. They reported a lack of knowledge and understanding about diabetes among school staff and other young people. The overwhelming sense from young people was that although diabetes impacts upon their lives, with preparation, physical activity can take place as normal. Whilst young people had an awareness of the physical and psychological benefits of exercise in managing their diabetes, they experienced difficulties at school. Professional support and discussions with young people, giving tailored strategies for managing Type 1 Diabetes during exercise are needed. Healthcare teams should ensure that the support and educational needs of school staff are met. Providing more opportunities to empower young people to take on the responsibility for their Type 1 Diabetes care is merited. Young people felt diabetes did not stop them from participating in activities; it is simply a part of them that needs managing throughout life.

  5. Attitudes to Exercise and Diabetes in Young People with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Ryninks

    Full Text Available To investigate young people's attitudes to, and understanding of, physical activity on glycaemic control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.Four focus groups with 11-14 and 15-16 year olds were conducted with twelve young people with Type 1 Diabetes, from within a larger study investigating physical activity and fitness. Qualitative analysis of the focus group data was performed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.Four superordinate themes were identified: Benefits of Exercise, Knowledge and Understanding, Information and Training and "You can do anything". Young people felt that exercising helped them to manage their diabetes and had a beneficial psychological and physical impact on their bodies. They reported a lack of knowledge and understanding about diabetes among school staff and other young people. The overwhelming sense from young people was that although diabetes impacts upon their lives, with preparation, physical activity can take place as normal.Whilst young people had an awareness of the physical and psychological benefits of exercise in managing their diabetes, they experienced difficulties at school. Professional support and discussions with young people, giving tailored strategies for managing Type 1 Diabetes during exercise are needed. Healthcare teams should ensure that the support and educational needs of school staff are met. Providing more opportunities to empower young people to take on the responsibility for their Type 1 Diabetes care is merited. Young people felt diabetes did not stop them from participating in activities; it is simply a part of them that needs managing throughout life.

  6. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    ’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  8. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  9. Psychology and the conduct of everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psychology and the Conduct of Everyday Life moves psychological theory and research practice out of the laboratory and into the everyday world. Drawing on recent developments across the social and human sciences, it examines how people live as active subjects within the contexts of their everyday...

  10. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  11. Interdisciplinary Aspects of Learning: Physics and Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleg, Yavoruk

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with interdisciplinary aspects of learning in the case of physics and psychology. It describes the lab-based academic course focused on: observation and experimentation; discovery of new scientific facts; measurement; identification of errors; the study of psychological characteristics of people (time perception, the reaction…

  12. The Psychology of Conspiracy Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Karen M; Sutton, Robbie M; Cichocka, Aleksandra

    2017-12-01

    What psychological factors drive the popularity of conspiracy theories , which explain important events as secret plots by powerful and malevolent groups? What are the psychological consequences of adopting these theories? We review the current research and find that it answers the first of these questions more thoroughly than the second. Belief in conspiracy theories appears to be driven by motives that can be characterized as epistemic (understanding one's environment), existential (being safe and in control of one's environment), and social (maintaining a positive image of the self and the social group). However, little research has investigated the consequences of conspiracy belief, and to date, this research does not indicate that conspiracy belief fulfills people's motivations. Instead, for many people, conspiracy belief may be more appealing than satisfying. Further research is needed to determine for whom, and under what conditions, conspiracy theories may satisfy key psychological motives.

  13. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  14. Anthropological aspects of health psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Shuvalov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a theoretical study carried out in the framework of the research project «Determinants of psychological health of the modern person». The issue of psychological health is considered in the context of the anthropological crisis that affects public body and causes a decrease in synergetic social life. On the level of specific manifestations, it is associated with damage to the spiritual and moral sphere, distortion of personal way of life and interpersonal relationships, which leads to a general decline in viability. A growing number of people, whose subjective state can be described as mentally fit, but personally sick is identified. Secondary symptoms of such conditions are depression, aggression, dependent behaviour. However, their essential characteristics are not captured by the existing social psychological, psychological pedagogical and medical psychological concepts and also do not fit the typical description of psychological emotional and/or behavioural disorders. The author adheres to the hypothesis that these states have specific spiritual and psychological conditions and symptoms that deserve scientific analysis and philosophical reflection. The leitmotif of the paper is the issue of mental health in its scientific and philosophical sense. Representation of health from the standpoint of modern humanitarian knowledge and traditional spiritual culture are generalized. The theory of general psychological health is developed. The main approaches to the problem of psychological health are presented. Comparative analysis of the humanistic and anthropological models of mental health is shown. Correspondence between the anthropological conditions and criteria of mental health concepts of the modern national educational ideal is presented. Educational activity is described as anthropological practice aimed at acquiring by a child the wide range of values as a person. As such, it is the most conducive to

  15. Contexto social, biológico, psicológico, económico y cultural en personas con heridas en miembros inferiores Social, biological, psychological, economic and cultural contexts of people with wounded legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATA VIRGINIA GONZÁLEZ CONSUEGRA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación caracteriza los contextos cultural, económico, social, biológico y psicológico de las personas usuarias del programa Clínica de Heridas dirigido por un grupo de profesoras del área de Fundamentación en enfermería de la Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Se sabe que el cuidado de personas con heridas exige el conocimiento de la severidad de las mismas, especialmente las heridas vasculares que son crónicas y de lenta cicatrización. Las condiciones que retardan su recuperación conllevan alto riesgo de complicaciones, así como el estado nutricional, la accesibilidad a asistencia médica y la motivación para la recuperación. La pobre cicatrización y las lesiones derivadas de los procesos lentos de recuperación de la integridad de la piel en las heridas de origen vascular son un grave problema de salud porque exponen al individuo a infecciones que pueden volverse graves o incluso llevar a la muerte, además porque originan una importante alteración de la autoestima, que puede causar en algunas personas aislamiento y sentimientos de minusvalía. En el proceso de recuperación hay que tener en cuenta aspectos como la nutrición, edad, enfermedades asociadas, estadio de la herida, aspectos psicológicos y apoyo social con que cuenta la persona. Una vez definida la multicausalidad en las personas con heridas de origen vascular, se realiza esta investigación que pretende aportar, desde los diferentes contextos de estudio, las bases teóricas y prácticas que orienten en forma asertiva al profesional de enfermería y al resto del grupo interdisciplinario para elaborar planes de cuidado más integrales que trasciendan lo biológico, a fin de mejorar el estado de salud en la población vulnerable.This research characterizes the cultural, economic, social, biological and psychological context of users of the Injury Treatment Center program led by a group of lecturers of the area of

  16. Towards effective interventions for transgender people and their clients to prevent HIV infection and transmission : A study of the psychological determinants, sexual behavior s, and socio-demographic characteristics related to condom use and health care use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prabawanti, Ciptasari

    2015-01-01

    In Indonesia, transgender people (waria) have the second highest HIV prevalence (21.9%), the first being people who inject drugs (36.4%). To reduce HIV incidence among transgender people and prevent HIV transmission, they should have access to all prevention services including education, prevention

  17. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Assessment of Body perception, Psychological Distress, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity can lead to psychological, social, and medical problems that may negatively affect the quality of life Aim: In our study, we aimed to evaluate the body perception, psychological distress, and subjective quality of life of obese subjects in comparison with normal weighted ones. Methods: A total of 494 ...

  19. Understanding the Development of School Psychology in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Rik Carl; van Schalkwyk, Gertina J.; Zhao, B. Yang; Hu, Juan

    2013-01-01

    School psychology is an important area within psychology, which has a short developmental history in Mainland China. Nonetheless, along with economic advances and social changes in Mainland China, school psychology is developing and becoming more important. Currently, people need to work harder and longer. This places many under pressure that may…

  20. Transgender across the Curriculum: A Psychology for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana; Tittsworth, Josephine

    2009-01-01

    Neumann (2005) called for an analysis of marginalization and inclusion of lesbian, gay, and bisexual students in psychology. As psychology instructors begin to infuse such content, the curriculum still overwhelmingly neglects the transgender community. This invisibility of transgender people within psychology courses allows for perpetuation of…

  1. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  2. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  3. Health Needs Assessment of Older People in an Agricultural Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normah Che Din

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Psychological factors had the main influence on health functioning of the older people of FELDA. Physical health needs of the older people in FELDA were determined mainly by psychological, nutritional, and lifestyle factors, whereas mental health needs were determined mainly by psychological, socioeconomic, and social factors. FELDA has vast resources to utilize for the running and maintaining of health programs for their older people as well as for evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of health programs.

  4. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  5. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  6. The Promise of Positive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Positive Psychology has demonstrated its usefulness in studying and contributing to individual well being. The next big challenge for this new field is to help improving the social and cultural conditions in which people live. Three specific goals are discussed: A more complete understanding of human nature; forging a more sustainable and more fair social contract; and a rediscovery of the joys of existence. If Positive Psychology will be able to support these goals, it will become an important contributor to the evolution of human consciousness and the evolution of culture.

  7. Revisioning Clinical Psychology: Integrating Cultural Psychology into Clinical Research and Practice with Portuguese Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    James, Susan; Harris, Sara; Foster, Gary; Clarke, Juanne; Gadermann, Anne; Morrison, Marie; Bezanson, Birdie Jane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a model for conducting psychotherapy with people of diverse cultural backgrounds. The theoretical foundation for the model is based on clinical and cultural psychology. Cultural psychology integrates psychology and anthropology in order to provide a complex understanding of both culture and the individual within his or her cultural context. The model proposed in this article is also based on our clinical experience and mixed method research with the Portuguese communi...

  8. Educational Psychology Working to Improve Psychological Well-Being: An Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Joe; Singh-Dhesi, Davinder

    2010-01-01

    This article presents one English local authority's educational psychology service's approach to supporting children and young people's psychological well-being. Evidence for the effectiveness of the therapeutic approaches adopted by one intervention (the Child Behaviour Intervention Initiative [CBII]) is presented. The statistical analysis…

  9. Dual Processes in the Psychology of Mathematics Education and Cognitive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Ellen; Van Dooren, Wim; Schaeken, Walter; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2009-01-01

    Research in the psychology of mathematics education has been confronted with the fact that people blatantly fail to solve tasks they are supposed to be able to solve correctly given their available domain-specific knowledge and skills. Also researchers in cognitive psychology have encountered such phenomena. In this paper, theories that have been…

  10. Buddha philosophy and western psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!

  11. Buddha philosophy and western psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between “two of the most powerful forces” operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote ‘if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy’. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced! PMID:23858249

  12. Pilot of a randomised controlled trial of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline versus cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety symptoms in people with generalised anxiety disorder who have failed to respond to low-intensity psychological treatments as defined by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszewicz, Marta; Cape, John; Serfaty, Marc; Shafran, Roz; Kabir, Thomas; Tyrer, Peter; Clarke, Caroline S; Nazareth, Irwin

    2017-08-01

    Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) is common, causing unpleasant symptoms and impaired functioning. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines have established good evidence for low-intensity psychological interventions, but a significant number of patients will not respond and require more intensive step 3 interventions, recommended as either high-intensity cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or a pharmacological treatment such as sertraline. However, there are no head-to-head comparisons evaluating which is more clinically effective and cost-effective, and current guidelines suggest that treatment choice at step 3 is based mainly on patient preference. To assess clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness at 12 months of treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) sertraline compared with CBT for patients with persistent GAD not improved with NICE-defined low-intensity psychological interventions. Participant randomised trial comparing treatment with sertraline with high-intensity CBT for patients with GAD who had not responded to low-intensity psychological interventions. Community-based recruitment from local Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services. Four pilot services located in urban, suburban and semirural settings. People considered likely to have GAD and not responding to low-intensity psychological interventions identified at review by IAPT psychological well-being practitioners (PWPs). Those scoring ≥ 10 on the Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) anxiety measure were asked to consider involvement in the trial. Aged ≥ 18 years, a score of ≥ 10 on the GAD-7, a primary diagnosis of GAD diagnosed on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview questionnaire and failure to respond to NICE-defined low-intensity interventions. Inability to participate because of insufficient English or cognitive impairment, current major depression, comorbid anxiety disorder(s) causing

  13. How Strong Is the Evidence that Illicit Drug Use by Young People Is an Important Cause of Psychological or Social Harm? Methodological and Policy Implications of a Systematic Review of Longitudinal, General Population Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, John; Oakes, Rachel; Oppenkowski, Thomas; Stokes-Lampard, Helen; Copello, Alex; Crome, Ilana; Davey Smith, George; Egger, Matthias; Hickman, Mathew; Judd, Ali

    2004-01-01

    Recreational use of illicit drugs (i.e. use not associated with a diagnosed drug problem) may cause psychological and social harm. A recent systematic review found that evidence for this was equivocal. Extensive evidence was only available in relation to cannabis use. This was relatively consistently associated with lower educational attainment…

  14. Psychological harm after PANE: NEPA's requirement to consider psychological damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, W.S. III

    1984-01-01

    In Metropolitan Edison Co. v. People Against Nuclear Energy (PANE), the Supreme Court held that the National Environmental Policy Act does not require the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to consider the probable impact of its actions on psychological health. The Court's opinion, however, supports the conclusion that NEPA generally requires federal agencies to consider such probable impacts. This article examines the scope of federal responsibility following this decision. It delineates the causal relationship test that the Court adopted in PANE, and discusses possible obstacles to the consideration of psychological impacts under NEPA. It divides federal actions into four categories, then considers the benefits and burdens of the ruling using the NRC's responsibility to consider psychological health effects before licensing new nuclear reactors. 221 references

  15. Post-myelogram headache - physiological or psychological?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.; Maynard, N.; Briggs, M.; Anslow, P.; McPherson, K.; Northover, J.

    1991-01-01

    Psychological aspects of post-lumbar puncture headache have hitherto received little attention. A hundred consecutive patients admitted for elective myelography were studied. Post-myelogram headache was assessed by an independent observer and found to be strongly associated with normality of the test (P<0.001). Psychological testing showed a trend between Hospital Anxiety Depression score and normality of myelogram as well as development of headache, although this did not achieve statistical significance. This study suggestet that there is a large psychological as well as organic component to post-myelogram headache. (orig.)

  16. Beyond folk psychology? : toward an enriched account of social understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Herschbach, Mitchell Albert

    2010-01-01

    Folk psychology is the ability to interpret people's mental states (beliefs, desires, etc.) and use this information to explain and predict their behavior. While folk psychology has traditionally been seen as fundamental to human social understanding, philosophers drawing on the phenomenological tradition have recently argued that most of our everyday social interactions do not involve folk psychology. I defend the role of folk psychology in human social understanding against these phenomenol...

  17. Qualitative Research in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fattah Hanurawan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Qualitative  research  is  a  research  method    studying  subjective meaning of participant’s world about  an object researched. Steps of qualitative research  in  psychology  are:  researchers  select  research  topic,  researchers formulate  research  questions,  researchers  design  the  study,  researchers  collect data, researchers analyses  data,  researchers  generate  findings,  researchers validate findings, and researchers write research report. Some of the qualitative research  designs  are  grounded  research,  phenomenology  research,  case  study research,  and  ethnography  research.  In  some  situations,  researchers  often  meet questions  that  reach  beyond  the  prescription  of  the  APA  ethical  guidelines concerning  human  participants.  Researchers  of  qualitative  research  in psychology  can  generalize  their  research  findings  to  other  people,  times,  or treatments  to  the  degree  to  which  they  are  similar to  other  people,  times,  or treatments in the original research (naturalistic generalization. There are some strategies  for  expanding  qualitative  research  as  a research  approach  so  the methodology  can  be  accepted  as  one  significant  method  in  understanding psychological phenomena. Keywords:qualitative research, psychology.

  18. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes treatment outcomes ultimately depend on patients and their ability to make long-term behavioural changes that support good self-care and metabolic control. Patients' perceptions about diabetes and diabetes-related complications can have a strong influence on their emotional well...... of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  19. Psychological dimensions of Energy Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonello, Graciela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious current environmental problems is the depletion of non renewable natural resources. The vast majority of our daily actions involve the consumption of energy and they increase the problem. Environmental psychology studies the psychological motivations that determine pro-ecological behaviour. In this context the aim of this review was to determine which psychological models and variables are better descriptors of residential energy conservation, comparing the predictive power of different models related to behaviour, residential consumption as well as to the acceptability of energy policies. Results suggest that energy saving is mainly linked to altruistic motivations, followed by egoistic reasons and in a minor way to environmental concerns. People would act according to these dimensions when contextual conditions are perceived as appropriate.

  20. From psychology of personality to psychology of persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojnov Dušan B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers diverse approaches to human subjectivity conceptualization. On the one hand, a summary is made of an established psychological view of personality as an intrinsic psychological entity responsible for stylistic differences in the behavior of isolated individuals, founded on the traditional Cartesian view. On the other hand more recent views are presented, which take human subjectivity as personhood i.e. responsible action of moral subjects, placed within amongst-people space, and implying allied activity of persons in a social community. In addition, consideration is given to new methodological demands for psychologists who want to research the domain of human personhood as well as to deviations of a "new paradigm" of psychological investigations from scientific tradition in viewing methods that has prevailed in psychology until recently. Clarification of demands for studying personhood is a new trend in psychology, so it should be stressed that such orientation, despite its long-lasting past, virtually has a very short history.

  1. Community psychology practice: expanding the impact of psychology's work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Tom

    2014-11-01

    This article introduces the reader to community psychology practice by defining the field and its key principles and then illustrating through brief case stories what community psychology practice looks like in various employment settings. An exploration of the development of the field includes a review of the competencies of community psychology practice. Finally, the emerging opportunities for community psychology practice for psychologists are outlined. Well-publicized issues such as health disparities give psychologists an opportunity to bring social problems such as racism, sexism, homophobia, and income inequality to the forefront and to create community-wide efforts to improve the ways in which people live. Community psychology practice offers psychologists a format and a set of competencies for moving forward on this work by focusing on approaches that are ecological, community centered, population based, preventive, focused on systems change and empowerment, and multidisciplinary and that bring those most affected by the issues to the heart of the decision making. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Gestalt psychology: the forgotten paradigm in abnormal psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M; Uhlhaas, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    Gestalt views of psychopathology are almost completely ignored in mainstream psychology and psychiatry. However, a review of available evidence indicates a remarkable consistency between these views and current data from experimental psychopathology and cognitive neuroscience. This consistency is especially pronounced in the area of schizophrenia. In addition, there is a convergence of cognitive and neurobiological evidence regarding the validity of early Gestalt views of both normal brain-behavior relationships and disordered ones, as in schizophrenia. This article reviews some contributions of Gestalt psychology regarding schizophrenia and examines these views in light of more recent findings from cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and experimental psychopathology. We conclude that Gestalt theory is a viable theoretical framework from which to understand schizophrenia. Specifically, it appears that a breakdown of Gestalt organizational processes may characterize both the cognitive and the brain processes in schizophrenia.

  3. Normal feline behaviour: … and why problem behaviours develop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, John

    2018-05-01

    Practical relevance: Cats are descended from a solitary, territorial ancestor, and while domestication has reduced their inherited tendency to be antagonistic towards all animals larger than their typical prey, they still place more reliance on the security of their territory than on psychological attachments to people or other cats, the exact opposite to dogs. Many feline problem behaviours stem from perceived threats to this security, often due to conflicts with other cats. Others are more developmental in origin, often caused by inadequate exposure to crucial stimuli, especially people, during the socialisation period. Strongly aversive events experienced at any age can also contribute. A third category comprises normal behaviour that owners deem unacceptable, such as scratching of furniture. Evidence base: This review identifies three areas in which basic research is inadequate to support widely employed concepts and practices in feline behavioural medicine. First, classification of cats' problem behaviours relies heavily on approaches derived from studies of their behavioural ecology and, to some extent, extrapolation from canine studies. Few studies have focused on cats in the home, the environment in which most behavioural disorders are expressed. Secondly, cats' chemical senses (olfactory and vomeronasal) are far more sensitive than our own, making it difficult for owners or clinicians to fully comprehend the sensory information upon which they base their behaviour. Thirdly, although the concept of psychological distress is widely invoked as an intervening variable in behavioural disorders, there are still no reliable measures of distress for pet cats in the home. Global importance: Psychological distress of some kind is the primary cause of many of the behavioural problems presented to clinicians, but surveys indicate that many more cats display the same clinical signs without their owners ever seeking help. The welfare of this 'invisible' group could be

  4. Normalization as a Strategy for Maintaining Quality of Life While Coping with Infertility in a Pronatalist Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamini, Yael; Gozlan, Miri; Weissman, Ariel

    2017-12-01

    Infertility could be highly stressful, particularly in a pronatalist culture. We aimed to develop the concept and a measure of normalization (maintaining normal life routines and feeling "normal") as a strategy that could enable women with infertility maintain their quality of life (QoL) while coping with this condition. We tested its associations with women's well-being, distress and QoL in Israel, where being childless is socially unacceptable and highly stigmatized. One-hundred and eighty Israeli women undergoing infertility treatment at a fertility community clinic filled in questionnaires assessing normalization-related coping strategies, QoL, and psychological adjustment (distress, wellbeing). Eight months later, 55 women conceived; 55 women who had not conceived completed a second questionnaire. At baseline, normalization was related to higher QoL and better adjustment. Structural equation modeling showed that QoL was impaired mainly among women who felt different than others, compared, and blamed themselves. Over time, normalization was overall unrelated to conception or to changes in adjustment yet was protective against decrease in well-being among women who already had a child. Infertility is highly stressful in a pronatalist culture like Israel. It requires treatment yet is not disabling. Patients who manage to maintain normal routines and not feel different than other people their age may experience better QoL and psychological adjustment.

  5. A comparision of Brain-Behavioral Systems in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kobra Moradi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare   Brain-Behavioral Systems in patient with multiple sclerocis (MS and normal individuals. Materials and Methods: This research was a post facto comparative study, subjects included  healthy persons and all patients with MS, which in summer and autumn 2013 referred to neurologists in the Lorestan province. Of the population using as samples, 117 cases (75 patients and 42 normal subjects were selected, then Gray- Wilson Personality Questionnaire was completed for them. To analyze the data, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA test  was used to compare the two groups. Results: The results showed, in BAS scales, people with MS had significantly lower scores than normal subjects Conclusion: What comes from findings indicates that a low score in behavioral activation as a pathological factors in chronic diseases such as MS is concerned and is in need of psychological treatment.

  6. The Efficacy of Psychological Therapies in Reducing Weight and Binge Eating in People with Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder Who Are Overweight or Obese—A Critical Synthesis and Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavras, Marly Amorim; Hay, Phillipa; dos Santos Filho, Celso Alves; Claudino, Angélica

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent binge eating episodes, the core feature of Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED), are frequently comorbid with obesity. Psychological interventions, notably Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), are effective for binge eating reduction in BED or BN but less so for weight loss. Behavioural Weight Loss Therapy (BWLT) shows effectiveness for binge eating reduction and weight loss but the latter appears poorly sustained over time. Our aim was to review evidence for efficacy of psychological therapies for BN/BED associated with overweight or obesity in reducing binge frequency and weight. A systematic search for randomized controlled trials with adult samples who had BN or BED was conducted considering articles in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese with no restrictions for the timeline publication ending in March 2016. A quality appraisal of the trials and meta-analyses comparing BWLT to CBT were done. This review identified 2248 articles for screening and 19 published articles were selected. No trials of BN were identified. This review found CBT was favoured compared to BWLT with regard to short-term binge eating reduction. However, insufficient evidence was found for superiority for BWLT efficacy compared to CBT considering binge eating remission, reduction of binge eating frequency and weight loss. More research is needed to test the efficacy of psychological treatments for BED or BN with co-morbid overweight or obesity, including trials evaluating binge eating remission and weight loss in the long-term. PMID:28304341

  7. The Efficacy of Psychological Therapies in Reducing Weight and Binge Eating in People with Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder Who Are Overweight or Obese-A Critical Synthesis and Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavras, Marly Amorim; Hay, Phillipa; Filho, Celso Alves Dos Santos; Claudino, Angélica

    2017-03-17

    Recurrent binge eating episodes, the core feature of Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED), are frequently comorbid with obesity. Psychological interventions, notably Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), are effective for binge eating reduction in BED or BN but less so for weight loss. Behavioural Weight Loss Therapy (BWLT) shows effectiveness for binge eating reduction and weight loss but the latter appears poorly sustained over time. Our aim was to review evidence for efficacy of psychological therapies for BN/BED associated with overweight or obesity in reducing binge frequency and weight. A systematic search for randomized controlled trials with adult samples who had BN or BED was conducted considering articles in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese with no restrictions for the timeline publication ending in March 2016. A quality appraisal of the trials and meta-analyses comparing BWLT to CBT were done. This review identified 2248 articles for screening and 19 published articles were selected. No trials of BN were identified. This review found CBT was favoured compared to BWLT with regard to short-term binge eating reduction. However, insufficient evidence was found for superiority for BWLT efficacy compared to CBT considering binge eating remission, reduction of binge eating frequency and weight loss. More research is needed to test the efficacy of psychological treatments for BED or BN with co-morbid overweight or obesity, including trials evaluating binge eating remission and weight loss in the long-term.

  8. Psychology and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Nancy M.

    1985-01-01

    Considers recent efforts within the field of psychology to understand issues involving gender. Demonstrates patterns of development within feminist psychology and its relation to mainstream psychology. Examines status of the field, two case studies, and new research. (Author/SA)

  9. E-Psychology: Consumers' Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Malina; Vasileva, Lidia; Rasheva, Maximka; Bojinova, Rumiana

    Securing psychological supervision, consultations and help during long lasting flights is vital condition for success. That's why, knowing in details consumers (clients) attitude toward virtual psychology services is essential. Knowledge gained during nowadays studies on Earth will definitely help in the preparation for the future. The presentation focuses on results of a longitudinal survey assessing clients' attitudes toward e-psychology service. The first part of the survey was performed in spring 2006, while the second - in 2008. The study is part of an ongoing project OHN 1514/2005, funded by National Science Fund, Bulgaria. Project's strategic goal is to develop and offer a virtual high quality psychological service to people from remotes areas that have no contact with licensed psychologist. The project enables experts to communicate directly with clients and perform remote consultations, supervision, etc. The objective of this presentation is to report changes and trends in clients' attitude towards innovative virtual psychology care. Both parts of the survey involved men and women between 19 and 70 year, who defend various opinions on the application of virtual technologies for healthcare. The sample is stratifies for age, gender, education level.

  10. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  11. Identifying blood biomarkers and physiological processes that distinguish humans with superior performance under psychological stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Cooksey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Attrition of students from aviation training is a serious financial and operational concern for the U.S. Navy. Each late stage navy aviator training failure costs the taxpayer over $1,000,000 and ultimately results in decreased operational readiness of the fleet. Currently, potential aviators are selected based on the Aviation Selection Test Battery (ASTB, which is a series of multiple-choice tests that evaluate basic and aviation-related knowledge and ability. However, the ASTB does not evaluate a person's response to stress. This is important because operating sophisticated aircraft demands exceptional performance and causes high psychological stress. Some people are more resistant to this type of stress, and consequently better able to cope with the demands of naval aviation, than others.Although many psychological studies have examined psychological stress resistance none have taken advantage of the human genome sequence. Here we use high-throughput -omic biology methods and a novel statistical data normalization method to identify plasma proteins associated with human performance under psychological stress. We identified proteins involved in four basic physiological processes: innate immunity, cardiac function, coagulation and plasma lipid physiology.The proteins identified here further elucidate the physiological response to psychological stress and suggest a hypothesis that stress-susceptible pilots may be more prone to shock. This work also provides potential biomarkers for screening humans for capability of superior performance under stress.

  12. Procrastination and Aggression for Mental Disorders in Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvereva M. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents analyze the phenomenon of procrastination and indirect manifestations of aggression in young people in normal health and mental disorders. Procrastination - a frequent phenomenon among young people, for this category the term “academic procrastination”; the high level of the various manifestations of aggression can also accompany adolescents in health and disease. The purpose of research is analysis of the relationship of procrastination and manifestations of aggression in health and mental disorders in adolescence. A complex of methods of psychological diagnosis, which included: questionnaire “Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students” (PASS, Solomon & Rothblum, 1984 Rosenzweig Frustration Test, Wagners Hand Test. We studied two samples of subjects 18-25 years: a control group of healthy young people (boys and girls - 61 people, the experimental group - young people of both sexes who had mental disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, affective disorders bipolar disorder, personality disorder – 57. The results indicate the presence of the specific nature of components procrastination and indirect aggression manifestations of different levels at a young age for mental pathology

  13. Decolonizing Liberation: Toward a Transnational Feminist Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğçe Kurtiş

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper engages the theme of “decolonizing psychological science” in the context of a perspective on psychological theory and research—namely, feminist psychology—that shares an emphasis on broad liberation. Although conceived as a universal theory and practice of liberation, scholars across diverse sites have suggested that feminism—perhaps especially as it manifests in psychological science—is not always compatible with and at times is even contradictory to global struggles for decolonization. The liberatory impulse of feminist psychology falls short of its potential not only because of its grounding in neocolonial legacies of hegemonic feminisms, but also because of its complicity with neocolonial tendencies of hegemonic psychological science. In response to these concerns, we draw upon on perspectives of transnational feminisms and cultural psychology as tools to decolonize (feminist psychology. We then propose the possibility of a (transnational feminist psychology that takes the epistemological position of people in various marginalized majority-world settings as a resource to rethink conventional scientific wisdom and liberate “liberation”. Rather than freeing some women to better participate in global domination, a transnational feminist psychology illuminates sustainable ways of being that are consistent with broader liberation of humanity in general.

  14. Psychological literacy: from classroom to real world

    OpenAIRE

    Hulme, JA

    2014-01-01

    Psychology is being studied by a growing number of people. At pre-tertiary level, it is now the fourth most popular subject, with over 56,000 entries for A-level examinations and 101,000 entries for AS-level examinations this year (JCQ, 2014). According to the Quality Assurance Agency Subject Benchmark for Psychology (QAA, 2010), psychology is one of the most popular subjects for undergraduate study in the UK (at the time of the publication of the Subject Benchmark, it was the second most stu...

  15. Psychological debriefing (PD of trauma: a proposed model for Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E L Van Dyk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Africa is a continent with severe trauma. Traumatic events include experiences of child soldiers, people living in war and conflict zones, and people struggling with the HIV/AIDS pandemic. These events cause high levels of trauma. The trauma causes psychological disorders like post traumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder and combat stress reaction, specific in the military environment. This article focuses on a better understanding of the implications of trauma for military people and civilians. It discusses the different theories and models of psychological debriefing. Lastly the article discusses psychological debriefing models for military forces and the civil ian population to prevent severe psychopathology after traumatic incidents in Africa.

  16. Positive Psychology and old age Psychology. Theoretical Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Lombardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical review of developments and research of the posi- tive psychology and of the psychology of aging. Some concepts that are in that intersection are: psychic capital, strengths, psychological wellbeing and emo- tional regulation. In all the cases they are positive psychic factors associated to the successful aging. Since the end of the 20th century, within the psychology of aging has been developing and achieved fundamental transformations in term of theoretical bases in which it leans on. One of these transformations arises of its encounter with the positive Psychology, of recent appearance too. The theoretical work in this field is of interest because from a classic perspec- tive, from a biological view, aging is regarded as the decline in physical and psychic strengths and, therefore, the loss of those features and positive qualities that were fundamental during the youthful and mature life. Old age would be marked by a deterioration, fragility and loss of progressive selfregulation of the individual person. This view lead to ignoring clearly positive aspects of old the age such as the gathering experience or the greater availability of free time that would allow elderly people to search for ways of personal realization, among others. Of the journey for the different concepts in those that positive psychology and gerontology go being defined a group of characteristic of what we can call the psychic aging. In the first place a change appears in the perspective about what this process implies. Aging is not seen as a relentless and universal process of decline, but rather besides a great variability, it presents different aspects in those that we see the development of potentialities and resources that were not present in other ages. 

  17. Group Counseling for People with Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch; Wilson, Lisa M.; Pullo, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    Group counseling has been used with a wide range of people who have physical disorders including psychosomatic conditions, sensory (visual and auditory) disabilities, neuromuscular and orthopedic impairments, and life-threatening diseases. The needs and concerns of these people can be generally delineated as physical, psychological, social,…

  18. people | News

    Science.gov (United States)

    of Communication Fermilab news Search Useful links Symmetry magazine Interactions Interact people , people, building, Wilson Hall, farm, planter A John Deere planter is ready for work. Josh Frieman takes the experiment for the next two years. Controlled burn at Pine Street entrance May 9, 2018 Ryan

  19. Psychological aspects of personnel contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.L.

    1985-04-01

    This paper discusses some of the major emotional considerations involved in the treatment of people who have been contaminated with potentially hazardous materials. Although the principal focus is the treatment of people trained to work with these materials, an attempt is also made to extend these methods to people having little or no knowledge of such matters. Accidents always result in emotional trauma. When the accident involves radioactive or other potentially toxic, carcinogenic, or mutagenic materials, there is a possibility of enhanced emotional stress due to the mystique surrounding these substances. Several psychological principles that have emerged from the treatment of radioactively-contaminated workers are: (1) provide pre-accident training for all radiation workers; (2) avoid secrets; (3) as rapidly as possible following a contamination accident, bring the worker into contact with others; (4) recognize the emotions of the family and the family's fears and trauma; and (5) do not desert the worker after decontamination has been completed. 1 ref

  20. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  1. People's Education (for People's Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thokozani Mathebula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The central feature of Athenian citizens' rights, that is, people's participation in government, is also enshrined in the South African Constitution. This article argues for the Athenian style of participatory democracy as a viable model of participation in governing South African schools. The author claims that 'people's education', which had its origins in the principles of the Freedom Charter¹ - was diluted during the negotiationsfor South Africa's new democratic government. As a result, the political and educational ideal of 'people's education for 'people's power' has given way to democratic elitism in post-apartheid South African schools.

  2. The folk psychology of souls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, Jesse M

    2006-10-01

    The present article examines how people's belief in an afterlife, as well as closely related supernatural beliefs, may open an empirical backdoor to our understanding of the evolution of human social cognition. Recent findings and logic from the cognitive sciences contribute to a novel theory of existential psychology, one that is grounded in the tenets of Darwinian natural selection. Many of the predominant questions of existential psychology strike at the heart of cognitive science. They involve: causal attribution (why is mortal behavior represented as being causally related to one's afterlife? how are dead agents envisaged as communicating messages to the living?), moral judgment (why are certain social behaviors, i.e., transgressions, believed to have ultimate repercussions after death or to reap the punishment of disgruntled ancestors?), theory of mind (how can we know what it is "like" to be dead? what social-cognitive strategies do people use to reason about the minds of the dead?), concept acquisition (how does a common-sense dualism interact with a formalized socio-religious indoctrination in childhood? how are supernatural properties of the dead conceptualized by young minds?), and teleological reasoning (why do people so often see their lives as being designed for a purpose that must be accomplished before they perish? how do various life events affect people's interpretation of this purpose?), among others. The central thesis of the present article is that an organized cognitive "system" dedicated to forming illusory representations of (1) psychological immortality, (2) the intelligent design of the self, and (3) the symbolic meaning of natural events evolved in response to the unique selective pressures of the human social environment.

  3. Western radicalization: rethinking the psychology of terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Pierson, Vern

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. strategy to counter violent extremism relies heavily on the expert consensus that terrorists are engaging in political group speak and are by nature psychologically normal. Thus, anyone is susceptible to radicalization. To counter radicalization, finding answers is like finding a needle in a haystack. However, in the psychologically similar phenomenon of arson by firefighter—when a firefighter deliberately sets and then exting...

  4. Religious Experience from a Neuro-Psychological View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Vakili

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The search for the basis of religious experience among neurological processes in the brain has resulted in a widespread debate within, as well as outside the academic world. The aim of this paper is to analyze to what extent a neuro-psychological theory could explain the phenomenon of  religious experience. To clarify what the neuro-psychological studies of  the present paper mean by the concept of  religious experience, the concept has been divided into three different types: The Erlebnis or RErl type, the Erfahrung or RErf type and the ideological type of religious experience or RIT type. Furthermore, the present paper is focused on the work of neuro-psychologist M. A. Persinger [1997, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1987, 1985, and 1984]. In his studies, Persinger indicates that mystical experience (RErl has its seat in the right hemisphere of the human brain, whereas (religious ideology (RIT is related to the left hemisphere. Consequently, the hemisphere in which the (religious experience is taking place seems to label the type of experience. Persinger, interested in the powerful effects of religious experience (of the RErf type on human beings, asserts that if we could understand the neuro-cognitive processes involved in experiencing religiously, such processes might be copied for clinical use in order to improve psychiatric therapy for curing depression. Thus, Persinger studied and compared people practicing religious meditation with people who did not, and also studied the results of PET scanning on the experiences of schizophrenic and epileptic patients. PET scanning measures the metabolic activity in the hemispheres, ranging it on a scale from under normal to over normal activity. This paper will account for the relevance of comparing these two apparently different studies and for the problem arising the experience of pain because, neurologically, pain, like religious experience,is said to be caused by processes in the human brain.

  5. Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Spinner, Miriam R.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluation of normal and abnormal behavior in the period to three years of age involves many variables. Parental attitudes, determined by many factors such as previous childrearing experience, the bonding process, parental psychological status and parental temperament, often influence the labeling of behavior as normal or abnormal. This article describes the forms of crying, sleep and wakefulness, and affective responses from infancy to three years of age.

  6. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  7. Shielding: people and shelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krissdottir, M; Simon, J

    1977-01-01

    Housing is something that protects and defends. This book explores the ways in which humans have sought to defend themselves against physical dangers and to protect themselves against the imagined evils of the natural world by means of the shelters built. The book examines briefly the shelters built in ancient times, and shows how several basic types recurred in different ages and at different times. Following this there is a brief survey of the kinds of shelters built by the native peoples of Canada, depending on their environment--climate, the natural materials on hand--and the culture and life-style of each people. The next chapter explores the psychology of human beings, and how shelters should satisfy not only physical needs but psychological needs as well--the need for companionship and yet for privacy, space for children to play and community centers for adults to meet. The second half of the book looks at the dilemmas of housing today, and at various attempts around the world and in Canada to solve the problems--garden cities in England, the famous community of Tapiola in Finland, the technological innovations of Disneyland, new housing suburbs in Canada. There is a discussion of the problems of urban renewal, of overcoming the high cost of home-ownership--condominiums, cooperatives, owner-built homes, and the disadvantages of trailers--and of overcoming the energy crisis by building ecological houses.

  8. [Psychological specificities of living donor kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papeloux-Heitzmann, Élodie

    2016-12-01

    For people with end-stage kidney disease, a transplant is the promise of a future without dialysis. Living donor kidney transplantation comprises many specificities and is distinct from cadaveric donor transplantation. Some psychological aspects explain these specificities. They may be subconscious and difficult to access, but it is essential to decipher them in order to adapt the support provided to these people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive psychology and depth psychology backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The sixth chapter gives an insight into the risk perception process which is highly determined by emotions, and, thus, deals with the psychological backgrounds of both the conscious cognitive and the subconscious intuitive realms of the human psyche. The chapter deals with the formation of opinion and the origination of an attitude towards an issue; cognitive-psychological patterns of thinking from the field of risk perception; the question of man's rationality; pertinent aspects of group behaviour; depth psychological backgrounds of the fear of technology; the collective subconscious; nuclear energy as a preferred object of projection for various psychological problems of modern man. (HSCH) [de

  10. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  11. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories......The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...

  12. Dissociative Functions in the Normal Mourning Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Sees dissociative functions in mourning process as occurring in conjunction with integrative trends. Considers initial shock reaction in mourning as model of normal dissociation in mourning process. Dissociation is understood to be related to traumatic significance of death in human consciousness. Discerns four psychological categories of…

  13. Psychological targeting as an effective approach to digital mass persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, S C; Kosinski, M; Nave, G; Stillwell, D J

    2017-11-28

    People are exposed to persuasive communication across many different contexts: Governments, companies, and political parties use persuasive appeals to encourage people to eat healthier, purchase a particular product, or vote for a specific candidate. Laboratory studies show that such persuasive appeals are more effective in influencing behavior when they are tailored to individuals' unique psychological characteristics. However, the investigation of large-scale psychological persuasion in the real world has been hindered by the questionnaire-based nature of psychological assessment. Recent research, however, shows that people's psychological characteristics can be accurately predicted from their digital footprints, such as their Facebook Likes or Tweets. Capitalizing on this form of psychological assessment from digital footprints, we test the effects of psychological persuasion on people's actual behavior in an ecologically valid setting. In three field experiments that reached over 3.5 million individuals with psychologically tailored advertising, we find that matching the content of persuasive appeals to individuals' psychological characteristics significantly altered their behavior as measured by clicks and purchases. Persuasive appeals that were matched to people's extraversion or openness-to-experience level resulted in up to 40% more clicks and up to 50% more purchases than their mismatching or unpersonalized counterparts. Our findings suggest that the application of psychological targeting makes it possible to influence the behavior of large groups of people by tailoring persuasive appeals to the psychological needs of the target audiences. We discuss both the potential benefits of this method for helping individuals make better decisions and the potential pitfalls related to manipulation and privacy. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  14. Psychological factors of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartsev, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    With reference to world, internal and personal experience, an attempt is made to reveal psychological mechanisms determining the attitude of a person to ionizing radiation using for this purpose the conceptions of mental stress and psychological adaptation. On the example of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in the light of the above conceptions, the paper describes psychic reactions of the personnel of the nuclear power plant and other groups of people to the heavy radiation accident. For improvement of the activity for liquidation of the accident after-effects it is suggested to use the system of psychophysiological support of the rescue units, including psychophysiological training and support, as well as functional rehabilitation of specialists. 11 refs

  15. The psychology of computer programming

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, Gerald Marvin

    1998-01-01

    This landmark 1971 classic is reprinted with a new preface, chapter-by-chapter commentary, and straight-from-the-heart observations on topics that affect the professional life of programmers. Long regarded as one of the first books to pioneer a people-oriented approach to computing, The Psychology of Computer Programming endures as a penetrating analysis of the intelligence, skill, teamwork, and problem-solving power of the computer programmer. Finding the chapters strikingly relevant to today's issues in programming, Gerald M. Weinberg adds new insights and highlights the similarities and differences between now and then. Using a conversational style that invites the reader to join him, Weinberg reunites with some of his most insightful writings on the human side of software engineering. Topics include egoless programming, intelligence, psychological measurement, personality factors, motivation, training, social problems on large projects, problem-solving ability, programming language design, team formati...

  16. Employment, Leaving School, and Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winefield, Tony

    1985-01-01

    The author sums up the findings of research on the psychological effects of unemployment and of a variety of work experience schemes in which unemployed people participate. The article focuses on school leavers in Australia. (CT)

  17. Designing Collaborative Learning Places: Psychological Foundations and New Frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Ken A.; Goliber, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Considering the modern context of collaborative learning and information technology, details implications for space design, primarily from the field of environmental psychology--the study of the relationship between people and their physical environment. (EV)

  18. [Some psychological problems in family planning work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J

    1983-11-29

    Psychology has significance in family planning work, because it may promote the scientific nature of family planning work and thus increase its effectiveness. Since people have some common aspects in their psychological process, family planning workers should master some common rules of the people's psychological process in order to understand psychological trends and possible behavior. Through this method, family planning workers may find how to adjust to problems they may encounter in their daily work, such as the worries about a single child being too lonely, spoiled, and hard to handle for the parents, the traditional belief that more children represent good fortune, and more male children may provide security for one's old age. Traditionally, the Chinese people believed that only male children can carry on the family line and that more children will provide a larger labor force, which is beneficial to a family's financial situation. In family planning work, all such incorrect ways of thinking should be corrected and revised. Studies of children's psychology should also be developed so that children may develop a healthy mentality. All these are crucial to the success of family planning work and the promotion of population quality.

  19. Attitudes to Exercise and Diabetes in Young People with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryninks, Kirsty; Sutton, Eileen; Thomas, Elizabeth; Jago, Russell; Shield, Julian P. H.; Burren, Christine P.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate young people’s attitudes to, and understanding of, physical activity on glycaemic control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Methods Four focus groups with 11–14 and 15–16 year olds were conducted with twelve young people with Type 1 Diabetes, from within a larger study investigating physical activity and fitness. Qualitative analysis of the focus group data was performed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results Four superordinate themes were identified: Benefits of Exercise, Knowledge and Understanding, Information and Training and “You can do anything”. Young people felt that exercising helped them to manage their diabetes and had a beneficial psychological and physical impact on their bodies. They reported a lack of knowledge and understanding about diabetes among school staff and other young people. The overwhelming sense from young people was that although diabetes impacts upon their lives, with preparation, physical activity can take place as normal. Conclusions Whilst young people had an awareness of the physical and psychological benefits of exercise in managing their diabetes, they experienced difficulties at school. Professional support and discussions with young people, giving tailored strategies for managing Type 1 Diabetes during exercise are needed. Healthcare teams should ensure that the support and educational needs of school staff are met. Providing more opportunities to empower young people to take on the responsibility for their Type 1 Diabetes care is merited. Young people felt diabetes did not stop them from participating in activities; it is simply a part of them that needs managing throughout life. PMID:26465770

  20. Psychological Techniques In Helping Rape Victims | Ayinde | Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Counselling psychology is concerned with assisting people who have personal, social, educational and vocational problems to better understand themselves and solve their problems. Rape is seen as a problem that militates against the psychological well being of victims, because of the devastating aftermath of the incident ...

  1. The Theoretical Analysis of the Phenomenon of Anticipation in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetzyanova, Anna I.

    2016-01-01

    At the modern stage one of the urgent tasks of development of psychology and pedagogy is the study of the basic directions, trends and developmental priorities of research of the specifics of psychological indicators of anticipation of people with whose mental development corresponds to age norms and persons with intellectual and mental…

  2. Robots for the psychological wellbeing of the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallego Pérez, J.; Lohse, M.; Evers, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    The present paper examines the potential robots may have to motivate and support elderly people psychologically. Two short- and long-term research scenarios are proposed where a robot interacts with an elderly person offering psychological support. We describe one experiment that was carried out

  3. Assessment of Teachers from a Social Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madni, Ayesha; Baker, Eva L.; Chow, Kirby A.; Delacruz, Girlie C.; Griffin, Noelle C.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the description and assessment of teachers' social psychological factors, using the scientific literature as a base. Research on teachers' social psychological domains has an ultimate goal of populating classrooms with competent people who can model and incite behaviors that assist students in their own learning.…

  4. Environmental psychology: Human responses and relationships to natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present a thorough assessment of environmental psychology as a way to understand relationships between people and natural landscapes, and to describe how this knowledge can be applied to natural resource management. Environmental psychology seeks to clarify how individuals perceive, experience and create meaning in the environment. In...

  5. Sociological theory and Jungian psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    [[disenchantmentCarl JungpsychoanalysissociologyMax Weber ] In this article I seek to relate the psychology of Carl Jung to sociological theory, specifically Weber. I first present an outline of Jungian psychology. I then seek to relate this as psychology to Weber’s interpretivism. I point to basic methodological compatibilities within a Kantian frame, from which emerge central concerns with the factors limiting rationality. These generate the conceptual frameworks for parallel enquiries into the development and fate of rationality in cultural history. Religion is a major theme here: contrasts of eastern and western religion; the rise of prophetic religion and the disenchantment of modernity. Weber’s categories ‘ascetic’ and ‘mystic’ seem applicable to his own and Jung’s approaches and indeed temperaments, while a shared ironic view of rationality leads to similar visions of the disenchanted modern world. I conclude that Jung is sociologically coherent, but in an entirely different sense from Freud: rather than a constellation of family, socialization, ideology, social continuity, there is an analysis of cultural history against a background of adult normal psychology. I conclude that sociology should acknowledge Jung, but not in terms of over-arching theory. Rather Jungian insights might be used to orient new enquiries, and for reflexive analysis of sociology’s methodological debates.

  6. Critical Psychologies for Critical Health Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Health education is largely informed by psychological theories and practices that pursue reductionist views of people learning. However, critical attention is moving to understand health in ways that reconsider relationships to context and the forms of life within which everyday living takes place. This shift is apparent in theoretical…

  7. Psychological Aspects of Internet Addiction of Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserkovnikova, Nataliya G.; Shchipanova, Dina Ye.; Uskova, Bella A.; Puzyrev, Viktor V.; Fedotovskih, Olga ?.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem under study is due to the lack of elaborated theoretical approaches to addiction and addictive behavior factors among children and adolescents, as well as due to the need and demand for psychological and pedagogical work with Internet addicted children and young people or with those who are potentially prone to…

  8. The psychological impact of living with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Allan; Olsen, Mette Z; Perrild, Hans J.D.

    2016-01-01

    with diabetes. METHOD: 502 people with diabetes over the age of 18 and 122 family members completed questionnaires online, by telephone or in person, including validated measures of diabetes-related distress, emotional well-being and quality of life as well as other measures of psychological well-being. RESULTS...

  9. Personal Values: Psychological Determinants of Retirement Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, William F.

    With the trend toward early retirement and the fact that people are living to an older average age, more years of an individual's life will be spent in retirement. To examine personal values as psychological determinants of the retirement preparation process, 206 classified university employees, between the ages of 50 and 65 years of age,…

  10. Male Infertility and Its Impact on Women’s Sexual Behaviors: Need Attention to Psychological Problem as A Psychological Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghavi

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Male infertility may be associated with sexual disorders in the partner. Attention to psychological need and rehabilitation in infertile couples may be helping them to increase mental health and quality of life in these people.

  11. Narratives of Transgender People Detained in Prison: The Role Played by the Utterances "Not" (as a Feeling of Hetero- and Auto-rejection) and "Exist" (as a Feeling of Hetero- and Auto-acceptance) for the Construction of a Discursive Self. A Suggestion of Goals and Strategies for Psychological Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochdorn, Alexander; Faleiros, Vicente P; Valerio, Paolo; Vitelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Understanding how transgender people, who committed criminal offenses and are detained in prison, produce a narrative representation of self within different prison contexts. More specifically, this study has been based on two sub-aims: On a paradigmatic level, it has been aimed at critically investigating how the discursive positioning among the Self and the Other might promote the internalization of positive and/or negative attitudes toward the self. On a pragmatic level, it intends to offer some suggestions for goals and strategies of psychological counseling with these inmates inside such highly institutionalized contexts. Method and Materials: In total, 23 in-depth interviews were conducted with transgender women detained in either female or male prison contexts in Italy and Brazil. The lexical, semantic, and semiotic structure of the transcribed interviews has been investigated by adopting the quali-quantitative software Iramuteq for performing statistical text-mining analysis. Frequency, correspondences, and distribution of the most representative utterances across the corpus of data have been accessed and critically analyzed. Results: The findings showed that transgender inmates in Brazil made repeated use of the adverb "not," while the verb "exist" became the most representative word for the Italian sample. In Brazil, indeed, transgender women assumed masculine-driven behavior due to a common imprisonment with cis-gender men. On the contrary, transgender women in Italy are detained in protected sections, where they are allowed to wear female clothing and continue hormonal treatments. Surprisingly, transgender inmates in Italy suffered more violence in a female sector when compared to exclusively male jails. Conclusions: Transgender people represent a challenge for prison administration because it is not clear in which penitentiary context they should be detained. They should receive special attentions in order to face their special needs, which

  12. Narratives of Transgender People Detained in Prison: The Role Played by the Utterances “Not” (as a Feeling of Hetero- and Auto-rejection) and “Exist” (as a Feeling of Hetero- and Auto-acceptance) for the Construction of a Discursive Self. A Suggestion of Goals and Strategies for Psychological Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochdorn, Alexander; Faleiros, Vicente P.; Valerio, Paolo; Vitelli, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Understanding how transgender people, who committed criminal offenses and are detained in prison, produce a narrative representation of self within different prison contexts. More specifically, this study has been based on two sub-aims: On a paradigmatic level, it has been aimed at critically investigating how the discursive positioning among the Self and the Other might promote the internalization of positive and/or negative attitudes toward the self. On a pragmatic level, it intends to offer some suggestions for goals and strategies of psychological counseling with these inmates inside such highly institutionalized contexts. Method and Materials: In total, 23 in-depth interviews were conducted with transgender women detained in either female or male prison contexts in Italy and Brazil. The lexical, semantic, and semiotic structure of the transcribed interviews has been investigated by adopting the quali-quantitative software Iramuteq for performing statistical text-mining analysis. Frequency, correspondences, and distribution of the most representative utterances across the corpus of data have been accessed and critically analyzed. Results: The findings showed that transgender inmates in Brazil made repeated use of the adverb “not,” while the verb “exist” became the most representative word for the Italian sample. In Brazil, indeed, transgender women assumed masculine-driven behavior due to a common imprisonment with cis-gender men. On the contrary, transgender women in Italy are detained in protected sections, where they are allowed to wear female clothing and continue hormonal treatments. Surprisingly, transgender inmates in Italy suffered more violence in a female sector when compared to exclusively male jails. Conclusions: Transgender people represent a challenge for prison administration because it is not clear in which penitentiary context they should be detained. They should receive special attentions in order to face their special needs

  13. Narratives of Transgender People Detained in Prison: The Role Played by the Utterances “Not” (as a Feeling of Hetero- and Auto-rejection and “Exist” (as a Feeling of Hetero- and Auto-acceptance for the Construction of a Discursive Self. A Suggestion of Goals and Strategies for Psychological Counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Hochdorn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Understanding how transgender people, who committed criminal offenses and are detained in prison, produce a narrative representation of self within different prison contexts. More specifically, this study has been based on two sub-aims: On a paradigmatic level, it has been aimed at critically investigating how the discursive positioning among the Self and the Other might promote the internalization of positive and/or negative attitudes toward the self. On a pragmatic level, it intends to offer some suggestions for goals and strategies of psychological counseling with these inmates inside such highly institutionalized contexts.Method and Materials: In total, 23 in-depth interviews were conducted with transgender women detained in either female or male prison contexts in Italy and Brazil. The lexical, semantic, and semiotic structure of the transcribed interviews has been investigated by adopting the quali-quantitative software Iramuteq for performing statistical text-mining analysis. Frequency, correspondences, and distribution of the most representative utterances across the corpus of data have been accessed and critically analyzed.Results: The findings showed that transgender inmates in Brazil made repeated use of the adverb “not,” while the verb “exist” became the most representative word for the Italian sample. In Brazil, indeed, transgender women assumed masculine-driven behavior due to a common imprisonment with cis-gender men. On the contrary, transgender women in Italy are detained in protected sections, where they are allowed to wear female clothing and continue hormonal treatments. Surprisingly, transgender inmates in Italy suffered more violence in a female sector when compared to exclusively male jails.Conclusions: Transgender people represent a challenge for prison administration because it is not clear in which penitentiary context they should be detained. They should receive special attentions in order to face

  14. The cultural psychology endeavor to make culture central to psychology: Comment on Hall et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorakova, Antonie

    2016-12-01

    When Hall, Yip, and Zárate (2016) suggested that cultural psychology focused on reporting differences between groups, they described comparative research conducted in other fields, including cross-cultural psychology. Cultural psychology is a different discipline with methodological approaches reflecting its dissimilar goal, which is to highlight the cultural grounding of human psychological characteristics, and ultimately make culture central to psychology in general. When multicultural psychology considers, according to Hall et al., the mechanisms of culture's influence on behavior, it treats culture the same way as cross-cultural psychology does. In contrast, cultural psychology goes beyond treating culture as an external variable when it proposes that culture and psyche are mutually constitutive. True psychology of the human experience must encompass world populations through research of the ways in which (a) historically grounded sociocultural contexts enable the distinct meaning systems that people construct, and (b) these systems simultaneously guide the human formation of the environments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  16. The Psychology of Physical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Gregory J.

    2006-12-01

    Who becomes a physical scientist is not completely a coincidence. People with spatial talent and who are thing-oriented are most likely to be attracted to physical science, including astronomy. Additional lessons from the psychology of science suggest that compared with non-scientists and social scientists, physical scientists are most likely to be introverted, independent, self-confident, and yet somewhat arrogant. Understanding the physical and inanimate world is part of what physical scientists do, and understanding those who understand the physical world is part of what psychologists of science do.

  17. ABOUT PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES IN APPLICATION SCORING MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rogers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of psychological variables and scales suggested by Economic Psychology in predicting individuals’ default. Therefore, a sample of 555 individuals completed a self-completion questionnaire, which was composed of psychological variables and scales. By adopting the methodology of the logistic regression, the following psychological and behavioral characteristics were found associated with the group of individuals in default: a negative dimensions related to money (suffering, inequality and conflict; b high scores on the self-efficacy scale, probably indicating a greater degree of optimism and over-confidence; c buyers classified as compulsive; d individuals who consider it necessary to give gifts to children and friends on special dates, even though many people consider this a luxury; e problems of self-control identified by individuals who drink an average of more than four glasses of alcoholic beverage a day.

  18. 音乐训练对健听青年噪声间隙阈值影响的研究%Study on the Noise Gap Threshold of Music Training for Normal Hearing Young People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晨晨; 胡旭君

    2017-01-01

    目的 探讨音乐训练对健听青年噪声间隙阈值的影响.方法 选择健听青年并根据音乐学习背景,将受试者分为音乐组(32例)和非音乐组(25例),对其进行气骨导测试、声导抗测试,以及噪声间隙测试并统计.结果 音乐组的噪声间隙阈值与非音乐组存在统计学差异(P<0.05);音乐组中学习不同乐器与间隙阈值无统计学差异(P>0.05);学习音乐时间长短与间隙阂值无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论 音乐组的噪声间隙阈值与非音乐组相比更低;与音乐训练类型及学习音乐时间长短无关.%Objective To investigate the influence of music training on noise gap threshold in normal hearing youths.Methods The subjects from Zhejiang Conservatory of music and Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University,were divided into a music group (32 cases) and a non music group (25 cases).The pneumatic bone conduction test,acoustic impedance test and noise gap test were carried out and recorded.Results There was a significant difference between the noise gap threshold of the music group and non music group (P<0.05);there was no statistical difference (P>0.05) within music group in learning different instruments;no statistical difference (P>0.05) between music learning time and gap threshold.Conclusion The noise gap threshold of the music group is lower than that of the non music group;it has nothing to do with the type of music training and learning time.

  19. Historiography of Czech psychology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoskovcová, S.; Hoskovec, J.; Plháková, A.; Šebek, M.; Švancara, J.; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 309-334 ISSN 1093-4510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Czech psychologists * Czechoslovak psychology * ideologic influences on psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2010

  20. Teachers and Psychological Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, George W., Jr.

    The importance of the written psychological report is explored, and, in particular, its relationship to teachers' needs and requirements is discussed. Additionally, the characteristics of a "good" psychological report are listed, and teachers are advised to use these criteria in evaluating the psychological reports they are receiving. (Author)

  1. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  2. What is Political Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  3. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  4. Beyond the banality of evil: three dynamics of an interactionist social psychology of tyranny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S Alexander; Reicher, Stephen

    2007-05-01

    Carnahan and McFarland critique the situationist account of the Stanford prison experiment by arguing that understanding extreme action requires consideration of individual characteristics and the interaction between person and situation. Haslam and Reicher develop this argument in two ways. First, they reappraise historical and psychological evidence that supports the broader "banality of evil" thesis-the idea that ordinary people commit atrocities without awareness, care, or choice. Counter to this thesis, they show that perpetrators act thoughtfully, creatively, and with conviction. Second, drawing from this evidence and the BBC [British Broadcasting Corporation] Prison Study, they make the case for an interactionist approach to tyranny that explains how people are (a) initially drawn to extreme and oppressive groups, (b) transformed by membership in those groups, and (c) able to gain influence over others and hence normalize oppression. These dynamics can make evil appear banal but are far from banal themselves.

  5. Ecological psychology and social psychology: it is Holt, or nothing!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Eric P

    2011-03-01

    What is the greatest contribution that ecological psychologists can offer social psychology? Ideally, ecological psychologists could explain how people directly perceive the unique properties of their social partners. But social partners are distinguished from mundane objects because they possess mental traits, and tradition tells us that minds cannot be seen. When considering the ideal possibility, we reject that doctrine and posit minds as perceivable. For ecological psychology, this entails asserting that minds are the types of things able to structure ambient energy. Contemporary research and theory suggests distinctly ecological ways of attacking this problem, but the problem is not new. Almost 100 years ago, Holt argued for the visibility of minds. Thus when considering these ideas, ecological psychologists face a choice that is at once about their future and their past. Extending ecological psychology's first principles into the social realm, we come to the point where we must either accept or reject Holt's arguments, and the wider context they bring. In doing so, we accept or reject our ability to study the uniquely social.

  6. Toward a Caribbean psychology: an African-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Marcia Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Although the Americas and Caribbean region are purported to comprise different ethnic groups, this article’s focus is on people of African descent, who represent the largest ethnic group in many countries. The emphasis on people of African descent is related to their family structure, ethnic identity, cultural, psychohistorical, and contemporary psychosocial realities. This article discusses the limitations of Western psychology for theory, research, and applied work on people of African descent in the Americas and Caribbean region. In view of the adaptations that some people of African descent have made to slavery, colonialism, and more contemporary forms of cultural intrusions, it is argued that when necessary, notwithstanding Western psychology’s limitations, Caribbean psychologists should reconstruct mainstream psychology to address the psychological needs of these Caribbean people. The relationship between theory and psychological interventions for the optimal development of people of African descent is emphasized throughout this article. In this regard, the African-centered and constructionist viewpoint is argued to be of utility in addressing the psychological growth and development of people of African descent living in the Americas and Caribbean region.

  7. [The psychological analysis of patients with tinnitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qing; Li, Jun; Tao, Zezhang; Huang, Zhiwu; Ma, Zhelan; Cao, Yongmao

    2004-04-01

    To investigate the psychological factor of tinnitus and assess the possible influenced aspects. To inspect the 95 cases with tinnitus by SCL-90, the 9 items were divided to 10 factors and compared to the Chinese normalizations. There were significant difference between 4 factors including: somatization, depression, anxiety, compel symptom and normalization (Ppsychological dysfunction of tinnitus. Psychoprophylaxis is the important factors to tinnitus, and the major influenced aspects are age, educational level and emotional stability.

  8. Does befriending by trained lay workers improve psychological well-being and quality of life for carers of people with dementia, and at what cost? A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, G; Shepstone, L; Wilson, E; Thalanany, M; Mugford, M; Poland, F

    2008-03-01

    QALY gained. Where care-recipient QALYs were included, mean incremental cost per incremental QALY gained was 26,848 pounds, with a 51.4% probability of being below 30,000 pounds per QALY gained. Only 60 carers (52%) took up the offer of being matched with a trained lay befriender, and of these only 37 (32%) were befriended for 6 months or more. A subgroup analysis of controls versus those befriended for 6 months or more found a reduction in HADS-depression scores that approached statistical significance (95% CI -0.09 to 2.84). 'Access to a befriender facilitator' is neither an effective nor a cost-effective intervention in the support of carers of people with dementia, although there is a suggestion of cost-effectiveness for the care dyad (carer and care recipient). In common with many services for carers of people with dementia, uptake of befriending services was not high. However, the small number of carers who engaged with befrienders for 6 months or more reported a reduction in scores on HADS depression that approached statistical significance compared with controls (95% CI -0.09 to 2.84). While providing only weak evidence of any beneficial effect, further research into befriending interventions for carers is warranted.

  9. Flooded homes, broken bonds, the meaning of home, psychological processes and their impact on psychological health in a disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Bob; Morbey, Hazel; Balogh, Ruth; Araoz, Gonzalo

    2009-06-01

    In 2005, Carlisle suffered severe flooding and 1600 houses were affected. A qualitative research project to study the social and health impacts was undertaken. People whose homes had been flooded and workers who had supported them were interviewed. The findings showed that there was severe disruption to people's lives and severe damage to their homes, and many suffered from psychological health issues. Phenomenological and transactional perspectives are utilised to analyse the psychological processes (identity, attachment, alienation and dialectics) underlying the meaning of home and their impact on psychological health. Proposals for policy and practice are made.

  10. The Psychologist's Troubled Background: Major Related Life Experiences of Psychology and Law Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werz, Janina; Buechner, Vanessa L.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores major-related life experiences (MRLE) of psychology and law students to examine the stereotype of the wounded psychology student. Previous studies have shown that psychology students know people with mental disorders and are seeking treatment themselves. However, these studies do not allow drawing conclusions about the…

  11. [Analysis of psychological conditions of parents of children with cleft lip and palate by using psychological scales before and after psychological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Cai-xia; Zheng, Qian; Shi, Bing

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the psychological conditions of parents of children with cleft lip and palate, and to discuss the clinical psychological treatment methods of these parents. 100 parents of children with cleft lip and palate were selected as the parents of children with cleft lip and palate group, and 34 normal adults were selected as the control group. Two groups were tested by the life event scale (LES) and self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) to analyze their psychological states. After the study group was treated by psychological counseling, two groups were tested by the LES and SAS again. The LES total scores of the patients of children with cleft lip and palate had significant differences compared with the normal adults (P palate had no significant differences compared with the normal adults before and after psychological counseling (P > 0.05). Analyzing the psychological conditions of parents of children with cleft lip and palate by using psychological scales and then treating them by counseling, is an effective psychological treatment method.

  12. Jobless. Unemployment and young people's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, S L; Taylor, R J; Kerr, C B

    1998-03-02

    Morrell, Taylor and Kerr, from the University of Sydney's Department of Public Health, review the evidence of an association between unemployment and psychological and physical ill-health in young people aged 15-24 years. Aggregate data show youth unemployment and youth suicide to be strongly associated. Youth unemployment is also associated with psychological symptoms, such as depression and loss of confidence. Effects on physical health have been less extensively studies; however, there is some evidence for an association with raised blood pressure. Finally, the prevalence of lifestyle risk factors (cannabis use and, less consistently, tobacco and alcohol consumption) is higher in unemployed compared with employed young people.

  13. Unconsciously against it. Psychological aspects of the nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuenschmann, A.

    1980-06-01

    The book deals with the psychological aspects of the nuclear controversy. An attempt is made to describe, in psychological terms, arrange, explain and, in this sense, 'comprehend' the phenomenon of the nuclear controversy in the light of the following facts: - individual and archetypal spectra of associations arising in the minds of many people in combination with the term 'nuclear power plant', the existence of different psychological types; the suggestion and psychological regression in the group. Especially the nuclear opponents, more or less successfully, have used the individual and archetypal association spectrum as an instrument to further their own ends and have thus contributed to the erection of psychological barriers against nuclear power in the minds of many people. (orig./RW) [de

  14. How the Post-Secondary Classroom Can Benefit from Positive Psychology Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennette, Lynne N.; Myatt, Beverley

    2018-01-01

    Positive psychology is based on the notion that people are motivated to develop into their best selves and reach their maximum potential. Martin Seligman, a pioneer of positive psychology, defines it as "the scientific study of the strengths that enable individuals and communities to thrive. The field is founded on the belief that people want…

  15. The Evolution of Vocational Psychology: Questions for a Postmodern Applied Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieshok, Thomas S.; Motl, Thomas C.; Rutt, Benjamin T.

    2011-01-01

    Vocational psychology has a long history of acting as a lens that focuses research in basic sciences on the particular experience of work in people's lives. This article presents several areas on the ascendancy in the broader scientific literature and ask how vocational psychology might apply them to issues of work in people's lives. The authors'…

  16. Workplace Diversity and Public Policy: Challenges and Opportunities for Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines both challenges and opportunities for psychology of issues related to diversity in education and work. For the purposes of this discussion, "diverse" populations include four groups currently marginalized and disadvantaged in the U.S. workplace: women, people of color, sexual minorities, and people with disabilities. An…

  17. A Controlled Study of Effect of Counseling on Psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... high in 24 (54.9%) respondents in group 2 who had counseling and were unemployed; depression was associated with occupation (P<0.04). Counseling reduces psychological symptoms in people living with HIV/AIDS. Therefore its use should be encouraged in people living with the disease to boost self-esteem needed ...

  18. Post-Chernobyl scientific perspectives: Social/psychological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M.; Rumyantseva, G.M.; Nyagu, A.I.; Ageeva, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies had shown that psychological problems associated with the Chernobyl accident were not decreasing with time. People experienced exposure to real risks, and resettled people often provided the highest risk ratings. Responses to a question about the ability to protect oneself from radioactive contamination were overall discouraging

  19. Psychotherapy with people with developmental disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zafošnik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available People with developmental disabilities can experience any psychological abnormalitiy and psychiatric illness as do people without developmental disabilities. Due to different diagnostic criteria, assessment procedures and instruments, we lack definite prevalence rates for people with developmental disabilities, also suffering from mental health problems, eventhough most studies place the rate at 20 to 40%. One of the possible treatment alternatives for augmenting psychological well-being is psychotherapy, but is extremely rarely used for people with severe and profound disabilities, where speech cannot be the main therapeutic medium. So, those that are included in the psychotherapuetic process are predominantly clients with mild developmental disabilities, and they are mostly in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Recently, two models of (psychotherapy for persons with severe and profound developmental disabilities were developed: developmental-dynamic relationship therapy and attachment-based behaviour therapy for children. Conceptually, they both originate form developmental psychoanalytic theories.

  20. Cognitive reframing for carers of people with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Draskovic, I.; McCleery, J.; Downs, M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The balance of evidence about whether psychosocial interventions for caregivers of people with dementia could reduce carers' psychological morbidity and delay their relatives' institutionalisation is now widely regarded as moderately positive (Brodaty 2003; Spijker 2008).

  1. Supporting people with diabetes related\\ud stress and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Gillibrand, Warren P.; Holdich, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes can have a significant detrimental impact on wellbeing and psychological functioning. Warren Gillibrand and Phil Holdich explain how practice nurses can help people with diabetes deal with stress or depressive illness

  2. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  3. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  4. Psychology and criminal justice

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Joanna R.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is designed to give the reader a flavour of a few areas in which psychology has been applied to criminal justice. It begins by providing some historical context and showing the development of some applications of psychology to criminal justice. The chapter is broadly split into 3 sections: Pre Trial; Trial; and Post Trial. In most of this chapter, the areas considered assess how psychology has had an influence on the law and how psychologists work within criminal justice settings...

  5. Strategic Psychological Operations management

    OpenAIRE

    Sokoloski, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    United States Military Psychological Operations are engaged in a type of mass marketing of ideas. To accomplish this The United States Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command (USACAPOC) employs active and reserve PSYOP units to conduct PSYOP campaigns. However the methodology used to manage these campaigns often hinders the effective employment of timely and effective Psychological Operations. PSYOP has a difficult job to accomplish but PSYOP does not have the proper managemen...

  6. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  7. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  9. Nutritional habits of elderly people living at home

    OpenAIRE

    Premoš, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a process that is accompanied by biological, psychological and social changes. These changes can affect the nourishment of elderly people. Elderly people are becoming less independent with years and more dependent on others. Family members, to whom the elderly people trust the most, offer them assistance. On the market, there are various services that provide assistance in different cases. In the diploma work I have been investigating how the elderly people eat, which foods are u...

  10. A psychological perspective on the source and function of religion

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Merwe, Karene

    2010-01-01

    This article explored psychological perspectives on the following: the reasons for humans' religiousness, the influence of religion on people's perspective on life and the importance of understanding the impact of religion on the lives of people. Theories, including psychoanalytical and evolutionary answers regarding the origin of human's penchant to be religious were discussed. Subsequently, the focus was on the dominant influence of religious notions in people's worldview, providing meaning...

  11. Does psychological need satisfaction perceived online enhance well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin

    2015-09-01

    The Internet has been building a new context, in which adolescents and young people complete their academic tasks, do their work, engage in social interaction, and even conduct anonymous identity experimentation. Therefore, it becomes very significant to assess psychological need satisfaction online, and to relate it to well-being. This study investigated the influence on well-being of psychological need satisfaction perceived online and the regulatory role in this relationship of psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life. A total of 1,727 students from junior and senior high schools and universities in China were surveyed using the Basic Psychological Needs in General scale, the Basic Psychological Needs in the Online World scale, and the Index of Well-Being, Index of General Affect scale. The mean age of the adolescent sample was 17.47 years (ranging from 12.50 to 25.42 years). The results indicated that both need satisfaction perceived online and that perceived in daily life positively predicted psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction in daily life qualified the association between psychological need satisfaction perceived online and well-being. In particular, students who perceived higher psychological need satisfaction in daily life were found to benefit from psychological need satisfaction perceived online, but students with low psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life did not. We suggest that people who perceive lower basic need satisfaction in daily life are more likely to use the Internet for socioaffective regulation and to consider cyberspace as a new world. Thus, need satisfaction perceived online may not transform into "real" happiness. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Advancing Normal Birth: Organizations, Goals, and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hotelling, Barbara A.; Humenick, Sharron S.

    2005-01-01

    In this column, the support for advancing normal birth is summarized, based on a comparison of the goals of Healthy People 2010, Lamaze International, the Coalition for Improving Maternity Services, and the midwifery model of care. Research abstracts are presented to provide evidence that the midwifery model of care safely and economically advances normal birth. Rates of intervention experienced, as reported in the Listening to Mothers survey, are compared to the forms of care recommended by ...

  13. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  14. Decolonising Australian Psychology: Discourses, Strategies, and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Dudgeon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colonisation in Australia has had a devastating and lasting impact on the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia (herein referred to as Indigenous Australians. This paper discusses the role of psychology in Australia and the negative impact that certain disciplinary theories and practices have had on Indigenous Australians. The impact has been further exacerbated by the failure of mainstream policy makers and mental health practitioners to recognise the key, distinctive cultural and social determinants that contribute to Aboriginal health and wellbeing. There is a growing response by Aboriginal psychologists, critical social theorists, and their allies to decolonise psychological theory and practice to redress this situation. This paper outlines key decolonising strategies that have been effective in interrupting those aspects of psychology that are inimical to Aboriginal wellbeing.

  15. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  16. Transpersonal Psychology in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas Bradford; Clark, Frances Vaughan

    The introduction to this booklet states that transpersonal psychology focuses attention on the human capacity for self-transcendence as well as self-realization, and is concerned with the optimum development of consciousness. This booklet attempts to illustrate the value of this psychology in education, not as a complete substitute for traditional…

  17. Simulation and psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...

  18. Editorial overview: Evolutionary psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangestad, S.W.; Tybur, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Functional approaches in psychology - which ask what behavior is good for - are almost as old as scientific psychology itself. Yet sophisticated, generative functional theories were not possible until developments in evolutionary biology in the mid-20th century. Arising in the last three decades,

  19. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include…

  20. Psychological effects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report is divided into five parts. (1) Discussion of the psychological milieu before a nuclear confrontation. (2) Acute psychological reactions to nuclear warfare (some of which may reflect, in part, direct radiogenic alteration of nervous system functions). (3) Chronic psychological effects of a nuclear confrontation. (4) Issues concerning treatment of these psychological changes. (5) Prevention of adverse psychological reactions to nuclear warfare

  1. IMPACT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STABILITY ON MANAGERS’ ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetelina Мihailova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The latest research performed in European countries shows that the psychosocial risks and the job related stress will become more and more important in the years to come due to their increasing spread. These trends will have even greater influence on healthcare managers' activities due to the specific nature of their jobs, which, in turn, increases the needs of efficient leadership. The purpose of the questionnaire held is to study the impact of healthcare managers’ psychological stability on the activities they perform in the course of their jobs. The analysis made shows that an individual’s performance depends on their motivation, abilities and organizational conditions and skills. What is also found out is that people with different types of behavioral control work in healthcare operative management. People with different types of psychological stability will be needed for the different management levels.

  2. Psychological targeting as an effective approach to digital mass persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, S. C.; Nave, G.; Stillwell, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    People are exposed to persuasive communication across many different contexts: Governments, companies, and political parties use persuasive appeals to encourage people to eat healthier, purchase a particular product, or vote for a specific candidate. Laboratory studies show that such persuasive appeals are more effective in influencing behavior when they are tailored to individuals’ unique psychological characteristics. However, the investigation of large-scale psychological persuasion in the real world has been hindered by the questionnaire-based nature of psychological assessment. Recent research, however, shows that people’s psychological characteristics can be accurately predicted from their digital footprints, such as their Facebook Likes or Tweets. Capitalizing on this form of psychological assessment from digital footprints, we test the effects of psychological persuasion on people’s actual behavior in an ecologically valid setting. In three field experiments that reached over 3.5 million individuals with psychologically tailored advertising, we find that matching the content of persuasive appeals to individuals’ psychological characteristics significantly altered their behavior as measured by clicks and purchases. Persuasive appeals that were matched to people’s extraversion or openness-to-experience level resulted in up to 40% more clicks and up to 50% more purchases than their mismatching or unpersonalized counterparts. Our findings suggest that the application of psychological targeting makes it possible to influence the behavior of large groups of people by tailoring persuasive appeals to the psychological needs of the target audiences. We discuss both the potential benefits of this method for helping individuals make better decisions and the potential pitfalls related to manipulation and privacy. PMID:29133409

  3. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  4. Psychological health of operators in NPPs and accident prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Huayun

    2004-01-01

    Mental and physical health of operators of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is directly related to normal and safe operation of NPPs. The cognitive process, volitional character, attention, emotion, feeling and personality are important factors that affect operators' safe behavior. Alcohol, medical drugs and operators' biological rhythm are can also make great effects on their psychological health. By means of job-fitness psychological test, better candidates for operators could be primarily selected from point of psychological view. Psychological follow-up of post skill training, simulator training and practical work of operators can make NPPs prevent from operational accidents due to human errors to the greatest extent. It is helpful for NPPs to find and solve some psychological problems by means of psychological counseling, regulation or psychotherapy. (author)

  5. Psychology and quality of life in cancer patients on radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jong Chul; Chung, Woong Ki [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    The object of this study is to investigate sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, psychology, self-esteem and quality of life in cancer patients on radiation therapy and to provide useful information for therapeutic approach to cancer patients on radiation therapy. The subjects were 36 patients who had been treated with radiation therapy and 20 normal people. Sociodemographic information and clinical characteristics of cancer patients on radiation therapy were investigated, and symptom checklist-90-revised, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale for self esteem, World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument for quality of life were administered to subjects. And Spearman's correlation analysis was used among these. The tendency of somatization, depression, anxiety and hostility in cancer group were significantly higher than normal group. Self esteem and quality of life in cancer group were significantly lower than normal group. No significant difference was found in comparison of psychology, self esteem and quality of life according to sociodemographic variables. Among clinical characteristics, in the presence of metastasis in cancer patients, the scores of anxiety, phobia and paranoid ideation were higher. In patients with pain, the score of somatization was higher. And in case of weight loss, the score of somatization was higher. The higher score of depression, anxiety and hostility were significantly associated with lower self-esteem. And higher score of somatization, depression, anxiety and hostility were significantly associated with lower quality of life. Understanding and management of psychological symptoms, such as somatization, depression, anxiety, and hostility, and pain control are necessary to improve quality of life in cancer patients on radiation therapy.

  6. Psychology and quality of life in cancer patients on radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jong Chul; Chung, Woong Ki

    2004-01-01

    The object of this study is to investigate sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, psychology, self-esteem and quality of life in cancer patients on radiation therapy and to provide useful information for therapeutic approach to cancer patients on radiation therapy. The subjects were 36 patients who had been treated with radiation therapy and 20 normal people. Sociodemographic information and clinical characteristics of cancer patients on radiation therapy were investigated, and symptom checklist-90-revised, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale for self esteem, World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument for quality of life were administered to subjects. And Spearman's correlation analysis was used among these. The tendency of somatization, depression, anxiety and hostility in cancer group were significantly higher than normal group. Self esteem and quality of life in cancer group were significantly lower than normal group. No significant difference was found in comparison of psychology, self esteem and quality of life according to sociodemographic variables. Among clinical characteristics, in the presence of metastasis in cancer patients, the scores of anxiety, phobia and paranoid ideation were higher. In patients with pain, the score of somatization was higher. And in case of weight loss, the score of somatization was higher. The higher score of depression, anxiety and hostility were significantly associated with lower self-esteem. And higher score of somatization, depression, anxiety and hostility were significantly associated with lower quality of life. Understanding and management of psychological symptoms, such as somatization, depression, anxiety, and hostility, and pain control are necessary to improve quality of life in cancer patients on radiation therapy

  7. Psychiatric implications of displacement: contributions from the psychology of place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullilove, M T

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the psychological processes that are affected by geographic displacement. The literature from the fields of geography, psychology, anthropology, and psychiatry was reviewed to develop a "psychology of place" and to determine the manner in which place-related psychological processes are affected by upheaval in the environment. The psychology of place is an emerging area of research that explores the connection between individuals and their intimate environments. The psychology of place posits that individuals require a "good enough" environment in which to live. They are linked to that environment through three key psychological processes: attachment, familiarity, and identity. Place attachment, which parallels, but is distinct from, attachment to person, is a mutual caretaking bond between a person and a beloved place. Familiarity refers to the processes by which people develop detailed cognitive knowledge of their environs. Place identity is concerned with the extraction of a sense of self based on the places in which one passes one's life. Each of these psychological processes-attachment, familiarity, and place identity-is threatened by displacement, and the problems of nostalgia, disorientation, and alienation may ensue. As a result of war, decolonization, epidemics, natural disasters, and other disruptive events, millions of people are currently displaced from their homes. Protecting and restoring their mental health pose urgent problems for the mental health community.

  8. The cultural background of the non-academic concept of psychology in Japan: its implications for introductory education in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashitaka, Yuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    No research has empirically explored the non-academic concept of psychology itself (implicit theories) in non-Western cultures despite a widely held belief that this understanding differs cross-culturally. This study examined whether the non-academic concept of psychology among inexperienced Japanese students differed from the concept held by students of other countries. In Japanese, psychology is referred to as , which includes the ideographic character , literally meaning heart. This fact led us to hypothesize that psychology will be disproportionately associated with emotion among Japanese students. Indeed, our findings among Japanese students produced a J-curve, indicating that our prediction was true. We posit that this issue has never been discussed in Japan because a majority of people share this concept of psychology. In our second study, we examined not only preference in students' association of intelligence or emotion but also heart or mind with psychology. Finally, we identified whether students' believe that psychology encompasses both the heart and the mind. We conclude with a discussion of the importance of explicitly defining the non-academic concept of psychology in early psychology education in Japan. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. The features of the formation of the socio-psychological climate in the institution of social services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakhtar Valentina Vizitorіvna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the concepts “socio-psychological climate”, “climate” and “organizational culture”. The author analyses approaches to understanding the socio-psychological climate: the socio-psychological phenomenon, the general emotional and psychological mood, the style of people's relationships with direct contact with each other, the social and psychological compatibility of the members of the group. The features of the formation of the socio-psychological climate in the establishment of the social service, factors affecting the state of the socio-psychological climate in the team are considered.

  10. Psychology or Psychological Science?: A Survey of Graduate Psychology Faculty Regarding Program Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collisson, Brian; Rusbasan, David

    2018-01-01

    The question of renaming graduate psychology programs to psychological science is a timely and contentious issue. To better understand why some programs, but not others, are changing names, we surveyed chairpersons (Study 1) and faculty (Study 2) within graduate psychology and psychological science programs. Within psychology programs, a name…

  11. Thematic report on social psychology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.

    2002-01-01

    Social psychology is concerned with the interactions among people and groups, and with their gradual formation of shared - or conflicting - attitudes, opinions and understandings. In preparing to provide feedback to the FSC Turku Workshop, I anticipated that it would be useful to structure my observations around concepts like: As in other societal and study contexts, these concepts certainly had meaning here in the FSC Turku Workshop. They may form one set of tools with which we may consider further the background to a Decision in Principle, or stakeholder involvement. They may offer a lens through which the experience of the workshop itself may be perceived and evaluated. I found that one more concept (something to which linguists or anthropologists might refer as a semantic polarity) seemed to capture well the dynamic of our time together. That concept is: 'inside-outside'. (author)

  12. What Psychology Means To Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Roy

    2006-01-01

    The author takes on the task of describing the interface between emotion and cognition by way of a narrative about psychology, and its meaning to his life. Using time as an overall metaphor, or perhaps a foundation stone underpinning a series of seemingly unconnected events, some insight is given into the author's personal life. The author invokes the works of feminist philosopher and author, Susan Faludi, to portray some aspects of his journey through fantasy, and then the reality of a disparate practice on two continents in psychology and neuropsychology. With particular reference to Faludi's portrayal of men as failed heroes without a role in modern society, the author discovers that all of his work with others has been a work with his own troubled soul, and his failed heroism. Calling on his early role models, and life with and without a sense of purpose, he learns from his clients the value of courage and patience, a spiritual as well as intellectual journey that leads him to become many things to many people in order to heal them, and himself. PMID:22013338

  13. Political Psychology of European Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The...

  14. Ethnography in community psychology: promises and tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Andrew D; Todd, Nathan R; Kral, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Community psychology recognizes the need for research methods that illuminate context, culture, diversity, and process. One such method, ethnography, has crossed into multiple disciplines from anthropology, and indeed, community psychologists are becoming community ethnographers. Ethnographic work stands at the intersection of bridging universal questions with the particularities of people and groups bounded in time, geographic location, and social location. Ethnography is thus historical and deeply contextual, enabling a rich, in-depth understanding of communities that is aligned with the values and goals of community psychology. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the potential of ethnography for community psychology and to encourage its use within the field as a method to capture culture and context, to document process, and to reveal how social change and action occur within and through communities. We discuss the method of ethnography, draw connections to community psychology values and goals, and identify tensions from our experiences doing ethnography. Overall, we assert that ethnography is a method that resonates with community psychology and present this paper as a resource for those interested in using this method in their research or community activism.

  15. Psychological and pedagogical research of modern young people values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova N.V.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available this article is based on the psycho-pedagogical research of values orientation formation in different age groups. This research touches upon diverse approaches to values development and acceptance among children, teenagers and youngsters. This article adduses quantitative analysis of values preferences in different periods of life as well as qualitative analysis of these values in each age group.

  16. Motivating young people for education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The article explores the issue of motivation in policy and practice. The argument is that the folk high schools and the tradition of liberal education offer a learning environment where a number of psychological needs are satisfied among the young people leading to a motivation for learning whereas...... policy is based primarily on controlling forms of regulation counterproductive to the political objective of making 95% of a youth cohort complete upper secondary education. Liberal education may in other words be a case of good practice worth emulating in youth education policy....

  17. Thinking Psychology Today

    OpenAIRE

    ÁNGELA MARÍA ROBLEDO-GÓMEZ

    2008-01-01

    The inauguration text of the V Congress of Psychology at the Javeriana University, “Thinking the Present: Psychology, Criticism, and Globalization Times”, is presented. This event took place in April, 2008, in Bogotá, Colombia. These thoughts invite to see Psychology in the present, and to ask oneself about the forms of life that we are built of and that go through subjectivities in today’s World, within the framework of the Economical, Cultural, Social and Political conditions of our countri...

  18. Psychological response of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.S.; Nikiforov, A.M.; Cheprasov, V.Yu.

    1996-01-01

    The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  20. Food shopping and weight concern. Balancing consumer and body normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were......, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management...

  1. Employment of People with Disabilities in Malaysia: Drivers and Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Melissa Ng; Abdullah, Yen; Mey, See Ching

    2011-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the drivers and inhibitors of employment for people with disabilities in Malaysia. It explores the skills and psychological traits needed by people with disabilities in order to get jobs and the barriers to their employment. Data include interviews detailing the viewpoints of 24 teachers with visual impairments.…

  2. Psychiatric Assessment and Follow-up of Young People after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    to talk about their psychological distress. ... impact of this group of young people who presented to Kings ... and social assessment of young people following a serious physical assault as ... pediatric liaison Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS). ... highlights various factors that may be at work leading to the.

  3. Ethical manoeuvring: why people avoid both major and minor lies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shalvi, S.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2011-01-01

    This research examines whether and why people manoeuvre their unethical behaviour so as to maximize material gains at a minimal psychological cost. Employing an anonymous die-under-cup paradigm, we asked people to report the outcome of a private die roll and gain money as a function of their

  4. Discursive psychology and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Ann

    2012-09-01

    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual

  6. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  7. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  8. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  9. Internet research in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Samuel D; Mason, Winter

    2015-01-03

    Today the Internet plays a role in the lives of nearly 40% of the world's population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges, but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society.

  10. Diet and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M

    1996-09-01

    This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders.

  11. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  12. Operational Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Al

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

  13. Psychological wellbeing, health and ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Psychological wellbeing and health are closely linked at older ages. Three aspects of psychological wellbeing can be distinguished: evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, etc), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in this field, and present new analyses concerning the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, an ongoing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relationship between evaluative wellbeing and age in rich, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing around ages 45-54. But this pattern is not universal: for example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe show a large progressive decline in wellbeing with age; Latin America also shows falling wellbeing with age, while wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relationship between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people suffering from illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis and chronic lung disease show both raised levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing may also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an illustrative analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), we find that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with longer survival; 29.3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died over the average follow-up period of 8.5 years compared with 9.3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, gender, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of the elderly is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Current psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in pattern of wellbeing with age across

  14. Moral psychology (ethics).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Chrisoula

    2010-07-01

    This article examines a selection of currently lively debates in the quickly evolving, interdisciplinary field of moral psychology. Topics discussed include the possibility of amoralism, the nature of rationality, the (ir)rationality of emotions and intuitions, the psychology of cooperation and of (rational) commitment, weakness of will, free will, and the assignment of moral responsibility. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology (SNP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mouras , Harold

    2011-01-01

    It is an exciting challenge for us to launch a new interdisciplinary journal, Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology. We believe the journal will appeal to a wide audience across several scientific specialties. In recent decades, considerable technical and theoretical advances have shed new light on psychological and neural processes. For example, in the area of neuroimaging techniques, it is now possible to explore the role of the brain in a wide variety of behaviours and paradigms (mo...

  16. “Slow Food” Post-Qualitative Research in Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    The present paper addresses several aspects discussed in the special issue on the future of qualitative research in psychology. Particularly, it asks whether in light of the overhomogenization of the term “qualitative methods” researchers actually can still assume that they talk about the same...... thing when using this terminology. In addressing the topic of what constitutes the object of psychological research and what accordingly could be a genuinely psychological qualitative research it acknowledges the need to return to the study of persons’ unique experience. In light of the risk of “Mc......Donaldization” in present qualitative research, it argues that we need to return to learning research methods as craft skills. It will then give an outlook on how recent developments in discursive and narrative psychology offer a fruitful avenue for studying unique psychological experience as people manage to ‘move on...

  17. Reforming the minimum wage: Toward a psychological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The field of psychology has periodically used its professional and scholarly platform to encourage national policy reform that promotes the public interest. In this article, the movement to raise the federal minimum wage is presented as an issue meriting attention from the psychological profession. Psychological support for minimum wage reform derives from health disparities research that supports the causal linkages between poverty and diminished physical and emotional well-being. Furthermore, psychological scholarship relevant to the social exclusion of low-income people not only suggests additional benefits of financially inclusive policymaking, it also indicates some of the attitudinal barriers that could potentially hinder it. Although the national living wage debate obviously extends beyond psychological parameters, psychologists are well-positioned to evaluate and contribute to it. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. International School Psychology: Psychology's Worldwide Portal to Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas D.

    2003-01-01

    International school psychology is discussed in reference to scholarly and professional development within psychology, the emergence of an international association of school psychology, its efforts to promote school psychology, prevailing characteristics of school psychologists, and additional efforts needed to further enhance its development.…

  19. The five functions of psychological type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2016-04-01

    From the mid-1930s to the end of his life, Jung complained that most readers misunderstood the main point of his book Psychological Types. He viewed being a type as one-sided and problematic for a variety of reasons. His symbol-based solution to the 'type problem' involved developing a transcendent function to become the new dominant function of consciousness. However, this function has not featured in the popular use of his typology and Isabel Briggs Myers believed that the one-sidedness of Jung's eight types could be balanced by the auxiliary function. This has led to the transcendent function being widely ignored, and to a developmental philosophy that encourages a degree of one-sidedness. This divergence of popular type theory and analytical psychology is the result of various factors, such as Jung describing typology as containing four functions, and a letter in 1950 where Jung apparently supported Myers' version of type theory. This hinders the application of analytical psychology to normal psychology, and particularly individual and cultural development. If we refer to Jung's typology as containing five functions not four, this more accurately represents both the content of the book Psychological Types and the primary value Jung saw in typology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Baby Poop: What's Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  1. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  2. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam

    2018-05-01

    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  3. An existential criterion for normal and abnormal personality in the works of Erich Fromm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustin S.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal on the position people with normal and abnormal personalities take in regard to so-called existential dichotomies. The main objective of this article is to propose a new, existential criterion for normal and abnormal personality implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies, and, second, by particular aspects of the formation of this position. Such dichotomies, entitatively existent in all human life, are inherent, two-alternative contradictions. The position of a normal personality in its content orients one toward a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and the necessity of searching for compromise in resolving these dichotomies. This position is created on a rational basis with the person’s active participation. The position of an abnormal personality in its content subjectively denies a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and orients one toward a consistent, noncompetitive, and, as a consequence, one-sided way of life that doesn’t include self-determination. This position is imposed by other people on an irrational basis. Abnormal personality interpreted like this is one of the most important factors influencing the development of various kinds of psychological problems and mental disorders — primarily, neurosis. In the following three articles it will be shown that this criterion is also implicitly present in the theories of personality devised by Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and Viktor Frankl.

  4. Sociodemographic predictors of elderly's psychological well-being in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Yadollah A; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Hamid, Tengku A; Yahaya, Nurizan

    2011-05-01

    Psychological well-being as one of the most important indicators of successful aging has received substantial attention in the gerontological literature. Prior studies show that sociodemographic factors influencing elderly's psychological well-being are multiple and differ across cultures. The aim of this study was to identify significant sociodemographic predictors of psychological well-being among Malay elders. The study included 1415 older Malays (60-100 years, 722 women), randomly selected through a multistage stratified random method from Peninsular Malaysia. WHO-Five well-being index was used to measure psychological well-being. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.0. Using multiple regression analysis a significant model emerged (F(7, 1407) = 20.14, p ≤ 0.001), where age, sex, marital status, and household income were significant predictor variables of psychological well-being among Malay elders. However, level of education, employment status, and place of residence failed to predict psychological well-being. This study showed that the oldest old, elderly women, unmarried, and the poor elderly people are at risk for experiencing low psychological well-being. Therefore, they need special attention from family, policy makers, and those who work with elderly people.

  5. The construction of the category of unemployed young people with no qualifications in Switzerland : A looping effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Nada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the process of the rationalization of activation policies towards unemployed young people in Switzerland. It aims at analysing the mechanism of normalization for the criterion of “unqualified” among unemployed young people with no qualifications. Empirical observations show the growing difficulties for personal counsellors to categorize an increasingly heterogeneous population of young unemployed people. These difficulties crystallize themselves with the definition of the criterion “unqualified”, thereby ushering in a new activation measure that appraises the school- and psychological aptitudes of young people. This measure partially determines the eligibility of the unemployed young people and participates in producing a norm of the “right measure” in relation to the level of “unqualification”. The concept of “looping effect “ developed by Ian Hacking was used to analyse the mechanism of transformation of the category and its effects on the identities of both young people and the front line agents. The paper discusses how to apply a philosophical concept to the sociology of categorization in order to deepen our understanding of activation policies within the changing scene of European social policy.

  6. LGBT psychology and feminist psychology: bridging the divide

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, V.; Peel, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we outline some of the similarities and differences between lesbian and gay psychology (more recently known as LGBT psychology) and feminist psychology. Both fields developed in response to the oppressive practices of psychology; however, lesbian and gay psychologists have been far more willing to using the theoretical and methodological tools of mainstream psychology than have feminist psychologists. Feminist psychologists have enthusiastically embraced qualitative and critica...

  7. Integrative psychology: the return to the subject of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative), make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of ps...

  8. Introduction to Psychology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, James W.

    Chapters in this textbook for college students in introductory psychology courses are: (1) What is Psychology?; (2) Scientific Methods in Psychology; (3) Biological Psychology; (4) Sensation and Perception; (5) Altered States; (6) Learning; (7) Memory; (8) Cognition and Language; (9) Intelligence and Its Measurement; (10) Development; (11)…

  9. Introducing Positive Psychology to SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…

  10. Striving for the unknown normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    During the last decade, more and more people have received prescriptions for ADHD drug treatment, and simultaneously the legitimacy of the ADHD diagnosis has been heavily debated among both professionals and laymen. Based on an anthropological fieldwork among adults with ADHD, I illustrate how...... the ADHD diagnosis both answers and produces existential questions on what counts as normal behaviour and emotions. The diagnosis helps the diagnosed to identify, accept and handle problems by offering concrete explanations and solutions to diffuse experienced problems. But the diagnostic process...... is not only a clarifying procedure with a straight plan for treatment and direct effects. It is also a messy affair. In a process of experimenting with drugs and attempting to determine how or whether the medication eliminates the correct symptoms the diagnosed is put in an introspective, self...

  11. Cultural Psychology and Its Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cultural Psychology is a radical new look in psychology that studies how persons and social-cultural worlds mutually constitute one another. With the increase of globalization and multicultural exchanges, cultural psychology becomes the psychological science for the 21st century. Encounters......’s revolutionary principle of ‘complementarity’ can contribute to the development of a cultural psychology that takes time, semiotics, and human feeling seriously. Commentators further discuss how complementarity can act as an epistemology for psychology; a number of new methodological strategies for incorporating...... culture and time into investigations; and what cultural psychology can contribute to our understanding of imagination, art, language and self-other relations....

  12. Comparisons of stomatal parameters between normal and abnormal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... plant's different parts attract more people's attention. Bougainvillea ... When this plant flowered, leaf length was divided into six stages. Normal leaves which length ..... and driving environmental change. Nature. 424: 901-908.

  13. [Psychological research on the cognitive aspect of emotional processes in schizophrenia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, N S

    1988-01-01

    Cognitive aspects of emotionality were psychologically investigated in 250 patients with continuous and paroxysmal progredient schizophrenia and differently pronounced defect. The control group consisted of 100 normal subjects. A set of 7 techniques was applied. In cases of the patient's defect accentuated, cognitive emotional disorder was marked with the emotions and emotiogenic situations underestimation in dealing with other people and cognitive activities. This underestimation was not a uniform one concerning to a larger extent the strong emotions in other subjects, patients' own positive emotions, success in individual problem solving and degree of success in cooperative performance. Weak emotions, negative ones and failure situations were underestimated to a lesser degree, as was the success rating in competitive paradigms.

  14. Subjective Quality of Life in the Psychology of Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapoval I.A.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a theoretical introduction to the discussion of the subjective quality of life for carriers of psychology of poverty. We revealed the socio-cultural determinants of subjective quality of life, systematize its psychological components and factors of its high level. We describe a set of characteristics of psychology of poverty, including the sense of displacement from normal life, hopelessness, fatalism, deprivation, social envy, metapathology of personality, lack of subjectivity, responsibility, an outsider position, survivor guilt complex, and so on. On the criterion of the relationship to own life we revealed types of carriers of psychology of poverty: a passive-contemplative, passive-aggressive, pseudocompensatory-devalued, infantile, anomic. We analyzed the specificity of reflection and benchmarking of carriers of psychology of poverty as a cognitive and affective strategies to assess the quality of own lives, focused on the maintenance of self-esteem

  15. Normalization of emotion control scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatoolah Tahmasebian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion control skill teaches the individuals how to identify their emotions and how to express and control them in various situations. The aim of this study was to normalize and measure the internal and external validity and reliability of emotion control test. Methods: This standardization study was carried out on a statistical society, including all pupils, students, teachers, nurses and university professors in Kermanshah in 2012, using Williams’ emotion control scale. The subjects included 1,500 (810 females and 690 males people who were selected by stratified random sampling. Williams (1997 emotion control scale, was used to collect the required data. Emotional Control Scale is a tool for measuring the degree of control people have over their emotions. This scale has four subscales, including anger, depressed mood, anxiety and positive affect. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using correlation and Cronbach's alpha tests. Results: The results of internal consistency of the questionnaire reported by Cronbach's alpha indicated an acceptable internal consistency for emotional control scale, and the correlation between the subscales of the test and between the items of the questionnaire was significant at 0.01 confidence level. Conclusion: The validity of emotion control scale among the pupils, students, teachers, nurses and teachers in Iran has an acceptable range, and the test itemswere correlated with each other, thereby making them appropriate for measuring emotion control.

  16. Diabetic patients: Psychological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adili, Fatemeh; Larijani, Bagher; Haghighatpanah, Mohammadreza

    2006-11-01

    This study was undertaken to consider the psychological aspect of diabetes with regard to improving clinical outcomes. The review was limited to literature reports on the causes, solutions, and treatments of some common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management. A literature search was undertaken using Pub-Med, CINAHL, Proquest, Elsevier, Blackwell Synergy, Ovid, Ebsco, Rose net, and Google websites, including studies published in English journals between 1995 and 2006. Therefore about 88 articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In earlier studies, relatively little empirical research was found to substantiate the effect of psychological counseling in complicated diabetes. The greatest deficits were seen in areas of mental health, self-esteem parent impact, and family cohesion. There were some different factors, which influence the psychological aspect of diabetic patients, such as age, gender, place of living, familial and social support, motivation, energy, life satisfaction, and lifestyle. There are various types of solutions for coping with the psychological problems in diabetic clients. The most essential solution lies in educating the patients and healthcare providers on the subject. Before initiating each educational intervention, a thorough assessment would be crucial. Treatment plans may benefit from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior family therapy, improving family communication, problem-solving skills, and providing motivation for diabetic patients. Moreover, it seems that the close collaboration between diabetologists and psychologists would be fruitful.

  17. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves the chance of a good recovery. Without treatment, symptoms may worsen and cause death. What research is being done? The NINDS conducts and supports research on neurological disorders, including normal pressure hydrocephalus. Research on disorders such ...

  18. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  19. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  20. Normal growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002456.htm Normal growth and development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: ...

  1. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p Students supported resilience-based interventions, greater financial support, clearer learning objectives and more continuous assessment as potential means to reduce the effects of stress. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  2. The foundational principles as psychological lodestars: Theoretical inspiration and empirical direction in rehabilitation psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dana S; Ehde, Dawn M; Wegener, Stephen T

    2016-02-01

    Historically, the Foundational Principles articulated by Wright (1983) and others guided theory development, research and scholarship, and practice in rehabilitation psychology. In recent decades, these principles have become more implicit and less explicit or expressive in the writings and work of rehabilitation professionals. We believe that the Foundational Principles are essential lodestars for working with people with disabilities that can guide inquiry, practice, and service. To introduce this special issues, this commentary identifies and defines key Foundational Principles, including, for example, Lewin's (1935) person-environment relation, adjustment to disability, the malleability of self-perceptions of bodily states, and the importance of promoting dignity for people with disabilities. We then consider the role the Foundational Principles play in the articles appearing in this special issue. We close by considering some new principles and their potential utility in rehabilitation settings. Readers in rehabilitation psychology and aligned areas (e.g., social-personality psychology, health psychology, rehabilitation therapist, psychiatry, and nursing) are encouraged to consider how the Foundational Principles underlie and can shape their research and practice. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Predicting Intentions to Seek Psychological Help Among Botswana University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho M. Pheko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study had two main objectives. The first was to investigate Botswana’s university students’ intentions to seek psychological help. The second was to investigate whether (a Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help (ATSPPH, (b Self-Stigma of Seeking Help (SSOSH, and (c Social Stigma of Receiving Psychological Help (SSRPH predicted the students’ intentions to seek psychological help. A total of N = 519 (283 females and 236 males students from the University of Botswana completed the survey. Results indicated that generally, the students had moderate intentions of seeking psychological help. Multiple regression analysis revealed that of the three predictors, only ATSPPH and SSRPH significantly predicted intentions to seek psychological help. The current study is important because while it has been established that university students are a high-risk population for mental health problems, there is close to nothing documented on university students in Botswana. Findings of the current study will undoubtedly increase knowledge relating to psychological help-seeking and its predictors in Botswana and may inform interventions that aim to encourage young people to seek psychological or counseling help.

  4. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  5. Embodiment in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A

    2012-10-01

    Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  7. Advancing family psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-02-01

    To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Sociogenomic Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657

  9. International psychology and scientific psychology: at the crossroads for the future of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, J.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of psychology as a science and the newly emerging field of international psychology are at a crossroads in terms of a conflict that has developed in their views. By means of comparative analysis, this article examines how the proponents of international psychology describe their area, how that description conflicts with the concept of psychology as a science, and what that conflict means for the development of psychology as an overall discipline. The analysis reveals weaknesses...

  10. Lest we forget that industrial and organisational psychology is psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJW Strümpfer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The tie between industrial/organisational psychology (IOP and general psychology should be taken seriously. The origin of the split into separate academic departments is discussed. Four IOP topics are presented which are rooted in psychology or where the psychological quality is strong, making the tie-in clear: motivation, leadership, assessment, and appreciative inquiry; by way of illustration, proponents are referred to. Specialisation and professionalisation often bring undue emphasis on technology. IOP cannot be human resource management. Suggestions are made about bringing IOP and psychology closer within teaching programmes and internships. Appreciative images of what IOP, hand-in-hand with psychology, could be like, are put forward.

  11. The psychology of creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    The psychology of creativity is nowadays a thriving field of investigation, but also a discipline in crisis. This is the premise for the critical reading of past and present work within this area proposed here. The presentation follows the typical headings of a research article, beginning...... in order to help us develop a stronger psychology of creativity in the decades to come. In the end, six main points are placed on a hypothetical agenda for future (creative) creativity re-search. In this sense, a critical reading is actually the first step in the process of being constructive and calling...

  12. Neuroeconomics and business psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    To determine parameters of the frontal power of executive integration for application in business, this paper reviewed neuroeconomic neuroimaging research and discussion in relation to business psychology. The results are that limbic system (L) is a centre of primary consciousness based on a meso......To determine parameters of the frontal power of executive integration for application in business, this paper reviewed neuroeconomic neuroimaging research and discussion in relation to business psychology. The results are that limbic system (L) is a centre of primary consciousness based...

  13. Psychology of programming

    CERN Document Server

    Hoc, J-M

    1991-01-01

    Psychology provides a backdrop for most of the study of human*b1computer interaction. In this volume the psychological issues that pertain to programming, rather than systems design, are examined in four sections: Theoretical and Methodological Issues; Language Design and Skill Acquisition; Expert Programming; and the Future.****The book was inspired by working groups in France and the United Kingdom but also includes work by major North American figures (such as Curtis and Soloway). It is the first comprehensive work on this topic since the early 1980s.

  14. Psychological lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    Up to the time of the disaster, the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was regarded as one of the best in the USSR, and the city of Pripyat, housing the plant's staff, was rightly called one of the most comfortable. Also, the psychological climate of the plant provided no causes for worry. This was a worked-in team, composed of seasoned and knowledgeable experts. How can one then explain the events that happened in such an unlikely place. Isn't there a danger that the situation will repeat itself? The author considers the question and other psychological aspects of the Chernobyl incident

  15. Psychological models of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.

  16. On applying cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Recent attempts to assess the practical impact of scientific research prompted my own reflections on over 40 years worth of combining basic and applied cognitive psychology. Examples are drawn principally from the study of memory disorders, but also include applications to the assessment of attention, reading, and intelligence. The most striking conclusion concerns the many years it typically takes to go from an initial study, to the final practical outcome. Although the complexity and sheer timescale involved make external evaluation problematic, the combination of practical satisfaction and theoretical stimulation make the attempt to combine basic and applied research very rewarding. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  17. The Dominant Robot: Threatening Robots Cause Psychological Reactance, Especially When They Have Incongruent Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubroeks, M. A. J.; Ham, J. R. C.; Midden, C. J. H.

    Persuasive technology can take the form of a social agent that persuades people to change behavior or attitudes. However, like any persuasive technology, persuasive social agents might trigger psychological reactance, which can lead to restoration behavior. The current study investigated whether interacting with a persuasive robot can cause psychological reactance. Additionally, we investigated whether goal congruency plays a role in psychological reactance. Participants programmed a washing machine while a robot gave threatening advice. Confirming expectations, participants experienced more psychological reactance when receiving high-threatening advice compared to low-threatening advice. Moreover, when the robot gave high-threatening advice and expressed an incongruent goal, participants reported the highest level of psychological reactance (on an anger measure). Finally, high-threatening advice led to more restoration, and this relationship was partially mediated by psychological reactance. Overall, results imply that under certain circumstances persuasive technology can trigger opposite effects, especially when people have incongruent goal intentions.

  18. Smooth quantile normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2018-04-01

    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest. For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available. Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization, referred to as smooth quantile normalization (qsmooth), which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same (or have the same distributional shape) within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. A software implementation is available from https://github.com/stephaniehicks/qsmooth.

  19. The Comparison between Conceived Stress and Personality traits, in People Suffering from Migraine and Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Peymannia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Migraine is a common familial disease and is diagnosed with recurring throbbing headache. Investigation of biological and psychological factors in the initiation and aggravation of migraine headaches have shown that there is a relationship between the psychological factors, personality, and migraine headache. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the conceived stress and Personality traits between ill persons suffering from Migraine and healthy people. Methods: This is an analytical cross-sectional study which involves a sample including 30 migrainours and 30 healthy people. The migraine-suffering participants were chosen among the people who referred to specialized clinic of migraine in Ardabil in the first half of 2012. The study participants filled the Eysenck's personality questionnaire and Kohen' s Perceived stress scale. Descriptive statistics as well as MANOVA were utilized to analyze the research data. Results: The results showed that migraine-suffering participants conceived the stress negatively (P<0.01, F=11 compared to healthy participants. Moreover, migrainours scored significantly higher in regard to Neuroticism score compared to healthy people (P<0.05, F=5.91. Also, there was a significant difference between migrainours and healthy people in their extroversion score (P<0.05, F=6.57. Conclusion: According to the study findings, it appears that migraine patients are more vulnerable to the neurotic disease. Therefore, considering the psychological and personality characteristics may impact on the prognosis of disease.

  20. [How educating students in depression among older people can affect their motivation to work with this population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, S; Izaute, M; Teissèdre, F

    2017-04-01

    Negative representations of ageing are conveyed in our society. We see that people frequently avoid working with older people, due to a lack of motivation. Depressive signs in older people are more frequently associated with normal ageing, rather than a pathology, giving health professionals the feeling that therapeutic efforts are likely to be unproductive. Yet, depression is a major public health problem, particularly among older people. It is a real pathology, affecting 20% of people aged 65 and older. In retirement homes the percentage can be as high as 45%. To study and evaluate how theoretical knowledge about older people and depression affects the motivation of 2nd year psychology students to work with this population. The study involves two groups. One of the groups (experimental group) followed an 8hour course on depression in older people, whereas the other (control group) followed an 8hour course on a different topic. The study was conducted in two parts. First, the two groups answered an initial questionnaire which measured how motivated they were to work with older people and what they knew about depression in older people. Then, after the experimental phase, all of the students answered the same questionnaire a second time. The comparison shows a significant decline in knowledge between T1 and T2 for the control group (Pdepression, students are more motivated to work with older people. Moreover, we observe that the more knowledge students have in this field, the more motivated they will be to work with older people. Whereas there were no differences in knowledge before the course, we observed that the knowledge of the group who took part in the course about older people improved. Also, the evaluation showed that students who took the course were significantly more knowledgeable. Regarding motivation, our results vary according to the type of motivation. Overall, as regards intrinsic motivation, we observed an increase in motivation, insofar as the