WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychologically controlling behavior

  1. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  2. Parental behavioral and psychological control relationships to self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and antisocial behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yalçın Özdemir

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression among Turkish adolescents. Participants for the present study consisted of 333 adolescents (168 girls, 163 boys) between the age of 13 to 15 with a mean of 13.90 (SD=.514) years. Participants completed measures on behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial beha...

  3. Psychological Control Associated with Youth Adjustment and Risky Behavior in African American Single Mother Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Gonzalez, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth…

  4. International note: Maternal warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control: Relations to adjustment of Ghanaian early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaam, Braima; Mounts, Nina S

    2016-06-01

    This investigation addressed the relation between maternal warmth, behavioral control, psychological control, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 119 Ghanaian adolescents (42% boys) living in an urban area (mean age = 14.19). Adolescents in the sample reported clinically elevated levels of depression and anxiety. Significant associations were found between warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control and adolescents' anxiety, physical aggression, relational aggression, positive friendship quality, and conflict with friends. Warmth moderated the effect of behavioral control on anxiety, physical aggression, and relational aggression such that higher levels of warmth in combination with higher levels of behavioral control were related to more positive adjustment. Higher levels of warmth in conjunction with higher psychological control were related to higher levels of anxiety. Boys who reported lower levels of warmth in combination with higher behavioral control reported higher levels of physical aggression. For boys reporting higher levels of warmth, higher behavioral control was associated with lower physical aggression. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antecedents and Behavior-Problem Outcomes of Parental Monitoring and Psychological Control in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Gregory S.; Laird, Robert D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Criss, Michael M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control during early adolescence. Found that monitoring was anteceded by proactive parenting style and advantageous family-ecological characteristics. Psychological control was anteceded by harsh parenting and mothers' report of earlier child…

  6. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…

  7. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A; Allen, Joseph P; Hafen, Christopher A; Hessel, Elenda T; Szwedo, David E; Spilker, Ann

    2014-05-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior.

  8. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. PMID:25328265

  9. Parental behavioral and psychological control and problematic internet use among Chinese adolescents: the mediating role of self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian; Li, Dongping; Newman, Joan

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has reported contradictory effects of parental control on adolescents' problematic Internet use (PIU). To reconcile the discrepant findings, the current study examined the differential effects of parental behavioral control (solicitation and restriction) and psychological control (guilt induction, love withdrawal, and authority assertion) on adolescents' PIU. The mediating effect of self-control on the relationships between parental control and PIU was also examined. A total of 694 Chinese adolescents (M=13.67 years) completed questionnaire measures of parental behavioral control, psychological control, self-control, and PIU. After adjusting for age, gender, and family financial status, it was found that parental restriction (a form of behavioral control) was negatively associated with PIU, whereas love withdrawal (a form of psychological control) was positively associated with PIU. Increased self-control was associated with decreased PIU, and changes in self-control at least partially mediated the differential effects of parental behavioral and psychological control on PIU. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Mother-adolescent conflict as a mediator between adolescent problem behaviors and maternal psychological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeger, Christine M; Gondoli, Dawn M

    2013-04-01

    This study examined mother-adolescent conflict as a mediator of longitudinal reciprocal relations between adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control. Motivated by family systems theory and the transactions that occur between individual and dyadic levels of the family system, we examined the connections among these variables during a developmental period when children and parents experience significant psychosocial changes. Three years of self-report data were collected from 168 mother-adolescent dyads, beginning when the adolescents (55.4% girls) were in 6th grade. Models were tested using longitudinal path analysis. Results indicated that the connection between adolescent aggression (and depressive symptoms) and maternal psychological control was best characterized as adolescent-driven, indirect, and mediated by mother-adolescent conflict; there were no indications of parent-driven indirect effects. That is, prior adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms were associated with increased conflict. In turn, conflict was associated with increased psychological control. Within our mediation models, reciprocal direct effects between both problem behaviors and conflict and between conflict and psychological control were also found. Additionally, exploratory analyses regarding the role of adolescent gender as a moderator of variable relations were conducted. These analyses revealed no gender-related patterns of moderation, whether moderated mediation or specific path tests for moderation were considered. This study corroborates prior research finding support for child effects on parenting behaviors during early adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Antecedents of perceived coach autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors: coach psychological need satisfaction and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbings, Juliette; Taylor, Ian M; Spray, Christopher M

    2011-04-01

    Within the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, research has considered the consequences of coaches' autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors on various athlete outcomes (e.g., motivation and performance). The antecedents of such behaviors, however, have received little attention. Coaches (N = 443) from a variety of sports and competitive levels completed a self-report questionnaire to assess their psychological need satisfaction, well-being and perceived interpersonal behaviors toward their athletes. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that coaches' competence and autonomy need satisfaction positively predicted their levels of psychological well-being, as indexed by positive affect and subjective vitality. In turn, coaches' psychological well-being positively predicted their perceived autonomy support toward their athletes, and negatively predicted their perceived controlling behaviors. Overall, the results highlight the importance of coaching contexts that facilitate coaches' psychological need satisfaction and well-being, thereby increasing the likelihood of adaptive coach interpersonal behavior toward athletes.

  13. Effect of psychological distress on weight concern and weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Kabir, Ali; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shokouh, Pedram; Aalaei-Andabili, Seyed Hossein; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic disorders like coronary artery diseases, metabolic syndrome, cancers, and psychiatric disorders. Stress may contribute to weight gain by disrupting weight concern, and lead to uncontrolled eating behavior. This study aimed to investigate the effects of stress on weight concern and control behaviors in normal weight and obese adults. A total of 9544 subjects were selected by multi-stage random sampling from three provinces in central Iran. Information related to weight concern and control behavior was registered in normal weight and obese participants. Psychological distress was measured by a 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and subjects were divided into high and low stress groups. Logistic regression was used for analysis. The mean age of participants was 38.7 ± 15.5 years and 50% (4772) of them were males. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for age, sex and education of high stress to low stress level for weight concern, weight control behavior and acceptable physical activity behavior was more than 1; but the OR was less than 1 for waist circumference, obesity and healthy diet behavior. Among obese participants, higher levels of stress were associated with lower weight concern with OR, 95%CI: 0.821, (0.682 - 0.988), lower acceptable physical activity with OR = 0.833, 95%CI: (0.624 - 0.912), but higher rates of healthy diet behavior with OR = 1.360, 95% CI: (1.040 - 1.780). Individuals with high stress level have lower weight concern and lower physical activity; therefore, they are prone to weight gain and obesity. It could be concluded that stress management should be considered as a crucial component of obesity prevention and control programs.

  14. The Impact of Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of African American and European American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.

    2003-01-01

    Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…

  15. A qualitative study of psychological, social and behavioral barriers to appropriate food portion size control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Michelle; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Hollywood, Lynsey E; Gibney, Eileen R; O'Brien, Sinéad A; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty; Dean, Moira

    2013-08-01

    Given the worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity, there is a clear need for meaningful practical healthy eating advice - not only in relation to food choice, but also on appropriate food portion sizes. As the majority of portion size research to date has been overwhelmingly quantitative in design, there is a clear need to qualitatively explore consumers' views in order to fully understand how food portion size decisions are made. Using qualitative methodology this present study aimed to explore consumers' views about factors influencing their portion size selection and consumption and to identify barriers to appropriate portion size control. Ten focus groups with four to nine participants in each were formed with a total of 66 persons (aged 19-64 years) living on the island of Ireland. The semi-structured discussions elicited participants' perceptions of suggested serving size guidance and explored the influence of personal, social and environmental factors on their food portion size consumption. Audiotapes of the discussions were professionally transcribed verbatim, loaded into NVivo 9, and analysed using an inductive thematic analysis procedure. The rich descriptive data derived from participants highlight that unhealthy portion size behaviors emanate from various psychological, social and behavioral factors. These bypass reflective and deliberative control, and converge to constitute significant barriers to healthy portion size control. Seven significant barriers to healthy portion size control were apparent: (1) lack of clarity and irrelevance of suggested serving size guidance; (2) guiltless eating; (3) lack of self-control over food cues; (4) distracted eating; (5) social pressures; (6) emotional eating rewards; and (7) quantification habits ingrained from childhood. Portion size control strategies should empower consumers to overcome these effects so that the consumption of appropriate food portion sizes becomes automatic and habitual.

  16. Psychological, behavioral, and clinical effects of intra-oral camera: a randomized control trial on adults with gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Mário-Rui; Alvarez, Maria-João; Godinho, Cristina A; Pereira, Cícero

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of using an intra-oral camera (IOC) during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT), on the psychological, behavioral, and clinical parameters of patients with gingivitis, outlined by evidence and a theory-based framework. A group of 78 adult patients with gingivitis receiving an SPT was randomized into two groups: IOC and control. Bleeding on Marginal Probing (BOMP), self-reported dental hygiene behaviors, and psychological determinants of behavior change (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and planning) and IOC opinion were evaluated 1 week before or during the appointment and 4 months later. Repeated-measures anova was used to compare groups over time. Almost all the patients brushed their teeth daily, while 78% either never or hardly ever used dental floss. The IOC group showed significant improvements in BOMP index (P < 0.001), self-reported flossing (P < 0.05), and self-efficacy (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. The use of IOC significantly improves clinical, behavioral, and psychological determinants of periodontal health 4 months after treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Mother–Adolescent Conflict as a Mediator Between Adolescent Problem Behaviors and Maternal Psychological Control

    OpenAIRE

    Steeger, Christine M.; Gondoli, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined mother–adolescent conflict as a mediator of longitudinal reciprocal relations between adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control. Motivated by family systems theory and the transactions that occur between individual and dyadic levels of the family system, we examined the connections among these variables during a developmental period when children and parents experience significant psychosocial changes. Three years of self-report data ...

  18. Co-Occurring Trajectory of Mothers' Substance Use and Psychological Control and Children's Behavior Problems: The Effects of a Family Systems Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Slesnick, Natasha; Feng, Xin

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the effects of a family systems therapy (Ecologically-Based Family Therapy [EBFT]) on the co-occurring trajectory of mothers' substance use and psychological control, and its association with children's problem behaviors. Participants included 183 mothers with a substance use disorder who had at least one biological child in their care. Mothers were randomly assigned to one of the three intervention conditions: EBFT-home, n = 62; EBFT-office, n = 61; or Women's Health Education, n = 60. Participants were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months post-baseline. A dual-trajectory class growth analysis identified three groups of mothers in regard to their change trajectories. The majority of the mothers exhibited a synchronous decrease in substance use and psychological control (n = 107). In all, 46 mothers exhibited a synchronous increase in substance use and psychological control. For the remaining 30 mothers, substance use and psychological control remained stable. Mothers in the family therapy condition were more likely to show reduced substance use and psychological control compared to mothers in the control condition. Moreover, children with mothers who showed decreased substance use and psychological control exhibited lower levels of problem behaviors compared to children with mothers showing increased substance use and psychological control. The findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of family systems therapy, EBFT, in treating mothers' substance use, improving parenting behaviors, and subsequently improving child behavioral outcomes. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  19. Associations Among Psychologically Controlling Parenting, Autonomy, Relatedness, and Problem Behaviors During Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liga, Francesca; Ingoglia, Sonia; Inguglia, Cristiano; Lo Coco, Alida; Lo Cricchio, Maria Grazia; Musso, Pasquale; Cheah, Charissa; Rose, Laura; Gutow, Mindy R

    2017-05-19

    The present study aimed to investigate the relations among perceived parental psychological control (PPC), autonomy and relatedness, and negative outcomes during emerging adulthood in two cultural contexts: Italy and the USA. More specifically, we explored the mechanisms through which dependency-oriented PPC (DPPC) and achievement-oriented PPC (APPC) are associated with both internalizing and externalizing difficulties, focusing on the mediating role of autonomy and relatedness. Participants were 418 European-American and 359 Italian college students. Results indicated that the expressions of PPC with regard to dependency and achievement were related to emerging adults' negative outcomes through different pathways, and these effects were moderated by the cultural group. The implications of the findings for future related empirical investigations and clinical interventions were discussed.

  20. Demographic, Psychological, and Weight-Related Correlates of Weight Control Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    model of bulimia nervosa: Evidence for restrained-eating and affect-regulation mechanisms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology , 15, 340-363...DATE MAR 2007 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Demographic, Psychological , and Weight-Related...weigh-in/physical fitness testing. Both weight-related factors and psychological factors were associated with increased odds of engaging in weight

  1. A web-based training program using cognitive behavioral therapy to alleviate psychological distress among employees: randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Makiko; Tajima, Miyuki; Kimura, Risa; Sasaki, Norio; Somemura, Hironori; Ito, Yukio; Okanoya, June; Yamamoto, Megumi; Nakamura, Saki; Tanaka, Katsutoshi

    2014-12-02

    A number of psychoeducational programs based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to alleviate psychological distress have been developed for implementation in clinical settings. However, while these programs are considered critical components of stress management education in a workplace setting, they are required to be brief and simple to implement, which can hinder development. The intent of the study was to examine the effects of a brief training program based on CBT in alleviating psychological distress among employees and facilitating self-evaluation of stress management skills, including improving the ability to recognize dysfunctional thinking patterns, transform dysfunctional thoughts to functional ones, cope with stress, and solve problems. Of the 187 employees at an information technology company in Tokyo, Japan, 168 consented to participate in our non-blinded randomized controlled study. The training group received CBT group education by a qualified CBT expert and 1 month of follow-up Web-based CBT homework. The effects of this educational program on the psychological distress and stress management skills of employees were examined immediately after completion of training and then again after 6 months. Although the training group did exhibit lower mean scores on the Kessler-6 (K6) scale for psychological distress after 6 months, the difference from the control group was not significant. However, the ability of training group participants to recognize dysfunctional thinking was significantly improved both immediately after training completion and after 6 months. While the ability of participants to cope with stress was not significantly improved immediately after training, improvement was noted after 6 months in the training group. No notable improvements were observed in the ability of participants to transform thoughts from dysfunctional to functional or in problem-solving skills. A sub-analysis of participants who initially exhibited clinically

  2. Do the Psychological Constructs of Attitude, Perceived Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control Explain a Woman's Intention to Use Mobile Business Applications, across Cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Deirdre Elyse

    2015-01-01

    A reasoned action approach (RAA) was used to assess the importance of psychological factors (attitude, perceived norm, and perceived behavioral control) in forming a woman's intention to use mobile technology, specifically mobile business applications. This study also examined whether the significance of these factors varied across cultures. An…

  3. Psychological Flexibility, ACT, and Organizational Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2006-01-01

    This paper offers organizational behavior management (OBM) a behavior analytically consistent way to expand its analysis of, and methods for changing, organizational behavior. It shows how Relational Frame Theory (RFT) suggests that common, problematic, psychological processes emerge from language itself, and they produce psychological inflexibility. Research suggests that an applied extension of RFT, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, has led to new interventions that increase psychological ...

  4. Control and resistance in the psychology of lying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, Maarten

    Psychology's obsession with control, with manipulating the experimental situation and the behavior of participants, has often been criticized. Mainstream, experimental psychology, it is said, abuses its power in the laboratory to artificially create docile participants who fit its experimental

  5. Rule - Governed Behavior as a Psychological Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Erwin M.; Stacy, E. Webb, Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Some descriptive criteria for identifying rule-governed behavior are identified from the perspective of cognitive psychology. It is suggested that the concept of explanation in psychology be modified from a specification in terms of physical properties of the antecedent events in a causal sequence to a mapping of rules onto behavior or behavior…

  6. Psychological Flexibility, ACT, and Organizational Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2006-01-01

    This paper offers organizational behavior management (OBM) a behavior analytically consistent way to expand its analysis of, and methods for changing, organizational behavior. It shows how Relational Frame Theory (RFT) suggests that common, problematic, psychological processes emerge from language itself, and they produce psychological…

  7. Digital behavioral and psychological principles

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The chapters in this e-book lie firmly within Web 2.0 and deal with human aspects of interactions between consumers and between consumers and brands in digital space. The first chapter, Consumer Behavior in the Online Context, by Cummings, Peltier, Schibrowsky and Nill, provides an excellent introduction to this ebook by reviewing literature related to the consumer behavior and social network theory as they apply to the Internet, literature covering the period from 1993-2012, spanning over 900 articles across more than 85 marketing journals. The second chapter, by Kabadayi and Price, investiga

  8. Controlling Behaviors and Intimate Partner Violence Among Women in Spain: An Examination of Individual, Partner, and Relationship Risk Factors for Physical and Psychological Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua, Eva; Copp, Jennifer; Ricarte, Jorge J; Vázquez, David

    2017-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been linked to a broad range of negative consequences. Thus, early detection and prevention of behaviors associated with IPV is necessary to combat this global public health problem. Controlling behaviors (CBs) within the intimate context, including acts to constrain free mobility or access to friends and relatives, have been characterized as a moderate form of violence and may be an indicator of more severe IPV. Previous research in this field, however, has been primarily conducted in the United States. Accordingly, we lack knowledge of similar findings in other countries to draw more general conclusions about observed associations between these variables, and to identify underlying mechanisms. The current study analyzes the role of control within the Spanish context by examining its correlates, as well as the role and impact of CBs on psychological and physical violence. To achieve these objectives, we use data from the Spanish sample of the Violence Against Women Survey carried out by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights ( N = 1,520 adult women). The results indicated that young women, women with a previous history of physical/sexual abuse during childhood, and women who have resided in Spain for fewer years are at greater risk of experiencing control within the context of an ongoing relationship. Partner risk factors included frequent episodes of drunkenness and general violence (i.e., violence outside of the home). In addition, control was more frequently reported among couples where the man was older than the woman. As hypothesized, women who reported CB by their partners were more likely to experience psychological and physical violence. These findings emphasize the importance of preventing CBs to avert the most severe forms of violence, and provides relevant information about the groups that could most benefit from these efforts.

  9. The Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire: evaluation of a brief questionnaire to measure physical activity, dietary control, maintenance of a healthy weight, and psychological antecedents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traina SB

    2016-02-01

    -related self-care activities. Most subjects in Stage II were male, Caucasian, and married. Mean age was 63 years. Factor analysis revealed six psychological constructs (Behavior, Planning, Intention, Perceived Behavioral Control, Attitude, and Subjective Norm. Test–retest reliability was acceptable (≥0.70 for all scales, except Perceived Behavioral Control. Construct validity was demonstrated based on correlations with diabetes-specific items/scales and the SF-36. Known-groups validity was confirmed for Behavior, Planning, and Intention when respondents were categorized into groups that differed based on body mass index, disease severity, and HbA1c. Item scores were transformed to a 100-point scale, and minimal clinically important change estimates ranged from 6–11 points, representing the change that would be considered important to a respondent. Conclusion: The DIAB-Q is a brief, psychometrically sound, patient-reported outcome that can be used among individuals with T2DM to evaluate intention to engage in self-care behaviors. Keywords: diabetes, Theory of Planned Behavior, DIAB-Q, attitude, intention, behavior, patient-reported outcome, questionnaire

  10. Long-term psychological benefits of cognitive-behavioral stress management for women with breast cancer: 11-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagl, Jamie M; Bouchard, Laura C; Lechner, Suzanne C; Blomberg, Bonnie B; Gudenkauf, Lisa M; Jutagir, Devika R; Glück, Stefan; Derhagopian, Robert P; Carver, Charles S; Antoni, Michael H

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer survivors experience long-term physical and psychological sequelae after their primary treatment that negatively influence their quality of life (QOL) and increase depressive symptoms. Group-based cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM) delivered after surgery for early-stage breast cancer was previously associated with better QOL over a 12-month follow-up and with fewer depressive symptoms up to 5 years after study enrollment. This 8- to 15-year follow-up (median, 11 years) of a previously conducted trial (NCT01422551) evaluated whether women in this cohort receiving CBSM had fewer depressive symptoms and better QOL than controls at an 8- to 15-year follow-up. Women with stage 0 to IIIb breast cancer were initially recruited 2 to 10 weeks after surgery and randomized to a 10-week CBSM intervention or a 1-day psychoeducational control group. One hundred women (51 CBSM patients and 49 controls) were recontacted 8 to 15 years after study enrollment to participate in a follow-up assessment. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) were self-administered. Multiple regression was employed to evaluate group differences on the CES-D scale and FACT-B over and above effects of confounding variables. Participants assigned to CBSM reported significantly lower depressive symptoms (d, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.70) and better QOL (d, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.52-0.65) above the effects of the covariates. Women who received CBSM after surgery for early-stage breast cancer reported lower depressive symptoms and better QOL than the control group up to 15 years later. Early implementation of cognitive-behavioral interventions may influence long-term psychosocial functioning in breast cancer survivors. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  11. From psychological need satisfaction to intentional behavior: testing a motivational sequence in two behavioral contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Harris, Jemma

    2006-02-01

    The present study tested a motivational sequence in which global-level psychological need satisfaction from self-determination theory influenced intentions and behavior directly and indirectly through contextual-level motivation and situational-level decision-making constructs from the theory of planned behavior. Two samples of university students (N = 511) completed measures of global-level psychological need satisfaction, contextual-level autonomous motivation, and situational-level attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and behavior in two behavioral contexts: exercise and dieting. A structural equation model supported the proposed sequence in both samples. The indirect effect was present for exercise behavior, whereas both direct and indirect effects were found for dieting behavior. Findings independently supported the component theories and provided a comprehensive integrated explanation of volitional behavior.

  12. Work-focused cognitive behavioral intervention for psychological complaints in patients on sick leave due to work-related stress: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgaard, Vita Ligaya; Andersen, Lars Peter Sønderbo; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Willert, Morten Vejs; Carstensen, Ole; Glasscock, David John

    2017-08-22

    Work-related stress is a global problem with negative implications for individuals and society. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a stress management intervention for patients on sick leave due to work-related stress complaints using a three-armed randomized controlled design. Participants were patients referred from three municipalities to the regional Department of Occupational Medicine. Inclusion criteria were: 1) sick leave due to work-related stress complaints, 2) a diagnosis of adjustment disorder or reactions to severe stress (ICD 10 code: F43,2 - F 43,9 not PTSD) or mild depressive episode (F 32.0). Through a double randomization procedure patients (n = 163) were randomized to either an intervention group (n = 58), a 'control group A' receiving a clinical examination (n = 56), or 'control group B' (n = 49) receiving no offers at the department. The intervention comprised six sessions of individual cognitive behavioral therapy and the offer of a small workplace intervention. Questionnaire data were analyzed with multivariate repeated measurements analysis. Primary outcomes assessed were perceived stress and general mental health. Secondary outcomes were sleep quality and cognitive failures. Follow-up was at four and 10 months after baseline. Complaints were significantly reduced in all groups over time. No group effects were observed between the intervention group and control group A that was clinically assessed. Significant group effects were found for perceived stress and memory when comparing the intervention group to group B, but most likely not due to an intervention effect. Psychological complaints improved substantially over time in all groups, but there was no significant treatment effect on any outcomes when the intervention group was compared to control group A that received a clinical assessment. ISRCTN ISRCTN91404229. Registered 03 August 2012 (retrospectively registered).

  13. Chinese Preschool Children’s Socioemotional Development: The Effects of Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufen Xing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relative prediction and joint effects of maternal and paternal psychological control on children’s socioemotional development. A total of 325 preschool children between the ages of 34 and 57 months (M = 4 years 2 months and their parents participated in the study. Fathers and mothers, respectively, reported their levels of psychological control and mothers evaluated the socioemotional development of children using two indicators (i.e., behavioral problems and prosocial behaviors. The results indicated that the relative predictive effects of maternal and paternal psychological control on children’s socioemotional development differed. Specifically, maternal psychological control was a significant predictor of children’s behavioral problems and prosocial behaviors, whereas the levels of paternal psychological control were unrelated to children’s socioemotional development. With regard to the combined effects of maternal and paternal psychological control, the results of ANOVAs and simple slope analysis both indicated that children would be at risk of behavioral problems as long as they had one highly psychologically controlling parent. High levels of paternal psychological control were associated with increased behavioral problems of children only when maternal psychological control was low. However, the association between maternal psychological control and children’s behavioral behaviors was significant, despite paternal psychological control.

  14. Standalone Effects of a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention Using a Mobile Phone App on Psychological Distress and Alcohol Consumption Among Japanese Workers: Pilot Nonrandomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, Toshitaka; Suganuma, Shinichiro; Ueda, Mami; Mearns, Jack; Shimoyama, Haruhiko

    2018-03-22

    Research that investigates standalone effects of a mobile phone-based cognitive behavioral therapy without any human contact for reducing both psychological distress and risky drinking has been advancing; however, the number of studies is still limited. A mobile phone app called Self Record that facilitates cognitive restructuring through self-monitoring of daily thoughts and activities was developed in Japan. This study conducted a nonrandomized controlled pilot trial of the Self Record app to investigate standalone effects of the intervention on psychological distress and alcohol consumption among Japanese workers. Additionally, we examined moderating effects of negative mood regulation expectancies, which are beliefs about one's ability to control one's negative mood. A quasi-experimental design with a 1-month follow-up was conducted online in Japan from February 2016 to March 2016. A research marketing company recruited participants. The selection criteria were being a Japanese full-time worker (age 20-59 years), experiencing mild to moderate psychological distress, and having some interest in self-record apps. Assignment to group was based on participants' willingness to use the app in the study. All participants completed outcome measures of negative mood regulation expectancies, positive well-being, general distress, depression, anxiety, and typical/most weekly alcohol consumption. From the recruitment, 15.65% (1083/6921) of participants met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 51.43% (557/1083) enrolled in the study: 54.9% (306/557) in the intervention group and 45.1% (251/557) in the control group. At the 1-month follow-up, 15.3% (85/557) of participants had dropped out. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed that participants in the intervention group reported increased typical drinking (η2=.009) and heavy drinking (η2=.001). Adherence to using the app was low; 64.8% (199/306) of participants in the intervention group discontinued using the app on the first

  15. Vocational behavior analysis in psychology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Estrella LÓPEZ PÉREZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The European Higher Education Area (EHEA is supporting gain relevance of vocational guidance into the frame of University Education. In order to a better planning of this guidance we need to know his contents evaluating student vocational interests of each center. The aim of the study is to analyze the indicators of Psychology students vocational behavior and his evolution and comparing those results with data of another students population. Methodology. The 329 psychology students participants from the University of Salamanca (248 in the second year and 81 in the fifth answered the questionnaire of university biodata (Rocabert, 2005. In all cases we took a significance level of ? = 0.05 carrying out samples comparison tests using U de Mann-Whitney techniques and contingency analysis. Results: The present study found significant differences between second and fifth psychology grade students and with general university population data collected by Rocabert, Descals and Gomez (2007. In general, psychology students begin their degrees with a high level interest and motivated; they are making decisions based on the academic specialty they want to work in. However, for last year students group (fith year students we detected a lower satisfaction in their studies, more difficulties in deciding what they want to do and a greater demand of information in order to choose the advisablest option for them. Conclusions. Despite the high motivation of psychology students, the nearer is his integration into the job market the higher is the need of guidance to help them to take decisions concerning specialization or the professional world.

  16. Psychological and behavioral approaches to cancer pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjala, Karen L; Jensen, Mark P; Mendoza, M Elena; Yi, Jean C; Fisher, Hannah M; Keefe, Francis J

    2014-06-01

    This review examines evidence for psychological factors that affect pain across the cancer continuum from diagnosis through treatment and long-term survivorship or end of life. Evidence is convincing that emotional distress, depression, anxiety, uncertainty, and hopelessness interact with pain. Unrelieved pain can increase a desire for hastened death. Patients with cancer use many strategies to manage pain, with catastrophizing associated with increased pain and self-efficacy associated with lower pain reports. A variety of psychological and cognitive behavioral treatments can reduce pain severity and interference with function, as indicated in multiple meta-analyses and high-quality randomized controlled trials. Effective methods include education (with coping skills training), hypnosis, cognitive behavioral approaches, and relaxation with imagery. Exercise has been tested extensively in patients with cancer and long-term survivors, but few exercise studies have evaluated pain outcomes. In survivors post-treatment, yoga and hypnosis as well as exercise show promise for controlling pain. Although some of these treatments effectively reduce pain for patients with advanced disease, few have been tested in patients at the end of life. Given the clear indicators that psychological factors affect cancer pain and that psychological and behavioral treatments are effective in reducing varying types of pain for patients with active disease, these methods need further testing in cancer survivors post-treatment and in patients with end-stage disease. Multidisciplinary teams are essential in oncology settings to integrate analgesic care and expertise in psychological and behavioral interventions in standard care for symptom management, including pain. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  17. A Bayesian Formulation of Behavioral Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Quentin J. M.; Dayan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Helplessness, a belief that the world is not subject to behavioral control, has long been central to our understanding of depression, and has influenced cognitive theories, animal models and behavioral treatments. However, despite its importance, there is no fully accepted definition of helplessness or behavioral control in psychology or…

  18. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim eCerejeira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, also known as neuropsychiatric symptoms, represent a heterogeneous group of non-cognitive symptoms and behaviors occurring in subjects with dementia. BPSD constitute a major component of the dementia syndrome irrespective of its subtype. They are as clinically relevant as cognitive symptoms as they strongly correlate with the degree of functional and cognitive impairment. BPSD include agitation, aberrant motor behavior, anxiety, elation, irritability, depression, apathy, disinhibition, delusions, hallucinations, and sleep or appetite changes. It is estimated that BPSD affect up to 90% of all dementia subjects over the course of their illness, and is independently associated with poor outcomes, including distress among patients and caregivers, long term hospitalization, misuse of medication and increased health care costs. Although these symptoms can be present individually it is more common that various psychopathological features co-occur simultaneously in the same patient. Thus, categorization of BPSD in clusters taking into account their natural course, prognosis and treatment response may be useful in the clinical practice. The pathogenesis of BPSD has not been clearly delineated but it is probably the result of a complex interplay of psychological, social and biological factors. Recent studies have emphasized the role of neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic factors underlying the clinical manifestations of BPSD. A high degree of clinical expertise is crucial to appropriately recognize and manage the neuropsychiatric symptoms in a patient with dementia. Combination of non-pharmacological and careful use of pharmacological interventions is the recommended therapeutic for managing BPSD. Given the modest efficacy of current strategies, there is an urgent need to identify novel pharmacological targets and develop new non-pharmacological approaches to improve the adverse outcomes

  19. PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT VIOLATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

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    Rozhan Othman

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A psychological contract is an implicit understanding between a group of employees and their employer that arose as a result of a particular leadership style. Psychological contract violation (PCV is said to occur when there is a perceived breach of promise that leads to an emotional and affective response. The literature on PCV posits a number of antecedents and outcomes of PCV. This study seeks to develop a model of PCV by linking it with justice and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB. It is argued that the antecedents of PCV lead to a sense of  injustice. These will then create the emotional response that is indicative of PCV. It is also argued that an outcome of this PCV experience is reduced OCB and the emergence of a new outlook towards employment relationship. Data was collected from a Malaysian company that initiated a voluntary separation scheme as part of an effort to downsize its work force. The finding of this study provides partial support for the model.

  20. Parent Proneness to Shame and the Use of Psychological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Freeman, Wendy S.; Clara, Ian P.; Elgar, Frank J.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Mak, Leanne

    2007-01-01

    We examined the link between parent proneness to shame and two forms of psychological control, overprotection and critical/rejecting behavior, in parents of preschoolers. Because shame is self-condemning, proneness to shame affects intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning. We hypothesized that parents' emotion-regulatory responses to shame…

  1. PSYCHOLOGICAL REASONS OF ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOR (ON THE EXAMPLE OF WORKAHOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Владимировна Смирнова

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of people, suffering from non-chemical addictions - workaholism, gambling, shopaholism etc. - is greatly increased during last decades. Due to the large variety of these addictions, the questions of the reasons of such behavior and its effective prevention became very urgent. Usually, these questions are tried to be solved in the field of special psychology, while the author tries to look at the problem from the position of general psychology. The paper offers the data of workaholics' addictive behavior research from the position of cultural-historical methodology and the theory of play activity's development. The goal of these study was the analysis of relations between problematic development of play in preschool age and later formation of workaholism in adult age. By using the methods of interview and writing of essay, as well as correlation and content analysis of workaholics' and non-addicts' answers, author shows that workaholics had significant underdevelopment of play in child age and also don't able to realize and/or control their play behavior in adult age. Thus, author concludes that the underdevelopment of child's play may lead to the establishment of addictive behavior and formation of addictive personality's features. Acquired data allows to provide the workaholism' prevention by the development of play in preschool age and psychotherapy of work addiction by the development of subject of play activity in adult age.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-57

  2. The impact of eating behavior on psychological symptoms typical of reactive hypoglycemia. A pilot study comparing women with polycystic ovary syndrome to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, John A; Bouloux, Pierre; Hardiman, Paul J

    2011-08-01

    The idea that diet can affect mood and behavior in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by altering blood glucose levels has become popular in recent years. This paper describes an online survey (N=462) of 24 women with PCOS, 299 healthy control women, 47 women who possibly had undiagnosed PCOS, and 92 men. The groups were compared for symptoms of mood and behavioral symptoms typical of reactive (postprandial) hypoglycemia. The outcome measures were two questionnaires that measure states associated with hypoglycemia: the Hypoglycemia Symptom Checklist-7 (HSC-7), which measures behavioral symptoms and the Mood Adjective Checklist (MACL), which measures emotional states. Controlling for age and body mass index (BMI) using between-groups analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), the women with PCOS scored significantly higher than the other three groups (pPCOS compared to twelve healthy control women closely matched for age, BMI, and eating behavior. The findings are suggestive of hypoglycemia-related mood and behavioral problems in PCOS. Future research should test whether blood glucose levels correlate with these symptoms in PCOS, and whether a low glycemic index ('low-GI') diet improves the symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of Vehicular Countdown Signals on Driving Psychologies and Behaviors: Taking China as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuquan Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Countdown signal control is a relatively new control mode that can inform a driver in advance about the remaining time to pass through intersections or the time needed to wait for other drivers and pedestrians. At present, few countries apply vehicular countdown signals. However, in China, some cities have applied vehicular countdown signals for years, though it is unclear how and how much such signals influence driving psychologies and behaviors compared with non-countdown signal controls. The present work aims to clarify the impact of vehicular countdown signals on driving psychologies and behaviors on the cognitive level. A questionnaire survey with 32 questions about driving psychologies and behaviors was designed, and an online survey was conducted. A total of 1051 valid questionnaires were received. The survey data were analyzed, and the main results indicate that most of the surveyed drivers prefer countdown signal controls and think that such controls can improve not only traffic safety but also traffic operational efficiency. The surveyed drivers also think that countdown signal controls have an impact on driving psychologies and behaviors and the survey results have demonstrated that the driving behaviors of female drivers surveyed are not conservative under the clear conditions of green countdown signal control. Further studies and methods concerning the effects of countdown signals on driving psychologies and behaviors are discussed.

  4. Father's and Mother's Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2011-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…

  5. Behavioral Public Administration: Connecting Psychology with European Public Administration Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leth Olsen, Asmus; Tummers, L.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341028274; Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405; Jilke, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Well-known public administration scholars have stressed the importance of psychological research for the study of public administration. Neighboring disciplines such as economics and political science, have witnessed the emergence of the psychology-informed subfields of behavioral economics and

  6. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boon-How; Chew; Sazlina; Shariff-Ghazali; Aaron; Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus(DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient’s adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal contro of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications,causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient’s psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation,self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors,coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relationto DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.

  7. Impact of Disordered Eating and Psychological Functioning on Overweight Adolescents Participating in a Placebo-Controlled Medication and Behavioral Weight Loss Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-23

    episodes in bulimia nervosa: possible influences of the serotonin system. Psychological Medicine, 35(11), 1553-1562. Steinberg, E., Tanofsky-Kraff, M...HEALTH Ph.D. Degrees Interdisciplinary -Emerging Infectious Diseases -Molecular & Cell Biology -Neuroscience Departmental -Clinical Psychology ...Environmental Health Sciences -Medical Psychology -Medical Zoology Physician Scientist (MDlPh.D.) Doctor of Public Health (Dr.P.H.) Master of

  8. Behavioral Public Administration : Combining Insights from Public Administration and Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405; Jilke, Sebastian; Leth Olsen, Asmus; Tummers, L.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341028274

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing upon insights from psychology on behavior of individuals and groups. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on theories and

  9. Adverse consequences of glucocorticoid medication: psychological, cognitive, and behavioral effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judd, L.L.; Schettler, P.J.; Brown, E.S.; Wolkowitz, O.M.; Sternberg, E.M.; Bender, B.G.; Bulloch, K.; Cidlowski, J.A.; Kloet, E.R. de; Fardet, L.; Joels, M.; Leung, D.Y.; McEwen, B.S.; Roozendaal, B.; Rossum, E.F. van; Ahn, J.; Brown, D.W.; Plitt, A.; Singh, G.

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as

  10. Adverse Consequences of Glucocorticoid Medication : Psychological, Cognitive, and Behavioral Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judd, Lewis L.; Schettler, Pamela J.; Brown, E. Sherwood; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Sternberg, Esther M.; Bender, Bruce G.; Bulloch, Karen; Cidlowski, John A.; de Kloet, E. Ronald; Fardet, Laurence; Joëls, Marian; Leung, Donald Y. M.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Roozendaal, Benno; Van Rossum, Elisabeth F. C.; Ahn, Junyoung; Brown, David W.; Plitt, Aaron; Singh, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as

  11. Effect of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor antagonist on psychologically suppressed masculine sexual behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Yoshiji; Nagase, Keiko; Oyama, Nobuyuki; Akino, Hironobu; Yokoyama, Osamu

    2011-03-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) coordinates various responses of the body to stress, and CRF receptors are important targets of treatment for stress-related disorders. To investigate the effect of a nonselective CRF receptor antagonist, astressin, on suppression of masculine sexual behavior by psychological stress in rats. First, we investigated the influence of psychological stress, induced 2 hours per day for three consecutive days, on sexual behavior. Then, rats were divided into 4 groups: a control group, an astressin administration group (A), a psychological stress loading group (PS), and a psychological stress loading and astressin administration group (PS + A). The rats were exposed to sham or psychological stress for three consecutive days. After the last stress loading, the rats were injected with vehicle or astressin, and their sexual behavior was observed. We also measured serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The effects of astressin on sexual behavior and serum levels of ACTH in rats affected by psychological stress were determined. Sexual behavior was reduced after psychological stress loading. The PS rats had significantly longer mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies and lower ejaculation frequency than did the control, A, and PS + A rats. The intromission latency and ejaculation frequency in the PS + A rats did not achieve the level observed in the controls. There was no significant difference in these parameters between the control and A rats. Serum ACTH levels were significantly lower in PS + A rats than in PS rats. Psychologically suppressed masculine sexual behavior could be partially recovered with astressin administration in rats. These data provide a rationale for the further study of CRF receptor antagonists as novel agents for treating psychological sexual disorders. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Social-Psychological Determinants of Electoral Voting Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Ivanenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the current models of the voter behavior and proves the need in creating a new overarching conceptual framework, finding the integral social-psychological factor of the voter decision making. The public opinion is regarded as such a factor. The article presents the findings of the latest psychological research, devoted to the analysis of the connection between the different components of public opinion and electoral behavior.

  13. Adolescents Eating Behavior, Body Image and Psychological Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Peternel, Lana; Sujoldžić, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the middle school students in the Croatian region of Dalmatia. The survey was designed to examine adolescent eating behavior as it relates to body image and psychological well-being (self-esteem, life-satisfaction and stress) in relation to body mass index; BMI. Differences among participants in food intake were examined according to demographic variables and eating behavior (regular food intake or dieting) as well. Psychological variables were highly associated with die...

  14. Psychological need satisfaction, control, and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froreich, Franzisca V; Vartanian, Lenny R; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Grisham, Jessica R; Touyz, Stephen W

    2017-03-01

    Unfulfilled basic psychological needs have been associated with disordered eating behaviours, but the mechanisms underlying that associations are not well understood. This study examined a two-stage path model linking basic psychological need satisfaction to disordered eating behaviours via issues of control. Female university students (N = 323; M age  = 19.61), community participants (N = 371; M age  = 29.75), and women who self-reported having been diagnosed with an eating disorder (ED; N = 41; M age  = 23.88) completed measures of psychological need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy and competence), issues of control (i.e., feelings of ineffectiveness and fear of losing self-control [FLC]), and ED pathology. Path analysis revealed that unsatisfied needs of autonomy and competence were indirectly related to disordered eating behaviours through feelings of ineffectiveness and FLC. The results indicate that issues of control might be one of the mechanisms through which lack of psychological need satisfaction is associated with disordered eating. Although the model was constructed using cross-sectional data, these findings suggest potential targets for prevention and treatment efforts aimed at reducing disordered eating in young females. Our results indicate that young women with chronically unfulfilled basic psychological needs might be vulnerable to developing disordered eating behaviours. The observed patterns suggest that persistent experience of need frustration may engender an internal sense of ineffectiveness and lack of control, which then compels individuals to engage in disordered eating behaviours in an attempt to regain autonomy and competence. Interventions for eating disorders may be most effective when emphasizing the promotion of people's needs for autonomy and competence. Limitations The model was constructed using cross-sectional data. Future experimental and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the temporal sequence from basic

  15. Innovative Behavior and Psychological Capital: Does Positivity Make any Difference

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    Yomna M. Sameer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - Despite increasing importance of fostering innovation among employees, and the growing interest in Positive Organizational Behaviour (POB constructs, little empirical research has been conducted on the topic of innovation with POB. Moreover, though research proved significant relationship between positive psychological capital (PsyCap and creative performance, no studies examined PsyCap with innovative behavior. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine the link between positive psychological capital and innovative behavior as well as the link between innovative behavior and job satisfaction as well as engagement. Design/methodology/approach - Using regression analyses, data were obtained from Egyptian professionals (N = 250. The survey included measures of psychological capital and innovative behavior as well as job satisfaction and engagement. Findings - Regression analyses reveal that PsyCap, with its four components of hope, optimism, resilience and efficacy, predict innovative behavior, which in turn affects satisfaction and engagement. Research implications/limitations - Limitations, contributions and recommendations for future research are noted. Results contribute to a better understanding of how psychological capital enhances Innovative behavior in the workplace, which in turns, enhances job satisfaction and engagement. Originality/value/contribution - The study is the first to examine the relationship between psychological capital and innovative behavior.(original abstract

  16. Psychological maltreatment and adolescents’ suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; DePanfilis, Diane

    2010-01-01

    as well as child abuse and neglect were analyzed on the basis of standardized questionnaires addressed to caseworkers assigned to these cases (N=1,055). Half of the children were exposed to abuse and neglect. More than one third of the children were exposed to psychological maltreatment. These children...

  17. Teaching Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Undergraduate Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Tracey Ellen; Blau, Shawn; Grozeva, Dima

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an experimental undergraduate psychology course that ran for two semesters during the 2009 academic year at a private, urban university in the United States. Students learned the techniques and strategies of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) with a focus on the practical elements…

  18. Psychological and behavioral differences between low back pain populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund, A.; Bergstrom, G.; Bodin, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychological, behavioral and social factors have long been considered important in the development of persistent pain. Little is known about how chiropractic low back pain (LBP) patients compare to other LBP patients in terms of psychological/behavioral characteristics. Methods......: In this cross-sectional study, the aim was to investigate patients with LBP as regards to psychosocial/behavioral characteristics by describing a chiropractic primary care population and comparing this sample to three other populations using the MPI-S instrument. Thus, four different samples were compared. A......: The data show statistically significant overall differences across samples for the subgroups based on psychological and behavioral characteristics. The cluster classifications placed (in terms of the proportions of the adaptive copers and dysfunctional subgroups) sample A between B and the two secondary...

  19. Psychology, behavioral economics, and public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, O; Ariely, D; Cooke, A; Dunning, D; Epley, N; Gneezy, U; Koszegi, B; Lichtenstein, D; Mazar, N; Mullainathan, S; Prelec, D; Shafir, E; Silva, J

    2005-01-01

    Economics has typically been the social science of choice to inform public policy and policymakers. In the current paper we contemplate the role behavioral science can play in enlightening policymakers. In particular, we provide some examples of research that has and can be used to inform policy, reflect on the kind of behavioral science that is important for policy, and approaches for convincing policy-makers to listen to behavioral scientists. We suggest that policymakers are unlikely to in...

  20. Assessment of healthy behaviors for metabolic syndrome among Korean adults: a modified information-motivation-behavioral skills with psychological distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guna Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the worldwide incidence of metabolic syndrome (Mets has rapidly increased, healthy behaviors such as weight control, engaging in physical activity, and healthy diet have been crucial in the management of Mets. The purpose of this study was to examine healthy behaviors practice and factors that affect the practice in relation to Mets on the basis of a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model (IMB with psychological distress, which is a well-known factor affecting healthy behaviors among individuals with Mets. Methods Study participants were 267 community dwelling adults (M age: 54.0 ± 8.1 years with Mets who were attending public health centers located in Seoul, South Korea. A structured questionnaire was administered in the areas of information, motivation, behavioral skills, and practice of Mets healthy behaviors and levels of psychological distress from May 2014 to September 2014. Structural equation modeling was used to test the modified IMB model. Results The modified IMB model had a good fit with the data, indicating that motivation and behavioral skills directly influenced the practice of Mets healthy behaviors, whereas information and psychological distress directly influenced motivation and influenced the practice of healthy behaviors through behavioral skills. These components of the modified IMB model explained 29.8 % of the variance in healthy behaviors for Mets. Conclusion Findings suggested that strengthening motivation and behavioral skills for healthy behaviors can directly enhance healthy behavior practice. Providing information about Mets related healthy behaviors and strategies for psychological distress management can be used as the first line evidence based intervention to systemically enhance motivation and behavioral skills among individuals with Mets.

  1. Assessment of healthy behaviors for metabolic syndrome among Korean adults: a modified information-motivation-behavioral skills with psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guna; Yang, Sook Ja; Chee, Yeon Kyung

    2016-06-18

    Since the worldwide incidence of metabolic syndrome (Mets) has rapidly increased, healthy behaviors such as weight control, engaging in physical activity, and healthy diet have been crucial in the management of Mets. The purpose of this study was to examine healthy behaviors practice and factors that affect the practice in relation to Mets on the basis of a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model (IMB) with psychological distress, which is a well-known factor affecting healthy behaviors among individuals with Mets. Study participants were 267 community dwelling adults (M age: 54.0 ± 8.1 years) with Mets who were attending public health centers located in Seoul, South Korea. A structured questionnaire was administered in the areas of information, motivation, behavioral skills, and practice of Mets healthy behaviors and levels of psychological distress from May 2014 to September 2014. Structural equation modeling was used to test the modified IMB model. The modified IMB model had a good fit with the data, indicating that motivation and behavioral skills directly influenced the practice of Mets healthy behaviors, whereas information and psychological distress directly influenced motivation and influenced the practice of healthy behaviors through behavioral skills. These components of the modified IMB model explained 29.8 % of the variance in healthy behaviors for Mets. Findings suggested that strengthening motivation and behavioral skills for healthy behaviors can directly enhance healthy behavior practice. Providing information about Mets related healthy behaviors and strategies for psychological distress management can be used as the first line evidence based intervention to systemically enhance motivation and behavioral skills among individuals with Mets.

  2. BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS AND THE NEED OF PSYCHOLOGY IN ECONOMIC RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea GRADINARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The turning point in economic science has now come, marked especially by triggering the biggest crisis since the Great Depression of '29-'33, has called into question the need to reconsider the status of economic science and finding ways in which it can increase its practical foundations. In the elaboration of this study I’ve took into account the fact that beyond any abstract, formal and mathematical model, economics is a science, having the man in its center. Furthermore, every economic process is based on the human being. But the way individuals behave does not follow precisely the pattern predicted by classical and neoclassical models, but most of the time they are making decisions under the influence of psychological factors. Starting from these assumptions I considered important to highlight a real need for psychology in economic research. Therefore, the aim of this work is exclusively theoretical meant to show that the study of psychological factors is necessary in economic research, because it allows a better explanation of the economic problems and lead to obtaining results closer to reality than those who only take into consideration economic factors. In this way I appealed to behavioral economics. This represents a new trend of economic thinking that reunites psychology with economy. The thing that I observed after finishing the study is that behavioral economics can increase the explanatory power of economics by providing more realistic psychological bases, because human behavior is not only the subject matter of economics but psychology too.

  3. [Difficulties in psychology and sexual behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    After an introduction by S. Kepes (Fertilite Orthogenie 4(4): 174-177,1972) the participants and audience discussed general topics such as the physician-patient relationship, unconscious motives, attitudes of male partners and physicians, and treatment of minors. Resistance by male partners toward contraception was considered due to fear of inadequacy in the face of female sexuality or to adherence to a double moral standard for wives. A gynecologist claimed that high school students are more likely to request contraception and use it effectively than they were 5 years ago; a midwife said that less privileged adolescents frequently become pregnant. Opinions were expressed that it is inappropriate to consider contraception from a psychological viewpoint, since it is part of a revolution toward a better life; that some psychological difficulties come from the doctor having preferences for certain methods; that the pill does not cause frigidity but is often blamed for preexisting problems; that the press frightens women away from taking the pill; that physicians should prescribe contraception to minors without seeking parental consent (unlawful in France).

  4. Misconception and miseducation: Presentations of radical behaviorism in psychology textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, James T.; Morris, Edward K.

    1983-01-01

    Behavior analysts have recently expressed concern about what appear to be misrepresentations of behaviorism in psychology textbooks. This paper presents an analysis of currently used textbooks in the areas of introductory, social, cognitive, personality, and developmental psychology that confirms this. Topics on which behavior analysis is most often misrepresented relate to the role of animal learning research, environmentalism, the “empty organism,” language, and the overall utility of the approach. Because textbooks are often a major medium of interaction between the public and behaviorism, behavior analysts must work to correct these errors and to prevent possible negative consequences of widespread misunderstanding. Several potential solutions to these problems are presented that take into account current publishing practices and the monetary contingencies which support them. PMID:22478585

  5. Psychological Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Predominantly African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Bina; Mittal, Mona; Schroder, Allison; Ishman, Najah; Quinton, Sylvia; Boekeloo, Bradley

    2017-07-01

    Physical and sexual violence are commonly researched as risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, psychological violence and its relationship with HIV risk behaviors have received limited attention among African American/Black (Black) women. This study examined (a) the frequency of recent (past 3 months) psychological violence, physical violence, and sexual violence and (b) the association of HIV risk behaviors, including unprotected sex, sex under the influence of alcohol/drugs, and sex exchange for money/drugs/shelter, with psychological violence. Participants included 191 women (89.2% Black), who were recruited through information sessions held at community centers, Parent Teacher Association meetings, substance use and HIV counseling centers, radio public service announcements, and word of mouth. Interested women participated in a multisession HIV and substance use prevention program and completed a self-reported assessment at program baseline. The current study utilized baseline data collected for a longitudinal study. Results from descriptive analysis indicated that the rate of psychological violence was higher than physical violence or sexual violence, and it was strongly associated with physical and sexual violence. Furthermore, hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that unprotected sex was significantly associated with recent psychological violence after controlling for covariates. Findings suggest that recent psychological violence is more common than physical or sexual violence and it relates to sexual risk behaviors among Black women. Recent psychological violence may indicate psychosocial and sexual vulnerability for HIV and warrants particular attention among Black women.

  6. Learning to Eat: Behavioral and Psychological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Leann L

    2016-01-01

    Because infants are totally dependent upon parents (or other caregivers) for care and sustenance, parents' feeding practices are a key feature of the family environments in which infants and young children learn about food and eating. Feeding practices include not only what the child is fed, but also the how, when, why and how much of feeding. Extensive evidence indicates that parenting behavior influences a variety of child outcomes, including cognitive and socioemotional development, as well as the development of self-regulatory skills. The focus of this chapter is on what is known about how parenting, particularly feeding practices, influences the early development of several aspects of children's eating behavior, including the acquisition of food preferences, self-regulatory skills, children's reactivity to food cues, satiety responsiveness and 'picky eating'. It is argued that traditional feeding practices, which evolved to protect children from environmental threats and ensure adequate intake in the context of food scarcity, can be maladaptive in current environments. An evidence base is needed to inform public policy to reduce early obesity risk in current environments, where too much palatable food is a major threat to child health. Results of recent research provides evidence that promoting responsive feeding practices can alter the development of eating behavior, sleep patterns and early self-regulatory skills, as well as reduce early obesity risk. © 2016 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Psychology of Economics in the Analysis of Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jonas Alves Correia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychology of Economics addresses issues far beyond market research. Thus, studies in this area also observe variables such as work, unemployment, decisions about purchases and savings, investments, financing, responses to advertising, among others. The present research was carried out with the objective of analyzing, through the fundamentals of consumer behavior, its relation to the propensity for compulsive or superfluous consumption. This quantitative study relates, using as means of phenomena and variables a description of the consumers behavior through the statistical tool Propensity Score Matching of Stata software. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data, which was applied online from April to August in 2016. Data analysis was performed by the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS regression with controlled dummy variables (dependent variable, whether or not it belongs to the consumer group Compulsive by the set of explanatory (independent variables. The results showed that the average monthly spending of compulsive consumers increases, and the higher the income of individuals, the greater the spending on unnecessary or superfluous consumption. Considering the gender variable, male individuals have higher levels of unnecessary spending and are prone to superfluous consumption. Thus, consumption is composed of influences for purchase and that the consumer determines consumption, according to economic position (income factor and cultural factors (customs, needs, impulsivities within the society.

  8. Effects of cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD on partners' psychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnaider, Philippe; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D; Fredman, Steffany J; Macdonald, Alexandra; Monson, Candice M

    2014-04-01

    A number of studies have documented that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in "one" partner are negatively associated with their intimate partner's psychological functioning. The present study investigated intimate partners' mental health outcomes (i.e., depression, anxiety, and anger) in a sample of 40 partners of individuals with PTSD within a randomized waitlist controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD (Monson & Fredman, 2012). There were no significant differences between active treatment and waitlist in intimate partners' psychological functioning at posttreatment. Subgroup analyses, however, of partners exhibiting clinical levels of distress at pretreatment on several measures showed reliable and clinically significant improvements in their psychological functioning at posttreatment and no evidence of worsening. Results suggest that cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD may have additional benefits for partners presenting with psychological distress. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  9. Jung's "Psychology with the Psyche" and the Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Raya A

    2013-09-01

    The behavioral sciences and Jung's analytical psychology are set apart by virtue of their respective histories, epistemologies, and definitions of subject matter. This brief paper identifies Jung's scientific stance, notes perceptions of Jung and obstacles for bringing his system of thought into the fold of the behavioral sciences. The impact of the "science versus art" debate on Jung's stance is considered with attention to its unfolding in the fin de siècle era.

  10. Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, Michael S.

    This review of the literature on the psychological and behavioral effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) first looks at aspects of the history and prevalence of AS use in competitive sports. Research suggests that one-quarter to one-half million adolescents in the United States have used, or are currently using AS. Some effects of androgens…

  11. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Objective: This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential

  12. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential patterns

  13. The Missing Psychological Behaviorism Chapter in "A History of the Behavioral Therapies."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    2003-01-01

    "A History of the Behavioral Therapies" (O'Donohue, et al., 2001) contains no description of psychological behaviorism (PB) and the role it played as one of the foundations of behavior therapy. This article indicates some of the contributions made by PB that make the missing chapter and related phenomena a major aberration in science. (Contains 39…

  14. Effects of Corporal Punishment and Psychological Treatment on Students' Learning and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad Shahbaz; Rafi, Muhammad Shaban

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to test the effects of corporal punishment and psychological treatment on students' learning and on their behavior. A pilot study, followed with experimental test, was framed in a demographically controlled environment on homogeneous variables at Punjab University Laboratory School, Pakistan over the period of six months.…

  15. The Antecedents of Coaches' Interpersonal Behaviors: The Role of the Coaching Context, Coaches' Psychological Needs, and Coaches' Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, Meredith; Pelletier, Luc G

    2017-10-01

    This study explored how the coaching context influences coaches' psychological needs, motivation, and reported interpersonal behaviors, using self-determination theory. In Study 1, 56 coaches identified how contextual factors influence their coaching experience. Coaches identified administration, athlete motivation, colleagues, parents, professional development, time, and work-life as having the largest impact on them. In Study 2, 424 coaches reported on their perceptions of the factors identified in Study 1 and their psychological needs, motivation, and interpersonal behaviors. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested perceptions of the coaching context supported or thwarted their psychological needs, which positively or negatively predicted their autonomous and controlled motivation. Coaches' autonomous motivation predicted their reported supportive interpersonal behaviors and controlled motivation predicted thwarting behaviors. Overall, the results provided additional support for understanding how the coaching context, coaches' psychological needs, and their motivation for coaching relate to their coaching behaviors.

  16. Folk-Psychological Interpretation of Human vs. Humanoid Robot Behavior: Exploring the Intentional Stance toward Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellman, Sam; Silvervarg, Annika; Ziemke, Tom

    2017-01-01

    People rely on shared folk-psychological theories when judging behavior. These theories guide people's social interactions and therefore need to be taken into consideration in the design of robots and other autonomous systems expected to interact socially with people. It is, however, not yet clear to what degree the mechanisms that underlie people's judgments of robot behavior overlap or differ from the case of human or animal behavior. To explore this issue, participants ( N = 90) were exposed to images and verbal descriptions of eight different behaviors exhibited either by a person or a humanoid robot. Participants were asked to rate the intentionality, controllability and desirability of the behaviors, and to judge the plausibility of seven different types of explanations derived from a recently proposed psychological model of lay causal explanation of human behavior. Results indicate: substantially similar judgments of human and robot behavior, both in terms of (1a) ascriptions of intentionality/controllability/desirability and in terms of (1b) plausibility judgments of behavior explanations; (2a) high level of agreement in judgments of robot behavior - (2b) slightly lower but still largely similar to agreement over human behaviors; (3) systematic differences in judgments concerning the plausibility of goals and dispositions as explanations of human vs. humanoid behavior. Taken together, these results suggest that people's intentional stance toward the robot was in this case very similar to their stance toward the human.

  17. Conflicts and missed signals in psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and Gestalt psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David J; Kilgour, Andrea R; Wasylkiw, Louise

    2000-04-01

    At the turn of the 20th century, European psychologists found themselves in conflict situations with respect to the role that private mental states should play in a scientific psychology. Out of this conflict arose 3 of the best-known schools of the 20th century: psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and Gestalt psychology. Each of these schools is discussed with respect to two characteristics. First, the authors discuss the attitude of each school on the meaning of the word unconscious as it was understood around 1900. Second, the authors discuss the influence of each school on the reception accorded to books written around 1900 espousing viewpoints that did not cohere with the school's beliefs. Such books may be considered "missed signals" in the history of psychology. "Hits" associated with each school are also highlighted.

  18. On the genetic modification of psychology, personality, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzke, Alex B

    2012-12-01

    I argue that the use of heritable modifications for psychology, personality, and behavior should be limited to the reversal or prevention of relatively unambiguous instances of pathology or likely harm (e.g. sociopathy). Most of the likely modifications of psychological personality would not be of this nature, however, and parents therefore should not have the freedom to make such modifications to future children. I argue by examining the viewpoints of both the individual and society. For individuals, modifications would interfere with their capacity for self-determination in a way that undermines the very concept of self-determination. I argue that modification of psychology and personality is unlike present parenting in morally significant ways. For society, modification offers a medium for power to manipulate the makeup of persons and populations, possibly causing biological harm to the species and altering our conceptions of social responsibility.

  19. Big behavioral data: psychology, ethology and the foundations of neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Marin, Alex; Paton, Joseph J; Kampff, Adam R; Costa, Rui M; Mainen, Zachary F

    2014-11-01

    Behavior is a unifying organismal process where genes, neural function, anatomy and environment converge and interrelate. Here we review the current state and discuss the future effect of accelerating advances in technology for behavioral studies, focusing on rodents as an example. We frame our perspective in three dimensions: the degree of experimental constraint, dimensionality of data and level of description. We argue that 'big behavioral data' presents challenges proportionate to its promise and describe how these challenges might be met through opportunities afforded by the two rival conceptual legacies of twentieth century behavioral science, ethology and psychology. We conclude that, although 'more is not necessarily better', copious, quantitative and open behavioral data has the potential to transform and unify these two disciplines and to solidify the foundations of others, including neuroscience, but only if the development of new theoretical frameworks and improved experimental designs matches the technological progress.

  20. A Common, Conceptual Framework for Behavioral Ecology and Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald W. White

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Since evolutionary psychology and behavioral ecology have much in common despite their using different objects for their study, one might expect these disciplines to share a common conceptual framework with associated definitions. Unfortunately, such agreement does not entirely exist. To address the problem, we propose a common, conceptual framework, the Adaptive Behavioral System (ABS, which organizes behavior within an evolutionary framework around an organism's life history tasks. An ABS includes strategies that use decision rules and employs tactics administered by a hypothesized construct, the Evolved Processing Unit (EPU. The ABS also includes observed or predicted behavior which can be tested experimentally – the ultimate test of construct validity. Use of the proposed framework should help the two disciplines focus on their common, core business of behavior and, ultimately, be to the benefit of both.

  1. Behavior Analysis and Ecological Psychology: Past, Present, and Future. A Review of Harry Heft's Ecological Psychology in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Edward K

    2009-01-01

    Relations between behavior analysis and ecological psychology have been strained for years, notwithstanding the occasional comment on their affinities. Harry Heft's (2001) Ecological Psychology in Context provides an occasion for reviewing anew those relations and affinities. It describes the genesis of ecological psychology in James's radical empiricism; addresses Holt's neorealism and Gestalt psychology; and synthesizes Gibson's ecological psychology and Barker's ecobehavioral science as a means for understanding everyday human behavior. Although behavior analysis is excluded from this account, Heft's book warrants a review nonetheless: It describes ecological psychology in ways that are congruent and complementary with behavior analysis (e.g., nonmediational theorizing; the provinces of natural history and natural science). After introducing modern ecological psychology, I comment on (a) Heft's admirable, albeit selective, historiography; (b) his ecological psychology—past and present—as it relates to Skinner's science and system (e.g., affordances, molar behavior); (c) his misunderstandings of Skinner's behaviorism (e.g., reductionistic, mechanistic, molecular); and (d) the theoretical status of Heft's cognitive terms and talk (i.e., in ontology, epistemology, syntax). I conclude by considering the alliance and integration of ecological psychology and behavior analysis, and their implications for unifying and transforming psychology as a life science, albeit more for the future than at present. PMID:20354604

  2. Women living with facial hair: the psychological and behavioral burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Michelle G; Sherr, Lorraine; Elford, Jonathan; Rustin, Malcolm H A; Clayton, William J

    2006-08-01

    While unwanted facial hair is clearly distressing for women, relatively little is known about its psychological impact. This study reports on the psychological and behavioral burden of facial hair in women with suspected polycystic ovary syndrome. Eighty-eight women (90% participation rate) completed a self-administered questionnaire concerning hair removal practices; the impact of facial hair on social and emotional domains; relationships and daily life; anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale); self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale); and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF). Women spent considerable time on the management of their facial hair (mean, 104 min/week). Two thirds (67%) reported continually checking in mirrors and 76% by touch. Forty percent felt uncomfortable in social situations. High levels of emotional distress and psychological morbidity were detected; 30% had levels of depression above the clinical cut off point, while 75% reported clinical levels of anxiety; 29% reported both. Although overall quality of life was good, scores were low in social and relationship domains--reflecting the impact of unwanted facial hair. Unwanted facial hair carries a high psychological burden for women and represents a significant intrusion into their daily lives. Psychological support is a neglected element of care for these women.

  3. Adolescents' perception of peer groups: Psychological, behavioral, and relational determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungyoon; Foote, Jeremy; Wittrock, Zachary; Xu, Siyu; Niu, Li; French, Doran C

    2017-07-01

    Adolescents' social cognitive understanding of their social world is often inaccurate and biased. Focusing on peer groups, this study examines how adolescents' psychological, behavioral, and relational characteristics influence the extent to which they accurately identify their own and others' peer groups. Analyses were conducted with a sample of 1481 seventh- and tenth-grade Chinese students who are embedded with 346 peer groups. Overall, females and older students had more accurate perceptions. In addition, lower self-esteem, higher indegree centrality, and lower betweenness centrality in the friendship network predicted more accurate perception of one's own groups, whereas higher academic performance and lower betweenness centrality in the friendship network predicted more accurate perception of others' groups. Implications for understanding the connection between adolescents' psychological and behavioral traits, social relationships, and social cognition are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…

  5. Conditional economic incentives for reducing HIV risk behaviors: integration of psychology and behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Gálarraga, Omar

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories and behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Conditional Economic Incentives for Reducing HIV Risk Behaviors: Integration of Psychology and Behavioral Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline C.; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Gálarraga, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Objective This paper reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. Methods We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories end behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Results Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and STI prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. Conclusion CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PMID:24001243

  7. The Effect of Education Level on Psychological Empowerment and Burnout-The Mediating Role of Workplace Learning Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Sarit Rashkovits; Yael Livne

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between education level, workplace learning behaviors, psychological empowerment and burnout in a sample of 191 teachers. We hypothesized that education level will positively affect psychological state of increased empowerment and decreased burnout, and we purposed that these effects will be mediated by workplace learning behaviors. We used multiple regression analyses to test the model that included also the 6 following control var...

  8. Fear of happiness predicts subjective and psychological well-being above the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) model of personality

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Yildirim; Hacer Belen

    2018-01-01

    Fear of happiness is an important psychological construct and has a significant effect on life outcomes such as well-being. This study sought to examine whether fear of happiness could explain variance in subjective well-being and psychological well-being domains after controlling for Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioral Activation System (BAS) Model of Personality. A total of 243 participants (189 males and 54 females) completed Fear of Happiness Scale, Positive-Negative Affect ...

  9. A Computerized Lifestyle Application to Promote Multiple Health Behaviors at the Workplace: Testing Its Behavioral and Psychological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippke, Sonia; Fleig, Lena; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    Preventive health behaviors, such as regular physical activity and healthy nutrition, are recommended to maintain employability and to facilitate the health of employees. Theory-based workplace health promotion needs to include psychological constructs and consider the motivational readiness (so-called stages of change) of employees. According to the stages, people can be grouped as nonintenders (not motivated to change and not performing the goal behavior), intenders (decided to adopt the goal behavior but not started yet), or actors (performing the goal behavior already). The tailoring to these stages can be done computer based and should make workplace health promotion more effective. It was tested whether a parsimonious computer-based health promotion program implemented at the workplace was effective in terms of lifestyle changes and psychological outcomes as well as body weight. We hypothesized that the stage-matched intervention would outperform the one-size-fits-all active control condition (standard care intervention). In a randomized controlled trial, a total of 1269 employees were recruited by a trained research assistant at their workplace during a routine medical examination. After excluding noneligible employees, 560 completed Time 1 (T1), and 384 also completed Time 2 (T2), achieving a retention rate of 68.6%. Two fully automated computer-based treatments were adopted: (1) an active control condition with information about benefits of exercise and healthy nutrition (n=52), or (2) a stage-matched multiple-behavior intervention that provided different psychological treatments to 9 subgroups, addressing stages of change (nonintenders, intenders, and actors per behavior; n=332). Baseline assessments (T1) on behavior, psychological constructs, and body weight were repeated after 4 weeks (T2). The stage-matched intervention outperformed the active control condition for lifestyle changes containing physical activity and nutrition (χ(2) 1=3.5; P=.04, for N

  10. A Computerized Lifestyle Application to Promote Multiple Health Behaviors at the Workplace: Testing Its Behavioral and Psychological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Lena; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventive health behaviors, such as regular physical activity and healthy nutrition, are recommended to maintain employability and to facilitate the health of employees. Theory-based workplace health promotion needs to include psychological constructs and consider the motivational readiness (so-called stages of change) of employees. According to the stages, people can be grouped as nonintenders (not motivated to change and not performing the goal behavior), intenders (decided to adopt the goal behavior but not started yet), or actors (performing the goal behavior already). The tailoring to these stages can be done computer based and should make workplace health promotion more effective. Objective It was tested whether a parsimonious computer-based health promotion program implemented at the workplace was effective in terms of lifestyle changes and psychological outcomes as well as body weight. We hypothesized that the stage-matched intervention would outperform the one-size-fits-all active control condition (standard care intervention). Methods In a randomized controlled trial, a total of 1269 employees were recruited by a trained research assistant at their workplace during a routine medical examination. After excluding noneligible employees, 560 completed Time 1 (T1), and 384 also completed Time 2 (T2), achieving a retention rate of 68.6%. Two fully automated computer-based treatments were adopted: (1) an active control condition with information about benefits of exercise and healthy nutrition (n=52), or (2) a stage-matched multiple-behavior intervention that provided different psychological treatments to 9 subgroups, addressing stages of change (nonintenders, intenders, and actors per behavior; n=332). Baseline assessments (T1) on behavior, psychological constructs, and body weight were repeated after 4 weeks (T2). Results The stage-matched intervention outperformed the active control condition for lifestyle changes containing physical activity and

  11. Behavioral and Psychological Aspects of Exercise across Stages of Eating Disorder Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Higgins, M. K.; St George, Sara M.; Rosenzweig, Ilyssa; Schaefer, Lauren M.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Henning, Taylor M.; Preston, Brittany F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between behavioral and psychological aspects of exercise and eating disorder recovery. Participants were categorized as having an eating disorder (n = 53), partially recovered (n = 15), fully recovered (n = 20), or non-eating disorder controls (n = 67). Groups did not differ significantly in time spent exercising, but did differ in exercise intensity, guilt related exercise, obsessive exercise cognitions, and appearance/weight management and stress/mood management motivations for exercise. Results support the importance of measuring psychological aspects of exercise in particular across the course of an eating disorder. PMID:27463591

  12. Interbehavioral psychology and radical behaviorism: Some similarities and differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Edward K.

    1984-01-01

    Both J. R. Kantor's interbehavioral psychology and B. F. Skinner's radical behaviorism represent wellarticulated approaches to a natural science of behavior. As such, they share a number of similar features, yet they also differ on a number of dimensions. Some of these similarities and differences are examined by describing their emergence in the professional literature and by comparing the respective units of analysis of the two approaches—the interbehavioral field and the three-term contingency. An evaluation of the similarities and differences shows the similarities to be largely fundamental, and the differences largely ones of emphasis. Nonetheless, the two approaches do make unique contributions to a natural science of behavior, the integration of which can facilitate the development of that science and its acceptance among other sciences and within society at large. PMID:22478612

  13. Parents' Promotion of Psychological Autonomy, Psychological Control, and Mexican-American Adolescents' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Mexican-American adolescents are at an elevated risk for adjustment difficulties. In an effort to identify parenting practices that can affect the adjustment of Mexican-American youth, the current study examined parents' promotion of psychological autonomy and parents' psychological control as perceived by Mexican-American early adolescents, and…

  14. Parental Psychological Control, Psychological Autonomy, and Acceptance as Predictors of Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Roy A.; Northrup, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines several key parenting variables (psychological control, psychological autonomy, and acceptance) in predicting self-esteem among Latino adolescents using structural equation modeling analyses. Nested models are tested and parental acceptance variables are omitted from the model and group gender comparisons are examined. Two…

  15. Behavioral and Psychological Phenotyping of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: Implications for Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Angela D; Jakicic, John M; Hunter, Christine M; Evans, Mary E; Yanovski, Susan Z; Epstein, Leonard H

    2017-10-01

    Risk for obesity is determined by a complex mix of genetics and lifetime exposures at multiple levels, from the metabolic milieu to psychosocial and environmental influences. These phenotypic differences underlie the variability in risk for obesity and response to weight management interventions, including differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior. As part of a broader effort focused on behavioral and psychological phenotyping in obesity research, the National Institutes of Health convened a multidisciplinary workshop to explore the state of the science in behavioral and psychological phenotyping in humans to explain individual differences in physical activity, both as a risk factor for obesity development and in response to activity-enhancing interventions. Understanding the behavioral and psychological phenotypes that contribute to differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior could allow for improved treatment matching and inform new targets for tailored, innovative, and effective weight management interventions. This summary provides the rationale for identifying psychological and behavioral phenotypes relevant to physical activity and identifies opportunities for future research to better understand, define, measure, and validate putative phenotypic factors and characterize emerging phenotypes that are empirically associated with initiation of physical activity, response to intervention, and sustained changes in physical activity. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  16. Use of behavioral economics and social psychology to improve treatment of acute respiratory infections (BEARI): rationale and design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [1RC4AG039115-01] - study protocol and baseline practice and provider characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for nonbacterial infections leads to increases in the costs of care, antibiotic resistance among bacteria, and adverse drug events. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the most common reason for inappropriate antibiotic use. Most prior efforts to decrease inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs (e.g., educational or informational interventions) have relied on the implicit assumption that clinicians inappropriately prescribe antibiotics because they are unaware of guideline recommendations for ARIs. If lack of guideline awareness is not the reason for inappropriate prescribing, educational interventions may have limited impact on prescribing rates. Instead, interventions that apply social psychological and behavioral economic principles may be more effective in deterring inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs by well-informed clinicians. Methods/design The Application of Behavioral Economics to Improve the Treatment of Acute Respiratory Infections (BEARI) Trial is a multisite, cluster-randomized controlled trial with practice as the unit of randomization. The primary aim is to test the ability of three interventions based on behavioral economic principles to reduce the rate of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs. We randomized practices in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design to receive up to three interventions for non-antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses: 1) Accountable Justifications: When prescribing an antibiotic for an ARI, clinicians are prompted to record an explicit justification that appears in the patient electronic health record; 2) Suggested Alternatives: Through computerized clinical decision support, clinicians prescribing an antibiotic for an ARI receive a list of non-antibiotic treatment choices (including prescription options) prior to completing the antibiotic prescription; and 3) Peer Comparison: Each provider’s rate of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing relative to top

  17. Parental Psychological Control and Autonomy Granting: Distinctions and Associations with Child and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Jennifer Hauser; Grych, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study utilized an observational coding scheme to identify parenting behavior reflecting psychological control and autonomy granting and examined relations between these parenting dimensions and indices of child and family functioning. Design A community sample of 90 preadolescents (aged 10.5 to 12 years) and both of their parents engaged in a triadic interaction that was coded for parental psychological control and autonomy granting. Participants also completed measures of child adjustment, interparental conflict, and triangulation. Results Factor analyses indicated that a two-factor model better fit the data than a one-factor model, suggesting that psychological control and autonomy granting are best conceptualized as independent but related constructs. Parental psychological control and autonomy granting exhibited some shared and some unique correlates with indices of child and family functioning. Hierarchical regressions revealed significant interactions between these dimensions, suggesting that the strength of some associations between parents’ use of psychological control and youth adjustment problems depends on the level of autonomy granting exhibited by the parent. Conclusions By examining psychological control and autonomy granting simultaneously as unique constructs, this study identifies patterns of psychological control and autonomy granting that undermine youth adjustment. Findings inform targeted intervention efforts for families of preadolescent youth. PMID:23418403

  18. Clinical and psychological risk factors for aggressive behavior in minors with delinquent behavior , have not reached the age of criminal responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Martynova I.R.

    2016-01-01

    The results of empirical studies of clinical and psychological risk factors for aggressive behavior in adolescents. The main sample and comparison group - juveniles with delinquent behavior, not reached (n = 60) and age of criminal responsibility (n = 60). The control group of adolescents with conventionally normative behavior (n = 20). It is shown that the main group examinees have a number of serious problems that increase the risk of aggressive behavior. Reduced mood, anxiety, emotional in...

  19. Psychological determinants of exercise behavior of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Though expected to be role models in health promotion, research has shown that nursing students often have suboptimal exercise behavior. This study explored the psychological factors associated with the exercise behavior of nursing students. A total of 195 first-year undergraduate nursing students completed a cross-sectional quantitative survey questionnaire, which included measures of their exercise behavior, the Physical Exercise Self-efficacy Scale, and the Exercise Barriers/Benefits Scale. The results showed that male students spent more time exercising and had higher exercise self-efficacy compared with female students, but there were no gender differences in the perceived barriers to or benefits of exercise. Fatigue brought on by exercising was the greatest perceived barrier to exercise, whereas increasing physical fitness and mental health were the greatest perceived benefits of exercise. Multiple linear regression showed that gender, exercise self-efficacy, perceived barriers to exercise, and perceived benefits of exercise were independent predictors of exercise behavior. Nurse educators can endeavor to promote exercise behavior among nursing students by highlighting the specific benefits of exercise, empowering students to overcome their perceived barriers to exercise, and enhancing students' exercise self-efficacy.

  20. What Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia Affect Caregiver Burnout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi-Taniguchi, Kazuko; Becker, Carl B; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2018-01-01

    Patients' irritability and aggression have been linked to caregiver depression, but the behaviors that most burden caregivers are not yet definitively identified. This study examines the connection between behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and the burnout of caregivers caring for home-dwelling elders with dementia symptoms in Japan. 80 Japanese rural and urban family caregivers completed detailed questionnaires about their experiences in caring for demented family members. We statistically analyzed the results for correlations between types of dementia, Pines Burnout, and Caregiver Distress. BPSD symptom severity significantly correlated with caregiver distress. The dementia symptoms most strongly correlated with caregiver burnout were: aggression, irritability, abnormal motor behavior, and hallucinations. Among the commonest symptoms, apathy, anxiety, and depression did not seriously aggravate caregiver burnout. Caregivers displayed higher burnout facing agitation/aggression, irritability, aberrant motor behavior, and hallucinations. Caregivers' reported distress was surprisingly dissimilar to their burnout scores; patients' delusions and anxiety led to higher distress reporting but not to burnout. Advance diagnosis of BPSD symptoms should be helpful to support nurses and caregivers of dementia patients. Particular support should be considered for caregivers and nurses of patients expressing aggression, irritability, abnormal motor behavior, and hallucination.

  1. Psychological contract and organizational citizenship behavior : A new deal for new generations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lub, X.D.; Blomme, R.J.; Bal, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to shed light on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) of different generations of hospitality workers in relation to their psychological contract. The psychological contract, which describes employees' implicit expectations of their employer, is related to a range of

  2. Management of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Hersch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth C Hersch, Sharon FalzgrafVA Puget Sound Health Care System, Tacoma, Washington, USAAbstract: More than 50% of people with dementia experience behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD. BPSD are distressing for patients and their caregivers, and are often the reason for placement into residential care. The development of BPSD is associated with a more rapid rate of cognitive decline, greater impairment in activities of daily living, and diminished quality of life (QOL. Evaluation of BPSD includes a thorough diagnostic investigation, consideration of the etiology of the dementia, and the exclusion of other causes, such as drug-induced delirium, pain, or infection. Care of patients with BPSD involves psychosocial treatments for both the patient and family. BPSD may respond to those environmental and psychosocial interventions, however, drug therapy is often required for more severe presentations. There are multiple classes of drugs used for BPSD, including antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, anxiolytics, cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA modulators, but the evidence base for pharmacological management is poor, there is no clear standard of care, and treatment is often based on local pharmacotherapy customs. Clinicians should discuss the potential risks and benefits of treatment with patients and their surrogate decision makers, and must ensure a balance between side effects and tolerability compared with clinical benefit and QOL.Keywords: dementia, management, behavioral symptoms, psychological symptoms

  3. Guidelines for cognitive behavioral training within doctoral psychology programs in the United States: report of the Inter-organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K; Ronan, George F; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D; Belar, Cynthia D; Berry, Sharon L; Christofff, Karen A; Craighead, Linda W; Dougher, Michael J; Dowd, E Thomas; Herbert, James D; McFarr, Lynn M; Rizvi, Shireen L; Sauer, Eric M; Strauman, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a year-long series of conferences, and developed a consensus on optimal doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology. The recommendations assume solid foundational training that is typical within applied psychology areas such as clinical and counseling psychology programs located in the United States. This article details the background, assumptions, and resulting recommendations specific to doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology, including competencies expected in the areas of ethics, research, and practice. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Psychological characteristics of self-harming behavior in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Kyeong

    2016-10-01

    Recently, self-injury is drawing the attention of researchers and clinicians. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and psychological characteristics of adolescents who engage in self-harm and to examine the risk factors for engaging in this harmful behavior among Korean mid-adolescents. Participants were 784 adolescents aged 13-15 years. They completed self-report questionnaires that assessed (1) Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: the Self-Harm Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale; (2) depression: Children's Depression Inventory; (3) adolescent-parent relationship: Parental Bonding Instrument; (4) peer attachment: Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment; and (5) academic stress. Overall, 12.4% (n=97) of participants reported engaging in self-destructive behavior at least once in their lives. The primary reason for engaging in self-harm was to regulate negative emotions such as anger and sadness. As expected, the self-harm group showed statistically significant higher levels of academic stress, alexithymia, depression, and poor relationships with their parents and peers. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that alexithymia, depression, and peer relations were significant predictors of self-harming behavior. Given that the primary reason for engaging in self-harm is to cope with negative emotions, mental health professionals in school settings should regularly evaluate self-injurious behavior and provide prevention programs for adolescents at risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Influence of Locus of Control on Student Financial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Sonya; Cumbie, Julie A.; Bell, Mary M.

    2013-01-01

    Data on psychological influences of financial behaviors has not been well addressed in student populations, which is concerning given the high levels of general and financial stress experienced by college students. The findings of this study indicate that college students with an external locus of control exhibit the worst financial behaviors.…

  6. A Theoretical Upgrade of the Concept of Parental Psychological Control: Proposing New Insights on the Basis of Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Psychological control refers to manipulative parental behavior that intrudes upon the child's psychological world. During the past decade, socialization research has consistently demonstrated the negative effects of psychologically controlling parenting on children's and adolescents' development. However, there has been relatively little advance…

  7. The behavior-analytic approach to emotional self-control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Rocha Batista

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Some psychological approaches distinguish behavioral self-control from emotional self-control, the latter being approached with the reference to inside events controlled by the individual himself. This paper offers some directions to a behavior-analytic approach of what has been referred to as emotional self-control. According to Behavior Analysis, no new process is found in emotional self-control, but components that are additional to those found in behavioral self-control, which require appropriate treatment. The paper highlights some determinants of behavioral repertoires taken as instances of emotional self-control: the social context in which self-control is produced and maintained; the conflicts between consequences for the individual and for the group; and the degree of participation of the motor apparatus in the emission of emotional responses. Keywords: emotional self-control; emotional responses; inner world; behavior analysis.

  8. PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS AND HEALTH BEHAVIOR FOLLOWING ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Milenković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychological reactions, risk health behavior and cardiac parameters can influence rehospitalization after acute myocardial infarction.The aim of the paper was to determine the presence of psychological reactions and risk health behavior in patients with acute myocardial infarction on admission as well as the differences after six months.The research included thirty-trhee patients of both sexes, who were consecutively hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction. A prospective clinical investigation involved the following: semi-structured interview, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I for pcychiatric disorders, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI for measuring the severity of anxiety, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI for measuring the severity of depression, KON-6 sigma test for aggression, Holms-Rahe Scale (H-R for exposure to stressful events, and Health Behavior Questionnaire: alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, lack of physical activity. Measurement of the same parameters was done on admission and after six months. The differences were assessed using the t-test and chi-square test for p<0.05.On admission, anxiety (BAI=8.15±4.37 and depression (BDI=8.67±3.94 were mild without significant difference after six months in the group of examinees. Aggression was elevated and significantly lowered after six monts (KON-6 sigma =53,26±9, 58:41,42±7.67, t=2,13 for p<0.05. Exposure to stressful events in this period decreased (H-R=113.19±67.37:91,65±63,81, t=3,14 for p<0.05; distribution of physical activity was significantly higher compared to admission values (54.83%: 84.84%. χ2=5.07 for p<0.01.In the group of examinees with acute myocardial infarction in the period of six months, anxiety and depression remained mildly icreased, while the levels of aggression and exposure to stressful events were lowered. Risk health behavior was maintained, except for the improvement in physical activity. In the integrative therapy and

  9. Psychological and behavioral changes during confinement in a 520-day simulated interplanetary mission to mars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Basner

    Full Text Available Behavioral health risks are among the most serious and difficult to mitigate risks of confinement in space craft during long-duration space exploration missions. We report on behavioral and psychological reactions of a multinational crew of 6 healthy males confined in a 550 m(3 chamber for 520 days during the first Earth-based, high-fidelity simulated mission to Mars. Rest-activity of crewmembers was objectively measured throughout the mission with wrist-worn actigraphs. Once weekly throughout the mission crewmembers completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, Profile of Moods State short form (POMS, conflict questionnaire, the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT-B, and series of visual analogue scales on stress and fatigue. We observed substantial inter-individual differences in the behavioral responses of crewmembers to the prolonged mission confinement and isolation. The crewmember with the highest average POMS total mood disturbance score throughout the mission also reported symptoms of depression in 93% of mission weeks, which reached mild-to-moderate levels in >10% of mission weeks. Conflicts with mission control were reported five times more often than conflicts among crewmembers. Two crewmembers who had the highest ratings of stress and physical exhaustion accounted for 85% of the perceived conflicts. One of them developed a persistent sleep onset insomnia with ratings of poor sleep quality, which resulted in chronic partial sleep deprivation, elevated ratings of daytime tiredness, and frequent deficits in behavioral alertness. Sleep-wake timing was altered in two other crewmembers, beginning in the first few months of the mission and persisting throughout. Two crewmembers showed neither behavioral disturbances nor reports of psychological distress during the 17-month period of mission confinement. These results highlight the importance of identifying behavioral, psychological, and biological markers of characteristics that

  10. A longitudinal study of perceived parental psychological control and psychological well-being in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2007-01-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents (N = 2,758) responded to instruments measuring their perceived parental psychological control and psychological well-being, including hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, and self-esteem. Pearson correlation analyses revealed that perceived parental psychological control was concurrently related to adolescent psychological well-being at Time 1 and Time 2. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the relationships between perceived parental psychological control and adolescent psychological well-being over time were bidirectional in nature. Regarding the differential contribution of paternal and maternal psychological control to adolescent psychological well-being over time, paternal psychological control at Time 1 predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction at Time 2, particularly for adolescent girls. On the other hand, maternal psychological control at Time 1 predicted changes in adolescent self-esteem at Time 2. Relative to those conditions in which one or none of the adolescents' parents was perceived to display high psychological control at Time 1, the psychological well-being of adolescents at Time 2 was poorer under the condition in which both parents were perceived to display high levels of psychological control at Time 1. The clinical implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Connecting Positive Psychology and Organizational Behavior Management: Achievement Motivation and the Power of Positive Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology is becoming established as a reputable sub-discipline in psychology despite having neglected the role of positive reinforcement in enhancing quality of life. The authors discuss the relevance of positive reinforcement for positive psychology, with implications for broadening the content of organizational behavior management.…

  12. The relationship between weight stigma and eating behavior is explained by weight bias internalization and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Latner, Janet D; Puhl, Rebecca M; Vartanian, Lenny R; Giles, Claudia; Griva, Konstadina; Carter, Adrian

    2016-07-01

    Weight stigma is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including disordered eating, but the psychological mechanisms underlying these associations are not well understood. The present study tested whether the association between weight stigma experiences and disordered eating behaviors (emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and loss-of-control eating) are mediated by weight bias internalization and psychological distress. Six-hundred and thirty-four undergraduate university students completed an online survey assessing weight stigma, weight bias internalization, psychological distress, disordered eating, along with demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, weight status). Statistical analyses found that weight stigma was significantly associated with all measures of disordered eating, and with weight bias internalization and psychological distress. In regression and mediation analyses accounting for age, gender and weight status, weight bias internalization and psychological distress mediated the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behavior. Thus, weight bias internalization and psychological distress appear to be important factors underpinning the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behaviors, and could be targets for interventions, such as, psychological acceptance and mindfulness therapy, which have been shown to reduce the impact of weight stigma. The evidence for the health consequences resulting from weight stigma is becoming clear. It is important that health and social policy makers are informed of this literature and encouraged develop anti-weight stigma policies for school, work, and medical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reports by caregivers of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Carvalho do Vale

    Full Text Available Abstract Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD are relevant since they are frequent and cause distress to caregivers. However, they may not be reported by physicians due to the priority usually attributed to cognitive symptoms. Objectives: To verify whether BPSD is being systematically investigated by physicians even in specialized settings and whether their records on medical files are accurate. Methods: Assessment of records on medical files of BPSD reported by caregivers to 182 patients (57.1% men, mean age 67.6±13.5 years assisted in a tertiary-care behavioral neurology outpatient clinic (BNOC who also had appointments in other clinics of the same hospital. Alzheimer's disease (37.9% and vascular disease (19.2% were the most frequent causes of dementia. Results: Report/appointment ratios were 0.58 in BNOC, 0.43 in other neurological, 0.93 in psychiatric and 0.20 in non-neurological, non-psychiatric clinics. BPSD most frequently recorded in BNOC were insomnia, aggressiveness, agitation/hyperactivity, visual hallucinations, apathy, inadequate behavior and ease of crying. Sorted by psychiatrists, categories associated to more BPSD were affect/mood, thought and personality/behavior. affect/mood and sensoperception symptoms were the most frequently reported. Sorted according to Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, categories associated to more BPSD were depression/dysphoria, delusion and apathy/indifference. depression/dysphoria and agitation/ aggression symptoms were the most frequently reported. Conclusions: BPSD reported by caregivers were very diverse and were not systematically investigated by physicians. Notes in medical files often contained non-technical terms.

  14. The Prevalence and Typologies of Controlling Behaviors in a General Population Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kate; Sleath, Emma; Tramontano, Carlo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and typologies of controlling behaviors within a general population sample. Participants ( N = 427) completed the Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale and the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. Prevalence of perpetration and victimization of controlling behaviors was relatively high, although the frequency and severity of the behaviors was mainly low level. Five clusters were established based on the use of five types of controlling behaviors: economic, threatening, intimidating, emotional, and isolating. Significant differences were found between the perpetration clusters and (a) minor physical assault, (b) severe physical assault, (c) minor psychological aggression, and (d) severe psychological aggression. Furthermore, significant differences were found between the victimization clusters and (a) physical assault, (b) minor psychological aggression, and (c) severe psychological aggression. It is clear that controlling behaviors are a feature within general population relationships, and further research is required to understand when such behaviors become problematic, and what needs to be done to prevent this from happening.

  15. Eating behavior and psychological profile: associations between daughters with distinct eating disorders and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Velázquez, Verónica; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Méndez, Juan Pablo; García-García, Eduardo; Reidl-Martínez, Lucy María

    2017-09-06

    Associations of eating behaviors and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with eating disorders exist, but it is important to dissect the influence of the mother in each specific disorder since all eating disorders must be seen or treated not as one entity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of eating behavior and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with different eating disorders and a control group. The study group included young girls with anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 30), bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 30), binge eating disorder (BED, n = 19), and a control group of women (Non-ED, n = 54) together with their mothers. BMI was calculated for dyads and Eating Disorder Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire were applied. The differences between dyads were tested by Student's t test and Pearson's correlation was used to study the association between BMI, variables of eating behavior and psychological profile in each dyad. The study found significant inverse correlations between the AN dyad; some correlations between the BN dyad, and the highest positive correlations exist in BED dyad, especially in eating behavior. Finally, between the control dyads, low but significant correlations were found in the majority of cases. The study concluded that the associations between mothers and daughters with distinct eating disorders varied depending on the specific diagnosis of the daughter, indicating it is necessary to analyze them individually, given that there may be different implications for treatment.

  16. Psychological distance boosts value-behavior correspondence in ultimatum bargaining and integrative negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomantonio, M.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Shalvi, S.; Sligte, D.; Leder, S.

    2010-01-01

    The present research examined how construal level and social motivation interact in influencing individuals’ behavior in social decision making settings. Consistent with recent work on psychological distance and value-behavior correspondence (Eyal, Sagristano, Trope, Liberman, & Chaiken, 2009), it

  17. Antecedents of perceived coach interpersonal behaviors: the coaching environment and coach psychological well- and ill-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbings, Juliette; Taylor, Ian M; Spray, Christopher M; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2012-08-01

    Embedded in the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, we obtained self-report data from 418 paid and voluntary coaches from a variety of sports and competitive levels with the aim of exploring potential antecedents of coaches' perceived autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors. Controlling for socially desirable responses, structural equation modeling revealed that greater job security and opportunities for professional development, and lower work-life conflict were associated with psychological need satisfaction, which, in turn, was related to an adaptive process of psychological well-being and perceived autonomy support toward athletes. In contrast, higher work-life conflict and fewer opportunities for development were associated with a distinct maladaptive process of thwarted psychological needs, psychological ill-being, and perceived controlling interpersonal behavior. The results highlight how the coaching context may impact upon coaches' psychological health and their interpersonal behavior toward athletes. Moreover, evidence is provided for the independence of adaptive and maladaptive processes within the self-determination theory paradigm.

  18. Undermining Adolescent Autonomy With Parents and Peers: The Enduring Implications of Psychologically Controlling Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Amanda L.; Szwedo, David E.; Schad, Megan M.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    This study used a longitudinal, multi-method design to examine whether teens’ perceptions of maternal psychological control predicted lower levels of adolescent autonomy displayed with their mothers and peers over time. Significant predictions from teens’ perceptions of maternal psychological control to teens’ displays of autonomy in maternal and peer relationships were found at age 16 after accounting for adolescent displays of autonomy with mothers and peers at age 13, indicating relative changes in teens’ autonomy displayed with their mother and a close peer over time. Results suggest that the ability to assert one’s autonomy in mid-adolescence may be influenced by maternal behavior early in adolescence, highlighting the importance of parents minimizing psychological control to facilitate autonomy development for teens. PMID:26788023

  19. Cancer control falls squarely within the province of the psychological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green McDonald, Paige; O'Connell, Mary; Suls, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of cancer as a contemporary public health challenge, this article presents a selective overview of psychological science contributions to cancer control research, practice, and policy. Initial contributions were circumscribed to awareness campaigns and the assessment of emotional responses to diagnosis and treatment. As evidence linking certain behaviors to cancer risk and outcomes accumulated, psychology emerged as a "hub science" in the Nation's cancer control program. Despite substantial accomplishments, new societal trends further challenge our ability to reduce risk, incidence, and deaths from cancer and enhance quality of life for cancer survivors. Evidence generated from psychological research conducted within each cell of Pasteur's quadrant continues to be relevant and necessary for effective 21st-century approaches to cancer prevention and control at the individual, clinical, and population levels. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Undermining Adolescent Autonomy With Parents and Peers: The Enduring Implications of Psychologically Controlling Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Amanda L; Szwedo, David E; Schad, Megan M; Allen, Joseph P

    2015-12-01

    This study used a longitudinal, multi-method design to examine whether teens' perceptions of maternal psychological control predicted lower levels of adolescent autonomy displayed with their mothers and peers over time. Significant predictions from teens' perceptions of maternal psychological control to teens' displays of autonomy in maternal and peer relationships were found at age 16 after accounting for adolescent displays of autonomy with mothers and peers at age 13, indicating relative changes in teens' autonomy displayed with their mother and a close peer over time. Results suggest that the ability to assert one's autonomy in mid-adolescence may be influenced by maternal behavior early in adolescence, highlighting the importance of parents minimizing psychological control to facilitate autonomy development for teens.

  1. The Evolution of Psychology as a Basic Bio-behavioral Science in Healthcare Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, John E

    2017-12-01

    For over a century, researchers and educators have called for the integration of psychological science into medical school curricula, but such efforts have been impeded by barriers within medicine and psychology. In addressing these barriers, Psychology has re-examined its relationship to Medicine, incorporated psychological practices into health care, and redefined its parameters as a science. In response to interdisciplinary research into the mechanisms of bio-behavioral interaction, Psychology evolved from an ancillary social science to a bio-behavioral science that is fundamental to medicine and health care. However, in recent medical school curriculum innovations, psychological science is being reduced to a set of "clinical skills," and once again viewed as an ancillary social science. These developments warrant concern and consideration of new approaches to integrating psychological science in medical education.

  2. Psychological contract breaches, organizational commitment, and innovation-related behaviors: a latent growth modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C; Lam, Simon S K

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the relationships among psychological contract breaches, organizational commitment, and innovation-related behaviors (generating, spreading, implementing innovative ideas at work) over a 6-month period. Results indicate that the effects of psychological contract breaches on employees are not static. Specifically, perceptions of psychological contract breaches strengthened over time and were associated with decreased levels of affective commitment over time. Further, increased perceptions of psychological contract breaches were associated with decreases in innovation-related behaviors. We also found evidence that organizational commitment mediates the relationship between psychological contract breaches and innovation-related behaviors. These results highlight the importance of examining the nomological network of psychological contract breaches from a change perspective.

  3. Guidelines for Cognitive Behavioral Training within Doctoral Psychology Programs in the United States: Report of the Inter-Organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K.; Ronan, George F.; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D.; Belar, Cynthia D.; Berry, Sharon L.; Christofff, Karen A.; Craighead, Linda W.; Dougher, Michael J.; Dowd, E. Thomas; Herbert, James D.; McFarr, Lynn M.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Sauer, Eric M.; Strauman, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a yearlong series of…

  4. PSYCHOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF PRONENESS TO CONFLICT BEHAVIOR IN THE PERIOD OF STUDENTSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Bunjak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The University student is claimed to be one of the most important ?gure today whо deter mines the future of the society and its progressive development and democratic transformations. In the dif?cult conditions of life, characterizing the situation in the country nowadays contemporary students are often uncertain about their future and in connection with this, experience negative emotional states which might cause intrapersonal con?icts. The contemporary youth is characterized nowadays by numerous con?icts in which the development of the age speci?c achievements  takes  place,  namely:  self-actualization,  self-expression,  competition,  defending one’s own values, attitudes and passions. The paper presents the results of an anonymous survey in testing of Ternopil National university students aimed at de?ning the relationships between the frequency of the intrapersonal con?icts experienced by the young people and psychological factors causing them. The proneness to the con?ict behavior of the personality has been shown to be caused by such psychological characteristics of the individual as the level of self-esteem, the level of aggression, anxiety, frustration, rigidity and locus of control. It is postulated in the paper that high proneness of the personality to the con?ict behavior can be adequately described with reference to a set of personality properties which jointly de?ne and enhance the levels of con?ict. This set of characteristics act as psychological determinants of con?icts. The analysis of the survey designed to de?ne the sources of the students’ proneness to the con?ict behavior shows that the problem requires further theoretical research and empirical studies to obtain a more comprehensive picture of the possible causes of proneness to this type of behavior.

  5. Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Sport: The Role of Motivational Climate, Basic Psychological Needs, and Moral Disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Ken; Gucciardi, Daniel F

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether the relationships between contextual factors and basic psychological needs were related to antisocial and prosocial behavior in sport. A two-study project employing Bayesian path analysis was conducted with competitive athletes (Study 1, n = 291; Study 2, n = 272). Coach and teammate autonomy-supportive climates had meaningful direct relations with need satisfaction and prosocial behavior. Coach and teammate controlling climates had meaningful direct relations with antisocial behavior. Need satisfaction was both directly and indirectly related with both prosocial and antisocial behavior, whereas moral disengagement was directly and indirectly related with antisocial behavior. Overall, these findings reflected substantial evidence from the literature on self-determination theory that autonomy-supportive motivational climates are important environmental influences for need satisfaction, and are important correlates of prosocial behavior in sport, whereas controlling coach and teammate climates, along with moral disengagement, were important correlates of antisocial behavior in sport.

  6. Fear of happiness predicts subjective and psychological well-being above the behavioral inhibition system (BIS and behavioral activation system (BAS model of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yildirim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fear of happiness is an important psychological construct and has a significant effect on life outcomes such as well-being. This study sought to examine whether fear of happiness could explain variance in subjective well-being and psychological well-being domains after controlling for Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS and Behavioral Activation System (BAS Model of Personality. A total of 243 participants (189 males and 54 females completed Fear of Happiness Scale, Positive-Negative Affect Schedule, Psychological Well-being Scales and BIS/BAS personality scales. In terms of correlational analyses, fear of happiness revealed significant negative correlations with positive affect, all domains of psychological well-being except purpose in life (autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, and self-acceptance and BAS fun seeking dimension while a significant positive correlation was found with negative affect. With regard to hierarchical multiple regression analyses, fear of happiness accounted for a unique variance in both affective aspects of subjective well-being, namely positive and negative affect and three aspects of psychological well-being (autonomy, positive relations and self-acceptance after controlling for BIS/BAS personality model. These results suggested that fear of happiness is uniquely useful to both subjective and psychological well-being beyond the effect of the aspects of BIS/BAS personality.

  7. The support of autonomy and the control of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, E L; Ryan, R M

    1987-12-01

    In this article we suggest that events and contexts relevant to the initiation and regulation of intentional behavior can function either to support autonomy (i.e., to promote choice) or to control behavior (i.e., to pressure one toward specific outcomes). Research herein reviewed indicates that this distinction is relevant to specific external events and to general interpersonal contexts as well as to specific internal events and to general personality orientations. That is, the distinction is relevant whether one's analysis focuses on social psychological variables or on personality variables. The research review details those contextual and person factors that tend to promote autonomy and those that tend to control. Furthermore, it shows that autonomy support has generally been associated with more intrinsic motivation, greater interest, less pressure and tension, more creativity, more cognitive flexibility, better conceptual learning, a more positive emotional tone, higher self-esteem, more trust, greater persistence of behavior change, and better physical and psychological health than has control. Also, these results have converged across different assessment procedures, different research methods, and different subject populations. On the basis of these results, we present an organismic perspective in which we argue that the regulation of intentional behavior varies along a continuum from autonomous (i.e., self-determined) to controlled. The relation of this organismic perspective to historical developments in empirical psychology is discussed, with a particular emphasis on its implications for the study of social psychology and personality.

  8. Self-control and academic performance: Two field studies on university citizenship behavior and counterproductive academic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    Self-control affects, among other things, individuals' performance and criminal or deviant behavior. Herein, the construct of self-control is linked to rather specific criteria in an academic context, as derived from findings in the area of organizational psychology. Specifically, it is assumed...... that students' self-control impacts university citizenship behavior positively and counterproductive academic behavior negatively. Two correlative field studies, at which one is predictive, using different questionnaires to assess self-control support both hypotheses....

  9. Psychological and behavioral responses to interval and continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Matthew J; Gibala, Martin J; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2018-05-16

    To compare psychological responses to, and preferences for, moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), and sprint interval training (SIT) among inactive adults; and to investigate the relationships between affect, enjoyment, exercise preferences, and subsequent exercise behavior over a 4-wk follow-up period. Thirty inactive men and women (21.23±3.81 y), inexperienced with HIIT or SIT, completed three trials of cycle ergometer exercise in random order on separate days: MICT (45min continuous; ~70-75% of heart rate maximum (HRmax)); HIIT (10x1 min bouts at ~85-90%HRmax with 1-min recovery periods); and SIT (3x20-s "all-out" sprints with 2-min recovery periods). Perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and arousal were measured throughout the trials and enjoyment was measured post-exercise. Participants rank-ordered the protocols (#1-3) according to preference and logged their exercise over a 4-week follow-up. Despite elevated HR, RPE, and arousal during work periods (psHIIT and SIT, enjoyment and preferences for MICT, HIIT, and SIT were similar (ps>0.05). In-task affect was predictive of post-exercise enjoyment for each type of exercise (rs=0.32 to 0.47; psHIIT and SIT (rss=-0.34 to -0.61; ps0.05), respectively. Over the follow-up, participants completed more MICT (M=6.11±4.12) than SIT sessions (M=1.39±1.85; pHIIT (M=3.54±4.23; p=0.16, d=0.56), and more sessions of HIIT than SIT (p=0.07, d=0.60), differences were not significant. In-task affect predicted the number of sessions of MICT (r=0.40; pHIIT or SIT (ps>0.05). This study provides new evidence that a single session of HIIT and SIT can be as enjoyable and preferable as MICT among inactive individuals and that there may be differences in the exercise affect-behavior relationship between interval and continuous exercise.

  10. Social support, locus of control, and psychological well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, KI; Buunk, BP; Sanderman, R

    1997-01-01

    Social support seems to be positively related to psychological well-being. Studies have shown that individual differences exist in the ability to mobilize and use sources of support. The current study focused on locus of control as a personality factor that might be related to this ability, In 2

  11. Model of yoga intervention in industrial organizational psychology for counterproductive work behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh C Dwivedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Counterproductive work behavior (CWB has long been recognized as a broad spectrum of job behaviors and its link with negative affectivity and hostile behaviors. It is a major concern practically for all organizations. Repeated exposure to workplace stressor can result in a strain, an outcome of the job stress process that can be psychological, physical, or behavioral in nature, leading to CWBs. Yoga is a technique that brings an improvement on mental and physical level by means of posture, breathing control methods, and silencing the mind through meditation. Though yoga has received less scientific consideration, there has been a significant growth in the study of yoga in the healthy population. Mindfulness and self-control practices like yoga encourage individuals to be aware and accept their aggression linked thoughts and emotions simply as a short-lived state rather than to control them. The positive effects of yoga on the improvement of personality traits are already proven. This paper introduces a simple model of cost-effective, trials of yoga intervention at the workplace which could result in the twin benefits of substantial savings from losses for the employers by reducing the CWB and health improvements for the employees by reducing the negative affectivity and aggression. Internet databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and APA PsycNET were accessed. The available data were systematically reviewed in a structured manner and analyzed.

  12. Model of yoga intervention in industrial organizational psychology for counterproductive work behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Umesh C.; Kumari, Sony; Nagendra, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) has long been recognized as a broad spectrum of job behaviors and its link with negative affectivity and hostile behaviors. It is a major concern practically for all organizations. Repeated exposure to workplace stressor can result in a strain, an outcome of the job stress process that can be psychological, physical, or behavioral in nature, leading to CWBs. Yoga is a technique that brings an improvement on mental and physical level by means of posture, breathing control methods, and silencing the mind through meditation. Though yoga has received less scientific consideration, there has been a significant growth in the study of yoga in the healthy population. Mindfulness and self-control practices like yoga encourage individuals to be aware and accept their aggression linked thoughts and emotions simply as a short-lived state rather than to control them. The positive effects of yoga on the improvement of personality traits are already proven. This paper introduces a simple model of cost-effective, trials of yoga intervention at the workplace which could result in the twin benefits of substantial savings from losses for the employers by reducing the CWB and health improvements for the employees by reducing the negative affectivity and aggression. Internet databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and APA PsycNET were accessed. The available data were systematically reviewed in a structured manner and analyzed. PMID:27212813

  13. Model of yoga intervention in industrial organizational psychology for counterproductive work behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Umesh C; Kumari, Sony; Nagendra, H R

    2015-01-01

    Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) has long been recognized as a broad spectrum of job behaviors and its link with negative affectivity and hostile behaviors. It is a major concern practically for all organizations. Repeated exposure to workplace stressor can result in a strain, an outcome of the job stress process that can be psychological, physical, or behavioral in nature, leading to CWBs. Yoga is a technique that brings an improvement on mental and physical level by means of posture, breathing control methods, and silencing the mind through meditation. Though yoga has received less scientific consideration, there has been a significant growth in the study of yoga in the healthy population. Mindfulness and self-control practices like yoga encourage individuals to be aware and accept their aggression linked thoughts and emotions simply as a short-lived state rather than to control them. The positive effects of yoga on the improvement of personality traits are already proven. This paper introduces a simple model of cost-effective, trials of yoga intervention at the workplace which could result in the twin benefits of substantial savings from losses for the employers by reducing the CWB and health improvements for the employees by reducing the negative affectivity and aggression. Internet databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and APA PsycNET were accessed. The available data were systematically reviewed in a structured manner and analyzed.

  14. Psychological distress and risk for suicidal behavior among university students in contemporary China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fang; Byrne, Majella; Qin, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Psychological distress and suicidal behavior are important mental health problems among university students and warrant research to inform strategies for effective prevention in this young population. The present study aimed to assess psychological distress and suicidal behavior and to unravel their associations among university students. A total of 5972 undergraduate students, randomly selected from six universities in central China, comprised the sample. The Chinese version of the Symptom Checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess various psychological symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between psychological distress and risk for suicidal behavior. 40.7% of the university students reported positive in a least one of the 9 psychological symptom dimensions assessed by the SCL-90-R. 7.6% of the students reported suicidal behavior in the previous twelve months. The risk of suicidal behavior was significantly associated with psychological symptoms of all types, but there were notable differences by sex. For male students, depression and phobic anxiety increased the risk of suicidal behavior. Meanwhile, depression and obsessive-compulsiveness were positively associated with suicidal behavior in female students. Furthermore, increasing risk of suicidal behavior was associated with increasing positive symptom total (PST) score and a statistically significant trend was observed. Data collected from a cross-sectional survey does not allow any examination of causal inference. Psychological distress and suicidal behavior were both common among university students; and psychological distress was highly associated with suicidal behavior. The findings underscore the importance of mental health care for university students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Multi-robot Cooperation Behavior Decision Based on Psychological Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian JIANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The method based on psychology concept has been proved to be a successful tool used for human-robot interaction. But its related research in multi-robot cooperation has remained scarce until recent studies. To solve the problem, a decision-making mechanism based on psychological values is presented to be regarded as the basis of the multi-robot cooperation. Robots give birth to psychological values based on the estimations of environment, teammates and themselves. The mapping relationship between psychological values and cooperation tendency threshold values is set up with artificial neural network. Robots can make decision on the bases of these threshold values in cooperation scenes. Experiments show that the multi-robot cooperation method presented in the paper not only can ensure the rationality of robots’ decision-making, but also can ensure the speediness of robots’ decision-making.

  16. Is love blind? Sexual behavior and psychological adjustment of adolescents with blindness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kef, S.; Bos, H.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we examined sexual knowledge, sexual behavior, and psychological adjustment of adolescents with blindness. The sample included 36 Dutch adolescents who are blind, 16 males and 20 females. Results of the interviews revealed no problems regarding sexual knowledge or psychological

  17. Integrating Behavioral-Motive and Experiential-Requirement Perspectives on Psychological Needs: A Two Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Kennon M.

    2011-01-01

    Psychological need theories offer much explanatory potential for behavioral scientists, but there is considerable disagreement and confusion about what needs are and how they work. A 2-process model of psychological needs is outlined, viewing needs as evolved functional systems that provide both (a) innate psychosocial motives that tend to impel…

  18. Psychological Barriers to Behavior Change: How to indentify the barriers that inhibit change

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Adopting a healthy lifestyle often requires changing patterns of behavior. This article describes three categories of psychological barriers to behavior change: those that prevent the admission of a problem, those that interfere with initial attempts to change behavior, and those that make long-term change difficult. Strategies are identified that family physicians can use to overcome the barriers.

  19. Brain regions involved in ingestive behavior and related psychological constructs in people undergoing calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahathuduwa, Chanaka N; Boyd, Lori A; Davis, Tyler; O'Boyle, Michael; Binks, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Human food intake is regulated by physiological energy homeostatic mechanisms and hedonic mechanisms. These are affected by both very short-term and longer-term calorie restriction (CR). To date, there are parallel discussions in the literature that fail to integrate across these disciplines and topics. First, much of the available neuroimaging research focusses on specific functional paradigms (e.g. reward, energy homeostasis). These paradigms often fail to consider more complex and inclusive models that examine how potential brain regions of interest interact to influence ingestion. Second, the paradigms used focus primarily on short-term CR (fasting) which has limited generalizability to clinical application. Finally, the behavioral literature, while frequently examining longer-term CR and related psychological constructs in the context of weight management (e.g. hedonic restraint, 'liking', 'wanting' and food craving), fails to adequately tie these phenomena to underlying neural mechanisms. The result is a less than complete picture of the brain's role in the complexity of the human experience of ingestion. This disconnect highlights a major limitation in the CR literature, where attempts are persistently made to exert behavioral control over ingestion, without fully understanding the complex bio behavioral systems involved. In this review we attempt to summarize all potential brain regions important for human ingestion, present a broad conceptual overview of the brain's multifaceted role in ingestive behavior, the human (psychological) experiences related to ingestion and to examine how these factors differ according to three forms of CR. These include short-term fasting, extended CR, and restrained eating. We aim to bring together the neuroimaging literature with the behavioral literature within a conceptual framework that may inform future translational research. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross-Cultural Psychology as a Scholarly Discipline: On the Flowering of Culture in Behavioral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Marshall H.; Lonner, Walter J.; Berry, John W.

    1998-01-01

    Examines interrelationship of culture and behavior. Perspectives include absolutism and relativism, each with methodological consequences for such research concerns as values gender differences, cognition, aggression, intergroup relations, and psychological acculturation. Describes societal concerns relating to these topics. Contains 88…

  1. Psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosing Alzheimer's disease biomarkers to research participants: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, S.AS.A.; Tromp, K.; Bunnik, E.M.; Milne, R.J.; Badger, S.; Brayne, C.; Schermer, M.H.; Richard, E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) research initiatives focus on cognitively healthy individuals with biomarkers that are associated with the development of AD. It is unclear whether biomarker results should be returned to research participants and what the psychological, behavioral and

  2. "Seinfeld," Professor of Organizational Behavior: The Psychological Contract and Systems Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Eric B.

    2001-01-01

    Explains how television programs such as "Seinfeld" illustrate the organizational behavior concepts of the social psychological contract and the interdependence aspect of systems thinking. Describes to use "Seinfeld" in the management classroom. (Contains 18 references.) (SK)

  3. The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.

    2013-01-01

    This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and...

  4. Behavioral Public Administration:Combining Insights from Public Administration and Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth; Tummers, Lars

    2017-01-01

    We propose behavioral public administration as a designated subfield in public administration which explicitly deals with the integration of theories and methods from psychology into the study of public administration. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on both methodological and theoretical innovations in psychology and point to research questions in public administration which could benefit from further integration. Behavioral public administration cannot, and s...

  5. Weathering the great recession: psychological and behavioral trajectories in the transition from school to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolo, Mike; Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T

    2012-11-01

    Studies of career development highlight the importance of finding a good "fit" between individual values, needs, and abilities and the experiences and rewards to be found in particular occupations. Rapid economic change and labor market turbulence make career choice and development life-long processes. Still, early careers are particularly unstable, as young workers move from "survival jobs" to "career jobs" in their quest for a good person-job fit. Little is known, however, about the psychological orientations and behaviors in the postadolescent period that foster longer term success in the world of work. The maintenance of high aspirations, crystallization of career goals, and intensive job search may be particularly important. Using multilevel latent class analysis applied to longitudinal data obtained from 1,010 youth surveyed by the ongoing Youth Development Study (YDS), we examine the interrelations of psychological orientations and behaviors indicative of agentic striving from age 18 to 31 years. In addition, we assess how these trajectories influence adaptation to declining labor market conditions during the severe economic recession that began in 2007. We find that those who maintain high aspiration and certainty over career goals were better insulated against unemployment between 2007 and 2009 (ages 33-35), even when educational and self-identified career attainments, adolescent achievement orientations, and social background variables indicative of advantage are controlled. They also had higher hourly wages in 2009.

  6. APP transgenic mice for modelling behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, R.; Fukuchi, K.; Strazielle, C.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of gene mutations responsible for autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease has enabled researchers to reproduce in transgenic mice several hallmarks of this disorder, notably Aβ accumulation, though in most cases without neurofibrillary tangles. Mice expressing mutated and wild-type APP as well as C-terminal fragments of APP exhibit variations in exploratory activity reminiscent of behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzeimer dementia (BPSD). In particular, open-field, spontaneous alternation, and elevated plus-maze tasks as well as aggression are modified in several APP transgenic mice relative to non-transgenic controls. However, depending on the precise murine models, changes in open-field and elevated plus-maze exploration occur in either direction, either increased or decreased relative to controls. It remains to be determined which neurotransmitter changes are responsible for this variability, in particular with respect to GABA, 5HT, and dopamine. PMID:22373961

  7. Radical behaviorism and psychology's public: B. F. Skinner in the popular press, 1934-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, A

    2000-11-01

    B. F. Skinner is perhaps 2nd only to Freud among the most publicly identifiable psychological figures of the last century. This article reviews the popular press coverage of Skinner between 1934 and 1990 to examine how radical behaviorism was interpreted, portrayed, and received by psychology's public. Reactions to Skinner were often skeptical or condemnatory. It is suggested that some members of the public had difficulty accepting his views because of the disparities between the philosophy of radical behaviorism and the phenomenology of everyday experience. Furthermore, Skinner's status as a psychological expert was inextricably linked to the public's perception of his credibility not only as a scientist but also as a human being.

  8. Psychology as a Science of Subject and Comportment, beyond the Mind and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Álvarez, Marino

    2018-03-01

    The turn of qualitative inquiry suggests a more open, plural conception of psychology than just the science of the mind and behavior as it is most commonly defined. Historical, ontological and epistemological binding of this conception of psychology to the positivist method of natural science may have exhausted its possibilities, and after having contributed to its prestige as a science, has now become an obstacle. It is proposed that psychology be reconceived as a science of subject and comportment in the framework of a contextual hermeneutic, social, human behavioral science. Thus, without rejecting quantitative inquiry, psychology recovers territory left aside like introspection and pre-reflective self-awareness, and reconnects with traditions marginalized from the main stream. From this perspective psychology might also recover its credibility as a human science in view of current skepticism.

  9. The effect of abstract versus concrete framing on judgments of biological and psychological bases of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nancy S; Johnson, Samuel G B; Ahn, Woo-Kyoung; Knobe, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Human behavior is frequently described both in abstract, general terms and in concrete, specific terms. We asked whether these two ways of framing equivalent behaviors shift the inferences people make about the biological and psychological bases of those behaviors. In five experiments, we manipulated whether behaviors are presented concretely (i.e. with reference to a specific person, instantiated in the particular context of that person's life) or abstractly (i.e. with reference to a category of people or behaviors across generalized contexts). People judged concretely framed behaviors to be less biologically based and, on some dimensions, more psychologically based than the same behaviors framed in the abstract. These findings held true for both mental disorders (Experiments 1 and 2) and everyday behaviors (Experiments 4 and 5), and yielded downstream consequences for the perceived efficacy of disorder treatments (Experiment 3). Implications for science educators, students of science, and members of the lay public are discussed.

  10. Psychological characteristics of victim behavior of women in situations of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakulich T.M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with analysis of psychological factors and characteristics of victim behavior of women in situations of domestic violence. We considered prerequisites for the formation of victim behavior in women, motives and psychological implication of protective mechanisms of women in a dysfunctional family. It is noted that the victimized women are inclined to sacrifice their "I" in order to be accepted by family system and this characteristic belongs to the general features of victimization, which manifests itself in disadaptive behavior of subjects. We revealed and described the psychological characteristics of victim behavior of women in situations of domestic violence, including neuroticism, affective functions disorder, state of learned helplessness, cognitive disorders, deformed self-perception and low self-esteem, proneness to conflict and contradictions, post-traumatic stress disorder, boundary violations of “Ego”, traumatic childhood experiences and behaviors of parents.

  11. Model of yoga intervention in industrial organizational psychology for counterproductive work behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Dwivedi, Umesh C.; Kumari, Sony; Nagendra, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) has long been recognized as a broad spectrum of job behaviors and its link with negative affectivity and hostile behaviors. It is a major concern practically for all organizations. Repeated exposure to workplace stressor can result in a strain, an outcome of the job stress process that can be psychological, physical, or behavioral in nature, leading to CWBs. Yoga is a technique that brings an improvement on mental and physical level by means of posture, b...

  12. A National Survey of Female Counselors: Psychological and Behavioral Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoreson, Richard W.; And Others

    A national sample of female counselors (N=377) was surveyed regarding their psychological health and distress, work pressure and support, personal history (including erotic sexual contact with clients), personal traits, burnout and stress, personal work satisfaction, and professional concerns. Results revealed a wide variety of endorsed concerns.…

  13. Serum homocysteine levels are correlated with behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim H

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyun Kim, Kang Joon Lee Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Purpose: Homocysteine has been associated with cognitive impairment and various psychiatric symptoms. This study was designed to clarify whether a relationship exists between the serum levels of homocysteine and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.Methods: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (n=77 and control subjects (n=37 were included in this study. History taking, physical examination, and cognitive assessment were carried out as part of the investigation for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and the Korean version of the Neuro­psychiatric Inventory were applied to all patients. The patients’ serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels were measured.Results: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease had statistically significantly lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and higher serum homocysteine levels compared to the control subjects. Mean serum folate and vitamin B12 concentration were significantly lower in patients with Alzheimer’s disease compared to control subjects. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the serum homocysteine levels and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory subdomains, including delusion, agitation/aggression, depression/dysphoria, elation/euphoria, apathy/indifference, and disinhibition. No statistically significant correlation was found between the serum homocysteine concentration and the Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, or Clinical Dementia Rating.Conclusion: Associations between the serum homocysteine levels and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were observed, raising the possibility of an etiological role. However, the

  14. Effectiveness of a positive psychology intervention combined with cognitive behavioral therapy in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario-Josefa Marrero

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design and implement a positive intervention combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy to enhance subjective and psychological well-being and other positive functioning constructs in a convenience sample. Participants analysed were 48 university students (mean age 22.25, 25 assigned nonrandomized to intervention condition and 23 to no-treatment waiting-list control condition. All participants were assessed pre- and post-intervention to test the treatment program effectiveness. Repeated-measures ANCOVAs, controlling baseline differences between the two groups, indicated that the intervention group reported greater social support after the intervention period than the waiting-list control group. Within-group differences were found for happiness, selfacceptance, positive relations with others, optimism, and self-esteem in the intervention group; these differences did not appear in the waiting-list control group. These findings suggest the limited capacity of this intervention program for improving well-being through positive activities combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy. Future research should analyse what kind of activities could be more effective in promoting well-being depending on the characteristics of participants.

  15. Interreality for the management and training of psychological stress: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological stress occurs when an individual perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. Its association with severe health and emotional diseases, points out the necessity to find new efficient strategies to treat it. Moreover, psychological stress is a very personal problem and requires training focused on the specific needs of individuals. To overcome the above limitations, the INTERSTRESS project suggests the adoption of a new paradigm for e-health - Interreality - that integrates contextualized assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, bridging the physical and the virtual worlds. According to this premise, the aim of this study is to investigate the advantages of using advanced technologies, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), based on a protocol for reducing psychological stress. Methods/Design The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial. It includes three groups of approximately 50 subjects each who suffer from psychological stress: (1) the experimental group, (2) the control group, (3) the waiting list group. Participants included in the experimental group will receive a treatment based on cognitive behavioral techniques combined with virtual reality, biofeedback and mobile phone, while the control group will receive traditional stress management CBT-based training, without the use of new technologies. The wait-list group will be reassessed and compared with the two other groups five weeks after the initial evaluation. After the reassessment, the wait-list patients will randomly receive one of the two other treatments. Psychometric and physiological outcomes will serve as quantitative dependent variables, while subjective reports of participants will be used as the qualitative dependent variable. Discussion What we would like to show with the present trial is that bridging virtual experiences, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation, with real

  16. The Impact of Locus of Control and Controlling Language on Psychological Reactance and Ad Effectiveness in Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Based on two theoretical models-psychological reactance theory (PRT) and locus of control-this study examines the individual and joint effects of locus of control and controlling language on young adults' information processing. Two experimental studies on anti-driving-after-drinking (anti-DAD) and antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) were conducted that were conceptual replications of each other. Both studies afforded evidence that those with external locus of control were more involved in risky behaviors. There was a consistent interaction between locus of control and controlling language, such that those with internal locus of control were more sensitive to this message feature compared to those with external locus of control. Controlling language was found to increase reactance. The theoretical and managerial implications for health communication are elaborated. Limitations and directions for future research are also outlined.

  17. Encouraging Healthful Dietary Behavior in a Hospital Cafeteria: A Field Study Using Theories from Social Psychology and Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Mazza, Mary Carol

    2013-01-01

    Public policy efforts to curb obesity often adhere to a rational actor model of human behavior, asserting that consumer behavior will change provided proper economic incentives, nutritional information, and health education. However, rigorous academic research related to such questions remains limited in scope and appears inconclusive as to the success of such economic and cognitive interventions. In contrast, research in social psychology and behavioral economics suggests that decision mak...

  18. Influences of prior miscarriage and weight status on perinatal psychological well-being, exercise motivation and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Courtenay A.; Huberty, Jennifer; Downs, Danielle Symons

    2017-01-01

    Objectives women who have experienced miscarriage may be at increased risk for elevated depressive and anxiety symptoms in subsequent pregnancies. Exercise may be a useful strategy for coping with these symptoms. Little is known about how miscarriage influences prenatal exercise behavior. The study purpose was to examine the influences of miscarriage history and prepregnancy weight status on pregnant women’s psychological health, exercise motivation, and behavior using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Participants/Setting Pregnant women (N=203; 41 with prior miscarriage; 72 overweight/obese; BMI > 25.0) in the northeast United States. Design Women prospectively reported their depressive/anxiety symptoms and exercise motivation/behavior in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters via mailed surveys. Group differences in depressive/anxiety symptoms, exercise behavior, and its motivational determinants were examined using Chi Square analyses and Univariate and Multivariate Analyses of Covariance. Measurements and findings Women with a history of miscarriage had higher 1st and 2nd trimester depressive/anxiety symptoms and lower 1st trimester attitudes about exercise and 1st and 2nd trimester perceived behavior control than women without a history of miscarriage. Overweight/obese women had higher 1st and 2nd trimester pregnancy depressive/anxiety symptoms, engaged in less prepregnancy exercise, and had lower levels of exercise intention, attitude, and perceived behavior control throughout pregnancy than normal weight women. Key Conclusions Women with a history of miscarriage and overweight/obese women have poorer psychological health and lower motivation to exercise during pregnancy than women without a history of miscarriage and normal weight women. Implications for practitioners Interventions and healthcare provider communications aimed at promoting perinatal exercise behavior and psychological health should take into account pre-pregnancy weight status and pregnancy history

  19. Job Satisfaction: I/O Psychology and Organizational Behavior Management Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhinney, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Perspectives on job satisfaction and its relations with job performance among members of the Industrial/Organizational Psychology (IOP) and Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) cultures are identified and compared. Comparisons include vantage points of each culture on the roles of theory and data regarding the definitions of behavior, job…

  20. Suicide Prevention in Schools as Viewed through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The author has proposed a new theory of suicidal behavior--the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005)--which attempts to answer the question "Why do people die by suicide?" In this commentary, he briefly describes the theory, and then argues that the theory's constructs may allow a new level of focus and specificity…

  1. Self-Control and Academic Performance: Two Field Studies on University Citizenship Behavior and Counterproductive Academic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettler, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    Self-control affects, among other things, individuals' performance and criminal or deviant behavior. Herein, the construct of self-control is linked to rather specific criteria in an academic context, as derived from findings in the area of organizational psychology. Specifically, it is assumed that students' self-control impacts university…

  2. Research on Web Search Behavior: How Online Query Data Inform Social Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kaisheng; Lee, Yan Xin; Chen, Hao; Yu, Rongjun

    2017-10-01

    The widespread use of web searches in daily life has allowed researchers to study people's online social and psychological behavior. Using web search data has advantages in terms of data objectivity, ecological validity, temporal resolution, and unique application value. This review integrates existing studies on web search data that have explored topics including sexual behavior, suicidal behavior, mental health, social prejudice, social inequality, public responses to policies, and other psychosocial issues. These studies are categorized as descriptive, correlational, inferential, predictive, and policy evaluation research. The integration of theory-based hypothesis testing in future web search research will result in even stronger contributions to social psychology.

  3. Weight-based stigmatization, psychological distress, & binge eating behavior among obese treatment-seeking adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, Jamile A; Friedman, Kelli E; Reichmann, Simona K; Musante, Gerard J

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the associations between weight-based stigmatization, psychological distress, and binge eating behavior in a treatment-seeking obese sample. Ninety-three obese adults completed three questionnaires: 1) Stigmatizing Situations Inventory, 2) Brief Symptoms Inventory, and 3) Binge Eating Questionnaire. Correlational analyses were used to evaluate the association between stigmatizing experiences, psychological distress and binge eating behavior. Stigmatizing experiences predicted both binge eating behavior (R(2)=.20, p<.001) and overall psychological distress (R(2)=.18, p<.001). A substantial amount of the variance in binge eating predicted by weight-based stigmatization was due to the effect of psychological distress. Specifically, of the 20% of the variance in binge eating accounted for by stigmatizing experiences, between 7% and 34% (p<.01) was due to the effects of various indicators of psychological distress. These data suggest that weight-based stigmatization predicts binge eating behavior and that psychological distress associated with stigmatizing experiences may be an important mediating factor.

  4. Developing and modifying behavioral coding schemes in pediatric psychology: a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorney, Jill MacLaren; McMurtry, C Meghan; Chambers, Christine T; Bakeman, Roger

    2015-01-01

    To provide a concise and practical guide to the development, modification, and use of behavioral coding schemes for observational data in pediatric psychology. This article provides a review of relevant literature and experience in developing and refining behavioral coding schemes. A step-by-step guide to developing and/or modifying behavioral coding schemes is provided. Major steps include refining a research question, developing or refining the coding manual, piloting and refining the coding manual, and implementing the coding scheme. Major tasks within each step are discussed, and pediatric psychology examples are provided throughout. Behavioral coding can be a complex and time-intensive process, but the approach is invaluable in allowing researchers to address clinically relevant research questions in ways that would not otherwise be possible. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Assessment of Perceived Parental Psychological Control in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: There is no validated self-report measure of parental psychological control in the Chinese culture. The reliability and validity of the Chinese Paternal Psychological Control Scale (CPPCS) and Chinese Maternal Psychological Control Scale (CMPCS) were examined. Method: A total of 3,017 Chinese secondary school students responded to the…

  6. The Mediating Role of Maladaptive Perfectionism in the Association between Psychological Control and Learned Helplessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippello, Pina; Larcan, Rosalba; Sorrenti, Luana; Buzzai, Caterina; Orecchio, Susanna; Costa, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    Despite the extensive research on parental psychological control, no study has explored the relation between parental and teacher psychological control, maladaptive perfectionism and learned helplessness (LH). The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) whether perceived teacher psychological control predicts positively LH, (2) whether…

  7. Early psychological intervention in accidentally injured children ages 2–16: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier N. Kramer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA and burns are frequent events in children. Although many children recover spontaneously, a considerable number develop long-term psychological sequelae. Evidence on early psychological interventions to prevent such long-term problems is still scarce for school-age children and completely lacking for pre-school children. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of an early two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention in 108 children ages 2–16 after RTAs and burns. Methods: Children assessed at risk for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were randomly assigned to either a control group offered treatment as usual or an intervention group. Primary outcomes were PTSD, behavioral problems, and depression symptoms. Baseline and blinded 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments were conducted. Results: In pre-school children, no intervention effects were found. School-age children in the intervention group exhibited significantly fewer internalizing problems at 3-month follow-up relative to controls and a borderline significant time-by-group effect for PTSD intrusion symptoms was found (p=0.06. Conclusions: This is the first study examining the efficacy of an indicated, early psychological intervention among both school-age and pre-school-age children. Because the intervention was ineffective for young children, no evidence-based practice can currently be suggested. Given that parents of pre-school children perceived the intervention as helpful, brief counseling of parents in terms of psychoeducation and training in coping skills still should be provided by clinicians, despite the current lack of evidence. To prevent trauma-related disorders in school-age children, the intervention might be used in a step-wise manner, where only children at risk for long-term psychological maladjustment are provided with psychological support.

  8. Psychological Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior: Examining the Role of Distinct PTSD Symptoms in the Partner Violence-sexual Risk Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Nicole M.; Willie, Tiara C.; Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. METHODS The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 HIV-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. FINDINGS Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSION Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women’s sexual health outcomes are discussed. PMID:25498762

  9. Psychological intimate partner violence and sexual risk behavior: examining the role of distinct posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in the partner violence-sexual risk link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Nicole M; Willie, Tiara C; Hellmuth, Julianne C; Sullivan, Tami P

    2015-01-01

    Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women's sexual health outcomes are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Relational aggression and psychological control in the sibling relationship: mediators of the association between maternal psychological control and adolescents' emotional adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione-Barr, Nicole; Lindell, Anna K; Greer, Kelly Bassett; Rose, Amanda J

    2014-08-01

    The association between mothers' psychological control and their children's emotional adjustment problems is well documented. However, processes that may explain this association are not well understood. The present study tested the idea that relational aggression and psychological control within the context of the sibling relationship may help to account for the relation between mothers' psychological control and adolescents' internalizing symptoms. Older (M = 16.46, SD = 1.35 years) and younger (M = 13.67, SD = 1.56 years) siblings from 101 dyads rated the psychological control they received from mothers and siblings, and the relational aggression they received from siblings. Despite some similarities between psychological control and relational aggression, confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence that the two sibling processes are distinct. Maternal psychological control was related to psychological control and relational aggression within the sibling relationship, which were related to adolescents' anxiety and depressed mood. In addition, sibling relational aggression was a more powerful mediator of the relationship between maternal psychological control and adolescent adjustment than sibling psychological control.

  11. Psychological contract and organizational citizenship behavior in China: investigating generalizability and instrumentality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chun; Lee, Cynthia; Rousseau, Denise M

    2004-04-01

    This study examined the generalizability of psychological contract forms observed in the West (D. M. Rousseau, 2000) to China. Using 2 independent samples, results confirmed the generalizability of 3 psychological contract forms: transactional, relational, and balanced. This study also examined the nature of relationships of psychological contracts with organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In particular, this study explored the role of instrumentality as a mediating psychological process. The authors found evidence that instrumentality mediates the relationship of relational and balanced forms with OCB; however, the transactional contract form is directly related to OCB. The authors discuss the implications of these results for the meaning of psychological contracts and OCB in China and raise issues for future research.

  12. Pathways Linking Childhood SES and Adult Health Behaviors and Psychological Resources in Black and White Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Cundiff, Jenny M; Jakubowski, Karen P; Pardini, Dustin A; Matthews, Karen A

    2018-03-13

    Exposure to low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood predicts increased morbidity and mortality. However, little prospective evidence is available to test pathways linking low childhood SES to adult health. In the current study, indirect effects through positive parenting in adolescence and adult SES were tested in the association between childhood SES and adult health behaviors and psychological resources. Men (n = 305; 53% Black) were followed longitudinally from ages 7 to 32. SES was measured annually in childhood (ages 7-9) and again in adulthood (age 32) using the Hollingshead index. Parenting was assessed annually (ages 13-16) using caregivers' and boys' self-report of supervision, communication, and expectations for their son's future. Health behaviors (cigarette and alcohol use, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity) and psychological resources (optimism, purpose in life, self-mastery, and self-esteem) were assessed in adulthood (age 32). Structural equation modeling showed that higher childhood SES was associated with more positive parenting in adolescence and higher adult SES. Higher childhood SES was indirectly associated with healthier behaviors and higher psychological resources in adulthood through pathways involving positive parenting during adolescence and SES in adulthood. Findings were consistent in both racial groups. Positive parenting in adolescence was an important pathway in understanding associations among childhood SES and health behaviors and psychological resources in adulthood. Low childhood SES was prospectively associated with healthier behaviors and greater psychological resources in part through more positive parenting in adolescence.

  13. Clinical and psychological risk factors for aggressive behavior in minors with delinquent behavior , have not reached the age of criminal responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynova I.R.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of empirical studies of clinical and psychological risk factors for aggressive behavior in adolescents. The main sample and comparison group - juveniles with delinquent behavior, not reached (n = 60 and age of criminal responsibility (n = 60. The control group of adolescents with conventionally normative behavior (n = 20. It is shown that the main group examinees have a number of serious problems that increase the risk of aggressive behavior. Reduced mood, anxiety, emotional instability, feeling of physical distress, sensitivity to external impacts, vulnerability in social interaction, communication difficulties, leading to increased mental stress. It acts predispozitciej an aggressive response. Hostility, susceptibility to reactions of irritation and anger at the lack of formation of mechanisms of deterrence immediate motivation, increase the likelihood of aggression. It is possible that the described problems are clinical conditionality. Therefore, a timely multidisciplinary evaluation of risk factors for aggressive behavior. Its elements can be screening for mental health.

  14. The Divergent Paths of Behavior Analysis and Psychology: Vive la Différence!

    OpenAIRE

    Thyer, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty years ago I suggested that behavior analysts could effect a quiet and covert takeover of the American Psychological Association (APA). I gave as precedents the operation of similar initiatives in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the Darwinian-inspired X-Club, and the psychoanalytically-oriented Secret Ring. Though a conscientious program of working within established APA bylaws and rules, behavior analysts could ensure that behavior analysts were nominated for every significant ...

  15. Genetics and crime: Integrating new genomic discoveries into psychological research about antisocial behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, J.; Caspi, A.; Belsky, D. W.; Beckley, A. L.; Arseneault, L.; Barnes, J. C.; Corcoran, D. L.; Hogan, S.; Houts, R. M.; Morgan, N.; Odgers, C. L.; Prinz, J. A.; Sugden, K.; Williams, B. S.; Poulton, R.; Moffitt, T. E.

    2018-01-01

    Drawing on psychological and sociological theories of crime causation, we tested the hypothesis that genetic risk for low educational attainment (assessed via a genome-wide polygenic score) is associated with offending. We further tested hypotheses of how polygenic risk relates to the development of antisocial behavior from childhood through adulthood. Across the Dunedin and E-Risk birth cohorts of individuals growing up 20 years and 20,000 kilometres apart, education polygenic scores predicted risk of a criminal record, with modest effects. Polygenic risk manifested during primary schooling, in lower cognitive abilities, lower self-control, academic difficulties, and truancy, and predicted a life-course persistent pattern of antisocial behavior that onsets in childhood and persists into adulthood. Crime is central in the nature/nurture debate, and findings reported here demonstrate how molecular-genetic discoveries can be incorporated into established theories of antisocial behavior. They also suggest the hypothesis that improving school experiences might prevent genetic influences on crime from unfolding. PMID:29513605

  16. Genetics and Crime: Integrating New Genomic Discoveries Into Psychological Research About Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, J; Caspi, A; Belsky, D W; Beckley, A L; Arseneault, L; Barnes, J C; Corcoran, D L; Hogan, S; Houts, R M; Morgan, N; Odgers, C L; Prinz, J A; Sugden, K; Williams, B S; Poulton, R; Moffitt, T E

    2018-05-01

    Drawing on psychological and sociological theories of crime causation, we tested the hypothesis that genetic risk for low educational attainment (assessed via a genome-wide polygenic score) is associated with criminal offending. We further tested hypotheses of how polygenic risk relates to the development of antisocial behavior from childhood through adulthood. Across the Dunedin and Environmental Risk (E-Risk) birth cohorts of individuals growing up 20 years and 20,000 kilometers apart, education polygenic scores predicted risk of a criminal record with modest effects. Polygenic risk manifested during primary schooling in lower cognitive abilities, lower self-control, academic difficulties, and truancy, and it was associated with a life-course-persistent pattern of antisocial behavior that onsets in childhood and persists into adulthood. Crime is central in the nature-nurture debate, and findings reported here demonstrate how molecular-genetic discoveries can be incorporated into established theories of antisocial behavior. They also suggest that improving school experiences might prevent genetic influences on crime from unfolding.

  17. A science of meaning. Can behaviorism bring meaning to psychological science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandpre, R J

    2000-07-01

    An argument is presented for making meaning a central dependent variable in psychological science. Principles of operant psychology are then interpreted as providing a basic foundation for a science of meaning. The emphasis here is on the generality of basic operant concepts, where learning is a process of meaning making that is governed largely by natural contingencies; reinforcement is an organic process in which environment-behavior relations are selected, defined here as a dialectical process of meaning making; and reinforcers are experiential consequences with acquired, ecologically derived meanings. The author concludes with a call for a more interdisciplinary science of psychology, focusing on the individual in society.

  18. Psychological Empowerment as a Mediator between Teachers' Perceptions of Authentic Leadership and Their Withdrawal and Citizenship Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Tsemach, Sigalit

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores the mediating role of psychological empowerment on authentic leadership, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB), and a variety of withdrawal behaviors among teachers, using the psychological model of perceptions-attitudes-behaviors. Research Design: A total of 366 teachers from 23 randomly selected Israeli schools…

  19. Individuality in Fish Behavior: Ecology and Comparative Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Budaev, Dr. Sergey; Zworykin, Dr. Dmitry

    2002-01-01

    This work is a brief review of a series of studies of the phenotypic organization and ecological significance of individual differences in fish behavior. The following species were studied: guppy Poecilia retuculata, lion-headed cichlid Steatocranus cassuarius, and the convict cichlid Archocentrus nigrofasciatum. We developed methods for the analysis of individual differences in fish behavior and studied their structure, development, and ecological and evolutionary significance.

  20. A Critique of Social Bonding and Control Theory of Delinquency Using the Principles of Psychology of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Thomas M.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the refined principles of Psychology of Mind and shows how their logical interaction can help explain the comparative amounts of deviant and conforming behavior of youthful offenders. The logic of these principles is used to examine the major assumptions of social bonding and control theory of delinquency focusing predominantly on the…

  1. The Effects of Autonomy Support versus Psychological Control and Work Engagement versus Academic Burnout on Adolescents' Use of Avoidance Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationships among Taiwanese ninth graders' perceptions of autonomy support versus psychological control in the classroom context, work engagement versus academic burnout, and their avoidance of help seeking as well as self-handicapping behaviors. Four hundred and thirty-five ninth-grade Taiwanese students completed a…

  2. Time-lagged relationships between leadership behaviors and psychological distress after a workplace terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Knardahl, Stein; Heir, Trond

    2016-05-01

    The impact of leadership practices on employee health may be especially evident after extreme events that have physical, psychological, or material consequences for the members of an organization. In this prospective study, we aimed to examine the association between leadership behavior and psychological distress in employees who had experienced a workplace terror attack. Ten and 22 months after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack targeting their workplace, ministerial employees (n = 2272) responded to a questionnaire assessing fair, empowering, supportive, and laissez-faire leadership, as well as psychological distress. Cross-sectional and time-lagged associations between the constructs were tested using structural equation modeling. Cross-sectionally, higher levels of supportive leadership were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Longitudinally, negative relationships were found between psychological distress and subsequent ratings of fair and empowering leadership. Supportive leadership was associated with employees' psychological health after trauma, but seems not to have long-term effects on subsequent psychological distress. Rather, psychological distress may lead the employees to perceive their leaders as more negative across time.

  3. Warrior Resilience Training in Operation Iraqi Freedom: combining rational emotive behavior therapy, resiliency, and positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Warrior Resilience Training (WRT) is an educational class designed to enhance Warrior resilience, thriving, and posttraumatic growth for Soldiers deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Warrior Resilience Training uses rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), Army leadership principles, and positive psychology as a vehicle for students to apply resilient philosophies derived from Army Warrior Ethos, Stoic philosophy, and the survivor and resiliency literature. Students in WRT are trained to focus upon virtue, character, and emotional self-regulation by constructing and maintaining a personal resiliency philosophy that emphasizes critical thinking, rationality, virtue, and Warrior Ethos. The author, an Army licensed clinical social worker, executive coach, REBT doctoral fellow, and former Special Forces noncommissioned officer, describes his initial experience teaching WRT during Operation Iraqi Freedom to combat medics and Soldiers from 2005 to 2006, and his experience as a leader of a combat stress control prevention team currently in Iraq offering mobile WRT classes in-theater. Warrior Resilience Training rationale, curriculum, variants (like Warrior Family Resilience Training), and feedback are included, with suggestions as to how behavioral health providers and combat stress control teams might better integrate their services with leaders, chaplains, and commands to better market combat stress resiliency, reduce barriers to care, and promote force preservation. Informal analysis of class feedback from 1168 respondents regarding WRT reception and utilization is examined.

  4. The Limits of the Use of Locus of Control in Industrial Psychology: A Critical Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Üzümçeker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Locus of control is a personality variable that is employed by researchers from diverse disciplines. This article examines the limits of the construct’s usage in industrial and organizational psychology. Although locus of control is documented to predict a wide array of workplace behavior such as job satisfaction, job performance and turnover intention, some important conceptual, methodological and empirical flaws raise suspicions on the explanations proposed by researchers. Considering the shortage of experimental and longitudinal evidence, it is argued that the causal direction of the well-established correlations between locus of control and other organizational behavioral variables might be the opposite of the theory’s expectation. It is also claimed that some related constructs such as self-efficacy and belief in a just world might provide further explanations for observed correlations.

  5. Psychological Predictors of Aggressive Behavior Among Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanile, Cristina; Matera, Camilla; Nerini, Amanda; Puddu, Luisa; Raffagnino, Rosalba

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the relationships among attitude toward violence, self-esteem, emotion dysregulation, anger, and aggression in community men and women and male inmates. Overall, 166 community men, 197 community women, and 100 male inmates completed a battery of questionnaires containing self-reported measures. Self-esteem and attitude toward violence were significant predictors of aggressive behavior, with emotion dysregulation mediating the relationship between self-esteem and the criterion variable. Anger mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior only among community people. Among men, inmates reported a more favorable attitude toward violence, lower self-esteem, higher emotion dysregulation, more aggressive behaviors, and a lower tendency to get angry. Women showed a less favorable attitude toward violence, lower self-esteem, higher emotion dysregulation, and a higher tendency for anger than men, while no differences emerged for aggressive behavior. These findings suggest that self-related constructs and emotion regulation strategies represent key processes associated with aggressive behavior among all participants, while the role of anger is more prominent in community people. To reduce aggressive tendencies, treatment and prevention interventions might increase self-esteem, emotion regulation skills, and one's ability to direct anger toward other goals. Moreover, programs aimed at changing attitudes toward violence could be useful.

  6. Physical versus psychological social stress in male rats reveals distinct cardiovascular, inflammatory and behavioral consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padi, Akhila R.; Moffitt, Casey M.; Wilson, L. Britt; Wood, Christopher S.; Wood, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Repeated exposure to social stress can precipitate the development of psychosocial disorders including depression and comorbid cardiovascular disease. While a major component of social stress often encompasses physical interactions, purely psychological stressors (i.e. witnessing a traumatic event) also fall under the scope of social stress. The current study determined whether the acute stress response and susceptibility to stress-related consequences differed based on whether the stressor consisted of physical versus purely psychological social stress. Using a modified resident-intruder paradigm, male rats were either directly exposed to repeated social defeat stress (intruder) or witnessed a male rat being defeated. Cardiovascular parameters, behavioral anhedonia, and inflammatory cytokines in plasma and the stress-sensitive locus coeruleus were compared between intruder, witness, and control rats. Surprisingly intruders and witnesses exhibited nearly identical increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate during acute and repeated stress exposures, yet only intruders exhibited stress-induced arrhythmias. Furthermore, re-exposure to the stress environment in the absence of the resident produced robust pressor and tachycardic responses in both stress conditions indicating the robust and enduring nature of social stress. In contrast, the long-term consequences of these stressors were distinct. Intruders were characterized by enhanced inflammatory sensitivity in plasma, while witnesses were characterized by the emergence of depressive-like anhedonia, transient increases in systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. The current study highlights that while the acute cardiovascular responses to stress were identical between intruders and witnesses, these stressors produced distinct differences in the enduring consequences to stress, suggesting that witness stress may be more likely to produce long-term cardiovascular

  7. Workplace ostracism And workplace behaviors: A moderated mediation model of perceived stress and psychological empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yang Woon

    2018-05-01

    Workplace ostracism research has examined numerous underlying mechanisms to understand the link between workplace ostracism and behavioral outcomes. Ostracism has been suggested to be an interpersonal stressor; however, research has not investigated workplace ostracism from a stress perspective. Therefore, the study investigated the mediating effect of perceived stress for the relationships between workplace ostracism and helping behavior, voicing behavior, and task performance. The study also investigated the moderating effect of psychological empowerment for the relationships between perceived stress and behavioral outcomes. The study design was a three-wave self-reported questionnaire. The study sampled 225 full-time employees in South Korea and regression analyses with bootstrapping were conducted to test the moderated mediation models. The bootstrapped 95% CI around the indirect effects did not contain zero; therefore, perceived stress mediated the relationship between workplace ostracism and helping behavior (-.06), voicing behavior (-.07), and task performance (-.07). Further, the moderated mediation analyses found perceived stress mediated the relationships between workplace ostracism and behavioral outcomes only when individuals perceived low levels of psychological empowerment. The findings suggest that workplace ostracism is a stressor and psychological empowerment can mitigate the negative effects of ostracism on behavioral outcomes.

  8. SELF - EFFICACY, PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS, FAMILY SUPPORT, AND EATING BEHAVIOR ON TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Wijaya Ridi Putra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the leading causes of death and it is caused by genetics, nutrition, and unhealthy behaviors. Therefore, changes in lifestyle associated with eating behaviors in diabetes mellitus patients greatly impact on their quality of life. There are many factors related with changes in lifestyle of diabetes mellitus patients, especially eating behaviors. Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationships between self-efficacy, psychological stress, family support, and eating behaviors among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in Sidoarjo, Indonesia. Method: A total of 117 T2DM patients from the Sidoarjo Community Health Center were included in the analysis. Using SPSS IBM 21.0 program, Pearson product moment correlation was performed to analyze data. Results: The findings showed that self-efficacy and family support had positive relationship with eating behaviors (r = .692, p < .001; r = .683, p < .001, respectively. Psychological stress had negative relationship with eating behaviors (r = -.327, p < .001. Conclusion: Self-efficacy, family support, and psychological stress had relationship with eating behaviors. Nurses should pay attention to the factors to make T2DM patients into a long-term commitment toward healthy eating behaviors.

  9. A classification of psychological factors leading to violent behavior in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J A; Derecho, D V; Leong, G B; Weinstock, R; Ferrari, M M

    2001-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder has long been linked to violent behavior. However, the exact nature of that association remains poorly characterized due to the limitations of knowledge in the area of phenomenology, contextual factors, the biology, and the nature of the aggression involved in the disorder. A clear understanding of the genesis of violence in posttraumatic stress disorder can be helpful to those involved in assessing psychiatric-legal issues relevant to the disorder and in its therapeutic management. In this article, we review the potential psychological links between posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to combat exposure and violent behavior and suggest a tentative classification of the main psychological causes of violence in that syndrome.

  10. Human behavioral contributions to climate change: psychological and contextual drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swim, Janet K; Clayton, Susan; Howard, George S

    2011-01-01

    We are facing rapid changes in the global climate, and these changes are attributable to human behavior. Humans produce this global impact through our use of natural resources, multiplied by the vast increase in population seen in the past 50 to 100 years. Our goal in this article is to examine the underlying psychosocial causes of human impact, primarily through patterns of reproduction and consumption. We identify and distinguish individual, societal, and behavioral predictors of environmental impact. Relevant research in these areas (as well as areas that would be aided by greater attention by psychologists) are reviewed. We conclude by highlighting ethical issues that emerge when considering how to address human behavioral contributions to climate change.

  11. Psychological burden among women with polycystic ovarian syndrome in Oman: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman MA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maha AH Sulaiman,1 Yahya M Al-Farsi,1 Maha M Al-Khaduri,2 Mostafa I Waly,3 Jumana Saleh,4 Samir Al-Adawi5 1Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, 3Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, 4Department of Biochemistry, 5Department of Behavioral Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khoudh, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman Purpose: Previous studies in Euro-American populations have shown that women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS have increased levels of “psychological burden”. While PCOS has been reported in Arab countries such as Oman, there is a dearth of studies of the occurrence of psychological burden among PCOS women in the Arab region. This study aimed to compare sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of PCOS women diagnosed with non-PCOS women and prevalence of severity of depression, anxiety and stress and to explore the association between PCOS and indices of psychological disturbances after adjusting for potential confounding factors.Patients and methods: This hospital-based case–control study was conducted among women aged 16–49 years. The study included 52 women diagnosed with PCOS (as per Rotterdam 2003 criteria and 60 control who were PCOS-free. The presence of psychological burden – depression, anxiety and stress – was quantified using Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21.Results: The crude odds ratios (ORs generated by logistic regression models indicated an increased risk of depression, anxiety and stress among women with PCOS compared to controls. The adjusted OR also indicated an increased risk of depression (OR =1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50, 2.43, anxiety (OR =1.09; 95% CI 0.47, 2.52 and stress (OR =1.45; 95% CI 0.68, 3.12, However, no statistical differences were observed along the three psychological

  12. Positive Education for Young Children: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention for Preschool Children on Subjective Well Being and Learning Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Shoshani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention condition or a wait-list control condition. In the intervention condition, during one school year, 160 children experienced eight modules of basic concepts in positive psychology that were adapted to the developmental characteristics of young children and were compared to 155 children in demographically similar control classrooms. Children were administered a pre-test and post-test of subjective well-being measures. In addition, children’s mental health and emotional well-being were measured by parental questionnaires. Preschool teachers completed questionnaires concerning children’s learning behaviors. The findings showed significant increases in subjective well-being and positive learning behaviors among the intervention participants, with no significant changes in the control group. The results highlight the potential of positive psychology interventions for increasing subjective well-being and a positive approach to learning at young ages.

  13. Human Behavioral Contributions to Climate Change: Psychological and Contextual Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swim, Janet K.; Clayton, Susan; Howard, George S.

    2011-01-01

    We are facing rapid changes in the global climate, and these changes are attributable to human behavior. Humans produce this global impact through our use of natural resources, multiplied by the vast increase in population seen in the past 50 to 100 years. Our goal in this article is to examine the underlying psychosocial causes of human impact,…

  14. Psychological, behavioral and familial factors in obese Cuban children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lourdes M; García, Keytel; Herrera, Raúl

    2013-10-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has reached alarming proportions. In Cuba, the rise in numbers of children who are overweight or obese, especially preschoolers and adolescents, is similar to that observed in developed countries. Beyond the physical risk factors, there is evidence that obesity has negative psychological, social, academic and economic effects. Describe the psychological, behavioral and familial factors present in a group of obese children and adolescents in Cuba. This is a qualitative cross-sectional study of 202 obese children and adolescents aged 3-18 years, with an average age of 9.9 years, seen at the Medical-Surgical Research Center (Havana) psychology service from January 2009 through December 2012. Techniques included interviews of patients and parents, projective drawings and the Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank. Unhealthy eating habits were reported in 96% of obese children and adolescents, and sedentary lifestyles in 88.1%. Emotional state was affected in 80.2%, and in 72.3% there were family attitudes with potential to produce psychological disturbances in children. Psychological, behavioral, and familial factors known to foster development and perpetuation of obesity were observed in the majority of cases. This is a first diagnostic stage that will aid in design and implementation of a psychological intervention program for obese and overweight children and their families.

  15. From childhood adversity to problem behaviors: Role of psychological and structural social integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Lo-Hsin; Tsai, Meng-Che; Liang, Ya-Lun; Strong, Carol; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) is associated with problem behaviors in adolescence, but the mediators, that is, those factors that help build resilience and prevent some children who experience CA from engaging in problem behaviors, await more exploration, including social integration. The aim of this study was to identify the association between CA and adolescent problem behaviors, and to further examine the mediating role of social integration distinctly as psychological and structural integration. Data used were from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey, a core panel of 4,261 students (age 13) surveyed in 2001 and followed for three more waves until age 18. For psychological integration, an average score was calculated to represent adolescents' feelings about their school. Structural integration was constructed using several items about adolescents' school and extracurricular activities. We used structural equation modeling with the diagonally weighted least squares method to examine the effect of CA on the primary outcome: adolescent problem behaviors via social integration. The hypothesized structural equation model specifying the path from CA to adolescent problem behavior had good fit. Respondents with one CA were indirectly linked to problem behaviors via psychological but not structural integration (e.g. the level of participation in school and non-school activities). On mediation analysis, psychological integration significantly mediated the paths from one CA to all six problem behaviors (all P integration; two or more CA were not associated with significant paths to problem behaviors. The contribution of social integration is crucial to an adolescent's development from CA to problem behaviors. To form supportive social relationships to achieve better health, we suggest that those adolescents who have been exposed to CA should be helped to join more teams and take part in more activities, thereby increasing their opportunities for social interaction, and improving

  16. Health psychology and translational genomic research: bringing innovation to cancer-related behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Birmingham, Wendy C; Kinney, Anita Y

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in human genome sequencing technology and in the understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer development. These advances have raised hopes that such knowledge could lead to improvements in behavioral risk reduction interventions, tailored screening recommendations, and treatment matching that together could accelerate the war on cancer. Despite this optimism, translation of genomic discovery for clinical and public health applications has moved relatively slowly. To date, health psychologists and the behavioral sciences generally have played a very limited role in translation research. In this report we discuss what we mean by genomic translational research and consider the social forces that have slowed translational research, including normative assumptions that translation research must occur downstream of basic science, thus relegating health psychology and other behavioral sciences to a distal role. We then outline two broad priority areas in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment where evidence will be needed to guide evaluation and implementation of personalized genomics: (a) effective communication, to broaden dissemination of genomic discovery, including patient-provider communication and familial communication, and (b) the need to improve the motivational impact of behavior change interventions, including those aimed at altering lifestyle choices and those focusing on decision making regarding targeted cancer treatments and chemopreventive adherence. We further discuss the role that health psychologists can play in interdisciplinary teams to shape translational research priorities and to evaluate the utility of emerging genomic discoveries for cancer prevention and control. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, and psychological health of Korean older adults with hypertension: effect of an empowerment intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Fritschi, Cynthia; Kim, Mi Ja

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an 8-week empowerment intervention on sedentary behavior, physical activity, and psychological health in Korean older adults with hypertension. Using a quasi-experimental design, older adults participated in either an experimental group (n = 27) or control group (n = 21). The experimental group received an empowerment intervention including lifestyle modification education, group discussion, and exercise training for 8 weeks, and the control group received standard hypertension education. After 8 weeks, participants in the experimental group had significantly decreased sedentary behavior, increased physical activity, increased self-efficacy for physical activity, and increased perceived health (p decreasing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity, and perceived health in Korean older adults with hypertension. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Tolerance for psychological pain and capability for suicide: Contributions to suicidal ideation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwijk, Esther L; Weiss, Sandra J

    2018-04-01

    Among people with suicide ideation most do not attempt suicide or die by suicide. In this online study of adult US Facebook users (n = 219), we examined capability for suicide, operationalized as fearlessness about death, and tolerance for psychological pain as potential variables that may explain why some people move from suicide ideation to suicidal behavior. Tolerance for psychological pain was significantly higher for participants who had never attempted suicide. Fearlessness about death was higher in participants who had attempted suicide, but not significantly. At high levels of psychological pain, one's belief in the ability to cope with psychological pain, a dimension of tolerance for psychological pain, was lower in participants with a history of suicide attempt than in participants who had never attempted suicide. The odds of suicidal desire were almost cut in half with each unit increase in participants' belief in their coping ability, whereas for each unit increase in fearlessness about death, the odds of suicidal desire increased by 65%. The Pearson correlation between tolerance for psychological pain and fearlessness about death was negligible. Our findings support a role for both tolerance for psychological pain and capability for suicide/fearlessness about death in the ideation-to-action framework of suicide. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. "Psychological Boarding" and Community-Based Behavioral Health Crisis Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Dhrubodhi; Saxon, Verletta

    2018-01-27

    This exploratory paper presents a case study where a community based mental health organization forging a partnership with a local hospital system to establish a crisis stabilization unit (CSU) to address behavioral health emergency care. The study takes a mixed methods case study approach to address two research questions; (a) did this approach reduce the overall length of stay in the hospital emergency departments? (b) What challenges did the taskforce face in implementing this CSU model? The paper shares recommendation from the findings.

  20. STRESS AND HEALTH: Psychological, Behavioral, and Biological Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Schneiderman, Neil; Ironson, Gail; Siegel, Scott D.

    2005-01-01

    Stressors have a major influence upon mood, our sense of well-being, behavior, and health. Acute stress responses in young, healthy individuals may be adaptive and typically do not impose a health burden. However, if the threat is unremitting, particularly in older or unhealthy individuals, the long-term effects of stressors can damage health. The relationship between psychosocial stressors and disease is affected by the nature, number, and persistence of the stressors as well as by the indiv...

  1. Associations between Effortful Control, Psychological Control and Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathert, Jamie; Fite, Paula J.; Gaertner, Alden E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined relations between effortful control (ones ability to focus and shift attention in an adaptive manner), psychological control (caregiver attempts to manipulate the child's internal world) and proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 69 children (54% male) ranging from 9 to 12 years of age (M = 10.35, SD =…

  2. Psychological, interpersonal, and behavioral correlates of chronic self-destructiveness: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudewyn, A C; Liem, J H

    1995-12-01

    In this study, we selected individuals high and low on a measure of chronic self-destructiveness--the tendency to perform behaviors that later reduce positive consequences and increase the probability of experiencing negative ones--and attempted to differentiate high and low scorers based on a set of hypothesized antecedent and concurrent psychological, interpersonal, and behavioral correlates. Men and women were equally represented in high- and low-scoring groups. High scorers reported experiencing more interpersonal exploitation, greater depression, lower self-esteem, more externalizing attitudes, and less control in relationships than low scorers. High-scoring individuals also engaged in more frequent acts of acute self-destructiveness, including attempted suicide. A significant age covariate effect emerged: high-scoring men and women were younger than low-scoring individuals. These findings underscore the importance of studying chronic self-destructiveness within a developmental framework and suggest that issues of safety and self-care may be particularly germane to educational and clinical interventions aimed at young adults.

  3. Hope and the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior: replication and extension of prior findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Moberg, Fallon B; Arnau, Randolph C

    2014-04-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (IPTS; Joiner, 2005) posits that suicidal behavior occurs when an individual has a desire for death (due to the combination of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness) in addition to an acquired capacity for suicide, which is present when the individual has a low fear of death and high pain tolerance. Previous research has demonstrated an expected negative relation between trait hope and perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, as well as a more perplexing finding that hope is positively associated with the acquired capability. In a sample of 230 college students, measures of the three components of the IPTS were administered, along with measures of hope, depression, and painful and/or provocative events. Hierarchical regression analyses replicated the previously found associations between hope and burdensomeness and belongingness while controlling for depression and demographic variables. The positive association between hope and acquired capacity was also replicated, but a mediation analysis demonstrated that the effect was statistically accounted for by distress tolerance. The results further support the incremental validity of hope as a consideration in suicide risk assessments and suggest that hope may serve as a protective factor with respect to suicidal desire. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  4. Approach, ability, aftermath: a psychological process framework of unethical behavior at work

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Celia; Gino, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Many of the scandalous organizational practices to have come to light in the last decade—rigging LIBOR, misselling payment protection insurance, rampant Wall Street insider trading, large-scale bribery of foreign officials, and the packaging and sale of toxic securities to naı¨ve investors—require ethically problematic judgments and behaviors. However, dominant models of workplace unethical behavior fail to account for what we have learned from moral psychology and cognitive neuroscience in t...

  5. Why we eat what we eat : Psychological influences on eating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sproesser, Gurdrun

    2012-01-01

    The present dissertation addresses psychological influences on eating behavior.Understanding why people eat what they eat in everyday life, that is, motives for eating behavior, is crucial for the development of interventions to promote normal eating and to prevent eating disorders. Furthermore, enhancing knowledge about both, individual and situational factors facilitating (pull factors) or impeding (push factors) healthy eating is essential for the prevention and treatment of obesity and it...

  6. Herbert Spencer's Contributions to Behavior Analysis: A Retrospective Review of Principles of Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie, Julian C

    2006-01-01

    Herbert Spencer's Principles of Psychology (1855, first edition) was regarded by his contemporaries, including William James and John Dewey, as a major contribution to what was then a very new discipline. In this book he first expounded his ideas about both evolution of species and how behavior of the individual organism adapts through interaction with the environment. His formulation of the principle that behavior changes in adaptation to the environment is closely related to the version of ...

  7. The Contribution of J.M. Keynes to the Analysis of the Psychological Motives of Economic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Kozlova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the contribution of John Maynard Keynes to the study of the psychological motives of economic behavior. The origins of the analysis of the psychological motives in economics before Keynes are reviewed. The relative importance of rational and irrational motives of economic behavior in the Keynesian theory is analyzed. It is shown that Keynes's analysis of the behavior of the economic agents under uncertainty and the lack of information contributed to the elaboration of the bounded rationality theory by Simon. The article also describes the input of Keynes to the formation of a new «Keynesian» model of human behavior, which implies the importance of expectations, taking into account the psychological and social factors of economic behavior. The main psychological tendencies in the actions of the consumers and investors described by Keynes (the basic psychological law, liquidity preference, the influence of the «market psychology» on the investor's decisions and their relevance nowadays are examined. The article shows further development of the ideas of Keynes in the Akerlof and Shiller's theory of animal spirits and in the financial instability hypothesis of Minsky. It also gives a description of a confidence multiplier, introduced by Akerlof and Shiller, and shows how the cosumers' confidence can be measured nowadays. Besides, the article stresses that the study of the psychological motives of economic behavior, undertaken by Keynes, contributed to the development of such new disciplines at the interface between the economy and psychology as the economic psychology and behavioral economics.

  8. Variation and selection: The evolutionary analogy and the convergence of cognitive and behavioral psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, David L.; Morgan, Robin K.; Toth, James M.

    1992-01-01

    The empirical and theoretical work of both operant and cognitive researchers has increasingly appealed to evolutionary concepts. In particular, both traditional operant studies of extinction-induced behavior and cognitive investigations of creativity and problem solving converge on the fundamental evolutionary principles of variation and selection. These contemporary developments and their implications for the alleged preparadigmatic status of psychology are discussed.

  9. Protein - Calorie Malnutrition in Children and its Relation to Psychological Development and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Michael C.

    1974-01-01

    Encompassing only human and excluding animal studies, this review surveys the literature on protein-calorie malnutrition and its possible role in retarding psychological, intellectual or behavioral development. Areas reviewed include types of protein-calorie malnutrition, the effects of malnutrition on brain development, cross-sectional and…

  10. Parental, Behavioral, and Psychological Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Mao, Rong; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Qun

    2010-01-01

    We designed this study to assess parental, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with tobacco use among Chinese adolescents. The data were collected from 995 middle school students in Nanjing, China. Both smoking experimentation and current smoking (smoking in the past 30 days) were assessed among the study sample. Psychosocial measures…

  11. Bidirectional Associations Between Adolescents' Sexual Behaviors and Psychological Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nogueira Avelar e Silva, Raquel; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Raat, Hein

    Purpose: Assessing bidirectional longitudinal associations between early sexual behaviors (≤16.0 years) and psychological well-being (global self-esteem, physical self-esteem, depression) among 716 adolescents, and the direct and buffering effect of parent-adolescent relationship quality. Methods:

  12. Trajectories of Discrimination across Adolescence: Associations with Academic, Psychological, and Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Diane; Del Toro, Juan; Harding, Jessica F.; Way, Niobe; Rarick, Jason R. D.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored trajectories of perceived discrimination over a 6-year period (five assessments in 6th-11th grade) in relation to academic, behavioral, and psychological adjustment in 8th and 11th grades. They distinguished discrimination from adults versus peers in addition to overt versus covert discrimination from peers. The sample…

  13. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  14. Relational Aggression in Peer and Dating Relationships: Links to Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Crooks, Claire V.; Wolfe, David A.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the contribution of relational aggression in adolescents' peer and dating relationships to their psychological and behavioral adjustment. In the Fall and again four months later, 1279 (646 female) grade 9 students reported on relational aggression perpetration and victimization in their romantic and peer relationships,…

  15. Parental Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment: The Role of Coping and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Marie-Helene; Melancon, Claudiane

    2013-01-01

    The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three…

  16. Teaching a Course in Abnormal Psychology and Behavior Intervention Skills for Nursing Home Aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenwick, David S.; Slutzsky, Mitchel R.; Garfinkel, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Describes an 11-week course given at a nursing home to nursing home aides that focused on abnormal psychology and behavior intervention skills. Discusses the course goals, class composition, and course description. Addresses the problems and issues encountered with teaching this course to a nontraditional population in an unconventional setting.…

  17. Psychological Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Oriented Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Marques

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: In summary, the available studies support cognitive-behavioral psychological treatments as an efficacious intervention in borderline personality disorder. However, the existing scientific literature on this topic is still scarce and there is need for more studies, with higher methodological rigor, that should validate these results.

  18. How psychological and behavioral team states change during positive and negative momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J.R.; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Marin, Ludovic; Van Geert, Paul

    In business and sports, teams often experience periods of positive and negative momentum while pursuing their goals. However, researchers have not yet been able to provide insights into how psychological and behavioral states actually change during positive and negative team momentum. In the current

  19. Ethical Leadership and Teachers' Voice Behavior: The Mediating Roles of Ethical Culture and Psychological Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnak, Mesut

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating effects of ethical culture and psychological safety on the relationship between ethical leadership and teachers' voice behavior. The sample consists of 342 teachers randomly selected from 25 primary and secondary schools. Four different instruments are used in this study. The scales have…

  20. Educational Support Group in Changing Caregivers' Psychological Elder Abuse Behavior toward Caring for Institutionalized Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Wang, Jing-Jy; Yen, Maiofen; Liu, Tzu-Ti

    2009-01-01

    Institutionalized elderly who are frail and dependent are vulnerable to be abused by overwhelmed caregivers especially caregiver psychological abusive behavior is a growing but hidden problem with few evidence-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational support group in alleviating caregiver's…

  1. The Role of Optimism in the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kathy A.; Wingate, LaRicka R.

    2011-01-01

    A possible relationship between Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior and optimism was investigated by examining the ability of optimism to act as a moderator of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capability to engage in self-injury in the prediction of suicidal ideation. Results…

  2. The Translation of Basic Behavioral Research to School Psychology: A Citation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Derek D.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, school psychology has become increasingly grounded in data-based decision making and intervention design, based upon behavior analytic principles. This paradigm shift has occurred in part by recent federal legislation, as well as through advances in experimental research replicating laboratory based studies. Translating basic…

  3. Adolescents' Psychological Health and Experiences with Unwanted Sexual Behavior at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Greetje

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated included psychosomatic problems and self-esteem. It…

  4. Study to Examine Psychological Processes in Suicidal Ideation and Behavior (STEPPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Psychological Processes in Suicidal Ideation and Behavior ANNUAL REPORT (YEAR 2) Table of Contents ...form. Participants also complete the following questionnaire at the end of the recovery period to assess the degree to which they have ruminated ...about the task since it ended. Adapted Thoughts Questionnaire – Negative Subscale (TQ-Neg). A 15 item measure to assess state rumination based on the

  5. Adolescents' psychological health and experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, G

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated

  6. Attracting Women to Psychology: Effects of University Behavior and the Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmon, Lewis C.

    1978-01-01

    This article reviews certain behaviors of graduate departments in regard to possible sex discrimination. It also evaluates job market conditions for men and women with data from a national sample of doctorate holders and from a recent survey of mobile or nontraditionally employed PhD's in psychology. (Author)

  7. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and its psychological correlates: a controlled comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Ivana; Nakić Radoš, Sandra

    2017-04-01

    The goal of the study was to examine differences between adolescents and young women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) and control groups in personality traits, eating attitudes and behaviours, and perception of parental behaviour. The FHA is stress-induced anovulation, both related to metabolic challenges, such as excessive exercise and malnutrition, and psychogenic challenges, such as perfectionism and poor coping strategies. Three groups of adolescents and young women participated in the study: the FHA group (N = 25), the organic anovulation group (N = 21) and the eumenorrheic group with regular menstrual cycle (N = 20). Questionnaires on multidimensional perfectionism, self-control methods, eating attitudes and behaviours and perception of parental behaviour were administered. A clinical interview (SCID) was conducted with each participant. The FHA group had higher levels of perfectionism traits, i.e. higher levels of concerns over mistakes and personal standards, compared to control groups. The FHA group did not engage in disordered eating behaviours more often in comparison with control groups, but reported more prevalent history of anorexia nervosa. The FHA group did not differ from controls in perception of parental rejection, emotional warmth or overprotection. The findings suggest that FHA can be characterised by the subtle psychological differences in personality traits, so the patients need to be diagnosed carefully.

  8. The his and hers of prosocial behavior: an examination of the social psychology of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagly, Alice H

    2009-11-01

    Prosocial behavior consists of behaviors regarded as beneficial to others, including helping, sharing, comforting, guiding, rescuing, and defending others. Although women and men are similar in engaging in extensive prosocial behavior, they are different in their emphasis on particular classes of these behaviors. The specialty of women is prosocial behaviors that are more communal and relational, and that of men is behaviors that are more agentic and collectively oriented as well as strength intensive. These sex differences, which appear in research in various settings, match widely shared gender role beliefs. The origins of these beliefs lie in the division of labor, which reflects a biosocial interaction between male and female physical attributes and the social structure. The effects of gender roles on behavior are mediated by hormonal processes, social expectations, and individual dispositions. Copyright 2009 by the American Psychological Association

  9. Parental Locus of Control and Psychological Well-Being in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Tracey; Hastings, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Psychological mechanisms may help to explain the variance observed in parental psychological adjustment in parents of children with intellectual disability (ID). In this study, parental locus of control and its role in relation to maternal psychological well-being was explored. Method: Questionnaires were sent to 91 mothers of children…

  10. Behavioral and Psychologic Symptoms in Different Types of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jang Chiu

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: A strategy of targeting type-specific BPSD may be beneficial, such as environmental stimulus control for DLB patients who are prone to have hallucinations, design of a pacing path for patients with FTD who need support for symptoms of wandering and emotional support for patients with VaD who are susceptible to depression.

  11. Multiplicative Effects of Social and Psychological Risk Factors on College Students’ Suicidal Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Less is known about the multiplicative effects of social and psychological risk and protective factors of suicidality on college campuses. The current study aimed to investigate the multiplicative effects of social (identifying oneself as gay/lesbian, financial difficulty, violence victimization, and religiosity and psychological (anxiety, depression, problem alcohol use, drug use and risk/protective factors on suicidal behaviors among college students in the United States. Using a cross-sectional design, the Healthy Mind Study (HMS; 2016–2017, is a national online survey of college students in the United States. Social (identifying oneself as gay/lesbian, violence victimization, financial difficulty, and religiosity and psychological (anxiety, depression, problem alcohol use, and drug use risk/protective factors were assessed among 27,961 individuals. Three aspects of suicidality, including ideation, plan, and attempt, were also assessed. Logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Financial difficulty, violence victimization, identifying oneself as gay/lesbian, anxiety, depression, and drug use increased, while religiosity reduced the odds of suicidal behaviors. Multiplicative effects were found between the following social and psychological risk factors: (1 financial difficulty and anxiety; (2 financial difficulty and depression; (3 depression and drug use; (4 problem alcohol use and drug use; and (5 depression and problem alcohol use. There is a considerable overlap in the social and psychological processes, such as financial stress, mood disorders, and substance use problems, on risk of suicide in college students. As social and psychological risk factors do not operate independently, comprehensive suicidal risk evaluations that simultaneously address multiple social and psychological risk factors may be superior to programs that only address a single risk factor.

  12. The Divergent Paths of Behavior Analysis and Psychology: Vive la Différence!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyer, Bruce A

    2015-05-01

    Twenty years ago I suggested that behavior analysts could effect a quiet and covert takeover of the American Psychological Association (APA). I gave as precedents the operation of similar initiatives in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the Darwinian-inspired X-Club, and the psychoanalytically-oriented Secret Ring. Though a conscientious program of working within established APA bylaws and rules, behavior analysts could ensure that behavior analysts were nominated for every significant elective position within the APA, and move to get their colleagues placed in appointive positions, such as journal editorships, review boards, and major committees. This would be one approach to remake psychology along behavioral lines, which was an early ambition of B. F. Skinner. The community of behavior analysts ignored my suggestion, and instead pursued the path of creating an independent discipline of practitioners, one with its own degree-granting programs, conventions, journals, and legal regulation. This effort has been immensely successful, although much critical work remains to be done. In retrospect, I was wrong to suggest changing psychology from within, and I have been delighted to witness the emergence of our new and independent field.

  13. The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.

    2014-01-01

    This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and eating-related attitudes from the standpoint of self and friends. Of participants who cared about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (fewer fruits and vegetables and more sugary beverages per day) than those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating. Conversely, among participants who did not care about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (more snacks per day) than those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating. In accord with balance theory, young adults who perceived inconsistent eating attitudes between themselves and their friends had lower psychological well-being and generally less-healthy eating behaviors than people who perceived consistent eating attitudes. PMID:24587589

  14. Psychological, social, and behavioral issues for young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrack, Brad J

    2011-05-15

    Theories of human development suggest that, although all cancer patients experience a common set of life disruptions, they experience them differently, focus on different issues, and attach different levels of importance to different aspects of the experience depending on the time in life at which they were diagnosed. During the critical developmental transition from childhood to adulthood, older adolescents and young adults in particular have typical concerns with establishing identity, developing a positive body image and sexual identity, separating from parents, increasing involvement with peers and dating, and beginning to make decisions about careers or employment, higher education, and/or family. Accordingly, cancer-related issues such as premature confrontation with mortality, changes in physical appearance, increased dependence on parents, disruptions in social life and school/employment because of treatment, loss of reproductive capacity, and health-related concerns about the future may be particularly distressing for adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial and behavioral interventions for young adult cancer patients and survivors often involve assisting these individuals in retaining or returning to function in significant social roles, such as spouse, parent, student, worker, or friend. Successful interventions will enable these young people to overcome the detrimental impact of a health crisis and strengthen the internal and external coping resources available to them. © 2011 American Cancer Society

  15. Parenting stress and children's problem behavior in China: the mediating role of parental psychological aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wang, Meifang

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the mediating effect of parents' psychological aggression in the relationship between parenting stress and children's internalizing (anxiety/depression, withdrawal) and externalizing (aggression, delinquency) problem behaviors 1 year later. Using a sample of 311 intact 2-parent Chinese families with preschoolers, findings revealed that maternal parenting stress had direct effects on children's internalizing and externalizing problem behavior and indirect effects through maternal psychological aggression. However, neither direct nor indirect effects of fathers' parenting stress on children's internalizing and externalizing problem behavior were found. The findings highlight the importance of simultaneously studying the effects of both mothers' and fathers' parenting on their children within a family systems framework. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Social integration, psychological distress, and smoking behaviors in a midwest LGBT community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivadon, Angela; Matthews, Alicia K; David, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations have smoking rates twice that of their heterosexual counterparts. To design effective outreach, prevention, and treatments for these individuals, a comprehensive understanding of associated factors is needed. To increase understanding of how social integration and psychological distress are related to smoking behaviors among LGBT populations. A cross-sectional, descriptive study of 135 LGBT adults using an online data collection strategy. Multivariate analyses were performed to examine factors associated with current smoking status. Social integration was not significantly related to smoking behaviors in this LGBT population, although psychological distress was higher among smokers than nonsmokers. Although social support has been reported to have an impact on health behaviors in the general population, the present findings suggest that the benefits of social support may not apply to the smoking activities of LGBT individuals. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. The Structural Model of Psychological Contract Violation, Organizational Commitment, Turnover, Job Satisfaction and Deviant Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Golparvar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with the purpose of studying the structural model of the relationships of psychological contract violation with organizational commitment, turnover, job satisfaction and deviant behaviors. Research method was correlation and the statistical population were male employees of an industrial company in Shiraz city, from among which 300 employees were selected using convenience sampling. Assessment instruments consisted of Psychological Contract Violation Questionnaire (Tekleab etal, 2005, Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (Speier & Vankatesh, 2002, Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (Spector, 1985, Turnover Questionnaire (Tekleab etal, 2005 and Deviant Behavior Questionnaire (Bennett & Robinson, 2000. Data was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient, structure equation modeling (SEM and mediation analysis. Findings showed that psychological contract violation explained 7.1 percent of organizational commitment variance, organizational commitment and job satisfaction explained 16.7 percent of turnover variance, organizational commitment explained 20.3 percent of job satisfaction variance and turnover explained 4.3 percent of deviant behavior variance. Mediation analysis showed that organizational commitment played the complete mediator variable in the relation of psychological contract violation with job satisfaction and job satisfaction was the partial mediator variable in the relation of organizational commitment with turnover. Finally with regard to the limitation of generalization of current research results it is suggested to industrial organizations that they should not violate their obligations to employees in anyway.

  18. Psychological and behavioral mechanisms influencing the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, K; Komura, K; Tokoro, A; Kuromaru, T; Ohshima, A; Ito, T; Sumiyoshi, Y; Hyodo, I

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the psychological and behavioral mechanisms of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in Japanese cancer patients using two applied behavioral models, the transtheoretical model (TTM), and theory of planned behavior (TPB). Questionnaires were distributed to 1100 patients at three cancer treatment facilities in Japan and data on 521 cancer patients were used in the final analysis. The questionnaire included items based on TTM and TPB variables, as well as three psychological batteries. According to the TTM, 88 patients (17%) were in precontemplation, 226 (43%) in contemplation, 33 (6%) in preparation, 71 (14%) in action, and 103 (20%) in maintenance. The model derived from structural equation modeling revealed that the stage of CAM use was significantly affected by the pros, cons, expectation from family, norms of medical staff, use of chemotherapy, period from diagnosis, and place of treatment. The primary factor for the stage of CAM use was the expectation from family. The findings revealed the existence of a number of psychologically induced potential CAM users, and psychological variables including positive attitude for CAM use and perceived family expectation greatly influence CAM use in cancer patients.

  19. Parental Control is Not Unconditionally Detrimental for Externalizing Behaviors in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcinar, Berna; Baydar, Nazli

    2014-01-01

    The association of three different strategies of maternal control (behavioral, psychological, and physical), and maternal warmth with children's externalizing behaviors were analyzed in an observational study of 3-year-old children in Turkey ("N" = 123). The results indicated that (i) mothers exercised all three types of control…

  20. [Psychological Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Oriented Therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Sofia; Barrocas, Daniel; Rijo, Daniel

    2017-04-28

    Borderline personality disorder is the most common personality disorder, with a global prevalence rate between 1.6% and 6%. It is characterized by affective disturbance and impulsivity, which lead to a high number of self-harm behaviors and great amount of health services use. International guidelines recommend psychotherapy as the primary treatment for borderline personality disorder. This paper reviews evidence about the effects and efficacy of cognitive-behavioral oriented psychological treatments for borderline personality disorder. A literature review was conducted in Medline and PubMed databases, using the following keywords: borderline personality disorder, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and efficacy. Sixteen randomized clinical trials were evaluate in this review, which analyzed the effects of several cognitive-behavioral oriented psychotherapeutic interventions, namely dialectical behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, schema-focused therapy and manual-assisted cognitive therapy. All above stated treatments showed clinical beneficial effects, by reducing borderline personality disorder core pathology and associated general psychopathology, as well as by reducing the severity and frequency of self-harm behaviors, and by improving the overall social, interpersonal and global adjustment. Dialectical behavioral therapy and schema-focused therapy also caused a soaring remission rate of diagnostic borderline personality disorder criteria of 57% and 94%, respectively. Although there were differences between the psychotherapeutic interventions analysed in this review, all showed clinical benefits in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Dialectical behavioral therapy and schema-focused therapy presented the strongest scientific data documenting their efficacy, but both interventions are integrative cognitive-behavioral therapies which deviate from the traditional cognitive-behavioral model. In summary, the available studies support

  1. The New Friends Vignettes: Measuring Parental Psychological Control that Confers Risk for Anxious Adjustment in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Kelly E.; Hastings, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the links between preschoolers' internalizing problems and anxiety-related social difficulties and two aspects of maternal and paternal psychological control: overprotection and critical control. Some 115 mothers and 92 fathers completed the New Friends Vignettes (NFV), a new measure of psychological control and…

  2. The Control of Behavior: Human and Environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhoe, Ralph Wendell

    1972-01-01

    Theological perspective on human and environmental behavior, with a view toward man's ultimate concerns or longest range values and the ultimate controls of behavior. Maintains that all human behavior and destiny is ultimately in the hand of a transcendent power which prevails over any human errors.'' (LK)

  3. Psychological maltreatment, emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents: The mediating role of resilience and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Gökmen

    2016-02-01

    In this study, structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating role of resilience and self-esteem in the relationships between psychological maltreatment-emotional problems and psychological maltreatment-behavioral problems in adolescents. Participants were 937 adolescents from different high schools in Turkey. The sample included 502 female (53.6%) and 435 male (46.4%) students, 14-19 years old (mean age=16.51, SD=1.15). Results indicated that psychological maltreatment was negatively correlated with resilience and self-esteem, and positively correlated with behavioral problems and emotional problems. Resilience and self-esteem also predicted behavioral problems and emotional problems. Finally, psychological maltreatment predicted emotional and behavioral problems mediated by resilience and self-esteem. Resilience and self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between psychological maltreatment-behavioral and psychological maltreatment-emotional problems in adolescents. Thus, resilience and self-esteem appear to play a protective role in emotional problems and behavioral problems in psychologically maltreated individuals. Implications are discussed and suggestions for psychological counselors and other mental health professionals are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychological problems and psychosocial predictors of cigarette smoking behavior among undergraduate students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Heidhy, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smokers have their own motivation and justification to smoke. For example, smoking reduces their stress or enhances their pleasure. This study aimed to identify the (a) prevalence of cigarette smokers among undergraduates in Malaysia, (b) gender differences in nicotine dependence among current smokers, (c) differences in psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) based on the status of smoking cigarettes (current, former and non-smokers) and (d) extent to which precipitating factors (tension reduction, addiction, automatism, handling, social interaction, pleasure, and stimulation) predict the smoking behavior among current smokers. In this study 780 undergraduate students participated from a private university in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor state in Malaysia. The Depression, Stress and Anxiety Scale, Modified Reason for Smoking Scale and Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test were used to measure psychological problems, predictors of smoking behavior and nicotine dependency among current smokers. The results showed that 14.7%(n=106) of the students were smokers. Current smokers exhibited more psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) compared to former and non-smokers. Addiction, tension reduction, pleasure and automatism were predictors of smoking behavior among the current smoking students. Step wise regression analysis showed that smoking behavior was highly predicted by nicotine dependency or addiction. Smoking students were motivated to smoke cigarettes as they believed that it reduced their tension and enhance pleasure. Hence, there is a need for health promotion and anti-tobacco prevention as cigarette smokers experience more psychological problems. Nicotine dependency or addition was one of the major causes for smoking behavior among the student population in Malaysia.

  5. The Influence of a Pacesetter on Psychological Responses and Pacing Behavior during a 1600 m Run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Fullerton, Andrew M. Lane, Tracey J. Devonport

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of following a pacer versus following a self-paced plan on psychological responses and pacing behavior in well-trained distance runners. Pacing in the present study was individually tailored where each participant developed a personal strategy to ensure their goal time was achieved. We expected that following a pacer would associate with goal achievement, higher pre-run confidence, positive emotions and lower perceived exertion during performance. In a mixed-design repeated-measures study, nineteen well-trained runners completed two 1600m running time trials. Ten runners had a pacer (paced group who supported their individual pacing strategy, and nine participants self-paced running alone (control group. Both groups could check pace using their wrist watch. In contrast to our expectation, results indicated that the paced group reported higher pre-run anxiety with no significant differences in finish time, goal confidence, goal difficulty, perceived exertion, and self-rated performance between groups. We suggest that following a pacer is a skill that requires learning. Following a personalised pacer might associate with higher anxiety due to uncertainty in being able to keep up with the pacer and public visibility of dropping behind, something that is not so observable in a self-paced run completed alone. Future research should investigate mechanisms associated with effective pacing.

  6. Psychological distress, self-harming behavior, and suicidal tendencies in adults with disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schützmann, Karsten; Brinkmann, Lisa; Schacht, Melanie; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2009-02-01

    Evaluation of psychological distress has received relatively little attention in research on persons with disorders of sex development (DSD). Results of previous studies varied considerably, but most studies did not find increased levels of psychological distress. We conducted a pilot study based on a sample of 37 persons with diverse forms of DSD recruited via various strategies. The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) was used to assess self-reported psychological distress. Psychological distress varied broadly across all diagnostic subgroups. Overall, the BSI Global Severity Index indicated higher distress in the sample of persons with DSD compared to a non-clinical norm population of women, with an effect size of d = 0.67. According to predefined BSI criteria, 59% of participants were classified as a clinical case. Self-harming behavior and suicidal tendencies were also assessed and compared to a community based sample of women, including subgroups of traumatized women with a history of physical or sexual abuse. The prevalence rates of self-harming behavior and suicidal tendencies in the DSD sample exceeded the rates of the non-traumatized comparison subgroup, with rates comparable to the traumatized comparison groups of women with physical or sexual abuse. As possible explanations for the higher distress found here compared to most previous studies, differences in measures and sample recruitment are discussed. Our results suggest that adults with DSD are markedly psychologically distressed with rates of suicidal tendencies and self-harming behavior on a level comparable to non-DSD women with a history of physical or sexual abuse, but sample recruitment procedures do not permit a firm generalization.

  7. Metric qualities of the cognitive behavioral assessment for outcome evaluation to estimate psychological treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotti, Giorgio; Michielin, Paolo; Vidotto, Giulio; Sanavio, Ezio; Bottesi, Gioia; Bettinardi, Ornella; Zotti, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral assessment for outcome evaluation was developed to evaluate psychological treatment interventions, especially for counseling and psychotherapy. It is made up of 80 items and five scales: anxiety, well-being, perception of positive change, depression, and psychological distress. The aim of the study was to present the metric qualities and to show validity and reliability of the five constructs of the questionnaire both in nonclinical and clinical subjects. Four steps were completed to assess reliability and factor structure: criterion-related and concurrent validity, responsiveness, and convergent-divergent validity. A nonclinical group of 269 subjects was enrolled, as was a clinical group comprising 168 adults undergoing psychotherapy and psychological counseling provided by the Italian public health service. Cronbach's alphas were between 0.80 and 0.91 for the clinical sample and between 0.74 and 0.91 in the nonclinical one. We observed an excellent structural validity for the five interrelated dimensions. The clinical group showed higher scores in the anxiety, depression, and psychological distress scales, as well as lower scores in well-being and perception of positive change scales than those observed in the nonclinical group. Responsiveness was large for the anxiety, well-being, and depression scales; the psychological distress and perception of positive change scales showed a moderate effect. The questionnaire showed excellent psychometric properties, thus demonstrating that the questionnaire is a good evaluative instrument, with which to assess pre- and post-treatment outcomes.

  8. Alcohol self-control behaviors of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley Chad; Jobli, Edessa

    2007-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) factor analyze a 13-item adolescent alcohol self-control behavior scale, (2) examine associations between frequency of self-control behavior use and alcohol consumption, and (3) to determine which self-control behaviors best predict alcohol use and consequences. A confidential standardized survey was used to collect data on participant's 30-day frequency, quantity, and heavy use of alcohol; alcohol-related consequences; and alcohol self-control behaviors. A principal component factor analysis produced the following three components: Healthy Alternatives (alpha=.81), Self-regulation (alpha=.72), and Assertive Communication (alpha=.73). MANOVAs indicated strong associations between frequency of use of the three types of self-control behaviors and alcohol consumption (p valuesadolescents, followed by Healthy Alternatives.

  9. Citation rates for experimental psychology articles published between 1950 and 2004: top-cited articles in behavioral cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kit W; Tse, Chi-Shing; Neely, James H

    2012-10-01

    From citation rates for over 85,000 articles published between 1950 and 2004 in 56 psychology journals, we identified a total of 500 behavioral cognitive psychology articles that ranked in the top 0.6% in each half-decade, in terms of their mean citations per year using the Web of Science. Thirty nine percent [corrected] of these articles were produced by 78 authors who authored three or more of them, and more than half were published by only five journals.The mean number of cites per year and the total number of citations necessary for an article to achieve various percentile rankings are reported for each journal. The mean number of citations necessary for an article published within each half-decade to rank at any given percentile has steadily increased from 1950 to 2004. Of the articles that we surveyed, 11% had zero total citations, and 35% received fewer than four total citations. Citations for post-1994 articles ranking in the 50th-75th and 90th-95th percentiles have generally continued to grow across each of their 3-year postpublication bins. For pre-1995 articles ranking in the 50th-75th and 90th-95th percentiles, citations peaked in the 4- to 6- or 7- to 9-year postpublication bins and decreased linearly thereafter, until asymptoting. In contrast, for the top-500 articles, (a) for pre-1980 articles, citations grew and peaked 10-18-year postpublication bins, and after a slight decrease began to linearly increase again; (b) for post-1979 articles, citations have continually increased across years in a nearly linear fashion. We also report changes in topics covered by the top-cited articles over the decades.

  10. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Lente L A A; der Graaff, Jolien Van; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T

    2016-08-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01 , 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers' psychological control use. Less empathic mothers may be less sensitive to adolescents' need for psychological autonomy, and thus prone to violating this need using psychological control, which may in turn predict adolescents' depressive symptoms. Moreover, according to interpersonal theory of depression (Coyne in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186-193. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.85.2.186 , 1976), adolescents' depressive symptoms may elicit rejecting responses, such as mothers' psychological control. For six waves, 497 adolescents (57 % boys, M age T1 = 13.03) annually completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control, while mothers reported on their empathy. Cross-lagged path analyses showed that throughout adolescence, both mothers' affective and cognitive empathy indirectly predicted boys' and girls' depressive symptoms, through psychological control. Additionally, depressive symptoms predicted psychological control for boys, and early adolescent girls. These results highlight the importance of (1) mothers' affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, and (2) taking gender into account when examining adolescent-effects.

  11. Study to Examine Psychological Processes in Suicidal Ideation and Behavior (STEPPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    2007). Impulsivity and suicidality : A test of the mediating role of painful experiences. Unpublished manuscript. Univeristy of FloridaBrenner, L.A...diagnoses to better understand suicide ; suicide is the result of a complex interplay of psychological, social and biological factors. A more...sophisticated attempt to model the antecedents of suicidal behavior is needed to understand the basic mechanisms underpinning suicide . Military personnel

  12. The new open access journal on health psychology and behavioral medicine: why do we need it?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoming; Doyle, Frank

    2013-01-01

    On behalf of the editorial board, it is our pleasure to introduce Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine: an Open Access Journal (HPBM), which we hope will become a leading international journal in these areas. HPBM will be interdisciplinary and global in scope, offering studies in a wide range of forms including systematic and critical reviews, meta-analyses, ethnographic and qualitative studies, quantitative studies, program evaluation, policy studies, case studies, and research protocol...

  13. Citation trends of applied journals in behavioral psychology 1981-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, James E; Britton, Lisa N

    2003-01-01

    One variable with which to evaluate scientific journals is how often their articles are cited in the literature. Such data are amenable to longitudinal analysis and can be used as a measure of a journal's impact on research within a discipline. We evaluated multiple citation measures for a number of applied journals in behavioral psychology from 1981 to 2000. The results indicate a relatively consistent impact across these journals, with some evidence of growth. PMID:12723874

  14. Fuzzy Behaviors for Control of Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Zein-Sabatto

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, an RWI B-14 robot has been used as the development platform to embody some basic behaviors that can be combined to build more complex robotics behaviors. Emergency, avoid-obstacle, left wall- following, right wall-following, and move-to-point behaviors have been designed and embodied as basic robot behaviors. The basic behaviors developed in this research are designed based on fuzzy control technique and are integrated and coordinated to from complex robotics system. More behaviors can be added into the system as needed. A robot task can be defined by the user and executed by the intelligent robot control system. Testing results showed that fuzzy behaviors made the robot move intelligently and adapt to changes in its environment.

  15. Psychological and behavioral barriers to ART adherence among PLWH in China: role of self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangyu; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong

    2017-12-01

    Globally, optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is insufficient despite it is critical for maximum clinical benefits and treatment success among people living with HIV (PLWH). Many factors have been evidenced to influence medication adherence, including perceived barriers and self-efficacy. However, limited data are available regarding to psychological and behavioral barriers to ART adherence in China. Moreover, few studies have examined the mechanism of these two factors underlying HIV medication adherence. The aim of the current study is to examine the mediating role of adherence self-efficacy between perceived barriers and ART adherence among PLWH. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 2095 PLWH in Guangxi China who provided data on ART adherence. Participants reported their medication adherence, self-efficacy, barriers to ART adherence, as well as background characteristics. Results indicated a significant indirect effect from perceived barriers to medication adherence through adherence self-efficacy. Higher perceived psychological and behavioral barriers to ART adherence were related to lower adherence self-efficacy, which in turn was related to lower ART adherence. Self-efficacy could buffer the negative effects of perceived barriers on ART adherence. Future interventions to promote HIV medication adherence are recommended to focus on eliminating psychological and behavioral barriers, as well as increasing adherence self-efficacy.

  16. COMPUTER CONTROL OF BEHAVIORAL EXPERIMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIEGEL, LOUIS

    THE LINC COMPUTER PROVIDES A PARTICULAR SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT FOR BEHAVIORAL EXPERIMENTS BY EXECUTING A SEQUENCE OF COMPUTER OPERATIONS IN CONJUNCTION WITH A SPECIALLY DESIGNED INTERFACE. THE INTERFACE IS THE MEANS OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE EXPERIMENTAL CHAMBER AND THE COMPUTER. THE PROGRAM AND INTERFACE OF AN EXPERIMENT INVOLVING A PIGEON…

  17. The Intervening Role of Relational Aggression between Psychological Control and Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Goossens, Luc; Duriez, Bart; Niemiec, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the associations among psychologically controlling parenting, relational aggression, friendship quality, and loneliness during adolescence. A model was proposed in which relational aggression plays an intervening role in the relations between both parental psychological control and friendship outcomes. In a sample comprised…

  18. Does Daily Distress Make Parents Prone to Using Psychologically Controlling Parenting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunola, Kaisa; Viljaranta, Jaana; Tolvanen, Asko

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether parental daily distress in terms of negative emotions is associated with the daily variation in parental use of psychological control with their children. Whether parental positive emotions play a role in the use of psychological control was also investigated. The participants were 149…

  19. Parental Psychological Control and Dysfunctional Separation--Individuation: A Tale of Two Different Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kins, Evie; Soenens, Bart; Beyers, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations between psychologically controlling parenting and two possible manifestations of problematic separation--individuation (i.e., dysfunctional dependence and dysfunctional independence). To explain these associations, it has been argued that psychological control is an inherently independence-stifling parenting…

  20. Jung’s “Psychology with the Psyche” and the Behavioral Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raya A. Jones

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral sciences and Jung’s analytical psychology are set apart by virtue of their respective histories, epistemologies, and definitions of subject matter. This brief paper identifies Jung’s scientific stance, notes perceptions of Jung and obstacles for bringing his system of thought into the fold of the behavioral sciences. The impact of the “science versus art” debate on Jung’s stance is considered with attention to its unfolding in the fin de siècle era.

  1. Jung’s “Psychology with the Psyche” and the Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Raya A.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral sciences and Jung’s analytical psychology are set apart by virtue of their respective histories, epistemologies, and definitions of subject matter. This brief paper identifies Jung’s scientific stance, notes perceptions of Jung and obstacles for bringing his system of thought into the fold of the behavioral sciences. The impact of the “science versus art” debate on Jung’s stance is considered with attention to its unfolding in the fin de siècle era. PMID:25379245

  2. The psychological behaviorism theory of pain and the placebo: its principles and results of research application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Peter S; Hekmat, Hamid; Staats, Arthur W

    2004-01-01

    The psychological behaviorism theory of pain unifies biological, behavioral, and cognitive-behavioral theories of pain and facilitates development of a common vocabulary for pain research across disciplines. Pain investigation proceeds in seven interacting realms: basic biology, conditioned learning, language cognition, personality differences, pain behavior, the social environment, and emotions. Because pain is an emotional response, examining the bidirectional impact of emotion is pivotal to understanding pain. Emotion influences each of the other areas of interest and causes the impact of each factor to amplify or diminish in an additive fashion. Research based on this theory of pain has revealed the ameliorating impact on pain of (1) improving mood by engaging in pleasant sexual fantasies, (2) reducing anxiety, and (3) reducing anger through various techniques. Application of the theory to therapy improved the results of treatment of osteoarthritic pain. The psychological behaviorism theory of the placebo considers the placebo a stimulus conditioned to elicit a positive emotional response. This response is most powerful if it is elicited by conditioned language. Research based on this theory of the placebo that pain is ameliorated by a placebo suggestion and augmented by a nocebo suggestion and that pain sensitivity and pain anxiety increase susceptibility to a placebo.

  3. The effects of a psychological intervention directed at optimizing immune function: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, L.; Veldhuijzen, D.S.; Middendorp, H. van; Prins, C.; Joosten, S.A.; Ottenhoff, T.H.; Visser, L.G.; Evers, A.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous research has provided evidence for the link between psychological processes and psychophysiological health outcomes. Psychological interventions, such as face-to-face or online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and serious games aimed at improving health, have shown promising

  4. Examining the psychological pathways to behavior change in a group-based lifestyle program to prevent type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, Christine R; Hardie, Elizabeth A; Moore, Susan M

    2012-04-01

    To examine the psychological process of lifestyle change among adults at risk for type 2 diabetes. A randomized control trial in which 307 volunteers (intervention, n = 208; wait control, n = 99) diagnosed with prediabetes completed a six-session group-based intervention to promote healthier living. Participants' motivation to change, diet and exercise self-efficacy, mood, knowledge about diabetes, activity levels, healthy eating, waist circumference, and weight were assessed before and after the program. Participation in the program was associated with significant increases in healthy eating and physical activity, reductions in waist and weight, and improvements in motivation, positive mood, self-efficacy, and knowledge. Examination of the pathways to lifestyle change showed that the educational aspect of the program increased activity levels because it increased diabetes knowledge and improved mood. Eating behavior was not mediated by any of the psychological variables. Improvements in diet and physical activity were, in turn, directly associated with changes in weight and waist circumference. Although the program significantly improved motivation, self-efficacy, and mood, its impact on knowledge uniquely explained the increase in physical activity. Group-based programs that are tailored to lifestyle behaviors may provide a cost-effective method of diabetes prevention, but more research is needed to explain why they improve healthy eating.

  5. Relationship Between Psychological Attitude of Investors and Their Investment Behavior: A Case Study on ISE Investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf DEMİR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In financial circles, one of the most discussed and interested topics is the forecastability of stock prices. Many of the studies aiming at determining stock market prices rest on the fact that investors make their decisions rationally based on facts and data. In this paper, we aim to investigate the behavior of individual investors in ISE based on published literature in behavioral finance area. We have found that some psychological prejudice in fact affects the behavior of individual investors. Unlike the conventional assumptions many investors make systematic mistakes and do not utilize rational answers even though it is known. Moreover, media, friends and similar environmental factors also affect the investors’ choices, and processes that turns into herd behavior creating abnormalities in the markets which in turn causes exceptionally high or low reactions

  6. Internet-Based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Psychological Distress Experienced by People With Hearing Problems: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molander, Peter; Hesser, Hugo; Weineland, Sandra; Bergwall, Kajsa; Buck, Sonia; Hansson-Malmlöf, Johan; Lantz, Henning; Lunner, Thomas; Andersson, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    Psychological distress and psychiatric symptoms are prevalent among people with hearing loss or other audiological conditions, but psychological interventions for these groups are rare. This article describes the study protocol for a randomized controlled trial for evaluating the effect of a psychological treatment delivered over the Internet for individuals with hearing problems and concurrent psychological distress. Participants who are significantly distressed will be randomized to either an 8-week Internet-delivered acceptance-based cognitive behavioral therapy (i.e., acceptance and commitment therapy [ACT]), or wa it-list control. We aim to include measures of distress associated with hearing difficulties, anxiety, and depression. In addition, we aim to measure acceptance associated with hearing difficulties as well as quality of life. The results of the trial may further our understanding of how to best treat people who present problems with both psychological distress and hearing in using the Internet.

  7. The Relational-Behavior Model: The Relationship between Intrinsic Motivational Instruction and Extrinsic Motivation in Psychologically Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Donald S., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study examined the relational-behavior model (RBM) as a method of intrinsic motivational instruction in psychology courses. Among a sample of 33 college students enrolled in two undergraduate psychology courses, a Spearman rho analysis revealed a significant relationship between the intrinsic motivational factors (e.g. student/class…

  8. When Do Financial Incentives Reduce Intrinsic Motivation? Comparing Behaviors Studied in Psychological and Economic Literatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review existing evidence on the potential of incentives to undermine or “crowd out” intrinsic motivation, in order to establish whether and when it predicts financial incentives to crowd out motivation for health-related behaviors. Method: We conducted a conceptual analysis to compare definitions and operationalizations of the effect, and reviewed existing evidence to identify potential moderators of the effect. Results: In the psychological literature, we find strong evidence for an undermining effect of tangible rewards on intrinsic motivation for simple tasks when motivation manifest in behavior is initially high. In the economic literature, evidence for undermining effects exists for a broader variety of behaviors, in settings that involve a conflict of interest between parties. By contrast, for health related behaviors, baseline levels of incentivized behaviors are usually low, and only a subset involve an interpersonal conflict of interest. Correspondingly, we find no evidence for crowding out of incentivized health behaviors. Conclusion: The existing evidence does not warrant a priori predictions that an undermining effect would be found for health-related behaviors. Health-related behaviors and incentives schemes differ greatly in moderating characteristics, which should be the focus of future research. PMID:24001245

  9. When do financial incentives reduce intrinsic motivation? comparing behaviors studied in psychological and economic literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promberger, Marianne; Marteau, Theresa M

    2013-09-01

    To review existing evidence on the potential of incentives to undermine or "crowd out" intrinsic motivation, in order to establish whether and when it predicts financial incentives to crowd out motivation for health-related behaviors. We conducted a conceptual analysis to compare definitions and operationalizations of the effect, and reviewed existing evidence to identify potential moderators of the effect. In the psychological literature, we find strong evidence for an undermining effect of tangible rewards on intrinsic motivation for simple tasks when motivation manifest in behavior is initially high. In the economic literature, evidence for undermining effects exists for a broader variety of behaviors, in settings that involve a conflict of interest between parties. By contrast, for health related behaviors, baseline levels of incentivized behaviors are usually low, and only a subset involve an interpersonal conflict of interest. Correspondingly, we find no evidence for crowding out of incentivized health behaviors. The existing evidence does not warrant a priori predictions that an undermining effect would be found for health-related behaviors. Health-related behaviors and incentives schemes differ greatly in moderating characteristics, which should be the focus of future research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Psychological predictors of children' s recess physical activity motivation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellino, Megan Babkes; Sinclair, Christina D

    2013-06-01

    This study explored the relationship between children's basic psychological needs satisfaction at recess, level of recess physical activity motivation (RPAM), and recess physical activity (RPA). Fifth-grade children (N = 203; 50.2% boys; 71.7% healthy-weight) completed measures of age, gender, basic psychological need satisfaction, and level of self-determined motivation for RPA. Children also wore pedometers during six consecutive 30-min mid-school-day recesses. Multiple regression analyses indicated unique significant predictors of RPAM and RPA according to gender and weight status. RPAM was significantly predicted by all three basic psychological needs for boys and only competence need satisfaction for girls and healthy-weight children. RPA was predicted by RPAM for girls, competence need satisfaction for overweight children, and autonomy need satisfaction for boys and healthy-weight children. Findings support self-determination theory and provide important insight into the variations in psychological predictors of motivation for RPA and actual physical activity behavior based on gender and weight status.

  11. Interrelations of stress, optimism and control in older people's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Susan Jane; McLean, Louise Anne

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the influence of perceived stress, optimism and perceived control of internal states on the psychological adjustment of older adults. The sample consisted of 212 older adults, aged between 58 and 103 (M = 80.42 years, SD = 7.31 years), living primarily in retirement villages in Melbourne, Victoria. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised, Perceived Control of Internal States Scale and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life-Bref. Optimism significantly mediated the relationship between older people's perceived stress and psychological health, and perceived control of internal states mediated the relationships among stress, optimism and psychological health. The variables explained 49% of the variance in older people's psychological adjustment. It is suggested that strategies to improve optimism and perceived control may improve the psychological adjustment of older people struggling to adapt to life's stressors. © 2014 ACOTA.

  12. Reading, Demographic, Social and Psychological Factors Related to Pre-adolescent Smoking and Non-smoking Behaviors and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunseri, Albert J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A study examined reading, demographic, social, and psychological factors related to preadolescent smoking and nonsmoking behaviors and attitudes. Variables studied included reading achievement, family involvement, and racial and sex differences. (Authors/CJ)

  13. Health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and psychological status among Arabs and Koreans in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jun; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kim, Hyungjin; Park, Yeon-Hwan; Koh, Chin-Kang

    2015-04-01

    Cultural variations among ethnic groups may differentially influence health and health behavior. We explored and compared health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and psychological status, including depression, anxiety, and stress, among Korean migrants (n = 117) and Arab nationals (n = 103) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pender's Health Promotion Model guided this research. The Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile was used to measure health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and Lovibond and Lovibond's Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale to measure psychological status. The data were analyzed using bivariate procedures and multiple linear regression. No group differences were found in total scores for health-promoting lifestyle behaviors or psychological status. Both groups scored high on self-actualization and interpersonal support; Arabs scored low on exercise, and Koreans scored low on health responsibility. Across groups, psychological status (β = -.390, p Arab nationals in the UAE. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Perceived health locus of control, self-esteem, and its relations to psychological well-being status in Iranian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshki, M; Ashtarian, H

    2010-01-01

    Health locus of control (HLC) has been associated with a variety of ailments and health outcomes and designed to predict behaviors and cognitive processes relevant to mental and physical health. This study investigated the relationships between perceived health locus of control, self-esteem, and mental health status among Iranian students. In this analytical study the subjects were recruited from students in Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, who studied in the first year (N=154). Students completed the questionnaires for assessing demographic, perceived health locus of control, self - esteem and psychological well- being data. The statistical analysis revealed a negative relationship between perceived Internal HLC and self-esteem with psychological well-being. The positive correlation of the perceived Chance HLC with psychological well-being was statistically significant (r= 0.21, Pself-esteem was statistically significant (r= 0.25, Plow perceived Internal HLC, self-esteem and psychological problems was found among these students. The findings will be addressed in relation to their implications for effective mental health education based on health locus of control especially internal and powerful others beliefs associated with self-esteem for students. This will require additional monitoring and uninterrupted trying in order to be effective.

  15. The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C.; Sundberg, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms "convergent…

  16. Applied Behavior Analysis and Statistical Process Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    Incorporating statistical process control (SPC) methods into applied behavior analysis is discussed. It is claimed that SPC methods would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with problems and would likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Cases and data presented by Pfadt and Wheeler (1995) are cited as examples.…

  17. Prevalence of Multiply Controlled Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Gracie A.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined articles in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" in which results of functional analyses indicated that problem behavior was maintained by multiple sources of reinforcement. Data for 88 (16.9%) of 521 subjects reported in 168 studies met the criteria for multiple control. Data for 11 subjects (2.1%) involved a single response…

  18. Behaviorism, latent learning, and cognitive maps: needed revisions in introductory psychology textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This paper critically assesses the scholarship in introductory psychology textbooks in relation to the topic of latent learning. A review of the treatment of latent learning in 48 introductory psychology textbooks published between 1948 and 2004, with 21 of these texts published since 1999, reveals that the scholarship on the topic of latent learning demonstrated in introductory textbooks warrants improvement. Errors that persist in textbooks include the assertion that the latent learning experiments demonstrate unequivocally that reinforcement was not necessary for learning to occur, that behavioral theories could not account for the results of the latent learning experiments, that B. F. Skinner was an S-R association behaviorist who argued that reinforcement is necessary for learning to occur, and that because behavioral theories (including that of B. F. Skinner) were unable explain the results of the latent learning experiments the cognitive map invoked by Edward Tolman is the only explanation for latent learning. Finally, the validity of the cognitive map is typically accepted without question. Implications of the presence of these errors for students and the discipline are considered. Lastly, remedies are offered to improve the scholarship found in introductory psychology textbooks.

  19. How psychological and behavioral team states change during positive and negative momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J R; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W; Marin, Ludovic; Van Geert, Paul L C

    2014-01-01

    In business and sports, teams often experience periods of positive and negative momentum while pursuing their goals. However, researchers have not yet been able to provide insights into how psychological and behavioral states actually change during positive and negative team momentum. In the current study we aimed to provide these insights by introducing an experimental dynamical research design. Rowing pairs had to compete against a virtual opponent on rowing ergometers, while a screen in front of the team broadcasted the ongoing race. The race was manipulated so that the team's rowing avatar gradually progressed (positive momentum) or regressed (negative momentum) in relation to the victory. The participants responded verbally to collective efficacy and task cohesion items appearing on the screen each minute. In addition, effort exertion and interpersonal coordination were continuously measured. Our results showed negative psychological changes (perceptions of collective efficacy and task cohesion) during negative team momentum, which were stronger than the positive changes during positive team momentum. Moreover, teams' exerted efforts rapidly decreased during negative momentum, whereas positive momentum accompanied a more variable and adaptive sequence of effort exertion. Finally, the interpersonal coordination was worse during negative momentum than during positive momentum. These results provide the first empirical insights into actual team momentum dynamics, and demonstrate how a dynamical research approach significantly contributes to current knowledge on psychological and behavioral processes.

  20. Self-regulation of health behavior: social psychological approaches to goal setting and goal striving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Traci; de Ridder, Denise; Fujita, Kentaro

    2013-05-01

    The goal of this article is to review and highlight the relevance of social psychological research on self-regulation for health-related theory and practice. We first review research on goal setting, or determining which goals to pursue and the criteria to determine whether one has succeeded. We discuss when and why people adopt goals, what properties of goals increase the likelihood of their attainment, and why people abandon goals. We then review research on goal striving, which includes the planning and execution of actions that lead to goal attainment, and the processes that people use to shield their goals from being disrupted by other competing goals, temptations, or distractions. We describe four types of strategies that people use when pursuing goals. We find that self-regulation entails the operation of a number of psychological mechanisms, and that there is no single solution that will help all people in all situations. We recommend a number of strategies that can help people to more effectively set and attain health-related goals. We conclude that enhancing health behavior requires a nuanced understanding and sensitivity to the varied, dynamic psychological processes involved in self-regulation, and that health is a prototypical and central domain in which to examine the relevance of these theoretical models for real behavior. We discuss the implications of this research for theory and practice in health-related domains. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. What Matters: Quantity or Quality of Pornography Use? Psychological and Behavioral Factors of Seeking Treatment for Problematic Pornography Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Mateusz; Lewczuk, Karol; Skorko, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    Pornography has become popular with Internet technology. For most people, pornography use (PU) is entertainment; for some, it can result in seeking treatment for out-of-control behavior. Previous studies have suggested that PU can influence sexual behaviors, but the direct relation between frequency of PU and treatment-seeking behaviors has not been examined. To investigate whether individuals seeking treatment as a consequence of their problematic PU do so because of their quantity of pornography consumption or because of more complex psychological and behavioral factors related to PU, such as the severity of negative symptoms associated with PU and/or subjective feeling of loss of control over one's behavior. A survey study was conducted of 569 heterosexual Caucasian men 18 to 68 years old, including 132 seeking treatment for problematic PU (referred by psychotherapists after their initial visit). The main outcome measures were self-reported PU, its negative symptoms, and actual treatment-seeking behavior. We tested models explaining sources of seeking treatment for problematic PU with negative symptoms associated with PU and additional factors (eg, onset and number of years of PU, religiosity, age, dyadic sexual activity, and relationship status). Seeking treatment was significantly, yet weakly, correlated solely with the frequency of PU (r = 0.21, P pornography consumption. Thus, treatment of problematic PU should address qualitative factors, rather than merely mitigating the frequency of the behavior, because frequency of PU might not be a core issue for all patients. Future diagnostic criteria for problematic PU should consider the complexity of this issue. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ARE THERE ANY DIFFERENCES IN TEACHERS’ WORK-ORIENTED BEHAVIOR DEPENDING ON THE LEVEL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT?: A FIELD STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail BAKAN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In a globalizing competitive business environment competitive advantage is an important source of human resources and because it is thought that the empowered employee will contribute more to the business,  it is an important issue for today's business to reveal how to make a difference in the behavior of the empowered employees in the workplace because the empowered employee is thought to contribute more to the business  The purpose of this study is to highlight the role of psychological empowerment in work-oriented behaviors. In order to achieve this aim, the relationships between psychological empowerment and work-related behaviors (Participatory Decision Making, Job Performance, Job Satisfaction, Work-Family Conflict, Family-Job Conflict, Role Conflict, Role Uncertainty were examined and then related to different levels of psychological empowerment, it was researched whether there was a significant difference in participants' perception of work-related behavior. Significant differences were found between participant decision making, job performance, job satisfaction, family-work conflict, role conflict, and role ambiguity perceptions, depending on the level of psychological empowerment of the teachers.These findings show that differences occur in work-related behaviors according to the level of psychological empowerment of employees, supports the literature which argues that psychological empowerment has significant influence on behavior.

  3. Controlling adhesive behavior during recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Jihui Guo; XinPing Wang; Steve Severtson; Mark Kroll; Mike Nowak

    2004-01-01

    Adhesives can be formulated to facilitate their removal by typical paper recycling unit operations. The investigations described in this paper are focused on determining fundamental properties that control particle size during pulping. While pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) with high elastic moduli tend to survive pulping with larger particles, facestock and...

  4. Real behavior in virtual environments: psychology experiments in a simple virtual-reality paradigm using video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Michail D; Johansen, Mark K

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to illustrate the broad usefulness of simple video-game-based virtual environments (VEs) for psychological research on real-world behavior. To this end, this research explored several high-level social phenomena in a simple, inexpensive computer-game environment: the reduced likelihood of helping under time pressure and the bystander effect, which is reduced helping in the presence of bystanders. In the first experiment, participants had to find the exit in a virtual labyrinth under either high or low time pressure. They encountered rooms with and without virtual bystanders, and in each room, a virtual person requested assistance. Participants helped significantly less frequently under time pressure but the presence/absence of a small number of bystanders did not significantly moderate helping. The second experiment increased the number of virtual bystanders, and participants were instructed to imagine that these were real people. Participants helped significantly less in rooms with large numbers of bystanders compared to rooms with no bystanders, thus demonstrating a bystander effect. These results indicate that even sophisticated high-level social behaviors can be observed and experimentally manipulated in simple VEs, thus implying the broad usefulness of this paradigm in psychological research as a good compromise between experimental control and ecological validity.

  5. Cognitive behavior therapy for psychological distress in patients with recurrent miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakano Y

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Yumi Nakano,1 Tatsuo Akechi,2 Toshiaki A Furukawa,3 Mayumi Sugiura-Ogasawara4 1Department of Psychology, School of Human Sciences, Sugiyama Jogakuen University, Nisshin, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 3Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior (Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagoya City University, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan Objective: To examine the reduction of psychiatric symptoms using individual cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for women who suffer from recurrent miscarriage (RM and depression and/or anxiety. Methods: Patients with RM and a score of five or higher for K6, a self-report screening scale for depression/anxiety, were interviewed to find information about stressful situations, thoughts, and consequent behaviors that are common and potential causes of psychological distress among RM patients. We then performed individual CBT on 14 patients with RM and depression/anxiety, referring to a list from the interviews, and examined the effects of CBT by a paired t-test. Results: Fourteen women received CBT. The mean number of intervention times was 8.9 sessions (standard deviation [SD], 4.6 sessions. The average Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition and State–Trait Anxiety Inventory–state anxiety scores, self-report screening scales for depression/anxiety, decreased from 13.6 (SD, 8.2 and 49.0 (SD, 7.1 at baseline to 5.2 (SD, 4.4 and 38.0 (SD, 10.2 posttherapy, respectively. These changes were statistically significant. Conclusion: The current preliminary open study confirmed that individual CBT was potentially useful for women with RM and depression and/or anxiety. This finding is the first step towards creating a comprehensive psychological support system for women with RM

  6. Color in context: psychological context moderates the influence of red on approach- and avoidance-motivated behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; D'Agostino, Paul R; Elliot, Andrew J; Maier, Markus A; Wilkowski, Benjamin M

    2012-01-01

    A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived. Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respectively, but in all existing empirical work approach and avoidance behavior has been studied in separate tasks and separate experiments. Research is needed to directly test whether red influences the same behavior differently depending entirely on psychological context. The present experiment was designed to put this premise to direct test in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts within the same experimental paradigm involving walking behavior. Our results revealed that exposure to red (but not blue) indeed has differential implications for walking behavior as a function of the context in which the color is perceived. Red increased the speed with which participants walked to an ostensible interview about dating (a romance-relevant context), but decreased the speed with which they walked to an ostensible interview about intelligence (an achievement-relevant context). These results are the first direct evidence that the influence of red on psychological functioning in humans varies by psychological context. Our findings contribute to both the literature on color psychology and the broader, emerging literature on the influence of context on basic psychological processes.

  7. Color in context: psychological context moderates the influence of red on approach- and avoidance-motivated behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P Meier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived. Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respectively, but in all existing empirical work approach and avoidance behavior has been studied in separate tasks and separate experiments. Research is needed to directly test whether red influences the same behavior differently depending entirely on psychological context. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present experiment was designed to put this premise to direct test in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts within the same experimental paradigm involving walking behavior. Our results revealed that exposure to red (but not blue indeed has differential implications for walking behavior as a function of the context in which the color is perceived. Red increased the speed with which participants walked to an ostensible interview about dating (a romance-relevant context, but decreased the speed with which they walked to an ostensible interview about intelligence (an achievement-relevant context. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are the first direct evidence that the influence of red on psychological functioning in humans varies by psychological context. Our findings contribute to both the literature on color psychology and the broader, emerging literature on the influence of context on basic psychological processes.

  8. Color in Context: Psychological Context Moderates the Influence of Red on Approach- and Avoidance-Motivated Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P.; D’Agostino, Paul R.; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.; Wilkowski, Benjamin M.

    2012-01-01

    Background A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived. Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respectively, but in all existing empirical work approach and avoidance behavior has been studied in separate tasks and separate experiments. Research is needed to directly test whether red influences the same behavior differently depending entirely on psychological context. Methodology/Principal Findings The present experiment was designed to put this premise to direct test in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts within the same experimental paradigm involving walking behavior. Our results revealed that exposure to red (but not blue) indeed has differential implications for walking behavior as a function of the context in which the color is perceived. Red increased the speed with which participants walked to an ostensible interview about dating (a romance-relevant context), but decreased the speed with which they walked to an ostensible interview about intelligence (an achievement-relevant context). Conclusions/Significance These results are the first direct evidence that the influence of red on psychological functioning in humans varies by psychological context. Our findings contribute to both the literature on color psychology and the broader, emerging literature on the influence of context on basic psychological processes. PMID:22808136

  9. Behavioral Problems in Iranian Epileptic Children; A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Aludari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Epilepsy is among the most common neurological disorders in childhood, prevalence of which is increasing. Unpredictable and chronic nature of the disease affects physical, social and mental functions of the children and their family. This study was aimed to compare behavioral problems in epileptic children group versus healthy control group. Materials and Methods This study is a case-control one conducted from January 2013 to June 2016 in Tehran, Iran. The epileptic children in age of 7-10 years old that were diagnosed by neurologist referred to the researcher for further process. Their parents were provided with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL to be completed. For matching by age and gender, the healthy group was sampled after the epilepsy group. Multivariate Analysis of Variance was used for statistical analysis. Results In this study 94 children with epilepsy and 83 healthy children in age of 7-10 years old were studied. The results indicated that there were significantly higher behavioral problems in the children with epilepsy than in control group in nine categories of seclusiveness, physical complaints, anxiety and depression, social problems, thought problems, attention problems, delinquent behaviors, aggressive behaviors, and other problems. Comparison of two generalized and partial epilepsy groups indicated that there was a significant difference only in attention problems (p = 0.024. Conclusion The present study indicates that the children with epilepsy have more behavioral problems as compared to control group. Therefore, educational and psychological interventions are necessary for supporting desirable psychosocial growth and development of such children.

  10. Human Behavior and Performance Support for ISS Operations and Astronaut Selections: NASA Operational Psychology for Six-Crew Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderArk, Steve; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert; Cockrell, Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance group at NASA Johnson Space Center provides psychological support services and behavioral health monitoring for ISS astronauts and their families. The ISS began as an austere outpost with minimal comforts of home and minimal communication capabilities with family, friends, and colleagues outside of the Mission Control Center. Since 1998, the work of international partners involved in the Space Flight Human Behavior and Performance Working Group has prepared high-level requirements for behavioral monitoring and support. The "buffet" of services from which crewmembers can choose has increased substantially. Through the process of development, implementation, reviewing effectiveness and modifying as needed, the NASA and Wyle team have proven successful in managing the psychological health and well being of the crews and families with which they work. Increasing the crew size from three to six brought additional challenges. For the first time, all partners had to collaborate at the planning and implementation level, and the U.S. served as mentor to extrapolate their experiences to the others. Parity in available resources, upmass, and stowage had to be worked out. Steady progress was made in improving off-hours living and making provisions for new technologies within a system that has difficulty moving quickly on certifications. In some respect, the BHP support team fell victim to its previous successes. With increasing numbers of crewmembers in training, requests to engage our services spiraled upward. With finite people and funds, a cap had to placed on many services to ensure that parity could be maintained. The evolution of NASA BHP services as the ISS progressed from three- to six-crew composition will be reviewed, and future challenges that may be encountered as the ISS matures in its assembly-complete state will be discussed.

  11. Early psychological intervention in accidentally injured children ages 2–16: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Didier N.; Landolt, Markus A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA) and burns are frequent events in children. Although many children recover spontaneously, a considerable number develop long-term psychological sequelae. Evidence on early psychological interventions to prevent such long-term problems is still scarce for school-age children and completely lacking for pre-school children.Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of an early two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention in 108 children ages 2–16 after RTAs and...

  12. Emotional intelligence and features of social and psychological adaptation in adolescents with deviant behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degtyarev A.V.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of social-psychological adaptation of adolescents with deviant behavioral today is of particular relevance in relation to the current process of restructuring of educational institutions - the merging of general and specialized schools for adolescents with behavioral problems in a unified educational complexes. In these circumstances it is necessary to find an efficient tool that will simultaneously accelerate the process of adaptation and have a positive preventive effect. In this article, the author shows that such a tool can become the emotional intelligence as a construct that includes various abilities of the emotional sphere. The main hypothesis of the study was that the socio-psychological adaptation of adolescents with deviant behavior has its own characteristics, different from the norm group, and is interconnected with the components of emotional intelligence. The study was conducted on the basis of general education school № 2077 formed by the merger of five educational institutions: the former school № 738, № 703, № 702, № 7 and № 77. The study involved 222 teenagers from 14 to 16 years (111 girls and 111 boys.

  13. Nonpharmacological Interventions to Reduce Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Martini de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD are defined as a group of symptoms of disturbed perceptive thought content, mood, or behavior that include agitation, depression, apathy, repetitive questioning, psychosis, aggression, sleep problems, and wandering. Care of patients with BPSD involves pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. We reviewed studies of nonpharmacological interventions published in the last 10 years. Methods. We performed a systematic review in Medline and Embase databases, in the last 10 years, until June 2015. Key words used were (1 non-pharmacological interventions, (2 behavioral symptoms, (3 psychological symptoms, and (4 dementia. Results. We included 20 studies published in this period. Among these studies, program activities were more frequent (five studies and the symptoms more responsive to the interventions were agitation. Discussion. Studies are heterogeneous in many aspects, including size sample, intervention, and instruments of measures. Conclusion. Nonpharmacological interventions are able to provide positive results in reducing symptoms of BPSD. Most studies have shown that these interventions have important and significant efficacy.

  14. The assessment of nonverbal behavior in schizophrenia through the Formal Psychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granziol, Umberto; Spoto, Andrea; Vidotto, Giulio

    2018-03-01

    The nonverbal behavior (NVB) of people diagnosed with schizophrenia consistently interacts with their symptoms during the assessment. Previous studies frequently observed such an interaction when a prevalence of negative symptoms occurred. Nonetheless, a list of NVBs linked to negative symptoms needs to be defined. Furthermore, a list of items that can exhaustively assess such NVBs is still needed. The present study aims to introduce both lists by using the Formal Psychological Assessment. A deep analysis was performed on both the scientific literature and the DSM-5 for constructing the set of nonverbal behaviors; similarly, an initial list of 138 items investigating the behaviors was obtained from instruments used to assess schizophrenia. The Formal Psychological Assessment was then applied to reduce the preliminary list. A final list of 23 items necessary and sufficient to investigate the NVBs emerged. The list also allowed us to analyze specific relations among items. The present study shows how it is possible to deepen a patient's negative symptomatology, starting with the relations between items and the NVBs they investigate. Finally, this study examines the advantages and clinical implications of defining an assessment tool based on the found list of items. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A Controlled Study of Effect of Counseling on Psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... high in 24 (54.9%) respondents in group 2 who had counseling and were unemployed; depression was associated with occupation (P<0.04). Counseling reduces psychological symptoms in people living with HIV/AIDS. Therefore its use should be encouraged in people living with the disease to boost self-esteem needed ...

  16. Psychological Processes and Repeat Suicidal Behavior: A Four-Year Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although suicidal behavior is a major public health concern, understanding of individually sensitive suicide risk mechanisms is limited. In this study, the authors investigated, for the first time, the utility of defeat and entrapment in predicting repeat suicidal behavior in a sample of suicide attempters. Method: Seventy patients hospitalized after a suicide attempt completed a range of clinical and psychological measures (depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, defeat, and entrapment) while in hospital. Four years later, a nationally linked database was used to determine who had been hospitalized again after a suicide attempt. Results: Over 4 years, 24.6% of linked participants were readmitted to hospital after a suicidal attempt. In univariate logistic regression analyses, defeat and entrapment as well as depression, hopelessness, past suicide attempts, and suicidal ideation all predicted suicidal behavior over this interval. However, in the multivariate analysis, entrapment and past frequency of suicide attempts were the only significant predictors of suicidal behavior. Conclusions: This longitudinal study supports the utility of a new theoretical model in the prediction of suicidal behavior. Individually sensitive suicide risk processes like entrapment could usefully be targeted in treatment interventions to reduce the risk of repeat suicidal behavior in those who have been previously hospitalized after a suicide attempt. PMID:23855989

  17. Evaluating the Chinese Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Chan, Ko Ling; Yan, Elsie Chau Wai; Lam, Gloria Ling Lee; Tang, Debbie Hoi Ming; Graham-Kevan, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the utility of the Chinese version of the Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale (C-CBS-R) as a measure of controlling behaviors in violent Chinese intimate relationships. Using a mixed-methods approach, in-depth, individual interviews were conducted with 200 Chinese women survivors to elicit qualitative data about their personal experiences of control in intimate relationships. The use of controlling behaviors was also assessed using the C-CBS-R. Interview accounts suggested that the experiences of 91 of the women were consistent with the description of coercive control according to Dutton and Goodman's conceptualization of coercion. Using the split-half validation procedure, a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was conducted with the first half of the sample. The area under the curve (AUC) for using the C-CBS-R to identify high control was .99, and the cutoff score of 1.145 maximized both sensitivity and specificity. Applying the cutoff score to the second half gave a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 95%. Overall, the C-CBS-R has demonstrated utility as a measure of controlling behaviors with a cutoff score for distinguishing high from low levels of control in violent Chinese intimate relationships. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Perceived Parental Psychological Control and Adolescent Depressive Experiences: A Cross-Cultural Study with Belgian and South-Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenens, Bart; Park, Seong-Yeon; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    In recent research on psychologically controlling parenting, debate has arisen about the cross-cultural relevance of this construct, with some scholars arguing that the developmental outcomes of psychological control are culture-bound and others arguing that the detrimental effects of psychological control generalize across cultures. This study…

  19. Variation and Control of Process Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlicki, Todd; Whitaker, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to highlight the importance of controlling process variability for successful quality assurance (QA). We describe the method of statistical process control for characterizing and controlling a process. Traditionally, QA has been performed by comparing some important measurement (e.g., linear accelerator output) against a corresponding specification. Although useful in determining the fitness of a particular measurement, this approach does not provide information about the underlying process behavior over time. A modern view of QA is to consider the time-ordered behavior of a process. Every process displays characteristic behaviors that are independent of the specifications imposed on it. The goal of modern QA is, not only to ensure that a process is on-target, but that it is also operating with minimal variation. This is accomplished by way of a data-driven approach using process behavior charts. The development of process behavior charts, historically known as control charts, and process behavior (action) limits are described. The effect these concepts have on quality management is also discussed

  20. Examining the effects of turnover intentions on organizational citizenship behaviors and deviance behaviors: A psychological contract approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ke Michael; Ellis, Aleksander P J; Christian, Jessica Siegel; Porter, Christopher O L H

    2016-08-01

    Although turnover intentions are considered the most proximal antecedent of organizational exit, there is often temporal separation between thinking about leaving and actual exit. Using field data from 2 diverse samples of working adults, we explore a causal model of the effects of turnover intentions on employee behavior while they remain with the organization, focusing specifically on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and deviance behaviors (DBs). Utilizing expectancy theory as an explanatory framework, we argue that turnover intentions result in high levels of transactional contract orientation and low levels of relational contract orientation, which in turn lead to a decrease in the incidence of OCBs and an increase in the incidence of DBs. We first used a pilot study to investigate the direction of causality between turnover intentions and psychological contract orientations. Then, in Study 1, we tested our mediated model using a sample of employees from a large drug retailing chain. In Study 2, we expanded our model by arguing that the mediated effects are much stronger when the organization is deemed responsible for potential exit. We then tested our full model using a sample of employees from a large state-owned telecommunications corporation in China. Across both studies, results were generally consistent and supportive of our hypotheses. We discuss the implications of our findings for future theory, research, and practice regarding the management of both the turnover process and discretionary behaviors at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Male Infertility and Its Impact on Women’s Sexual Behaviors: Need Attention to Psychological Problem as A Psychological Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghavi

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Male infertility may be associated with sexual disorders in the partner. Attention to psychological need and rehabilitation in infertile couples may be helping them to increase mental health and quality of life in these people.

  2. Anger and its control in Graeco-Roman and modern psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, S

    1979-11-01

    Modern psychologists have studied the phenomena of anger and hostility with diverse methodologies and from a variety of theoretical orientations. The close relationships between anger and aggression, psychosomatic disorder and personal unhappiness, make the understanding and control of anger an important individual and social goal. For all of its sophistication and accomplishment, however, most of the modern research demonstrates, to its disadvantage, a lack of historical perspective with respect to the analysis and treatment of anger, whether normal or pathological. This attitude has deprived psychology of a rich source of empirical observations, intriguing, testable hypotheses, and ingenious techniques of treatment. Of the literature that has been neglected, the analyses of the emotion of anger in the writings of Greek and Roman moral philosophers, particularly Aristotle (4th century B.C.), Seneca (1st century A.D.) and Plutarch (early 2nd century A.D.) are of particular interest. Although modern analyses and methods of treatment are in some ways more refined and more quantitatively precise, and are often subjected to validation and modification by empirical-experimental tests, scientific psychology has, to date, contributed relatively little to the understanding and control of anger that is novel except for research on its physiological dimensions. We can still benefit from the insight, prescriptions and procedures of the classicists, who in some respects offer more powerful methods of control than the most recently published works. Naturally, the modern psychotherapist or behavior therapist can and must go beyond the ancients, as is inherent in all scientific and intellectual progress, but there are no scientific or rational grounds for ignoring them as has been done for 75 years.

  3. A comparison of dysfunctional attitudes in substance abusers and control group and its psychological outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    This research was carried out to assess the role of dysfunctional attitudes, outcomes of psychology in substance abuse behaviors of subject were referred to addiction treatment center in the city of Bandar Abbas, and to compare the with the control group. Methods: This is a retrospective study in which 100 subject substance abusers were compared with 100 subject s of control group who were selected using convenience sampling and were also demographically matched. Data were gathered using a demographic questionnaire, clinical interview, dysfunctional attitudes scale (DAS, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS. The data were analyzed via descriptive statistic method, T- Test and chi-square and variance analysis. Findings: Findings indicated that in comparison with control group, subject of substance abusers had experienced more stress, anxiety, depression, had shown a cognitively more percent of them dysfunctional attitudes in comparison with control group. Results: The results suggested that the dysfunctional attitudes could be as a Vulnerability Factor that increase abuse of substance consequently use of cognitive therapy could be helpful and effective in prevention and treatment of the addicts.

  4. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Physiology and Cognitive Control of Behavior in Stress Inoculated Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen J.; Buckmaster, Christine L.; Lindley, Steven E.; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Lyons, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Monkeys exposed to stress inoculation protocols early in life subsequently exhibit diminished neurobiological responses to moderate psychological stressors and enhanced cognitive control of behavior during juvenile development compared to non-inoculated monkeys. The present experiments extended these findings and revealed that stress inoculated…

  5. BEHAVIOR AND CONSCIOUSNESS. HISTORICAL ORIGIN OF THE ADVERSARY ALTERNATIVES IN THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS GARCÍA-VEGA

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The word behavior has a reduccionist origin and meaning, the later has been commonly assumed since the mecanicistinterpretation of organic movement in Descartes, La Mettrie, Séchenov and Pávlov until nowadays. Watson continueswith this tendency making it the starting point of his psychology and, in fact, due to the category he studies, he will callhis school behaviorism.In 1924 Vygostky refuses to take this reduccionist and mecanicist model from reactology and reflexology and claims forpsychology the need of taking conscience into account, understanding conscience not as the movement of a machinethat reacts to a stimular situation, but as the dialectic activity of material human brain, that has reached its highestdegree of development.

  6. THE BORDER BETWEEN BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE AND PSYCHOLOGY- SEGMENTATION BASED ON CUSTOMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Student Codrin POPA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s economy, marketers have been facing two challenging trends: fierce competition between companies offering essentially similar products, and dealing with customers that are increasingly informed and demanding, but less and less loyal. Under these conditions, it has become imperative for managers and for marketing professionals to invest in business intelligence in order to find patterns in the consumers’ behavior that could predict their future buying decisions. In this report we have presented how Decision Support Systems, data analysis and customer segmentation can help companies to know their customers better in order to predict (and influence their future actions. At the same time, we have argued that Business Intelligence should meet psychology and neurology halfway, and accept that there is a very high emotional subconscious component that produces a high degree of unpredictability in consumers’ behavior.

  7. Health education and multimedia learning: educational psychology and health behavior theory (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Francisco G Soto; Plass, Jan; Kane, William M; Papenfuss, Richard L

    2003-07-01

    When health education researchers began to investigate how individuals make decisions related to health and the factors that influence health behaviors, they referred to frameworks shared by educational and learning research. Health education adopted the basic principles of the cognitive revolution, which were instrumental in advancing the field. There is currently a new challenge to confront: the widespread use of new technologies for health education. To better overcome this challenge, educational psychology and instructional technology theory should be considered. Unfortunately, the passion to incorporate new technologies too often overshadows how people learn or, in particular, how people learn through computer technologies. This two-part article explains how educational theory contributed to the early development of health behavior theory, describes the most relevant multimedia learning theories and constructs, and provides recommendations for developing multimedia health education programs and connecting theory and practice.

  8. Individual psychological and social risk factors for violent criminal behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubkova A.A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the risk factors for criminal aggression in adolescents with an organic mental disorder depending on the level of social deviations or severity of pathopsychological factor. The study involved 113 male adolescents aged 15 to 17 years. The main group consisted of juvenile offenders with organic mental disorder. We used the methods of investigation to determine the individual psychological characteristics, we also used structured risk assessment methods. It is shown that risk factors for criminal aggressive behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder are a high level of proactive and reactive aggression, combined with underdeveloped mechanisms deter aggressive intentions. With the increase of organic disease, these features become more stable. An important role in shaping the aggressive criminal behavior plays an unsuccessful social environment. Interfamily problems, social deprivation, learning difficulties, communication in antisocial groups and substance abuse - all this increases the risk of aggressive illegal actions.

  9. A Program to Reduce Disruptive Behavior in a School Based Upon a Practical Application of the Adlerian Theory of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Carl G.

    This practicum report describes a program to aid in reducing the incidence of disruptive behavior of students through the use of the Adlerian Theory of Psychology. The report contains a general definition of the problem, which was the reduction of the disruptive student behavior, and the objectives to be achieved from the program. There is a…

  10. The Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior to Prevention Science in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, John L.; Netland, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/PB) is a model of behavior change that has been extensively studied in the health sciences but has had limited exposure in the counseling psychology literature. The model offers counseling psychologists a framework to conceptualize prevention research and practice. The model is important to…

  11. The psychology of computer displays in the modern mission control center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granaas, Michael M.; Rhea, Donald C.

    1988-01-01

    Work at NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) has demonstrated the need for increased consideration of psychological factors in the design of computer displays for the WATR mission control center. These factors include color perception, memory load, and cognitive processing abilities. A review of relevant work in the human factors psychology area is provided to demonstrate the need for this awareness. The information provided should be relevant in control room settings where computerized displays are being used.

  12. SOCIAL MARKETING IN PROMOTING HEALTH BEHAVIOR: A ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conny Tjandra R

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIncreasingly incidences of nutrition related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity and cancers are becoming significant health burdens not only in western countries but it is also newly coming health problem in Asia, including Indonesia. To encounter this development in the future it is important to continually promote the diseases prevention actions through appropriate social marketing programs. For that purpose, understanding psychological set such as knowledge, belief, attitude and motivation to perform diseases prevention actions and their causal relationship is becoming more and more important. The most challenging issue is to perform social marketing programs that can successfully influence people future health behavior. Our study has aim to understand the relationship of some psychological factors in influencing behavior. The result of this study showed that in spite of controversial issues published in current studies, we found that inherent knowledge level influences motivation through a modulation of attitude variable.Keywords: eating behavior, knowledge, attitude, motivation, behavioral action, prevention, healthy eating habit.AbstrakMeningkatnya jumlah penyakit kronik yang berhubungan dengan gizi pangan seperti penyakit jantung koroner, kegemukan dan kanker merupakan masalah kesehatan yang utama bukan hanya di Negara barat saja melainkan juga terjadi di negara berkembang seperti Asia. Untuk mengatasi masalah ini, perlu dikembangkan sistem pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan oleh setiap individu didalam masyarakat. Pendidikan dan penyuluhan kepada masyarakat terhadap pentingnya tindakan preventif seperti melalui “social marketing programs” yang digalakkan baik oleh pemerintah atau institusi kesehatan lainnya, sangatlah penting. Didalam social marketing, promosi tentang pencegahan semestinya dilakukan dengan terlebih dahulu mengetahui dan mengenal segala macam bentuk kebutuhan dasar, pengetahuan, sikap, kepercayaan

  13. Psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosing Alzheimer's disease biomarkers to research participants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemelmans, S A S A; Tromp, K; Bunnik, E M; Milne, R J; Badger, S; Brayne, C; Schermer, M H; Richard, E

    2016-11-10

    Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) research initiatives focus on cognitively healthy individuals with biomarkers that are associated with the development of AD. It is unclear whether biomarker results should be returned to research participants and what the psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosure are. This systematic review therefore examines the psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosing genetic and nongenetic AD-related biomarkers to cognitively healthy research participants. We performed a systematic literature search in eight scientific databases. Three independent reviewers screened the identified records and selected relevant articles. Results extracted from the included articles were aggregated and presented per effect group. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the data synthesis. None of the identified studies examined the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers. All studies but one concerned the disclosure of APOE genotype and were conducted in the USA. Study populations consisted largely of cognitively healthy first-degree relatives of AD patients. In this group, disclosure of an increased risk was not associated with anxiety, depression or changes in perceived risk in relation to family history. Disclosure of an increased risk did lead to an increase in specific test-related distress levels, health-related behavior changes and long-term care insurance uptake and possibly diminished memory functioning. In cognitively healthy research participants with a first-degree relative with AD, disclosure of APOE ε4-positivity does not lead to elevated anxiety and depression levels, but does increase test-related distress and results in behavior changes concerning insurance and health. We did not find studies reporting the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers and only one study included people without a family history of AD. Empirical studies on the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers

  14. Problematic digital gaming behavior and its relation to the psychological, social and physical health of Finnish adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männikkö, Niko; Billieux, Joël; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify problematic gaming behavior among Finnish adolescents and young adults, and evaluate its connection to a variety of psychological, social, and physical health symptoms. This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 293 respondents aged from 13 to 24 years. Participants completed an online survey. Problematic gaming behavior was measured with the Game Addiction Scale (GAS). Self-reports covered health measures such as psychological health (psychopathological symptoms, satisfaction with life), social health (preferences for social interaction), and physical health (general health, Body Mass Index [BMI], body discomfort, physical activity). Problematic gaming behavior was found to relate to psychological and health problems, namely fatigue, sleep interference, depression and anxiety symptoms. Multiple linear regression indicated that the amount of weekly gaming, depression and a preference for online social interaction predicted increased problematic gaming symptoms. This research emphasized that problematic gaming behavior had a strong negative correlation to a variety of subjective health outcomes.

  15. Impact of Health Behaviors and Health Management on Employment After SCI: Psychological Health and Health Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Karla S; Meade, Michelle A; Krause, James S

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between employment and psychological health and health management as described by individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) who were employed at least once following injury. Methods: A qualitative approach used 6 focus groups at 2 sites with 44 participants who were at least 10 years post SCI. All had been employed at some point since injury. Heterogeneous and homogeneous groups were delineated based on specific characteristics, such as education, gender, or race. Group sessions followed a semi-structured interview format with questions about personal, environmental, and policy related factors influencing employment following SCI. All group sessions were recorded, transcribed, and coded into conceptual categories to identify topics, themes, and patterns. Inferences were drawn about their meaning. NVivo 10 software using the constant comparative method was used for data analysis. Results: Narratives discussed the relationship between employment and psychological and emotional health and health management. Four themes were identified: (1) adjustment and dealing with emotional reactions, (2) gaining self-confidence, (3) preventing burnout, and (4) attitudes and perspectives. Most themes reflected issues that varied based on severity of injury as well as stage of employment. Conclusions: Individuals with SCI who are successful in working following injury must determine how to perform the behaviors necessary to manage their health and prevent emotional or physical complications. The emotional consequences of SCI must be recognized and addressed and specific behaviors enacted in order to optimize employment outcomes.

  16. Using Smartphones to Collect Behavioral Data in Psychological Science: Opportunities, Practical Considerations, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Gabriella M; Lane, Nicholas D; Wang, Rui; Crosier, Benjamin S; Campbell, Andrew T; Gosling, Samuel D

    2016-11-01

    Smartphones now offer the promise of collecting behavioral data unobtrusively, in situ, as it unfolds in the course of daily life. Data can be collected from the onboard sensors and other phone logs embedded in today's off-the-shelf smartphone devices. These data permit fine-grained, continuous collection of people's social interactions (e.g., speaking rates in conversation, size of social groups, calls, and text messages), daily activities (e.g., physical activity and sleep), and mobility patterns (e.g., frequency and duration of time spent at various locations). In this article, we have drawn on the lessons from the first wave of smartphone-sensing research to highlight areas of opportunity for psychological research, present practical considerations for designing smartphone studies, and discuss the ongoing methodological and ethical challenges associated with research in this domain. It is our hope that these practical guidelines will facilitate the use of smartphones as a behavioral observation tool in psychological science. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Doing for others: Youth's contributing behaviors and psychological engagement in youth-adult partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Heather L; Lawford, Heather L; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2017-02-01

    Youth contributions to others (e.g., volunteering) have been connected to indicators of successful development, including self-esteem, optimism, social support, and identity development. Youth-adult partnerships, which involve youth and adults working together towards a shared goal in activity settings, such as youth-serving agencies or recreation organizations, provide a unique opportunity for examining youth contributions. We examined associations between measures of youth's participation in youth-adult partnerships (psychological engagement and degree of partnering) in activity settings and youth contributing behaviors, in two Canadian samples: (a) community-involved youth (N = 153, mean age = 17.1 years, 65% female) and (b) undergraduates (N = 128, mean age = 20.1 years, 92.2% female). We found that degree of partnering and psychological engagement were related to each other yet independently predicted contributing behaviors. Our findings suggest that youth-adult partnerships might be one potentially rich context for the promotion of youth's contributions to others. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of the ecological conservation behavior of farmers in payment for ecosystem service programs in eco-environmentally fragile areas using social psychology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Sun, Pingsheng; Zhao, Fazhu; Han, Xinhui; Yang, Gaihe; Feng, Yongzhong

    2016-04-15

    Studies on the ecological conservation behavior of farmers usually focus on individual and socio-economic characteristics without consideration of the underlying psychological constructs, such as farmers' intention and perceptions. This study uses the theory of planned behavior (TPB), a typical social psychology construct, to analyze the factors affecting the intention and behavior of farmers for conserving the ecological achievements from payment for ecosystem service (PES) programs in eco-environmentally fragile areas. Questionnaires based on TPB were administered to 1004 farmers from the Grain to Green Program area in the Loess Plateau, China, with the resulting dataset used to identify the underlying factors determining farmers' intention and behavior based on the structural equation model. The results show that the farmers' intention and behavior toward conserving ecological achievements were explained well by TPB. The farmers'behavior was significantly positively affected by their intention toward conserving ecological achievements, and their intention was significantly influenced by their attitude (positive or negative value of performance), the subjective norm (social pressure in engaging behavior), and perceived behavioral control (perceptions of their ability). The farmers' degree of support for PES programs and their recognition of environmental effects were the factors that most influenced the farmers' attitude. Pressure from neighbors was the most potent driver of the subjective norm. Meanwhile, perceptions of their ability to perform the behavior were the most potent factors affecting intention and it was mostly driven by the farmers' feelings toward environmental improvement and perceived ability (time and labor) to participate in ecological conservation. The drivers of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control can be used by policy makers to direct farmers' intention and behavior toward conserving ecological achievements in fragile

  19. Parenting behavior and the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide: a mediated moderation analysis with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cero, Ian; Sifers, Sarah K

    2013-09-25

    Multiple features of parenting have been associated with development of suicide-related behaviors in adolescents. However, findings are inconsistent on which aspects of parenting are protective or harmful and why. This investigation sought to reconcile these discrepancies through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS), which argues that suicide ideation and the capability to attempt suicide are etiologically distinct. Responses of 200 Midwestern public school students to the Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behavior survey were analyzed using mediated moderation analysis. Participant sex significantly moderated the relationships between parenting variables and suicide attempts and these relationships were accounted for by IPTS variables. Specifically, the effect of parental support on suicide attempts was twice as strong for girls. Self-esteem mediated this interaction (b=-.011, SE(boot)=.008, p<.05, κ(2)=.07). Conversely, the effect of parental boundaries on suicide attempts was significant for boys, but not for girls, and was mediated by exposure to violence (b=.029, SE(boot)=.021, p<.05, κ(2)=.07). This study involved retrospective report with proxy-measures of IPTS constructs. Future research should consider multiple informants and additional measures. Findings highlight potential mechanisms by which parenting behaviors could influence sex differences in adolescent suicide-relate behaviors, and that some parenting behavior is associated with reduced adolescent suicide attempts. Findings also suggest the IPTS is able to account for previously identified inconsistencies in the effects of parenting behaviors on adolescent suicide-related behaviors. Implications for theory and intervention are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antecedents of Chinese Parents' Autonomy Support and Psychological Control: The Interplay between Parents' Self-Development Socialization Goals and Adolescents' School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Chan, Hoi-Wing; Lin, Li

    2012-01-01

    Despite ample evidence for the benefits of parental autonomy support and the harms of parental psychological control to Chinese adolescents' well-being, little is known about what foreshadows these parenting behaviors among Chinese parents. The current research addressed this gap in the literature. It tested the hypothesis that parents'…

  1. Public skepticism of psychology: why many people perceive the study of human behavior as unscientific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2012-01-01

    Data indicate that large percentages of the general public regard psychology's scientific status with considerable skepticism. I examine 6 criticisms commonly directed at the scientific basis of psychology (e.g., psychology is merely common sense, psychology does not use scientific methods, psychology is not useful to society) and offer 6 rebuttals. I then address 8 potential sources of public skepticism toward psychology and argue that although some of these sources reflect cognitive errors (e.g., hindsight bias) or misunderstandings of psychological science (e.g., failure to distinguish basic from applied research), others (e.g., psychology's failure to police itself, psychology's problematic public face) reflect the failure of professional psychology to get its own house in order. I offer several individual and institutional recommendations for enhancing psychology's image and contend that public skepticism toward psychology may, paradoxically, be one of our field's strongest allies.

  2. Commitments of Psychological Contracts and Diagnostic Use of Management Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Canan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the commitments the Surveillance Agents from the National Telecommunications Agency (Anatel made in their psychological contracts and the diagnostic use of the management control system of the entity, this study tested the hypothesis that individuals tend to be more committed to aspects they are charged for within organizations. This is a theoretical and empirical study that assumed that the commitments comprise the part of the belief that individuals develop on reciprocal relations of exchange between themselves and their contractors, in line with the model by Rousseau (1989; 1995. It was also assumed that the extent to which aspects are charged from the members of an organization matches their perception of the diagnostic use of formal and informal control systems. Methodologically, the research was developed in two phases, the first qualitative, involving documentary analysis and content analysis of organizational documents; and the second quantitative, with the application of questionnaires answered by individuals who occupy the individual position referred to in the organization, who evaluated behavioral parameters that act on them and that were identified in the first phase. The data showed that 42 respondents tend to maintain high levels of commitment to the rules and standards proposed for their function. Statistical results also suggest that there is a significant positive correlation between the commitments assumed and the perceived diagnostic use of control systems for the surveillance agents who answered the questionnaire.

  3. Suicidal Behavior Among People Living with HIV (PLHIV) in Medical Care in Estonia and Factors Associated with Receiving Psychological Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemsalu, Liis; Rüütel, Kristi; Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Lõhmus, Liilia; Raidvee, Aire; Uusküla, Anneli

    2017-06-01

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed suicidal behavior (ideation and/or attempts, ever and in the past 12 months) among PLHIV receiving outpatient HIV medical care in Estonia and associations between suicidal behavior and psychological treatment. The cross-sectional study collected data from January to November 2013 using a self-report questionnaire. Eight hundred PLHIV participated, 39 % (n = 306) of whom had been suicidal. Lifetime prevalence was 36 % for suicidal ideation and 20 % for attempts. Younger age, incarceration, having ever abused alcohol and also injected drugs, having lived with HIV for more than 10 years, and being depressed were associated with lifetime suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior within the past 12 months was reported by 20 % (n = 156) of respondents. Of these, 27 % received psychological treatment (counseling and/or psychotherapy), 20 % had taken antidepressants, and 49 % sedatives. Individuals perceiving a need for treatment were significantly more likely to receive psychological treatment when experiencing suicidal behavior (OR 25.65, 95 % CI 2.92-225.47). In conclusion, suicidal behavior is frequent among PLHIV but psychological treatment is not often received. One of the barriers to treatment is patients' lack of perceived need for help.

  4. Socioecological psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.

  5. Socio demographic and Psychological Correlates of Sun Protection Behaviors among Outdoor Workers: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, V. K.; Ford, M. A.; Bass, M. A.; Vice, M. A.; Hallam, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor workers are at a higher risk for developing skin cancer due to their increased sun exposure. The primary objective of this review was to synthesize the current research literature that addresses socio demographic and psychological factors related to sun protection behaviors in outdoor workers. Two additional purposes were to provide an overview of sun exposure and describe sun protection behaviors of outdoor workers. To identify the studies for this review, a methodical search was performed in the Pub Med, Psycinfo, Medline, and Eric databases. Fifteen studies met the review criteria. Despite regular and prolonged sun exposure, many outdoor workers fail to engage in sufficient sun protection behaviors. Correlates of outdoor workers sun protection behaviors include being female, older age, being white, personal skin cancer history, time (hours/years) spent at work, sun safety training, perceived prioritization of sun protection, concern about sun exposure, workplace support, families expectations, and familial information giving. However, limited attention is given to designing theoretically grounded studies to identify factors to inform future research. There is a need to conduct research based on solid theoretical foundations that explains the relationships among the factors in this domain.

  6. Adolescent externalizing behaviour, psychological control, and peer rejection: Transactional links and dopaminergic moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Annelies; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine; Colpin, Hilde; Claes, Stephan; Van Heel, Martijn; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated (1) reciprocal links among parental psychological control, peer rejection, and adolescent externalizing (aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour), and (2) the moderating effect of an adolescent genetic factor (biologically informed polygenic score for dopamine signalling). Three-year longitudinal data from 1,116 adolescents (51% boys; M age = 13.79) and their parents included psychological measures (adolescent-reported psychological control, peer-reported rejection, and parent-reported aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour). Cross-lagged analyses showed bidirectional effects between psychological control and both aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour and a unidirectional effect of peer rejection on both forms of problem behaviour over time. Multigroup structural equation modelling revealed genetic moderation only for rule-breaking behaviour: for adolescents with intermediate levels of dopamine signalling significant environmental effects were present, whereas adolescent effects of rule-breaking behaviour on psychological control were significant for adolescents with both intermediate and high profiles and effects on peer rejection only for adolescents with high dopamine profiles. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Parental psychological control is related to adolescent externalizing problems. Experiencing peer rejection reinforces aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour. Single-gene studies show that dopaminergic genes influence externalizing problems directly or in interaction with the environment. What does this study add? Parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour exacerbate one another longitudinally. Longitudinal associations between peer rejection and both subtypes of externalizing behaviour are unidirectional. With a polygenic approach, dopaminergic moderation is present for rule-breaking behaviour only. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Work Motivation as Correlates of Psychological Capital among Public and Private School Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Nazirul Hasnain; Zuby Hasan; Sehal Chorath

    2017-01-01

    Background: The components of Psychological capital as well as Organizational citizenship behavior and Work motivation are so influential for an individual especially for their performance in organizational setting. Aims: The main objectives of the study were: (1) to study the contributions of organizational citizenship behavior and work motivation in psycap of public school teachers; (2) to study the contributions of organizational citizenship behavior and work motivation in psycap of privat...

  8. Cultural, behavioral, social, and psychological perceptions of saliva: relevance to clinical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sean; Wong, David T

    2006-04-01

    The search for a resource that can be used to detect a broad range of diseases easily and reliably is akin to a search for the diagnostic Holy Grail. Yet, each of us may have inside our mouths, a key to the pathological and disease biomarker library hidden inside our bodies. Saliva--the source of all this information--is the secretory product of glands located in or around the oral cavity. If one could read the stories of diagnostic information present within saliva, then the abundance of information waiting to be found could be comparable to a vast vault of information, such as the Internet. Upon dissection of this data, it would be seen that the source of this information is from saliva's origin as a filtrate of blood, and that the validity of both mediums should be equal. Although one day this may be the view, most people's hold of saliva, current and past cultures, have fared much more diverse meanings to the secretion. Ivan Pavlov's experiments has shown how closely tied salivation is with the thought of food, one of life's primary indulgences. The relationship between salivation and behaviors within our daily lives is undeniable. Yet most people never appreciate the uniqueness of saliva. Throughout the world, saliva carries definite positive and negative connotations, based upon its social, psychological, behavioral, and cultural settings. The thought of saliva may be viewed as grotesque in one population, yet may be the vehicle of blessing in other cultures. Saliva's double nature brings up some interesting cultural, social, behavioral, and psychological points about how saliva is perceived in the world, some of which are subsequently stated in order to present saliva as the spirited fluid it is.

  9. Using Insights from Applied Moral Psychology to Promote Ethical Behavior Among Engineering Students and Professional Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Scott D

    2016-10-01

    In this essay I discuss a novel engineering ethics class that has the potential to significantly decrease the likelihood that students (and professionals) will inadvertently or unintentionally act unethically in the future. This class is different from standard engineering ethics classes in that it focuses on the issue of why people act unethically and how students (and professionals) can avoid a variety of hurdles to ethical behavior. I do not deny that it is important for students to develop cogent moral reasoning and ethical decision-making as taught in traditional college-level ethics classes, but as an educator, I aim to help students apply moral reasoning in specific, real-life situations so they are able to make ethical decisions and act ethically in their academic careers and after they graduate. Research in moral psychology provides evidence that many seemingly irrelevant situational factors affect the moral judgment of most moral agents and frequently lead agents to unintentionally or inadvertently act wrongly. I argue that, in addition to teaching college students moral reasoning and ethical decision-making, it is important to: 1. Teach students about psychological and situational factors that affect people's ethical judgments/behaviors in the sometimes stressful, emotion-laden environment of the workplace; 2. Guide students to engage in critical reflection about the sorts of situations they personally might find ethically challenging before they encounter those situations; and 3. Provide students with strategies to help them avoid future unethical behavior when they encounter these situations in school and in the workplace.

  10. The Relationship between Authoritarian Leadership and Employees’ Deviant Workplace Behaviors: The Mediating Effects of Psychological Contract Violation and Organizational Cynicism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongyan; Chen, Yang; Sun, Peizhen; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees’ deviant workplace behaviors (DWB), as well as the mediating effects of psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 391 manufacturing workers in a northern city of China. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the theory-driven models. The results showed that the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees’ DWB was mediated by organizational cynicism. Moreover, this relationship was also sequentially mediated by psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. This research unveiled psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism as underlying mechanism that explained the link between authoritarian leadership and employees’ DWB. PMID:28536550

  11. The Relationship between Authoritarian Leadership and Employees' Deviant Workplace Behaviors: The Mediating Effects of Psychological Contract Violation and Organizational Cynicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongyan; Chen, Yang; Sun, Peizhen; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees' deviant workplace behaviors (DWB), as well as the mediating effects of psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 391 manufacturing workers in a northern city of China. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the theory-driven models. The results showed that the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees' DWB was mediated by organizational cynicism. Moreover, this relationship was also sequentially mediated by psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. This research unveiled psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism as underlying mechanism that explained the link between authoritarian leadership and employees' DWB.

  12. The Relationship between Authoritarian Leadership and Employees’ Deviant Workplace Behaviors: The Mediating Effects of Psychological Contract Violation and Organizational Cynicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Jiang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees’ deviant workplace behaviors (DWB, as well as the mediating effects of psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 391 manufacturing workers in a northern city of China. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the theory-driven models. The results showed that the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees’ DWB was mediated by organizational cynicism. Moreover, this relationship was also sequentially mediated by psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. This research unveiled psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism as underlying mechanism that explained the link between authoritarian leadership and employees’ DWB.

  13. Application of Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE Model on Women’s Psychological Well-being in the Menopausal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Moshki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims Positive psychology introduce mental health as a positive psychological functioning and represent it as wellbeing psychology and having positive characteristics such as self-esteem, positive social relationships, and life satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological wellbeing of postmenopausal women based on the behavioral analysis phase of PRECEDE model. Materials and Methods This study is a cross-sectional survey and carried out through random sampling in the case of 110 postmenopausal women at Ferdows city, Iran in 2014. The psychological wellbeing variable was studied by Ryff test, including 84 questions and six components containing autonomy, purposeful in life, dominance on environment, personal development, positive relationships with others, and self-acceptance. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS v.20 using descriptive statistics and analytic statistics through correlation and ANOVA. Results The mean age of participants and the average number of their children were 51.62 ± 4.26 and 3.42 ± 1.38, respectively. 61.80 percent of participants had primary education. Pearson correlation test indicated a positive and significant relationship between psychological wellbeing and predisposing factors (knowledge, attitude toward menopause, environmentalbehavioral factors, enabling factors and reinforcing factors (P < 0.01. Conclusion The results indicated that increasing awareness, creating positive attitude and promoting healthy behaviors are the effective steps to improve the psychological wellbeing in postmenopausal women. * Corresponding Author: Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Public Health. Email: Fpf357@gmail.com

  14. Psychosocial and Psychiatric Factors Associated with Adolescent Suicide: A Case-Control Psychological Autopsy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portzky, Gwendolyn; Audenaert, Kurt; van Heeringen, Kees

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors of adolescent suicide by means of a case-control psychological autopsy study. Relatives and other informants of 19 suicide victims and 19 matched psychiatric controls were interviewed by means of a semi-structured interview schedule. Psychiatric controls included…

  15. Psychological and psycho-vegetative technologies of diagnostics and correction the behavior of professionals working in extreme conditions (state of problem and prospective studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulygina V.G.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to promising areas of research regulatory processes (self-control оf the professionals working in special and extreme conditions of professional activity. The actuality of creation a comprehensive compact of the selection methods, adaptation the technologies to professional tasks, methods of psychological assistance of the specialists of hazardous occupations was shown. It was done an overview of foreign studies of the features of psychological regulation and self-control in stressful situations, neurophysiological correlates of self-control and aggressive behavior. The results of trainings of the development of the capacity for self-control, increasing resistance to the negative effects of mental exhaustion, were described. There were expounded the results of domestic investigations of the association between the self-regulation of behavior and profile of reactivity among mentally healthy and ill persons. The necessity of the development of psychodiagnostic and psychological programs for specialists in the professions of risk, aimed to improve the efficiency of regulatory processes for the adaptation to the conditions of professional activity.

  16. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  17. A two-session psychological intervention for siblings of pediatric cancer patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prchal Alice

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since siblings of pediatric cancer patients are at risk for emotional, behavioral, and social problems, there is considerable interest in development of early psychological interventions. This paper aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a two-session psychological intervention for siblings of newly diagnosed pediatric cancer patients. Methods Thirty siblings age 6-17 years were randomly assigned to an intervention group or an active control group with standard psychosocial care. The manualized intervention provided to siblings in the first 2 months after the cancer diagnosis of the ill child included medical information, promotion of coping skills, and a psychoeducational booklet for parents. At 4 to 6 weeks, 4 months, and 7 months after the diagnosis, all siblings and their parents completed measures (from standardized instruments of social support, quality of life, medical knowledge, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and anxiety. Results At follow-up siblings in the intervention group showed better psychological well-being, had better medical knowledge, and reported receiving social support from more people. However, the intervention had no effects on posttraumatic stress symptoms and anxiety. Conclusions The results of this pilot trial suggest that a two-session sibling intervention can improve siblings' adjustment, particularly psychological well-being, in the early stage after a cancer diagnosis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00296907

  18. An Investigation of the Relationship between Stressful Life Events and Psychological, Behavioral and Physiological Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    LOU DEcISIO LATITUDE *Figure 2-2. Demand vs Control Model. 4roa ’Jb Psychological Factors and Coronarý Heart Disease" by Karasek . Theorell . Schwartz...Wright-Patterson AFB OH, AD A134381- Karasek , R.A., Baker, D., Marxer, F., Ahebom, A., & Theorell , T. (1981). Job Decision Latitude, Job Demands, and...hormones have been shown to promote CHD in "* •animal experiments (Kornitzer et al., 1982). Applying this process to the job environment scenario, Karasek

  19. Cross-cultural industrial organizational psychology and organizational behavior: A hundred-year journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Aycan, Zeynep; Erez, Miriam; Leung, Kwok

    2017-03-01

    In celebration of the anniversary of the Journal of Applied Psychology ( JAP ), we take a hundred-year journey to examine how the science of cross-cultural industrial/organizational psychology and organizational behavior (CCIO/OB) has evolved, both in JAP and in the larger field. We review broad trends and provide illustrative examples in the theoretical, methodological, and analytic advances in CCIO/OB during 4 main periods: the early years (1917-1949), the middle 20th century (1950-1979), the later 20th century (1980-2000), and the 21st century (2000 to the present). Within each period, we discuss key historical and societal events that influenced the development of the science of CCIO/OB, major trends in research on CCIO/OB in the field in general and JAP in particular, and important milestones and breakthroughs achieved. We highlight pitfalls in research on CCIO/OB and opportunities for growth. We conclude with recommendations for the next 100 years of CC IO/OB research in JAP and beyond. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Predictors of Psychological Well-Being during Behavioral Obesity Treatment in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo N. Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association of autonomy-related variables, including exercise motivation, with psychological well-being and quality of life, during obesity treatment. Middle-aged overweight/obese women (n=239 participated in a 1-year behavioral program and completed questionnaires measuring need support, general self-determination, and exercise and treatment motivation. General and obesity-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL, self-esteem, depression, and anxiety were also assessed. Results showed positive correlations of self-determination and perceived need support with HRQOL and self-esteem, and negative associations with depression and anxiety (P<.001. Treatment autonomous motivation correlated positively with physical (P=.004 and weight-related HRQOL (P<.001, and negatively with depression (P=.025 and anxiety (P=.001. Exercise autonomous motivation was positively correlated with physical HRQOL (P<.001, mental HRQOL (P=.003, weight-related HRQOL (P<.001, and self-esteem (P=.003, and negatively with anxiety (P=.016. Findings confirm that self-determination theory's predictions apply to this population and setting, showing that self-determination, perceived need support, and autonomous self-regulation positively predict HRQOL and psychological well-being.

  1. The effect of cognitive–behavioral stress management training on improving psychological symptoms and quality of life in nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Bahmanzadeh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As a stressful profession, nursing deals with different aspects of human health and illness, and stress can threaten nurses’ health and performance. As a result, using preventive stress management programs seems necessary. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive–behavioral stress management training in improving psychological symptoms (stress, anxiety, and depression and quality of life in nurses. The design of this study was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest and a control group. The statistical population comprised all nurses working in Bandar Abbas Shari'ati Hospital. The study sample included all 30 nurses selected through convenience sampling method. They equally and randomly were divided into experiment and control groups. Depression, anxiety, and stress scale and the Farsi version of WHOQOL-BREF were used to collect data. The results showed there was a significant difference between pretest and posttest of experimental group in the mean scores of stress, anxiety, and quality of life; however, there was no significant difference in depression. Control group mean scores did not show a significant difference between pretest and posttest. There was no significant difference between the control and experimental groups before intervention in stress, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. The findings of this study suggest that, as a useful clinical intervention, stress management skill training is an effective way to improve mental distress and quality of life.

  2. Integrating human and natural systems in community psychology: an ecological model of stewardship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskell, Christine; Allred, Shorna Broussard

    2013-03-01

    Community psychology (CP) research on the natural environment lacks a theoretical framework for analyzing the complex relationship between human systems and the natural world. We introduce other academic fields concerned with the interactions between humans and the natural environment, including environmental sociology and coupled human and natural systems. To demonstrate how the natural environment can be included within CP's ecological framework, we propose an ecological model of urban forest stewardship action. Although ecological models of behavior in CP have previously modeled health behaviors, we argue that these frameworks are also applicable to actions that positively influence the natural environment. We chose the environmental action of urban forest stewardship because cities across the United States are planting millions of trees and increased citizen participation in urban tree planting and stewardship will be needed to sustain the benefits provided by urban trees. We used the framework of an ecological model of behavior to illustrate multiple levels of factors that may promote or hinder involvement in urban forest stewardship actions. The implications of our model for the development of multi-level ecological interventions to foster stewardship actions are discussed, as well as directions for future research to further test and refine the model.

  3. Behavioral control and reward sensitivity in adolescents’ risk taking behavior : A longitudinal TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this

  4. Behavioral Control and Reward Sensitivity in Adolescents' Risk Taking Behavior : A Longitudinal TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Margot; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this

  5. Validation of the bipolar disorder etiology scale based on psychological behaviorism theory and factors related to the onset of bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woo Park

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors related to the onset of bipolar I disorder (BD. To do so, the Bipolar Disorder Etiology Scale (BDES, based on psychological behaviorism, was developed and validated. Using the BDES, common factors related to both major depressive disorder (MDD and BD and specific factors related only to BD were investigated. METHOD: The BDES, which measures 17 factors based on psychological behaviorism hypotheses, was developed and validated. This scale was administered to 113 non-clinical control subjects, 30 subjects with MDD, and 32 people with BD. ANOVA and post hoc analyses were conducted. Subscales on which MDD and BD groups scored higher than controls were classified as common factors, while those on which the BD group scored higher than MDD and control groups were classified as specific factors. RESULTS: The BDES has acceptable reliability and validity. Twelve common factors influence both MDD and BD and one specific factor influences only BD. Common factors include the following: learning grandiose self-labeling, learning dangerous behavior, reinforcing impulsive behavior, exposure to irritability, punishment of negative emotional expression, lack of support, sleep problems, antidepressant problems, positive arousal to threat, lack of social skills, and pursuit of short-term pleasure. The specific factor is manic emotional response. CONCLUSIONS: Manic emotional response was identified as a specific factor related to the onset of BD, while parents' grandiose labeling is a candidate for a specific factor. Many factors are related to the onset of both MDD and BD.

  6. Validation of the bipolar disorder etiology scale based on psychological behaviorism theory and factors related to the onset of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Woo; Park, Kee Hwan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors related to the onset of bipolar I disorder (BD). To do so, the Bipolar Disorder Etiology Scale (BDES), based on psychological behaviorism, was developed and validated. Using the BDES, common factors related to both major depressive disorder (MDD) and BD and specific factors related only to BD were investigated. The BDES, which measures 17 factors based on psychological behaviorism hypotheses, was developed and validated. This scale was administered to 113 non-clinical control subjects, 30 subjects with MDD, and 32 people with BD. ANOVA and post hoc analyses were conducted. Subscales on which MDD and BD groups scored higher than controls were classified as common factors, while those on which the BD group scored higher than MDD and control groups were classified as specific factors. The BDES has acceptable reliability and validity. Twelve common factors influence both MDD and BD and one specific factor influences only BD. Common factors include the following: learning grandiose self-labeling, learning dangerous behavior, reinforcing impulsive behavior, exposure to irritability, punishment of negative emotional expression, lack of support, sleep problems, antidepressant problems, positive arousal to threat, lack of social skills, and pursuit of short-term pleasure. The specific factor is manic emotional response. Manic emotional response was identified as a specific factor related to the onset of BD, while parents' grandiose labeling is a candidate for a specific factor. Many factors are related to the onset of both MDD and BD.

  7. The impact of demographic and psychological characteristics and cost behaviors on views towards the luxury restaurant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Haji Mirza Hossein Yazdi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of psychological characteristics, materialism, unity, uniqueness, hedonism, and perfectionism, and demographic characteristics including gender, age and income as well as the costing behavior (price on the views towards the luxury restaurant. The results show that perfectionism and uniqueness had a direct impact on the consumer's views towards luxury restaurant. On the other hand, the demographic characteristics such as age, income and education had a positive relationship with the consumer's views towards the luxury restaurant. Finally, a new hypothesis as the relationship between price and service quality and customer atti-tudes was examined in this study and it was concluded that there was a significant positive rela-tionship between price and customer’s views. The results of the research data also confirmed the relationship between price and service quality.

  8. [Delirium or behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in the elderly patient: diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breil, D

    2010-09-08

    Acute confusional state, delirium, occurs in up to 80% of patients in the intensive care unit and is also a common, life-threatening and potentially preventable clinical syndrome among persons who are 65 years of age or older in general hospital. The cause of acute confusional state is typically multifactorial. Delirium and dementia are highly interrelated and dementia is the leading risk factor for delirium. So the key steps to distinguish between delirium and behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are to address all evident causes, e.g. dementia, dehydration, infection, polymedication and to prevent complications and treat behavioral symptoms. First nonpharmacologic approaches should be instituted, including a calm, comfortable environment with the use of orienting influences. Pharmacologic management should be reserved for patients whose symptoms would threaten their own safety or the safety of other persons. Therapeutic drug options include modern antidepressants and neuroleptics.

  9. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  10. Effects of cumulative risk on behavioral and psychological well-being in first grade: moderation by neighborhood context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Julie; Caughy, Margaret; Nettles, Saundra M; O'Campo, Patricia J

    2010-10-01

    This study builds upon existing research by examining whether risk indices for child psychological well-being behave in the same way in different types of neighborhoods. Specifically, we sought to determine if neighborhood characteristics acted to exacerbate or, alternatively, to buffer risk factors at the family and/or child level. Families with a child entering first grade in Fall 2002 were recruited from Baltimore City neighborhoods, defined as census block groups. This study included 405 children, and data came from an interview with the primary caregiver and an assessment of the first grader. The dependent variables were externalizing behavior and internalizing problems. A family risk index consisting of 13 measures, and a child risk index consisting of three measures were the main independent variables of interest. We examined the effects of these indices on child psychological well-being and behavior across two neighborhood characteristics: neighborhood potential for community involvement with children and neighborhood negative social climate. Results of multivariate analyses indicated that cumulative family risk was associated with an increase in both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Perceived negative social climate moderated the effect of family risks on behavior problems such that more risk was associated with a larger increment in both externalizing behavior problems and psychological problems for children living in high versus low risk neighborhoods. These findings further emphasize the importance of considering neighborhood context in the study of child psychological well-being. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Relations between self-discrimination of MSM and sexual behavior and psychological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Zhang, Hong-bo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Guang-gui; Yang, Hong-wu; Fan, Jing

    2010-07-01

    To understand the self-discrimination experience of MSM and its relationship with sexual behavior and psychological factors. By respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method, a call-for action and anonymous self-administration questionnaire investigation was carried out in Mianyang city on experience of self-discriminations, sexual partners and behaviors and depression symptom, etc. The first 12 qualified people were designated as the "root" in the whole investigation from different MSM subgroups. Every "root" would get 3 recruit cards after their own investigation, then cards could be promoted to another 3 qualified people who were willing to accept questionnaires. And this process would go on till the sample size was accomplished. χ(2) test, rank correlation and contingency coefficient would be applied for the statistical analysis. In total, 201 persons were investigated. Within the past 6 months, 59.2% (119/201) persons felt they did harm to their family or made the family down as gays, 79.6% (160/201) had to disguise their real sexual orientation in avoidance of being discriminated, 39.3% (79/201) were humiliated for having gay sex. It showed correlation between humiliation or harm to family and frequency to disco balls/night clubs (r = 0.196, χ(2) = 7.95, P sexual partners (r = 0.265, χ(2) = 11.422, P sexual behavior in the past 6 months (r = 0.513, χ(2) = 7.442, P sexual orientation in avoidance of being discriminated and the frequency of show up in the cybercafé (r = 0.272, χ(2) = 15.932, P discrimination was connected to entrance into gay-welcome places, acceptance of HIV consultancy and tests, posting gay information among MSM friends and hold of many sexual partners. Meanwhile, the pressure was rising when depression was checked out. Self-discrimination was prevalent among MSM, which had brought critical influence on the individual behavior, MSM psychological health and prevalence of AIDS.

  12. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation therapy , hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments can also be combined. Review of well- ... Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics ... Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS Take Part in Online ...

  13. [Psychological and behavioral predictors of the quality of life of people with multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juczyński, Z; Adamiak, G

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between some psychological and behavioural variables associated with disease, and health related quality of life. A survey was conducted on a sample of 44 people with multiple sclerosis. Quality of life was defined as life satisfaction and subjective assessment of current health status. The following methods were used: The Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener et al.) and Visual Analogue Scale (single-item self-ratings of health) to measure the quality of life; Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale--MHLC (Wallston et al.); Acceptance of Illness Scale (Felton et al.); Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg); Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (Watson and Greer) and Health Behaviour Inventory (Juczyński). A series of step-wise regression models and discriminant function analysis on future quality of life variables were calculated, taking as predictors psychological and behavioural variables. High self-esteem, engagement in a large number of health behaviour and acceptance of illness were most predictive of good health related quality of life of people with multiple sclerosis.

  14. Neuroengineering control and regulation of behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, A.; Radzewicz, C.; Mankiewicz, L.; Hottowy, P.; Knapska, E.; Konopka, W.; Kublik, E.; Radwańska, K.; Waleszczyk, W. J.; Wójcik, D. K.

    2014-11-01

    To monitor neuronal circuits involved in emotional modulation of sensory processing we proposed a plan to establish novel research techniques combining recent biological, technical and analytical discoveries. The project was granted by National Science Center and we started to build a new experimental model for studying the selected circuits of genetically marked and behaviorally activated neurons. To achieve this goal we will combine the pioneering, interdisciplinary expertise of four Polish institutions: (i) the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology (Polish Academy of Sciences) will deliver the expertise on genetically modified mice and rats, mapping of the neuronal circuits activated by behavior, monitoring complex behaviors measured in the IntelliCage system, electrophysiological brain activity recordings by multielectrodes in behaving animals, analysis and modeling of behavioral and electrophysiological data; (ii) the AGH University of Science and Technology (Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Sciences) will use its experience in high-throughput electronics to build multichannel systems for recording the brain activity of behaving animals; (iii) the University of Warsaw (Faculty of Physics) and (iv) the Center for Theoretical Physics (Polish Academy of Sciences) will construct optoelectronic device for remote control of opto-animals produced in the Nencki Institute based on the unique experience in laser sources, studies of light propagation and its interaction with condensed media, wireless medical robotic systems, fast readout opto-electronics with control software and micromechanics.

  15. A randomized control study of psychological intervention to reduce anxiety, amotivation and psychological distress among medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Coumaravelou Saravanan; Rajiah Kingston

    2014-01-01

    Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress a...

  16. Online interventions for social marketing health behavior change campaigns: a meta-analysis of psychological architectures and adherence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugelman, Brian; Thelwall, Mike; Dawes, Phil

    2011-02-14

    Researchers and practitioners have developed numerous online interventions that encourage people to reduce their drinking, increase their exercise, and better manage their weight. Motivations to develop eHealth interventions may be driven by the Internet's reach, interactivity, cost-effectiveness, and studies that show online interventions work. However, when designing online interventions suitable for public campaigns, there are few evidence-based guidelines, taxonomies are difficult to apply, many studies lack impact data, and prior meta-analyses are not applicable to large-scale public campaigns targeting voluntary behavioral change. This meta-analysis assessed online intervention design features in order to inform the development of online campaigns, such as those employed by social marketers, that seek to encourage voluntary health behavior change. A further objective was to increase understanding of the relationships between intervention adherence, study adherence, and behavioral outcomes. Drawing on systematic review methods, a combination of 84 query terms were used in 5 bibliographic databases with additional gray literature searches. This resulted in 1271 abstracts and papers; 31 met the inclusion criteria. In total, 29 papers describing 30 interventions were included in the primary meta-analysis, with the 2 additional studies qualifying for the adherence analysis. Using a random effects model, the first analysis estimated the overall effect size, including groupings by control conditions and time factors. The second analysis assessed the impacts of psychological design features that were coded with taxonomies from evidence-based behavioral medicine, persuasive technology, and other behavioral influence fields. These separate systems were integrated into a coding framework model called the communication-based influence components model. Finally, the third analysis assessed the relationships between intervention adherence and behavioral outcomes. The

  17. Randomised controlled trials of psychological & pharmacological treatments for body dysmorphic disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipou, Andrea; Rossell, Susan L; Wilding, Helen E; Castle, David J

    2016-11-30

    Treatment for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) often involves a combination of psychological and pharmacological interventions. However, only a small number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been undertaken examining the efficacy of different therapeutic interventions. The aim of this study was to systematically review the RCTs involving psychological and pharmacological interventions for the treatment of BDD. The literature was searched to June 2015, and studies were included if they were written in English, empirical research papers published in peer-review journals, specifically assessed BDD patients, and involved a RCT assessing BDD symptoms pre- and post-intervention. Nine studies were identified: six involving psychological and three involving pharmacological interventions. Cognitive behaviour therapy, metacognitive therapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were identified as treatments with potential benefit. The small number of RCTs and the heterogeneity of findings emphasises the need for more high quality RCTs assessing both psychological and pharmacological interventions for BDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The controllability test for behaviors revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Jan W.; Piztek, P.

    2005-01-01

    Let B = {w 2 Lloc 1 (R,Rq) | R( d/dt )w = 0}. It is well-know that B is controllable if and only if R(λ) has the same rank for all complex λ. We want to re-examen the proof of this fundamental result. Denote by B1 the behavior B intersected with set of smooth functions. For B1 the proof is easy and

  19. Improving psychology students' attitudes toward people with schizophrenia: A quasi-randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Lorenza; Rinaldi, Angela; Costanzo, Regina; De Leo, Renata; Schioppa, Giustina; Petrillo, Miriam; Read, John

    2016-01-01

    Despite scientific evidence that the majority of people with schizophrenia (PWS) have personal histories of traumatic life events and adversities, their needs for psychological support often remain unmet. Poor availability of nonpharmacological therapies in schizophrenia may be partly because of professionals' attitudes toward people diagnosed with this disorder. As future health professionals, psychology students represent a target population for efforts to increase the probability that PWS will be offered effective psychological therapies. This quasi-randomized controlled study investigated the effect of an educational intervention, addressing common prejudices via scientific evidence and prerecorded audio-testimony from PWS, on the attitudes of psychology students toward PWS. Students in their fifth year of a master's degree in Psychology at the Second University of Naples, Italy were randomly assigned to an experimental group-which attended two 3-hr sessions a week apart-or to a control group. Compared with their baseline assessment, at 1-month reassessment the 76 educated students endorsed more psychosocial causes and more of them recommended psychologists in the treatment of schizophrenia. They were also more optimistic about recovery, less convinced that PWS are recognizable and unpredictable, and more convinced that treatments, pharmacological and psychological, are useful. No significant changes were found, from baseline to 1-month reassessment, in the 112 controls. At 1-month reassessment, educated students were more optimistic about recovery and less convinced that PWS are unpredictable than controls. These findings suggest that psychology students' attitudes toward PWS can be improved by training initiatives including education and indirect contact with users. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Prediction and Cross-Situational Consistency of Daily Behavior across Cultures: Testing Trait and Cultural Psychology Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.; Reyes, Jose Alberto S.; Salanga, Maria Guadalupe C.; Miramontes, Lilia A.; Adams, Nerissa B.

    2008-01-01

    Trait and cultural psychology perspectives on the cross-situational consistency of behavior, and the predictive validity of traits, were tested in a daily process study in the United States (N = 68), an individualistic culture, and the Philippines (N = 80), a collectivistic culture. Participants completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and a measure of self-monitoring, then reported their daily behaviors and associated situational contexts for approximately 30 days. Consistent with trait perspectives, the Big Five traits predicted daily behaviors in both cultures, and relative (interindividual) consistency was observed across many, although not all, situational contexts. The frequency of various Big Five behaviors varied across relevant situational contexts in both cultures and, consistent with cultural psychology perspectives, there was a tendency for Filipinos to exhibit greater situational variability than Americans. Self-monitoring showed some ability to account for individual differences in situational variability in the American sample, but not the Filipino sample. PMID:22146866

  1. Antecedents of Chinese parents' autonomy support and psychological control: the interplay between parents' self-development socialization goals and adolescents' school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Chan, Hoi-Wing; Lin, Li

    2012-11-01

    Despite ample evidence for the benefits of parental autonomy support and the harms of parental psychological control to Chinese adolescents' well-being, little is known about what foreshadows these parenting behaviors among Chinese parents. The current research addressed this gap in the literature. It tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of self-development socialization goals (i.e., regarding a positive sense of self in terms of holding optimistic attitudes toward oneself, feeling autonomous in one's actions, and establishing one's independence from others, as important for adolescents to develop) and adolescents' school performance may interact to predict parental autonomy support and psychological control in urban China. Three hundred and forty-one Chinese seventh graders (mean age = 13.30 years, 58 % female) and their parents (186 mothers and 155 fathers) participated. Parents reported on their own and their spouses' endorsement of self-development socialization goals; adolescents reported on parental autonomy support and psychological control; and adolescents' grades were obtained from school records. Significant interactions were found between parents' socialization goals and adolescents' grades in predicting parenting behaviors. When adolescents were doing well at school, the stronger parents' endorsement of self-development socialization goals, the greater their autonomy support and the lesser their psychological control; when adolescents were doing poorly at school, regardless of parents' socialization goals, their autonomy support was relatively low and their psychological control was relatively high. These findings highlight a tension between parental concerns over adolescents' self-development and academic success, which needs to be resolved to promote autonomy support and prevent psychological control among urban Chinese parents.

  2. Psychological and pedagogical conditions for the preventions of deviant behavior among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vist N.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available this article focuses on such a highly relevant subject as the prevention and correction of deviant behavior in the adolescent environment. The study revealed the main vectors for the development of the modern science of deviant behavior, identified the main causes of deviations and carried out a comparative analysis of the work on the prevention of deviant behavior in the CIS countries and abroad. This paper proved that the key factor in the prevention and correction of deviant behavior should be, firstly, the family as the primary and the most important institution of identity formation, and secondly, the pedagogically controlled environment of educational institutions serving as a condition for socialization and personal development for children and adolescents.

  3. Mob control models of threshold collective behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Breer, Vladimir V; Rogatkin, Andrey D

    2017-01-01

    This book presents mathematical models of mob control with threshold (conformity) collective decision-making of the agents. Based on the results of analysis of the interconnection between the micro- and macromodels of active network structures, it considers the static (deterministic, stochastic and game-theoretic) and dynamic (discrete- and continuous-time) models of mob control, and highlights models of informational confrontation. Many of the results are applicable not only to mob control problems, but also to control problems arising in social groups, online social networks, etc. Aimed at researchers and practitioners, it is also a valuable resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as doctoral candidates specializing in the field of collective behavior modeling.

  4. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a predictor of eating disorder symptoms in college students: Moderation by responses to stress and parent psychological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaied, Jamie L; Wagner, Caitlin; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Flynn, Megan

    2016-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective contribution of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a key physiological indicator of self-regulation, to eating disorder symptoms in college students, and whether this link was moderated by maladaptive responses to stress and parent psychological control. At Wave 1, college students' RSA was measured at rest. At Waves 1 and 2 (six-month follow-up), students reported on their eating disorder symptoms, coping and involuntary responses to stress, and perceptions of their parents' use of psychological control. Significant three-way interactions indicated that the link between RSA and subsequent eating disorder symptoms was contingent on responses to stress and parent psychological control. In the context of maladaptive responses to stress and high psychological control, RSA predicted increased eating disorder symptoms over time. In the absence of parent psychological control, high RSA was beneficial in most cases, even when individuals reported maladaptive responses to stress. This study presents novel evidence that high RSA contributes to risk for or resilience to eating disorder symptoms over time. RSA can be protective against eating disorder symptoms, but in some contexts, the self-regulation resources that high RSA provides may be inappropriately applied to eating cognitions and behaviors. This research highlights the importance of examining physiological functioning conjointly with other risk factors as precursors to eating disorder symptoms over time. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. A Mobile Multimedia Reminiscence Therapy Application to Reduce Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Persons with Alzheimer's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Danish; Khan, Arshia; Seelye, Adriana

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a novel and innovative mobile solution to address behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) that occur in individuals with Alzheimer's. BPSD can include agitation, restlessness, aggression, apathy, obsessive-compulsive and repetitive behaviors, hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and wandering. Alzheimer's currently affects 5.4 million adults in the United States and that number is projected to increase to 14 million by 2050. Almost 90% of all affected with AD experience BPSD, resulting in increased healthcare costs, heavier burden on caregivers, poor patient outcomes, early nursing home placement, long-term hospitalizations, and misuse of medications. Pharmacological support may have undesirable side effects such as sedation. Nonpharmacological interventions are alternative solutions that have shown to be effective without undesirable side effects. Music therapy has been found to lower BPSD symptoms significantly. Our study is based on combination of the reminiscence and the music therapies where past memorable events are recalled using prompts such as photos, videos, and music. We are proposing a mobile multimedia solution, a technical version of the combined reminiscence, and music therapies to prevent the occurrence of BPSD, especially for the rural population who have reduced access to dementia care services.

  6. Measuring Work Engagement, Psychological Empowerment, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior Among Health Care Aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Liane; Berta, Whitney; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Rohit Dass, Adrian; Laporte, Audrey; Reid, R Colin; Squires, Janet; Taylor, Deanne

    2016-04-01

    Health care aides (HCAs) provide most direct care in long-term care (LTC) and home and community care (HCC) settings but are understudied. We validate three key work attitude measures to better understand HCAs' work experiences: work engagement (WEng), psychological empowerment (PE), and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB-O). Data were collected from 306 HCAs working in LTC and HCC, using survey items for WEng, PE, and OCB-O adapted for HCAs. Psychometric evaluation involved confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Predictive validity (correlations with measures of job satisfaction and turnover intention) and internal consistency reliability were examined. CFA supported a one-factor model of WEng, a four-factor model of PE, and a one-factor model of OCB-O. HCC workers scored higher than LTC workers on Self-determination (PE) and lower on Impact, demonstrating concurrent validity. WEng and PE correlated with worker outcomes (job satisfaction, turnover intention, and OCB-O), demonstrating predictive validity. Reliability and validity analyses indicated sound psychometric properties overall. Study results support psychometric properties of measures of WEng, PE, and OCB-O for HCAs. Knowledge of HCAs' work attitudes and behaviors can inform recruitment programs, incentive systems, and retention/training strategies for this vital group of care providers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Association between caregiver depression and individual behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in Taiwanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Si-Sheng; Liao, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Wen-Fu

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate caregiver depression associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms in Taiwanese people. A cross-sectional design was used in this study. Two hundred seventy-six pairs of patients with dementia and their caregivers who visited the memory clinic of a general hospital from July 2001 to October 2008 were recruited. Caregiver depression was evaluated with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Demographic data of the patients and caregivers, including cognitive functions and clinical dementia ratings, were collected. In addition to descriptive statistics, we examined the relationship between each parameter and caregiver depression using Pearson correlation, independent t-test, or analysis of variance. The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between the total Neuropsychiatric Inventory score and CES-D score (r = 0.345, P dementia, agitation/aggression, anxiety, nighttime behavior disturbances, irritability/lability, and hallucinations were the five leading symptoms significantly associated with caregiver depression (CES-D). Carefully managing these symptoms is likely to reduce depression in dementia caregivers. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Biological, psychological and social processes that explain celebrities' influence on patients' health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Tan, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Celebrities can have substantial influence as medical advisors. However, their impact on public health is equivocal: depending on the advice's validity and applicability, celebrity engagements can benefit or hinder efforts to educate patients on evidence-based practices and improve their health literacy. This meta-narrative analysis synthesizes multiple disciplinary insights explaining the influence celebrities have on people's health-related behaviors. Systematic searches of electronic databases BusinessSource Complete, Communication & Mass Media Complete, Humanities Abstracts, ProQuest Political Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Sociology Abstracts were conducted. Retrieved articles were used to inform a conceptual analysis of the possible processes accounting for the substantial influence celebrities may have as medical advisors. Fourteen mechanisms of celebrity influence were identified. According to the economics literature, celebrities distinguish endorsed items from competitors and can catalyze herd behavior. Marketing studies tell us that celebrities' characteristics are transferred to endorsed products, and that the most successful celebrity advisors are those viewed as credible, a perception they can create with their success. Neuroscience research supports these explanations, finding that celebrity endorsements activate brain regions involved in making positive associations, building trust and encoding memories. The psychology literature tells us that celebrity advice conditions people to react positively toward it. People are also inclined to follow celebrities if the advice matches their self-conceptions or if not following it would generate cognitive dissonance. Sociology explains how celebrities' advice spreads through social networks, how their influence is a manifestation of people's desire to acquire celebrities' social capital, and how they affect the ways people acquire and interpret health information. There are clear and deeply rooted biological

  9. Problematic digital gaming behavior and its relation to the psychological, social and physical health of Finnish adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    M?nnikk?, Niko; Billieux, Jo?l; K??ri?inen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify problematic gaming behavior among Finnish adolescents and young adults, and evaluate its connection to a variety of psychological, social, and physical health symptoms. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 293 respondents aged from 13 to 24 years. Participants completed an online survey. Problematic gaming behavior was measured with the Game Addiction Scale (GAS). Self-reports covered health measur...

  10. Positive Education for Young Children: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention for Preschool Children on Subjective Well Being and Learning Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Shoshani; Michelle Slone

    2017-01-01

    Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention co...

  11. Experiential Virtual Scenarios With Real-Time Monitoring (Interreality) for the Management of Psychological Stress: A Block Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavicini, Federica; Morganti, Luca; Serino, Silvia; Scaratti, Chiara; Briguglio, Marilena; Crifaci, Giulia; Vetrano, Noemi; Giulintano, Annunziata; Bernava, Giuseppe; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Pioggia, Giovanni; Raspelli, Simona; Cipresso, Pietro; Vigna, Cinzia; Grassi, Alessandra; Baruffi, Margherita; Wiederhold, Brenda; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent convergence between technology and medicine is offering innovative methods and tools for behavioral health care. Among these, an emerging approach is the use of virtual reality (VR) within exposure-based protocols for anxiety disorders, and in particular posttraumatic stress disorder. However, no systematically tested VR protocols are available for the management of psychological stress. Objective Our goal was to evaluate the efficacy of a new technological paradigm, Interreality, for the management and prevention of psychological stress. The main feature of Interreality is a twofold link between the virtual and the real world achieved through experiential virtual scenarios (fully controlled by the therapist, used to learn coping skills and improve self-efficacy) with real-time monitoring and support (identifying critical situations and assessing clinical change) using advanced technologies (virtual worlds, wearable biosensors, and smartphones). Methods The study was designed as a block randomized controlled trial involving 121 participants recruited from two different worker populations—teachers and nurses—that are highly exposed to psychological stress. Participants were a sample of teachers recruited in Milan (Block 1: n=61) and a sample of nurses recruited in Messina, Italy (Block 2: n=60). Participants within each block were randomly assigned to the (1) Experimental Group (EG): n=40; B1=20, B2=20, which received a 5-week treatment based on the Interreality paradigm; (2) Control Group (CG): n=42; B1=22, B2=20, which received a 5-week traditional stress management training based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT); and (3) the Wait-List group (WL): n=39, B1=19, B2=20, which was reassessed and compared with the two other groups 5 weeks after the initial evaluation. Results Although both treatments were able to significantly reduce perceived stress better than WL, only EG participants reported a significant reduction (EG=12% vs CG=0

  12. Experiential virtual scenarios with real-time monitoring (interreality) for the management of psychological stress: a block randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Pallavicini, Federica; Morganti, Luca; Serino, Silvia; Scaratti, Chiara; Briguglio, Marilena; Crifaci, Giulia; Vetrano, Noemi; Giulintano, Annunziata; Bernava, Giuseppe; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Pioggia, Giovanni; Raspelli, Simona; Cipresso, Pietro; Vigna, Cinzia; Grassi, Alessandra; Baruffi, Margherita; Wiederhold, Brenda; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-07-08

    The recent convergence between technology and medicine is offering innovative methods and tools for behavioral health care. Among these, an emerging approach is the use of virtual reality (VR) within exposure-based protocols for anxiety disorders, and in particular posttraumatic stress disorder. However, no systematically tested VR protocols are available for the management of psychological stress. Our goal was to evaluate the efficacy of a new technological paradigm, Interreality, for the management and prevention of psychological stress. The main feature of Interreality is a twofold link between the virtual and the real world achieved through experiential virtual scenarios (fully controlled by the therapist, used to learn coping skills and improve self-efficacy) with real-time monitoring and support (identifying critical situations and assessing clinical change) using advanced technologies (virtual worlds, wearable biosensors, and smartphones). The study was designed as a block randomized controlled trial involving 121 participants recruited from two different worker populations-teachers and nurses-that are highly exposed to psychological stress. Participants were a sample of teachers recruited in Milan (Block 1: n=61) and a sample of nurses recruited in Messina, Italy (Block 2: n=60). Participants within each block were randomly assigned to the (1) Experimental Group (EG): n=40; B1=20, B2=20, which received a 5-week treatment based on the Interreality paradigm; (2) Control Group (CG): n=42; B1=22, B2=20, which received a 5-week traditional stress management training based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT); and (3) the Wait-List group (WL): n=39, B1=19, B2=20, which was reassessed and compared with the two other groups 5 weeks after the initial evaluation. Although both treatments were able to significantly reduce perceived stress better than WL, only EG participants reported a significant reduction (EG=12% vs. CG=0.5%) in chronic "trait" anxiety. A similar

  13. The Role of Organizational Learning Culture and Psychological Empowerment in Reducing Turnover Intention and Enhancing Citizenship Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Talat; Khan, Mubbsher Munawar; Bukhari, Fida Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the association among organizational learning culture (OLC), psychological empowerment (PE), affective commitment (AC), organizational citizenship behavior and turnover intention. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study was undertaken via a questionnaire conducted among Malay-Chinese working in…

  14. [Relationship between cyberbullying and the suicide related psychological behavior among middle and high school students in Anhui Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gengfu; Fang, Yu; Jiang, Liu; Zhou, Guiyang; Yuan, Shanshan; Wang, Xiuxiu; Su, Puyu

    2015-11-01

    To examine the prevalence rate of cyberbullying in middle and high school students in Anhui Province and explore the relationship between cyberbullying and suicide related psychological behavior. A total of 5726 middle and high school students from the 7th to the 12th grades in three regular middle schools and three regular high schools recruited from three cities in the Anhui Province (Tongling, Chuzhou, and Fuyang). Tongling, Chuzhou, and Fuyang are in the south, middle and north of Anhui, respectively. Each city was selected one regular middle school and one regular high school, and 8 classes were selected form each grade from each school. A stratified cluster random sampling method was used to randomly select 5726 participants among the six schools. Self-reports on cyberbullying and suicide related psychological behavior were collected. Among these 5726 adolescents, 46.8% of them involved in cyberbullying. Among them, 3.2% were bullies, 23.8% were victims, and 19.8% were both. Prevalence rates of suicide idea, suicide plan, suicide preparation, suicide implementation were 19.3%, 6.9%, 4.7% and 1.8%, respectively. Cyberbullying involvement, as victims, bullies or bully-victims, increased the risk of four kinds of suicide related psychological behavior (suicide idea, suicide plan, suicide preparation, suicide implementation) (P Cyberbullying has become a common occurrence in middle and high school students. Additionally, cyberbullying is closely related to suicide related psychological behavior among middle and high school students.

  15. Psychological Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Obese and Severely Obese Women in a Behavioral Physical Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Whitaker, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral processes of weight reduction are poorly understood, and responses to treatments based primarily on caloric restriction have been unfavorable. A theory-based path derived from proposed relations of physical activity, changes in psychological factors, and weight loss was separately tested with women with Class I and Class II obesity…

  16. Suicidal Desire and the Capability for Suicide: Tests of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Gordon, Kathryn H.; Bender, Theodore W.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (T. E. Joiner, 2005) proposes that an individual will not die by suicide unless he or she has both the desire to die by suicide and the ability to do so. Three studies test the theory's hypotheses. In Study 1, the interaction of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness…

  17. Psychological burden among women with polycystic ovarian syndrome in Oman: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Maha Ah; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Khaduri, Maha M; Waly, Mostafa I; Saleh, Jumana; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies in Euro-American populations have shown that women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have increased levels of "psychological burden". While PCOS has been reported in Arab countries such as Oman, there is a dearth of studies of the occurrence of psychological burden among PCOS women in the Arab region. This study aimed to compare sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of PCOS women diagnosed with non-PCOS women and prevalence of severity of depression, anxiety and stress and to explore the association between PCOS and indices of psychological disturbances after adjusting for potential confounding factors. This hospital-based case-control study was conducted among women aged 16-49 years. The study included 52 women diagnosed with PCOS (as per Rotterdam 2003 criteria) and 60 control who were PCOS-free. The presence of psychological burden - depression, anxiety and stress - was quantified using Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). The crude odds ratios (ORs) generated by logistic regression models indicated an increased risk of depression, anxiety and stress among women with PCOS compared to controls. The adjusted OR also indicated an increased risk of depression (OR =1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50, 2.43), anxiety (OR =1.09; 95% CI 0.47, 2.52) and stress (OR =1.45; 95% CI 0.68, 3.12), However, no statistical differences were observed along the three psychological distresses ( p >0.05) between the two study groups. The study indicates that the presence of PCOS is associated with an increased risk of psychological burden. If this study will withstand further scrutiny, meeting psychological needs of such population would need to be contemplated.

  18. The Effects of Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs at School on Children’s Prosocial Behavior and Antisocial Behavior: The Mediating Role of School Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Tian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Grounded in Basic Psychological Need Theory, we examined the direct effects of the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school (i.e., satisfaction of autonomy needs at school, satisfaction of relatedness needs at school, and satisfaction of competence needs at school on prosocial behavior and antisocial behavior as well as the mediation effects of school satisfaction on the relations between the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school and prosocial behavior as well as antisocial behavior. We employed a sample of 801 Chinese children (429 males; Mage = 9.47 in a three-wave longitudinal study, with each wave occurring 6 months apart. Direct and indirect effects were estimated by Structural Equation Modeling. Results indicated that: (1 Satisfaction of relatedness needs at school and competence needs at school, but not satisfaction of autonomy needs at school, displayed direct effects on prosocial behavior. Also, satisfaction of relatedness needs at school, but not satisfaction of autonomy needs at school or competence needs at school, displayed direct effects on antisocial behavior. (2 Both satisfaction of relatedness needs at school and competence needs at school displayed indirect effects on prosocial behavior and antisocial behavior via school satisfaction as a mediator. However, satisfaction of autonomy needs at school failed to have indirect effects on prosocial behavior or antisocial behavior via school satisfaction. These findings suggest differential predictors of children’s prosocial and antisocial behavior, supporting the separability of the two constructs. The findings also suggest developmental differences in need satisfaction, with the satisfaction of autonomy needs playing a relatively less important role in school-age children. We also discussed limitations and practical applications of the study.

  19. Perceived discrimination and psychological well-being: the mediating and moderating role of sense of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A; Small, Brent J

    2008-01-01

    Being discriminated against is an unpleasant and stressful experience, and its connection to reduced psychological well-being is well-documented. The present study hypothesized that a sense of control would serve as both mediator and moderator in the dynamics of perceived discrimination and psychological well-being. In addition, variations by age, gender, and race in the effects of perceived discrimination were explored. Data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) survey (N=1554; age range = 45 to 74) provided supportive evidence for the hypotheses. The relationships between perceived discrimination and positive and negative affect were reduced when sense of control was controlled, demonstrating the role of sense of control as a mediator. The moderating role of sense of control was also supported, but only in the analysis for negative affect: the combination of a discriminatory experience and low sense of control markedly increased negative affect. In addition, age and gender variations were observed: the negative impact of perceived discrimination on psychological well-being was more pronounced among younger adults and females compared to their counterparts. The findings elucidated the mechanisms by which perceived discrimination manifested its psychological outcomes, and suggest ways to reduce adverse consequences associated with discriminatory experiences.

  20. [Reliability and validity of warning signs checklist for screening psychological, behavioral and developmental problems of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X N; Zhang, Y; Feng, W W; Wang, H S; Cao, B; Zhang, B; Yang, Y F; Wang, H M; Zheng, Y; Jin, X M; Jia, M X; Zou, X B; Zhao, C X; Robert, J; Jing, Jin

    2017-06-02

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability and validity of warning signs checklist developed by the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China (NHFPC), so as to determine the screening effectiveness of warning signs on developmental problems of early childhood. Method: Stratified random sampling method was used to assess the reliability and validity of checklist of warning sign and 2 110 children 0 to 6 years of age(1 513 low-risk subjects and 597 high-risk subjects) were recruited from 11 provinces of China. The reliability evaluation for the warning signs included the test-retest reliability and interrater reliability. With the use of Age and Stage Questionnaire (ASQ) and Gesell Development Diagnosis Scale (GESELL) as the criterion scales, criterion validity was assessed by determining the correlation and consistency between the screening results of warning signs and the criterion scales. Result: In terms of the warning signs, the screening positive rates at different ages ranged from 10.8%(21/141) to 26.2%(51/137). The median (interquartile) testing time for each subject was 1(0.6) minute. Both the test-retest reliability and interrater reliability of warning signs reached 0.7 or above, indicating that the stability was good. In terms of validity assessment, there was remarkable consistency between ASQ and warning signs, with the Kappa value of 0.63. With the use of GESELL as criterion, it was determined that the sensitivity of warning signs in children with suspected developmental delay was 82.2%, and the specificity was 77.7%. The overall Youden index was 0.6. Conclusion: The reliability and validity of warning signs checklist for screening early childhood developmental problems have met the basic requirements of psychological screening scales, with the characteristics of short testing time and easy operation. Thus, this warning signs checklist can be used for screening psychological and behavioral problems of early childhood

  1. The Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Down Syndrome (BPSD-DS) Scale : Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathology in Down Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Alain D; Sacco, Silvia; Carfi, Angelo; Benejam, Bessy; Vermeiren, Yannick; Beugelsdijk, Gonny; Schippers, Mieke; Hassefras, Lyanne; Eleveld, José; Grefelman, Sharina; Fopma, Roelie; Bomer-Veenboer, Monique; Boti, Mariángeles; Oosterling, G Danielle E; Scholten, Esther; Tollenaere, Marleen; Checkley, Laura; Strydom, André; Van Goethem, Gert; Onder, Graziano; Blesa, Rafael; Zu Eulenburg, Christine; Coppus, Antonia M W; Rebillat, Anne-Sophie; Fortea, Juan; De Deyn, Peter P

    2018-01-01

    People with Down syndrome (DS) are prone to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD). Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are core features, but have not been comprehensively evaluated in DS. In a European multidisciplinary study, the novel Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of

  2. Relationship between Child and Parental Dental Anxiety with Child's Psychological Functioning and Behavior during the Administration of Local Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boka, Vasiliki; Arapostathis, Konstantinos; Kotsanos, Nikolaos; Karagiannis, Vassilis; van Loveren, Cor; Veerkamp, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine: 1) the relationship between children's psychological functioning, dental anxiety and cooperative behavior before and during local anesthesia, 2) the relationship of parental dental anxiety with all the above child characteristics. There was a convenient sample of 100 children (4-12 years). Child dental anxiety and psychological functioning were measured using the "Children's Fear Survey Schedule" (CFSS-DS) and the "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire" (SDQ) respectively. Parental dental anxiety was measured using the "Modified Dental Anxiety Scale" (MDAS). All questionnaires were completed by parents. Before and during local anesthesia, the child behavior was scored by one experienced examiner, using the Venham scale. Non-parametric tests and correlations (Mann-Whitney, Spearman's rho) were used for the analysis. The mean SDQ score was 10±5.6 for boys (n=60) and 8.3±4.8 for girls (n=40) (p=0.038), but there was no correlation with children's age. The mean CFSS-DS score was 33.1±11.86 and there was no correlation with age or gender. Children with higher levels in the pro-social subscale of the SDQ had significantly less anxiety and better behavior before local anesthesia. Higher mean CFSS-DS scores were significantly associated with uncooperative behavior during local anesthesia (p=0.04). There was no correlation between parents' and their children's dental anxiety, psychological functioning and behavior. 46% of the children had previous dental experience in the last 6 months. As time since the last dental treatment increased, an improvement was found in children's behavior during local anesthesia. Child psychological functioning was related to dental anxiety and behavior during dental appointment involving local anesthesia.

  3. Adolescents' hypochondriacal fears and beliefs: Relationship with demographic features, psychological distress, well-being and health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, Laura; Ricci Garotti, Maria Grazia; Grandi, Silvana; Tossani, Eliana

    2015-10-01

    There is little previous literature on hypochondriacal attitudes in teens. We examined the relationship between adolescents' hypochondriacal fears and beliefs, demographic features, psychological distress and well-being, and health-related behaviors. Nine hundred and forty-eight students (53.4% males), aged 14-19years (mean 15.8±1.3years), completed the Illness Attitude Scales, the Symptom Questionnaire, and the Psychological Well-Being scales. Demographic features and health-related behaviors (smoking, alcohol consumption, illicit substance use, and sedentary, eating and sleep habits) were also collected. Hypochondriacal concerns were significantly higher among females and correlated with increased psychological distress and reduced well-being. One hundred and forty-nine participants (15.7% of the sample) reached the threshold of the "hypochondriacal responses", identified by Kellner as a screening method for clinically significant hypochondriacal symptoms. The "hypochondriacal responses" were significantly associated with higher levels of psychological distress, decreased well-being, and some unhealthy behaviors: smoking, use of illicit substances, physical inactivity, and short sleep. Female gender, physical inactivity, and higher levels of hostility independently predicted the "hypochondriacal responses" pattern. A substantial percentage of adolescents experience significant concerns about health. Excessive illness fears are associated with less healthy behaviors. A thorough assessment of illness-related concerns may be crucial for the prevention of both the development of more structured forms of abnormal illness behavior (e.g., severe health anxiety) and the engagement in some unhealthy lifestyles in adolescents. However, it may also be that unhealthy behaviors lead to increased preoccupation with one's own health through adolescents' implicit knowledge about possible consequences of such behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stressors, locus of control, and social support as consequences of affective psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, K; Guppy, A

    1997-04-01

    Tests of the influence of affective psychological well-being on stressors, locus of control, and social support in a 1-month follow-up study of 210 male and 34 female British accountants is reported. There was a marginally significant association between the level of psychological symptoms and subsequent reports of intensity of quantitative workload stressors. A significant interaction between psychological symptoms and a measure of depression-enthusiasm was found to predict subsequent locus of control. The results indicate a differential pattern of associations between aspects of affective well-being and subsequent reports of social support. The results also indicate that initially more frequent stressors are associated with subsequently less intense stressors of the same type. The findings highlight the dynamic and reciprocal nature of the occupational stress process.

  5. Online Interventions for Social Marketing Health Behavior Change Campaigns: A Meta-Analysis of Psychological Architectures and Adherence Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwall, Mike; Dawes, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Background Researchers and practitioners have developed numerous online interventions that encourage people to reduce their drinking, increase their exercise, and better manage their weight. Motivations to develop eHealth interventions may be driven by the Internet’s reach, interactivity, cost-effectiveness, and studies that show online interventions work. However, when designing online interventions suitable for public campaigns, there are few evidence-based guidelines, taxonomies are difficult to apply, many studies lack impact data, and prior meta-analyses are not applicable to large-scale public campaigns targeting voluntary behavioral change. Objectives This meta-analysis assessed online intervention design features in order to inform the development of online campaigns, such as those employed by social marketers, that seek to encourage voluntary health behavior change. A further objective was to increase understanding of the relationships between intervention adherence, study adherence, and behavioral outcomes. Methods Drawing on systematic review methods, a combination of 84 query terms were used in 5 bibliographic databases with additional gray literature searches. This resulted in 1271 abstracts and papers; 31 met the inclusion criteria. In total, 29 papers describing 30 interventions were included in the primary meta-analysis, with the 2 additional studies qualifying for the adherence analysis. Using a random effects model, the first analysis estimated the overall effect size, including groupings by control conditions and time factors. The second analysis assessed the impacts of psychological design features that were coded with taxonomies from evidence-based behavioral medicine, persuasive technology, and other behavioral influence fields. These separate systems were integrated into a coding framework model called the communication-based influence components model. Finally, the third analysis assessed the relationships between intervention adherence

  6. Guilt Trips and Love Withdrawal: Does Mothers' Use of Psychological Control Predict Depressive Symptoms among African American Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Pikes, Crysta L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maternal psychological control on the depressive symptoms of 152 lower socioeconomic status African American adolescents. After controlling for the effects of other parenting practices, psychological control had a strong positive relationship with girls' depressive symptoms, but none for boys, even though the 2…

  7. Exploring sustainable behavior structure in higher education a socio-psychology confirmatory approach

    CERN Document Server

    Juárez-Nájera, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a social-psychology model delineating the factors that may influence in an altruistic manner sustainable behaviour (SB) of students, faculty and administrators in four higher education institutions (HEI) with very different economic and social characteristics. It presents the areas where these individuals work (education and community management), and in which of them education for sustainability is promoted, focusing on four alternative methods of learning: play, art, group therapy, and personnel management. The book is intended for bachelors and graduated students, as well as researchers in social psychology, environmental psychology, conservation psychology, environmental education, education for sustainable development, cross-cultural psychology, and social sciences.

  8. Psychological rehabilitation after myocardial infarction: multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D. A.; West, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate rehabilitation after myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial of rehabilitation in unselected myocardial infarction patients in six centres, baseline data being collected on admission and by structured interview (of patients and spouses) shortly after discharge and outcome being assessed by structured interview at six months and clinical examination at 12 months. SETTING: Six district general hospitals. SUBJECTS: All 2328 eligible patients admitted ove...

  9. Psychological aspects and coping in haemophilic patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canclini, M; Saviolo-Negrin, N; Zanon, E; Bertoletti, R; Girolami, A; Pagnan, A

    2003-09-01

    Although enormous progress has been made in recent years in the field of haemophilia, some problems still await solution, such as the risk of sudden haemorrhage, the sequelae of haemophilic arthropathy and social activities. We, therefore, carried out a case-control study in which some psychological dimensions (social expectations, tendency to depression, state of anxiety and self-esteem) were evaluated in a group of 60 haemophiliacs. A control group was formed of 78 healthy subjects matched for age, socio-economic class and level of education. The methodology used was the administration of self-assessment questionnaires which investigate and provide a quantitative measure of psychological dimensions. The results can be subjected to statistical analysis. Three self-assessment questionnaires were used: (i) the Marlowe-Crowne scale, (ii) the Beck Inventory version modified by Cusinato and (iii) the S.T.A.I.-form. Our aim was to evaluate: (i) whether there are significant differences in the considered psychological aspects between haemophiliacs and healthy subjects; (ii) whether there is a significant correlation between the psychological dimensions considered in the haemophiliacs and in the healthy subjects. The results showed that the haemophiliacs have a good psychological adaptation to their disease with the exception of their greater tendency to have less self-esteem than do the healthy subjects. As far as concerns the second aim, we found than self-esteem correlated with all the psychological variables investigated. This information could indicate the enormous importance that the psychological variable 'self-esteem' plays in haemophiliacs with respect to whether or not they develop depressive disorders and/or anxiety states.

  10. Computer-enhanced interventions for drug use and HIV risk in the emergency room: preliminary results on psychological precursors of behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Erin E; Walton, Maureen A; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Chermack, Stephen T; Bohnert, Amy S B; Barry, Kristen L; Booth, Brenda M; Blow, Frederic C

    2014-01-01

    This article describes process data from a randomized controlled trial among 781 adults recruited in the emergency department who reported recent drug use and were randomized to: intervener-delivered brief intervention (IBI) assisted by computer, computerized BI (CBI), or enhanced usual care (EUC). Analyses examined differences between baseline and post-intervention on psychological constructs theoretically related to changes in drug use and HIV risk: importance, readiness, intention, help-seeking, and confidence. Compared to EUC, participants receiving the IBI significantly increased in confidence and intentions; CBI patients increased importance, readiness, confidence, and help-seeking. Both groups increased relative to the EUC in likelihood of condom use with regular partners. Examining BI components suggested that benefits of change and tools for change were associated with changes in psychological constructs. Delivering BIs targeting drug use and HIV risk using computers appears promising for implementation in healthcare settings. This trial is ongoing and future work will report behavioral outcomes. © 2013.

  11. Marketing, Technology, and Medicine: Recommendations on How to Incorporate Psychological Principles into New Technologies to Promote Healthy Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Dektor, Asha H; Young, Sean D

    2014-07-01

    Although technologies have provided new forms of entertainment and improved our work efficiency, they have also reduced our need to engage in healthy physical activities. We believe that the psychological principles that make sedentary entertainment technologies (such as television and video games) engaging can be incorporated into new technologies to make new technologies both engaging and promote healthy behaviors. This short report aims to 1) describe how technology has traditionally reduced motivation to engage in health behaviors, 2) discuss key elements that may make sedentary technology (in this case, television) engaging, and 3) provide examples of how these same elements can be incorporated into new technologies to increase engagement and promote health behaviors.

  12. The genetic and environmental foundations of political, psychological, social, and economic behaviors: a panel study of twins and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K; Smith, Kevin; Alford, John R; Martin, Nicholas G; Hibbing, John R

    2015-06-01

    Here we introduce the Genetic and Environmental Foundations of Political and Economic Behaviors: A Panel Study of Twins and Families (PIs Alford, Hatemi, Hibbing, Martin, and Smith). This study was designed to explore the genetic and environmental influences on social, economic, and political behaviors and attitudes. It involves identifying the psychological mechanisms that operate on these traits, the heritability of complex economic and political traits under varying conditions, and specific genetic correlates of attitudes and behaviors. In addition to describing the study, we conduct novel analyses on the data, estimating the heritability of two traits so far unexplored in the extant literature: Machiavellianism and Baron-Cohen's Empathizing Quotient.

  13. Maladaptive perfectionism as mediator among psychological control, eating disorders, and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sebastiano; Hausenblas, Heather A; Oliva, Patrizia; Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims The current study examined the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism among parental psychological control, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms by gender in habitual exercisers. Methods Participants were 348 Italian exercisers (n = 178 men and n = 170 women; M age = 20.57, SD = 1.13) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing their parental psychological control, maladaptive perfectionism, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms. Results Results of the present study confirmed the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism for eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms for the male and female exercisers in the maternal data. In the paternal data, maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationships between paternal psychological control and eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms as full mediator for female participants and as partial mediator for male participants. Discussion Findings of the present study suggest that it may be beneficial to consider dimensions of maladaptive perfectionism and parental psychological control when studying eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser.

  14. Relations between Parental Psychological Control and Childhood Relational Aggression: Reciprocal in Nature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Michiels, Daisy

    2009-01-01

    Using a cross-lagged panel design, this study examined the directionality of relations between parental psychological control and child relational aggression. Data were collected from a proportionally stratified sample of 600 Flemish 8- to 10-year-old children at 3 measurement points with 1-year intervals. Reciprocal effects were evident in…

  15. Relations Between Parental Psychological Control and Childhood Relational Aggression : Reciprocal in Nature?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppens, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Michiels, Daisy

    2009-01-01

    Using a cross-lagged panel design, this study examined the directionality of relations between parental psychological control and child relational aggression. Data were collected from a proportionally stratified sample of 600 Flemish 8- to 10-year-old children at 3 measurement points with 1-year

  16. Perceived Academic Control: Mediating the Effects of Optimism and Social Support on College Students' Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthig, Joelle C.; Haynes, Tara L.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.

    2009-01-01

    The first year of college presents numerous challenges experienced as overwhelming by some freshmen who may become overly stressed and depressed. This longitudinal study examined perceived academic control (PAC) as a mediator of optimism and social support's buffering effects on freshman students' psychological health. Multiple regressions…

  17. Perceived parental psychological control, familism values, and Mexican American college students' adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Gabrielle C; Killoren, Sarah E; Alfaro, Edna C

    2016-10-01

    Drawing from cultural ecological and risk and resilience perspectives, we investigated associations among Mexican American college students' perceptions of mothers' and fathers' psychological control and familism values, and college students' adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms and self-esteem). Additionally, we examined how familism values moderated the relations between perceived psychological control and college students' adjustment. Participants were 186 Mexican American college students (78.5% women; Mage = 21.56 years), and data were collected using self-report online surveys. Using path analyses, we found that perceived maternal psychological control was positively associated and familism values were negatively associated with college students' depressive symptoms. Additionally, perceived paternal psychological control was negatively associated with college students' self-esteem when college students reported low, but not high, familism values. Findings highlight the importance of family relationships for Mexican American college students and the significance of examining these relationships within this cultural context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. A Model of Parental Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control in Academically Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated achievement-oriented parent socialization as it pertains to school avoidance in a sample of gifted students. A serial mediation model examining relationships among parental achievement-oriented psychological control (APC), fear of academic failure, academic amotivation, and school avoidance was tested. The sample included…

  19. Academic Entitlement: Relations to Perceptions of Parental Warmth and Psychological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lisa A.; McCormick, Wesley H.

    2018-01-01

    Academic entitlement characterises students who expect positive academic outcomes without personal effort. The current study examined the relations of perceived parental warmth and parental psychological control with two dimensions of academic entitlement (i.e., entitled expectations and externalised responsibility) among college students.…

  20. Operators work reliability current control based on the psychological and physiological criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, A.V.; Burov, A.Yu.; Grigorus', A.G.; Kal'nish, V.V.; Kapshuk, A.P.; Grigor'yants, T.N.; Bobko, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    A possibility of developing highly sensitive criteria for assessment of mental working ability at the expense of profound automated analysis of available psychological and physiological criteria is disclosed; it is a precondition for developing operator is woAking ability control system not requiring additional personnel for its operation

  1. Psychological predictors of mobile phone use while crossing the street among college students: An application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kang; Ling, Feiyang; Feng, Zhongxiang; Wang, Kun; Guo, Lei

    2017-02-17

    As the prevalence of mobile phone use has increased globally, experts have verified the effects of mobile phone distraction on traffic safety. However, the psychological factors underlying pedestrians' decisions to use their mobile phones while crossing the street have received little attention. The present study employed the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to investigate the psychological factors that influence pedestrians' intentions to use a mobile phone while crossing the street. The additional predictors of descriptive norms, moral norms, risk perception, mobile phone involvement, and perceived ability to compensate are included. Approximately 40% of participants reported having used a mobile phone while crossing during the previous week and 5.4% had been involved in crossing accidents due to mobile phone distractions. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed overall support for the predictive utility of the TPB. The standard TPB variables accounted for 13.3% of variance in intentions after demographic variables were controlled, and the extended predictors contributed an additional 7.6% beyond the standard constructs. The current study revealed that attitude, perceived behavior control, descriptive norms, mobile phone involvement, and perceived ability to compensate all emerged as significant predictors of intentions. The findings could support the design of more effective safety campaigns and interventions to reduce pedestrians' distracted crossing behaviors.

  2. The impact of windows and daylight on acute-care nurses' physiological, psychological, and behavioral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Rana Sagha; Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey; Williams, Gary; Chung, Susan Sung Eun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the physiological and psychological effects of windows and daylight on registered nurses. To date, evidence has indicated that appropriate environmental lighting with characteristics similar to natural light can improve mood, alertness, and performance. The restorative effects of windows also have been documented. Hospital workspaces generally lack windows and daylight, and the impact of the lack of windows and daylight on healthcare employees' well being has not been thoroughly investigated. Data were collected using multiple methods with a quasi-experimental approach (i.e., biological measurements, behavioral mapping, and analysis of archival data) in an acute-care nursing unit with two wards that have similar environmental and organizational conditions, and similar patient populations and acuity, but different availability of windows in the nursing stations. Findings indicated that blood pressure (p windows and daylight. A possible micro-restorative effect of windows and daylight may result in lowered blood pressure and increased oxygen saturation and a positive effect on circadian rhythms (as suggested by body temperature) and morning sleepiness. Critical care/intensive care, lighting, nursing, quality care, work environment.

  3. State of the Science: Apathy As a Model for Investigating Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimo, Lauren; Kales, Helen C; Kolanowski, Ann

    2018-04-01

    Apathy is one of the most common and pervasive of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSDs). Apathy has profound consequences for morbidity, mortality, and caregiver burden. Treatment of apathy has been hindered because of poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying this heterogeneous syndrome. Research has demonstrated that apathy is associated with disruption of the frontal-striatal system in individuals with neurodegenerative disease. As with other BPSDs, these neural mechanisms alone do not completely account for the syndrome; individual, caregiver, and environmental factors also contribute to apathy. In this article, we modify a current conceptual model of the factors contributing to BPSDs to examine determinants of apathy. This integrative model provides a more complete and theoretically informed understanding of apathy, allowing for greater insight into potential targets for research, intervention, and care. We end by proposing an agenda for moving the science of BPSDs in general, and apathy in particular, forward. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Adolescents' smoking behavior and its relationships with psychological constructs based on transtheoretical model: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ho

    2006-05-01

    Korean adolescents' smoking is currently being considered as a crucial factor determining the health status of adolescents and an important public health and social issue. The purpose of the study was to test the applicability of the Transtheoretical model to gain an understanding of smoking behavior change. A total of 706 adolescents who participated in the smoking cessation programs administered by the Korea Quit Smoking Association or Korean Association of Smoking & Health in 2003 were recruited. Four Korean-version questionnaires were used to identify the stages of smoking behavior and psychological attributes: Stage of Smoking Behavior Change Scale, Processes of Change Scale for Smoking, Decision Balance Scale for Smoking, and Self-efficacy Scale to avoid smoking. Korean adolescents' smoking behavior was differed according to gender. In addition, the findings revealed that behavioral and cognitive processes of change, self-efficacy, and positives differed across the stages of smoking behavior, and that psychological constructs of the transtheoretical model had a statistically significant impact on smoking behavior change. This research could spawn the development of theory-based and empirically supported smoking cessation intervention strategies and programs directed toward adolescents in the health care and nursing areas.

  5. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-06-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage.

  6. Cultural Meaning of Perceived Control: A Meta-Analysis of Locus of Control and Psychological Symptoms across 18 Cultural Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cecilia; Cheung, Shu-fai; Chio, Jasmine Hin-man; Chan, Man-pui Sally

    2013-01-01

    Integrating more than 40 years of studies on locus of control (LOC), this meta-analysis investigated whether (a) the magnitude of the relationship between LOC and psychological symptoms differed among cultures with distinct individualist orientations and (b) depression and anxiety symptoms yielded different patterns of cultural findings with LOC.…

  7. A randomized control study of psychological intervention to reduce anxiety, amotivation and psychological distress among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coumaravelou Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1 st year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. Results: After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01 and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01 in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Conclusion: Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables.

  8. A randomized control study of psychological intervention to reduce anxiety, amotivation and psychological distress among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Kingston, Rajiah

    2014-05-01

    Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1(st) year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01) and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01) in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables.

  9. The role of psychological flexibility in a self-help acceptance and commitment therapy intervention for psychological distress in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Fox, Jean-Paul; Schreurs, Karlein M G; Spinhoven, Philip

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the role of psychological flexibility, as a risk factor and as a process of change, in a self-help Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention for adults with mild to moderate depression and anxiety. Participants were randomized to the self-help programme with e-mail support (n=250), or to a waiting list control group (n=126). All participants completed measures before and after the intervention to assess depression, anxiety and psychological flexibility. Participants in the experimental condition also completed these measures during the intervention (after three and six weeks) and at a three-month follow-up. With multilevel modelling, it was shown that the effects of the intervention on psychological distress were stronger for participants with higher levels of psychological flexibility. Furthermore, our study showed that improved psychological flexibility mediated the effects of the ACT intervention. With a cross-lagged panel design, it was shown that especially improvements in psychological flexibility in the last three sessions of the intervention were important for further reductions in anxiety. To conclude, our study showed the importance of targeting psychological flexibility during an ACT intervention for a reduction in depressive and anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Locus of control, minority stress, and psychological distress among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Larry W; Mollen, Debra; Smith, Nathan Grant

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of minority stress theory, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are conceptualized as members of a minority group defined by sexual orientation. Two of the component processes of minority stress hypothesized by Meyer (2003), internalized heterosexism and the experience of prejudice events, were examined in the current study. Both internalized heterosexism and the experience of prejudice events have been associated with increased psychological distress in LGB populations. Researchers have also observed a relationship between external locus of control and increased psychological distress in general population samples. The current study explored whether locus of control served as a moderator in the relationship between the overall psychological distress of LGB individuals and both internalized heterosexism and the experience of workplace-based prejudice events (n = 165). Results indicated that locus of control served as a moderator in the relationship between experience of workplace-based prejudice events and overall psychological distress but not for the relationship between internalized heterosexism and distress. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Direct-to-consumer marketing of psychological treatments: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Kaitlin P; Comer, Jonathan S; Barlow, David H; Clarke, Roberta N; Antony, Martin M

    2015-10-01

    Although direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing of pharmacologic interventions is effective and common, similar approaches have yet to be evaluated in the promotion of psychological treatments (PTs). This is the first randomized controlled trial evaluating the potential of DTC marketing of PTs. Participants (N = 344; 75.0% female, mean age = 18.6 years, 48.5% non-Hispanic White) were randomly assigned to consume one of four extended commercial campaigns embedded within unrelated programming across 3 weeks. The four campaign conditions were a PT campaign, a PT informing about medication side effects campaign, a medication campaign, and a neutral campaign. Attitudes about and intention to seek psychological treatment were assessed prior to campaign exposure (T1), 1 week following the final week of campaign exposure (T2), and at a 3-month follow-up evaluation (T3). The percentage of participants who newly intended psychological treatment at T2 or T3 differed by condition, with those assigned to the PT campaign slightly more likely to have intended to receive psychological treatment at T2 or T3 than those in other conditions. Baseline reports of emotional symptoms moderated the effect of condition on attitudes toward PT and perceived likelihood of seeking treatment in the future. Findings support the preliminary utility of DTC marketing of psychological treatments. Increasing consumer knowledge of PTs may be a worthwhile complement to current dissemination and implementation efforts aimed at promoting the uptake of PTs in mental health care. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Impact of cholinesterase inhibitors on behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease: A meta-analysis

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    Noll Campbell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Noll Campbell1, Amir Ayub2, Malaz A Boustani2, Chris Fox3, Martin Farlow4, Ian Maidment3, Robert Howard51Wishard Health Services, Indianapolis, Indiana; 2Indiana University Center for Aging Research, Regenstrief Institute, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana; 3University of Kent, Kent, United Kingdom; 4Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana; 5King’s College, London, United KingdomObjective: To determine the efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs in improving the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD.Data sources: We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Registry, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL from 1966 to 2007. We limited our search to English Language, full text, published articles and human studies.Data extraction: We included randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of donepezil, rivastigmine, or galantamine in managing BPSD displayed by AD patients. Using the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF guidelines, we critically appraised all studies and included only those with an attrition rate of less than 40%, concealed measurement of the outcomes, and intention to treat analysis of the collected data. All data were imputed into pre-defined evidence based tables and were pooled using the Review Manager 4.2.1 software for data synthesis.Results: We found 12 studies that met our inclusion criteria but only nine of them provided sufficient data for the meta-analysis. Among patients with mild to severe AD and in comparison to placebo, ChEIs as a class had a beneficial effects on reducing BPSD with a standard mean difference (SMD of −0.10 (95% confidence interval [CI]; −0.18, −0.01 and a weighted mean difference (WMD of −1.38 neuropsychiatry inventory point (95% CI; −2.30, −0.46. In studies with mild AD patients, the WMD was −1.92 (95% CI; −3.18, −0.66; and in studies

  13. Self-perceived psychological stress and ischemic stroke: a case-control study

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    Blomstrand Christian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of evidence suggests that psychological stress contributes to coronary artery disease. However, associations between stress and stroke are less clear. In this study, we investigated the possible association between ischemic stroke and self-perceived psychological stress, as measured by a single-item questionnaire, previously reported to be associated with myocardial infarction. Methods In the Sahlgrenska Academy Study on Ischemic Stroke (SAHLSIS, 600 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke (aged 18 to 69 years and 600 age-matched and sex-matched population controls were recruited. Ischemic stroke subtype was determined according to Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST criteria. Self-perceived psychological stress preceding stroke was assessed retrospectively using a single-item questionnaire. Results Permanent self-perceived psychological stress during the last year or longer was independently associated with overall ischemic stroke (multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR 3.49, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.06 to 5.93. Analyses by stroke subtype showed that this association was present for large vessel disease (OR 3.91, 95% CI 1.58 to 9.67, small vessel disease (OR 3.20, 95% CI 1.64 to 6.24, and cryptogenic stroke (OR 4.03, 95% CI 2.34 to 6.95, but not for cardioembolic stroke (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.64 to 3.39. Conclusion In this case-control study, we found an independent association between self-perceived psychological stress and ischemic stroke. A novel finding was that this association differed by ischemic stroke subtype. Our results emphasize the need for further prospective studies addressing the potential role for psychological stress as a risk factor for ischemic stroke. In such studies ischemic stroke subtypes should be taken into consideration.

  14. The Role of Parents' Control in Early Adolescents' Psychological Functioning: A Longitudinal Investigation in the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Chen, Huichang

    2007-01-01

    This research compared the effects over time of parents' control and autonomy support on children's functioning in the United States and China. American and Chinese (N = 806) seventh graders (mean age = 12.73 years) participated in a 6-month longitudinal study. Children reported on their parents' psychological control, psychological autonomy…

  15. Does Parental Psychological Control Relate to Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Early Childhood? An Examination Using the Berkeley Puppet Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lisanne L.; Otten, Roy; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Soenens, Bart; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Parental psychological control has been linked to symptoms of psychopathology in adolescence, yet less is known about its correlates in childhood. The current study is among the first to address whether psychological control is related to internalizing and externalizing problems in early childhood. A community sample of 298 children aged 7.04…

  16. Confirming the Multidimensionality of Psychologically Controlling Parenting among Chinese-American Mothers: Love Withdrawal, Guilt Induction, and Shaming

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    Yu, Jing; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Hart, Craig H.; Sun, Shuyan; Olsen, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the theoretical conceptualization of parental psychological control as a multidimensional construct, the majority of previous studies have examined psychological control as a unidimensional scale. Moreover, the conceptualization of shaming and its associations with love withdrawal and guilt induction are unclear. The current study aimed to…

  17. Human Behavior and Environmental Sustainability: promoting a pro-environmental behavior by harnessing the social, psychological and physical influences of the built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusafieh, Shaden; Razem, Maiss

    2017-11-01

    Recently, technological advancements in the sustainable design field have allowed us to reduce the ecological impact of the built environment, to reduce consumption of non-renewable resources, to create healthy environments and in some cases may even rehabilitate the ecosystem. Nevertheless, several studies have been carried out showing that sustainable technology does not automatically lead to environmentally friendly behaviors in its users. Various environmental problems threaten environmental sustainability and many of these problems are rooted in human behavior. Unfortunately, there is a lack in studies which take into consideration the human behavior influences within a sustainable built environment. We believe that the built environment should be used to support human goals and requirements, but at the same time we should consider it as a context in which human values and behaviors are cultivated. This research aimed to help in promoting environmental sustainability by using architectural design in changing relevant human behavior toward an environmentally friendly behavior. In order to achieve this, the research adopted Environment-centered Approach to gain more acute perspective into the relationship between the physical environment and human behavior, focusing on social, psychological and physical influences of the built environment. It appears that environmental psychology's merits have high potential in changing behavior within the built environment. The research provides a systematic approach for selecting, assessing, evaluating the behaviors to be changed and the factors that determine them. Furthermore, this approach helps in choosing the best interventions that could be applied in built environment to encourage such a sustainable behavior. This study tried to construct an agenda for further researches to find particular architectural design elements and strategies that we can harness to develop a pro-environment human behavior.

  18. Risk perception and control, an integration of the psychometric research paradigm and social psychology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugen, K.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: this paper argues that perceptual control is an essential component in human risk evaluation. Control is seen as an integrative concept between the psychometric research paradigm and various psychological theories. The psychometric approach to the study of risk has mainly dealt with the intuitive judgements people do when they are asked to evaluate risky activities and technologies. It shows that people judge risk in relation to the possible consequences and probabilities related to an outcome; the former more typical for the public and the latter more often used by experts. The psychometric research tradition has concentrated on doing human risk evaluations quantifiable and the reactions predictable. This paper also relates to possible practical implications of this strategy, namely that humans react heterogeneously to different kinds of threats due to perceived control. Theoretical ability to explain and elaborate perceptions of risk, as well as individual reactions, were the main criteria for the literature selection, which includes work on e.g. attribution theory, locus of control, and learned helplessness. Thus, the paper addresses available psychological views for a contribution to a developed theoretical framework for human risk evaluation. It seeks to compare and integrate the psychometric research tradition within social psychological theories. The way in which people find their informational basis for their risk judgements, either from others or from their own perceptions is also discussed. Furthermore, the theories are related to the social and psychological reactions of the Chernobyl accident. The paper concludes that psychological theories can contribute to a more comprehensive framework for the understanding of human risk evaluation, leading to a more coherent and integrative knowledge. (author)

  19. Relationship of coping and patterns of dependent behavior in patients with chronic pancreatitis of biliary and alcoholic etiology in aspect of differentiation of its medical and psychological support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Маріанна Владиславівна Маркова

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Choric pancreatitis is an actual medical and psychological problem in Ukraine. The aim of the work was to study the features of coping in patients with chronic pancreatitis of alcoholic and biliary etiology.Methods. For detecting coping-mechanisms the standard method WCQ Р of Lazarus was used. The study of addictive tendencies was carried out with the help of questionnaire AUDIT and UDIT-tests oriented on patterns of dependent behavior.Results. The study of features of coping-mechanisms and an addiction to dependent behavior in patients with chronic pancreatitis revealed intergroup and intragroup differences. Confrontation and low levels of self-control, responsibility and positive assessment were intrinsic for respondents with alcoholic etiology of pancreatitis. Women demonstrated the high addiction to the search of social support, men – to distancing. As to an addictive behavior there was revealed that the typical common tendencies were the consumption of coffee, alcohol, internet-dependence, the specific ones for women – TV, shopping-dependencies, for men – workaholism in patients with biliary and computer-addiction in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Intergroup differences were demonstrated by an addiction to disorder of food behavior in patients with biliary and consumption of alcohol and smoking in respondents with alcoholic etiology of pancreatitis.Conclusions. The revealed differences in coping-strategies of patients with different nosological forms of chronic pancreatitis give important information for detecting the targets of medical and psychological influence and constructing of differentiated program of medical and psychological help to patients of this type

  20. [An investigation on self-harm episodes and their relationship with suicidal psychology and behaviors in 2713 college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pu-Yu; Hao, Jia-Hu; Huang, Zhao-Hui; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the episodes and influencing factors on self-harm and to explore the relationship between self-harm episodes and suicidal psychology and behaviors in college students. Four universities were selected using cluster sampling method in Anqing city and Chaohu city. Totally, 2713 college students completed this survey. Data were analyzed by Pearson Chi-square and logistic regression. In the last six months, rates of highly lethal self-harm, less lethal self-harm with visible tissue damage, self-injury without visible tissue damage, self-harmful behaviors with latency damage, other self-harmful behaviors with menticide were 1.9%, 5.5%, 15.3%, 21.2% and 17.0% respectively. The total rate of self-harm was 31.3%. 73.1% of the students with self harmful experiences had the above mentioned behaviors more than 3 times in the last six months. The top 3 reasons for taking self-harm actions were: having learning problems (43.1%), failed love affairs (25.0%) and having conflicts with others (23.9%). There were different influencing factors among different kinds of self-harm episodes. Depression was the risk factor of self-harm. The higher score of having high self-esteem was the protective factor of all kinds of self-harm actions except highly lethal ones. Higher score of difficulties in identifying feelings was one of the risk factors. The rates of suicidal psychology and behaviors in students with self-harm were significantly higher than those in students without those behaviors. Result from linear χ(2) test indicated that the graveness of tissue damage of self-harm was higher along with the rates of suicidal psychology and behaviors (P self-esteem was the protective factor related to most of the self-harm cases.

  1. Psychological aspects of the cancer patients' education: thoughts, feelings, behavior and body reactions of patients faced with diagnosis of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klikovac, T; Djurdjevic, A

    2010-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of cancer diagnosis on several psychological dimensions, this study was undertaken with the aim to understand, identify and document the psychological responses of cancer patients - their common thoughts, feelings, body sensations and behavior when they faced the cancer diagnosis. The sample consisted of 80 patients who attended psychological lectures during the implementation of the European Educational Programme (EEP) "Learning to live with cancer". At the beginning of the lectures, the patients were asked to fulfill the self-describing questionnaire with 4 open questions: "Describe your common thoughts, feelings, behavior, and body reactions in the first 6 weeks when you learned that you were affected by cancer". A significant proportion of patients reported disease denial (65%) and reexamination in relation to past life experiences, stressful events and bad habits (60%). Depressive feelings and disappointment were reported by 90% of the patients, while 85% of them reported fear, hopelessness and emptiness. They also reported sadness (70%), anger and anxiety (65%), nervousness and irritability (90%). Positive thoughts and attitude in the sense of optimism concerning a successful treatment outcome were reported by 20% and 15% of patients, respectively. The diagnosis of cancer and cancer treatment can cause distress, emotional turmoil and different psychosocial disorders. Taking into consideration different psychological reactions of cancer patients can be helpful for organizing adequate psycho-educational and psychosocial support, and psychotherapy for cancer patients and their families.

  2. Corporal punishment and long-term behavior problems: the moderating role of positive parenting and psychological aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Straus, Murray A; Carrobles, José Antonio; Muñoz-Rivas, Marina J; Almendros, Carmen

    2010-11-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to examine the prevalence of corporal punishment (CP) of children in Spain; (b) to analyze the extent to which CP is used in combination with psychological aggression and positive parenting among Spanish parents; and (c) to investigate whether the relation between CP and behavior problems is moderated by a positive parenting context in which CP may be used, and by the co-occurrence of psychological aggression. The sample comprised 1,071 Spanish university students (74.8% female; 25.2% male). Findings indicate a high prevalence of CP of Spanish students, revealing that significantly more mothers than fathers used CP. Furthermore, more CP is related to more use of psychological aggression and less of positive parenting. Regression analyses revealed that CP was associated with an increased probability of antisocial traits and behaviors regardless of whether there was positive parenting and psychological aggression. These results highlight that, though many Spanish parents use CP as a disciplinary strategy, it appears to be related to negative outcomes for children regardless the parental context in which it is used.

  3. Psychological aspects of glycemic control in young patients with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Gennad'evich Motovilin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To elucidate the relationship between glycemic control (assessed by the level of HbA1c and psychological status of the patients. Materials and methods. The study included 115 patients with type 1 diabetes aged 13-27 years. The following tests were used to assess the psychological statusof the patients status (emotional state, social relations, attitude toward disease: State-trait-anxiety Inventory (Spielberger C.D., Hanin Y.L, Center for EpidemiologicStudies Depression Scale (CES-D, Social ajustment scale by A.K. Osnizkiy based on Q-Sort Adjustment Scale developed by R. Dymond andC.R. Rogers (1954, Lusher colour test , Colour attitudes test, A.M. Etkind original technique, method for the assessment of attitude toward disease developedin V.M. Bekhterev Research Psychoneurologic Institute, Sankt-Peterburg. The patients were allocated to 3 groups differing in terms of 33.3% percentile ofHbA1c levels. Results. Patients with good glycemic control (mean HbA1c level 7.4% show the lowest level of social adaptation and emotional well-being. The reason for thisphenomenon is the excessive focus of patient on the disease and narrow scope of interests, which suggest psychological dependence on diabetes. Patients withpoor glycemic control (mean HbA1c level 13.1% also experience emotional discomfort due to increased anxiety. Despite the fact they exhibit a higher degreeof social adaptation than the patients of the above group, the main concern is the low level of communicative autonomy and the feeling of being unable to copewith the disease. Such personal characteristics also create a psychological dependence on diabetes, although of a different type than in the first group of patients.Patients with average glycemic control (mean HbA1c level 9.5% in the sample have the most favorable psychological state in comparison with the other twogroups. Their emotional state and social adaptation are significantly better than in the other two groups. These patients

  4. Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Positive Psychological Capital on Employee Attitudes, Behaviors, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, James B.; Reichard, Rebecca J.; Luthans, Fred; Mhatre, Ketan H.

    2011-01-01

    The positive core construct of psychological capital (or simply PsyCap), consisting of the psychological resources of hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism, has recently been demonstrated to be open to human resource development (HRD) and performance management. The research stream on PsyCap has now grown to the point that a quantitative…

  5. Family environment and adolescent psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior: a pioneer study in a Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1997-03-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents.

  6. Cultivating a "chairside manner": dental hypnosis, patient management psychology, and the origins of behavioral dentistry in America, 1890-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrick, John M

    2013-01-01

    Discussions regarding the use of hypnotism in dentistry featured prominently in dental journals and society proceedings during the decades around the turn of the twentieth century. Many dentists used hypnotic suggestion either as the sole anesthetic for extractions or in conjunction with local and general anesthetics for excavation and cavity filling. With the heralding of humanitarian dentistry and improved local anesthesia around 1905, a number of dentists advocated using suggestion psychology to calm nervous patients and increase their comfort and satisfaction levels while undergoing dental procedures. The practice of hypnotic suggestion with local and general anesthesia in providing patients with increasingly painless procedures constituted the earliest variety of behavioral dentistry, a discipline not fully developed until the closing decades of the twentieth century. Hypnosis and suggestion became driving forces for psychological applications in the formative years of behavioral dentistry. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Psychological outcomes and health beliefs in adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E; Derosa, Branlyn Werba; Schwartz, Lisa A; Hobbie, Wendy; Carlson, Claire; Ittenbach, Richard F; Mao, Jun J; Ginsberg, Jill P

    2010-04-20

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare adolescent and young adult (AYA) pediatric cancer survivors and peers without a history of serious illness on psychological distress, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), health beliefs; examine age at diagnosis and cancer treatment intensity on these outcomes; and examine relationships between number of health problems and the outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS AYA cancer survivors (n = 167) and controls (n = 170), recruited during visits to a cancer survivorship clinic and primary care, completed self-report questionnaires of distress, health problems, and health beliefs. For survivors, providers rated treatment intensity and health problems. Results There were no statistically significant differences between survivors and controls in psychological distress or HRQOL. Cancer survivors had less positive health beliefs. Survivors diagnosed as adolescents had significantly greater psychological distress and fewer positive health beliefs than those diagnosed earlier. Survivors with the highest level of treatment intensity had greater anxiety and fewer positive health beliefs than those with less intense treatments. Provider report of current health problems related to survivors' beliefs and mental HRQOL only, whereas patient report of health problems correlated significantly with most psychosocial outcomes and beliefs. CONCLUSION AYA cancer survivors did not differ from peers in psychological adjustment but did endorse less adaptive health beliefs. Survivors diagnosed during adolescence and who had more intensive cancer treatments evidenced poorer psychosocial outcomes. Beliefs about health may be identified and targeted for intervention to improve quality of life, particularly when patient perceptions of current health problems are considered.

  8. Prompting a consumer behavior for pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, E S; Farris, J C; Post, D S

    1973-01-01

    A field application of behavior modification studied the relative effectiveness of different prompting procedures for increasing the probability that customers entering a grocery store would select their soft drinks in returnable rather than nonreturnable containers. Six different 2-hr experimental conditions during which bottle purchases were recorded were (1) No Prompt (i.e., control), (2) one student gave incoming customers a handbill urging the purchase of soft drinks in returnable bottles, (3) distribution of the handbill by one student and public charting of each customer's bottle purchases by another student, (4) handbill distribution and charting by a five-member group, (5) handbills distributed and purchases charted by three females. The variant prompting techniques were equally effective, and in general increased the percentage of returnable-bottle customers by an average of 25%.

  9. Platelet serotonin level and impulsivity in human self-destructive behavior: A biological and psychological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Era Dutta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Suicide is a disease and a global public health problem. Suicidology has come to become a topic of study for intervention and research. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5HT] system has remained a prime area of investigation. The neurons and platelets display structural and functional similarities. Ninety-nine percent of 5HT is contained in platelets, which shares similar 5HT uptake and release mechanisms with 5HT neurons. Aims: This study aims to study human self-destructive behavior (HSDB. Objectives: Exploring the biological (serotonin levels in platelets and psychological aspects (impulsivity of attempted suicide or HSDB. Settings and Design: Thirty-one patients, above the age of 18 years, with a recent history of HSDB, were studied and given an International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnosis, after a detailed interview. Subjects and Methods: For the platelet 5HT estimation, blood samples were collected, and enzyme immunometric assay carried out. Detailed assessment of the impulsivity was done by the 25-item structured diagnostic interview for borderlines by Zanarini et al. Statistical Analysis Used: We obtained both categorical and continuous data. Chi-square test, Fisher's test, Student's t-test, and Pearson's product moment correlation were used. Results: Female subjects outnumbered males by 2:1. Major depression, adjustment disorder, personality disorder were predominant diagnoses. The mean platelet serotonin concentration for males = 57.3 ng/ml, that of females = 56.05 ng/ml (P > 0.05. Platelet 5HT levels were found to be negatively correlated with impulsivity scores (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Platelet serotonin levels in our study sample were quite low when compared with those reported in published literature. Low serotonin levels were inversely related to impulsivity, but only in males.

  10. Needs in nursing homes and their relation with cognitive and functional decline, behavioral and psychological symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unmet needs are becoming acknowledged as better predictors of the worst prognostic outcomes than common measures of functional or cognitive decline. Their accurate assessment is a pivotal component of effective care delivery, particularly in institutionalized care where little is known about the needs of its residents, many of whom suffer from dementia and show complex needs. The aims of this study were to describe the needs of an institutionalized sample and to analyze its relationship with demographic and clinical characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample from three nursing homes. All residents were assessed with a comprehensive protocol that included Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI and Adults and Older Adults Functional Inventory (IAFAI. To identify needs, the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE was used. The final sample included 175 residents with a mean age of 80.6(sd=10.1. From these, 58.7% presented cognitive deficit (MMSE and 45.2% depressive symptoms (GDS. Statistically significant negative correlations were found between MMSE score and met(rs=-0.425, unmet(rs=-0.369 and global needs(rs=-0.565. Data also showed significant correlations between depressive symptoms and unmet(rs=0.683 and global needs(rs=0.407 and between behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD and unmet (rs=0.181 and global needs (rs=0.254. Finally, significant correlations between functional impairment and met(rs=0.642, unmet(rs=0.505 and global needs(rs=0.796 were also found. These results suggest that in this sample, more unmet needs are associated with the worst outcomes measured. This is consistent with previous findings and seems to demonstrate that the needs of those institutionalized elderly remain under-diagnosed and untreated.

  11. The Effect of Psychological Suzhi on Problem Behaviors in Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Subjective Social Status and Self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangzeng; Zhang, Dajun; Pan, Yangu; Ma, Yuanxiao; Lu, Xingyue

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined subjective social status (SSS) and self-esteem as potential mediators between the association of psychological suzhi and problem behaviors in a sample of 1271 Chinese adolescents (44.5% male, grades 7-12). The results showed that SSS and self-esteem were fully mediating the relationship between psychological suzhi and problem behaviors. Moreover, the indirect effect was stronger via self-esteem than via SSS. These findings perhaps provide insight into the preliminary effect that SSS and self-esteem underlie psychological suzhi 's effect on adolescents' problem behaviors, and also are important in helping school-teachers and administrators to develop a better understanding of problem behaviors in their schools as a pre-requisite to the development of more effective behaviors management practices from the perspective of psychological suzhi. Implications and limitations in the present study have also been discussed.

  12. The Effect of Psychological Suzhi on Problem Behaviors in Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Subjective Social Status and Self-esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzeng Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined subjective social status (SSS and self-esteem as potential mediators between the association of psychological suzhi and problem behaviors in a sample of 1271 Chinese adolescents (44.5% male, grades 7–12. The results showed that SSS and self-esteem were fully mediating the relationship between psychological suzhi and problem behaviors. Moreover, the indirect effect was stronger via self-esteem than via SSS. These findings perhaps provide insight into the preliminary effect that SSS and self-esteem underlie psychological suzhi’s effect on adolescents’ problem behaviors, and also are important in helping school-teachers and administrators to develop a better understanding of problem behaviors in their schools as a pre-requisite to the development of more effective behaviors management practices from the perspective of psychological suzhi. Implications and limitations in the present study have also been discussed.

  13. Sexual orientation and sexual behavior among Latino and Asian Americans: implications for unfair treatment and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, David H; Ayala, George

    2010-09-01

    Research on the sexuality of Asians and Latinos in the United States has been sparse, and the studies that have been done suffer from a number of limitations. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (2002-2003), this study examined self-identified sexual orientation and self-reported sexual behavior among Latinos (n = 2,554; age: M = 38.1, SE = 0.5) and Asians (n = 2,095; age: M = 41.5, SE = 0.8). This study also investigated implications for unfair treatment and psychological distress among sexual minorities identified in the sample. Results indicated heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior including differences in the adoption of lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) identity by gender, ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic status. LGB sexual minorities reported higher levels of unfair treatment and psychological distress compared to their non-LGB-identified sexual minority counterparts, and unfair treatment was positively associated with psychological distress. Results highlight the need to consider multiple demographic factors in assessing sexuality, and also suggest that measures of both self-identified sexual orientation and sexual behavior should be collected. In addition, findings provide support for the deleterious influence of unfair treatment among Asians and Latinos in the United States.

  14. Instructional control of reinforcement learning: A behavioral and neurocomputational investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doll, B.B.; Jacobs, W.J.; Sanfey, A.G.; Frank, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Humans learn how to behave directly through environmental experience and indirectly through rules and instructions. Behavior analytic research has shown that instructions can control behavior, even when such behavior leads to sub-optimal outcomes (Hayes, S (Ed) 1989. Rule-governed behavior:

  15. Psychological factors of professional success of nuclear power plant main control room operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosenkov A.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to conduct a comparative analysis of the psychological characteristics of the most and least successful main control room operators. Material and Methods. Two NPP staff groups: the most and least successful main control room operators, who worked in routine operating conditions, were surveyed. Expert evaluation method has been applied to identify the groups. The subjects were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI, Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF form A and Raven's Progressive Matrices test. Results. Numerous significant psychological differences between the groups of most and least successful control room operators were obtained: the best operators were significantly more introverted and correctly solved more logical tasks with smaller percentage of mistakes under time pressure than worst ones. Conclusions: 1. The psychodiagnostic methods used in the study were adequate to meet research objective 2. Tendency to introversion, as well as developed the ability to solve logic problems undertime pressure, apparently, are important professional qualities for control room operators. These indicators should be considered in the process of psychological selection and professional guidance of nuclear power plant operators.

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Brief Intervention for Delayed Psychological Effects in Snakebite Victims.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamara A Wijesinghe

    Full Text Available Snakebite results in delayed psychological morbidity and negative psycho-social impact. However, psychological support is rarely provided to victims.To assess the effectiveness of a brief intervention which can be provided by non-specialist doctors aimed at reducing psychological morbidity following snakebite envenoming.In a single blind, randomized controlled trial, snakebite victims with systemic envenoming [n = 225, 168 males, mean age 42.1 (SD 12.4 years] were randomized into three arms. One arm received no intervention (n = 68, Group A, the second received psychological first aid and psychoeducation (dispelling prevalent cultural beliefs related to snakebite which promote development of a sick role at discharge from hospital (n = 65, Group B, while the third received psychological first aid and psychoeducation at discharge and a second intervention one month later based on cognitive behavioural principles (n = 69, Group C. All patients were assessed six months after hospital discharge for the presence of psychological symptoms and level of functioning using standardized tools.At six months, there was a decreasing trend in the proportion of patients who were positive for psychiatric symptoms of depression and anxiety from Group A through Group B to Group C (Chi square test for trend = 7.901, p = 0.005. This was mainly due to a decreasing trend for symptoms of anxiety (chi-square for trend = 11.256, p = 0.001. There was also decreasing trend in the overall prevalence of disability from Group A through Group B to Group C (chi square for trend = 7.551, p = 0.006, predominantly in relation to disability in family life (p = 0.006 and social life (p = 0.005. However, there was no difference in the proportion of patients diagnosed with depression between the three groups (chi square for trend = 0.391, p = 0.532, and the intervention also had no effect on post-traumatic stress disorder.A brief psychological intervention, which included psychological

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Brief Intervention for Delayed Psychological Effects in Snakebite Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Chamara A; Williams, Shehan S; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Dolawaththa, Nishantha; Wimalaratne, Piyal; Wijewickrema, Buddhika; Jayamanne, Shaluka F; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Dawson, Andrew H; Lalloo, David G; de Silva, H Janaka

    2015-01-01

    Snakebite results in delayed psychological morbidity and negative psycho-social impact. However, psychological support is rarely provided to victims. To assess the effectiveness of a brief intervention which can be provided by non-specialist doctors aimed at reducing psychological morbidity following snakebite envenoming. In a single blind, randomized controlled trial, snakebite victims with systemic envenoming [n = 225, 168 males, mean age 42.1 (SD 12.4) years] were randomized into three arms. One arm received no intervention (n = 68, Group A), the second received psychological first aid and psychoeducation (dispelling prevalent cultural beliefs related to snakebite which promote development of a sick role) at discharge from hospital (n = 65, Group B), while the third received psychological first aid and psychoeducation at discharge and a second intervention one month later based on cognitive behavioural principles (n = 69, Group C). All patients were assessed six months after hospital discharge for the presence of psychological symptoms and level of functioning using standardized tools. At six months, there was a decreasing trend in the proportion of patients who were positive for psychiatric symptoms of depression and anxiety from Group A through Group B to Group C (Chi square test for trend = 7.901, p = 0.005). This was mainly due to a decreasing trend for symptoms of anxiety (chi-square for trend = 11.256, p = 0.001). There was also decreasing trend in the overall prevalence of disability from Group A through Group B to Group C (chi square for trend = 7.551, p = 0.006), predominantly in relation to disability in family life (p = 0.006) and social life (p = 0.005). However, there was no difference in the proportion of patients diagnosed with depression between the three groups (chi square for trend = 0.391, p = 0.532), and the intervention also had no effect on post-traumatic stress disorder. A brief psychological intervention, which included psychological

  18. Reflexivity as a control factor of personal coping behavior

    OpenAIRE

    BEKHTER A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the issue of coping behavior control. The author defines the criteria, levels and aspects of reflexivity within the framework of personal coping behavior. In conclusion the author describes the key facets of coping behavior control and how reflexivity affects them.

  19. [Role of physical, psychological and sexual abuse in functional digestive disorders. A case-controls trial.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes-Troche, J M; Cid-Juárez, S; Campos-Ramos, I; Ramos-de la Medina, A; Galmiche, A; Schmulson-Wasserman, M; Roesch-Dietlen, F

    2008-01-01

    Abuse has been considered a significant factor on the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), especially for severe and treatment-refractory patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the presence of all FGID according to Rome II criteria, in a group of women with history of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse. A cross sectional study was performed in 96 women (37 +/- 12 years of age) with history of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse (cases); and 96 open population women (36 +/- 14 years of age) (controls). The following evaluations were administered: Rome II questionnaire, a self-administered instrument to evaluate history of physical (beating), psychological(insults, public humiliation) and/or sexual abuse (rape, coercion), and HAD questionnaire. Among 96 women with history of abuse,91 (95%) reported to have suffered psychological abuse, 72 (75%) physical abuse, and 24 (25%)sexual abuse. Women with history of abuse had a higher prevalence of rumination (6% vs. 0%, p= 0.02), functional heartburn (26% vs. 13%, p =0.04), aerofagia (17% vs. 5%, p = 0.019), irritable bowel syndrome (38% vs. 18%, p = 0.002), fecalin continence (16% vs. 4%, p = 0.01), elevator anisyndrome (5% vs. 0%, p = 0.05), and proctalgia fugax (29% vs. 15%, p = 0.02) compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between anxiety (r = 0.5, p = 0.001) and depression scores(r = 0.45, p = 0.001), and the number of FGID. We demonstrated a high prevalence of FGID among women with history of physical,psychological, and/or sexual abuse. In this association,concomitant anxiety and depression play a significant role.

  20. Maternal Psychological Control, Use of Supportive Parenting, and Childhood Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Andrew L; Fite, Paula J

    2016-06-01

    The current study, operating from a stress-process framework, examined the interactive effects of supportive parenting practices (i.e., mothers' use of positive communication, positive parenting, and parental involvement) and maternal psychological control on mother- and child-reported child depressive symptoms in a community-recruited sample of 9-12 year-olds. Discrepancies between reports of depressive symptoms were also examined. Maternal psychological control was uniquely associated with child-, not mother-, reported depressive symptoms. Parental involvement was uniquely associated with mother-, not child-, reported depressive symptoms. Positive parent-child communication was associated with both reports of child depressive symptoms at the bivariate level, but not when unique associations were examined. Positive parenting was unrelated to either report of depressive symptoms. No interaction effects were detected. The current findings highlight the differential importance of parenting practices on child depressive symptoms, and also indicate the necessity of gathering both parent and child reports of symptomatology and family functioning.

  1. Transparency of Outcome Reporting and Trial Registration of Randomized Controlled Trials Published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleine Azar

    Full Text Available Confidence that randomized controlled trial (RCT results accurately reflect intervention effectiveness depends on proper trial conduct and the accuracy and completeness of published trial reports. The Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (JCCP is the primary trials journal amongst American Psychological Association (APA journals. The objectives of this study were to review RCTs recently published in JCCP to evaluate (1 adequacy of primary outcome analysis definitions; (2 registration status; and, (3 among registered trials, adequacy of outcome registrations. Additionally, we compared results from JCCP to findings from a recent study of top psychosomatic and behavioral medicine journals.Eligible RCTs were published in JCCP in 2013-2014. For each RCT, two investigators independently extracted data on (1 adequacy of outcome analysis definitions in the published report, (2 whether the RCT was registered prior to enrolling patients, and (3 adequacy of outcome registration.Of 70 RCTs reviewed, 12 (17.1% adequately defined primary or secondary outcome analyses, whereas 58 (82.3% had multiple primary outcome analyses without statistical adjustment or undefined outcome analyses. There were 39 (55.7% registered trials. Only two trials registered prior to patient enrollment with a single primary outcome variable and time point of assessment. However, in one of the two trials, registered and published outcomes were discrepant. No studies were adequately registered as per Standard Protocol Items: Recommendation for Interventional Trials guidelines. Compared to psychosomatic and behavioral medicine journals, the proportion of published trials with adequate outcome analysis declarations was significantly lower in JCCP (17.1% versus 32.9%; p = 0.029. The proportion of registered trials in JCCP (55.7% was comparable to behavioral medicine journals (52.6%; p = 0.709.The quality of published outcome analysis definitions and trial registrations in JCCP is

  2. Transparency of Outcome Reporting and Trial Registration of Randomized Controlled Trials Published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Marleine; Riehm, Kira E; McKay, Dean; Thombs, Brett D

    2015-01-01

    Confidence that randomized controlled trial (RCT) results accurately reflect intervention effectiveness depends on proper trial conduct and the accuracy and completeness of published trial reports. The Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (JCCP) is the primary trials journal amongst American Psychological Association (APA) journals. The objectives of this study were to review RCTs recently published in JCCP to evaluate (1) adequacy of primary outcome analysis definitions; (2) registration status; and, (3) among registered trials, adequacy of outcome registrations. Additionally, we compared results from JCCP to findings from a recent study of top psychosomatic and behavioral medicine journals. Eligible RCTs were published in JCCP in 2013-2014. For each RCT, two investigators independently extracted data on (1) adequacy of outcome analysis definitions in the published report, (2) whether the RCT was registered prior to enrolling patients, and (3) adequacy of outcome registration. Of 70 RCTs reviewed, 12 (17.1%) adequately defined primary or secondary outcome analyses, whereas 58 (82.3%) had multiple primary outcome analyses without statistical adjustment or undefined outcome analyses. There were 39 (55.7%) registered trials. Only two trials registered prior to patient enrollment with a single primary outcome variable and time point of assessment. However, in one of the two trials, registered and published outcomes were discrepant. No studies were adequately registered as per Standard Protocol Items: Recommendation for Interventional Trials guidelines. Compared to psychosomatic and behavioral medicine journals, the proportion of published trials with adequate outcome analysis declarations was significantly lower in JCCP (17.1% versus 32.9%; p = 0.029). The proportion of registered trials in JCCP (55.7%) was comparable to behavioral medicine journals (52.6%; p = 0.709). The quality of published outcome analysis definitions and trial registrations in JCCP is

  3. Self-determination theory and diminished functioning: the role of interpersonal control and psychological need thwarting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Kimberley J; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Ryan, Richard M; Bosch, Jos A; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie

    2011-11-01

    Drawing from self-determination theory, three studies explored the social-environmental conditions that satisfy versus thwart psychological needs and, in turn, affect psychological functioning and well-being or ill-being. In cross-sectional Studies 1 and 2, structural equation modeling analyses supported latent factor models in which need satisfaction was predicted by athletes' perceptions of autonomy support, and need thwarting was better predicted by coach control. Athletes' perceptions of need satisfaction predicted positive outcomes associated with sport participation (vitality and positive affect), whereas need thwarting more consistently predicted maladaptive outcomes (disordered eating, burnout, depression, negative affect, and physical symptoms). In addition, athletes' perceptions of psychological need thwarting were significantly associated with perturbed physiological arousal (elevated levels of secretory immunoglobulin A) prior to training. The final study involved the completion of a diary and supported the relations observed in the cross-sectional studies at a daily level. These findings have important implications for the operationalization and measurement of interpersonal styles and psychological needs.

  4. Commitments of Psychological Contracts and Diagnostic Use of Management Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Canan; Gilberto de Andrade Martins; Patrícia Oda

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the commitments the Surveillance Agents from the National Telecommunications Agency (Anatel) made in their psychological contracts and the diagnostic use of the management control system of the entity, this study tested the hypothesis that individuals tend to be more committed to aspects they are charged for within organizations. This is a theoretical and empirical study that assumed that the commitments comprise the part of the belief that individuals develop on reciprocal rela...

  5. Health Behavioral Patterns Associated with Psychologic Distress Among Middle-Aged Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sook Shin, PhD, RN

    2007-06-01

    Conclusion: The study found cultural characteristics of middle-aged Korean women in psychologic distress. Health care providers should consider marital satisfaction, self-actualization, nutrition, and interpersonal relations, in particular, among Korean middle-aged women.

  6. Psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosing Alzheimer's disease biomarkers to research participants: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, S.A.S.A.; K. Tromp (Krista); E.M. Bunnik (Eline); Milne, R.J.; Badger, S.; C. Brayne (Carol); M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje); Richard, E.

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) research initiatives focus on cognitively healthy individuals with biomarkers that are associated with the development of AD. It is unclear whether biomarker results should be returned to research participants and what the psychological,

  7. Psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosing Alzheimer's disease biomarkers to research participants : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, S.A.; K. Tromp (Krista); E.M. Bunnik (Eline); Milne, R.J.; Badger, S.; C. Brayne (Carol); M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje); E. Richard (Edo)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractBACKGROUND: Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) research initiatives focus on cognitively healthy individuals with biomarkers that are associated with the development of AD. It is unclear whether biomarker results should be returned to research participants and what the psychological,

  8. The need to control for regression to the mean in social psychology studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun eYu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is common in repeated measurements for extreme values at the first measurement to approach the mean at the subsequent measurement, a phenomenon called regression to the mean (RTM. If RTM is not fully controlled, it will lead to erroneous conclusions. The wide use of repeated measurements in social psychology creates a risk that an RTM effect will influence results. However, insufficient attention is paid to RTM in most social psychological research. Notable cases include studies on the phenomena of social conformity and unrealistic optimism. In Study 1, 13 university students rated and re-rated the facial attractiveness of a series of female faces as a test of the social conformity effect. In Study 2, 15 university students estimated and re-estimated their risk of experiencing a series of adverse life events as a test of the unrealistic optimism effect. Although these studies used methodologies similar to those used in earlier research, the social conformity and unrealistic optimism effects were no longer evident after controlling for RTM. Based on these findings we suggest several ways to control for the RTM effect in social psychology studies.

  9. Consequences of 'tiger' parenting: a cross-cultural study of maternal psychological control and children's cortisol stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Stacey N; Tardif, Twila; Miller, Alison; Olson, Sheryl; Kessler, Daniel; Felt, Barbara; Wang, Li

    2017-05-01

    Parenting strategies involving psychological control are associated with increased adjustment problems in children. However, no research has examined the extent to which culture and psychological control predict children's stress physiology. We examine cultural differences in maternal psychological control and its associations with children's cortisol. Chinese (N = 59) and American (N = 45) mother-child dyads participated in the study. Mothers reported on psychological control. Children's cortisol was collected during a stressor and two indices of Area Under the Curve (AUC) were computed: AUCg which accounts for total output, and AUCi, which captures reactivity. Results indicate that Chinese mothers reported higher levels of psychological control and Chinese children had higher levels of AUCg than their American counterparts. Across both cultures, psychological control was significantly associated with increased cortisol levels as indexed by AUCg. There were no associations for AUCi. Finally, mediation analyses demonstrated that psychological control fully explained cultural differences in children's cortisol stress response as indexed by AUCg. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Developing a Psychologically Inspired Cognitive Architecture for Robotic Control: The Symbolic and Subsymbolic Robotic Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Dale Kelley

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the ongoing development of a robotic control architecture that was inspired by computational cognitive architectures from the discipline of cognitive psychology. The robotic control architecture combines symbolic and subsymbolic representations of knowledge into a unified control structure. The architecture is organized as a goal driven, serially executing, production system at the highest symbolic level; and a multiple algorithm, parallel executing, simple collection of algorithms at the lowest subsymbolic level. The goal is to create a system that will progress through the same cognitive developmental milestones as do human infants. Common robotics problems of localization, object recognition, and object permanence are addressed within the specified framework.

  11. Developing a Psychologically Inspired Cognitive Architecture for Robotic Control: The Symbolic and Subsymbolic Robotic Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Dale Kelley

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the ongoing development of a robotic control architecture that was inspired by computational cognitive architectures from the discipline of cognitive psychology. The robotic control architecture combines symbolic and subsymbolic representations of knowledge into a unified control structure. The architecture is organized as a goal driven, serially executing, production system at the highest symbolic level; and a multiple algorithm, parallel executing, simple collection of algorithms at the lowest subsymbolic level. The goal is to create a system that will progress through the same cognitive developmental milestones as do human infants. Common robotics problems of localization, object recognition, and object permanence are addressed within the specified framework.

  12. Controlling Behaviors in Middle School Youth's Dating Relationships: Reactions and Help-Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Lambert, Nada; Black, Beverly M.; Chigbu, Kingsley U.

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined middle school students' (N = 380) help-seeking behaviors and other reactions to controlling behaviors in their dating relationships. Over three-fourths of the participants perpetrated and were victimized by controlling behaviors in their dating relationships. Youth used emotional/verbal and dominance/isolation forms…

  13. Participation by women in developmental, social, cognitive, and general psychology: A context for interpreting trends in behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Frances K; Parks, Craig D

    2002-01-01

    We examined participation by women in journals devoted to social, developmental, cognitive, and general psychology. Authorship and first authorship by women increased from 1978 to 1997 for most journals. Participation by women on the editorial staff did not keep pace with their increased authorship for social and developmental psychology. Based on these trends, women's participation decreased with increases in the selectivity of the position for social and developmental psychology (a glass ceiling). The development of a glass ceiling suggests that the contributions of men and women are not always treated equally (gender inequity). Because a similar glass ceiling was reported for journals in behavior analysis (McSweeney, Donahoe, & Swindell, 2000; McSweeney & Swindell, 1998), the causes of this inequity appear to be relatively widespread. The failure to find a glass ceiling for general and cognitive psychology suggests that the inequity might be reduced by subtle pressure for diversity in editorial positions and by adopting actions that encourage women to pursue research positions.

  14. A Randomised Controlled Trial to Determine the Effectiveness of an Early Psychological Intervention with Children Involved in Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Richard; Salter, Emma; Howse, Imogen; Yule, William; Taylor, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether an early intervention using a psychological debriefing format is effective in preventing psychological distress in child road traffic accident survivors. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Accident and Emergency Department, Royal United Hospital, Bath. Subjects: 158 children aged 7-18. Follow-up…

  15. Children's Daily Well-Being: The Role of Mothers', Teachers', and Siblings' Autonomy Support and Psychological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Mabbe, Elien

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the unique relations between multiple sources (i.e., mothers, teachers, and siblings) of perceived daily autonomy support and psychological control and children's basic psychological needs and well-being. During 5 consecutive days, 2 children from 154 families (M[subscript age] youngest child = 8.54 years; SD = 0.89 and…

  16. Social psychological determinants of mobile communication technology use and adoption. A comparison of three models to explain and predict mobile communication technology behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, O.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the social psychological determinants of mobile communication technology use and adoption in an attempt to better understand people’s behavior for adopting and using innovative information and communication technologies. In particular, this study emphasizes the

  17. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  18. 高频重复经颅磁刺激辅助治疗阿尔茨海默氏病患者的精神行为症状:一项随机双盲伪刺激对照研究%Adjuncitve treatment with high frequency repeititve transcranial magneitc sitmulaiton for the behavioral and psychological symptoms of paitents with Alzheimer’s disease:a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴越; 徐文炜; 刘晓伟; 徐清; 汤莉; 武曙燕

    2015-01-01

    Background:Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) occur in 70-90% of patients at different stages of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), but the available methods for managing these problems are of limited effecitveness. Aim:Assess the effects of high-frequency repeititve transcranial magneitc sitmulaiton (rTMS), applied over the letf dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), on BPSD and cogniitve funciton in persons with AD. Methods:Fitfy-four paitents with AD and accompanying BPSD were randomly divided into an interveniton group (n=27) and a control group (n=27). In addiiton to standard anitpsychoitc treatment, the interveniton group was treated with 20Hz rTMS ifve days a week for four weeks, while the control group was treated with sham rTMS. The Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease Rating Scale (BEHAVE-AD), the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cogniitve (ADAS-Cog), and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) were administered by raters who were blind to the group assignment of paitents before and atfer four weeks of treatment. Results:Twenty-six subjects from each group completed the study. After four weeks of antipsychotic treatment with adjuncitve real or sham rTMS treatment, the mean (sd) total BEHAVE-AD scores and mean total ADAS-Cog scores of both groups significantly decreased from baseline. After adjusting for baseline values, the intervention group had significantly lower scores (i.e., greater improvement) than the control group on the BEHAVE-AD total score, on ifve of the seven BEHAVE-AD factor scores (acitvity disturbances, diurnal rhythm, aggressiveness, affective disturbances, anxieties and phobias), on the ADAS-Cog total score, and on all four ADAS-Cog factor scores (memory, language, construcitonal praxis, and atteniton). The proportion of individuals whose behavioral symptoms met a predetermined level of improvement (i.e., a drop in BEHAVE-AD total score of> 30% from baseline) in the interveniton group was greater than

  19. Contextual control of discriminated operant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E; Todd, Travis P; León, Samuel P

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that changing the context after instrumental (operant) conditioning can weaken the strength of the operant response. That result contrasts with the results of studies of Pavlovian conditioning, in which a context switch often does not affect the response elicited by a conditioned stimulus. To begin to make the methods more similar, Experiments 1-3 tested the effects of a context switch in rats on a discriminated operant response (R; lever pressing or chain pulling) that had been reinforced only in the presence of a 30-s discriminative stimulus (S; tone or light). As in Pavlovian conditioning, responses and reinforcers became confined to presentations of the S during training. However, in Experiment 1, after training in Context A, a switch to Context B caused a decrement in responding during S. In Experiment 2, a switch to Context B likewise decreased responding in S when Context B was equally familiar, equally associated with reinforcement, or equally associated with the training of a discriminated operant (a different R reinforced in a different S). However, there was no decrement if Context B had been associated with the same response that was trained in Context A (Experiments 2 and 3). The effectiveness of S transferred across contexts, whereas the strength of the response did not. Experiment 4 found that a continuously reinforced response was also disrupted by context change when the same response manipulandum was used in both training and testing. Overall, the results suggest that the context can have a robust general role in the control of operant behavior. Mechanisms of contextual control are discussed.

  20. Towards a balanced social psychology: causes, consequences, and cures for the problem-seeking approach to social behavior and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Joachim I; Funder, David C

    2004-06-01

    Mainstream social psychology focuses on how people characteristically violate norms of action through social misbehaviors such as conformity with false majority judgments, destructive obedience, and failures to help those in need. Likewise, they are seen to violate norms of reasoning through cognitive errors such as misuse of social information, self-enhancement, and an over-readiness to attribute dispositional characteristics. The causes of this negative research emphasis include the apparent informativeness of norm violation, the status of good behavior and judgment as unconfirmable null hypotheses, and the allure of counter-intuitive findings. The shortcomings of this orientation include frequently erroneous imputations of error, findings of mutually contradictory errors, incoherent interpretations of error, an inability to explain the sources of behavioral or cognitive achievement, and the inhibition of generalized theory. Possible remedies include increased attention to the complete range of behavior and judgmental accomplishment, analytic reforms emphasizing effect sizes and Bayesian inference, and a theoretical paradigm able to account for both the sources of accomplishment and of error. A more balanced social psychology would yield not only a more positive view of human nature, but also an improved understanding of the bases of good behavior and accurate judgment, coherent explanations of occasional lapses, and theoretically grounded suggestions for improvement.

  1. Suicide prevention after traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial of a program for the psychological treatment of hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Grahame K; Tate, Robyn L; Whiting, Diane L; Cotter, Rachel E

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a psychological treatment to reduce moderate to severe hopelessness after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Randomized controlled trial. Participants were aged between 18 and 65 years, experienced posttraumatic amnesia more than 1day and moderate to severe hopelessness (Beck Hopelessness Scale [BHS]) and/or suicide ideation. Intervention comprised a 20-hour manualized group cognitive behavior therapy program. Participants were randomly allocated using concealed allocation (treatment n = 8; wait-list n = 9); all remained in their allocated group. Outcome variables were collected by assessors blind to group allocation. No between-groups differences were observed on demographic, injury, cognitive, and psychosocial variables at baseline (time 1). A significant group-by-time interaction was found for BHS in the treatment group (F1,15 = 13.20, P = .002), reflecting a reduction in mean BHS scores between time 1 and time 2 (posttreatment) with no main effects for group or time. At 3-month follow-up (time 3), the treatment gains were maintained or improved for 75% (6/8) of participants. Secondary outcome variables (suicide ideation, depression, social problem solving, self-esteem, hopefulness) displayed no significant group-by-time interactions or main effects. This trial provides initial evidence for the efficacy of a psychological intervention in reducing hopelessness among long-term survivors with severe TBI.

  2. Behavioral variability and consistency: Experimental bases for a psychological theory of personality (Variabilidad y Consistencia individual: Bases experimentales de la teoría de la personalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Santacreu Mas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain how and why individual differences emerge despite accounting for biological andsocio-cultural differences, why people behave differently in the same context, and how behavior becomes stable and consistent. We review the experimental work on variability and stereotypy. In animal research, in contrast to expectations, there is interindividual variability in behavior under extreme environmental control. In addition, intraindividual consistency (stereotypy is detected in animals whose behavior is not fully adjusted to the contingencies. The differences in what is learned (the kind of contingency relations among laboratory animals can be explained by: a the differences between effective contingencies and programmed contingencies, and b the relationship between exploration and rate of reinforcement. In experimental studies in humans, learning differences in identical environments depend, further to the above, onwhat was previously learned by the individual (experience and education and the thoroughness and internal consistency of task instructions. From these concepts, we propose a psychological theory of personality that explains: (a how we learn different relationships from the same experience; (b how behavioral individual differences emerge (variability; and (cwhy each individual’s behavior becomes stable and consistent.

  3. Psychological well-being in out-patients with eating disorders: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, Elena; Offidani, Emanuela; Tecuta, Lucia; Schumann, Romana; Ballardini, Donatella

    2014-04-01

    Positive functioning is widely neglected in research on eating disorders (EDs). The aim of this exploratory study was to assess psychological well-being (PWB) in out-patients with ED and in controls. The authors assessed PWB in 245 out-patients with EDs [105 with bulimia nervosa (BN), 57 with anorexia nervosa (AN), and 83 with binge eating disorder (BED) who met DSM-IV-TR] and 60 controls. They tested whether PWB was associated with eating attitude test (EAT) scores and if such associations differed among ED groups while taking into account confounding variables. Significant differences between groups in all PWB scales were found. While individuals with BN reported significantly lower scores in all PWB dimensions than healthy controls, patients with BED scored significantly lower than controls in PWB autonomy, environmental mastery, and self-acceptance scales. Patients with AN showed similar scores to controls in all PWB dimensions, except for positive relationships and self-acceptance. In all ED groups, most PWB dimensions resulted significantly and negatively associated with EAT scales, except for AN where oral control was found to positively correlate with a high sense of purpose in life. All results were maintained even after adjusting for possible confounding variables. Patients with EDs reported an impairment in PWB. The paucity of PWB was not necessarily dependent on the presence of high levels of psychological distress and on the severity of the disorder. Such assessments may therefore yield a more comprehensive evaluation in this clinical population. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Effect of Psychological Suzhi on Problem Behaviors in Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Subjective Social Status and Self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guangzeng; Zhang, Dajun; Pan, Yangu; Ma, Yuanxiao; Lu, Xingyue

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined subjective social status (SSS) and self-esteem as potential mediators between the association of psychological suzhi and problem behaviors in a sample of 1271 Chinese adolescents (44.5% male, grades 7–12). The results showed that SSS and self-esteem were fully mediating the relationship between psychological suzhi and problem behaviors. Moreover, the indirect effect was stronger via self-esteem than via SSS. These findings perhaps provide insight into the preliminar...

  5. Let them eat fruit! The effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on psychological well-being in young adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamlin S Conner

    Full Text Available This study tested the psychological benefits of a 14-day preregistered clinical intervention to increase fruit and vegetable (FV consumption in 171 low-FV-consuming young adults (67% female, aged 18-25. Participants were randomly assigned into a diet-as-usual control condition, an ecological momentary intervention (EMI condition involving text message reminders to increase their FV consumption plus a voucher to purchase FV, or a fruit and vegetable intervention (FVI condition in which participants were given two additional daily servings of fresh FV to consume on top of their normal diet. Self-report outcome measures were depressive symptoms and anxiety measured pre- and post-intervention, and daily negative and positive mood, vitality, flourishing, and flourishing behaviors (curiosity, creativity, motivation assessed nightly using a smartphone survey. Vitamin C and carotenoids were measured from blood samples pre- and post-intervention, and psychological expectancies about the benefits of FV were measured post-intervention to test as mediators of psychological change. Only participants in the FVI condition showed improvements to their psychological well-being with increases in vitality, flourishing, and motivation across the 14-days relative to the other groups. No changes were found for depressive symptoms, anxiety, or mood. Intervention benefits were not mediated by vitamin C, carotenoids, or psychological expectancies. We conclude that providing young adults with high-quality FV, rather than reminding them to eat more FV (with a voucher to purchase FV, resulted in significant short-term improvements to their psychological well-being. These results provide initial proof-of-concept that giving young adults fresh fruit and vegetables to eat can have psychological benefits even over a brief period of time.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12615000183583.

  6. A national study of the psychological impact of bank robbery with a randomzed control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Shevlin, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background. Despite, numerous annual bank robberies worldwide, research in the psychological sequelae of bank robberies is limited. Thus, research needs to investigate the prevalence of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in bank employees, whilst comparing how bank...... employees exposed to bank robbery differ from employees not exposed to bank robbery. Objective and design. We studied the prevalence of ASD one week after the robbery (N = 458) and the prevalence of PTSD six months after the robbery (n = 378) in a national Danish bank employees exposed to bank robbery. We...... also investigated several other forms of psychological sequelae and related factors in bank robbery victim for instance prior traumatic experience, anxiety symptoms, and general traumatic symptoms. The results were compared to a randomized control group of bank employees never exposed to bank robbery...

  7. Transient insomnia versus chronic insomnia: a comparison study of sleep-related psychological/behavioral characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Ming; Lin, Shih-Chun; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-10-01

    Vulnerability to transient insomnia is regarded as a predisposing factor for chronic insomnia. However, most individuals with transient insomnia do not develop chronic insomnia. The current study investigated the differential contributing factors for these two conditions to further the understanding of this phenomenon. Chronic insomnia patients and normal sleepers with high and low vulnerability to transient insomnia completed measures of pre-sleep arousal, dysfunctional sleep beliefs, and sleep-related safety behaviors. Both cognitive and somatic pre-sleep arousals were identified as significant predictors for transient insomnia. Dysfunctional beliefs regarding worry about insomnia and cognitive arousal were predictors for chronic insomnia. Sleep-related safety behavior, although correlated with insomnia severity, was not a significant predictor for both conditions. Dysfunctional beliefs associated with worry and losing control over sleep are the most critical factors in differentiating chronic insomnia from transient insomnia. These factors should be addressed to help prevent individuals with high sleep vulnerability from developing chronic sleep disturbance. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The effects of sexism, psychological distress, and difficult sexual situations on U.S. women's sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Bowleg, Lisa; Neilands, Torsten B

    2011-10-01

    Women represent almost half of the people living with HIV worldwide. Although social discrimination has been recognized as a major obstacle to HIV prevention, few empirical studies have examined the effects of sexism on women's HIV sexual risk behaviors. We analyzed data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. A majority of respondents reported lifetime experiences of sexism (e.g., 94% reported sexual harassment). Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that experiences of sexism and reports of recent unprotected sex with a primary or a secondary sexual partner were linked through psychological distress and difficult sexual situations. Our results suggest the need to develop HIV prevention strategies for women that address two mechanisms-psychological distress and difficult sexual situations-that link social discrimination to women's sexual risk for HIV.

  9. The Effects of Sexism, Psychological Distress, and Difficult Sexual Situations on U.S. Women’s Sexual Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Bowleg, Lisa; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2011-01-01

    Women represent almost half of the people living with HIV worldwide. Although social discrimination has been recognized as a major obstacle to HIV prevention, few empirical studies have examined the effects of sexism on women’s HIV sexual risk behaviors. We analyzed data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. A majority of respondents reported lifetime experiences of sexism (e.g., 94% reported sexual harassment). Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that experiences of sexism and reports of recent unprotected sex with a primary or a secondary sexual partner were linked through psychological distress and difficult sexual situations. Our results suggest the need to develop HIV prevention strategies for women that address two mechanisms ---psychological distress and difficult sexual situations --- that link social discrimination to women’s sexual risk for HIV. PMID:22010804

  10. Testing self-determined motivation as a mediator of the relationship between psychological needs and affective and behavioral outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Meghan H; Crocker, Peter R E

    2007-10-01

    Self-determination theory suggests that when psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are met, participants experience more self-determined types of motivation and more positive outcomes. Limited research has examined this mediational role of self-determined motivation in adult physical activity participants, and very few studies have included assessments of relatedness. This study tested the hypothesis that self-determined motivation would mediate the relationship between psychological need fulfillment and affective and behavioral outcomes. Adult dragon boaters (N = 558) between the ages of 19 and 83 completed a questionnaire on motivational aspects of dragon boating. Competence, relatedness, and autonomy all significantly predicted self-determined motivation, but self-determined motivation only partially mediated their relationship with positive and negative affect. These findings demonstrate the importance of all three needs in adult activity motivation and suggest that the relationships between needs, self-determination, and outcomes may be complex.

  11. Effects of animal-assisted therapy on behavioral and/or psychological symptoms in dementia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Lena; Engström, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Recently, interest in nonpharmaceutical interventions in dementia care has increased. Animal-assisted therapy has been shown to be one promising intervention but more knowledge is needed. The present article reports on a pilot study involving an 84-year-old woman with vascular dementia who was systematically trained with a therapy dog team for 8 weeks. A quasi-experimental longitudinal interventional design with pre-post measures was used. Data were collected on 3 occasions. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Some effects on the woman's ability to walk and move were identified. In addition, some effects in the woman's cognitive state were observed. Physical, psychological, and/or social training with certified therapy dog teams can have effects on behavioral and psychological symptoms in people living with dementia. Further research is needed.

  12. A Qualitative Exploration of the Help-Seeking Behaviors of Students Who Experience Psychological Distress Around Assessment at Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Rachel I; Patel, Rakesh; Norman, Robert I

    2017-08-01

    Medical students are at high risk of experiencing psychological distress at medical school and developing mental ill-health during professional practice. Despite efforts by faculty to raise awareness about this risk, many students choose to suffer in silence in the face of psychological distress. The aim of this study was to explore drivers that prompted help-seeking behavior and barriers that prevented individuals prioritizing their well-being around the time of high-stakes assessment at medical school. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifty-seven students who failed high-stakes assessment at two UK medical schools, exploring their experience of academic difficulty and perceptions about causes. A thematic analysis of twenty transcripts that met inclusion criteria was completed to identify key factors that influenced participants' decisions around seeking help for their psychological distress, and in some cases, mental health problems. Twenty participants who specifically described a deterioration in their mental health around the time of assessment were included in this study. Barriers to seeking help in these instances included: normalization of symptoms or situation; failure to recognize a problem existed; fear of stigmatisation; overt symptoms of mental distress; and misconceptions about the true nature of the medical school, for example beliefs about a punitive response from the school if they failed. Drivers for seeking help appropriately included: building trust with someone in order to confide in them later on, and self-awareness about the need to maintain good mental health. There are various drivers and barriers for students' help seeking behaviors when experiencing psychological distress around the time of assessment, particularly self-awareness about the problem and prioritisation of well-being. Students who fail to recognize their own deteriorating mental health are at risk of academic failure and medical schools need to develop

  13. Psychological model of ART adherence behaviors in persons living with HIV/AIDS in Mexico: a structural equation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ybarra Sagarduy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE The objective of this study has been to test the ability of variables of a psychological model to predict antiretroviral therapy medication adherence behavior. METHODS We have conducted a cross-sectional study among 172 persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA, who completed four self-administered assessments: 1 the Psychological Variables and Adherence Behaviors Questionnaire, 2 the Stress-Related Situation Scale to assess the variable of Personality, 3 The Zung Depression Scale, and 4 the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to construct a model to predict medication adherence behaviors. RESULTS Out of all the participants, 141 (82% have been considered 100% adherent to antiretroviral therapy. Structural equation modeling has confirmed the direct effect that personality (decision-making and tolerance of frustration has on motives to behave, or act accordingly, which was in turn directly related to medication adherence behaviors. In addition, these behaviors have had a direct and significant effect on viral load, as well as an indirect effect on CD4 cell count. The final model demonstrates the congruence between theory and data (x2/df. = 1.480, goodness of fit index = 0.97, adjusted goodness of fit index = 0.94, comparative fit index = 0.98, root mean square error of approximation = 0.05, accounting for 55.7% of the variance. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study support our theoretical model as a conceptual framework for the prediction of medication adherence behaviors in persons living with HIV/AIDS. Implications for designing, implementing, and evaluating intervention programs based on the model are to be discussed.

  14. Psychological model of ART adherence behaviors in persons living with HIV/AIDS in Mexico: a structural equation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarduy, José Luis Ybarra; López, Julio Alfonso Piña; Ramírez, Mónica Teresa González; Dávila, Luis Enrique Fierros

    2017-09-04

    The objective of this study has been to test the ability of variables of a psychological model to predict antiretroviral therapy medication adherence behavior. We have conducted a cross-sectional study among 172 persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), who completed four self-administered assessments: 1) the Psychological Variables and Adherence Behaviors Questionnaire, 2) the Stress-Related Situation Scale to assess the variable of Personality, 3) The Zung Depression Scale, and 4) the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to construct a model to predict medication adherence behaviors. Out of all the participants, 141 (82%) have been considered 100% adherent to antiretroviral therapy. Structural equation modeling has confirmed the direct effect that personality (decision-making and tolerance of frustration) has on motives to behave, or act accordingly, which was in turn directly related to medication adherence behaviors. In addition, these behaviors have had a direct and significant effect on viral load, as well as an indirect effect on CD4 cell count. The final model demonstrates the congruence between theory and data (x2/df. = 1.480, goodness of fit index = 0.97, adjusted goodness of fit index = 0.94, comparative fit index = 0.98, root mean square error of approximation = 0.05), accounting for 55.7% of the variance. The results of this study support our theoretical model as a conceptual framework for the prediction of medication adherence behaviors in persons living with HIV/AIDS. Implications for designing, implementing, and evaluating intervention programs based on the model are to be discussed.

  15. Behavioral Control and Reward Sensitivity in Adolescents' Risk Taking Behavior: A Longitudinal TRAILS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Margot; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this study we tested whether the imbalance between behavioral control and reward sensitivity underlies risk taking behavior in adolescence, using a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 715 adolescents, of which 66% revealed an increased risk for mental health problems. To assess behavioral control at age 11 we used both self-report (effortful control) as well as behavioral measures of cognitive control (i.e., working memory and response inhibition). Reward sensitivity was assessed with the Bangor Gambling Task. The main finding of this study was that effortful control at age 11 was the best predictor of risk taking behavior (alcohol and cannabis use) at age 16, particularly among adolescents who were more reward sensitive. Risk taking behavior in adolescents might be explained by relatively weak behavioral control functioning combined with high sensitivity for reward.

  16. Parasuicidal behavior through the lenses of the future-real psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanevskiy Victor Ionovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The future-real psychology focuses on the orientation of the individual in respect of the future time based on the situation of the present time. The future-real psychology suggests studying the future through the goal orientation where an operational component is the goal. The goals can be “close perspective”, “medium perspective” and “long perspective”. Parasuicidal individuals are characterized by “close perspective” goals in comparison with those who do not have a wish to commit a suicide because they follow the long perspective goals.

  17. Effectiveness of teaching cognitive-behavioral techniques on locus of control in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrtak, Mohammad; Habibzadeh, Shahram; Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Rjaei-Khiavi, Abdollah

    2017-10-01

    Many of the cognitive behavioral models and therapeutic protocols developed so far for psychological disorders and chronic diseases have proved effective through clinical research. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of teaching cognitive-behavioral techniques on locus of control in hemodialysis patients. This controlled clinical trial study was conducted in 2015 with 76 patients selected by census and treated with a hemodialysis machine in the dialysis department of Vali-Asr Hospital in the city of Meshkinshahr. A total of four patients were excluded because of their critical conditions while the rest, who were recruited, were randomly divided into two equal groups of 36 patients as the intervention and control groups. First, the locus of control was measured in both groups through a pretest, and cognitive-behavioral techniques were then taught to the intervention group during eight 45 to 90-minute sessions. The locus of control in patients of both groups was finally re-measured through a posttest. Data were collected using Rotter's Locus of Control Inventory. The Wilcoxon test and Mann-Whitney U test were respectively used in SPSS18 for data analysis. In the pretest and posttest stages respectively, 4.8% and 14.3% of samples in the control group as well as 14.3% and 33.3% of samples in the intervention group enjoyed internal locus of control. The difference between the pretest and posttest scores of internal locus of control in the intervention group was significant (p=0.004), which indicates the positive effect of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapeutic intervention on internalization of locus of control in this group. Given the external locus of control in most of the study patients and also the positive significant effect of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy on internalization of locus of control in this group of patients, it appears necessary to have a psychology resident present in the hemodialysis department to teach the necessary cognitive-behavioral

  18. An open trial of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychological distress in parents of children after end of treatment for childhood cancer including a cognitive behavioral conceptualization

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Ljungman; Martin Cernvall; Ata Ghaderi; Gustaf Ljungman; Louise von Essen; Brjánn Ljótsson

    2018-01-01

    Objective A subgroup of parents of children who have been treated for childhood cancer report high levels of psychological distress. To date there is no empirically supported psychological treatment targeting cancer-related psychological distress in this population. The aim of the current study was to test the feasibility and preliminarily evaluate the effect of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for parents of children after the end of treatment for childhood cancer...

  19. Clinical and psychological features of normal-weight women with subthreshold anorexia nervosa: a pilot case-control observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Anna; Ferraris, Cinzia; Martinelli, Valentina; Pinelli, Giovanna; Repossi, Ilaria; Trentani, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Weight preoccupations have been frequently reported in normal-weight subjects. Subthreshold anorexia nervosa (s-AN, all DSM IV TR criteria except amenorrhea or underweight) is a form of eating disorder not otherwise specified that has received scarce scientific attention. Under a case-control design we compared the general characteristics, body composition, and psychopathological features of normal-weight patients with s-AN with those of BMI- and sex-matched controls. Participants in this pilot study included 9 normal-weight women who met the DSM IV TR criteria for s-AN and 18 BMI-matched normal-weight controls. The general characteristics of the study participants were collected by questionnaire. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Behavioral and psychological measures included the standardized symptom checklist (SCL-90-R) and the eating disorder inventory (EDI-2). There were no differences in age, education, employment status, marital status, and history of previous slimming treatment in the two study groups. In addition, anthropometric measures and body composition of s-AN patients and BMI-matched normal weight controls were not significantly different. In the s-AN subgroup, we found a significant relationship between waist circumference and the SCL-90-R obsessivity-compulsivity scale (n=9, r=-0.69, pstudy cohort. These pilot results suggest that psychopathological criteria (particularly related to the obsessivity-compulsivity dimension) may be more useful than anthropometric measures for screening of s-AN in normal-weight women.

  20. [The Relationship Between Quality of Life and Psychological and Behavioral Factors in Patients With Heart Failure Following Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Fang, Jin-Bo; Zhao, Yi-Heng

    2018-06-01

    While cardiac resynchronization therapy improves the quality of life of patients with heart failure, some psychological and behavioral factors still affect the quality of life of these patients. However, information on the factors that affect the quality of life of these patients is limited. To describe the quality of life and investigate the relationship between quality of life and behavioral and psychological factors such as depression, smoking, drinking, water and sodium restrictions, exercise, and adherence in patients with chronic heart failure following cardiac resynchronization therapy. This cross-sectional study was conducted using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire, and Cardiac Depression Scale. A convenience sample of 141 patients with heart failure following cardiac resynchronization therapy were recruited from a tertiary academic hospital in Chengdu. The mean overall score of the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire was 30.89 (out of a total possible score of 105). Water restrictions, sodium restrictions, depression, and exercise were all shown to significantly predict quality of life among the participants. This paper describes the quality of life and defines the behavioral factors that affect the quality of life of patients with heart failure following cardiac resynchronization therapy. The findings suggest that nurses should manage and conduct health education for patients in order to improve their quality of life.

  1. Psychological Support for Young Adults with Down Syndrome: Dohsa-Hou Program for Maladaptive Behaviors and Internalizing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruo Fujino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychological and psychiatric dysfunction is a major problem in a substantial proportion of young adults with Down syndrome. Some patients develop psychiatric issues, such as depressive, obsessive-compulsive, or psychotic-like disorders, in their late adolescence or young adulthood. Furthermore, these individuals may experience moderate to severe emotional and psychological distress. Development of a psychosocial treatment to address these issues is needed in addition to psychotropic medication. The current study reports two cases of young adults with Down syndrome, who presented psychiatric symptoms and marked disruption in their daily lives. These individuals participated in a Dohsa-hou treatment program. Following treatment, adaptive levels, maladaptive behaviors, and internalizing problems were evaluated by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II. Participants showed improvement in maladaptive behaviors and internalizing problems; however, improvement in these areas may be influenced by baseline severity of the problems. This case report suggests that Dohsa-hou could be an effective therapeutic approach for maladaptive and internalizing problems in adults with Down syndrome.

  2. Integrating Neural Circuits Controlling Female Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micevych, Paul E; Meisel, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i.e., lordosis behavior, a measure of sexual receptivity that involves estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in the arcuate nucleus (ARH), activating β-endorphin projections to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), which in turn modulate ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) activity-the common output from the hypothalamus. Estradiol modulates not only a series of neuropeptides, transmitters and receptors but induces dendritic spines that are for estrogenic induction of lordosis behavior. Simultaneously, in the nucleus accumbens of the mesolimbic system, the mating experience produces long term changes in dopamine signaling and structure. Sexual experience sensitizes the response of nucleus accumbens neurons to dopamine signaling through the induction of a long lasting early immediate gene. While estrogen alone increases spines in the ARH, sexual experience increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens. These two circuits appear to converge onto the medial preoptic area where there is a reciprocal influence of motivational circuits on consummatory behavior and vice versa . While it has not been formally demonstrated in the human, such circuitry is generally highly conserved and thus, understanding the anatomy, neurochemistry and physiology can provide useful insight into the motivation for sexual behavior and other innate behaviors in humans.

  3. Integrating Neural Circuits Controlling Female Sexual Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Micevych

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i.e., lordosis behavior, a measure of sexual receptivity that involves estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in the arcuate nucleus (ARH, activating β-endorphin projections to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN, which in turn modulate ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH activity—the common output from the hypothalamus. Estradiol modulates not only a series of neuropeptides, transmitters and receptors but induces dendritic spines that are for estrogenic induction of lordosis behavior. Simultaneously, in the nucleus accumbens of the mesolimbic system, the mating experience produces long term changes in dopamine signaling and structure. Sexual experience sensitizes the response of nucleus accumbens neurons to dopamine signaling through the induction of a long lasting early immediate gene. While estrogen alone increases spines in the ARH, sexual experience increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens. These two circuits appear to converge onto the medial preoptic area where there is a reciprocal influence of motivational circuits on consummatory behavior and vice versa. While it has not been formally demonstrated in the human, such circuitry is generally highly conserved and thus, understanding the anatomy, neurochemistry and physiology can provide useful insight into the motivation for sexual behavior and other innate behaviors in humans.

  4. Psychological control by parents is associated with a higher child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Gerda; Kremers, Stef P J; Oenema, Anke; van de Mheen, Dike

    2011-10-01

    In this examination of the association between parenting style and child weight, the neglected concept of 'psychological control' has been added to the generally accepted parenting dimensions 'support' and 'behavioural control'. Also explored is whether the potential association between parenting and child weight is moderated by socio-demographic variables (child's age/ethnicity, and parent's education level). A cross-sectional study was performed among 1,665 parent-child dyads. The children's mean age was 8 years. Their height and weight were measured to calculate their body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure the three parenting dimensions. Based on these dimensions, five parenting styles were defined: the authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, neglecting and rejecting parenting style. Child BMI z-scores were regressed on parenting style, adjusting for parental BMI, child ethnicity, and parent's education level. Rejecting parenting, characterized by high psychological control, low support and low behavioural control, is the only parenting style significantly related to child BMI z-scores (β = 0.074, p parenting, this study has further elucidated the mechanisms whereby parenting may affect child weight. Demonstrating that 'rejecting parenting' is associated with a higher child weight, emphasizes the need for longitudinal studies in which parenting style is measured three-dimensionally. Potential mediating effects of parental feeding style and children's eating style, as well as age moderation, should be included in these studies.

  5. "Just Dance": The Effects of Exergame Feedback and Controller Use on Physical Activity and Psychological Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jih-Hsuan

    2015-06-01

    In Asia, dance games are among the most popular types of exergames. Whereas traditional dance-based games emphasize step movements on a dance pad, more recent dance games emphasize intuitive dance movements using simple controllers or players' own bodies to "just dance." However, because of limited space and access, young adults in Taiwan often do not use these games. Popular dance videos on YouTube are more readily available to students because these videos can be accessed on a computer. Therefore, the current study examines the effects of interactivity (the role of feedback) and controller use on participants' physiological and psychological outcomes during exergames. The dance game "Just Dance 3" (Ubisoft, Montreuil, France) was chosen as the stimulus for this study. Participants danced through one song for rehearsal and warm-up, followed by three songs for the experiment, which lasted approximately 12 minutes. One hundred twenty-nine college students participated in a 2×2×2 (interactivity, feedback versus no feedback; controller, with versus without; sex, male versus female) between-subject factorial design. A series of 2×2×2 (interactivity, controller, and sex) analyses of variance showed no significant differences in interaction effects on participants' heart rates, blood pressures, body movements, step counts, or perceived psychological outcomes. Dance game videos without feedback are also effective tools for achieving moderate-level exercise intensity. These videos can supplement the limited access to games in Asian countries, such as Taiwan.

  6. Tablet computers and forensic and correctional psychological assessment: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher M; Heilbrun, Kirk; Kim, Na Young; McWilliams, Kellie; Phillips, Sarah; Barbera, Jessie; Fretz, Ralph

    2017-10-01

    Mobile computing technology presents various possibilities and challenges for psychological assessment. Within forensic and correctional psychology, assessment of justice-involved persons facilitated by such technology has not been empirically examined. Accordingly, this randomized controlled experiment involved administering questionnaires about risk-needs, treatment readiness, and computerized technology opinions to a large (N = 212) and diverse sample of individuals under custodial correctional supervision using either a tablet computer or traditional paper-and-pencil materials. Results revealed that participants in the paper-and-pencil condition completed the packet of questionnaires faster but omitted items more frequently. Older participants and those with lower levels of education tended to take longer to complete the tablet-administrated measures. The tablet format was rated as more usable irrespective of demographic and personal characteristics, and most participants across the 2 conditions indicated that they would prefer to use computerized technology to complete psychological testing. Administration format did not have a clear effect on attitudes toward correctional rehabilitation services. Noteworthy for researchers is the substantial time saved and absence of practical problems with the tablet condition. Implications for practitioners include the general usability of the devices, their appeal to incarcerated persons, and the potential for tablets to facilitate clinical and administrative tasks with corrections clients. Considering the novel nature of this study, its promising results, and its limitations, future research in this area is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Instructors' Use of Trigger Warnings and Behavior Warnings in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Guy A.; Wells, Anna Mae; Dawson, Kaylee J.

    2016-01-01

    College students have been increasingly demanding warnings and accommodations in relation to course topics they believe will elicit strong, negative emotions. These "trigger warnings" are highly relevant to Abnormal Psychology because of the sensitive topics covered in the course (e.g., suicide, trauma, sex). A survey of Abnormal…

  8. How to improve eHealth interventions in Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Wentzel, M.J.; Sieverink, Floor; Beerlage-de Jong, Nienke; Kelders, Saskia Marion

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: eHealth is gaining more and more ground in health psychology and behavioural medicine to support wellbeing, a healthier lifestyle or adherence to medications. Despite the large number of eHealth projects to date, the actual use of eHealth interventions is lower than expected. Many

  9. The Psychological Implications of Concealing a Stigma: A Cognitive-Affective-Behavioral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachankis, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Many assume that individuals with a hidden stigma escape the difficulties faced by individuals with a visible stigma. However, recent research has shown that individuals with a concealable stigma also face considerable stressors and psychological challenges. The ambiguity of social situations combined with the threat of potential discovery makes…

  10. A socio-psychological perspective on team ambidexterity: The contingency role of supportive leadership behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.J.P.; Kostopoulos, K.C.; Mihalache, R.O.; Papalexandris, A

    2016-01-01

    In addressing the notion of team ambidexterity, we propose that socio-psychological factors (i.e., team cohesion and team efficacy) may help team members to resolve paradoxical challenges and to combine exploratory and exploitative learning efforts. In addition, we theorize that senior executives

  11. Commentary: Monozygotic twins or unrelated stepchildren? On the relationship between economic psychology and behavioral economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fetchenhauer, D.; Azar, O.H.; Antonides, G.; Dunning, D.; Frank, R.H.; Lea, S.; Ölander, F.

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen increased cooperation between psychologists and economists. This is mirrored in interdisciplinary journals (like the Journal of Economic Psychology or the Journal of Socio-Economics) as well as in interdisciplinary conferences. During one of these conferences, The IAREP/SABE

  12. Naturally green: Harnessing stone age psychological biases to foster environmental behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, M.; Griskevicius, V.; Schultz, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    It is widely agreed that humans must reduce their environmental impact. We propose that an improved understanding of our evolved human nature can help to improve programs and policies to address environmental problems. Combining evolutionary and social psychological approaches, we argue that

  13. A behavioral intervention for war-affected youth in Sierra Leone: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M; Brennan, Robert T; Weisz, John R; Hansen, Nathan B

    2014-12-01

    Youth in war-affected regions are at risk for poor psychological, social, and educational outcomes. Effective interventions are needed to improve mental health, social behavior, and school functioning. This randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of a 10-session cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based group mental health intervention for multisymptomatic war-affected youth (aged 15-24 years) in Sierra Leone. War-affected youth identified by elevated distress and impairment via community screening were randomized (stratified by sex and age) to the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI) (n = 222) or to a control condition (n = 214). After treatment, youth were again randomized and offered an education subsidy immediately (n = 220) or waitlisted (n = 216). Emotion regulation, psychological distress, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, functional impairment, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed at pre- and postintervention and at 6-month follow-up. For youth in school, enrollment, attendance, and classroom performance were assessed after 8 months. Linear mixed-effects regressions evaluated outcomes. The YRI showed significant postintervention effects on emotion regulation, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, and reduced functional impairment, and significant follow-up effects on school enrollment, school attendance, and classroom behavior. In contrast, education subsidy was associated with better attendance but had no effect on mental health or functioning, school retention, or classroom behavior. Interactions between education subsidy and YRI were not significant. YRI produced acute improvements in mental health and functioning as well as longer-term effects on school engagement and behavior, suggesting potential to prepare war-affected youth for educational and other opportunities. Clinical trial registration information-Trial of the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI); http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT

  14. Transformational and transactional leadership and innovative behavior : The moderating role of psychological empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, Anne Nederveen; van Knippenberg, Daan; Schippers, Michaela; Stam, Daan

    Innovative behavior is increasingly important for organizations' survival. Transformational leadership, in contrast to transactional leadership, has been argued to be particularly effective in engendering follower innovative behavior. However, empirical evidence for this relationship is scarce and

  15. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between flow proneness, locus of control and behavioral inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam A Mosing

    Full Text Available Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control--traits also associated with neuroticism--and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of .41, .45, and .30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control. We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of

  16. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between flow proneness, locus of control and behavioral inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, Miriam A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Cesarini, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Nakamura, Jeanne; Madison, Guy; Ullén, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control--traits also associated with neuroticism--and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of .41, .45, and .30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious) and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control). We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of dopaminergic neural

  17. The Essential Role of Behavioral Genetics in Developmental Psychology: Reply to Partridge (2005) and Greenberg (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGue, Matt; Elkins, Irene; Walden, Brent; Iacono, William G.

    2005-01-01

    The authors address the methodological, theoretical, and ideological criticisms of their article on adolescent perceptions of parenting behavior made by G. Greenberg and T. Partridge. Behavioral genetic methods have provided unique insights on the origins of individual differences in behavior and, when applied to parenting and other putative…

  18. Altruistic Behavior among College Students: An Investigation of the Social and Psychological Characteristics of Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Wilbert Marcellus, II

    The document describes a field study to investigate the relationship between altruism and blood donating behavior among members of a large midwestern college community. Altruistic behavior is interpreted as combining three motivations: (1) reward-cost, also referred to in terms of behavior as social exchange; (2) social responsibility and…

  19. Controller synthesis for L2 behaviors using rational kernel representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaers, M.E.C.; Weiland, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the controller synthesis problem for the class of linear time-invariant L2 behaviors. We introduce classes of LTI L2 systems whose behavior can be represented as the kernel of a rational operator. Given a plant and a controlled system in this class, an algorithm is developed

  20. Teasing and weight-control behaviors in adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    Leme, Ana Carolina B.; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between weight teasing, body satisfaction and weight control behaviors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on adaptation and validity research of a North American questionnaire for adolescent girls about physical activity, nutrition, body image, perceptions, and behaviors. The variables used to conduct the study were weight control behaviors, body satisfaction and presence of teasing by family members. Descriptive analyses were carried out by chi-s...