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Sample records for psychological theories assume

  1. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories......The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...

  2. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  3. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...

  4. The Psychology of Conspiracy Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Karen M; Sutton, Robbie M; Cichocka, Aleksandra

    2017-12-01

    What psychological factors drive the popularity of conspiracy theories , which explain important events as secret plots by powerful and malevolent groups? What are the psychological consequences of adopting these theories? We review the current research and find that it answers the first of these questions more thoroughly than the second. Belief in conspiracy theories appears to be driven by motives that can be characterized as epistemic (understanding one's environment), existential (being safe and in control of one's environment), and social (maintaining a positive image of the self and the social group). However, little research has investigated the consequences of conspiracy belief, and to date, this research does not indicate that conspiracy belief fulfills people's motivations. Instead, for many people, conspiracy belief may be more appealing than satisfying. Further research is needed to determine for whom, and under what conditions, conspiracy theories may satisfy key psychological motives.

  5. Sociological theory and Jungian psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    [[disenchantmentCarl JungpsychoanalysissociologyMax Weber ] In this article I seek to relate the psychology of Carl Jung to sociological theory, specifically Weber. I first present an outline of Jungian psychology. I then seek to relate this as psychology to Weber’s interpretivism. I point to basic methodological compatibilities within a Kantian frame, from which emerge central concerns with the factors limiting rationality. These generate the conceptual frameworks for parallel enquiries into the development and fate of rationality in cultural history. Religion is a major theme here: contrasts of eastern and western religion; the rise of prophetic religion and the disenchantment of modernity. Weber’s categories ‘ascetic’ and ‘mystic’ seem applicable to his own and Jung’s approaches and indeed temperaments, while a shared ironic view of rationality leads to similar visions of the disenchanted modern world. I conclude that Jung is sociologically coherent, but in an entirely different sense from Freud: rather than a constellation of family, socialization, ideology, social continuity, there is an analysis of cultural history against a background of adult normal psychology. I conclude that sociology should acknowledge Jung, but not in terms of over-arching theory. Rather Jungian insights might be used to orient new enquiries, and for reflexive analysis of sociology’s methodological debates.

  6. [Psychological theory and implicit sociology.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévigny, R

    1983-01-01

    This text is based on the hypothesis that every theory on the psychology of personality must inevitably, in one manner or another, have a sociological referent, that is to say, it must refer to a body of knowledge which deals with a diversity of social contexts and their relations to individuals. According to this working hypothesis, such a sociology is implicit. This text then discusses a group of theoretical approaches in an effort to verify this hypothesis. This approach allows the extrication of diverse forms or diverse expressions of this implicit sociology within this context several currents are rapidly explored : psychoanalysis, behaviorism, gestalt, classical theory of needs. The author also comments on the approach, inspired by oriental techniques or philosophies, which employs the notion of myth to deepen self awareness. Finally, from the same perspective, he comments at greater length on the work of Carl Rogers, highlighting the diverse form of implicit sociology. In addition to Carl Rogers, this text refers to Freud, Jung, Adler, Reich, Perls, Goodman, Skinner as well as to Ginette Paris and various analysts of Taoism. In conclusion, the author indicates the significance of his analysis from double viewpoint of psychological theory and practice.

  7. Application of Chaos Theory to Psychological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackerby, Rae Fortunato

    This dissertation shows that an alternative theoretical approach from physics--chaos theory--offers a viable basis for improved understanding of human beings and their behavior. Chaos theory provides achievable frameworks for potential identification, assessment, and adjustment of human behavior patterns. Most current psychological models fail to address the metaphysical conditions inherent in the human system, thus bringing deep errors to psychological practice and empirical research. Freudian, Jungian and behavioristic perspectives are inadequate psychological models because they assume, either implicitly or explicitly, that the human psychological system is a closed, linear system. On the other hand, Adlerian models that require open systems are likely to be empirically tenable. Logically, models will hold only if the model's assumptions hold. The innovative application of chaotic dynamics to psychological behavior is a promising theoretical development because the application asserts that human systems are open, nonlinear and self-organizing. Chaotic dynamics use nonlinear mathematical relationships among factors that influence human systems. This dissertation explores these mathematical relationships in the context of a sample model of moral behavior using simulated data. Mathematical equations with nonlinear feedback loops describe chaotic systems. Feedback loops govern the equations' value in subsequent calculation iterations. For example, changes in moral behavior are affected by an individual's own self-centeredness, family and community influences, and previous moral behavior choices that feed back to influence future choices. When applying these factors to the chaos equations, the model behaves like other chaotic systems. For example, changes in moral behavior fluctuate in regular patterns, as determined by the values of the individual, family and community factors. In some cases, these fluctuations converge to one value; in other cases, they diverge in

  8. Psychologic theories in functional neurologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, A; Ludwig, L; Welch, K

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we review key psychologic theories that have been mooted as possible explanations for the etiology of functional neurologic symptoms, conversion disorder, and hysteria. We cover Freudian psychoanalysis and later object relations and attachment theories, social theories, illness behavior, classic and operant conditioning, social learning theory, self-regulation theory, cognitive-behavioral theories, and mindfulness. Dissociation and modern cognitive neuroscience theories are covered in other chapters in this series and, although of central importance, are omitted from this chapter. Our aim is an overview with the emphasis on breadth of coverage rather than depth. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Activity theories and the ontology of psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mammen, Jens Skaun; Mironenko, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Psychology has permanent problems of theoretical coherence and practical, analytic and critical efficiency. It is claimed that Activity Theory (AT) with roots in a long European philosophical tradition and continued in Russian AT is a first step to remedy this. A Danish version of AT may have a key...... in the encounter between subject and object which replace the dualistic dichotomies traditionally splitting psychology in Naturwissenschaft vs. Geisteswissenshaft. This also implies a "Copernican turn" of Cartesian dualism. The perspectives are to give place for a phenomenology of meaning without cutting human...... psyche out of Nature and to open Psychology to its domain....

  10. Alternative probability theories for cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narens, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Various proposals for generalizing event spaces for probability functions have been put forth in the mathematical, scientific, and philosophic literatures. In cognitive psychology such generalizations are used for explaining puzzling results in decision theory and for modeling the influence of context effects. This commentary discusses proposals for generalizing probability theory to event spaces that are not necessarily boolean algebras. Two prominent examples are quantum probability theory, which is based on the set of closed subspaces of a Hilbert space, and topological probability theory, which is based on the set of open sets of a topology. Both have been applied to a variety of cognitive situations. This commentary focuses on how event space properties can influence probability concepts and impact cognitive modeling. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Darwinian Theory, Functionalism, and the First American Psychological Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within…

  12. First, Assume a Monopoly: The Failure of Vertical Foreclosure Theory on the Never-Was-Neutral Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A. Hass

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet service providers and their customers have understood and debated the concepts of net neutrality since the beginning of the era of dial-up bulletin board systems. Commentators have only recently joined the debate, and often overlook history. No commentator, legislator, or regulator can be certain how networks and technologies will evolve over the next decade - especially when they misunderstand how those networks evolved over the last one. This paper refocuses the net neutrality debate by challenging the application of vertical foreclosure theory to today's non-neutral Internet access and content markets. The paper finds that the current policy fascination with non-existent net neutrality is ill founded. Disclosure and a broader focus on both network and content providers' non-neutral traffic policies would better enable the market to choose technologies and business models dynamically while still providing regulators with a potential enforcement mechanism.

  13. School Psychology Research: Combining Ecological Theory and Prevention Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    The current article comments on the importance of theoretical implications within school psychological research, and proposes that ecological theory and prevention science could provide the conceptual framework for school psychology research and practice. Articles published in "School Psychology Review" should at least discuss potential…

  14. Bringing Cultural Diversity to Feminist Psychology. Theory, Research, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrine, Hope, Ed.

    This book focuses on the theoretical, empirical and practice-based implications of recognizing cultural diversity in the psychology of women. Contributors to this volume share the common objective of keeping feminist psychology robust and useful. Chapters in the first section, "Cultural Diversity in Theory and Methodology in Feminist…

  15. CONCEPTS OF ENVY IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Викторовна Бескова

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the foreign and Russian theorists of personality, representing different psychological directions in which there is a reference to the problem of envy. The problem of envy is discussed in the framework of classical psychoanalysis (S. Freud, M. Klein, individual psychology (A. Adler, analytical psychology (C.G. Jung, concept ofhumanistic psychoanalysis (E. Fromm, social-cultural theory (K. Horney, ego-theory (E. Erikson, A. Peeters, dispositional direction (G. Allport, R. Cattell, humanistic psychology (A. Maslow, existential psychology (V. Frankl. It is shown that in Russian theories of personality the problem of envy is reflected in the works of A.A. Bodalev, V.N. Myasishchev, V.N. Panferov, A.V. Petrovsky.Purpose.To carry out the analysis of psychological theories of the personality to identify the specific of ideas of psychological essence and envy sources.Methodology.Theoretical analysis and systematization of scientific data.Results.Separation and heterogeneity of scientific ideas of envy is revealed, that, on the one hand, allows looking at it from different points of view, and with another – counteracts the integration of knowledge of envy into uniform theoretical system.Practical implications. Research results can be used in the practice of psychological consultation, the psycho-correction of the envious relation, the outreach activity of psychologists.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-68

  16. Evolutionary Theory's Increasing Role in Personality and Social Psychology

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    Gregory D. Webster

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Has the emergence of evolutionary psychology had an increasing impact on personality and social psychological research published over the past two decades? If so, is its growing influence substantially different from that of other emerging psychological areas? These questions were addressed in the present study by conducting a content analysis of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP from 1985 to 2004 using the PsycINFO online abstract database. Specifically, keyword searches for “evol*” or “Darwin*” revealed that the percentage of JPSP articles drawing on evolutionary theory was modest, but increased significantly between 1985 and 2004. To compare the growing impact of evolutionary psychology with other psychological areas, similar keywords searches were performed in JPSP for emotion and motivation, judgment and decision making, neuroscience and psychophysiology, stereotyping and prejudice, and terror management theory. The increase in evolutionary theory in JPSP over time was practically equal to the mean increase over time for the other five areas. Thus, evolutionary psychology has played an increasing role in shaping personality and social psychological research over the past 20 years, and is growing at a rate consistent with other emerging psychological areas.

  17. Prospect theory or construal level theory? Diminishing sensitivity vs. psychological distance in risky decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Stefan T; van de Kuilen, Gijs

    2012-01-01

    Attitudes toward risks are central to organizational decisions. These attitudes are commonly modeled by prospect theory. Construal level theory has been proposed as an alternative theory of risky choice, accounting for psychological distance deriving from temporal, spatial and social aspects of risk that are typical of agency situations. Unnoticed in the literature, the two theories make contradicting predictions. The current study investigates which theory provides a better description of risky decisions in the presence of temporal, spatial, and social factors. We find that the psychophysical effects modeled by prospect theory dominate the psychological distance effects of construal level theory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Shopping around for Theories for Counseling Psychology Practice: Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Clara E.

    2012-01-01

    Three psychotherapy theories are summarized and critiqued for their applicability to counseling psychology. The lack of attention to psychodynamic and experiential theories in the special section and the lack of theorizing by counseling psychologists in general are lamented. A plea is made for encouraging counseling psychologists to construct more…

  19. The Psychology of Career Theory--A New Perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodd, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    New perspectives on human behavior have invalidated some assumptions of career theories such as personality type, career stages, and life-cycle models. Other theories, such as Driver's Objective Career Patterns, Schein's Temporal Development Model, and Nicholson's Transition Cycle, are compatible with current psychological understanding. (SK)

  20. From theory construction to deconstruction: the many modalities of theorising in psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looren De Jong, H.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical psychology seems to have moved from helping theory construction in mainstream psychology to deconstructing and criticizing it. Three projects for theoretical psychology are sketched: theory construction (Kukla), naturalism (the Churchlands) and its variant metascience, and social

  1. [The weakness of individual psychologic dream theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, F

    1988-05-13

    This article undertakes a critical evaluation of Adlerian dream theory. The main weakness of the theory is found to be its lack of an inherent instance of truth that shows the dreamer the way to a better and more feasible life style. Contemporary Adlerians' treatment of the master's dream dogmas and their practical use in psychotherapy are described. There seems to be a convergence movement of today's practical application methods of the dream in all psychotherapeutic schools. Adlerian dream interpretation in the original sense intended by Adler is practised nowhere by psychotherapists today and seems largely antiquated.

  2. Prospect theory or construal level theory? Diminishing sensitivity vs. psychological distance in risky decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, S.T.; van de Kuilen, G.

    2012-01-01

    Attitudes toward risks are central to organizational decisions. These attitudes are commonly modeled by prospect theory. Construal level theory has been proposed as an alternative theory of risky choice, accounting for psychological distance deriving from temporal, spatial and social aspects of risk

  3. Advances in cognitive-socialpersonality theory : applications to sport psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Many theories and intervention techniques in sport psychology have a cognitive-behavioral emphasis, and sport psychologists have long been interested in individual differences. Recent developments in cognitive social personality theory offer new opportunities for understanding sport behavior. The finding of stable individual differences in situationbehavior relations has helped resolve the person-situation debate of past years, and idiographically-distinct behavioral signatures have now been ...

  4. Constructivism, the so-called semantic learning theories, and situated cognition versus the psychological learning theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Juan José; Rodríguez Moneo, María

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, the perspective of situated cognition, which gave rise both to the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning and has probably become the most representative standpoint of constructivism, is examined. We consider the claim of situated cognition to provide alternative explanations of the learning phenomenon to those of psychology and, especially, to those of the symbolic perspective, currently predominant in cognitive psychology. The level of analysis of situated cognition (i.e., global interactive systems) is considered an inappropriate approach to the problem of learning. From our analysis, it is concluded that the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning which originated in situated cognition can hardly be considered alternatives to the psychological learning theories, and they are unlikely to add anything of interest to the learning theory or to contribute to the improvement of our knowledge about the learning phenomenon.

  5. Relational Frame Theory and Industrial/Organizational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    The current paper argues that a Relational Frame Theory account of complex human behavior including an analysis of relational frames, relational networks, rules and the concept of self can provide a potentially powerful new perspective on phenomena in the applied science of industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology. In this article, we first…

  6. Integrating Social Class into Vocational Psychology: Theory and Practice Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ali, Saba Rasheed

    2009-01-01

    Although social class plays a salient and significant role in career development and occupational attainment, social class is underrepresented in vocational psychology theory, scholarship, and practice. Vocational psychologists are in a unique position to meet the career development needs of persons from all social classes by integrating a fuller…

  7. Psychological theory and pedagogical effectiveness: the learning promotion potential framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Peter

    2008-12-01

    After a century of educational psychology, eminent commentators are still lamenting problems besetting the appropriate relating of psychological insights to teaching design, a situation not helped by the persistence of crude assumptions concerning the nature of pedagogical effectiveness. To propose an analytical or meta-theoretical framework based on the concept of learning promotion potential (LPP) as a basis for understanding the basic relationship between psychological insights and teaching strategies, and to draw out implications for psychology-based pedagogical design, development and research. This is a theoretical and meta-theoretical paper relying mainly on conceptual analysis, though also calling on psychological theory and research. Since teaching consists essentially in activity designed to promote learning, it follows that a teaching strategy has the potential in principle to achieve particular kinds of learning gains (LPP) to the extent that it embodies or stimulates the relevant learning processes on the part of learners and enables the teacher's functions of on-line monitoring and assistance for such learning processes. Whether a teaching strategy actually does realize its LPP by way of achieving its intended learning goals depends also on the quality of its implementation, in conjunction with other factors in the situated interaction that teaching always involves. The core role of psychology is to provide well-grounded indication of the nature of such learning processes and the teaching functions that support them, rather than to directly generate particular ways of teaching. A critically eclectic stance towards potential sources of psychological insight is argued for. Applying this framework, the paper proposes five kinds of issue to be attended to in the design and evaluation of psychology-based pedagogy. Other work proposing comparable ideas is briefly reviewed, with particular attention to similarities and a key difference with the ideas of Oser

  8. Sex differences, evolutionary psychology and biosocial theory : Biosocial theory is no alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxen, Marc F.

    Biosocial theory claims that evolution did not design human psychological sex differences. It argues that these are the result of the allocation of men and women into different sex roles, based on physical differences. This article argues, however, that biosocial theory is not an alternative to

  9. Single case studies as a means for developing psychological theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsov, Anatoliy; Romashchuk, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The Socratic function of single case studies (SCSs) is described in its relation to the problem of scientific theory development. Contrary to the traditional point of view, the single case study is not a demonstration or verification of theoretical concepts, but a method of their generation and opportunity for analysis of their interrelations. Considering the case study from the perspective of the Socratic function brings to light important conclusions about the ecological validity of theory development. The essential features of the Socratic function are illustrated using the example of the famous Romantic Essays of Alexandr Luria. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Willingness to Share Knowledge Compared with Selected Social Psychology Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Krok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is one of the key determinants in the growth and competitiveness of modern enterprises. Hence, it is essential to analyse the factors that induce employees to exchange knowledge. The problem of sharing an intangible asset — in this case, the knowledge of individuals — can be viewed from many perspectives: psychological, economic, organisational, sociological and technological. The aim of this article is to explore selected social psychology theories and to analyse the incentives for people to share knowledge. The article attempts to interpret the willingness to share knowledge through the Social Exchange Theory, the Social Impact Theory, the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This analysis leads to the following conclusions: •we share our knowledge and expect a return; •we share our knowledge when we believe that the benefits of this action outweigh the costs; •we are pushed to share knowledge by the power of empathy; •workers’ willingness to share knowledge is influenced by three social processes: subordination, identification and internalisation; •the decision to share knowledge is preceded by an intention formed under the influence of an individual attitude towards that behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control; and •the decision to share knowledge is also influenced by additional components, including the knowledge and skills to implement this behaviour, environmental limitations, behavioural emphasis and habits.

  11. Towards a Comprehensive Socio-Psychological Perspective: A Critique of Social Dominance Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tunçgenç, Bahar

    2010-01-01

    Psychology aims to understand human cognition and behavior, which necessitates making use of sociological-political theories. Social Dominance Theory (SDT) is one of the psychological theories that try to explain the individual-society relationship from a broad perspective. Yet, this theory has its shortcomings too. In an attempt to contribute to a well-grounded theory for psychological research, the paper at hand will discuss the shortcomings of SDT. The main discussion concerns following ap...

  12. Lay theories of suicide among Austrian psychology undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Loibl, Lisa Mariella; Lester, David

    2007-01-01

    Lester and Bean's (1992) Attribution of Causes to Suicide Scale gauges lay theories of suicide including intrapsychic problems, interpersonal conflicts, and societal forces as causes. Results obtained with its German form (n=165 Austrian psychology undergraduates) showed no sex differences and no social-desirability effects. Intriguingly, all three subscales were moderately intercorrelated, thereby indicating respondents' general agreement (or disagreement) with all three theories. Thus, the critical dimension of lay theories of suicide appears to be the belief that suicide has definite causes (regardless of type) versus that it is without causes (unpredictable). In addition, religiosity was positively associated (and overall knowledge about suicide negatively associated) with belief in intrapsychic causes, whereas liberal political views were negatively associated with belief in interpersonal causes.

  13. Psychology and social networks: a dynamic network theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaby, James D; Pfaff, Danielle L; Redding, Nicholas

    2014-04-01

    Research on social networks has grown exponentially in recent years. However, despite its relevance, the field of psychology has been relatively slow to explain the underlying goal pursuit and resistance processes influencing social networks in the first place. In this vein, this article aims to demonstrate how a dynamic network theory perspective explains the way in which social networks influence these processes and related outcomes, such as goal achievement, performance, learning, and emotional contagion at the interpersonal level of analysis. The theory integrates goal pursuit, motivation, and conflict conceptualizations from psychology with social network concepts from sociology and organizational science to provide a taxonomy of social network role behaviors, such as goal striving, system supporting, goal preventing, system negating, and observing. This theoretical perspective provides psychologists with new tools to map social networks (e.g., dynamic network charts), which can help inform the development of change interventions. Implications for social, industrial-organizational, and counseling psychology as well as conflict resolution are discussed, and new opportunities for research are highlighted, such as those related to dynamic network intelligence (also known as cognitive accuracy), levels of analysis, methodological/ethical issues, and the need to theoretically broaden the study of social networking and social media behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Does Ethical Theory Have a Place in Post-Kohlbergian Moral Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Philosophers tend to assume that theoretical frameworks in psychology suffer from conceptual confusion and that any influence that philosophy might have on psychology should be positive. Going against this grain, Dan Lapsley and Darcia Narvaez attribute the Kohlbergian paradigm's current state of marginalization within psychology to Lawrence…

  15. Towards a new theory of practice for community health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolas, Sevasti-Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The article sets out the value of theorizing collective action from a social science perspective that engages with the messy actuality of practice. It argues that community health psychology relies on an abstract version of Paulo Freire's earlier writing, the Pedagogy of the Oppressed, which provides scholar-activists with a 'map' approach to collective action. The article revisits Freire's later work, the Pedagogy of Hope, and argues for the importance of developing a 'journey' approach to collective action. Theories of practice are discussed for their value in theorizing such journeys, and in bringing maps (intentions) and journeys (actuality) closer together.

  16. Between Bandura and Giddens: Structuration Theory in Social Psychological Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Oppong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In any social analysis, one can attribute observed behavioural outcomes to actions and inactions of people (agents or to the presence or absence of certain structures or systems. The dualism of agent and structure is resolved through the concept of duality as proposed by Anthony Giddens in his structuration theory (ST. Though ST has been applied in other disciplines, it is either less known or applied in psychology. This paper sought to examine ST as a framework for understanding the interdependent relationship between structure and agents in the light of offering explanatory framework in social science research or policy formulation. It concluded with an integrated model comprising elements of both Bandura’s social-cognitive theory and Giddens’ ST.

  17. Scientific Theories and Naive Theories as Forms of Mental Representation: Psychologism Revived

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, William F.

    This paper analyzes recent work in psychology on the nature of the representation of complex forms of knowledge with the goal of understanding how theories are represented. The analysis suggests that, as a psychological form of representation, theories are mental structures that include theoretical entities (usually nonobservable), relationships among the theoretical entities, and relationships of the theoretical entities to the phenomena of some domain. A theory explains the phenomena in its domain by providing a conceptual framework for the phenomena that leads to a feeling of understanding in the reader/hearer. The explanatory conceptual framework goes beyond the original phenomena, integrates diverse aspects of the world, and shows how the original phenomena follow from the framework. This analysis is used to argue that mental models are the subclass of theories that use causal/mechanical explanatory frameworks. In addition, an argument is made for a new psychologism in the philosophy of science, in which the mental representation of scientific theories must be taken into account.

  18. Propositions toward the development of a psychological theory of thought

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    Shadrikov, Vladimir D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Thought is considered a psychological concept associated with an individual’s mental ex- istence. It is apparent that a great deal of research has been focused on thought as an area of study. however, there is no psychological theory of thought which provides an expla- nation for its nature and structural organization. So far, researchers have mainly looked at the ways this concept is expressed, rather than investigating what it actually is. In this study, however, based on studies of the functions of the psyche, mental processes, and the neurophysiological bases of mental activity, thought is identified as a need-emotion- intentional substance existing in the human being’s inner world. In keeping with this understanding of thought, the hypothesis that thought generation is caused by desire and experience (feeling and emotion is put forward. An individual’s thought is linked to his behavior or motivation for activity, and is followed by an emotional experience. The process of thought generation is regarded through the mechanism of behavioral motiva- tion. The primary purpose of this mechanism is to define the qualities of the external objects that serve for need satisfaction and functionality in individuals. The ability to generate thoughts is a feature of thinking related to an individual’s mental ability or frame of mind. From this standpoint, a person’s mentality is considered to be the capacity of the individual to generate thoughts and work through thoughts. It is shown that the abil- ity to generate thoughts and establish relationships within a stream of consciousness is characteristic of human intelligence. Some basic propositions toward a development of a psychological theory of thought are introduced.

  19. Evolution, Psychology, and a Conflict Theory of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin MacDonald

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article develops an evolutionary theory of conflict over the construction of culture that is informed by current knowledge of psychological mechanisms. Psychological mechanisms important for the production of culture include (1 general intelligence (including the ability to engender hypothetical scenarios and means-end reasoning necessary for constructing tools and other exemplars of technology; (2 explicit processing mechanisms (e.g., symbolic representations of the world. Explicit processing allows humans to regulate modular mechanisms in accordance with culturally constructed norms and culturally constructed cost/benefit payoff schedules. It also enables active attempts to construct culture in accordance with explicit perceptions of possible costs and benefits. Because people have different construals of the costs and benefits of particular forms of culture, there is conflict over the construction of culture. Social controls and ideologies are introduced as general cultural categories that are enabled by explicit processing and which are able to regulate and motivate behavior within particular historical contexts, at times in ways that conflict with evolved predispositions. Ideologies are often intimately intertwined with various social controls but are logically and psychologically independent from social controls. Ideologies typically rationalize extant social controls but they also benefit from the power of social controls to enforce ideological conformity in schools or in religious institutions. Because of the control of explicit processing over behavior, this theory predicts that conflicts over culture will often be intense. Discussion deals with the implications of this model for group selection, cultural transmission, gene-culture co-evolution, and the various types of conflicts of interest apparent in conflicts over the construction of culture.

  20. Can Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Learning Become an Alternative to Piagetian Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Edna

    1979-01-01

    Discusses Novak's views that Ausubel's meaningful learning can become an alternative to Piagetian psychology and argues that Ausubel does not provide a theory that can be an alternative to Piaget's developmental psychology. (HM)

  1. Distinguishing Intrapsychic From Interpersonal Motives in Psychological Theory and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J

    2015-07-01

    Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Theory-Driven Evaluation in School Psychology Intervention Research: 2007-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sterett H.; Idler, Alyssa M.; Bartfai, Jamie M.

    2014-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the extent to which school psychology intervention research is guided by theory and addresses theoretical implications of findings. Intervention studies published during 2007-2012 in four journals, "Journal of School Psychology," "Psychology in the Schools," "School Psychology…

  3. Social Psychological Origins of Conspiracy Theories: The Case of the Jewish Conspiracy Theory in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes. PMID:22888323

  4. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: the case of the jewish conspiracy theory in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes.

  5. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: The case of the Jewish conspiracy theory in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren eSwami

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes.

  6. Assessing Coverage of Maslow's Theory in Educational Psychology Textbooks: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wininger, Steven R.; Norman, Antony D.

    2010-01-01

    Although Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory (HNT) is one of the most prevalent theories in psychology, the authors argued that it is also one of the most misinterpreted or misrepresented, particularly in educational psychology textbooks. Therefore, after carefully reading Maslow's writings on HNT they conducted a content analysis of 18 educational…

  7. Self psychology as a shift away from the paranoid strain in classical analytic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terman, David M

    2014-12-01

    Classical psychoanalytic theory has a paranoid strain. There is, in effect, an "evil other"--the id--within each individual that must be tamed in development and confronted and worked through as resistance in treatment. This last has historically endgendered an adversarial relationship between patient and analyst. This paranoid strain came from a paranoid element in Freud's personality that affected his worldview, his relationships, and his theory. Self psychology offers a different view of development and conflict. It stresses the child's need for responsiveness from and admiration of caretakers in order to develop a well-functioning self. Though severe behavioral and character problems may result from faults in the process of self-construction, the essential need is not instinctual discharge but connection. Hence the long-assumed opposition between individual needs and social institutions or between patient and analyst is no longer inevitable or universal. Rather, an understanding of the primary need for connection creates both a different interpretive stance and a more cooperative ambience. These changes in theory and technique are traced to Kohut's personal struggles to emancipate himself from his paranoid mother. © 2014 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  8. Theory and Method in Cross-Cultural Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpass, Roy S.

    1977-01-01

    Cross cultural psychology is considered as a methodological strategy, as a means of evaluating hypotheses of unicultural origins with evidence of more panhuman relevance, and as a means of developing new theoretical psychological phenomena. (Author)

  9. How cultural evolutionary theory can inform social psychology and vice versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex

    2009-10-01

    Cultural evolutionary theory is an interdisciplinary field in which human culture is viewed as a Darwinian process of variation, competition, and inheritance, and the tools, methods, and theories developed by evolutionary biologists to study genetic evolution are adapted to study cultural change. It is argued here that an integration of the theories and findings of mainstream social psychology and of cultural evolutionary theory can be mutually beneficial. Social psychology provides cultural evolution with a set of empirically verified microevolutionary cultural processes, such as conformity, model-based biases, and content biases, that are responsible for specific patterns of cultural change. Cultural evolutionary theory provides social psychology with ultimate explanations for, and an understanding of the population-level consequences of, many social psychological phenomena, such as social learning, conformity, social comparison, and intergroup processes, as well as linking social psychology with other social science disciplines such as cultural anthropology, archaeology, and sociology.

  10. Suicide Prevention in Schools as Viewed through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The author has proposed a new theory of suicidal behavior--the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005)--which attempts to answer the question "Why do people die by suicide?" In this commentary, he briefly describes the theory, and then argues that the theory's constructs may allow a new level of focus and specificity…

  11. Measuring Memory Reactivation With Functional MRI: Implications for Psychological Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Benjamin J; Wagner, Anthony D

    2013-01-01

    Environmental cues often remind us of earlier experiences by triggering the reactivation of memories of events past. Recent evidence suggests that memory reactivation can be observed using functional MRI and that distributed pattern analyses can even provide evidence of reactivation on individual trials. The ability to measure memory reactivation offers unique and powerful leverage on theoretical issues of long-standing interest in cognitive psychology, providing a means to address questions that have proven difficult to answer with behavioral data alone. In this article, we consider three instances. First, reactivation measures can indicate whether memory-based inferences (i.e., generalization) arise through the encoding of integrated cross-event representations or through the flexible expression of separable event memories. Second, online measures of memory reactivation may inform theories of forgetting by providing information about when competing memories are reactivated during competitive retrieval situations. Finally, neural reactivation may provide a window onto the role of replay in memory consolidation. The ability to track memory reactivation, including at the individual trial level, provides unique leverage that is not afforded by behavioral measures and thus promises to shed light on such varied topics as generalization, integration, forgetting, and consolidation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Three Theories of Psychological Development; Implications for Children's Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, James M.; McIver, F. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    A slide-tape series developed for introduction of developmental and learning theories in freshman dental curriculum is described. Theories of social-emotional development, cognitive development, and theories of conditioning and observational learning are included. (MSE)

  13. Classic Papers in Psychology: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, James; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Who are the most prestigious authors cited in today's psychology textbooks and journals? And where are (or where were) they based? This short note reports on the answers gained to such questions by using the Web of Science Core Collection to find the authors of the most highly cited papers in psychology published between 1927 and 2012. The…

  14. Why Community Works: The Use of Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology as a Foundational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Robert K.; Keith, Edwin M.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler should be used as a foundational theory for student affairs work. The success of community building programs is explained and the concepts of Individual Psychology are summarized. Also asserts that the current drive to develop programs to develop community on college campuses is firmly rooted…

  15. Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice in Vocational Psychology: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, James P., Jr., Ed.; Bullock-Yowell, Emily, Ed.; Dozier, V. Casey, Ed.; Osborn, Debra S., Ed.; Lenz, Janet G., Ed.

    2017-01-01

    This publication is based on the 2016 Society for Vocational Psychology (SVP) Biennial Conference, that was held at the Florida State University on May 16-17, 2016. The conference theme was "Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice in Vocational Psychology." The conference content and the resulting edited book are based on the…

  16. Positive Psychology Theory, Research, and Practice: A Primer for Rehabilitation Counseling Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Phillips, Brian; Ditchman, Nicole; Kaseroff, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology is a scientific study that explores what makes life most worth living and applies psychological theory to understand the human strengths that are important for enhancing overall well-being and happiness. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis on personal strengths and the importance of enhancing what…

  17. Using health psychology to help patients: theories of behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria

    2016-09-08

    Behaviour change theories and related research evidence highlight the complexity of making and sticking to health-related behaviour changes. These theories make explicit factors that influence behaviour change, such as health beliefs, past behaviour, intention, social influences, perceived control and the context of the behaviour. Nurses can use this information to understand why a particular patient may find making recommended health behaviour changes difficult and to determine factors that may help them. This article outlines five well-established theories of behaviour change: the health belief model, the theory of planned behaviour, the stages of change model, self-determination theory, and temporal self-regulation theory. The evidence for interventions that are informed by these theories is then explored and appraised. The extent and quality of evidence varies depending on the type of behaviour and patients targeted, but evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that interventions informed by theory can result in behaviour change.

  18. Investigation of social cognitive career theory for minority recruitment in school psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O; Gubi, Aaron A; Cappaert, Kevin J

    2016-06-01

    School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less knowledge and exposure to school psychology than for counseling and clinical psychology, and that students with greater exposure or knowledge of school psychology reported significantly greater choice intentions for school psychology. The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) in explaining minority undergraduate psychology students' choice intentions for school psychology. This study is an analysis of existing data and is based on a national sample of 283 minority undergraduate psychology students. All instruments used in this study were found to have internal consistency ranging from .83 to .91. Students' learning experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and choice intentions for school psychology were evaluated by way of a mediator analysis. Results from a path analysis suggest that outcome expectations mediated the relationship between exposure and choice intentions for school psychology. Implications for minority recruitment practices are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. [Colors and their meaning in culture and psychology--a historical outline and contemporary status of color vision theories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Lewicka, Romana; Torlińska, Teresa; Stelcer, Bogusław

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of color perception has intrigued scholars from antiquity. However, the understanding of this phenomena only came with the recognition of the nature of light and visual perception. Ancient concepts, present in science until the Renaissance, were based more on philosophical considerations and theoretical speculations than on anatomical studies and a matter-of-fact assessment of physiological functions of the visual system. From antiquity to 17th century scientific approach to the concept of vision was dominated by two theories: intromission and extramission (emanation). Intromission theory, propagated by Alhazen (lbn al.-Haythama), Vitello, John Peckham, Roger Bacon and Leonardo da Vinci, assumed that the light was transmitted from the observed object perpendicularly to the transparent eye structures. Johannes Kepler was the first scholar to propose that the retina was the receptive part of the eye. In the first half of the 17th century, Kepler's groundbreaking optical achievements and anatomical discoveries of many other scientists cast new light on the understanding of the role of different eye structures, finally wiping out the intromission theory. A further major achievement contributing to the recognition of the true nature of colors was a theory presented by Newton in 1688. He argued that they were colored rays, and not white light, that were composed of homogenous and pure light. It was, however, not until the 19th century when two modern theories of color appeared, i.e. a trichromatic theory mostly associated with the names of Young and Hemlholtz, and an opponent colors theory of Hering. In the 20th century, the two theories--previously assumed as contradictory--were joined into the zone theories of color vision. Colors have their cultural and social meanings, as far as a very individual and personal interpretation. In the former function they are used to illustrate some cultural and sociological phenomena; in the latter, they are helpful in

  20. When theory trumps ideology: Lessons from evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tybur, Joshua M; Navarrete, Carlos David

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary psychologists are personally liberal, just as social psychologists are. Yet their research has rarely been perceived as liberally biased--if anything, it has been erroneously perceived as motivated by conservative political agendas. Taking a closer look at evolutionary psychologists might offer the broader social psychology community guidance in neutralizing some of the biases Duarte et al. discuss.

  1. On the Possibility of a Cultural Psychology Theory of Pedagogy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most viable paradigm for conducting research in a developing country is that of socio-historical-cultural psychology. To date this paradigm has been able to clarify how dissimilar people act differently in their own situated contexts. The effects of mediated learning in context, an important unit of analysis for the discipline, ...

  2. Social Psychology and Gender: A New Direction through Feminist Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grella, Christine E.

    Traditionally, social psychology has conceptualized sex and gender as subject variables with sex as a biological substrate and gender as a sociocultural consequence of sex. These ideas rest on the assumption of two distinct biological categories. However, gender is better thought of in dialectical rather than oppositional terms. Gender is both…

  3. Theory, Not Cultural Context, Will Advance American Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffel, Gerald J.; Thiessen, Erik D.; Campbell, Matthew W.; Kaschak, Michael P.; McNeil, Nicole M.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on an article by J. J. Arnett regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The authors agree with Arnett's call for greater attention to this issue. However, they fundamentally disagree with his position on issues related to generalizability…

  4. The Mind as Black Box: A Simulation of Theory Building in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Carolyn; Oliver, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an activity that uses the metaphor "the mind is a black box," in which students work in groups to discover what is inside a sealed, black, plastic box. States that the activity enables students to understand the need for theories in psychology and to comprehend how psychologists build, test, and refine those theories. (CMK)

  5. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups – What do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York eHagmayer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive psychological research focusses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analysed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  6. Implications of Racial Identity Theory for Vocational Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Janet E.; Piper, Ralph E.

    1994-01-01

    Although racial identity theory has the potential to explain some aspects of career development, its value would be increased by conceptualizing race as a dependent variable in research and theory. Examples involving career salience, satisfaction, and satisfactoriness demonstrate the limitations of racial comparison studies. (SK)

  7. Economics versus psychology.Risk, uncertainty and the expected utility theory

    OpenAIRE

    Schilirò, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    The present contribution examines the emergence of expected utility theory by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern, the subjective the expected utility theory by Savage, and the problem of choice under risk and uncertainty, focusing in particular on the seminal work “The Utility Analysis of Choices involving Risk" (1948) by Milton Friedman and Leonard Savage to show how the evolution of the theory of choice has determined a separation of economics from psychology.

  8. Intentions to seek (preventive) psychological help among older adults: An application of the theory of planned behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Maessen, Mia; de Bruijn, Renske; Smets, Bianca

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines the intentions to seek (preventive) psychological help among older persons. The study is carried out from the theory of planned behaviour and distinguishes attitudes (psychological openness), subjective norms (indifference to stigma), and perceived behavioural

  9. The Psychology of Coercion: Merging Airpower and Prospect Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kimminau, Jon

    1998-01-01

    ... as a negotiated solution to a confrontation. The foundation of coercion is the adversary s decisionmaking process, and most theories of coercion rely on a rational model that weighs costs, benefits, and expectations for success...

  10. Factors Associated With Presenteeism and Psychological Distress Using a Theory-Driven Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Marie-France; Corbière, Marc; Durand, Marie-José; Nastasia, Iuliana; Labrecque, Marie-Elise; Berbiche, Djamal; Albert, Valérie

    2015-06-01

    To test a model of presenteeism on the basis of established and emerging theories separated into organizational and individual factors that could be mediated by psychological distress. This was a Web survey of 2371 employees (response rate of 48%) of a provincial government agency. We assessed theories with validated measures for organizational and individual factors. Psychological distress was negatively associated to presenteeism, when controlling for sex, short-term work absence in the last year, and social desirability. Both individual and organizational factors were related to psychological distress. The most important factors included the presence of stress events in the preceding 6 months, extrinsic efforts (interruptions, work requirements), self-esteem as a worker, and internal amotivation. By identifying modifiable factors, our results suggest that the implementation of a work organization structure that promotes stimulation and accomplishment would reduce psychological distress and further presenteeism.

  11. Bridging developmental systems theory and evolutionary psychology using dynamic optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenhuis, Willem E; Panchanathan, Karthik; Clark Barrett, H

    2013-07-01

    Interactions between evolutionary psychologists and developmental systems theorists have been largely antagonistic. This is unfortunate because potential synergies between the two approaches remain unexplored. This article presents a method that may help to bridge the divide, and that has proven fruitful in biology: dynamic optimization. Dynamic optimization integrates developmental systems theorists' focus on dynamics and contingency with the 'design stance' of evolutionary psychology. It provides a theoretical framework as well as a set of tools for exploring the properties of developmental systems that natural selection might favor, given particular evolutionary ecologies. We also discuss limitations of the approach. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. An Application of Max Lusher's Theory of Colour Psychology in Forogh Farrokhzad's Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    M Alavi Moghaddam; S Poorshahram

    2010-01-01

    Colour is recognized as one of the criteria for personality analysis in modern psychology. Colours are a kind of energy and visible sounds which play an important role in one's life. Their influences on human's soul and mind are undeniable. In other words, colour can be considered as a reflection of one's mental and physical situation since colours have special influence on soul and body equally. Max Lusher's study of colours is among the most recent theories which deal with psychological ana...

  13. The first students’ conference in memory of M.Y. Kondratyev “Social Psychology: Theory and Practice”

    OpenAIRE

    Kochetkov N.V.

    2016-01-01

    This report gives a survey on the First students’ conference in memory of M.Y. Kon- dratyev “Social Psychology: Theory and Practice”. The conference demonstrated a number of best works by students at bachelor and master level, which were done in accordance with classical national tradition in social psychology studies. Thematically the conference spreads to such topics as: psychology of small groups, social psychol- ogy of an individual, ethnic psychology, social psychology of education, psyc...

  14. Theory-driven research in pediatric psychology: a little bit on why and how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallander, J L

    1992-10-01

    Introduces a Special Issue, covering two published issues (5 and 6) of this journal, on theory-driven research in pediatric psychology. A rationale for conducting research from a conceptual basis is presented. It is emphasized that science is primarily an intellectual activity, demonstrated in the form of theory building, testing, and reformulation. Furthermore, it is argued theory serves as a planning and communication aide for scientific pursuit. The process and components of theory-driven research are then highlighted. Theoretical constructs, theoretical and empirical definitions of constructs, and the use of variables are discussed. A definition of scientific theory is offered. Theory testing is distinguished from post hoc theorizing. Differences in the scope of theories are noted. Connections between theory and hypothesis testing and research design are addressed, especially for nonexperimental or correlational research.

  15. The Influence of Traditional Culture and the Interpersonal Psychological Theory on Suicide Research in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonsoo; Baik, Seung Yeon; Kim, Hyang-Sook; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Korea has the highest suicide rate amongst the OECD countries. Yet, its research on suicidal behaviors has been primitive. While the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide has gained global attention, there has only been a few researches, which examined its applicability in Korea. In this article, we review the previous studies on suicide and examine the association between the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide and traditional Korean culture, with an emphasis on Collectivism and Confucianism. We propose that pathways to suicide might vary depending on cultural influences. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research will be discussed.

  16. A basic need theory approach to problematic Internet use and the mediating effect of psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ting Yat; Yuen, Kenneth S L; Li, Wang On

    2014-01-01

    The Internet provides an easily accessible way to meet certain needs. Over-reliance on it leads to problematic use, which studies show can be predicted by psychological distress. Self-determination theory proposes that we all have the basic need for autonomy, competency, and relatedness. This has been shown to explain the motivations behind problematic Internet use. This study hypothesizes that individuals who are psychologically disturbed because their basic needs are not being met are more vulnerable to becoming reliant on the Internet when they seek such needs satisfaction from online activities, and tests a model in which basic needs predict problematic Internet use, fully mediated by psychological distress. Problematic Internet use, psychological distress, and basic needs satisfaction were psychometrically measured in a sample of 229 Hong Kong University students and structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model. All indices showed the model has a good fit. Further, statistical testing supported a mediation effect for psychological distress between needs satisfaction and problematic Internet use. The results extend our understanding of the development and prevention of problematic Internet use based on the framework of self-determination theory. Psychological distress could be used as an early predictor, while preventing and treating problematic Internet use should emphasize the fulfillment of unmet needs.

  17. What would Karl Popper say? Are current psychological theories of ADHD falsifiable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine A; Wiersema, Jan R; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2009-03-03

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder. Here, we critically review four major psychological theories of ADHD - the Executive Dysfunction, the State Regulation, the Delay Aversion and the Dynamic Developmental - on their abilities to explain all the symptoms of ADHD, their testability and their openness to falsification. We conclude that theoreticians should focus, to a greater extent than currently practiced, on developing refutable theories of ADHD.

  18. What would Karl Popper say? Are current psychological theories of ADHD falsifiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntsi Jonna

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder. Here, we critically review four major psychological theories of ADHD – the Executive Dysfunction, the State Regulation, the Delay Aversion and the Dynamic Developmental – on their abilities to explain all the symptoms of ADHD, their testability and their openness to falsification. We conclude that theoreticians should focus, to a greater extent than currently practiced, on developing refutable theories of ADHD.

  19. Pragmatic nihilism: how a Theory of Nothing can help health psychology progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram; Crutzen, Rik

    2017-06-01

    Health psychology developed a plethora of theories to explain and change a wide variety of behaviours. Several attempts have been undertaken to build integrative theories, some even striving for a Theory of Everything. We argue against these efforts, arguing that instead a 'pragmatic nihilism' perspective may be more fruitful to understand and change health behaviours. The first tenet of pragmatic nihilism is that psychological variables are usefully considered as metaphors rather than referring to entities that exist in the mind. As a consequence, the second tenet emphasizes theories' definitions and guidelines for the operationalisation of those variables. The third tenet of pragmatic nihilism is that each operationalisation represents an intersection of a variety of dimensions, such as behavioural specificity and duration, and most importantly, psychological aggregation level. Any operationalisation thus represents a number of choices regarding these dimensions. Pragmatic nihilism has two implications. First, it provides a foundation that enables integrating theories in a more flexible and accurate manner than made possible by integrative theories. Second, it emphasizes the importance of operationalisations, underlining the importance of investing in the careful development of measurement instruments, thorough reporting of measurement instruments' specifics and performance, and full disclosure of the instruments themselves.

  20. Psychology and the Notion of the Spirit: Implications of Max Scheler's Anthropological Philosophy in Theory of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Olga V; Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2015-09-01

    After many decades with neglect Max Scheler and his anthropological contributions to the understanding of human existence, have gotten  more attention in psychology and other humanities. One factor is the actuality of his main project of revaluating the roles of values in philosophy and science. Yet another is the way individual scholars have applied Scheler's philosophy and terms on different fields and arenas. Viktor Frankl was one of these, and he brought Scheler's philosophical anthropology into psychotherapeutic practice, offering theoretical and empirical arguments for considering the notion of the spirit as an interdependent -yet separate- entity in regards to the psyche and the soma. During this commentary on Allyushin (Integrative Psychology Behaviour, 48, 503-523, 2014), we will discuss some general aspects of Scheler's contribution to phenomenology, but focus specifically on the implication of his notion of the spirit for psychological theory, acknowledging the work that has been done in the field for at least 60 years in logotherapy and existential analysis. With this purpose, we will highlight four other notions interrelated with the motivational quality of the notion of the spirit: resentment, axiology of values; self-detachment and self-transcendence.

  1. The Role of Optimism in the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kathy A.; Wingate, LaRicka R.

    2011-01-01

    A possible relationship between Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior and optimism was investigated by examining the ability of optimism to act as a moderator of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capability to engage in self-injury in the prediction of suicidal ideation. Results…

  2. Psychological Analysis of "Humboldt's Gift" from the Perspective of Lacan's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Two protagonists Humboldt and Citrine in "Humboldt's gift" are characterized as restless even lunatic, for they are constantly or madly seeking something such as honor, power or intimate relationship something or other. This thesis intends to analyze Humboldt and Citrine's psychological troubles from the perspective of Lacan's theory and…

  3. Is there a place for psychology in the framework of rational choice theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss psychological aspect of rational choice theory. The standard version of rational choice rests on a kind of psychology, since it operates with mental states. In standard davidsonian version it is claimed that we explain rational actions by stating proper desires and beliefs that caused the action. We will explore two challenges to the standard version that might be called cultural and naturalistic versions of rational choice. Satz and Ferejohn (1994 challenged standard version by stating that we can provide rational-choice explanations without relying too much on psychological assumptions. They argued in favor of moderate externalism, which should replace thin desire-belief model with thick structuralist conception. According to their model moderate externalism is compatible with realism about psychological states, while at the same time those states need not figure in the best rational choice explanations of actions. The focus of rational choice explanations therefore shifts to non-individual and non-psychological entities, such as firms in explaining economic behavior, parties in explaining functioning of democracy, etc. Although there is a place for psychological states within a moderate externalism, those states are not causally relevant. On Pettit’s account desires and beliefs figure in rational choice explanations merely as “standby causes”. They explain resilience of certain behavior, not its actual cause. Quite contrary to standard rational choice theory, the programming model (Pettit, 2002 defines the neurophysiological level as more basic in explaining behavior. This means that higher-level psychological states are causally relevant for certain behavior only if certain lower-level neurophysiological producer obtains. In this paper standard rational choice theory will be defended against culturalist and naturalist criticism.

  4. The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, situating it within the field of positive psychology. The theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn build their enduring personal resources (physical, intellectual, social, and psychological). Reviews…

  5. Psychological motives and online games addiction: a test of flow theory and humanistic needs theory for Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2006-06-01

    Obviously, the negative impact of online games has received much attention as well as having become a popular research topic. This research explored, from flow theory and humanistic needs theory, the psychological motivations of Taiwanese adolescents who are addicted to online games. The purpose of Study 1 was to investigate the relationship between players' flow state and their online games addiction. The results indicated that flow state was negatively correlated with addictive inclination and it was not a significant predictor for players' subsequent additive inclination. Findings also revealed that the addicts' flow state was significantly lower than the nonaddicts. Thus, flow state might not be the key psychological mechanism of players' addiction. In Study 2, the results showed that the psychological needs of players of online games were close to the two-factor theory which depicts satisfaction and dissatisfaction dimensions. Addicted players' need-gratification was similar to the feature of dissatisfactory factor. That is, the absence of playing online games is more likely to generate sense of dissatisfaction; the addicts' compulsive use of online games seems to stem from the relief of dissatisfaction rather than the pursuit of satisfaction. In contrast, online games tend to provide the nonaddicts with a sense of satisfaction rather than a sense of dissatisfaction.

  6. Preventive health psychology from a developmental perspective: an extension of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, J W; Rogers, R W

    1996-05-01

    Theories of health psychology developed to explain adults' rational decision making were applied to 10-year-old children (n = 112), who had not reached the stage of formal operational thought; 15-year-olds (n = 67); and 20-year-olds (n = 93), extending the protection motivation theory developed by R. W. Rogers (1983). Among the adolescents and young adults, the threat appeals worked only if people believed they could cope effectively with the danger; if they believed they could not cope, higher levels of the threat resulted in decreased intentions to refrain from tobacco use. Although children elaborated and integrated the information about threat severity, personal vulnerability, and response efficacy, the fragility and malleability of the children's beliefs in self-efficacy demonstrated the importance of adding a developmental perspective to theories of preventive health psychology.

  7. Psychological Defenses against Death Anxiety: Integrating Terror Management Theory and Firestone's Separation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Jonathan F.

    2007-01-01

    The author attempts to integrate Terror Management Theory (TMT) and R. W. Firestone's Separation Theory (1984, 1994). Both theories emphasize defense against death anxiety as a key human motive. Whereas TMT focuses extensively on self-esteem and cultural worldview, Firestone posited additional defenses such as gene survival, self-nourishing…

  8. Moral functioning: socio-psychological approach.Social intuitionist theory of John Haidt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A. Zaikin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the methodological aspect of developing social intuitionist approach to moral psychology. The paper reveals the possibility of applying this approach to the study of morality and moral functioning today, emphasizes the representation of issues in moral psychology methodological origins of social psychology, both in Russia and abroad. Social and psychological foundations of social intuitionist approach are described in detail. The research results show that the child perceiving the concept of fairness and variability in the framework of a specific group membership is culturally determined. The matter of special consideration is the theory of the American social psychologist George Haidt. The results of his work and his colleagues’ works are presented herein describing the concept of cultural variable moral intuitions, the findings of empirical studies carried out in the framework of this approach are summarized. The paper reveals the fundamental provisions of the social and intuitionistic theory. The comparative analysis of the social intuitionistic and cognitive approaches in moral psychology is presented. The conclusion that the relativistic understanding of morality is not an obstacle to its study, and the presence of various determinants of moral functioning should be based on further empirical research. The authors conceptualized the current state of social intuitionistic theory of moral functioning, which describes the theoretical and methodological sources of this area (Rawls, 2010; Freud, 2005; Hume, 1996; Hare’s, 1981. As justification for this approach the paper considers the phenomena studied in psychology, social cognition, and those that create the possibility of developing this area, namely affective motivation (Zajonc, 1980, fair-world hypothesis (Lerner, 1965, the objectivity of the illusion (Perkins, Allen, & Hafner , 1983, the phenomenon of «naive realism» (Griffin, & Ross, 1991, group interaction in a

  9. Personal construct psychology: a theory to help understand professional development, a philosophy to support it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Paul R

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the reader to personal construct psychology as a theory to help understand the process of change in facilitative and mentoring relationships. Continuing professional development is critical if practitioners are to keep up to date with new ideas, techniques, and materials. However, is it important not only to consider what is learnt, it is also important to understand the how of learning in order to develop an approach that leads to lifelong learning. Mentoring, coaching, and appraisal are all facilitative processes that aim to encourage professionals to engage with their own development. This leads to differing degrees of both behavioural and attitudinal change. As a result, it is useful to have a theory that can help an individual to understand these changes and to identify any difficulties that are associated with them. Personal construct psychology has long been recognised as a potential framework for personal development. It has been used extensively in a broad range of domains, including clinical and educational psychology, management, and psychotherapy. Personal construct psychology is a useful theory for understanding the facilitative process because it enables the facilitator to form a conceptual framework to comprehend behavioural and attitudinal change. Its underlying philosophical approach also supports lifelong learning, given its emphasis on an enquiring mind and reflection, both of which are key to continuing professional development.

  10. Common prescriptions for psychology derived from dialectical materialism and chaos theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgen, A R

    2000-04-01

    During the entire Soviet period (1917-1991), Russian psychologists labored to create a psychology which would be consonant with Marxist-Leninist assumptions derived from dialectical materialism. Some of their early prescriptions, in particular those put forward by Konstantin N. Kornilov in the 1920s and early 1930s, are identical to strategies being advanced by contemporary American psychologists who propose that chaos theory and nonlinear meta-modeling techniques in general, given advances in computer and television technologies, can be designed for research capable of dealing with the complexities, nonlinearities, self-organizational processes, and abrupt transformations characteristic of human psychological functioning.

  11. Health education and multimedia learning: educational psychology and health behavior theory (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Francisco G Soto; Plass, Jan; Kane, William M; Papenfuss, Richard L

    2003-07-01

    When health education researchers began to investigate how individuals make decisions related to health and the factors that influence health behaviors, they referred to frameworks shared by educational and learning research. Health education adopted the basic principles of the cognitive revolution, which were instrumental in advancing the field. There is currently a new challenge to confront: the widespread use of new technologies for health education. To better overcome this challenge, educational psychology and instructional technology theory should be considered. Unfortunately, the passion to incorporate new technologies too often overshadows how people learn or, in particular, how people learn through computer technologies. This two-part article explains how educational theory contributed to the early development of health behavior theory, describes the most relevant multimedia learning theories and constructs, and provides recommendations for developing multimedia health education programs and connecting theory and practice.

  12. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups—what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    OpenAIRE

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic lite...

  13. The psychological behaviorism theory of pain and the placebo: its principles and results of research application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Peter S; Hekmat, Hamid; Staats, Arthur W

    2004-01-01

    The psychological behaviorism theory of pain unifies biological, behavioral, and cognitive-behavioral theories of pain and facilitates development of a common vocabulary for pain research across disciplines. Pain investigation proceeds in seven interacting realms: basic biology, conditioned learning, language cognition, personality differences, pain behavior, the social environment, and emotions. Because pain is an emotional response, examining the bidirectional impact of emotion is pivotal to understanding pain. Emotion influences each of the other areas of interest and causes the impact of each factor to amplify or diminish in an additive fashion. Research based on this theory of pain has revealed the ameliorating impact on pain of (1) improving mood by engaging in pleasant sexual fantasies, (2) reducing anxiety, and (3) reducing anger through various techniques. Application of the theory to therapy improved the results of treatment of osteoarthritic pain. The psychological behaviorism theory of the placebo considers the placebo a stimulus conditioned to elicit a positive emotional response. This response is most powerful if it is elicited by conditioned language. Research based on this theory of the placebo that pain is ameliorated by a placebo suggestion and augmented by a nocebo suggestion and that pain sensitivity and pain anxiety increase susceptibility to a placebo.

  14. Activity Theories and the Ontology of Psychology: Learning from Danish and Russian Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Jens; Mironenko, Irina

    2015-12-01

    Psychology has permanent problems of theoretical coherence and practical, analytic and critical efficiency. It is claimed that Activity Theory (AT) with roots in a long European philosophical tradition and continued in Russian AT is a first step to remedy this. A Danish version of AT may have a key to exceed some, mostly implicit, ontological restrictions in traditional AT and free it from an embracement of functionalism and mechanicism, rooted in Renaissance Physics. The analysis goes back to Aristotle's understanding of the freely moving animal in its ecology and introduces some dualities in the encounter between subject and object which replace the dualistic dichotomies traditionally splitting Psychology in Naturwissenschaft vs. Geisteswissenshaft. This also implies a "Copernican turn" of Cartesian dualism. The perspectives are to give place for a phenomenology of meaning without cutting human psyche out of Nature and to open Psychology to its domain.

  15. The impact of Einsteinian relativity and quantum physics theories on conceptualizations of the self in psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechberger, Elke Ruth

    1999-11-01

    Prior to the 1600s c.e., the church was the final authority for theories about the universe and humanity's role within it. However, when the mathematical theories put forth by scientists such as Copernicus and Galileo refuted traditional theological explanations about the cosmos, a shift to science as the premiere authority for theories was established, a tradition which continues to this day. In the following century, the work of Newton set forth a theory of the universe operating as a machine, where all things were potentially knowable, measurable, and predictable. His mechanistic hypotheses helped substantiate a corollary philosophy known as modernism. In the early 1900s, Einstein's theories about light and relativity began to indicate a universe significantly less absolute. His work set the stage for the development of quantum physics theories, whose hallmarks are probability, uncertainty, and complementarity. Quantum physics theories helped substantiate the philosophy known as postmodernism, where truth is nonexistent, reality is a subjectively constructed phenomenon, and the concept of an individual self is considered an illusion. Given that developments in physics have had profound impact across academic disciplines, including psychology, this study examine the effect of major revolutions in physics to corollary developments in theories about the self in psychology. It is the assertion of this work that modernist conceptualization of the self is one that is highly individualistic and defined in mechanistic terms, whereas the postmodern conceptualization of the self is significantly more socially constructed and has more interpersonally fluid, amorphous boundaries. Implications for conceptualizations of the self from either the modern or postmodern paradigm are discussed, as well as suggestions for future theory development.

  16. GENDER RELATIONS AND KNOWLEDGE IN PSYCHOLOGY: CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE CRITICAL THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Dadico

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some recent discussions raised by the feminist critical theory, which contribute to put in question the scientific objectivity of Psychology. It is alleged, first, a false neutrality of genre, built on the idea of a generic human being. This discussion leads to a necessary revision of supposedly universal concepts. One of these concepts is that of justice that pervades studies on moral in Psychology of Development. At the same time, it discusses the prevalence of a certain gender in universities, by establishing and legitimizing specific experiences in the construction of knowledge in the area. It explores works of feminist authors identified with the Critical Theory, focusing on the question of identity, as well as the political implications of language concepts involved in their positions. Finally, dialoguing with authors of the first generation of the Frankfurt School, it is proposed to consider the dialectic between concept and experience for building new knowledge and strategies for gender equality. It is expected to show that the feminist critique reached important pillars of psychology, which, like science, cannot remain inert in front of the new challenges. The various fields of psychology need to mobilize for construction of emancipatory strategies in order to ensure the very validity of the knowledge produced in the area.

  17. Towards an expansive hybrid psychology: integrating theories of the mediated mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2011-03-01

    This article develops an integrative theory of the mind by examining how the mind, understood as a set of skills and dispositions, depends upon four sources of mediators. Harré's hybrid psychology is taken as a meta-theoretical starting point, but is expanded significantly by including the four sources of mediators that are the brain, the body, social practices and technological artefacts. It is argued that the mind is normative in the sense that mental processes do not simply happen, but can be done more or less well, and thus are subject to normative appraisal. The expanded hybrid psychology is meant to assist in integrating theoretical perspectives and research interests that are often thought of as incompatible, among them neuroscience, phenomenology of the body, social practice theory and technology studies. A main point of the article is that these perspectives each are necessary for an integrative approach to the human mind.

  18. Agent-based modeling: a new approach for theory building in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eliot R; Conrey, Frederica R

    2007-02-01

    Most social and psychological phenomena occur not as the result of isolated decisions by individuals but rather as the result of repeated interactions between multiple individuals over time. Yet the theory-building and modeling techniques most commonly used in social psychology are less than ideal for understanding such dynamic and interactive processes. This article describes an alternative approach to theory building, agent-based modeling (ABM), which involves simulation of large numbers of autonomous agents that interact with each other and with a simulated environment and the observation of emergent patterns from their interactions. The authors believe that the ABM approach is better able than prevailing approaches in the field, variable-based modeling (VBM) techniques such as causal modeling, to capture types of complex, dynamic, interactive processes so important in the social world. The article elaborates several important contrasts between ABM and VBM and offers specific recommendations for learning more and applying the ABM approach.

  19. Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

  20. Adherence and Extension of Adlerian Psychological Theory of "Beyond Success and Failure" by Beecher and Beecher.

    OpenAIRE

    Shibayama, Kenji; シバヤマ, ケンジ; 柴山, 謙二

    1999-01-01

    Individual-growth or self-help is one of the important tasks which Adlerian psychologist today should develop and cope with. Beecher and Beecher proposed his idea of self -reliance as a central concept. The purpose of this paper is to discuss adherence and extension of Adlerian psychological theory of "Beyond Success and Failure" by Beecher and Beecher from the author's experiences of practice for individual-growth. The author suggested following points: (1) Self-reliance is a very important ...

  1. The pivotal role of psychology in a comprehensive theory of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Markey, Charlotte N; August, Kristin J; Bailey, Lindzee C; Markey, Patrick M; Nave, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    The target article offers a comprehensive approach to conceptualizing psychological factors contributing to obesity. Strengths of Marks’ theory include giving body image a central focus, discussing the importance of emotional states on food reliance, and conveying avenues for interventions and treatment. Marks’ approach carefully delineates the interpersonal nature of obesity, although our work suggests that romantic partners are an especially important and understudied factor relevant to eat...

  2. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: The case of the Jewish conspiracy theory in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Viren eSwami; Viren eSwami

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dim...

  3. Social Psychological Origins of Conspiracy Theories: The Case of the Jewish Conspiracy Theory in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single di...

  4. Social psychological theories of disordered eating in college women: review and integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E

    2011-11-01

    Because peer interaction, weight/shape, and self-concept formation are particularly salient to college women, the implications of social psychological theories may be especially far-reaching during the college years. College women may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of social comparison, objectification, and uses and gratifications theories, which describe social-cognitive mechanisms that provide an individual with information regarding her own view of her body and how she perceives that others perceive her body. The current paper will review and integrate findings related to these three theories of disordered eating in college women in an effort to present a more comprehensive understanding of the social psychological mechanisms that play a role in the development and maintenance of such pathology for this group of young women. Limitations of and future directions for research on these theories will be discussed, as will their potential integration with other factors that contribute to disordered eating and implications for treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Cross-Cultural Study Testing the Universality of Basic Psychological Needs Theory across Different Academic Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe; Quested, Eleanor; Appleton, Paul; Duda, Joan L.

    2018-01-01

    Basic Psychological Needs Theory (BPNT) suggests that autonomy-supportive teachers can promote the satisfaction of students' three basic psychological needs (i.e., the need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness) and this is essential for optimal functioning and personal well-being. The role of need satisfaction as a determinant of well-being…

  6. Current Methodological Problems and Future Directions for Theory Development in the Psychology of Sport and Motor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Anne Marie; Ross, Diane

    1984-01-01

    A brief history of research in sport psychology based on Lander's (1982) analysis is presented. A systematic approach to theory building is offered. Previous methodological inadequacies are identified using examples of observational learning and anxiety. (Author/DF)

  7. Self-determination theory and diminished functioning: the role of interpersonal control and psychological need thwarting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Kimberley J; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Ryan, Richard M; Bosch, Jos A; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie

    2011-11-01

    Drawing from self-determination theory, three studies explored the social-environmental conditions that satisfy versus thwart psychological needs and, in turn, affect psychological functioning and well-being or ill-being. In cross-sectional Studies 1 and 2, structural equation modeling analyses supported latent factor models in which need satisfaction was predicted by athletes' perceptions of autonomy support, and need thwarting was better predicted by coach control. Athletes' perceptions of need satisfaction predicted positive outcomes associated with sport participation (vitality and positive affect), whereas need thwarting more consistently predicted maladaptive outcomes (disordered eating, burnout, depression, negative affect, and physical symptoms). In addition, athletes' perceptions of psychological need thwarting were significantly associated with perturbed physiological arousal (elevated levels of secretory immunoglobulin A) prior to training. The final study involved the completion of a diary and supported the relations observed in the cross-sectional studies at a daily level. These findings have important implications for the operationalization and measurement of interpersonal styles and psychological needs.

  8. The effects of interventions towards the psychological environment – A blind spot in the evaluation theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Møller; Krogstrup, Hanne Kathrine

    Bad psychological working environment means high costs for the employees envolved, the workplace, the public sector and for the Danish society in general. The psycological working environment is important for the performance of public workplaces and has to be prioritized for both financial...... the efficiency of a number of different investments and is often used within health care. Cost-benefit analysis measures the amount of return relative to the investments cost while non-monetary effects are not taken into account, e.g. quality of life and organizational image. Counterfactual theory is a way...... of initiatives towards the psychological working environment in public organizations. Evidence from the evaluation and stress literature are used to create pro and cons argument towards this new evaluation model....

  9. Understanding psychological distress among mothers in rural Nepal: a qualitative grounded theory exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Methods Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ≥5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. Results We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Conclusions Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with

  10. Use of Theory-Driven Research in Counseling: Investigating Three Counseling Psychology Journals from 1990 to 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Carolyn A.; Larson, Lisa M.

    2005-01-01

    Three major journals in counseling psychology were sampled from 1990 to 1999 to assess the percentage of quantitative, empirical articles that were theory driven. Only 43% of the studies utilized a theory or model, and 57% predicted the relation between the variables, with few studies specifying the strength of the relation. Studies sampled in the…

  11. Suicidal Desire and the Capability for Suicide: Tests of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Gordon, Kathryn H.; Bender, Theodore W.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (T. E. Joiner, 2005) proposes that an individual will not die by suicide unless he or she has both the desire to die by suicide and the ability to do so. Three studies test the theory's hypotheses. In Study 1, the interaction of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness…

  12. Psyche=singularity: A comparison of Carl Jung's transpersonal psychology and Leonard Susskind's holographic string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Timothy

    In this dissertation I discern what Carl Jung calls the mandala image of the ultimate archetype of unity underlying and structuring cosmos and psyche by pointing out parallels between his transpersonal psychology and Stanford physicist Leonard Susskind's string theory. Despite his atheistic, materialistically reductionist interpretation of it, I demonstrate how Susskind's string theory of holographic information conservation at the event horizons of black holes, and the cosmic horizon of the universe, corroborates the following four topics about which Jung wrote: (1) his near-death experience of the cosmic horizon after a heart attack in 1944; ( 2) his equation relating psychic energy to mass, "Psyche=highest intensity in the smallest space" (1997, 162), which I translate into the equation, Psyche=Singularity; (3) his theory that the mandala, a circle or sphere with a central point, is the symbolic image of the ultimate archetype of unity through the union of opposites, which structures both cosmos and psyche, and which rises spontaneously from the collective unconscious to compensate a conscious mind torn by irreconcilable demands (1989, 334-335, 396-397); and (4) his theory of synchronicity. I argue that Susskind's inside-out black hole model of our Big Bang universe forms a geometrically perfect mandala: a central Singularity encompassed by a two-dimensional sphere which serves as a universal memory bank. Moreover, in precise fulfillment of Jung's theory, Susskind used that mandala to reconcile the notoriously incommensurable paradigms of general relativity and quantum mechanics, providing in the process a mathematically plausible explanation for Jung's near-death experience of his past, present, and future life simultaneously at the cosmic horizon. Finally, Susskind's theory also provides a plausible cosmological model to explain Jung's theory of synchronicity--meaningful coincidences may be tied together by strings at the cosmic horizon, from which they

  13. An Application of Max Lusher's Theory of Colour Psychology in Forogh Farrokhzad's Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Alavi Moghaddam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Colour is recognized as one of the criteria for personality analysis in modern psychology. Colours are a kind of energy and visible sounds which play an important role in one's life. Their influences on human's soul and mind are undeniable. In other words, colour can be considered as a reflection of one's mental and physical situation since colours have special influence on soul and body equally. Max Lusher's study of colours is among the most recent theories which deal with psychological analysis and character explication. In this method, colours are introduced as numbers. Those which are denied and those which are well- accepted are the reflection of one’s thoughts and feelings. Hence, word selection and colour choice can help us to analyze the poet's personality and mind. Among the modern poets, Forogh Farrokhzad has repeatedly manipulated colours in her poems among which "black" is a specific one. This paper aims at interpreting Forogh Farrokhzad poetry in terms of colour analysis on Max Lusher's theory.

  14. Understanding sport continuation: an integration of the theories of planned behaviour and basic psychological needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardi, Daniel F; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Fostering individuals' long-term participation in activities that promote positive development such as organised sport is an important agenda for research and practice. We integrated the theories of planned behaviour (TPB) and basic psychological needs (BPN) to identify factors associated with young adults' continuation in organised sport over a 12-month period. Prospective study, including an online psycho-social assessment at Time 1 and an assessment of continuation in sport approximately 12 months later. Participants (N=292) aged between 17 and 21 years (M=18.03; SD=1.29) completed an online survey assessing the theories of planned behaviour and basic psychological needs constructs. Bayesian structural equation modelling (BSEM) was employed to test the hypothesised theoretical sequence, using informative priors for structural relations based on empirical and theoretical expectations. The analyses revealed support for the robustness of the hypothesised theoretical model in terms of the pattern of relations as well as the direction and strength of associations among the constructs derived from quantitative summaries of existing research and theoretical expectations. The satisfaction of basic psychological needs was associated with more positive attitudes, higher levels of perceived behavioural control, and more favourable subjective norms; positive attitudes and perceived behavioural control were associated with higher behavioural intentions; and both intentions and perceived behavioural control predicted sport continuation. This study demonstrated the utility of Bayesian structural equation modelling for testing the robustness of an integrated theoretical model, which is informed by empirical evidence from meta-analyses and theoretical expectations, for understanding sport continuation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting ...

  16. The Moderating Effect of Psychological Contract Violation on the Relationship between Narcissism and Outcomes: An Application of Trait Activation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zagenczyk, Thomas J.; Smallfield, Jarvis; Scott, Kristin L.; Galloway, Bret; Purvis, Russell L.

    2017-01-01

    We use trait activation and psychological contracts theories to build the argument that narcissism is a personality trait that will manifest itself in the form of exit and neglect when employees experience psychological contract violation. To test our hypotheses, we surveyed 262 employees from a wide array of industries working in different organizations at two points in time. Our results indicate that violation moderated the relationship between narcissism and exit such that narcissistic emp...

  17. Giving up on convergence and autonomy: Why the theories of psychology and neuroscience are codependent as well as irreconcilable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstein, Eric

    2016-04-01

    There is a long-standing debate in the philosophy of mind and philosophy of science regarding how best to interpret the relationship between neuroscience and psychology. It has traditionally been argued that either the two domains will evolve and change over time until they converge on a single unified account of human behaviour, or else that they will continue to work in isolation given that they identify properties and states that exist autonomously from one another (due to the multiple-realizability of psychological states). In this paper, I argue that progress in psychology and neuroscience is contingent on the fact that both of these positions are false. Contra the convergence position, I argue that the theories of psychology and the theories of neuroscience are scientifically valuable as representational tools precisely because they cannot be integrated into a single account. However, contra the autonomy position, I propose that the theories of psychology and neuroscience are deeply dependent on one another for further refinement and improvement. In this respect, there is an irreconcilable codependence between psychology and neuroscience that is necessary for both domains to improve and progress. The two domains are forever linked while simultaneously being unable to integrate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cooperation, psychological game theory, and limitations of rationality in social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Andrew M

    2003-04-01

    Rational choice theory enjoys unprecedented popularity and influence in the behavioral and social sciences, but it generates intractable problems when applied to socially interactive decisions. In individual decisions, instrumental rationality is defined in terms of expected utility maximization. This becomes problematic in interactive decisions, when individuals have only partial control over the outcomes, because expected utility maximization is undefined in the absence of assumptions about how the other participants will behave. Game theory therefore incorporates not only rationality but also common knowledge assumptions, enabling players to anticipate their co-players' strategies. Under these assumptions, disparate anomalies emerge. Instrumental rationality, conventionally interpreted, fails to explain intuitively obvious features of human interaction, yields predictions starkly at variance with experimental findings, and breaks down completely in certain cases. In particular, focal point selection in pure coordination games is inexplicable, though it is easily achieved in practice; the intuitively compelling payoff-dominance principle lacks rational justification; rationality in social dilemmas is self-defeating; a key solution concept for cooperative coalition games is frequently inapplicable; and rational choice in certain sequential games generates contradictions. In experiments, human players behave more cooperatively and receive higher payoffs than strict rationality would permit. Orthodox conceptions of rationality are evidently internally deficient and inadequate for explaining human interaction. Psychological game theory, based on nonstandard assumptions, is required to solve these problems, and some suggestions along these lines have already been put forward.

  19. Bayesian models of cognition revisited: Setting optimality aside and letting data drive psychological theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Sean; Navarro, Daniel J; Perfors, Amy; Steyvers, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Recent debates in the psychological literature have raised questions about the assumptions that underpin Bayesian models of cognition and what inferences they license about human cognition. In this paper we revisit this topic, arguing that there are 2 qualitatively different ways in which a Bayesian model could be constructed. The most common approach uses a Bayesian model as a normative standard upon which to license a claim about optimality. In the alternative approach, a descriptive Bayesian model need not correspond to any claim that the underlying cognition is optimal or rational, and is used solely as a tool for instantiating a substantive psychological theory. We present 3 case studies in which these 2 perspectives lead to different computational models and license different conclusions about human cognition. We demonstrate how the descriptive Bayesian approach can be used to answer different sorts of questions than the optimal approach, especially when combined with principled tools for model evaluation and model selection. More generally we argue for the importance of making a clear distinction between the 2 perspectives. Considerable confusion results when descriptive models and optimal models are conflated, and if Bayesians are to avoid contributing to this confusion it is important to avoid making normative claims when none are intended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. An exploratory assessment of theory of mind and psychological impairment in patients with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Cotugno, Armando; Cecere, Francesco; Sirolli, Arianna; Palazzoni, David; Bosco, Francesca M

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate psychosocial functioning and different dimensions of theory of mind (ToM) in people with bulimia nervosa (BN) and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified-BN type (EDNOS-BN). Psychosocial functioning and ToM were assessed in a sample of young adult females, 16 BN and 16 EDNOS-BN outpatients and 16 healthy controls (HCs). They were assessed using the Eating Disorder Inventory-Symptom Checklist-2 (EDI-2 SC) for evaluating psychological traits associated with eating disorders; the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) for evaluating psychopathological status; and the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale (Th.o.m.a.s.), a semi-structured interview aimed at assessing a person's different dimensions of ToM. The BN and EDNOS-BN groups exhibited worse performance than the control group on all dimensions of the SCL-90-R, and on all dimensions of the EDI-2 SC. The only difference for perfectionism was that BN obtained higher scores than EDNOS-BN group. Our results also revealed an impairment of third-person and second-order ToM in patients with bulimia (BN and EDNOS-BN) with respect to control subjects. These preliminary data have important implications for future empirical work, in that they provide valuable information regarding the importance of investigating the various facets of ToM ability separately, in order to provide a more detailed profile of ToM functioning in the clinical samples. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Putting Theory of Mind in Its Place: Psychological Explanations of the Socio-Emotional-Communicative Impairments in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jill

    2012-01-01

    In this review, the history of the theory of mind (ToM) theory of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is outlined (in which ToM is indexed by success on false belief tasks), and the explanatory power and psychological causes of impaired ToM in ASD are critically discussed. It is concluded that impaired ToM by itself has only limited explanatory…

  2. Decision-Making Theories and Models: A Discussion of Rational and Psychological Decision-Making Theories and Models: The Search for a Cultural-Ethical Decision-Making Model

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Arnaldo

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines rational and psychological decision-making models. Descriptive and normative methodologies such as attribution theory, schema theory, prospect theory, ambiguity model, game theory, and expected utility theory are discussed. The definition of culture is reviewed, and the relationship between culture and decision making is also highlighted as many organizations use a cultural-ethical decision-making model.

  3. The Moderating Effect of Psychological Contract Violation on the Relationship between Narcissism and Outcomes: An Application of Trait Activation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagenczyk, Thomas J.; Smallfield, Jarvis; Scott, Kristin L.; Galloway, Bret; Purvis, Russell L.

    2017-01-01

    We use trait activation and psychological contracts theories to build the argument that narcissism is a personality trait that will manifest itself in the form of exit and neglect when employees experience psychological contract violation. To test our hypotheses, we surveyed 262 employees from a wide array of industries working in different organizations at two points in time. Our results indicate that violation moderated the relationship between narcissism and exit such that narcissistic employees who experienced high levels of violation had higher levels of exit. However, we did not find support for our prediction regarding neglect. The findings suggest that the importance of narcissism at work may be contingent on the situation. Our study contributes to research on narcissism in the workplace, trait activation theory, and the role that individual differences play in shaping employee responses to psychological contract violation. PMID:28713315

  4. The Moderating Effect of Psychological Contract Violation on the Relationship between Narcissism and Outcomes: An Application of Trait Activation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Zagenczyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We use trait activation and psychological contracts theories to build the argument that narcissism is a personality trait that will manifest itself in the form of exit and neglect when employees experience psychological contract violation. To test our hypotheses, we surveyed 262 employees from a wide array of industries working in different organizations at two points in time. Our results indicate that violation moderated the relationship between narcissism and exit such that narcissistic employees who experienced high levels of violation had higher levels of exit. However, we did not find support for our prediction regarding neglect. The findings suggest that the importance of narcissism at work may be contingent on the situation. Our study contributes to research on narcissism in the workplace, trait activation theory, and the role that individual differences play in shaping employee responses to psychological contract violation.

  5. The Moderating Effect of Psychological Contract Violation on the Relationship between Narcissism and Outcomes: An Application of Trait Activation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagenczyk, Thomas J; Smallfield, Jarvis; Scott, Kristin L; Galloway, Bret; Purvis, Russell L

    2017-01-01

    We use trait activation and psychological contracts theories to build the argument that narcissism is a personality trait that will manifest itself in the form of exit and neglect when employees experience psychological contract violation. To test our hypotheses, we surveyed 262 employees from a wide array of industries working in different organizations at two points in time. Our results indicate that violation moderated the relationship between narcissism and exit such that narcissistic employees who experienced high levels of violation had higher levels of exit. However, we did not find support for our prediction regarding neglect. The findings suggest that the importance of narcissism at work may be contingent on the situation. Our study contributes to research on narcissism in the workplace, trait activation theory, and the role that individual differences play in shaping employee responses to psychological contract violation.

  6. Putting theory of mind in its place: psychological explanations of the socio-emotional-communicative impairments in autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jill

    2012-05-01

    In this review, the history of the theory of mind (ToM) theory of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is outlined (in which ToM is indexed by success on false belief tasks), and the explanatory power and psychological causes of impaired ToM in ASD are critically discussed. It is concluded that impaired ToM by itself has only limited explanatory power, but that explorations of the psychological precursors of impaired ToM have been fruitful in increasing understanding of mindreading impairments in ASD (where 'mindreading' refers those abilities that underlie triadic interaction as well as ToM). It is argued that early explanations of impaired mindreading are untenable for various reasons, but that impairments of dyadic interaction in ASD that could lead to impaired ability to represent others' mental states may be the critical psychological cause, or causes, of impaired ToM. The complexity of causal routes to impaired ToM is emphasized.

  7. The Field Concept in Psychology, Gestalt Theory, Physics, and Epic Theatre – Brecht’s Adaptations of Kurt Lewin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langemeyer, Ines

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the first half of the 20th century, the field concept was part of theoretical and methodological innovations in physics, gestalt theory as well as epic theatre as introduced by Bertolt Brecht. Another reference is the psychology of Kurt Lewin. In what ways Brecht took notice of Lewin’s research, especially his demand of a transition from Aristotelian to Galileian thought is reconstructed within the context of paradigm shifts fostered by logical empiricism, gestalt theory and physics. Lewin’s argumentation of an advanced understanding of the lawfulness of societal and psychological processes is placed in the center and traced back as an inspiration to Brecht’s writings. Vice versa, the article investigates in what ways Brecht’s theoretical writings and adaptations of Lewin’s approach can be reconsidered as a source for psychological theorizing.

  8. Understanding Postdisaster Substance Use and Psychological Distress Using Concepts from the Self-Medication Hypothesis and Social Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Adam C; Ward, Kenneth D

    2017-11-10

    This article applies constructs from the Self-Medication Hypothesis and Social Cognitive Theory to explain the development of substance use and psychological distress after a disaster. A conceptual model is proposed, which employs a sequential mediation model, identifying perceived coping self-efficacy, psychological distress, and self-medication as pathways to substance use after a disaster. Disaster exposure decreases perceived coping self-efficacy, which, in turn, increases psychological distress and subsequently increases perceptions of self-medication in vulnerable individuals. These mechanisms lead to an increase in postdisaster substance use. Last, recommendations are offered to encourage disaster researchers to test more complex models in studies on postdisaster psychological distress and substance use.

  9. Bringing culture to basic psychological theory--beyond individualism and collectivism: comment on Oyserman et al. (2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joan G

    2002-01-01

    D. Oyserman, H. M. Coon, and M. Kemmelmeir (2002) offered a comprehensive literature review on individualism and collectivism that forwards valuable suggestions for ways to enhance future research conducted within this framework. The author argues that although their criticisms of much contemporary social psychological research on individualism and collectivism are valid, even more fundamental problems need to be recognized as characterizing work within this tradition, such as the insufficiently subtle nature of the views held of culture, the limited attention given to meanings, and the downplaying of contextual variation. The author suggests adopting more nuanced and process-oriented conceptions of culture and more contextually grounded views of its impact on psychological functioning as a way of realizing the promise of cultural psychology to broaden and provide insight into basic psychological theory.

  10. Does Physical Environment Contribute to Basic Psychological Needs? A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Learning in the Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöblom, Kirsi; Mälkki, Kaisu; Sandström, Niclas; Lonka, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    The role of motivation and emotions in learning has been extensively studied in recent years; however, research on the role of the physical environment still remains scarce. This study examined the role of the physical environment in the learning process from the perspective of basic psychological needs. Although self-determination theory stresses…

  11. A Program to Reduce Disruptive Behavior in a School Based Upon a Practical Application of the Adlerian Theory of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Carl G.

    This practicum report describes a program to aid in reducing the incidence of disruptive behavior of students through the use of the Adlerian Theory of Psychology. The report contains a general definition of the problem, which was the reduction of the disruptive student behavior, and the objectives to be achieved from the program. There is a…

  12. A Critique of Social Bonding and Control Theory of Delinquency Using the Principles of Psychology of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Thomas M.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the refined principles of Psychology of Mind and shows how their logical interaction can help explain the comparative amounts of deviant and conforming behavior of youthful offenders. The logic of these principles is used to examine the major assumptions of social bonding and control theory of delinquency focusing predominantly on the…

  13. The Influence of Choice Theory Anger Management Program (CTAMP) on the Ability of Prospective Psychological Counselors for Anger Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündogdu, Rezzan

    2018-01-01

    This research is a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest-fallow up test and experiment-control group to investigate the influence of Choice Theory-based Anger Management Psychoeducation Program (CTAMP) on the ability of students of Department of Psychological Counseling and Guidance (PCG) for anger management. The Trait Anger-Anger Style…

  14. The Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior to Prevention Science in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, John L.; Netland, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/PB) is a model of behavior change that has been extensively studied in the health sciences but has had limited exposure in the counseling psychology literature. The model offers counseling psychologists a framework to conceptualize prevention research and practice. The model is important to…

  15. The Disillusionment of Students Denied Admission to a Preferred Major Viewed from the Perspective of a Psychological Theory of Alienation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Clifton E.

    2014-01-01

    Why students respond differently when they are denied admission to a preferred academic major may be explained using a psychological theory of alienation. Using this theoretical perspective, three trajectories producing feelings of alienation are presented. The most intense of these trajectories, the process of disillusionment, is examined using a…

  16. Difficulties implementing a mental health guideline: an exploratory investigation using psychological theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluations of interventions to improve implementation of guidelines have failed to produce a clear pattern of results favouring a particular method. While implementation depends on clinicians and managers changing a variety of behaviours, psychological theories of behaviour and behaviour change are seldom used to try to understand difficulties in implementation or to develop interventions to overcome them. Objectives This study applied psychological theory to examine explanations for difficulties in implementation. It used a theoretical framework derived from an interdisciplinary consensus exercise to code interviews across 11 theoretical domains. The focus of the study was a National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence's Schizophrenia guideline recommendation that family intervention should be offered to the families of people with schizophrenia. Methods Participants were recruited from community mental health teams from three United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS Trusts; 20 members (social workers, nurses, team managers, psychologists, and psychiatrists participated. Semi-structured interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Interview questions were based on the theoretical domains and addressed respondents' knowledge, attitudes and opinions regarding the guideline. Two researchers independently coded the transcript segments from each interview that were related to each theoretical domain. A score of 1 indicated that the transcript segments relating to the domain did not appear to contain description of difficulties in implementation of the family therapy guidelines; similarly a score of 0.5 indicated possible difficulties and a score of 0 indicated definite difficulties. Results Coding respondents' answers to questions related to the three domains 'beliefs about consequences,' 'social/professional role and identity,' and 'motivation' produced the three highest total scores indicating that factors relating

  17. Research quality and psychological theory in publications on school shooters with multiple victims - A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Grøndahl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available School shooting homicide events generate considerable attention. A substantial number of research reports have tried to explain the phenomenon. However, the outcome of these studies has produced a conflicting picture of the issue. Our systematic review explored the quality of research in publications on school shooters. Research quality was assessed concerning description of design, method and interpretation of results according to PRISMA and CRD criteria. We investigated evidence of the impact of psychological theories on how research was designed and interpreted. A total of 10 papers met the criteria for inclusion in the review. With a few exceptions, the research quality was low. Only three studies contained a separate methods section. Two out of ten studies reported from an interview with a school shooter. Secondary sources such as school, hospital and/or psychological evaluations were used in four studies, while the rest had only applied tertiary data sources. There was a void of psychological theoretical analysis to inform the creation of relevant research designs. No study discussed psychological theories to inform inference from empirical data to conclusion. Higher quality of research and enhanced focus on theoretical understanding of psychological factors in school shooting are called upon.

  18. Parenting behavior and the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide: a mediated moderation analysis with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cero, Ian; Sifers, Sarah K

    2013-09-25

    Multiple features of parenting have been associated with development of suicide-related behaviors in adolescents. However, findings are inconsistent on which aspects of parenting are protective or harmful and why. This investigation sought to reconcile these discrepancies through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS), which argues that suicide ideation and the capability to attempt suicide are etiologically distinct. Responses of 200 Midwestern public school students to the Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behavior survey were analyzed using mediated moderation analysis. Participant sex significantly moderated the relationships between parenting variables and suicide attempts and these relationships were accounted for by IPTS variables. Specifically, the effect of parental support on suicide attempts was twice as strong for girls. Self-esteem mediated this interaction (b=-.011, SE(boot)=.008, p<.05, κ(2)=.07). Conversely, the effect of parental boundaries on suicide attempts was significant for boys, but not for girls, and was mediated by exposure to violence (b=.029, SE(boot)=.021, p<.05, κ(2)=.07). This study involved retrospective report with proxy-measures of IPTS constructs. Future research should consider multiple informants and additional measures. Findings highlight potential mechanisms by which parenting behaviors could influence sex differences in adolescent suicide-relate behaviors, and that some parenting behavior is associated with reduced adolescent suicide attempts. Findings also suggest the IPTS is able to account for previously identified inconsistencies in the effects of parenting behaviors on adolescent suicide-related behaviors. Implications for theory and intervention are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Monitoring Assumptions in Assume-Guarantee Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sokolsky

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pre-deployment verification of software components with respect to behavioral specifications in the assume-guarantee form does not, in general, guarantee absence of errors at run time. This is because assumptions about the environment cannot be discharged until the environment is fixed. An intuitive approach is to complement pre-deployment verification of guarantees, up to the assumptions, with post-deployment monitoring of environment behavior to check that the assumptions are satisfied at run time. Such a monitor is typically implemented by instrumenting the application code of the component. An additional challenge for the monitoring step is that environment behaviors are typically obtained through an I/O library, which may alter the component's view of the input format. This transformation requires us to introduce a second pre-deployment verification step to ensure that alarms raised by the monitor would indeed correspond to violations of the environment assumptions. In this paper, we describe an approach for constructing monitors and verifying them against the component assumption. We also discuss limitations of instrumentation-based monitoring and potential ways to overcome it.

  20. Clinical Holistic Medicine: A Psychological Theory of Dependency to Improve Quality of Life

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    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest a psychological theory of dependency as an escape from feeling existential suffering and a poor quality of life. The ways in which human beings escape hidden existential pains are multiple. The wide range of dependency states seems to be the most common escape strategy used. If the patient can be guided into the hidden existential pain to feel, understand, and integrate it, we believe that dependency can be cured. The problem is that the patient must be highly motivated, sufficiently resourceful, and supported to want such a treatment that is inherently painful. Often, the family and surrounding world is suffering more than the dependent person himself, because the pattern of behavior the patient is dependent on makes him or her rather insensitive and unable to feel. If the patient is motivated, resourceful, and trusts his physician, recovery from even a severe state of dependency is not out of reach, if the holistic medical tools are applied wisely. The patient must find hidden resources to take action, then in therapy confront and feel old emotional pain, understand the source and inner logic of it, and finally learn to let go of negative attitudes and beliefs. In this way, the person can be healed and released of the emotional suffering and no longer be a slave to the dependency pattern.

  1. Hope and the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior: replication and extension of prior findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Moberg, Fallon B; Arnau, Randolph C

    2014-04-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (IPTS; Joiner, 2005) posits that suicidal behavior occurs when an individual has a desire for death (due to the combination of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness) in addition to an acquired capacity for suicide, which is present when the individual has a low fear of death and high pain tolerance. Previous research has demonstrated an expected negative relation between trait hope and perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, as well as a more perplexing finding that hope is positively associated with the acquired capability. In a sample of 230 college students, measures of the three components of the IPTS were administered, along with measures of hope, depression, and painful and/or provocative events. Hierarchical regression analyses replicated the previously found associations between hope and burdensomeness and belongingness while controlling for depression and demographic variables. The positive association between hope and acquired capacity was also replicated, but a mediation analysis demonstrated that the effect was statistically accounted for by distress tolerance. The results further support the incremental validity of hope as a consideration in suicide risk assessments and suggest that hope may serve as a protective factor with respect to suicidal desire. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  2. Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology (“theory of mind” in offspring of mothers with psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeka Maróthi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28 and bipolar disorder (n = 23 to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or “theory of mind” and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics. Compared with healthy controls (n = 29, the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions.

  3. Changes in Theory-Based Psychological Factors Predict Weight Loss in Women with Class III Obesity Initiating Supported Exercise

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    James J. Annesi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychological factors' effect on weight loss is poorly understood, in general, and specifically in the severely obese. Objective. To examine whether a behavioral model based on tenets of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory will increase understanding of the relationship between exercise and weight loss. Methods. Fifty-one women with severe obesity participated in a 24-week exercise and nutrition information treatment and were measured on changes in psychological factors and exercise attendance. Results. A significant portion of the variance in BMI change (adjusted for number of predictors was accounted for by the behavioral model (2adj=0.23. Entry of exercise session attendance only marginally improved the prediction to 0.27. Only 19% of the weight lost was directly attributable to caloric expenditure from exercise. Conclusions. Findings suggest that participation in an exercise program affects weight loss through psychological pathways and, thus, may be important in the behavioral treatment of severe obesity.

  4. Why did Wundt abandon his early theory of the unconscious? Towards a new interpretation of Wundt's psychological project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Saulo de Freitas

    2012-02-01

    Despite the numerous and important contributions brought by Wundt scholarship in recent decades, some aspects of his work remain unclear and poorly understood. The aim of this paper is to explore one of these aspects, namely, the relationship between philosophy and psychology in Wundt's thought. To this end, we shall discuss an important yet neglected moment in Wundtian psychology, which remains unexplained to date: Why did Wundt abandon his early theory of the unconscious? According to the interpretation offered here, this can only be adequately explained by his intense philosophical studies in the period preceding the publication of the Grundzüge in 1874. Finally, we will point out some implications of this analysis to the general interpretation of Wundt's psychological project.

  5. Grades, Student Satisfaction and Retention in Online and Face-to-Face Introductory Psychology Units: A Test of Equivalency Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt-Reed, David; Roberts, Lynne D.; Heritage, Brody

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses (Halonen et al., 2013). Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory (Simonson, 1999; Simonson et al., 1999) posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Using quasi-experimental methods, academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit developed to provide equivalent learning experiences produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting students with an equivalent learning experience, we

  6. Course design via Equivalency Theory supports equivalent student grades and satisfaction in online and face-to-face psychology classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGarratt-Reed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association (APA has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses. Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a case study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting online students with an equivalent learning experience, we recommend that future research investigates means of successfully facilitating collaborative group-work assessment

  7. Estimation of psychological stress in humans: a combination of theory and practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Sood

    Full Text Available Stress has long been known to increase susceptibility to health disorders. In 2009, American Psychological Association further established association of stress to serious health problems. However, a quantitative and accurate way to evaluate and estimate stress status of individuals is still a big challenge. It has been shown, in large animal models using cattle, that psychological stress can be quantified as well as disease susceptibility could be predicted through biomarker discovery. Taking cue from those studies, we have evaluated and estimated psychological stress level of individuals theoretically and validated experimentally. Various biomarkers have also been identified which can be associated to psychological stress to predict stress status of unknown individuals.

  8. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: Identifying factors predictive of managing upper respiratory tract infections without antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glidewell Elizabeth

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological models can be used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. However, they have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological theories to predict health professional behaviour relating to management of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs without antibiotics. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of general practitioners (GPs in Scotland. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (using antibiotic prescription rates as a proxy indicator, behavioural simulation (scenario-based decisions to managing URTI with or without antibiotics and behavioural intention (general intention to managing URTI without antibiotics. Explanatory variables were the constructs within the following theories: Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM, Operant Learning Theory (OLT, Implementation Intention (II, Stage Model (SM, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct. For each outcome measure, multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross theory' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all significant individual constructs across theories. Results All theories were tested, but only significant results are presented. When predicting behaviour, at the theory level, OLT explained 6% of the variance and, in a cross theory analysis, OLT 'evidence of habitual behaviour' also explained 6%. When predicting behavioural simulation, at the theory level, the proportion of variance explained was: TPB, 31%; SCT, 26%; II, 6%; OLT, 24%. GPs who reported having already decided to change their management to

  9. How fear of falling can increase fall-risk in older adults: Applying psychological theory to practical observations

    OpenAIRE

    Young, WR; Williams, AM

    2013-01-01

    This article was made available through the Brunel Open Access Fund. It is widely reported that fear of falling (FOF) has a profound and largely detrimental effect on balance performance in older adults. However, the mechanisms by which FOF influence postural stability are poorly understood. In the current article, we use psychological theory to explain FOF-related changes to postural control. First, we review literature describing associations between FOF and the 'stiffening' strategies o...

  10. Free Associations Mirroring Self- and World-Related Concepts: Implications for Personal Construct Theory, Psycholinguistics and Philosophical Psychology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuška, M.; Trnka, R.; Kuběna, Aleš Antonín; Růžička, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2016), č. článku 981. ISSN 1664-1078 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : psycholinguistics * world * personal construct theory * free association * association network Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/E/kubena-0464017.pdf

  11. "Free butterflies will come out of these deep wounds": A grounded theory of how endometriosis affects women's psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchin, Federica; Saita, Emanuela; Barbara, Giussy; Dridi, Dhouha; Vercellini, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to develop a grounded theory of how endometriosis affects psychological health. Open interviews were conducted with 74 patients. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered to all women, who were divided into distressed versus non-distressed. At the core of our grounded theory was the notion of disruption due to the common features of living with endometriosis. Experiencing disruption (vs restoring continuity) involved higher distress and was associated with a long pathway to diagnosis, bad doctor-patient relationships, poor physical health, lack of support, negative sense of female identity, and identification of life with endometriosis.

  12. Application of attachment theory for psychological support in palliative medicine during the terminal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Yvonne; Koehler, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    in the relationships can be promoted. The clinical results show that psychotherapeutic intervention based on insights imparted by the attachment theory are of special benefit in relieving the psychological strain for the dying and their families. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Methodology and Psychological Knowledge Issues in the Procedural Differentiation Sphere and the Evidence Doctrine: Problems of Theory and Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey S. Tsyganenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to actual problems of the theory and legislation of the modern criminal trial based on provisions of differentiation of a procedural form. Its basic provisions belong also to questions of evidentiary activity. Characteristics of knowledge on criminal case will claim the psychological knowledge and categories included in the mechanism of legal regulation of criminal procedure activity. Key role is allocated for the principle of freedom of an assessment of proofs. In this case the assessment of proofs is carried out on internal belief. Historically it is connected with institute of jury trial and competitiveness. Both the principle of freedom of assessment of proofs, and many other provisions of the procedural theory and the legislation need interpretation and an explanation with use of modern psychological knowledge. At the same time in modern Russian criminal procedure as well as in foreign types of criminal trial the reduced summary or special procedural jurisdictions are actively applied. It means formation of the differentiated model of criminal legal proceedings at which there is a summary process. Simplification of an order of proof on a criminal case through a wide range of exceptions is characteristic of them that constitutes a theoretical and practical problem. At their decision it is necessary to use a modern arsenal of methodology and the theory, including new achievements in the field of psychological knowledge.

  14. Normative Bias and Adaptive Challenges: A Relational Approach to Coalitional Psychology and a Critique of Terror Management Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos David Navarrete

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Adherence to ingroup ideology increases after exposure to death-related stimuli, a reaction that proponents of terror management theory (TMT explain as a psychological defense against the uniquely human existential fear of death. We argue that existential concerns are not the relevant issue; rather, such concepts can be subsumed under a larger category of adaptive challenges that prime coalitional thinking. We suggest that increases in adherence to ingroup ideology in response to adaptive challenges are manifestations of normative mental representations emanating from psychological systems designed to enhance coordination and membership in social groups. In providing an alternative to TMT, we (1 explain why the theory is inconsistent with contemporary evolutionary biology, (2 demonstrate that mortality-salience does not have the unique evocative powers ascribed to it by TMT advocates, and (3 discuss our approach to coalitional psychology, a framework consistent with modern evolutionary theory and informed by a broad understanding of cultural variation, can be employed to help account for both the corpus of results in TMT research and the growing body of findings inconsistent with TMT's predictions.

  15. Positive Art Therapy: Linking Positive Psychology to Art Therapy Theory, Practice, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Rebecca A.; Chilton, Gioia

    2013-01-01

    As a growing movement in the larger field of mental health, positive psychology has much to offer the art therapy profession, which in turn is uniquely poised to contribute to the study of optimal functioning. This article discusses the relationship of positive psychology to art therapy and its capacity to mobilize client strengths, to induce…

  16. Investigation of Social Cognitive Career Theory for Minority Recruitment in School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Gubi, Aaron A.; Cappaert, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less…

  17. Schema Theory and the Psychology-Christianity Dialogue: New Theoretical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.

    Two misconceptions about the apparent burgeoning interest in the relationship between psychology and Christianity are discussed: that the interest in this dialogue is equally operative on both sides and that those involved in this dialogue share a common set of understandings. The history of the relationship between psychology and Christianity is…

  18. Vygotsky's Stage Theory: The Psychology of Art and the Actor under the Direction of "Perezhivanie"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Vygotsky's writings on arts (particularly logocentric art including the theater) and emotions, drawing on his initial exploration in "The Psychology of Art" and his final considerations set forth in a set of essays, treatises, and lectures produced in the last years of his life. The review of "The Psychology of Art" includes…

  19. Tests of Multiplicative Models in Psychology: A Case Study Using the Unified Theory of Implicit Attitudes, Stereotypes, Self-Esteem, and Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Theories that posit multiplicative relationships between variables are common in psychology. A. G. Greenwald et al. recently presented a theory that explicated relationships between group identification, group attitudes, and self-esteem. Their theory posits a multiplicative relationship between concepts when predicting a criterion variable.…

  20. Mathematical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The birth of experimental psychology in Germany between psychophysical methods and physiological theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In 1879 Wundt's laboratory of psychology was opened in Leipzig, and it has been the landmark ever since for the beginning of modern experimental psychology. Its founder, Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt, was the first to successfully demarcate the areas of scientific psychology as being distinct from either physiology or philosophy, thus guaranteeing the survival of psychology, which was regarded as an autonomous discipline set upon a secure institutional framework. This paper attempts to clarify the basic facts and concepts related to the roots of scientific psychology in Germany, i.e., the context in which the "Founding Father" worked, as well as of those predecessors who proposed the topics and apparatus of his laboratory. Attention will be paid in particular to the psychophysical methods of Weber and Fechner, especially in regard to colour perception. In this context, an outline is presented of the history of reaction time experiments in astronomy, physiology, and psychology, and of the role played by the scientific instruments. It is shown how the methodology of physics and physiology contributed to the emancipation of scientific psychology and to the formation of its orientation.

  2. Psychological factors associated with weight loss maintenance: theory-driven practice for nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, Rebecca M; Greenwald, Beverly J; Lewis, Carolyn C

    2015-04-01

    The authors discuss the psychological factors associated with weight loss maintenance and the use of Pender's health promotion model as a guide for the construction of clinical interventions to address these factors. The psychological factors include internal drive for weight maintenance, ongoing self-monitoring, long-term flexibility, positive mood and emotions, appropriate goals, and management of external stimuli. Nurse practitioners can help combat obesity trends through caring for patients in a holistic manner. Periodic psychological needs-assessments for patients who desire to maintain weight loss may further promote long-term success in weight management. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Preschoolers’ Development of Theory of Mind: The Contribution of Understanding Psychological Causality in Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakako Sanefuji

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between children’s abilities to understand causal sequences and another’s false belief. In Experiment 1, we tested 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children (n = 28, 28, 27, and 27, respectively using false belief and picture sequencing tasks involving mechanical, behavioral, and psychological causality. Understanding causal sequences in mechanical, behavioral, and psychological stories was related to understanding other’s false beliefs. In Experiment 2, children who failed the initial false belief task (n = 50 were reassessed 5 months later. High scorers in the sequencing of the psychological stories in Experiment 1 were more likely to pass the standard false belief task than were the low scorers. Conversely, understanding causal sequences in the mechanical and behavioral stories in Experiment 1 did not predict passing the false belief task in Experiment 2. Thus, children may understand psychological causality before they are able to use it to understand false beliefs.

  4. Re-conceptualizing Neurosis as a Degree of Egocentricity: Ethical Issues in Psychological Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Segura, M; Echavarria, M F; Vitz, P C

    2015-10-01

    Psychology's historical rejection of ethics has led to an oversimplification of the origins and treatments of mental disorders. In this article, we present an analysis of how classical neurosis can be reformulated from an ethical and psychological interaction. We focus on the crucial role that egocentricity plays and argue that this term can help to clarify how ego defensive ethical decisions can undermine psychological capacities and contribute to a progressive depersonalization that can result in typical clinical disorders. In Christian anthropology, the virtues, especially humility and love have a crucial role in the positive growth of human affective and cognitive capacities. In addition, the person in his/her nature is endowed with the capacity to transcend the self and to escape egocentricity through self-giving love of God and of others. This capacity of self-giving is diametrically opposed to egocentricity and opens a new way for possible psychological recovery.

  5. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of placing preventive fissure sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Debbie; Johnston, Marie; Clarkson, Jan E; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Pitts, Nigel B; Eccles, Martin; Steen, Nick; Thomas, Ruth; Maclennan, Graeme; Glidewell, Liz; Walker, Anne

    2010-04-08

    Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making), and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value. Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT), timeline acute (CS-SRM), and outcome expectancy (SCT) entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT) and attitude (TPB) entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that may predict clinical behaviour

  6. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of placing preventive fissure sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maclennan Graeme

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Methods Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making, and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM, Operant Learning Theory (OLT, Implementation Intention (II, Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value Results Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT, timeline acute (CS-SRM, and outcome expectancy (SCT entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT and attitude (TPB entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. Summary The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for

  7. Using psychological theory to inform methods to optimize the implementation of a hand hygiene intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscart Veronique M

    2012-08-01

    administrators reported different views. Conclusions This study highlights the benefits of using a structured approach based on psychological theory to inform an implementation plan for a behavior change intervention. This work is an essential step towards systematically identifying factors affecting nurses’ behaviour associated with HH.

  8. Realism, instrumentalism, and scientific symbiosis: psychological theory as a search for truth and the discovery of solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T; Semin, Gün R; Berntson, Gary G

    2004-01-01

    Scientific realism holds that scientific theories are approximations of universal truths about reality, whereas scientific instrumentalism posits that scientific theories are intellectual structures that provide adequate predictions of what is observed and useful frameworks for answering questions and solving problems in a given domain. These philosophical perspectives have different strengths and weaknesses and have been regarded as incommensurate: Scientific realism fosters theoretical rigor, verifiability, parsimony, and debate, whereas scientific instrumentalism fosters theoretical innovation, synthesis, generativeness, and scope. The authors review the evolution of scientific realism and instrumentalism in psychology and propose that the categorical distinction between the 2 is overstated as a prescription for scientific practice. The authors propose that the iterative deployment of these 2 perspectives, just as the iterative application of inductive and deductive reasoning in science, may promote more rigorous, integrative, cumulative, and useful scientific theories.

  9. Applying Psychological Theories to Promote Long-Term Maintenance of Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Daniel, Casey L.; Thind, Herpreet; Benitez, Tanya J.; Pekmezi, Dori

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral health theory provides a framework for researchers to design, implement, and evaluate the effects of health promotion programs. However, limited research has examined theories used in interventions to promote long-term maintenance of health behaviors. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the available literature and identify prominent behavioral health theories used in intervention research to promote maintenance of health behaviors. We reviewed theories used in intervention research assessing long-term maintenance (≥ 6 months post-intervention) of physical activity, weight loss, and smoking cessation. Five prominent behavioral theories were referenced by the 34 studies included in the review: Self-Determination Theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory, Transtheoretical Model, and Social Ecological Model. Descriptions and examples of applications of these theories are provided. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:28217036

  10. Parental hostility and its sources in psychologically abusive mothers: a test of the three-factor theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik-Oberstein, M; Koers, A J; Cohen, L

    1995-01-01

    A revised version of the three-factor theory of child abuse (Lesnik-Oberstein, Cohen, & Koers, 1982) is presented. Further, we report on a research designed to test three main hypotheses derived from Factor I (1) (a high level of hostility in abusive parents) and its sources. The three main hypotheses are: (1) that psychologically abusive mothers have a high level of hostile feelings (Factor I); (2) that the high level of hostile feelings in abusive mothers is associated with low marital coping skills (resulting in affectionless, violent marriages), a negative childhood upbringing (punitive, uncaring, over controlling), a high level of stress (objective stress), and a high level of strain (low self-esteem, depression, neurotic symptoms, social anxiety, feelings of being wronged); and (3) that maternal psychological child abuse is associated with low marital coping skills, a negative childhood upbringing, a high level of stress and a high level of strain. Forty-four psychologically abusing mothers were compared with 128 nonabusing mothers on a variety of measures and were matched for age and educational level. All the mothers had children who were hospitalized for medical symptoms. The three hypotheses were supported, with the exception of the component of hypothesis 2 concerning the association between objective stress and maternal hostility. The positive results are consistent with the three-factor theory.

  11. Efficacy of psychological pain theory-based cognitive therapy in suicidal patients with major depressive disorder: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yingmin; Li, Huanhuan; Shi, Chuan; Lin, Yixuan; Zhou, Hanyu; Zhang, Jiaqi

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to explore the effects of psychological pain theory-based cognitive therapy (PPTBCT) on suicide among depressed patients, compared with a control group who received usual psychological care (UPC). The sample consisted of 32 depressed patients and 32 healthy control subjects. All participants completed the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI), Beck Depression Inventory, Three-Dimensional Psychological Pain Scale (TDPPS), and Problem Solving Inventory(PSI), and Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ). All measures differed significantly between depressed patients and healthy controls. Then clinical participants were assigned randomly to the PPTBCT (n=19) and control (n=13) groups. During the 8-week intervention, scores related to depression, suicidal ideation, psychological pain, and automatic thoughts were decreased in both groups at the post-intervention and 4-week follow-up time points, compared with pre-intervention scores. BSI scores remained low at follow up and did not differ significantly from post-intervention scores in the PPTBCT group, but were significantly higher at follow up than at post-intervention in the control group. PPTBCT may effectively reduce suicide risk in patients with major depressive disorder, although the effects of its application need to be confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifying and applying psychological theory to setting and achieving rehabilitation goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobbie, Lesley; Wyke, Sally; Dixon, Diane

    2009-04-01

    Goal setting is considered to be a fundamental part of rehabilitation; however, theories of behaviour change relevant to goal-setting practice have not been comprehensively reviewed. (i) To identify and discuss specific theories of behaviour change relevant to goal-setting practice in the rehabilitation setting. (ii) To identify 'candidate' theories that that offer most potential to inform clinical practice. The rehabilitation and self-management literature was systematically searched to identify review papers or empirical studies that proposed a specific theory of behaviour change relevant to setting and/or achieving goals in a clinical context. Data from included papers were extracted under the headings of: key constructs, clinical application and empirical support. Twenty-four papers were included in the review which proposed a total of five theories: (i) social cognitive theory, (ii) goal setting theory, (iii) health action process approach, (iv) proactive coping theory, and (v) the self-regulatory model of illness behaviour. The first three of these theories demonstrated most potential to inform clinical practice, on the basis of their capacity to inform interventions that resulted in improved patient outcomes. Social cognitive theory, goal setting theory and the health action process approach are theories of behaviour change that can inform clinicians in the process of setting and achieving goals in the rehabilitation setting. Overlapping constructs within these theories have been identified, and can be applied in clinical practice through the development and evaluation of a goal-setting practice framework.

  13. "The casual cruelty of our prejudices": on Walter Lippmann's theory of stereotype and its "obliteration" in psychology and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottom, William P; Kong, Dejun Tony

    2012-01-01

    Reflecting on his wartime government service, Walter Lippmann (1922) developed a theory of policy formulation and error. Introducing the constructs of stereotype, mental model, blind spots, and the process of manufacturing consent, his theory prescribed interdisciplinary social science as a tool for enhancing policy making in business and government. Lippmann used his influence with the Rockefeller foundations, business leaders, Harvard and the University of Chicago to gain support for this program. Citation analysis of references to "stereotype" and Lippmann reveals the rapid spread of the concept across the social sciences and in public discourse paralleled by obliteration by incorporation of the wider theory in behavioral science. "Stereotype" is increasingly invoked in anthropology, economics, and sociology though Lippmann and his wider theory ceased being cited decades ago. In psychology, citations are increasing but content analysis revealed blind spots and misconceptions about the theory and prescription. Studies of heuristics, biases, and organizational decision substantiate Lippmann's theory of judgment and choice. But his model for social science failed to consider the bounded rationality and blind spots of its practitioners. Policy formulation today is supported by research from narrow disciplinary silos not interdisciplinary science that reflects an awareness of history. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. An Evaluation of an Intervention to Change First-Year Psychology Students' Theory of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Some people hold an entity theory of intelligence: they think of intelligence as innate. In contrast, others hold an incremental theory, believing that intelligence can be changed. Previous research has shown that an incremental theory is associated with positive outcomes. The aim of this paper was to evaluate an intervention which promoted an…

  15. Money Buys Financial Security and Psychological Need Satisfaction: Testing Need Theory in Affluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ryan T.; Kurai, Mark; Tam, Leona

    2013-01-01

    The most prominent theory to explain the curvilinear relationship between income and subjective well-being (SWB) is need theory, which proposes that increased income and wealth can lead to increased well-being in poverty because money is used to satisfy basic physiological needs. The present study tests the tenets of need theory by proposing that…

  16. Western psychology and Muslim psychology in dialogue: comparisons between a Qura'nic theory of personality and Freud's and Jung's ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Raiya, Hisham

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, comparisons are made between a newly developed Qura'nic theory of personality and the Freudian and Jungian theories of the mind. Notable similarities were found between the Freudian id, ego, superego and neurosis and the Qura'nic nafs ammarah besoa' (evil-commanding psyche), a'ql (intellect), al-nafs al-lawammah (the reproachful psyche) and al-nafs al-marid'a (the sick psyche), respectively. Noteworthy resemblances were detected also between the Jungian concepts collective unconscious, archetypes, Self and individuation and the Qura'nic constructs roh (spirit), al-asmaa' (the names), qalb (heart), and al-nafs al-mutmainnah (the serene psyche), respectively. These parallels, as well as the departure points, between the models are thoroughly discussed and analyzed. The comparisons performed in this paper open new avenues for dialogue between western models of the psyche and their Muslim counterparts, a dialogue that can enrich both perspectives and advance the field of psychology.

  17. The use of the effect size in JCR Spanish journals of psychology: from theory to fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Juan; Ortega Campos, Elena; De la Fuente Sánchez, Leticia

    2011-11-01

    In 1999, Wilkinson and the Task Force on Statistical Inference published "Statistical Methods and Psychology: Guidelines and Explanation." The authors made several recommendations about how to improve the quality of Psychology research papers. One of these was to report some effect-size index in the results of the research. In 2001, the fifth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association included this recommendation. In Spain, in 2003, scientific journals like Psicothema or the International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology (IJCHP) published editorials and papers expressing the need to calculate the effect size in the research papers. The aim of this study is to determine whether the papers published from 2003 to 2008 in the four Spanish journals indexed in the Journal Citation Reports have reported some effect-size index of their results. The findings indicate that, in general, the followup of the norm has been scanty, though the evolution over the analyzed period is different depending on the journal.

  18. In Search of Theory: The Study of "Ethnic Groups" in Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Per F.; Onishi, Miyoko

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the conceptual status and uses of ethnic groups in developmental psychology. Discusses problems with the primordialist position and the influence of nationalism in defining culture. Argues that culture and ethnicity as shared and located within a bounded population is an increasingly outmoded notion. Maintains that developmental…

  19. Uses of theories of depth psychology in ordained ministry and the institutional church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNish, Jill L

    2002-01-01

    Burgeoning understanding of unconscious processes should inform the work of the church and its ministries. Understanding derived from depth psychology can lead to deeper understandings of relationship with God and with one another, of the vicissitudes of spiritual life, of the meaning of ritual and sacraments, and to more profound and relevant scriptural hermeneutics and theological understandings. These claims are illustrated with examples.

  20. A Historical Overview and Contemporary Expansion of Psychological Theories of Determinism, Probabilistic Causality, Indeterminate Free Will, and Moral and Legal Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Duffy; Ratheal, Juli D'Ann

    2009-01-01

    The authors provide a historical overview of the development of contemporary theories of counseling and psychology in relation to determinism, probabilistic causality, indeterminate free will, and moral and legal responsibility. They propose a unique model of behavioral causality that incorporates a theory of indeterminate free will, a concept…

  1. Anti-homosexual prejudice . . . as opposed to what? Queer theory and the social psychology of anti-homosexual attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Peter; Massey, Sean

    2006-01-01

    This article uses Sedgwick's distinction between minoritizing and universalizing theories of sexuality to analyze variability in social psychologists' studies of anti-homosexual prejudice, focusing on studies of attitudes. Anti-homosexual prejudice was initially defined in conversation with gay liberationists and presumed, among other things, that fear of homoerotic potential was present in all persons. Later social psychologists theorized anti-homosexual prejudice in strict minoritizing terms: as prejudice towards a distinct out-group. In the first section of this paper we discuss corresponding shifts in the conceptualization of anti-homosexual attitudes. Next, using a universalizing framework, we re-interpret experiments on behavioral aspects of anti-homosexual attitudes which were originally conceptualized using a minoritizing framework, and suggest avenues for future research. Finally, we examine how queer theory might enrich this area of social psychological inquiry by challenging assumptions about the politics of doing scientific work and the utility of identity-based sexual politics.

  2. Making good theory practical: five lessons for an Applied Social Identity Approach to challenges of organizational, health, and clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Social identity research was pioneered as a distinctive theoretical approach to the analysis of intergroup relations but over the last two decades it has increasingly been used to shed light on applied issues. One early application of insights from social identity and self-categorization theories was to the organizational domain (with a particular focus on leadership), but more recently there has been a surge of interest in applications to the realm of health and clinical topics. This article charts the development of this Applied Social Identity Approach, and abstracts five core lessons from the research that has taken this forward. (1) Groups and social identities matter because they have a critical role to play in organizational and health outcomes. (2) Self-categorizations matter because it is people's self-understandings in a given context that shape their psychology and behaviour. (3) The power of groups is unlocked by working with social identities not across or against them. (4) Social identities need to be made to matter in deed not just in word. (5) Psychological intervention is always political because it always involves some form of social identity management. Programmes that seek to incorporate these principles are reviewed and important challenges and opportunities for the future are identified. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  3. [Gestalt theory of V. v. Weizsäcker from the viewpoint of the psychology emotions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnhuber, S

    2001-07-01

    The "Gestaltkreis" represents an important part in the psychosomatic theory-discussion, which can be understood as an incomplete contribution towards a general theory of emotions. Especially the relationship between perception and motion requires further consideration. Instead of a causal attribution, cyclic complementaries are important. Furthermore different degrees of organisation within the body-scheme and the affect-apparatus are mentioned.

  4. Psychological Plausibility of the Theory of Probabilistic Mental Models and the Fast and Frugal Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Michael R.; Franco-Watkins, Ana M.; Thomas, Rick

    2008-01-01

    The theory of probabilistic mental models (PMM; G. Gigerenzer, U. Hoffrage, & H. Kleinbolting, 1991) has had a major influence on the field of judgment and decision making, with the most recent important modifications to PMM theory being the identification of several fast and frugal heuristics (G. Gigerenzer & D. G. Goldstein, 1996). These…

  5. Social Learning Theory and Developmental Psychology: The Legacies of Robert Sears and Albert Bandura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusec, Joan E.

    1992-01-01

    Social learning theory is evaluated from a historical perspective that goes up to the present. Sears and others melded psychoanalytic and stimulus-response learning theory into a comprehensive explanation of human behavior. Bandura emphasized cognitive and information-processing capacities that mediate social behavior. (LB)

  6. Applied Systemic Theory and Educational Psychology: Can the Twain Ever Meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Dario W.

    2009-01-01

    This article reflects on the potential benefits of applying systemic theory to the work of educational psychologists (EPs). It reviews developments in systemic thinking over time, and discusses the differences between more directive "first order" versus collaborative "second order" approaches. It considers systemic theories and…

  7. An Investigation of the Mathematical Models of Piaget's Psychological Theory of Cognitive Learning. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalechofsky, Robert

    This research paper proposes several mathematical models which help clarify Piaget's theory of cognition on the concrete and formal operational stages. Some modified lattice models were used for the concrete stage and a combined Boolean Algebra and group theory model was used for the formal stage. The researcher used experiments cited in the…

  8. Practical Applications of Generalizability Theory for Designing, Evaluating, and Improving Psychological Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vispoel, Walter P; Morris, Carrie A; Kilinc, Murat

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we illustrate how generalizability theory (G-theory) can extend traditional assessment methods for designing, improving, and evaluating results from both objectively and subjectively scored measures of individual differences. Our illustrations include quantification of multiple sources of measurement error, derivation of unique indexes of consistency for norm- and criterion-referenced interpretations of scores, estimation of score consistency when changing a measurement procedure, and disattenuation of correlation coefficients for measurement error. We also expand G-theory analyses beyond the item level to include parcels and split measures and highlight linkages among G-theory, classical test theory, and structural equation modeling. Computer code and sample data are provided in online supplements to help readers apply the demonstrated techniques to their own assessments.

  9. The Conditions under which Growth-Fostering Relationships Promote Resilience and Alleviate Psychological Distress among Sexual Minorities: Applications of Relational Cultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Relational cultural theory posits that resilience and psychological growth are rooted in relational connections and are facilitated through growth-fostering relationships. Framed within this theory, the current study examined the associations between growth-fostering relationships (i.e., relationships characterized by authenticity and mutuality) with a close friend and psychological distress among sexual minorities. More specifically, we tested the moderating effects of individuals’ internalized homophobia and their friend’s sexual orientation on the associations between growth-fostering relationship with their close friend and level of psychological distress. A sample of sexual minorities (N = 661) were recruited online and completed a questionnaire. The 3-way interaction between (a) growth-fostering relationship with a close friend, (b) the close friend’s sexual orientation, and (c) internalized homophobia was significant in predicting psychological distress. Among participants with low levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close heterosexual or LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress. Among participants with high levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress but not with a heterosexual friend. Our results demonstrate that growth-fostering relationships may be associated with less psychological distress but under specific conditions. These findings illuminate a potential mechanism for sexual minorities’ resilience and provide support for relational cultural theory. Understanding resilience factors among sexual minorities is critical for culturally sensitive and affirmative clinical practice and future research. PMID:26380836

  10. How fear of falling can increase fall-risk in older adults: applying psychological theory to practical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William R; Mark Williams, A

    2015-01-01

    It is widely reported that fear of falling (FOF) has a profound and largely detrimental effect on balance performance in older adults. However, the mechanisms by which FOF influence postural stability are poorly understood. In the current article, we use psychological theory to explain FOF-related changes to postural control. First, we review literature describing associations between FOF and the 'stiffening' strategies observed during control of posture, including observations of eye and head movements. Second, we present a framework illustrating the interactions between increased age, FOF, and altered attentional processes, which in turn influence balance performance and fall-risk. Psychological theory predicts that anxiety can cause attentional bias for threatening and task-irrelevant stimuli and compromise the efficiency of working memory resources. We argue that while the adoption of stiffening strategies is likely to be beneficial in avoiding a loss of balance during simple postural tasks, it will ultimately compromise performance in dynamic and highly demanding functional tasks. The adoption of stiffening strategies leads to inadequate acquisition of the sensory information necessary to plan and execute dynamic and interactive movements. We conclude with some suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Theory of Social Control and the Social Psychology of Dissatisfaction: Inhibition, regression and isolation in a cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Selymes, PhD Candidate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Theory of Social Control (TSC is grounded in satisfaction and happiness research. The study investigated the reasons behind relatively low levels of civil and personal satisfaction, subjective social well-being and experienced happiness in the post-communist Hungarian social context. The basic social process uncovered in the research is self-situating, which involves a continuous assessment of social control, which occurs on three psychological dimensions: activity, fairness and connectedness, operated via social flow. The culturally salient outcome of self-situating in Hungary is self-victimizing, meaning a subjective loss of control on all three dimensions. Some of the most important emotional-motivational consequences of self-victimizing are inhibition, regression and isolation, which contribute to various socio-cultural phenomenon such as distrust, bystander strategies, pessimism or anomie across a number of social situations. Based on the emerging theory, the concept of subjective social control is introduced and an expanded three-dimensional model of civil satisfaction, comfort and contribution, along with psychological and cultural implications, are discussed.Key words: social control, self-situating, self-victimizing, activity, fairness, connectedness, inhibition, fury, isolation

  12. The Role of Reactance and Positive Emotions in Persuasive Health Messages: Refining the Theory of Psychological Reactance and the Politeness Theory and Testing the Theories of Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunsoon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand research on persuasion 1) by examining psychological reactance as a function of threats to positive identity above and beyond threats to freedom and 2) by examining the role of positive emotions. An online survey recruited 478 students from undergraduate courses at several universities in the U.S. The study…

  13. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  14. The Analysis of the Science and Technology Enterprise Core Employee Turnover Negative Effects – Based on the theory of psychological contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the problem of negative effect of resignation of core employees from scientific enterprise based on psychological contract theory and summary of references. It uses questionnaires to analyze the data and construct a model of negative effect of resignation caused by psychological contract violation. It also makes an analysis on resignation tendency and negative effect of resignation in two perspectives to provide a basis for reduction of the negative effect.

  15. A Qualitative Exploration of the Use of Attachment Theory in Adult Psychological Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eilish; Danquah, Adam; Berry, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest into how attachment theory can inform psychotherapeutic practice with adults. This study aimed to explore how a group of therapists with an interest in attachment theory use it in their work with adult clients. A cross-sectional qualitative design was adopted. Sampling, data collection and analysis procedures were guided by grounded theory principles. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 12 therapists from a variety of training backgrounds. Data were coded and developed into thematic categories. Six primary themes were identified to describe how attachment theory influenced the clinical practice of the sample through the following: (i) complementing other therapeutic models; (ii) providing a framework to understand the development of clients' mental health problems; (iii) working with different attachment styles; (iv) thinking about the therapeutic relationship as an attachment relationship; (iv) influencing the different stages of the therapeutic process; and (vi) influencing clinical service design and delivery. It is concluded that attachment theory can play a significant role in influencing the practice of therapists and can be usefully adopted to complement therapeutic processes irrespective of the therapist's dominant clinical orientation. Further research is needed to explore the views of clinicians from different theoretical orientations and to investigate the security of the client-therapist attachment within the context of therapeutic change processes. Attachment theory may have implications for practice across a range of different types of therapy and may help therapists to bridge apparent differences between modality-specific formulation and techniques. Attachment theory can be used to understand the development of mental health problems. Therapists should assess and formulate clients' attachment styles, and these formulations should guide therapeutic approaches. Attachment theory provides a comprehensive

  16. Suicide Risk across Latent Class Subgroups: A Test of the Generalizability of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jennifer S; Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Han, Jin

    2018-01-06

    It remains unclear whether the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner, ) is generalizable to the population or holds more explanatory power for certain subgroups compared to others. The aim of this study was to (1) identify subgroups of individuals who endorsed suicide ideation in the past month based on a range of mental health and demographic variables, (2) compare levels of the IPTS constructs within these subgroups, and (3) test the IPTS predictions for suicide ideation and suicide attempt for each group. Latent class, negative binomial, linear, and logistic regression analyses were conducted on population-based data obtained from 1,321 adults recruited from Facebook. Among participants reporting suicide ideation, four distinct patterns of risk factors emerged based on age and severity of mental health symptoms. Groups with highly elevated mental health symptoms reported the highest levels of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. Tests of the IPTS interactions provided partial support for the theory, primarily in young adults with elevated mental health symptoms. Lack of support found for the IPTS predictions across the subgroups and full sample in this study raise some questions around the broad applicability of the theory. © 2018 The American Association of Suicidology.

  17. System as metaphor in the psychology and biology of shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, R

    1996-01-01

    Biological theories of brain and psychological theories of mind are two systems of explanation that seem related to one another. The nature of the relationship is problematic and constitutes the age-old mind-body problem. The most prominent solutions currently are variations of materialism. While psychological theories can be consistent with materialism, there remains a difficulty in comprehending nonphysical (social, psychological) causes of physical effects. This difficulty is an obstacle to integration in psychiatry, where we routinely assume that illnesses that include or depend on biological dysfunction are caused multifactorially by causal agents such as perceived parental warmth, parental loss, stressful life events, genetics, and personality (Hammen et al. 1992; Kendler et al. 1993). Unity theory adopts the stance that neurobiological theories and psychological theories are essentially disparate explanations of the same psychobiological events; thus the relationship of mind to brain is one of shared reference (Goodman 1991; Maunder 1995). In Goodman's model the gap between biological and psychological systems is not bridgeable. Different conceptual categories refer to the same referents but cannot interact with each other. Stepping into the breach, systems theory has been presented as offering a language that can bridge the gap between psychological and biological theories of causation (Schwartz 1981; Weiner 1989). Thus, there is a controversy about the applicability of systems theory for integration in psychiatry.

  18. Dyadic Power Theory, Touch, and Counseling Psychology: A Response to Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Norah E.; Abra, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards' (2011) recent article tested dyadic power theory (DPT) by examining the use of touch as a compliance-gaining tactic in the conflicts of married couples. In this response, we raise a methodological issue about the touch behaviors examined by Smith et al. and also pose a theoretical critique that their test of DPT…

  19. On the Biological Plausibility of Grandmother Cells: Implications for Neural Network Theories in Psychology and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental claim associated with parallel distributed processing (PDP) theories of cognition is that knowledge is coded in a distributed manner in mind and brain. This approach rejects the claim that knowledge is coded in a localist fashion, with words, objects, and simple concepts (e.g. "dog"), that is, coded with their own dedicated…

  20. Translation Fidelity of Psychological Scales: An Item Response Theory Analysis of an Individualism-Collectivism Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes a method for assessing the quality of translations based on item response theory (IRT). Results from the IRT technique with French and Chinese versions of a scale measuring individualism-collectivism for samples of 250 U.S., 357 French, and 290 Chinese undergraduates show how several biased items are detected. (SLD)

  1. The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler: Toward an Adlerian Vocational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, C. Edward, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Presents an Adlerian vocational theory with several hypotheses and corollaries regarding: (a) life style, (b) work as life task, (c) family atmosphere and relationships, and (d) early recollections. Develops predictive vocational statements and offers the resulting framework as a stimulant to generate further study of Adlerian vocational…

  2. PROGRAMMED LEARNING--THEORY AND RESEARCH, AN ENDURING PROBLEM IN PSYCHOLOGY. SELECTED READINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOORE, J. WILLIAM, ED.; SMITH, WENDELL I., ED.

    THIS IS A COMPILATION OF ARTICLES DEALING WITH PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION AND AUTO-INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES (TEACHING-MACHINES). THE LITERATURE IS REVIEWED AND AN OVERVIEW OF THE FIELD IS PRESENTED. THE APPLICATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND LEARNING THEORY TO TEACHING MACHINES IS DISCUSSED, AND THE PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PROGRAMING METHOD. SAMPLES…

  3. THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY AND EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH TO THE TEACHING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARROLL, JOHN B.

    THIS ADDRESS, GIVEN AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING (BERLIN, SEPTEMBER 1964), PRESENTS A GENERAL DISCUSSION OF THE PRESENT SCOPE, ROLE, AND POTENTIAL USE OF RESEARCH IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODOLOGY, AND MAINTAINS THAT THE BEST RESEARCH IS THAT WHICH IS CLOSELY ALLIED WITH THEORY, AND THE HARDEST TO…

  4. Implicit theories of online trolling: Evidence that attention-seeking conceptions are associated with increased psychological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hatcher, Ruth M; Tazzyman, Sarah; Flowe, Heather D; Palmer, Emma J; Frosch, Caren A; O'Reilly, Michelle; Jones, Ceri; Buckley, Chloe; Knieps, Melanie; Cutts, Katie

    2016-08-01

    Three studies were conducted to investigate people's conceptions of online trolls, particularly conceptions associated with psychological resilience to trolling. In Study 1, a factor analysis of participants' ratings of characteristics of online trolls found a replicable bifactor model of conceptions of online trolls, with a general factor of general conceptions towards online trolls being identified, but five group factors (attention-conflict seeking, low self-confidence, viciousness, uneducated, amusement) as most salient. In Study 2, participants evaluated hypothetical profiles of online trolling messages to establish the validity of the five factors. Three constructs (attention-conflict seeking, viciousness, and uneducated) were actively employed when people considered profiles of online trolling scenarios. Study 3 introduced a 20-item 'Conceptions of Online Trolls scale' to examine the extent to which the five group factors were associated with resilience to trolling. Results indicated that viewing online trolls as seeking conflict or attention was associated with a decrease in individuals' negative affect around previous trolling incidents. Overall, the findings suggest that adopting an implicit theories approach can further our understanding and measurement of conceptions towards trolling through the identification of five salient factors, of which at least one factor may act as a resilience strategy. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Dark traits and suicide: Associations between psychopathy, narcissism, and components of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Tiffany M; Preston, Olivia C; Khazem, Lauren R; Anestis, Michael D; Junearick, Regis; Green, Bradley A; Anestis, Joye C

    2017-10-01

    Studies have identified independent relationships between psychopathy, narcissism, and suicidality. The current study expands upon the extant literature by exploring psychopathic and narcissistic personality traits and components of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide, utilizing a 3-factor model of psychopathy and 2-factor model of pathological narcissism in community, undergraduate, and military individuals. We hypothesized that the impulsive-antisocial facets of psychopathy would be related to suicidal desire, whereas all facets of psychopathy would relate to the capability for suicide. We anticipated an association between pathological narcissism, thwarted belongingness, and capability for suicide, but not perceived burdensomeness. We further hypothesized a relationship between physical pain tolerance and persistence and the affective (i.e., callousness) facet of psychopathy. Results partially supported these hypotheses and underscore the need for further examination of these associations utilizing contemporary models of psychopathy and narcissism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Cognitive appraisals and psychological distress following venous thromboembolic disease: an application of the theory of cognitive adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tria; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R; Makris, Michael

    2006-11-01

    Venous thrombosis is a common and life-threatening disease that has received little attention in health psychology. The present study applied the theory of cognitive adaptation (TCA) to examine patients' reactions to venous thrombosis. Patients (N = 123) aged 16-84 recruited from anticoagulation units in the north of England completed measures of TCA constructs (meaning, mastery, self-esteem and optimism) and various outcome variables (anxiety, depression, thrombosis worries and quality of life) within 1 month of their thrombosis. The TCA explained large and significant amounts of variance in the outcome variables. In line with expectations, mastery, self-esteem and optimism were associated with positive adjustment. However, meaning was associated with elevated levels of distress. The results are discussed in relation to the search for meaning and the use of different control strategies in the early phases of adaptation to thrombosis.

  7. The typological approach in child and family psychology: a review of theory, methods, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the theoretical underpinnings, major concepts, and methods of the typological approach. It was argued that the typological approach offers a systematic, empirically rigorous and reliable way to synthesize the nomothetic variable-centered approach with the idiographic case-centered approach. Recent advances in cluster analysis validation make it a promising method for uncovering natural typologies. This paper also reviewed findings from personality and family studies that have revealed 3 prototypical personalities and parenting styles: Adjusted/Authoritative, Overcontrolled/Authoritarian, and Undercontrolled/Permissive. These prototypes are theorized to be synonymous with attractor basins in psychological state space. The connection between family types and personality structure as well as future directions of typological research were also discussed.

  8. Social psychology, terrorism, and identity: a preliminary re-examination of theory, culture, self, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Michael P; Arrigo, Bruce A

    2005-01-01

    This article relies upon structural symbolic interactionism and five of its organizing concepts (i.e. symbols, the definition of the situation, roles, socialization and role-taking, and the self) to put forth a novel conceptual framework for understanding the terrorist identity. In order to demonstrate the practical utility of the framework, applications to various terrorist groups around the globe are incorporated into the analysis. Overall, both the theoretical and application work help reorient the academic and practitioner behavioral science communities to the importance of culture, self, and society when investigating one's membership in and identity through militant extremist organizations. Given the unique approach taken by this article, several provisional implications are delineated. In particular, future research on terrorism, strategies linked to counter-terrorism, legal and public policy reform, and the relevance of utilizing a sociologically animated social psychology in the assessment of other forms of criminal behavior are all very tentatively explored.

  9. Psychological Trait Resilience Within Ecological Systems Theory: The Resilient Systems Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Flowe, Heather D; Vostanis, Panos; Chivers, Sally

    2017-07-14

    This project describes the development of the Resilient Systems Scales, created to address conceptual and methodological ambiguities in assessing the ecological systems model of resilience. Across a number of samples (total N = 986), our findings suggest that the Resilient Systems Scales show equivalence to a previously reported assessment (Maltby, Day, & Hall, 2015 ) in demonstrating the same factor structure, adequate intercorrelation between the 2 measures of resilience, and equivalent associations with personality and well-being. The findings also suggest that the Resilient Systems Scales demonstrate adequate test-retest reliability, compare well with other extant measures of resilience in predicting well-being, and map, to varying degrees, onto positive expression of several cognitive, social, and emotional traits. The findings suggest that the new measure can be used alongside existing measures of resilience, or singly, to assess positive life outcomes within psychology research.

  10. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  11. Using psychological theory and qualitative methods to develop a new evidence-based website about acupuncture for back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Felicity L; Greville-Harris, Maddy; Bostock, Jennifer; Din, Amy; Graham, Cynthia A; Lewith, George; Liossi, Christina; O'Riordan, Tim; Ryves, Rachel; White, Peter; Yardley, Lucy

    2016-08-01

    Potential acupuncture patients seek out information about acupuncture from various sources including websites, many of which are unreliable. We aimed to create an informative, scientifically accurate and engaging website to educate patients about acupuncture for back pain and modify their beliefs in a way that might enhance its clinical effects. We used psychological theory and techniques to design an evidence-based website, incorporating multimedia elements. We conducted qualitative "think aloud" audio-recorded interviews to elicit user views of the website. A convenience sample of ten participants (4 male; aged 21-64 years from the local community) looked at the website in the presence of a researcher and spoke their thoughts out loud. Comments were categorised by topic. The website comprises 11 main pages and addresses key topics of interest to potential acupuncture patients, including beneficial and adverse effects, mechanisms of action, safety, practicalities, and patients' experiences of acupuncture. It provides information through text, evidence summaries and audio-clips of four patients' stories and two acupuncturists' descriptions of their practice, and three short films. Evidence from the think aloud study was used to identify opportunities to make the website more informative, engaging, and user-friendly. Using a combination of psychological theory and qualitative interviews enabled us to produce a user-friendly, evidence-based website that is likely to change patients' beliefs about acupuncture for back pain. Before using the website in clinical settings it is necessary to test its effects on key outcomes including patients' beliefs and capacity for making informed choices about acupuncture.

  12. Measurement in health psychology: combining theory, qualitative, and quantitative methods to do it right : 6th Methods in Health Psychology Symposium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, G.-J.Y; Dima, A.; Plass, A.M.; Crutzen, R.; Gibbons, C.; Doyle, F.

    2016-01-01

    A recent debate in Health Psychology Review demonstrated the importance of careful attention to measurement and operationalisation of health psychology constructs (Beauchamp, 2016; Brewer, 2016; de Vries, 2016; Schwarzer & McAuley, 2016; Williams & Rhodes, 2016a, 2016b). This need is met by rapid

  13. Integrating psychological theory into the design of an online intervention for sexual health: the sexunzipped website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, Kenneth; McCarthy, Ona; Murray, Elizabeth; Bailey, Julia V

    2012-11-19

    The Internet can provide a confidential and convenient medium for sexual health promotion for young people. This paper describes the development of an interactive, theory-based website (Sexunzipped) aimed at increasing safe sexual behavior of young people, as well as an outline of the evaluation protocol. The website focuses on safer sex, relationships, and sexual pleasure. An overview of the site is provided, including a description of the theoretical constructs which form the basis of the site development. An integrated behavioral model was chosen as the guiding theory for the Sexunzipped intervention. A randomized trial design will be used to evaluate the site quantitatively. The content of the site is described in detail with examples of the main content types: information pages, quizzes, and decision-making activities. We describe the protocol for quantitative evaluation of the website using a randomized trial design and discuss the principal challenges involved in developing the site, including the challenge of balancing the requirements of theory with young people's views on website content and design. Considerations for future interventions are discussed. Developing an online behavior-change intervention is costly and time consuming. Given the large public health potential, the cost involved in developing online interventions, and the need for attractive design, future interventions may benefit from collaborating with established sites that already have a user base, a brand, and a strong Internet presence. It is vital to involve users in decisions about intervention content, design, and features, paying attention to aspects that will attract and retain users' interest. A central challenge in developing effective Internet-based interventions for young people is to find effective ways to operationalize theory in ways that address the views and perspectives of young people.

  14. Neurologizing the Psychology of Affects: How Appraisal-Based Constructivism and Basic Emotion Theory Can Coexist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2007-09-01

    Abundant neurobehavioral data, not discussed by Lisa Feldman Barrett (2006), support the existence of a variety of core emotional operating systems in ancient subneocortical regions of the brain (Panksepp, 1998a, 2005a). Such brain systems are the primary-process ancestral birthrights of all mammals. There may be as many genetically and neurochemically coded subcortical affect systems in emotionally rich medial regions of the brain as there are "natural" emotional action systems in the brain. When emotional primes are aroused directly, as with local electrical or chemical stimulation, the affective changes sustain conditioned place preferences and place aversions, which are the premier secondary-process indices of affective states in animals. Humans are not immune to such brain manipulations; they typically exhibit strong emotional feelings. Human emotion researchers should not ignore these systems and simply look at the complex and highly variable culturally molded manifestations of emotions in humans if they wish to determine what kinds of "natural" emotional processes exist within all mammalian brain. Basic emotion science has generated workable epistemological strategies for under-standing the primal sources of human emotional feelings by detailed study of emotional circuits in our fellow animals. © 2007 Association for Psychological Science.

  15. Transactional stress and coping theory in accounting for psychological states measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buško

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a relative predictive value of some stable individual attributes and the processes of cognitive appraisals and coping with stress in accounting for specific components of anxiety state measures. Self-report instruments for the measurement of selected psychological constructs, i.e. perceived incompetence, externality, stress intensity and duration, situation-specific coping strategies, and the two anxiety state components, were taken in a sample of 449 male military basics trainees, ranging in age from 18-27. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the set of predictors employed could account for statistically, as well as theoretically and practically a significant part of variance in cognitive anxiety component (45,5%, and in visceral-emotional component (32,2% of the anxiety state. The extent of anxiety reactions assessed by both scales could primarily be explained by general perception of personal incompetence, as a relatively stable dimension of general self-concept. Of the ways of coping examined, reinterpretation of stressful events was the only strategy contributing to low level, whereas passivization, wishful thinking, and seeking social support contributed to higher levels of anxiety measured by both scales. The results give partial support to the basic hypotheses on the mediating role of coping in the relationships among particular components of the stress and coping models.

  16. Multidisciplinary Assessment and Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability: Integration of Psychological and Biological Theory and Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshawi, Noha F.; Hurwitz, Sarah; Morriss, Danielle; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review is to consider the psychological (largely behavioral) and biological [neurochemical, medical (including genetic), and pharmacological] theories and approaches that contribute to current thinking about the etiology and treatment of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and/or…

  17. Cognitive psychology meets psychometric theory: on the relation between process models for decision making and latent variable models for individual differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maas, H.L.J.; Molenaar, D.; Maris, G.; Kievit, R.A.; Borsboom, D.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes latent variable models from a cognitive psychology perspective. We start by discussing work by Tuerlinckx and De Boeck (2005), who proved that a diffusion model for 2-choice response processes entails a 2-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) model for individual

  18. The Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide: Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual College Students and Their Heterosexual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploskonka, Rachel Ann

    2017-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students are among the most vulnerable to suicidal ideation and behaviors when compared to both heterosexual college students and other, generally older, members of the LGB community (Oswalt & Wyatt, 2011). Joiner's (2005) interpersonal psychological theory of suicide seems to be a possible framework…

  19. Cognitive Psychology Meets Psychometric Theory: On the Relation between Process Models for Decision Making and Latent Variable Models for Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maas, Han L. J.; Molenaar, Dylan; Maris, Gunter; Kievit, Rogier A.; Borsboom, Denny

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes latent variable models from a cognitive psychology perspective. We start by discussing work by Tuerlinckx and De Boeck (2005), who proved that a diffusion model for 2-choice response processes entails a 2-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) model for individual differences in the response data. Following this line…

  20. Use of measurement theory for operationalization and quantification of psychological constructs in systems dynamics modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitkov-Norris, Elena; Yeghiazarian, Ara

    2016-11-01

    The analytical tools available to social scientists have traditionally been adapted from tools originally designed for analysis of natural science phenomena. This article discusses the applicability of systems dynamics - a qualitative based modelling approach, as a possible analysis and simulation tool that bridges the gap between social and natural sciences. After a brief overview of the systems dynamics modelling methodology, the advantages as well as limiting factors of systems dynamics to the potential applications in the field of social sciences and human interactions are discussed. The issues arise with regards to operationalization and quantification of latent constructs at the simulation building stage of the systems dynamics methodology and measurement theory is proposed as a ready and waiting solution to the problem of dynamic model calibration, with a view of improving simulation model reliability and validity and encouraging the development of standardised, modular system dynamics models that can be used in social science research.

  1. The Motivational Outcomes of Psychological Need Support among Pre-Service Teachers: Multicultural and Self-determination Theory Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haya Kaplan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study employed a self-determination theory (SDT framework to explore pre-service teachers’ perceptions of their professional training in relation to motivational outcomes. We hypothesized that students’ perceptions of basic psychological need support will be positively associated with their sense of relatedness, competence, and autonomous motivation and negatively associated with controlled motivation. Sense of relatedness, competence, and autonomous motivation were hypothesized to be positively associated with personal accomplishment, engagement, and self-exploration and negatively associated with emotional exhaustion. The study was conducted within a multicultural context, which enabled exploration of the hypotheses among students from two different cultural backgrounds. Based on the universality of SDT, we expected that the general models would be similar for both cultures, although some mean level and correlational paths may be different. The sample (N = 308; mean age 23.4 consisted of Muslim Arab-Bedouin (55.3% and Jewish (44.7% pre-service teachers enrolled in the same teachers’ college in Israel. The participants completed self-report surveys assessing their sense of basic psychological need support, autonomous and controlled motivation, self-accomplishment, engagement, self-exploration, and emotional exhaustion. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that need support contributed positively to autonomous motivation, sense of relatedness, and sense of competence in both cultures. Autonomous motivation contributed positively to sense of self-accomplishment, engagement, and self-exploration. Competence in turn was positively related to engagement and negatively related to emotional exhaustion, and relatedness was associated with engagement only among the Bedouin students, and with self-accomplishment only among the Jewish students. These results indicate that sense of need support is highly important regardless

  2. Acute psychological benefits of exercise performed at self-selected workloads: implications for theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Attila

    2003-09-01

    Given that most studies to date examined the connection between exercise and affect without considering the participants' preferred exercise workload, in this research the affective-benefits of jogging or running at a participant-selected pace were investigated in a pilot field and a laboratory experiment. Ninety-six male and female students (19.5 yrs) took part in the pilot field experiment whereas 32 women (20.3 yrs) completed the laboratory experiment. In both experiments, the participants ran/jogged for 20 minutes at a self-selected pace. They completed an abbreviated version of a 'right now form' of the Profile of Mood States (POMS - Grove and Prapavessis, 1992) inventory before and after exercise. In both experiments all dependent measures changed significantly from pre- to post-exercise, except 'fatigue' and 'vigor' that did not change in the laboratory. Total mood disturbance (TMD) decreased significantly in both experiments (68% and 89%). No significant correlations were found between exercise intensity (expressed as percent (%) of maximal heart rate reserve) and the magnitude of changes seen in the dependent measures. It is concluded that exercising at a self-selected workload yields positive changes in affect that are unrelated to exercise intensity. These results suggest that the physiological theories linking exercise with positive changes in affect, in which exercise intensity is instrumental, could not account for the acute affective benefits of exercise. It is proposed that a 'cognitive appraisal hypothesis' may be more appropriate in explaining the acute affective benefits of exercise.

  3. Identifying the psychological determinants of risky riding: an application of an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorlton, Kathryn; Conner, Mark; Jamson, Samantha

    2012-11-01

    The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) plus moral norms, anticipated regret, past behaviour, self-identity and perceived susceptibility was applied to predicting motorcyclists' intention to ride above the speed limit and ride at inappropriate speeds. Past behaviour, control beliefs, attitudes, moral norm, normative beliefs, age and self-identity explained 60% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to exceed the speed limit on motorways (N=1381). A total of 62% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to really go for it on rural roads was accounted for, with past behaviour, attitudes, control beliefs, age, normative beliefs, anticipated regret, self-identity, behavioural beliefs and training status being significant (N=1116). Finally, attitudes, past behaviour, control beliefs, moral norm, anticipated regret, behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, engine size and self-identity explained 57% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to ride faster than felt safe in order to keep up with the group (N=1940). The belief-based measures also successfully differentiated between those who intended to speed and those who did not. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ACUTE PSYCHOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF EXERCISE PERFORMED AT SELF-SELECTED WORKLOADS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Szabo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Given that most studies to date examined the connection between exercise and affect without considering the participants' preferred exercise workload, in this research the affective-benefits of jogging or running at a participant-selected pace were investigated in a pilot field and a laboratory experiment. Ninety-six male and female students (19.5 yrs took part in the pilot field experiment whereas 32 women (20.3 yrs completed the laboratory experiment. In both experiments, the participants ran/jogged for 20 minutes at a self-selected pace. They completed an abbreviated version of a 'right now form' of the Profile of Mood States (POMS - Grove and Prapavessis, 1992 inventory before and after exercise. In both experiments all dependent measures changed significantly from pre- to post-exercise, except 'fatigue' and 'vigor' that did not change in the laboratory. Total mood disturbance (TMD decreased significantly in both experiments (68% and 89%. No significant correlations were found between exercise intensity (expressed as percent (% of maximal heart rate reserve and the magnitude of changes seen in the dependent measures. It is concluded that exercising at a self-selected workload yields positive changes in affect that are unrelated to exercise intensity. These results suggest that the physiological theories linking exercise with positive changes in affect, in which exercise intensity is instrumental, could not account for the acute affective benefits of exercise. It is proposed that a 'cognitive appraisal hypothesis' may be more appropriate in explaining the acute affective benefits of exercise

  5. Exploring application of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behaviour to self-injurious behaviour among women prisoners: Proposing a new model of understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L; York, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the application of capacity, psychological distress, coping and personality to an understanding of self-injurious behaviour, with a specific focus on testing the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behaviour (IPTSB). One hundred and ninety women prisoners took part, completing a history questionnaire and measures of personality, coping styles and psychological distress. It was expected that self-injurious behaviour would be predicted by higher levels of emotional functioning difficulties, by an increased capacity to engage in such behaviours, by previous self-injurious behaviour, decreased levels of emotional stability and increased levels of emotional coping behaviour. Results supported the capacity component of the IPTSB, indicating that an increased history of self-injurious behaviour and of engagement in reckless behaviour were particular predictors. Increased psychological distress in some domains was also a predictor although the exact domain varied across the type of self-injurious engagement Increased levels of extraversion and decreased emotional coping predicted increased self-injurious engagement, although emotional coping only related to threats and cognition. The results point to the applicability of Interpersonal-Psychological Theory to understanding self-injurious behaviour and the importance of developing a revised model. The paper presents this in the form of the Integrated Model of Self-Injurious Activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. How Afghanistan Can Assume Ownership for the Ongoing Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horn, Sr, John M

    2008-01-01

    In view of United States global commitments and larger Global War on Terror (GWOT) strategy, the ultimate security goal in Afghanistan must be for the Afghans to assume ownership of the counterinsurgency struggle...

  7. Is there a Space for Post-Colonial Theory in the Socio-Psychological Research on Consequences of Colonial Past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Giovanna

    2018-04-26

    The focus of my commentary is two-fold. First, I discuss what appeared to me as the central theoretical focus of the article; the possibility to create a space, if at all, for integrating post-colonial theory into the broader research field of social and psychological studies of the consequences of colonial past. Second, I intend to show why, in my opinion, the methodological choices of the authors and the criteria adopted for corpus construction allowed for data that, although too thin to establishing the state of knowledge in the field of study on consequences of colonial past, is nevertheless very informative and thoughts-provoking. My conclusions suggest that this study is an innovative attempt at describing and grasping the results of a search guided by two among the more consolidated electronic datasets currently available for English-speaking scholars. However, this study may not easily understand which can be the space to integrate post-colonial theory in the field of research on consequences of colonial past. To better reach this aim, it is perhaps necessary to build another kind of corpus, open to other languages (starting from French) and focused also on other scientific products, as books or proceedings of congress. In addition, disciplinary boundaries have to be even more explored, starting from interdisciplinary studies on education and historical culture. In spite of these limitations, I am convinced that this innovative study by Tomicic and Berardi tackles issues of relevance to any serious effort towards reflecting on long-term consequences of colonial violence and opens up to valuable new research questions and methods, to be taken into serious account and further explored in future works.

  8. Can modular psychological concepts like affect and emotion be assigned to a distinct subset of regional neural circuits?. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Herrmann, Manfred

    2015-06-01

    The proposed Quartet Theory of Human Emotions by Koelsch and co-workers [11] adumbrates evidence from various scientific sources to integrate and assign the psychological concepts of 'affect' and 'emotion' to four brain circuits or to four neuronal core systems for affect-processing in the brain. The authors differentiate between affect and emotion and assign several facultative, or to say modular, psychological domains and principles of information processing, such as learning and memory, antecedents of affective activity, emotion satiation, cognitive complexity, subjective quality feelings, degree of conscious appraisal, to different affect systems. Furthermore, they relate orbito-frontal brain structures to moral affects as uniquely human, and the hippocampus to attachment-related affects. An additional feature of the theory describes 'emotional effector-systems' for motor-related processes (e.g., emotion-related actions), physiological arousal, attention and memory that are assumed to be cross-linked with the four proposed affect systems. Thus, higher principles of emotional information processing, but also modular affect-related issues, such as moral and attachment related affects, are thought to be handled by these four different physiological sub-systems that are on the other side assumed to be highly interwoven at both physiological and functional levels. The authors also state that the proposed sub-systems have many features in common, such as the selection and modulation of biological processes related to behaviour, perception, attention and memory. The latter aspect challenges an ongoing discussion about the mind-body problem: To which degree do the proposed sub-systems 'sufficiently' cover the processing of complex modular or facultative emotional/affective and/or cognitive phenomena? There are current models and scientific positions that almost completely reject the idea that modular psychological phenomena are handled by a distinct selection of

  9. Psychological need satisfaction and well-being in adults aged 80 years and older living in residential homes: using a self-determination theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Claude; Martinent, Guillaume; Durmaz, Neriman

    2014-08-01

    Based on the self-determination theory (SDT), this study aims to examine the psychological needs satisfaction of the elderly living in residential homes and their relationship with indicators of well-being, and then to test the contribution of each need on these indicators. Participants (N=100; Mage=86.7 years, SD=3.78) completed the measures of psychological needs satisfaction, purpose in life, personal growth and geriatric depression. Cluster analyses showed two distinct profiles: one profile with a high satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs and another profile with a low satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs. These profiles did not differ in terms of residents' characteristics, health problems and functional limitations. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that the participants with the profile of a high satisfaction of psychological needs have significantly higher levels of purpose in life and personal growth than participants with the profile of a low satisfaction of psychological needs, and no effect of cluster membership on depressive feelings was reported. Moreover, for all participants, relatedness need satisfaction was significantly and positively related to personal growth, and autonomy and relatedness needs satisfaction was related to purpose of life. In conclusion, our results offer evidence that old age can be fruitful and, in consistent with SDT, show that autonomy and relatedness need satisfaction is positively associated with indicators of well-being such as purpose in life and personal growth, considered as essential components of optimal functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An item response theory analysis of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles: comparing male and female probationers and prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-09-01

    An item response theory (IRT) analysis of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was performed on 26,831 (19,067 male and 7,764 female) federal probationers and compared with results obtained on 3,266 (3,039 male and 227 female) prisoners from previous research. Despite the fact male and female federal probationers scored significantly lower on the PICTS thinking style scales than male and female prisoners, discrimination and location parameter estimates for the individual PICTS items were comparable across sex and setting. Consistent with the results of a previous IRT analysis conducted on the PICTS, the current results did not support sentimentality as a component of general criminal thinking. Findings from this study indicate that the discriminative power of the individual PICTS items is relatively stable across sex (male, female) and correctional setting (probation, prison) and that the PICTS may be measuring the same criminal thinking construct in male and female probationers and prisoners. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Social anxiety and suicidal ideation: Test of the utility of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Lemke, Austin W; Jeffries, Emily R; Shah, Sonia M

    2017-01-01

    Social anxiety is related to greater suicidality, even after controlling for depression and other psychopathology. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner, 2005) proposes that people are vulnerable to wanting to die by suicide if they experience both perceived burdensomeness (sense that one is a burden to others) and thwarted belongingness (a greater sense of alienation from others). Socially anxious persons may be especially vulnerable to these interpersonal factors. The current study tested whether interpersonal IPTS components independently and additively mediate the social anxiety-suicidal ideation (SI) relation among 780 (80.5% female) undergraduates. Social anxiety was significantly, robustly related to SI and to thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. Social anxiety was indirectly related to SI via thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. The sum of these indirect effects was significant. Moderated mediation analyses indicated that perceived burdensomeness only mediated the relation between social anxiety and SI at higher levels of thwarted belongingness. Findings highlight that difficulties in interpersonal functioning may serve as potential pathways through which social anxiety may lead to greater suicidality. Findings highlight that difficulties in interpersonal functioning may serve as potential pathways through which social anxiety may lead to greater suicidality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Psychological Aspect of Safety Culture: Application of the Theory of Generations for the Formation of Safety Culture Among Personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnitckaia, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of safety culture is an attempt of constructive influence on the socio psychological atmosphere of the team and the behavior of employees. By way of creating specific settings, the value system for the organization staff as part of the organizational culture, it is possible to forecast, plan and promote the desired behavior. However, it is necessary to take into account the corporate culture spontaneously established in the organization. The leaders often try to establish a safety culture, where the progressive values, norms are declared, and the results obtained are not those expected. This is partly because the organizational norms and values implemented come into conflict with reality and, therefore, are actively rejected by many members of the organization. The theory of generations developed by the American scientists (N. Howe, W. Strauss) helps in the analysis and consideration of the staff values formed under the influence of many factors, depending on the age of employees, in the course of safety culture formation. (author)

  13. Conspiracist ideation in Britain and Austria: evidence of a monological belief system and associations between individual psychological differences and real-world and fictitious conspiracy theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Coles, Rebecca; Stieger, Stefan; Pietschnig, Jakob; Furnham, Adrian; Rehim, Sherry; Voracek, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Despite evidence of widespread belief in conspiracy theories, there remains a dearth of research on the individual difference correlates of conspiracist ideation. In two studies, we sought to overcome this limitation by examining correlations between conspiracist ideation and a range of individual psychological factors. In Study 1, 817 Britons indicated their agreement with conspiracist ideation concerning the July 7, 2005 (7/7), London bombings, and completed a battery of individual difference scales. Results showed that stronger belief in 7/7 conspiracy theories was predicted by stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, greater exposure to conspiracist ideation, higher political cynicism, greater support for democratic principles, more negative attitudes to authority, lower self-esteem, and lower Agreeableness. In Study 2, 281 Austrians indicated their agreement with an entirely fictitious conspiracy theory and completed a battery of individual difference measures not examined in Study 1. Results showed that belief in the entirely fictitious conspiracy theory was significantly associated with stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, stronger paranormal beliefs, and lower crystallized intelligence. These results are discussed in terms of the potential of identifying individual difference constellations among conspiracy theorists. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Assume-Guarantee Abstraction Refinement Meets Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Sergiy; Frehse, Goran; Greitschus, Marius; Grosu, Radu; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Podelski, Andreas; Strump, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Compositional verification techniques in the assume- guarantee style have been successfully applied to transition systems to efficiently reduce the search space by leveraging the compositional nature of the systems under consideration. We adapt these techniques to the domain of hybrid systems with affine dynamics. To build assumptions we introduce an abstraction based on location merging. We integrate the assume-guarantee style analysis with automatic abstraction refinement. We have implemented our approach in the symbolic hybrid model checker SpaceEx. The evaluation shows its practical potential. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work combining assume-guarantee reasoning with automatic abstraction-refinement in the context of hybrid automata.

  15. Psychological vulnerability and problem gambling: an application of Durand Jacobs' general theory of addictions to electronic gaming machine playing in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Jessica; Delfabbro, Paul; Denson, Linley A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an empirical investigation of the validity of Jacobs' (in J Gambl Behav 2:15-31, 1986) general theory of addictions in relation to gambling problems associated with electronic gaming machines (EGM). Regular EGM gamblers (n = 190) completed a series of standardised measures relating to psychological and physiological vulnerability, substance use, dissociative experiences, early childhood trauma and abuse and problem gambling (the Problem Gambling Severity Index). Statistical analysis using structural equation modelling revealed clear relationships between childhood trauma and life stressors and psychological vulnerability, dissociative-like experiences and problem gambling. These findings confirm and extend a previous model validated by Gupta and Derevensky (in J Gambl Stud 14: 17-49, 1998) using an adolescent population. The significance of these findings are discussed for existing pathway models of problem gambling, for Jacobs' theory, and for clinicians engaged in assessment and intervention.

  16. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian W Holloway

    Full Text Available The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526, which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18-24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037 and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, p<0.001; psychological distress is an internalized response to environmental and cognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population.

  17. Theory and practice in sport psychology and motor behaviour needs to be constrained by integrative modelling of brain and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, D; Holmes, P; Bennett, S; Davids, K; Smith, N

    2000-06-01

    Because of advances in technology, the non-invasive study of the human brain has enhanced the knowledge base within the neurosciences, resulting in an increased impact on the psychological study of human behaviour. We argue that application of this knowledge base should be considered in theoretical modelling within sport psychology and motor behaviour alongside existing ideas. We propose that interventions founded on current theoretical and empirical understanding in both psychology and the neurosciences may ultimately lead to greater benefits for athletes during practice and performance. As vehicles for exploring the arguments of a greater integration of psychology and neurosciences research, imagery and perception-action within the sport psychology and motor behaviour domains will serve as exemplars. Current neuroscience evidence will be discussed in relation to theoretical developments; the implications for sport scientists will be considered.

  18. Modeling turbulent/chemistry interactions using assumed pdf methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, R. L, Jr.; White, J. A.; Girimaji, S. S.; Drummond, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    Two assumed probability density functions (pdfs) are employed for computing the effect of temperature fluctuations on chemical reaction. The pdfs assumed for this purpose are the Gaussian and the beta densities of the first kind. The pdfs are first used in a parametric study to determine the influence of temperature fluctuations on the mean reaction-rate coefficients. Results indicate that temperature fluctuations significantly affect the magnitude of the mean reaction-rate coefficients of some reactions depending on the mean temperature and the intensity of the fluctuations. The pdfs are then tested on a high-speed turbulent reacting mixing layer. Results clearly show a decrease in the ignition delay time due to increases in the magnitude of most of the mean reaction rate coefficients.

  19. A Psychological Map of Love. Alain de Botton’s Love Stories as Reflections of Sternberg’s Theory on Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Unk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to give a psychological interpretation to Alain de Botton’s novels On Love and The Course of Love, doubling the philosophical take on love that runs in the background of the novels. Robert Sternberg’s triangular theory of love will be applied to de Botton’s two novels, in an attempt to reach an understanding of love by means of psychological deconstruction, following the dynamic of the three components of the love triangle: passion, intimacy and decision \\ commitment. References will also be made to Sternberg’s complementary theories on love, i.e. the theory that conceptualizes love as a story and the theory of love as a socio-cultural artefact.Key words: love, psychology, triangular theory, love story, cultureAlain de Botton’s book On Love, presented to the readers as a novel telling the love story of Chloe and the narrator, is a full-circle account that unfolds between two plane flights: on the first flight, from Paris to London, the two future lovers are seated one next to the other, and they meet and fall in love; the reverse flight, from Paris to London, takes the couple back home from a trip and ends with their break-up. The exact punctuation of the beginning and end of the romantic relationship is symptomatic of the whole structure of the book. The clearly delineated chapters and paragraphs correspond to as many moments in the couple’s relationship, thus allowing us to recreate with accuracy the milestones of their love story. The mere story-telling is doubled by the narrator’s voice that disassembles every event up to its inner detailed parts and deliversthe thoughts and rationale behind his actions. The reader is not left to guess, but discovers actively, together with the narrator, a keenly performed radiography of love.

  20. Assumed Probability Density Functions for Shallow and Deep Convection

    OpenAIRE

    Steven K Krueger; Peter A Bogenschutz; Marat Khairoutdinov

    2010-01-01

    The assumed joint probability density function (PDF) between vertical velocity and conserved temperature and total water scalars has been suggested to be a relatively computationally inexpensive and unified subgrid-scale (SGS) parameterization for boundary layer clouds and turbulent moments. This paper analyzes the performance of five families of PDFs using large-eddy simulations of deep convection, shallow convection, and a transition from stratocumulus to trade wind cumulus. Three of the PD...

  1. Theory- and Evidence- Based Intervention: Practice-Based Evidence--Integrating Positive Psychology into a Clinical Psychological Assessment and Intervention Model and How to Measure Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a model for assessment and intervention is presented. This model explains how to perform theory- and evidence- based as well as practice-based assessment and intervention. The assessment model applies a holistic approach to treatment planning, which includes recognition of the influence of community, school, peers, family and the…

  2. Parental Hostility and Its Sources in Psychologically Abusive Mothers: A Test of the Three-Factor Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik-Oberstein, Max; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study of 44 psychologically abusing mothers and 128 nonabusing mothers determined that abusing mothers had higher levels of hostile feelings, associated with low marital coping skills, negative childhood upbringing, and high level of strain. (Author/JDD)

  3. Assumed genetic effects of low level irradiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutrillaux, B.

    1976-01-01

    The significance of human genetic pathology is stated and a study is made of the assumed effect of low level ionizing radiations. The theoretical notions thus derived are compared to experimental data which are poor. A quick survey of the literature shows that is has not yet been possible to establish a direct relationship between an increase of exposure and any genetic effect on man. However, this must not lead to conclude on the innoxiousness of radiation but rather shows how such analyses are difficult in as much as the effect investigated is necessarily low [fr

  4. Asynchronous variational integration using continuous assumed gradient elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Sebastian; Bucher, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Asynchronous variational integration (AVI) is a tool which improves the numerical efficiency of explicit time stepping schemes when applied to finite element meshes with local spatial refinement. This is achieved by associating an individual time step length to each spatial domain. Furthermore, long-term stability is ensured by its variational structure. This article presents AVI in the context of finite elements based on a weakened weak form (W2) Liu (2009) [1], exemplified by continuous assumed gradient elements Wolff and Bucher (2011) [2]. The article presents the main ideas of the modified AVI, gives implementation notes and a recipe for estimating the critical time step.

  5. Development of a psychological test to measure ability-based emotional intelligence in the Indonesian workplace using an item response theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrianthi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fajrianthi,1 Rizqy Amelia Zein2 1Department of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2Department of Personality and Social Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia Abstract: This study aimed to develop an emotional intelligence (EI test that is suitable to the Indonesian workplace context. Airlangga Emotional Intelligence Test (Tes Kecerdasan Emosi Airlangga [TKEA] was designed to measure three EI domains: 1 emotional appraisal, 2 emotional recognition, and 3 emotional regulation. TKEA consisted of 120 items with 40 items for each subset. TKEA was developed based on the Situational Judgment Test (SJT approach. To ensure its psychometric qualities, categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA and item response theory (IRT were applied to test its validity and reliability. The study was conducted on 752 participants, and the results showed that test information function (TIF was 3.414 (ability level = 0 for subset 1, 12.183 for subset 2 (ability level = -2, and 2.398 for subset 3 (level of ability = -2. It is concluded that TKEA performs very well to measure individuals with a low level of EI ability. It is worth to note that TKEA is currently at the development stage; therefore, in this study, we investigated TKEA’s item analysis and dimensionality test of each TKEA subset. Keywords: categorical confirmatory factor analysis, emotional intelligence, item response theory 

  6. Significance of Cultural-Historical Theory of Psychological Development of L.S. Vygotsky for the Development of Modern Models of Social Cognition and Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholmogorova A.B.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article acknowledges the situation of methodical crisis in modern research of social cognition related to the domination of reductive approaches that ignore the uniqueness of human psyche. Heuristicity of concepts of cultural-historical theory of psychological development of L.S. Vygotsky, which serves to overcome the apparent inconsistencies is substantiated. Models of social cognition based on the principles of cultural-historical psychology are described, those being the model of social cognition within phylogenesis of M. Tomasello, and the model of social cognition within ontogenesis of C. Fernyhough. Current situation in the area of mental health is reviewed from the standpoint of cultural-historical psychology, its specifics reflected in the increased burden on reflexive functions, that is, skills lying within the sphere of social cognition is substantiated. Modern psychotherapeutic apparatus directed to compensate social cognition deficits due to various psychiatric disorders is reviewed. The assumption that adolescense is sensitive period for the development of higher forms of social cognition is made, and a summary of researches supporting this assertion is presented. Main contradictions of modern-day maturing are enunciated. To conclude the presented theoretical analysis, a comprehensive multiple-factor model of social cognition is presented based on concepts of cultural-historical theory of L.S. Vygotsky.

  7. Realism, Instrumentalism, and Scientific Symbiosis: Psychological Theory as a search for truth and the discovery of solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cacioppo, J.T.; Semin, G.R.; Berntson, G.G.

    2004-01-01

    Scientific realism holds that scientific theories are approximations of universal truths about reality, whereas scientific instrumentalism posits that scientific theories are intellectual structures that provide adequate predictions of what is observed and useful frameworks for answering questions

  8. What we should expect from theories in social psychology: Truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lange, P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The construction and development of theory is one of the central routes to scientific progress. But what exactly constitutes a good theory? What is it that people might expect from an ideal theory? This article advances a new model, which delineates truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as

  9. Afrontamientos de enfermeras al asumir la gerencia escolar: una mirada desde la teoría de Roy O afrontamento das enfermeiras ao assumirem a gerência escolar: um olhar a partir da teoria de Roy Confrontation of nurses when assuming the school management: a look from Roy's adaptation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Olizbeth Salinas Alvirde

    2012-06-01

    métodos de trabalho com a criação dos novos níveis acadêmicos, especializaçðes e titularidades nas matérias, com base em sacrifício e dedicação, iniciando-se sua autonomia profissional.The research emerged from the necessity of learning the manager transition from doctors to nurses at nursing educational institutions. The purpose was to differentiate between the mechanisms of afrontation and modes of adaptation in the academic sphere managing process. The qualitative research in socio-historical context is oriented by the Theory of Adaptation by Roy. The participants were the first female professors who held leading posts in universities; the interview was a data collection instrument. The results revealed the fact that the incursion of nurses made it possible to treat the health - illness process in a way different from medical activity, which meant the generation of mechanisms of confrontation in order to work on the construction of paradigms that will conform a professional thinking and a proper disciplinary vision based on a solid plan of study, The conclusions was the creation and renovation of working methods to achieve new academic levels, specializations and they become the heath of the class with a based on sacrifice and dedication, starting the professional autonomy.

  10. The Second Annual Student Scientific-Practical Conference in memory of M.Y. Kondratyev “Social Psychology: Issues of Theory and Practice”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babanin P.A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present report contains the report on the work of the Second Annual Student Scientific-Practical Conference in Memory of M.Y. Kondratyev «Social Psychology: Issues of Theory and Practice». The conference was attended by the undergraduate and graduate students of MSUPE who submitted the reports, which reflected modern trends in the study of socialization of the individual, optimization of motivation in learning and professional activity, harmonization of interpersonal and intergroup relations in various spheres of life of a modern man.

  11. Theory-informed design of values clarification methods: a cognitive psychological perspective on patient health-related decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Arwen H; de Vries, Marieke; Kunneman, Marleen; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Feldman-Stewart, Deb

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare decisions, particularly those involving weighing benefits and harms that may significantly affect quality and/or length of life, should reflect patients' preferences. To support patients in making choices, patient decision aids and values clarification methods (VCM) in particular have been developed. VCM intend to help patients to determine the aspects of the choices that are important to their selection of a preferred option. Several types of VCM exist. However, they are often designed without clear reference to theory, which makes it difficult for their development to be systematic and internally coherent. Our goal was to provide theory-informed recommendations for the design of VCM. Process theories of decision making specify components of decision processes, thus, identify particular processes that VCM could aim to facilitate. We conducted a review of the MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases and of references to theories included in retrieved papers, to identify process theories of decision making. We selected a theory if (a) it fulfilled criteria for a process theory; (b) provided a coherent description of the whole process of decision making; and (c) empirical evidence supports at least some of its postulates. Four theories met our criteria: Image Theory, Differentiation and Consolidation theory, Parallel Constraint Satisfaction theory, and Fuzzy-trace Theory. Based on these, we propose that VCM should: help optimize mental representations; encourage considering all potentially appropriate options; delay selection of an initially favoured option; facilitate the retrieval of relevant values from memory; facilitate the comparison of options and their attributes; and offer time to decide. In conclusion, our theory-based design recommendations are explicit and transparent, providing an opportunity to test each in a systematic manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Tan, Diane; Dunlap, Shannon; Kipke, Michele D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526), which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18–24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037) and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, pcognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:28886128

  13. Assumed Probability Density Functions for Shallow and Deep Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven K Krueger

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The assumed joint probability density function (PDF between vertical velocity and conserved temperature and total water scalars has been suggested to be a relatively computationally inexpensive and unified subgrid-scale (SGS parameterization for boundary layer clouds and turbulent moments. This paper analyzes the performance of five families of PDFs using large-eddy simulations of deep convection, shallow convection, and a transition from stratocumulus to trade wind cumulus. Three of the PDF families are based on the double Gaussian form and the remaining two are the single Gaussian and a Double Delta Function (analogous to a mass flux model. The assumed PDF method is tested for grid sizes as small as 0.4 km to as large as 204.8 km. In addition, studies are performed for PDF sensitivity to errors in the input moments and for how well the PDFs diagnose some higher-order moments. In general, the double Gaussian PDFs more accurately represent SGS cloud structure and turbulence moments in the boundary layer compared to the single Gaussian and Double Delta Function PDFs for the range of grid sizes tested. This is especially true for small SGS cloud fractions. While the most complex PDF, Lewellen-Yoh, better represents shallow convective cloud properties (cloud fraction and liquid water mixing ratio compared to the less complex Analytic Double Gaussian 1 PDF, there appears to be no advantage in implementing Lewellen-Yoh for deep convection. However, the Analytic Double Gaussian 1 PDF better represents the liquid water flux, is less sensitive to errors in the input moments, and diagnoses higher order moments more accurately. Between the Lewellen-Yoh and Analytic Double Gaussian 1 PDFs, it appears that neither family is distinctly better at representing cloudy layers. However, due to the reduced computational cost and fairly robust results, it appears that the Analytic Double Gaussian 1 PDF could be an ideal family for SGS cloud and turbulence

  14. Inference of directional selection and mutation parameters assuming equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Claus; Bergman, Juraj

    2015-12-01

    In a classical study, Wright (1931) proposed a model for the evolution of a biallelic locus under the influence of mutation, directional selection and drift. He derived the equilibrium distribution of the allelic proportion conditional on the scaled mutation rate, the mutation bias and the scaled strength of directional selection. The equilibrium distribution can be used for inference of these parameters with genome-wide datasets of "site frequency spectra" (SFS). Assuming that the scaled mutation rate is low, Wright's model can be approximated by a boundary-mutation model, where mutations are introduced into the population exclusively from sites fixed for the preferred or unpreferred allelic states. With the boundary-mutation model, inference can be partitioned: (i) the shape of the SFS distribution within the polymorphic region is determined by random drift and directional selection, but not by the mutation parameters, such that inference of the selection parameter relies exclusively on the polymorphic sites in the SFS; (ii) the mutation parameters can be inferred from the amount of polymorphic and monomorphic preferred and unpreferred alleles, conditional on the selection parameter. Herein, we derive maximum likelihood estimators for the mutation and selection parameters in equilibrium and apply the method to simulated SFS data as well as empirical data from a Madagascar population of Drosophila simulans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rethinking the transmission gap: What behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology mean for attachment theory: A comment on Verhage et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Nicole; Boutwell, Brian B; Barnes, J C; Shackelford, Todd K

    2017-01-01

    Traditional attachment theory posits that attachment in infancy and early childhood is the result of intergenerational transmission of attachment from parents to offspring. Verhage et al. (2016) present meta-analytic evidence addressing the intergenerational transmission of attachment between caregivers and young children. In this commentary, we argue that their appraisal of the behavioral genetics literature is incomplete. The suggested research focus on shared environmental effects may dissuade the pursuit of profitable avenues of research and may hinder progress in attachment theory. Specifically, further research on the "transmission gap" will continue to limit our understanding of attachment etiology. We discuss recent theoretical developments from an evolutionary psychological perspective that can provide a valuable framework to account for the existing behavioral genetic data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Discursive psychology examines how psychological issues are made relevant and put to use in everyday talk. Unlike traditional psychological perspectives, discursive psychology does not approach the question of what psychology comprises and explains from an analyst's perspective. Instead, the focus

  17. Intelligence: Pre-Theory and Post-Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Flynn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Defining “intelligence” exemplifies a mistake that has historical precedent: confusing the role of pre-theory and post-theory definitions. In every area, pre-theory concepts give broad directions for investigation: are the movements of heavenly bodies affected by the existence of other heavenly bodies? Post-theory concepts add precision and predictability. The mistake occurs when a successful theory like Newton’s demands that its peculiar and precise theory-imbedded concept forbids competing theories: Einstein was impossible (warping of space so long as it was assumed that all theories must be in accord with Newton’s concept (attraction across space. In psychology, Arthur Jensen made the same mistake. He gave his theory-embedded concept of g the role of executioner: the significance of every phenomenon had to be interpreted by its compatibility with g; and thus trivialized the significance of IQ gains over time. This is only one instance of a perennial demand: give us a precise definition of “intelligence” to guide our research. However, precision comes after research has generated a theory and its very precision stifles competing research. Be happy with a broad definition on the pre-theory level that lets many competing theories bloom: pre-theory precision equals post-theory poverty.

  18. Analysis of deposit of physiological and psychological theories of forming motive skills on development of theory of teaching to the physical drills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudolii O.N.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different theories is certain on the construction of process of teaching motive actions of young gymnasts. The results of complete factor experiment are presented. They allowed to formulate principle settings to the construction of process of teaching the physical drills of young gymnasts at the age 7-13 years old. On the construction of teaching process influences more in all: theory of functional systems (43%, р<0,001, theory of construction of motions (41%,р<0,001, theory of management mastering of knowledge, forming actions and concepts (2,6%, р<0,05. The positive effect of teaching depends on the successive decision of tasks of teaching and rational application of methods.

  19. Development Capacity of University based on Organization Psychological Capital Theory%基于组织心理资本的高校发展能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈威燕; 李强; 王智宁

    2015-01-01

    According to the long-term direction of the development of college, organization psychological capital plays a crucial role in promoting the development ability and realizing the goals in university. At present, the problem of university meet is the development ability being limited to the traditional resources. Based on the theory of psychological capital, the paper expands the concept of psychological capital from individual level to organizational level to build the model of the development ability in college. Firstly , the connotation of psychological capital which in organization level is defined. Secondly, combined with the organization attributes and the bear-function of university, we point out that the development ability of university have four respects, including talent-training ability, scientific-output ability, management ability and social influence ability. Thirdly, the four dimensions system of development ability in university is set up. Finally, because organization psychological capital is benefit to university development, we believe that organization psychological capital is the new perspective of college management, the internal motivation to drive human resource effectiveness and the strategic resources to realize the goals of university, followed which we explore the influence of organization psychological capital to four dimensions system. As a result, we provide a new prospective to promote the development ability of university, at the same time obtain appropriate breakthrough in the application of psychological capital theory.%高校的发展目标具有长期导向,组织心理资本是高校提升发展能力和实现发展目标的关键。针对高校目前发展能力普遍受限于传统资源的问题,基于心理资本理论,将心理资本概念从个体层面拓展到组织层面,构建基于组织心理资本的高校发展能力模型。首先,界定组织层面心理资本的内涵;其次,结合高校的组织

  20. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  1. Motivational and Adaptation Experiences of Returnees and Migrants to Cyprus: A Grounded Theory Study With Counselling Psychology Application and Practice Implications in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This grounded theory study explored the existential lived experience of migrants and second-generation Greek-Cypriot returnees to Cyprus and implications for counselling psychology. It looked at their motivation to return/migrate, their encounter with the new world and desires to belong. Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with four migrants and four returnees, recruited within the Cyprus Euroguidance employment service in three cities, Nicosia, Limassol and Larnaca in Cyprus, E.U. All participants were in the process of seeking employment. Migrants and returnees faced intense dilemmas following relocation. Returnees’ motivations to return were influenced by childhood memories of visiting the country, desires for an improved economic and familial lifestyle, and the need to find a true sense of belonging. Migrants’ motivations included being married to a Cypriot, hoping for better economic prospects and living in a sunny environment. People experienced a cultural transition after choosing to put their ethnic identity in a different ethnic environment to the one where it was formed and in their attempts to find work, develop friendships, be accepted and find a home they experienced an unsettling reality. In Counselling psychology terms, the findings support other literature (Ward, Bochner, & Furnham, 2001 highlighting that migrants go through phases of adjustment, with cultural contact and acceptance by the host society, as well as financial independence being key factors. They described their experience as an outsider in a system dominated by nepotism and in a society new to them, that appeared to be suspicious of them. This transition lived by them was psychologically de-stabilising, characterised by stress, frustration, depression and isolation. Their commitment to find a way to belong was shown through their resilience. These findings are discussed with the application and practice of Counselling Psychology in mind.

  2. Implicit theories of online trolling: evidence that attention-seeking conceptions are associated with\\ud increased psychological resilience.

    OpenAIRE

    Maltby, John; Day, Liza; Hatcher, Ruth; Tazzyman, Sarah; Flowe, Heather D; Palmer, Emma J; Frosch, Caren A; O'Reilly, Michelle; Jones, Ceri; Buckley, Chloe; Knieps, Melanie; Cutts, Katie J

    2016-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to investigate people’s conceptions of online trolls, particularly conceptions associated with psychological resilience to trolling. In Study 1, factor analytic analysis of participants’ ratings of characteristics of online trolls found a replicable bifactor model of conceptions of online trolls, with both a general factor of general conceptions towards online trolls being identified, but five group factors (attention-conflict seeking, low selfconfidence,\\ud vicio...

  3. Encouraging Healthful Dietary Behavior in a Hospital Cafeteria: A Field Study Using Theories from Social Psychology and Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Mazza, Mary Carol

    2013-01-01

    Public policy efforts to curb obesity often adhere to a rational actor model of human behavior, asserting that consumer behavior will change provided proper economic incentives, nutritional information, and health education. However, rigorous academic research related to such questions remains limited in scope and appears inconclusive as to the success of such economic and cognitive interventions. In contrast, research in social psychology and behavioral economics suggests that decision mak...

  4. Assuming Regge trajectories in holographic QCD: from OPE to Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cappiello, Luigi; Greynat, David

    2015-01-01

    The Soft Wall model in holographic QCD has Regge trajectories but wrong operator product expansion (OPE) for the two-point vectorial QCD Green function. We correct analytically this problem and describe the axial sector and chiral symmetry breaking. The low energy chiral parameters, $F_{\\pi}$ and $L_{10}$ , are well described analytically by the model in terms of Regge spacing and QCD condensates. The model nicely supports and extends previous theoretical analyses advocating Digamma function to study QCD two-point functions in different momentum regions.

  5. THE MODIFICATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT ASSUMING UNPREDICTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vidat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adapting a gainful occupation to technological or economical development may require the amendment of individual labor contract under which the activity is performed, taking into account the intrinsic dynamics of employment. If the parties, by agreement, determine the content of the individual labor contract, all in agreement, may agree at any time to amend it according to art. 41 para. 1 of the Labour Code. And trough the provisions of civil law – common law for the employment law – are established legal the review of the effects of the legal actdue because of the breakage contractual balance due to change in the circumstances envisaged by the parties in the moment of conclusion of the legal act (the so-called theory of unpredictability, rebus sic stantibus – exception to the principle "pacta sunt servanda". Recourse to the legal document review because its effects are other than the parties agreed to establish and be binding in the moment of conclusion of that agreement. In the present paper we will refer to administrative contracts, given the subject of this paper – namely that the common law for individual employment contract is the civil law rules applicable to civil contracts. So in this paper does not refer to former commercial contracts, since the new Civil Code was achieved unification of private law matter – giving up the commercial contracts.

  6. Social psychology and gender efficiency wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Jellal, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Our paper introduces the dimension of social psychology in a model of efficiency wages and gender diversity. In this context, we show that women earn lower wages than men but provide in return relatively less effort. Therefore in order to increase women's productivity, the firm increases their level of employment. In our efficiency-wage theory, women’s lower wages is explained by assuming that efficiency-wages function for women are believed to be different from those of men. This could be th...

  7. Mother and Infant Talk about Mental States: Systemic Emergence of Psychological Lexicon and Theory of Mind Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, D.; Buttiglieri, F.

    In recent years, a number of studies that have examined how social experiences are related to children's theory of mind development, have found that: (1) the frequency of mothers' mental state utterances used in mother-child picture-book reading, is correlated with children's theory of mind abilities; (2) mothers' use of cognitive terms is related more strongly to children's theory of mind performances than the mothers' references to other mental states, such as desires or emotions (Adrian, Clemente, Villanueva, Rieffe, 2005; Ruffman, Slade, Crowe, 2002; Taumoepeau, Ruffman, 2006; Dunn, 2002). Despite the evidence for the role of mothers' language, there is disagreement over how exactly it improves children's theory of mind development. In short, mentalistic comments contain distinctive words, grammatical constructions and pragmatic features. The question is, however, which factor is critical (de Rosnay, Pons, Harris, Morrell, 2004). The present study addresses this issue and focuses on relationship between mothers' mental state terms and children's performances in theory of mind tasks (emotion understanding and false belief tasks). Mothers were asked to read some pictures to 10 children between 3;0 and 5;0. Among the different mental state references (perceptual, emotional, volitional, cognitive, moral and communicative), it was found that the frequency and variety of mothers' mental state words were significantly associated with children's mental lexicon. In addition, emotional terms correlated positively with children's false belief performance. Kind of emotional words that are used by the mothers with reference to the Italian language will be discussed.

  8. Jobs, sex, love and lifestyle: when nonstutterers assume the roles of stutterers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianliang; Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Hough, Monica; Kalinowski, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of stuttering via a questionnaire in which fluent individuals were asked to assume the mindset of persons who stutter (PWS) in various life aspects, including vocation, romance, daily activities, friends/social life, family and general lifestyle. The perceived impact of stuttering through the mind's eyes of nonstutterers is supposed to reflect respondents' abilities to impart 'theory of mind' in addressing social penalties related to stuttering. Ninety-one university students answered a questionnaire containing 56 statements on a 7-point Likert scale. Forty-four participants (mean age = 20.4, SD = 4.4) were randomly selected to assume a stuttering identity and 47 respondents (mean age = 20.5, SD = 3.1) to assume their normally fluent identity. Significant differences between groups were found in more than two thirds of items regarding employment, romance, and daily activities, and in fewer than half of items regarding family, friend/social life, and general life style (p role of PWS, are capable of at least temporarily feeling the negative impact of stuttering. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. From the Kochen-Specker theorem to noncontextuality inequalities without assuming determinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjwal, Ravi; Spekkens, Robert W

    2015-09-11

    The Kochen-Specker theorem demonstrates that it is not possible to reproduce the predictions of quantum theory in terms of a hidden variable model where the hidden variables assign a value to every projector deterministically and noncontextually. A noncontextual value assignment to a projector is one that does not depend on which other projectors-the context-are measured together with it. Using a generalization of the notion of noncontextuality that applies to both measurements and preparations, we propose a scheme for deriving inequalities that test whether a given set of experimental statistics is consistent with a noncontextual model. Unlike previous inequalities inspired by the Kochen-Specker theorem, we do not assume that the value assignments are deterministic and therefore in the face of a violation of our inequality, the possibility of salvaging noncontextuality by abandoning determinism is no longer an option. Our approach is operational in the sense that it does not presume quantum theory: a violation of our inequality implies the impossibility of a noncontextual model for any operational theory that can account for the experimental observations, including any successor to quantum theory.

  10. Editorial overview: Evolutionary psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangestad, S.W.; Tybur, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Functional approaches in psychology - which ask what behavior is good for - are almost as old as scientific psychology itself. Yet sophisticated, generative functional theories were not possible until developments in evolutionary biology in the mid-20th century. Arising in the last three decades,

  11. Mechanisms of Action Contributing to Reductions in Suicide Attempts Following Brief Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Military Personnel: A Test of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J; Wood, David S; May, Alexis; Peterson, Alan L; Wertenberger, Evelyn; Rudd, M David

    2018-01-01

    Brief cognitive behavioral therapy (BCBT) is associated with significant reductions in suicide attempts among military personnel. However, the underlying mechanisms of action contributing to reductions in suicide attempts in effective psychological treatments remain largely unknown. The present study conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of BCBT versus treatment as usual (TAU) to examine the mechanisms of action hypothesized by the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPT): perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and fearlessness about death. In a sample of 152 active duty U.S. Army personnel with recent suicide ideation or attempts, there were significantly fewer suicide attempts in BCBT, but there were no differences between treatment groups from baseline to 6 months postbaseline on any of the 3 IPT constructs or their interactions. Tests of the moderated mediation failed to support an indirect effect for the IPT model, regardless of which IPT variables were specified as mediators or moderators. Results suggest that the IPT's hypothesized mechanisms of action do not account for reductions in suicide attempts in BCBT. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed.

  12. Psychological predictors of mobile phone use while crossing the street among college students: An application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kang; Ling, Feiyang; Feng, Zhongxiang; Wang, Kun; Guo, Lei

    2017-02-17

    As the prevalence of mobile phone use has increased globally, experts have verified the effects of mobile phone distraction on traffic safety. However, the psychological factors underlying pedestrians' decisions to use their mobile phones while crossing the street have received little attention. The present study employed the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to investigate the psychological factors that influence pedestrians' intentions to use a mobile phone while crossing the street. The additional predictors of descriptive norms, moral norms, risk perception, mobile phone involvement, and perceived ability to compensate are included. Approximately 40% of participants reported having used a mobile phone while crossing during the previous week and 5.4% had been involved in crossing accidents due to mobile phone distractions. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed overall support for the predictive utility of the TPB. The standard TPB variables accounted for 13.3% of variance in intentions after demographic variables were controlled, and the extended predictors contributed an additional 7.6% beyond the standard constructs. The current study revealed that attitude, perceived behavior control, descriptive norms, mobile phone involvement, and perceived ability to compensate all emerged as significant predictors of intentions. The findings could support the design of more effective safety campaigns and interventions to reduce pedestrians' distracted crossing behaviors.

  13. Cognitive psychology meets psychometric theory: on the relation between process models for decision making and latent variable models for individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maas, Han L J; Molenaar, Dylan; Maris, Gunter; Kievit, Rogier A; Borsboom, Denny

    2011-04-01

    This article analyzes latent variable models from a cognitive psychology perspective. We start by discussing work by Tuerlinckx and De Boeck (2005), who proved that a diffusion model for 2-choice response processes entails a 2-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) model for individual differences in the response data. Following this line of reasoning, we discuss the appropriateness of IRT for measuring abilities and bipolar traits, such as pro versus contra attitudes. Surprisingly, if a diffusion model underlies the response processes, IRT models are appropriate for bipolar traits but not for ability tests. A reconsideration of the concept of ability that is appropriate for such situations leads to a new item response model for accuracy and speed based on the idea that ability has a natural zero point. The model implies fundamentally new ways to think about guessing, response speed, and person fit in IRT. We discuss the relation between this model and existing models as well as implications for psychology and psychometrics. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Implications of free will beliefs for basic theory and societal benefit: critique and implications for social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasch, Andrew J; Baumeister, Roy F

    2013-06-01

    Greater belief in free will is associated with greater empathy towards the working poor, support for social mobility, greater desire for socio-economic equality, and less belief that poor people are fated to live in poverty. We found no sign that belief in free will led to prejudice or discrimination against poor people or undercut justice. These findings from an online survey flatly contradict the claims made by James Miles (2013). Belief in a just world did produce many of the patterns Miles attributed to belief in free will. We also question the reasoning and the strength of the purported evidence in his article, and we recommend that future writers on the topic should cultivate cautious, open-minded consideration of competing views. Miles' article is a useful reminder that to some writers, the topic of free will elicits strong emotional reactions. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Multi-level Discourse Analysis in a Physics Teaching Methods Course from the Psychological Perspective of Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Rodrigo Drumond; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a multi-level method for discourse analysis in science classrooms. This method is based on the structure of human activity (activity, actions, and operations) and it was applied to study a pre-service physics teacher methods course. We argue that such an approach, based on a cultural psychological perspective, affords opportunities for analysts to perform a theoretically based detailed analysis of discourse events. Along with the presentation of analysis, we show and discuss how the articulation of different levels offers interpretative criteria for analyzing instructional conversations. We synthesize the results into a model for a teacher's practice and discuss the implications and possibilities of this approach for the field of discourse analysis in science classrooms. Finally, we reflect on how the development of teachers' understanding of their activity structures can contribute to forms of progressive discourse of science education.

  16. The Role of Social Support Seeking and Social Constraints on Psychological Outcomes After Trauma: A Social Cognitive Theory Perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Donlon, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) posits that survivors of a traumatic event have the ability to influence their own outcomes and do so most aptly when they perceive they can exert control over their outcomes. Posttraumatic growth outcomes are associated with a greater perception of controllability, while posttraumatic stress outcomes can be related to the lack of perceived control. In the context of the Virginia Tech shootings, several social factors were examined three months after the trauma ...

  17. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  18. Prospect theory and body mass: Characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Lark eLim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  19. Professional Balance and it’s Psychological Valences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana ZUBENSCHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The harmony in the workplace of psycho-emotional stability, presents a revolutionary assurance of balance theory, launched in 1958, by the notorious scholar in cognitive psychology Fritz Heider, who studied at the Institute of Psychology in Berlin, with Kohler, Wertheimer and Lewin. Heider researched the environmental factors and their perception by different objects. The balance theory demonstrates a broad applicability in socio-psychology as it addresses either classical research, or attribution, or exploration of new attributive ideas and extensions: such as implicit causality of the verb in communication. Also, the balance theory provides apprehensions about the mechanism of causal reasoning that underlies at the retrospective base of prejudice, also about the justification of personal actions by attributing relational models, and the attribution of errors and successes in the contexts of organizational psychology. The balance theory in professional field, assumes the phrase of an adequate mental state in carrying out the professional activity. Therefore, an increasing number of employed people, became concerned about the ability to achieve the balance between the professional and the personal sphere, which was called "the Graal of the job" by Buckner and Sandholz in 2003. This article, comes with the novelty, in disscussing the relations of psychosocial components on professional balance.

  20. The decade 1989-1998 in Spanish psychology: an analysis of research in statistics, methodology, and psychometric theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, M A

    2001-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of research published in the decade 1989-1998 by Spanish faculty members in the areas of statistical methods, research methodology, and psychometric theory. Database search and direct correspondence with faculty members in Departments of Methodology across Spain rendered a list of 193 papers published in these broad areas by 82 faculty members. These and other faculty members had actually published 931 papers over the decade of analysis, but 738 of them addressed topics not appropriate for description in this report. Classification and analysis of these 193 papers revealed topics that have attracted the most interest (psychophysics, item response theory, analysis of variance, sequential analysis, and meta-analysis) as well as other topics that have received less attention (scaling, factor analysis, time series, and structural models). A significant number of papers also dealt with various methodological issues (software, algorithms, instrumentation, and techniques). A substantial part of this report is devoted to describing the issues addressed across these 193 papers--most of which are written in the Spanish language and published in Spanish journals--and some representative references are given.

  1. Oedipal Issues in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes current status of counseling psychology from perspective of Freudian, drive-structure theory. Argues that counseling psychology has committed classical response to oedipal conflict in its treatment of counselor education by identifying with aggressor (psychiatry and clinical psychology). Recommends more unified relationship between…

  2. A theory of alpha/theta neurofeedback, creative performance enhancement, long distance functional connectivity and psychological integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzelier, John

    2009-02-01

    Professionally significant enhancement of music and dance performance and mood has followed training with an EEG-neurofeedback protocol which increases the ratio of theta to alpha waves using auditory feedback with eyes closed. While originally the protocol was designed to induce hypnogogia, a state historically associated with creativity, the outcome was psychological integration, while subsequent applications focusing on raising the theta-alpha ratio, reduced depression and anxiety in alcoholism and resolved post traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). In optimal performance studies we confirmed associations with creativity in musical performance, but effects also included technique and communication. We extended efficacy to dance and social anxiety. Diversity of outcome has a counterpart in wide ranging associations between theta oscillations and behaviour in cognitive and affective neuroscience: in animals with sensory-motor activity in exploration, effort, working memory, learning, retention and REM sleep; in man with meditative concentration, reduced anxiety and sympathetic autonomic activation, as well as task demands in virtual spatial navigation, focussed and sustained attention, working and recognition memory, and having implications for synaptic plasticity and long term potentiation. Neuroanatomical circuitry involves the ascending mescencephalic-cortical arousal system, and limbic circuits subserving cognitive as well as affective/motivational functions. Working memory and meditative bliss, representing cognitive and affective domains, respectively, involve coupling between frontal and posterior cortices, exemplify a role for theta and alpha waves in mediating the interaction between distal and widely distributed connections. It is posited that this mediation in part underpins the integrational attributes of alpha-theta training in optimal performance and psychotherapy, creative associations in hypnogogia, and enhancement of technical, communication and

  3. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what......Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...

  4. Using self-efficacy theory to develop interventions that help older people overcome psychological barriers to physical activity: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ling-Ling; Arthur, Antony; Avis, Mark

    2008-11-01

    Only a fifth of older people undertake a level of physical activity sufficient to lead to health benefit. Misconceptions about the ageing process and beliefs about the costs and benefits of exercise in late life may result in unnecessary self-imposed activity restriction. Thus, adhering to a physical activity can be difficult particularly when the benefits of exercise are often not immediate. Many of the barriers to engaging in physical activity among older people are attitudinal. It is therefore important to take account of the non-physical aspects of physical activity intervention programmes, such as increasing confidence. Self-efficacy is a widely applied theory used to understand health behaviour and facilitate behavioural modification, such as the increase of physical activity. This paper aims to examine the ways in which self-efficacy theory might be used in intervention programmes designed to overcome psychological barriers for increasing physical activity among older people. A number of studies have demonstrated that exercise self-efficacy is strongly associated with the amount of physical activity undertaken. Evidence from some trials supports the view that incorporating the theory of self-efficacy into the design of a physical activity intervention is beneficial. Physical activity interventions aimed at improving the self perception of exercise self-efficacy can have positive effects on confidence and the ability to initiate and maintain physical activity behaviour. There are a number of ways for nurses to facilitate older people to draw on the four information sources of self-efficacy: performance accomplishments, vicarious learning, verbal encouragement, and physiological and affective states. Research challenges that future studies need to address include the generalisability of exercise setting, the role of age as an effect modifier, and the need for more explicit reporting of how self-efficacy is operationalised in interventions.

  5. Cultural psychology as a bridge between anthropology and cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryberg, Stephanie A

    2012-07-01

    The theory and methods of cultural psychology begin with the assumption that psychological processes are socioculturally and historically grounded. As such, they offer a new approach for understanding the diversity of human functioning because they (a) question the presumed neutrality of the majority group perspective; (b) take the target's point-of-view (i.e., what it means to be a person in a particular context); (c) assume that there is more than one viable way of being a competent or effective person; and (d) provide a road map for understanding and reducing social inequities. As illustrated in this essay, a cultural psychological approach provides a bridge between anthropology and the cognitive sciences, and in so doing it offers an alternative set of explanations and interventions for group differences. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Using psychological theory to understand the clinical management of type 2 diabetes in Primary Care: a comparison across two European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrisos, Susan; Eccles, Martin P; Francis, Jill J; Bosch, Marije; Dijkstra, Rob; Johnston, Marie; Grol, Richard; Kaner, Eileen F S; Steen, Ian N

    2009-08-05

    Long term management of patients with Type 2 diabetes is well established within Primary Care. However, despite extensive efforts to implement high quality care both service provision and patient health outcomes remain sub-optimal. Several recent studies suggest that psychological theories about individuals' behaviour can provide a valuable framework for understanding generalisable factors underlying health professionals' clinical behaviour. In the context of the team management of chronic disease such as diabetes, however, the application of such models is less well established. The aim of this study was to identify motivational factors underlying health professional teams' clinical management of diabetes using a psychological model of human behaviour. A predictive questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) investigated health professionals' (HPs') cognitions (e.g., beliefs, attitudes and intentions) about the provision of two aspects of care for patients with diabetes: prescribing statins and inspecting feet.General practitioners and practice nurses in England and the Netherlands completed parallel questionnaires, cross-validated for equivalence in English and Dutch. Behavioural data were practice-level patient-reported rates of foot examination and use of statin medication. Relationships between the cognitive antecedents of behaviour proposed by the TPB and healthcare teams' clinical behaviour were explored using multiple regression. In both countries, attitude and subjective norm were important predictors of health professionals' intention to inspect feet (Attitude: beta = .40; Subjective Norm: beta = .28; Adjusted R2 = .34, p < 0.01), and their intention to prescribe statins (Attitude: beta = .44; Adjusted R2 = .40, p < 0.01). Individuals' self-reported intention did not predict practice-level performance of either clinical behaviour. Using the TPB, we identified modifiable factors underlying health professionals' intentions to perform two

  7. A Theoretical Upgrade of the Concept of Parental Psychological Control: Proposing New Insights on the Basis of Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Psychological control refers to manipulative parental behavior that intrudes upon the child's psychological world. During the past decade, socialization research has consistently demonstrated the negative effects of psychologically controlling parenting on children's and adolescents' development. However, there has been relatively little advance…

  8. The Magic of Psychology in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendler, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Educational psychology is a curricular requirement for most teacher preparation programs in the world. Knowledge of educational psychology is assessed on examinations for teacher licensure in most jurisdictions, and understanding of psychology is assumed to be indispensible for effective teaching at all levels. Traditional university-based…

  9. Theory of "Own" Mind in Autism: Evidence of a Specific Deficit in Self-Awareness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David

    2010-01-01

    Assuming that self-awareness is not a unitary phenomenon, and that one can be aware of different aspects of self at any one time, it follows that selective impairments in self-awareness can occur. This article explores the idea that autism involves a particular deficit in awareness of the "psychological self", or "theory of "own" mind". This…

  10. Commonsense Psychology and the Functional Requirements of Cognitive Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon, Andrew S

    2005-01-01

    .... Rather than working to avoid the influence of commonsense psychology in cognitive modeling research, we propose to capitalize on progress in developing formal theories of commonsense psychology...

  11. Looking for a Symphony: A Sort of Essay with a Perspective on Activity Theories and the Ontology of Psychology: Learning from Danish and Russian Experiences by Jens Mammen & Irina Mironenko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Asger

    2016-06-01

    As a perspective on Mammen and Miroenkos the article is reflecting on the possibility of Activity Theory being a foundation on which Psychology could be integrated. Mammen and Miroenkos point that directed activity not only is towards objects "defined as a sum of qualities, but by individual reference" is a starting point. As a specific example the phenomenon Love, as "significant object relations", is related to the concept "choice categories". It is stated that relations of affection and love can't be understood independent of history of common activity, and that this makes the concept "choice categories" central in a psychological understanding of what love is.

  12. Behavioral variability and consistency: Experimental bases for a psychological theory of personality (Variabilidad y Consistencia individual: Bases experimentales de la teoría de la personalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Santacreu Mas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain how and why individual differences emerge despite accounting for biological andsocio-cultural differences, why people behave differently in the same context, and how behavior becomes stable and consistent. We review the experimental work on variability and stereotypy. In animal research, in contrast to expectations, there is interindividual variability in behavior under extreme environmental control. In addition, intraindividual consistency (stereotypy is detected in animals whose behavior is not fully adjusted to the contingencies. The differences in what is learned (the kind of contingency relations among laboratory animals can be explained by: a the differences between effective contingencies and programmed contingencies, and b the relationship between exploration and rate of reinforcement. In experimental studies in humans, learning differences in identical environments depend, further to the above, onwhat was previously learned by the individual (experience and education and the thoroughness and internal consistency of task instructions. From these concepts, we propose a psychological theory of personality that explains: (a how we learn different relationships from the same experience; (b how behavioral individual differences emerge (variability; and (cwhy each individual’s behavior becomes stable and consistent.

  13. Diet and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M

    1996-09-01

    This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders.

  14. Gudmundur Finnbogason, "sympathetic understanding," and early Icelandic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pind, Jörgen L

    2008-05-01

    Gudmundur Finnbogason (1873-1944) was a pioneer of Icelandic psychology. He was educated at the University of Copenhagen where he finished his M.A. in 1901 in philosophy, specializing in psychology. During the years 1901-1905, Finnbogason played a major role in establishing and shaping the future of primary education in Iceland. He defended his doctoral thesis on "sympathetic understanding" at the University of Copenhagen in 1911. This work deals with the psychology of imitation. In it Finnbogason defends the view that imitation is basically perception so that there is a direct link from perception to motor behavior. Through imitation people tend to assume the countenance and demeanor of other people, thus showing, in Finnbogason's terminology, "sympathetic understanding." Finnbogason's theory of imitation in many respects anticipates contemporary approaches to the psychology of imitation. In 1918 Finnbogason became professor of applied psychology at the recently founded University of Iceland. Here he attempted to establish psychology as an independent discipline. In this he was unsuccessful; his chair was abolished in 1924.

  15. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  16. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE AND PRACTICE OF PSYCHOLOGY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alfonso Piña López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is not a science of psychology, because it lacks a specific subject matter as well as conceptual categories that theoretically represent it. Even more, it is not built on the foundations of a theory that would make it possible to translate scientific knowledge into technological knowledge, applicable to social problems in which the psychological dimension is relevant. We conclude that positive psychology is more than just a “good fashion” or “sympathetic magic”; it is, in essence, an unwarranted and fruitless attempt to give life to a new and very different psychology. In short, it is a conspicuous example of the illogic of logic.

  17. 49 CFR 568.7 - Requirements for manufacturers who assume legal responsibility for a vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANUFACTURED IN TWO OR MORE STAGES § 568.7 Requirements for manufacturers who assume legal responsibility for a vehicle. (a) If an incomplete vehicle manufacturer assumes legal responsibility for all duties and... 49 CFR 567.5(f). (b) If an intermediate manufacturer of a vehicle assumes legal responsibility for...

  18. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  19. Promoting the Scientific Development of the Construction of Psychological Warfare of Our Army with System Theory%以系统论促进我军心理战建设科学发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓华; 白莉

    2011-01-01

    我军心理战建设应汲取系统论的营养,从明确目标上破题,整体推进,重点优化组织指挥体制。%The construction of psychological warfare of our army should absorb nutrition from system theory,in which the-goal should be clear,the process should work integrated,andfoc-using on optimizing commanding system.

  20. Are autistic traits associated with suicidality? A test of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide in a non-clinical young adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, M K; Cassidy, S A

    2017-11-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) has recently been associated with increased risk of suicidality. However, no studies have explored how autistic traits may interact with current models of suicidal behavior in a non-clinical population. The current study therefore explored how self-reported autistic traits interact with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness in predicting suicidal behavior, in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS). 163 young adults (aged 18-30 years) completed an online survey including measures of thwarted belonging and perceived burdensomeness (Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire), self-reported autistic traits (Autism Spectrum Quotient), current depression (Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), and lifetime suicidality (Suicide Behavior Questionnaire-Revised). Results showed that burdensomeness and thwarted belonging significantly mediated the relationship between autistic traits and suicidal behavior. Both depression and autistic traits significantly predicted thwarted belonging and perceived burdensomeness. Autistic traits did not significantly moderate the relationship between suicidal behavior and thwarted belonging or perceived burdensomeness. Results suggest that the IPTS provides a useful framework for understanding the influence of autistic traits on suicidal behavior. However, the psychometric properties of these measures need be explored in those with clinically confirmed diagnosis of ASC. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1891-1904. © 2017 The Authors Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Recent research has shown that people with high autistic traits are more likely to attempt suicide. However, no studies have explored why. We found that people with high autistic traits were more likely to experience feelings that they do not belong in the world, are a burden on others, and depression, which may increase their likelihood of

  1. Are autistic traits associated with suicidality? A test of the interpersonal‐psychological theory of suicide in a non‐clinical young adult sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, M. K.

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) has recently been associated with increased risk of suicidality. However, no studies have explored how autistic traits may interact with current models of suicidal behavior in a non‐clinical population. The current study therefore explored how self‐reported autistic traits interact with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness in predicting suicidal behavior, in the context of the Interpersonal‐Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS). 163 young adults (aged 18–30 years) completed an online survey including measures of thwarted belonging and perceived burdensomeness (Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire), self‐reported autistic traits (Autism Spectrum Quotient), current depression (Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), and lifetime suicidality (Suicide Behavior Questionnaire‐Revised). Results showed that burdensomeness and thwarted belonging significantly mediated the relationship between autistic traits and suicidal behavior. Both depression and autistic traits significantly predicted thwarted belonging and perceived burdensomeness. Autistic traits did not significantly moderate the relationship between suicidal behavior and thwarted belonging or perceived burdensomeness. Results suggest that the IPTS provides a useful framework for understanding the influence of autistic traits on suicidal behavior. However, the psychometric properties of these measures need be explored in those with clinically confirmed diagnosis of ASC. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1891–1904. © 2017 The Authors Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Lay Summary Recent research has shown that people with high autistic traits are more likely to attempt suicide. However, no studies have explored why. We found that people with high autistic traits were more likely to experience feelings that they do not belong in the world, are a burden on others, and depression, which may

  2. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  3. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  4. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  5. Sociogenomic Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657

  6. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  7. Kantian Psychologism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377312894

    2017-01-01

    For more than a hundred years now, the dominant view amongst scholars has been that Kant's philosophy has nothing to do with psychology, or, at the very least, that psychology is inessential to Kant's philosophical project. In the early reception of Kant's work, however, psychology played a central

  8. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  9. The relationship between grammar and the psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between grammar and the psychological processing of language. ... manner in which speakers perceive and psycholinguistically process information. ... order, metaphorical extensions, processing constraints, end-focus theory

  10. Gestalt Psychology and Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstedt, Bob; And Others

    Several concepts detailed in Gestalt psychology/therapy appear to have a close relationship with many concepts being applied in bilingual education. The primary contribution of Gestalt psychology to learning theory in the U.S. is an emphasis on perception and reintegration of relationships within an organized whole. To the teacher this means that…

  11. Socioecological psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.

  12. Validation and psychometric properties of the Somatic and Psychological HEalth REport (SPHERE) in a young Australian-based population sample using non-parametric item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste; Davenport, Tracey A; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Hickie, Ian B

    2017-08-01

    The Somatic and Psychological HEalth REport (SPHERE) is a 34-item self-report questionnaire that assesses symptoms of mental distress and persistent fatigue. As it was developed as a screening instrument for use mainly in primary care-based clinical settings, its validity and psychometric properties have not been studied extensively in population-based samples. We used non-parametric Item Response Theory to assess scale validity and item properties of the SPHERE-34 scales, collected through four waves of the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study (N = 1707, mean age = 12, 51% females; N = 1273, mean age = 14, 50% females; N = 1513, mean age = 16, 54% females, N = 1263, mean age = 18, 56% females). We estimated the heritability of the new scores, their genetic correlation, and their predictive ability in a sub-sample (N = 1993) who completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. After excluding items most responsible for noise, sex or wave bias, the SPHERE-34 questionnaire was reduced to 21 items (SPHERE-21), comprising a 14-item scale for anxiety-depression and a 10-item scale for chronic fatigue (3 items overlapping). These new scores showed high internal consistency (alpha > 0.78), moderate three months reliability (ICC = 0.47-0.58) and item scalability (Hi > 0.23), and were positively correlated (phenotypic correlations r = 0.57-0.70; rG = 0.77-1.00). Heritability estimates ranged from 0.27 to 0.51. In addition, both scores were associated with later DSM-IV diagnoses of MDD, social anxiety and alcohol dependence (OR in 1.23-1.47). Finally, a post-hoc comparison showed that several psychometric properties of the SPHERE-21 were similar to those of the Beck Depression Inventory. The scales of SPHERE-21 measure valid and comparable constructs across sex and age groups (from 9 to 28 years). SPHERE-21 scores are heritable, genetically correlated and show good predictive ability of mental health in an Australian-based population

  13. 24 CFR 1000.20 - Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? 1000.20 Section 1000.20 Housing and Urban Development... § 1000.20 Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? (a) No. It is an...

  14. 39 CFR 3060.40 - Calculation of the assumed Federal income tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal income tax. (a) The assumed Federal income tax on competitive products income shall be based on the Postal Service theoretical competitive products enterprise income statement for the relevant year... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of the assumed Federal income tax...

  15. Communications with health professionals and psychological distress in family caregivers to cancer patients: A model based on stress-coping theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Sam

    2017-02-01

    In cancer care settings, family caregivers often experience negative or little communication with the health professionals, and this negative communication and limited health-related information causes psychological distress in family caregivers to cancer patients. The first aim of this research is to investigate the relationship between communication with health professionals and psychological distress in family caregivers. The second aim is to investigate the mediating effects of self-efficacy in this hypothetical model. A total of 1397 family caregivers were included in this research. A structural equation model was then applied, in order to examine the hypothesized model based on the stress-coping model. More negative communication with health professionals was associated with higher psychological distress. Self-efficacy in health information seeking significantly mediated the relationship between communication with health professionals and psychological distress. This study indicates that as a coping resource, self-efficacy in health information seeking, plays a significant role in reducing the effects of negative communication with health professionals on psychological distress in family caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  17. Curriculum Integration and Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Susan B.

    While many undergraduate disciplines are revising curricula to address issues of diversity more effectively, it is commonly assumed that courses in cross-cultural psychology are less in need of revision due to their inherent multi-cultural focus. The field of cross-cultural psychology, however, is not immune to Eurocentric and androcentric biases.…

  18. Autonomous teamwork and psychological well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, van H.; Rutte, C.G.; Seinen, B.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Few studies investigated the assumed positive effects of autonomous groups on individual psychological well-being. In the present study we investigated the hypotheses that (1) group autonomy is positively related to psychological well-being, (2) this relationship is mediated by individual autonomy,

  19. The Psychology of Psychic Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkanson, Lars; Ambos, Björn; Schuster, Anja

    2016-01-01

    and their theoretical underpinnings assume psychic distances to be symmetric. Building on insights from psychology and sociology, this paper demonstrates how national factors and cognitive processes interact in the formation of asymmetric distance perceptions. The results suggest that exposure to other countries...

  20. [The psychological consequences of precarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, André

    2011-05-01

    Psychological suffering does not just effect people in a situation of exclusion and precarity. However, it does assume in these people considerable importance, representing profound suffering and hampering their efforts to reintegrate into society. Re-establishing a sociallink and putting in place support networks are two solutions to implement.

  1. Measuring student teachers' basic psychological needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr Bob Koster; Dr. Jos Castelijns; Dr. Marjan Vermeulen; dr.ir. Quinta Kools

    2012-01-01

    In the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need

  2. Measuring student teachers’ basic psychological needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Koster, Bob; Kools, Quinta

    2018-01-01

    In the Self–Determination Theory (SDT) basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need

  3. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive

  4. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not

  5. Introducing positive psychology to SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mercer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA. This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, studies of the good language learner, and the concepts related to the self. There are reasons for both encouragement and caution as studies inspired by positive psychology are undertaken. Papers in this special issue of SSLLT cover a range of quantitative and qualitative methods with implications for theory, research, and teaching practice. The special issue serves as a springboard for future research in SLA under the umbrella of positive psychology.

  6. Game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The Psychology of Online Sociability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, I will review current approaches to online sociability and present and exemplify a psychological theory, the Social Reality theory, of online sociability. By analyzing sociability in a virtual world based university course, I will present and analyze examples on how to understand...

  8. Decolonizing Liberation: Toward a Transnational Feminist Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğçe Kurtiş; Glenn Adams

    2015-01-01

    This paper engages the theme of “decolonizing psychological science” in the context of a perspective on psychological theory and research—namely, feminist psychology—that shares an emphasis on broad liberation. Although conceived as a universal theory and practice of liberation, scholars across diverse sites have suggested that feminism—perhaps especially as it manifests in psychological science—is not always compatible with and at times is even contradictory to global struggles for decoloniz...

  9. The interaction of psychological and physiological homeostatic drives and role of general control principles in the regulation of physiological systems, exercise and the fatigue process - The Integrative Governor theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair Gibson, A; Swart, J; Tucker, R

    2018-02-01

    Either central (brain) or peripheral (body physiological system) control mechanisms, or a combination of these, have been championed in the last few decades in the field of Exercise Sciences as how physiological activity and fatigue processes are regulated. In this review, we suggest that the concept of 'central' or 'peripheral' mechanisms are both artificial constructs that have 'straight-jacketed' research in the field, and rather that competition between psychological and physiological homeostatic drives is central to the regulation of both, and that governing principles, rather than distinct physical processes, underpin all physical system and exercise regulation. As part of the Integrative Governor theory we develop in this review, we suggest that both psychological and physiological drives and requirements are underpinned by homeostatic principles, and that regulation of the relative activity of each is by dynamic negative feedback activity, as the fundamental general operational controller. Because of this competitive, dynamic interplay, we propose that the activity in all systems will oscillate, that these oscillations create information, and comparison of this oscillatory information with either prior information, current activity, or activity templates create efferent responses that change the activity in the different systems in a similarly dynamic manner. Changes in a particular system are always the result of perturbations occurring outside the system itself, the behavioural causative 'history' of this external activity will be evident in the pattern of the oscillations, and awareness of change occurs as a result of unexpected rather than planned change in physiological activity or psychological state.

  10. Embodiment in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A

    2012-10-01

    Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Assuming a Pharmacy Organization Leadership Position: A Guide for Pharmacy Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Blake; Weber, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Important and influential pharmacy organization leadership positions, such as president, board member, or committee chair, are volunteer positions and require a commitment of personal and professional time. These positions provide excellent opportunities for leadership development, personal promotion, and advancement of the profession. In deciding to assume a leadership position, interested individuals must consider the impact on their personal and professional commitments and relationships, career planning, employer support, current and future department projects, employee support, and personal readiness. This article reviews these factors and also provides an assessment tool that leaders can use to determine their readiness to assume leadership positions. By using an assessment tool, pharmacy leaders can better understand their ability to assume an important and influential leadership position while achieving job and personal goals.

  12. How Public High School Students Assume Cooperative Roles to Develop Their EFL Speaking Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Natalie Parra Espinel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an investigation we carried out in order to identify how the specific roles that 7th grade public school students assumed when they worked cooperatively were related to their development of speaking skills in English. Data were gathered through interviews, field notes, students’ reflections and audio recordings. The findings revealed that students who were involved in cooperative activities chose and assumed roles taking into account preferences, skills and personality traits. In the same manner, when learners worked together, their roles were affected by each other and they put into practice some social strategies with the purpose of supporting their embryonic speaking development.

  13. Bowing-reactivity trends in EBR-II assuming zero-swelling ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghetti, D.

    1994-01-01

    Predicted trends of duct-bowing reactivities for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) are correlated with predicted row-wise duct deflections assuming use of idealized zero-void-swelling subassembly ducts. These assume no irradiation induced swellings of ducts but include estimates of the effects of irradiation-creep relaxation of thermally induced bowing stresses. The results illustrate the manners in which at-power creeps may affect subsequent duct deflections at zero power and thereby the trends of the bowing component of a subsequent power reactivity decrement

  14. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation therapy , hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments can also be combined. Review of well- ... Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics ... Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS Take Part in Online ...

  15. Examining the role of emotion in suicidality: negative urgency as an amplifier of the relationship between components of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior and lifetime number of suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Joiner, Thomas E

    2011-03-01

    Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior posits that an individual must exhibit elevations on three variables--perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and the acquired capability for suicide--in order to enact lethal self-harm. Thus far, however, no research has examined the role of emotion in this process or whether the interaction of these three variables is more problematic for certain populations than for others. We sought to address these voids by examining the role of negative urgency as an amplifier of the relationship between the components of the theory and lifetime number of suicide attempts. Results indicated that the four-way interaction of negative urgency and the three components of the theory predicted lifetime number of suicide attempts, controlling for depression symptoms and sex. Additionally, the three-way interaction of the theory components significantly predicted lifetime number of suicide attempts in the full sample. Furthermore, for individuals with negative urgency scores at or above the median, the three-way interaction of the theory components significantly predicted lifetime number of suicide attempts whereas, for individuals with negative urgency scores below the median, the interaction was non-significant. These findings indicate that, although elevations on the three components of the theory may be dangerous for anyone, this is particularly true for individuals exhibiting high levels of negative urgency, as they might be more likely to quickly develop suicidal ideation and resort to painful self-harming behaviors while experiencing negative affective states. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Psychological harassment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.

  17. Framing theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Lecheler, S.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.

    2016-01-01

    Political issues can be viewed from different perspectives and they can be defined differently in the news media by emphasizing some aspects and leaving others aside. This is at the core of news framing theory. Framing originates within sociology and psychology and has become one of the most used

  18. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  19. PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. The Ability to Assume the Upright Position in Blind and Sighted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipsman, Sandra Curtis

    To investigate the ability of 48 blind and partially sighted children (8 to 10 and 12 to 14 years old) to assume the upright position, Ss were given six trials in which they were requested to move themselves from a tilted starting position in a specially constructed chair to an upright position. No significant differences were found between three…

  1. A Model for Teacher Effects from Longitudinal Data without Assuming Vertical Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Louis T.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Lockwood, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in using longitudinal measures of student achievement to estimate individual teacher effects. Current multivariate models assume each teacher has a single effect on student outcomes that persists undiminished to all future test administrations (complete persistence [CP]) or can diminish with time but remains…

  2. Sensitivity of the Speech Intelligibility Index to the Assumed Dynamic Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, In-Ki; Kates, James M.; Arehart, Kathryn H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the sensitivity of the speech intelligibility index (SII) to the assumed speech dynamic range (DR) in different languages and with different types of stimuli. Method: Intelligibility prediction uses the absolute transfer function (ATF) to map the SII value to the predicted intelligibility for a given stimuli.…

  3. 13 CFR 120.1718 - SBA's right to assume Seller's responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA's right to assume Seller's responsibilities. 120.1718 Section 120.1718 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools...

  4. A New Concept for Counter-Checking of Assumed CPM Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Wilfried; Nanson, John

    2017-01-01

    The inflation of “newly discovered” CPM pairs makes it necessary to develop an approach for a solid concept for counter-checking assumed CPM pairs with the target to identify false positives. Such a concept is presented in this report.

  5. Some considerations on displacement assumed finite elements with the reduced numerical integration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, H.; Isha, H.

    1981-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the displacement-assumed-finite elements by applying the reduced numerical integration technique in structural problems. The first part is a general consideration on the technique. Its purpose is to examine a variational interpretation of the finite element displacement formulation with the reduced integration technique in structural problems. The formulation is critically studied from a standpoint of the natural stiffness approach. It is shown that these types of elements are equivalent to a certain type of displacement and stress assumed mixed elements. The rank deficiency of the stiffness matrix of these elements is interpreted as a problem in the transformation from the natural system to a Cartesian system. It will be shown that a variational basis of the equivalent mixed formulation is closely related to the Hellinger-Reissner's functional. It is presented that for simple elements, e.g. bilinear quadrilateral plane stress and plate bending there are corresponding mixed elements from the functional. For relatively complex types of these elements, it is shown that they are equivalent to localized mixed elements from the Hellinger-Reissner's functional. In the second part, typical finite elements with the reduced integration technique are studied to demonstrate this equivalence. A bilinear displacement and rotation assumed shear beam element, a bilinear displacement assumed quadrilateral plane stress element and a bilinear deflection and rotation assumed quadrilateral plate bending element are examined to present equivalent mixed elements. Not only the theoretical consideration is presented but numerical studies are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of these elements in practical analysis. (orig.)

  6. Coaches' interpersonal style, basic psychological needs and the well- and ill-being of young soccer players: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, Isabel; González, Lorena; Fabra, Priscila; Castillo, Isabel; Mercé, Juan; Duda, Joan L

    2012-01-01

    This study entailed a longitudinal test of basic psychological needs theory, a sub-theory in the self-determination framework (Deci & Ryan, 2000), in young soccer players. We examined whether changes in soccer players' perceptions of the coaches' interpersonal style (autonomy supportive and controlling) predicted changes in the players' need satisfaction/need thwarting, and in turn, variability in their reported subjective vitality and burnout over the course of a season. Young male soccer players (M = 12.58 ± 0.54 years) completed a questionnaire at two time points in the season [n(T1) = 725; n(T2) = 597]. Changes in the players' perceptions of an autonomy supportive environment significantly predicted changes in psychological need satisfaction (positively) and in psychological need thwarting (negatively). Changes in psychological need satisfaction positively predicted changes in subjective vitality and negatively related to cross-time variation in global burnout scores. In contrast, changes in the players' perceptions of a controlling coach-created environment were positively associated with changes in psychological need thwarting that corresponded to increases in player burnout. Finally, results provided support for the assumed mediational roles of psychological need satisfaction and need thwarting in the social environment to well- and ill-being relationships.

  7. The psychological science of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth; Humphreys, Keith

    2007-03-01

    To discuss the contributions and future course of the psychological science of addiction. The psychology of addiction includes a tremendous range of scientific activity, from the basic experimental laboratory through increasingly broad relational contexts, including patient-practitioner interactions, families, social networks, institutional settings, economics and culture. Some of the contributions discussed here include applications of behavioral principles, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and the development and evaluation of addiction treatment. Psychology has at times been guilty of proliferating theories with relatively little pruning, and of overemphasizing intrapersonal explanations for human behavior. However, at its best, defined as the science of the individual in context, psychology is an integrated discipline using diverse methods well-suited to capture the multi-dimensional nature of addictive behavior. Psychology has a unique ability to integrate basic experimental and applied clinical science and to apply the knowledge gained from multiple levels of analysis to the pragmatic goal of reducing the prevalence of addiction.

  8. Rewarding my Self. The role of Self Esteem and Self Determination in Motivation Crowding Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, B.

    2010-01-01

    The paper aims to reconcile different explanations (and consequences) of the motivation crowding theory in a unique theoretical framework where the locus of control is introduced in a one period maximisation problem and the intrinsic motivation is assumed as an exogenous psychological attitude. The analysis is based on the distinction among different types of objectives of the intrinsic motivation. For each type of objective, the different role of self esteem and self determination mechanisms...

  9. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Validation of the bipolar disorder etiology scale based on psychological behaviorism theory and factors related to the onset of bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woo Park

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors related to the onset of bipolar I disorder (BD. To do so, the Bipolar Disorder Etiology Scale (BDES, based on psychological behaviorism, was developed and validated. Using the BDES, common factors related to both major depressive disorder (MDD and BD and specific factors related only to BD were investigated. METHOD: The BDES, which measures 17 factors based on psychological behaviorism hypotheses, was developed and validated. This scale was administered to 113 non-clinical control subjects, 30 subjects with MDD, and 32 people with BD. ANOVA and post hoc analyses were conducted. Subscales on which MDD and BD groups scored higher than controls were classified as common factors, while those on which the BD group scored higher than MDD and control groups were classified as specific factors. RESULTS: The BDES has acceptable reliability and validity. Twelve common factors influence both MDD and BD and one specific factor influences only BD. Common factors include the following: learning grandiose self-labeling, learning dangerous behavior, reinforcing impulsive behavior, exposure to irritability, punishment of negative emotional expression, lack of support, sleep problems, antidepressant problems, positive arousal to threat, lack of social skills, and pursuit of short-term pleasure. The specific factor is manic emotional response. CONCLUSIONS: Manic emotional response was identified as a specific factor related to the onset of BD, while parents' grandiose labeling is a candidate for a specific factor. Many factors are related to the onset of both MDD and BD.

  11. Validation of the bipolar disorder etiology scale based on psychological behaviorism theory and factors related to the onset of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Woo; Park, Kee Hwan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors related to the onset of bipolar I disorder (BD). To do so, the Bipolar Disorder Etiology Scale (BDES), based on psychological behaviorism, was developed and validated. Using the BDES, common factors related to both major depressive disorder (MDD) and BD and specific factors related only to BD were investigated. The BDES, which measures 17 factors based on psychological behaviorism hypotheses, was developed and validated. This scale was administered to 113 non-clinical control subjects, 30 subjects with MDD, and 32 people with BD. ANOVA and post hoc analyses were conducted. Subscales on which MDD and BD groups scored higher than controls were classified as common factors, while those on which the BD group scored higher than MDD and control groups were classified as specific factors. The BDES has acceptable reliability and validity. Twelve common factors influence both MDD and BD and one specific factor influences only BD. Common factors include the following: learning grandiose self-labeling, learning dangerous behavior, reinforcing impulsive behavior, exposure to irritability, punishment of negative emotional expression, lack of support, sleep problems, antidepressant problems, positive arousal to threat, lack of social skills, and pursuit of short-term pleasure. The specific factor is manic emotional response. Manic emotional response was identified as a specific factor related to the onset of BD, while parents' grandiose labeling is a candidate for a specific factor. Many factors are related to the onset of both MDD and BD.

  12. Sex Differences in Perceptions of Infidelity: Men Often Assume the Worst

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron T. Goetz; Kayla Causey

    2009-01-01

    Given that the costs of underperceiving (i.e., failing to detect) a partner's sexual infidelity would have been greater for men than for women, we hypothesized that men may possess evolved psychological mechanisms designed to overperceive the likelihood of their partner's sexual infidelity. We found support for this hypothesis using two different response formats, a Likert-type scale (Study 1) and a visual analog scale (Study 2). In both studies, men were more likely than women to judge that ...

  13. Project of computer program for designing the steel with the assumed CCT diagram

    OpenAIRE

    S. Malara; J. Trzaska; L.A. Dobrzański

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper was developing a project of computer aided method for designing the chemicalcomposition of steel with the assumed CCT diagram.Design/methodology/approach: The purpose has been achieved in four stages. At the first stage characteristicpoints of CCT diagram have been determined. At the second stage neural networks have been developed, andnext CCT diagram terms of similarity have been worked out- at the third one. In the last one steel chemicalcomposition optimizat...

  14. Compositional Synthesis of Controllers from Scenario-Based Assume-Guarantee Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenyer, Joel; Kindler, Ekkart

    2013-01-01

    Modern software-intensive systems often consist of multiple components that interact to fulfill complex functions in sometimes safety-critical situations. During the design, it is crucial to specify the system's requirements formally and to detect inconsistencies as early as possible in order to ...... present, in this paper, a novel assume-guarantee-style compositional synthesis technique for MSD specifications. We provide evaluation results underlining the benefit of our approach and formally justify its correctness....

  15. The impact of assumed knowledge entry standards on undergraduate mathematics teaching in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Deborah; Cattlin, Joann

    2015-10-01

    Over the last two decades, many Australian universities have relaxed their selection requirements for mathematics-dependent degrees, shifting from hard prerequisites to assumed knowledge standards which provide students with an indication of the prior learning that is expected. This has been regarded by some as a positive move, since students who may be returning to study, or who are changing career paths but do not have particular prerequisite study, now have more flexible pathways. However, there is mounting evidence to indicate that there are also significant negative impacts associated with assumed knowledge approaches, with large numbers of students enrolling in degrees without the stated assumed knowledge. For students, there are negative impacts on pass rates and retention rates and limitations to pathways within particular degrees. For institutions, the necessity to offer additional mathematics subjects at a lower level than normal and more support services for under-prepared students impacts on workloads and resources. In this paper, we discuss early research from the First Year in Maths project, which begins to shed light on the realities of a system that may in fact be too flexible.

  16. Accessibility versus accuracy in retrieving spatial memory: evidence for suboptimal assumed headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramsetti, Ashok; Marchette, Steven A; Shelton, Amy L

    2013-07-01

    Orientation dependence in spatial memory has often been interpreted in terms of accessibility: Object locations are encoded relative to a reference orientation that affords the most accurate access to spatial memory. An open question, however, is whether people naturally use this "preferred" orientation whenever recalling the space. We tested this question by asking participants to locate buildings on a familiar campus from various imagined locations, without specifying the heading to be assumed. We then used these pointing judgments to infer the approximate heading participants assumed at each location. Surprisingly, each location showed a unique assumed heading that was consistent across participants and seemed to reflect episodic or visual properties of the space. This result suggests that although locations are encoded relative to a reference orientation, other factors may influence how people choose to access the stored information and whether they appeal to long-term spatial memory or other more sensory-based stores. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. An evaluation of the brief symptom inventory-18 using item response theory: which items are most strongly related to psychological distress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory–18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a

  18. An Evaluation of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 Using Item Response Theory: Which Items Are Most Strongly Related to Psychological Distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Rob R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and…

  19. An Evaluation of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 Using Item Response Theory : Which Items Are Most Strongly Related to Psychological Distress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Rob R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent

    The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a

  20. Dual-Process Theories of Higher Cognition: Advancing the Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan St B T; Stanovich, Keith E

    2013-05-01

    Dual-process and dual-system theories in both cognitive and social psychology have been subjected to a number of recently published criticisms. However, they have been attacked as a category, incorrectly assuming there is a generic version that applies to all. We identify and respond to 5 main lines of argument made by such critics. We agree that some of these arguments have force against some of the theories in the literature but believe them to be overstated. We argue that the dual-processing distinction is supported by much recent evidence in cognitive science. Our preferred theoretical approach is one in which rapid autonomous processes (Type 1) are assumed to yield default responses unless intervened on by distinctive higher order reasoning processes (Type 2). What defines the difference is that Type 2 processing supports hypothetical thinking and load heavily on working memory. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Ethical issues in exercise psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M

    2006-01-01

    Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion.

  2. Teoria da mente: uma revisão com enfoque na sua incorporação pela psicologia médica Theory of mind: a review with focus on its incorporation into medical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Caixeta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Um constructo nascido da psicologia cognitiva e que se refere à capacidade de atribuir estados mentais para si mesmo e para os outros, denominado Teoria da Mente, tem sido exportado para outros campos do saber e tem sido mais recentemente incorporado pela psicologia médica com a pretensão de explicar determinadas alterações de comportamento que constituem o cerne de distúrbios como o Autismo Infantil, Esquizofrenia e Psicoses afins. Esta incorporação trouxe a necessidade de desenhar metodologias que possam mensurar e definir a Teoria da Mente em termos neurobiológicos. Nos objetivamos a descrever os mecanismos pelos quais a Teoria da Mente tem contribuído para o esclarecimento de alguns fenômenos mentais, bem como arrolar as dificuldades metodológicas associadas a tal empreedimento. Antes disto, uma revisão geral da Teoria da Mente é proporcionada enfocando os aspectos mais relevantes do constructo. Existem poucos trabalhos nesta área no Brasil, razão pela qual justificamos a reflexão conduzida.A concept derived from cognitive psychology which refers to the ability to impute mental states to the self and others, termed Theory of Mind, has been disseminated to others fields of knowledge and has been more recently incorporated by medical psychology with the intention of explaining behavior disturbances that constitute the core features of disorders such as Infantile Autism, Schizophrenia and related Psychosis. Such incorporation has given rise to the necessity of designing a methodological approach to measure and define Theory of Mind in neurobiological terms. The aim of this work is related to describe the mechanisms by which Theory of Mind has been contributed to the elucidation of some mental phenomena, as well as enroll the methodological difficulties related to this attitude. Before that, a review of the field of Theory of Mind is done, focusing on the more relevant aspects of this concept. There are a few articles in Brazil

  3. The Analysis of Dimmesdale in the Viewpoint of Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子恒

    2014-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter is a psychological romance,which is full of delicate inward description.Based on the author Hawthorne’ s excellent effec-tiveness in the psychological description,this thesis uses Sigmund Freud’ s theory of personality structure and Anna Freud’ s theory of psychological defense mechanisms to analyze Dimmesdale,a leading character in the novel,and to show the development of Dimmesdale’ s psychology and the reasons of his final death.

  4. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    ’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  5. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  6. Sex Differences in Perceptions of Infidelity: Men Often Assume the Worst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron T. Goetz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Given that the costs of underperceiving (i.e., failing to detect a partner's sexual infidelity would have been greater for men than for women, we hypothesized that men may possess evolved psychological mechanisms designed to overperceive the likelihood of their partner's sexual infidelity. We found support for this hypothesis using two different response formats, a Likert-type scale (Study 1 and a visual analog scale (Study 2. In both studies, men were more likely than women to judge that their partners would commit sexual infidelity in the future. Discussion addresses additional design features of the infidelity detection system.

  7. Errors resulting from assuming opaque Lambertian clouds in TOMS ozone retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Newchurch, M.J.; Loughman, R.; Bhartia, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate remote sensing retrieval of atmospheric constituents over cloudy areas is very challenging because of insufficient knowledge of cloud parameters. Cloud treatments are highly idealized in most retrieval algorithms. Using a radiative transfer model treating clouds as scattering media, we investigate the effects of assuming opaque Lambertian clouds and employing a Partial Cloud Model (PCM) on Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) ozone retrievals, especially for tropical high-reflectivity clouds. Assuming angularly independent cloud reflection is good because the Ozone Retrieval Errors (OREs) are within 1.5% of the total ozone (i.e., within TOMS retrieval precision) when Cloud Optical Depth (COD)≥20. Because of Intra-Cloud Ozone Absorption ENhancement (ICOAEN), assuming opaque clouds can introduce large OREs even for optically thick clouds. For a water cloud of COD 40 spanning 2-12 km with 20.8 Dobson Unit (DU) ozone homogeneously distributed in the cloud, the ORE is 17.8 DU in the nadir view. The ICOAEN effect depends greatly on solar zenith angle, view zenith angle, and intra-cloud ozone amount and distribution. The TOMS PCM is good because negative errors from the cloud fraction being underestimated partly cancel other positive errors. At COD≤5, the TOMS algorithm retrieves approximately the correct total ozone because of compensating errors. With increasing COD up to 20-40, the overall positive ORE increases and is finally dominated by the ICOAEN effect. The ICOAEN effect is typically 5-13 DU on average over the Atlantic and Africa and 1-7 DU over the Pacific for tropical high-altitude (cloud top pressure ≤300 hPa) and high-reflectivity (reflectivity ≥ 80%) clouds. Knowledge of TOMS ozone retrieval errors has important implications for remote sensing of ozone/trace gases from other satellite instruments

  8. Reflections on Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhurst, David

    2009-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  9. Traversing psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov

    2014-07-01

    Traversing psychological distance involves going beyond direct experience, and includes planning, perspective taking, and contemplating counterfactuals. Consistent with this view, temporal, spatial, and social distances as well as hypotheticality are associated, affect each other, and are inferred from one another. Moreover, traversing all distances involves the use of abstraction, which we define as forming a belief about the substitutability for a specific purpose of subjectively distinct objects. Indeed, across many instances of both abstraction and psychological distancing, more abstract constructs are used for more distal objects. Here, we describe the implications of this relation for prediction, choice, communication, negotiation, and self-control. We ask whether traversing distance is a general mental ability and whether distance should replace expectancy in expected-utility theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Unitary field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    A problem of construction of the unitary field theory is discussed. The preconditions of the theory are briefly described. The main attention is paid to the geometrical interpretation of physical fields. The meaning of the conceptions of diversity and exfoliation is elucidated. Two unitary field theories are described: the Weyl conformic geometry and Calitzy five-dimensioned theory. It is proposed to consider supersymmetrical theories as a new approach to the problem of a unitary field theory. It is noted that the supergravitational theories are really unitary theories, since the fields figuring there do not assume invariant expansion

  11. Notas acerca de psicólogos y teorías psicológicas de Europa Oriental en la historia de la psicología de América del Sur (Notes About East European Psychologists and Psychological Theories in tahe History of Psychology in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón León

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Psicólogos de Europa Oriental tuvieron un rol importante en los años iniciales de desarrollo de la psicología en América del Sur. En el presente artículo se describe el trabajo y la influencia de cuatro de ellos: Waclaw Radecki (1887-1953, Béla Székely (1899-1955, F. Oliver Brachfeld (1908-1967 y Hélène Antipoff (1892-1974. Además, teorías provenientes de Rusia y la Unión Soviética encontraron una amplia resonancia entre los psicólogos sudamericanos, como la teoría de Pavlov y las ideas de Vygotsky que atrajeron el interés de los especialistas en la región, quienes las consideraron alternativas válidas frente a la psicología proveniente de los Estados Unidos, sobre todo en la década de1960, cuando predominaba una fuerte atmósfera antiestadounidense en esa parte del mundo. ABSTRACT: Psychologists from Eastern Europe had an important role in the initial years of the development of psychology in South America. In the present communication is the work and influence of four of them: WaclawRadecki (1887-1953, BélaSzékely (1899-1955, F. Oliver Brachfeld (1908-1967 and Hélène Antipoff (1892-1974. Furthermore, theory from Russia and the Soviet Union found a wide resonance among South American Psychologists as Pavlov's theory and the ideas of Vygotsky caught the interest of specialists in the region, who considered them valid alternatives to the psychology coming from the United States, at a time as in the 1960 when a strong anti-american atmosphere prevailed in that part of the world.

  12. "Assuming the privilege" of bridging divides: Abigail Fowler-Chumos, practical phrenology, and America's Gilded Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilleleht, Erica

    2015-11-01

    Nineteenth-century phrenology is often presented as a failed or pseudoscience. Based on erroneous anatomical assumptions and indirect observation, phrenology as such offers historians of psychology an object lesson in what scientists ought not do (e.g., Boring, 1929). As a practical profession, however, phrenology presents a more complicated narrative. This is particularly true in the United States where in the hands of practitioners including and influenced by the Fowler family, phrenology maintained a cultural presence long after being rejected by the scientific and medical mainstream (Janik, 2014). The prevalence of women practitioners, whose work and lives have yet to be adequately explored, represents another complication. Abigail Ayers Doe Fowler-Chumos, third wife of America's "great gun of phrenology" Orson Squire Fowler, is one practitioner worthy of closer examination (Davies, 1955, p. 46). Using the separate spheres concept (Kerber, 1988) and newspaper announcements, articles, and advertisements spanning the 1870s to 1920s, this article explores Abigail Ayers Doe Fowler-Chumos' development as a practical phrenologist. Her story suggests much about the unrecognized capacity of practical phrenology to create concepts and practices of selfhood capable of moving women beyond the private and domestic, while also preparing all Americans for modern psychology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Children's Everyday Learning by Assuming Responsibility for Others: Indigenous Practices as a Cultural Heritage Across Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, David Lorente

    2015-01-01

    This chapter uses a comparative approach to examine the maintenance of Indigenous practices related with Learning by Observing and Pitching In in two generations--parent generation and current child generation--in a Central Mexican Nahua community. In spite of cultural changes and the increase of Western schooling experience, these practices persist, to different degrees, as a Nahua cultural heritage with close historical relations to the key value of cuidado (stewardship). The chapter explores how children learn the value of cuidado in a variety of everyday activities, which include assuming responsibility in many social situations, primarily in cultivating corn, raising and protecting domestic animals, health practices, and participating in family ceremonial life. The chapter focuses on three main points: (1) Cuidado (assuming responsibility for), in the Nahua socio-cultural context, refers to the concepts of protection and "raising" as well as fostering other beings, whether humans, plants, or animals, to reach their potential and fulfill their development. (2) Children learn cuidado by contributing to family endeavors: They develop attention and self-motivation; they are capable of responsible actions; and they are able to transform participation to achieve the status of a competent member of local society. (3) This collaborative participation allows children to continue the cultural tradition and to preserve a Nahua heritage at a deeper level in a community in which Nahuatl language and dress have disappeared, and people do not identify themselves as Indigenous. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. O projeto interdisciplinar da teoria crítica: a história e a psicologia The interdisciplinary project of the critical theory: the history and the psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Soares dos Santos Batista

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo discute a contribuição da Teoria crítica para a Psicologia e para a História e a importância delas na análise da sociedade e da dimensão subjetiva. À categorização a priori e à naturalização de problemas históricos, a Teoria crítica opõe a filosofia histórica como interpretação materialista da realidade. À redução do conceito de sujeito fundado em análises que levam em conta somente aspectos sociais e econômicos, especialmente T.W. Adorno aborda a relevância da psicanálise e o estudo da mediação da sociedade na subjetividadeThis paper discusses the contributions of critical theory to psychology and history and their importance in the analysis of society and of the subjective dimension. The critical theory contrasts the prior categorization and naturalization of the historical problems with the historical philosophy as a materialistic interpretation of reality. Regarding the reduction of the concept of subject found in analyses that take into account only social and economic aspects, especially T.W. Adorno tackles the relevance of psychoanalyses and the study of the social mediation in the subjectivity.

  15. Borders and Modal Articulations. Semiotic Constructs of Sensemaking Processes Enabling a Fecund Dialogue Between Cultural Psychology and Clinical Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca Picione, Raffaele; Freda, Maria Francesca

    2016-03-01

    The notion of the border is an interesting advancement in research on the processes of meaning making within the cultural psychology. The development of this notion in semiotic key allows to handle with adequate complexity construction, transformation, stability and the breakup of the relationship between person/world/otherness. These semiotic implications have already been widely discussed and exposed by authors such Valsiner (2007, 2014), Neuman (2003, 2008), Simão (Culture & Psychology, 9, 449-459, 2003, Theory & Psychology, 15, 549-574, 2005, 2015), with respect to issues of identity/relatedness, inside/outside, stability/change in the irreversible flow of the time. In this work, after showing some of the basics of such semiotic notion of border, we discuss the processes of construction and transformation of borders through the modal articulation, defined as the contextual positioning that the person assumes with respect to the establishment of a boundary in terms of necessity, obligation, willingness, possibility, permission, ability. This modal subjective positioning acquires considerable interest from the clinical point of view since its degree of plasticity vs that of rigidity is the basis of processes of development or stiffening of relations between person/world/otherness.

  16. Psychological Flexibility, ACT, and Organizational Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2006-01-01

    This paper offers organizational behavior management (OBM) a behavior analytically consistent way to expand its analysis of, and methods for changing, organizational behavior. It shows how Relational Frame Theory (RFT) suggests that common, problematic, psychological processes emerge from language itself, and they produce psychological inflexibility. Research suggests that an applied extension of RFT, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, has led to new interventions that increase psychological ...

  17. Design-based Sample and Probability Law-Assumed Sample: Their Role in Scientific Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Mario Miguel; Sahai, Hardeo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses some key statistical concepts in probabilistic and non-probabilistic sampling to provide an overview for understanding the inference process. Suggests a statistical model constituting the basis of statistical inference and provides a brief review of the finite population descriptive inference and a quota sampling inferential theory.…

  18. Anthropological aspects of health psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Shuvalov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a theoretical study carried out in the framework of the research project «Determinants of psychological health of the modern person». The issue of psychological health is considered in the context of the anthropological crisis that affects public body and causes a decrease in synergetic social life. On the level of specific manifestations, it is associated with damage to the spiritual and moral sphere, distortion of personal way of life and interpersonal relationships, which leads to a general decline in viability. A growing number of people, whose subjective state can be described as mentally fit, but personally sick is identified. Secondary symptoms of such conditions are depression, aggression, dependent behaviour. However, their essential characteristics are not captured by the existing social psychological, psychological pedagogical and medical psychological concepts and also do not fit the typical description of psychological emotional and/or behavioural disorders. The author adheres to the hypothesis that these states have specific spiritual and psychological conditions and symptoms that deserve scientific analysis and philosophical reflection. The leitmotif of the paper is the issue of mental health in its scientific and philosophical sense. Representation of health from the standpoint of modern humanitarian knowledge and traditional spiritual culture are generalized. The theory of general psychological health is developed. The main approaches to the problem of psychological health are presented. Comparative analysis of the humanistic and anthropological models of mental health is shown. Correspondence between the anthropological conditions and criteria of mental health concepts of the modern national educational ideal is presented. Educational activity is described as anthropological practice aimed at acquiring by a child the wide range of values as a person. As such, it is the most conducive to

  19. Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction, Emotion Dysregulation, and Non-suicidal Self-Injury Engagement in Young Adults: An Application of Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, A Ann; Heath, Nancy L; Mills, Devin J

    2016-03-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a public health concern that affects young adults at alarming rates. The present study examines the role of satisfaction of self-determination theory's three basic needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness in young adults' NSSI engagement. University students who reported ever having engaged in NSSI (n = 40, 85 % female; Mage = 20.10, SD = 1.66) reported significantly lower levels of the satisfaction of all three needs, as well as more difficulties with all aspects of emotion regulation (non-acceptance of emotional responses, difficulty engaging in goal directed behavior, impulse control, lack of emotional awareness, limited access to regulation strategies, lack of emotional clarity), compared to students with no history of NSSI (n = 46, 91 % female; Mage = 19.79, SD = 1.37). Results of a logistic regression analysis revealed that need satisfaction added to the prediction of NSSI group membership after controlling for the effects of emotion regulation. Satisfaction of the need for competence and limited access to emotion regulation strategies accounted for significant variance in NSSI in the final model. The findings suggest that self-determination theory may be a useful framework under which to conceptualize NSSI and that the need for competence may be particularly salient for University students.

  20. Who took the "x" out of expectancy-value theory? A psychological mystery, a substantive-methodological synergy, and a cross-national generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W; Scalas, L Francesca; Xu, Man K; Hau, Kit-Tai; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2011-08-01

    Expectancy-value theory (EVT) is a dominant theory of human motivation. Historically, the Expectancy × Value interaction, in which motivation is high only if both expectancy and value are high, was central to EVT. However, the Expectancy × Value interaction mysteriously disappeared from published research more than 25 years ago. Using large representative samples of 15-year-olds (N = 398,750) from 57 diverse countries, we attempted to solve this mystery by testing Expectancy × Value interactions using latent-variable models with interactions. Expectancy (science self-concept), value (enjoyment of science), and the Expectancy × Value interaction all had statistically significant positive effects on both engagement in science activities and intentions of pursuing scientific careers; these results were similar for the total sample and for nearly all of the 57 countries considered separately. This study, apparently the strongest cross-national test of EVT ever undertaken, supports the generalizability of EVT predictions--including the "lost" Expectancy × Value interaction.

  1. Psychology and the conduct of everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psychology and the Conduct of Everyday Life moves psychological theory and research practice out of the laboratory and into the everyday world. Drawing on recent developments across the social and human sciences, it examines how people live as active subjects within the contexts of their everyday...

  2. Essential Role of Culture in Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joan G.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter argues for the essential role of culture in forming the basic constructs and theories of developmental psychology. The case is made for the need to overcome the cultural insularity of core developmental concepts and methods in order to create a psychology that is more truly universal.

  3. ZAPs: Using Interactive Programs for Learning Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Casper D.; Eysink, Tessa H. S.; Loyens, Sofie; de Jong, Ton

    2005-01-01

    ZAPs are short, self-contained computer programs that encourage students to experience psychological phenomena in a vivid, self-explanatory way, and that are meant to evoke enthusiasm about psychological topics. ZAPs were designed according to principles that originate from experiential and discovery learning theories. The interactive approach…

  4. Women's Feminist Consciousness, Anger, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ann R.; Good, Glenn E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to bring together several lines of research and theory on women's feminist consciousness from psychology, sociology, and philosophy. Past literatures had suggested bivariate links between feminist identity development and psychological distress, feminist identity and anger, feminist identity and interpersonal conflict,…

  5. Gestalt Therapy: Its Inheritance from Gestalt Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yontef, Gary M.

    When adequately elaborated, the basic method of Gestalt therapy can be traced to the phenomenological field theory of Gestalt psychology. Gestalt therapy differs from Gestalt psychology not because of a difference in philosophy or method, but because of different contexts; the clinical context has different demands than those of basic research.…

  6. Collisional tearing in a field-reversed sheet pinch assuming nonparallel propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quest, K.B.; Coroniti, F.V.

    1985-01-01

    We examine the linear stability properties of the collisional tearing mode in a reversed-field sheet pinch assuming that the wave vector is not parallel to B, where B is the equilibrium magnetic field. We show that pressure balance in the direction of the equilibrium current requires a nonzero perturbed current component deltaJ/sub z/ that is driven toward tyhe center of the pinch. At the center of the pinch, deltaJ/sub z/ goes to zero, and momentum is balanced by coupling to the ion-acoustic mode. In order to achieve current closure, a large perturbed field-aligned current is generated that is strongly localized about the dissipative tearing layer. The relation of this work to the collisionless case is discussed

  7. Collective Psychological Ownership and Intergroup Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2017-11-01

    Whereas much social psychological research has studied the in-group and out-group implications of social categorization and collective identity ("we"), little research has examined the nature and relevance of collective psychological ownership ("ours") for intergroup relations. We make a case for considering collective psychological ownership as an important source of intergroup tensions. We do so by integrating theory and research from various social sciences, and we draw out implications for future social psychological research on intergroup relations. We discuss collective psychological ownership in relation to the psychology of possessions, marking behavior, intergroup threats, outgroup exclusion, and in-group responsibility. We suggest that the social psychological processes discussed apply to a range of ownership objects (territory, buildings, cultural artifacts) and various intergroup settings, including international, national, and local contexts, and in organizations and communities. We conclude by providing directions for future research in different intergroup contexts.

  8. Cognitive load theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., Kirschner, F. C., & Paas, F. (2009). Cognitive load theory. In E. M. Anderman & L. H. Anderman (Eds.). Psychology of classroom learning: An encyclopedia, Volume 1, a-j (pp. 205-209). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference.

  9. Estimating option values of solar radiation management assuming that climate sensitivity is uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arino, Yosuke; Akimoto, Keigo; Sano, Fuminori; Homma, Takashi; Oda, Junichiro; Tomoda, Toshimasa

    2016-05-24

    Although solar radiation management (SRM) might play a role as an emergency geoengineering measure, its potential risks remain uncertain, and hence there are ethical and governance issues in the face of SRM's actual deployment. By using an integrated assessment model, we first present one possible methodology for evaluating the value arising from retaining an SRM option given the uncertainty of climate sensitivity, and also examine sensitivities of the option value to SRM's side effects (damages). Reflecting the governance challenges on immediate SRM deployment, we assume scenarios in which SRM could only be deployed with a limited degree of cooling (0.5 °C) only after 2050, when climate sensitivity uncertainty is assumed to be resolved and only when the sensitivity is found to be high (T2x = 4 °C). We conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis with constraining temperature rise as the objective. The SRM option value is originated from its rapid cooling capability that would alleviate the mitigation requirement under climate sensitivity uncertainty and thereby reduce mitigation costs. According to our estimates, the option value during 1990-2049 for a +2.4 °C target (the lowest temperature target level for which there were feasible solutions in this model study) relative to preindustrial levels were in the range between $2.5 and $5.9 trillion, taking into account the maximum level of side effects shown in the existing literature. The result indicates that lower limits of the option values for temperature targets below +2.4 °C would be greater than $2.5 trillion.

  10. Elastic-plastic and creep analyses by assumed stress finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pian, T.H.H.; Spilker, R.L.; Lee, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    A formulation is presented of incremental finite element solutions for both initial stress and initial strain problems based on modified complementary energy principle with relaxed inter-element continuity requirement. The corresponding finite element model is the assumed stress hybrid model which has stress parameters in the interior of each element and displacements at the individual nodes as unknowns. The formulation includes an important consideration that the states of stress and strain and the beginning of each increment may not satisfy the equilibrium and compatibility equations. These imbalance and mismatch conditions all lead to correction terms for the equivalent nodal forces of the matrix equations. The initial stress method is applied to elastic-plastic analysis of structures. In this case the stress parameters for the individual elements can be eliminated resulting to a system of equations with only nodal displacements as unknowns. Two different complementary energy principles can be formulated, in one of which the equilibrium of the final state of stress is maintained while in the other the equilibrium of the stress increments is maintained. Each of these two different formulations can be combined with different iterative schemes to be used at each incremental steps of the elastic-plastic analysis. It is also indicated clearly that for the initial stress method the state of stress at the beginning of each increments is in general, not in equilibrium and an imbalance correction is needed. Results of a comprehensive evaluation of various solution procedures by the initial stress method using the assumed stress hybrid elements are presented. The example used is the static response of a thick wall cylinder of elastic-perfectly plastic material under internal pressure. Solid of revolution elements with rectangular cross sections are used

  11. Effect of heterogeneity and assumed mode of inheritance on lod scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, M; Greenberg, D A

    1992-02-01

    Heterogeneity is a major factor in many common, complex diseases and can confound linkage analysis. Using computer-simulated heterogeneous data we tested what effect unlinked families have on a linkage analysis when heterogeneity is not taken into account. We created 60 data sets of 40 nuclear families each with different proportions of linked and unlinked families and with different modes of inheritance. The ascertainment probability was 0.05, the disease had a penetrance of 0.6, and the recombination fraction for the linked families was zero. For the analysis we used a variety of assumed modes of inheritance and penetrances. Under these conditions we looked at the effect of the unlinked families on the lod score, the evaluation of the mode of inheritance, and the estimate of penetrance and of the recombination fraction in the linked families. 1. When the analysis was done under the correct mode of inheritance for the linked families, we found that the mode of inheritance of the unlinked families had minimal influence on the highest maximum lod score (MMLS) (i.e., we maximized the maximum lod score with respect to penetrance). Adding sporadic families decreased the MMLS less than adding recessive or dominant unlinked families. 2. The mixtures of dominant linked families with unlinked families always led to a higher MMLS when analyzed under the correct (dominant) mode of inheritance than when analyzed under the incorrect mode of inheritance. In the mixtures with recessive linked families, assuming the correct mode of inheritance generally led to a higher MMLS, but we observed broad variation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Examination of some assumed severe reactor accidents at the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekkarinen, E.; Rossi, J.

    1989-02-01

    Knowledge and analysis methods of severe accidents at nuclear power plants and of subsequent response of primary system and containment have been developed in last few years to the extent that realistic source tems of the specified accident sequences can be calculated for the Finnish nuclear power plants. The objective of this investigation was to calculate the source terms of off-site consequences brought about by some selected severe accident sequences initiated by the total loss of on-site and off-site AC power at the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. The results describing the estimated off-site health risks are expressed as conditional assuming that the accident has taken place, because the probabilities of the occurence of the accident sequences considered have not been analysed in this study. The range and probabilities of occurence of health detriments are considered by calculating consequences in different weeather conditions and taking into account the annual frequency of each weather condition and statistical population distribution. The calculational results indicate that the reactor building provides and additional holdup and deposition of radioactive substance (except coble gases) released from the containment. Furthermore, the release fractions of the core inventory to the environment of volatile fission products such as iodine, cesium and tellurium remain under 0.03. No early health effects are predicted for the surrounding population in case the assumed short-tem countermeasures are performed effectively. Acute health effects are extremely improbable even without any active countermeasure. By reducing the long-term exposure from contaminated agricultural products, the collective dose from natural long-term background radiation, for instance in the sector of 30 degrees towards the southern Finland up to the distance of 300 kilometers, would be expected to increase with 2-20 percent depending on the release considered

  13. Psychological theory testing versus psychometric nay-saying: comment on Neuberg et al.'s (1997) critique of the need for closure scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglanski, A W; Atash, M N; DeGrada, E; Mannetti, L; Pierro, A; Webster, D M

    1997-11-01

    S. L. Neuberg, T. N. Judice, and S. G. West (1997) faulted our work with the Need for Closure Scale (NFCS) on grounds that the NFCS lacks discriminant validity relative to S. L. Neuberg's and J. T. Newsom's (1993) Personal Need for Structure (PNS) Scale and is multidimensional, which, so they claim, renders the use of its total score inadmissible. By contrast, the present authors show that neither of the above assertions is incompatible with the underlying need for closure theory. Relations between NFCS and the PNS are to be expected, as these were designed to operationalize the very same construct (of need for closure). Furthermore, no unidimensionality of the NFCS has been claimed, and none is required to use its total score for testing various theoretically derived predictions. An instrument's ultimate utility hinges on theoretical considerations and empirical evidence rather than on questionable psychometric dogma unrelated to the substantive matters at hand.

  14. Economics and psychology. The framing of decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Schilirò, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    In the Theory of Rational Decision Making the psychological aspects are set aside. This contribution seeks to point out the relevance of psychology into economic decisions. The essay treats the "framing of decisions", which is a pillar of Kahneman's behavioral theory. Framing must be considered a special case of the more general phenomenon of dependency from the representation. The best-known risky choice-framing problem, i.e. the "Asian Disease Problem", is shown where an essential aspect of...

  15. Introductory Psychology Texts as a View of Sociobiology/Evolutionary Psychology's Role in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Elisabeth Cornwell

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sociobiology and its descendant evolutionary psychology (EP have struggled to gain ground within the social sciences over the past 30 years. While some have heralded the Triumph of Sociobiology (Alcock, 2001, others have critiqued it as a poor approach to understanding human behavior and would prefer that a Darwinian perspective remain outside the domain of human social sciences. We attempt to assess just how successful (or not it has been by examining how it has been covered in introductory psychology textbooks over the past 30 years. Our findings indicate that a Darwinian perspective has gained influence and acceptance within the field of psychology over the past three decades. However, we also find that EP as a sub-discipline is often perceived as narrowly defined and limited to research on mating strategies. We address how these perceptions may affect the future of EP, and possible steps needed to increase both the acceptance and importance of evolutionary theory to psychology.

  16. A comprehensive, multi-level investigation of the implementation of a novel digital substance misuse intervention, Breaking Free Online: conceptualising implementation processes within services using the MRC framework and health psychology theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Dugdale

    2015-08-01

    considering implementation, the potential impact of an intervention is compromised. This research has implications for the valuable roles of health psychology models and implementation science theories in understanding the complex processes of implementation of digital health innovations such as BFO.

  17. Teorias sobre o amor no campo da Psicologia Social Teorías sobre el amor en el campo de la Psicología Social Theories about love in the field of Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla de Oliveira Martins-Silva

    2013-01-01

    el amor es un fenómeno complejo y detectar la presencia de divergencias teóricas y metodológicas. La complejidad es observada en la diversidad teórica y en los resultados encontrados de investigaciones. Teóricamente, se registraron divergencias en la forma de como el amor es concebido; metodológicamente, hubo el predominio de abordajes cuantitativos, con la presencia de diferentes escalas. Se identificó que algunas cuestiones necesitan ser mejor investigadas, así como los instrumentos de medidas adoptados. Se nota, así, que esa área de estudio aún está en proceso de evolución y que la realización de más investigaciones puede contribuir para el desarrollo del campo. Al final, se sugiere el estudio de la interacción de la cultura vía creencias y valores en la vivencia del amor y una mayor utilización de abordajes cualitativos.The present study is a theoretical essay about the phenomenon of love in romantic relationships in the field of psychology and social psychology. The first theories on love in psychology are presented. After, three theories of social psychology are discussed in greater depth: love styles, by John Alan Lee, the adult attachment theory, by Phillip Shaver, Cindy Hazan and Donna Bradshaw, and the triangular theory of love, by Robert J. Sternberg. The contributions of each theory on theoretical, empirical and methodological issues are presented. Two aspects were observed: that love is a complex phenomenon and the presence of theoretical and methodological differences among the three theories. The complexity is observed in theoretical approach diversity and in research results. Theoretically, there is disagreement on how love is conceived. Methodologically, there is a predominance of quantitative research with different scales. It is observed that further investigation on the theme is needed, as well as on the scales adopted. Therefore, the love field of study is still in process of evolution, so further research may contribute to this

  18. Radical psychology institutionalized: a history of the Journal Psychologie & Maatschappij [psychology & society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abma, R; Jansz, J

    2000-01-01

    Starting out as a newsletter for radical psychologists, the Dutch journal Psychologie & Maatschappij (Psychology & Society) moved in the past decade toward the theoretical mainstream within psychology. In this paper, the major changes in the journal are described and analyzed, as well as the features that did not change: an emphasis on theory and history, an interdisciplinary approach, and an emphasis on discussion. The main transformations were from psychology as instrumental toward the goals of the progressive movement in the Netherlands, then to extreme criticism of all scientific and professional psychological activities, and finally to adherence to the most advanced approaches within academic psychology. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  20. Development of a psychological test to measure ability-based emotional intelligence in the Indonesian workplace using an item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajrianthi; Zein, Rizqy Amelia

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an emotional intelligence (EI) test that is suitable to the Indonesian workplace context. Airlangga Emotional Intelligence Test (Tes Kecerdasan Emosi Airlangga [TKEA]) was designed to measure three EI domains: 1) emotional appraisal, 2) emotional recognition, and 3) emotional regulation. TKEA consisted of 120 items with 40 items for each subset. TKEA was developed based on the Situational Judgment Test (SJT) approach. To ensure its psychometric qualities, categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) and item response theory (IRT) were applied to test its validity and reliability. The study was conducted on 752 participants, and the results showed that test information function (TIF) was 3.414 (ability level = 0) for subset 1, 12.183 for subset 2 (ability level = -2), and 2.398 for subset 3 (level of ability = -2). It is concluded that TKEA performs very well to measure individuals with a low level of EI ability. It is worth to note that TKEA is currently at the development stage; therefore, in this study, we investigated TKEA's item analysis and dimensionality test of each TKEA subset.

  1. Fluency of pharmaceutical drug names predicts perceived hazardousness, assumed side effects and willingness to buy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohle, Simone; Siegrist, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The impact of pharmaceutical drug names on people's evaluations and behavioural intentions is still uncertain. According to the representativeness heuristic, evaluations should be more positive for complex drug names; in contrast, fluency theory suggests that evaluations should be more positive for simple drug names. Results of three experimental studies showed that complex drug names were perceived as more hazardous than simple drug names and negatively influenced willingness to buy. The results are of particular importance given the fact that there is a worldwide trend to make more drugs available for self-medication. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Wetware, Hardware, or Software Incapacitation: Observational Methods to Determine When Autonomy Should Assume Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2014-01-01

    Control-theoretic modeling of human operator's dynamic behavior in manual control tasks has a long, rich history. There has been significant work on techniques used to identify the pilot model of a given structure. This research attempts to go beyond pilot identification based on experimental data to develop a predictor of pilot behavior. Two methods for pre-dicting pilot stick input during changing aircraft dynamics and deducing changes in pilot behavior are presented This approach may also have the capability to detect a change in a subject due to workload, engagement, etc., or the effects of changes in vehicle dynamics on the pilot. With this ability to detect changes in piloting behavior, the possibility now exists to mediate human adverse behaviors, hardware failures, and software anomalies with autono-my that may ameliorate these undesirable effects. However, appropriate timing of when au-tonomy should assume control is dependent on criticality of actions to safety, sensitivity of methods to accurately detect these adverse changes, and effects of changes in levels of auto-mation of the system as a whole.

  3. Relationships between protein-encoding gene abundance and corresponding process are commonly assumed yet rarely observed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Jennifer D.; Hall, Edward K.; Lennon, Jay T.; Evans, Sarah E.; Waldrop, Mark P.; Cotner, James B.; Nemergut, Diana R.; Graham, Emily B.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    For any enzyme-catalyzed reaction to occur, the corresponding protein-encoding genes and transcripts are necessary prerequisites. Thus, a positive relationship between the abundance of gene or transcripts and corresponding process rates is often assumed. To test this assumption, we conducted a meta-analysis of the relationships between gene and/or transcript abundances and corresponding process rates. We identified 415 studies that quantified the abundance of genes or transcripts for enzymes involved in carbon or nitrogen cycling. However, in only 59 of these manuscripts did the authors report both gene or transcript abundance and rates of the appropriate process. We found that within studies there was a significant but weak positive relationship between gene abundance and the corresponding process. Correlations were not strengthened by accounting for habitat type, differences among genes or reaction products versus reactants, suggesting that other ecological and methodological factors may affect the strength of this relationship. Our findings highlight the need for fundamental research on the factors that control transcription, translation and enzyme function in natural systems to better link genomic and transcriptomic data to ecosystem processes.

  4. Attitudes and Willingness to Assume Risk of Experimental Therapy to Eradicate Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseso, Linda; Magaret, Amalia S; Jerome, Keith R; Fox, Julie; Wald, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Current treatment of genital herpes is focused on ameliorating signs and symptoms but is not curative. However, as potential herpes simplex virus (HSV) cure approaches are tested in the laboratory, we aimed to assess the interest in such studies by persons with genital herpes and the willingness to assume risks associated with experimental therapy. We constructed an anonymous online questionnaire that was posted on websites that provide information regarding genital herpes. The questions collected demographic and clinical information on adults who self-reported as having genital herpes, and assessed attitudes toward and willingness to participate in HSV cure clinical research. Seven hundred eleven participants provided sufficient responses to be included in the analysis. Sixty-six percent were women; the median age was 37 years, and the median time since genital HSV diagnosis was 4.7 years. The willingness to participate in trials increased from 59.0% in phase 1 to 68.5% in phase 2, and 81.2% in phase 3 trials, and 40% reported willingness to participate even in the absence of immediate, personal benefits. The most desirable outcome was the elimination of risk for transmission to sex partner or neonate. The mean perceived severity of receiving a diagnosis of genital HSV-2 was 4.2 on a scale of 1 to 5. Despite suppressive therapy available, persons with genital herpes are interested in participating in clinical research aimed at curing HSV, especially in more advanced stages of development.

  5. Automated Assume-Guarantee Reasoning for Omega-Regular Systems and Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Sagar; Gurfinkel, Arie

    2010-01-01

    We develop a learning-based automated Assume-Guarantee (AG) reasoning framework for verifying omega-regular properties of concurrent systems. We study the applicability of non-circular (AGNC) and circular (AG-C) AG proof rules in the context of systems with infinite behaviors. In particular, we show that AG-NC is incomplete when assumptions are restricted to strictly infinite behaviors, while AG-C remains complete. We present a general formalization, called LAG, of the learning based automated AG paradigm. We show how existing approaches for automated AG reasoning are special instances of LAG.We develop two learning algorithms for a class of systems, called infinite regular systems, that combine finite and infinite behaviors. We show that for infinity-regular systems, both AG-NC and AG-C are sound and complete. Finally, we show how to instantiate LAG to do automated AG reasoning for infinite regular, and omega-regular, systems using both AG-NC and AG-C as proof rules

  6. Is the Perception of 3D Shape from Shading Based on Assumed Reflectance and Illumination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. Todd

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research described in the present article was designed to compare three types of image shading: one generated with a Lambertian BRDF and homogeneous illumination such that image intensity was determined entirely by local surface orientation irrespective of position; one that was textured with a linear intensity gradient, such that image intensity was determined entirely by local surface position irrespective of orientation; and another that was generated with a Lambertian BRDF and inhomogeneous illumination such that image intensity was influenced by both position and orientation. A gauge figure adjustment task was used to measure observers' perceptions of local surface orientation on the depicted surfaces, and the probe points included 60 pairs of regions that both had the same orientation. The results show clearly that observers' perceptions of these three types of stimuli were remarkably similar, and that probe regions with similar apparent orientations could have large differences in image intensity. This latter finding is incompatible with any process for computing shape from shading that assumes any plausible reflectance function combined with any possible homogeneous illumination.

  7. Defining modeling parameters for juniper trees assuming pleistocene-like conditions at the NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbox, S.R.; Cochran, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses part of Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL) efforts to assess the long-term performance of the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Of issue is whether the GCD site complies with 40 CFR 191 standards set for transuranic (TRU) waste burial. SNL has developed a radionuclide transport model which can be used to assess TRU radionuclide movement away from the GCD facility. An earlier iteration of the model found that radionuclide uptake and release by plants is an important aspect of the system to consider. Currently, the shallow-rooted plants at the NTS do not pose a threat to the integrity of the GCD facility. However, the threat increases substantially it deeper-rooted woodland species migrate to the GCD facility, given a shift to a wetter climate. The model parameters discussed here will be included in the next model iteration which assumes a climate shift will provide for the growth of juniper trees at the GCD facility. Model parameters were developed using published data and wherever possible, data were taken from juniper and pinon-juniper studies that mirrored as many aspects of the GCD facility as possible

  8. From psychology of adaptation to psychology of social change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.

    and is influenced by contemporary socio-political contexts, then we need to introduce the science as not only studying how individuals are inclined to adapt, conform, and assimilate to the world as is, but also how and under which conditions individuals are agents for social change. I will discuss challenges......Introducing psychology to first year students comes with its own challenges of presenting it in a clear introductory manner, yet also triggering students to think critically about the theories they are presented with. If we were to think of social psychology as a discipline that mutually influences...

  9. Theories of police legitimacy – its sources and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Homolová

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The review of theories on police legitimacy aims at introducing the subject with a multidisciplinary approach. It quotes criminological, sociological as well as psychological and institutional theories of legitimacy, in order to provide the reader a rich framework, in which the findings of the presented current empirical studies can be evaluated. Police legitimacy is conceived as a social phenomenon, closely related to social norms such as socially constructed police roles and models of policing. The prevailing normative model of police legitimacy in criminology is discussed in greater detail, including critical outlook on procedural fairness as the assumed main source of police empirical legitimacy. Recent findings concerning legal socialization and theories of legitimization myths are high- lighted in order to supplement the micro-level oriented criminological literature on police legitimacy. Possible future pathways of legitimacy research in criminology are discussed.

  10. The Supply of Environmentalism: Psychological Interventions and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Edward L. Glaeser

    2014-01-01

    Long before behavioral economists began to combine economic theory with discoveries from psychology, environmentalists were nudging and framing and pushing their cause through psychological interventions. These interventions appear to have changed behavior by altering beliefs, norms, and preferences. However, because psychological interventions are often coarse, they have also resulted in inadvertent, offsetting side effects. This article discusses the interactions between environmental prefe...

  11. Understanding and Applying Psychology through Use of News Clippings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Elizabeth A.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses a student project for psychology courses in which students collect newspaper clippings that illustrate psychological concepts. Explains that the students record the source and write a brief description of the clipping, explaining how it relates to a psychological concept or theory. Includes results of student evaluations of the…

  12. Engineering evaluation of alternatives: Managing the assumed leak from single-shell Tank 241-T-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Jenkins, C.

    1996-02-01

    At mid-year 1992, the liquid level gage for Tank 241-T-101 indicated that 6,000 to 9,000 gal had leaked. Because of the liquid level anomaly, Tank 241-T-101 was declared an assumed leaker on October 4, 1992. SSTs liquid level gages have been historically unreliable. False readings can occur because of instrument failures, floating salt cake, and salt encrustation. Gages frequently self-correct and tanks show no indication of leak. Tank levels cannot be visually inspected and verified because of high radiation fields. The gage in Tank 241-T-101 has largely corrected itself since the mid-year 1992 reading. Therefore, doubt exists that a leak has occurred, or that the magnitude of the leak poses any immediate environmental threat. While reluctance exists to use valuable DST space unnecessarily, there is a large safety and economic incentive to prevent or mitigate release of tank liquid waste into the surrounding environment. During the assessment of the significance of the Tank 241-T-101 liquid level gage readings, Washington State Department of Ecology determined that Westinghouse Hanford Company was not in compliance with regulatory requirements, and directed transfer of the Tank 241-T-101 liquid contents into a DST. Meanwhile, DOE directed WHC to examine reasonable alternatives/options for safe interim management of Tank 241-T-101 wastes before taking action. The five alternatives that could be used to manage waste from a leaking SST are: (1) No-Action, (2) In-Tank Stabilization, (3) External Tank Stabilization, (4) Liquid Retrieval, and (5) Total Retrieval. The findings of these examinations are reported in this study

  13. Prospects for carbon capture and sequestration technologies assuming their technological learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riahi, Keywan; Rubin, Edward S.; Schrattenholzer, Leo

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes potentials of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS) in a set of long-term energy-economic-environmental scenarios based on alternative assumptions for technological progress of CCS. In order to get a reasonable guide to future technological progress in managing CO 2 emissions, we review past experience in controlling sulfur dioxide emissions (SO 2 ) from power plants. By doing so, we quantify a 'learning curve' for CCS, which describes the relationship between the improvement of costs due to accumulation of experience in CCS construction. We incorporate the learning curve into the energy modeling framework MESSAGE-MACRO and develop greenhouse gas emissions scenarios of economic, demographic, and energy demand development, where alternative policy cases lead to the stabilization of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations at 550 parts per million by volume (ppmv) by the end of the 21st century. Due to the assumed technological learning, costs of the emissions reduction for CCS drop rapidly and in parallel with the massive introduction of CCS on the global scale. Compared to scenarios based on static cost assumptions for CCS, the contribution of carbon sequestration is about 50 percent higher in the case of learning resulting in cumulative sequestration of CO 2 ranging from 150 to 250 billion (10 9 ) tons carbon during the 21st century. The results illustrate that carbon capture and sequestration is one of the obvious priority candidates for long-term technology policies and enhanced R and D efforts to hedge against the risk associated with high environmental impacts of climate change

  14. Black Psychology and Black Personality: Some Issues for Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses an emerging body of psychological literature by black behavioral scientists assumed to represent a radical departure in its conceptual orientation from the social pathology tradition advanced primarily by white behavioral scientists; and focuses on the construct of Self-Extension Orientation, a dynamic process which is assumed to…

  15. Assuming the mantle of leadership: issues and challenges for directors of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Mary Louise; Kayser-Jones, Jeanie

    2008-11-01

    This ethnographic study investigated leadership from the perspective of directors of nursing (DONs) in proprietary nursing homes. Data from interviews and extensive participant observation with 10 DONs were analyzed using open coding and content analysis. The study drew on a priori concepts from transformational leadership theory to describe the role, DON approaches to leadership, and factors that facilitate or impede leadership in nursing homes. This article reports findings from a larger study related to conditions existing when participants entered the DON position. Antecedent conditions influenced organizational expectations of incoming DONs and shaped participants' leadership experiences. DONs filling long-standing vacancies had to reestablish the influence and authority of the role. Those replacing unsuccessful DONs confronted serious regulatory, care, and morale issues. In contrast, DONs with successful predecessors experienced organizational support and had confidence in their abilities to lead.

  16. Buddha philosophy and western psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!

  17. Buddha philosophy and western psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between “two of the most powerful forces” operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote ‘if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy’. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced! PMID:23858249

  18. Decolonizing Liberation: Toward a Transnational Feminist Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğçe Kurtiş

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper engages the theme of “decolonizing psychological science” in the context of a perspective on psychological theory and research—namely, feminist psychology—that shares an emphasis on broad liberation. Although conceived as a universal theory and practice of liberation, scholars across diverse sites have suggested that feminism—perhaps especially as it manifests in psychological science—is not always compatible with and at times is even contradictory to global struggles for decolonization. The liberatory impulse of feminist psychology falls short of its potential not only because of its grounding in neocolonial legacies of hegemonic feminisms, but also because of its complicity with neocolonial tendencies of hegemonic psychological science. In response to these concerns, we draw upon on perspectives of transnational feminisms and cultural psychology as tools to decolonize (feminist psychology. We then propose the possibility of a (transnational feminist psychology that takes the epistemological position of people in various marginalized majority-world settings as a resource to rethink conventional scientific wisdom and liberate “liberation”. Rather than freeing some women to better participate in global domination, a transnational feminist psychology illuminates sustainable ways of being that are consistent with broader liberation of humanity in general.

  19. TITIK TEMU TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY DAN TASAWUF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah Khadijah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to introduce transpersonal psychology approach, especially its meeting point with the world of Sufism in Islam. The article tries to answer the following questions, are: 1 what is the difference between transpersonal psychology and other psycho-logical theories, and; 2 in what aspect transpersonal psychology shares a common ground with Sufism? The writer finds that there is a significant difference between transpersonal psychology and other psychological theories, especially psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Psychoanalysis emphasizes the deepest meaning of human behavior with a tendency to override the meaning of physical aspect. Behaviorism has been strongly influenced by pure science. In fact, research on the human psyche aspect cannot be done simply by applying pure science. Meanwhile, transpersonal psychology tries to fundamentally reinforce and develop human potential, both physical and mental aspects. Moreover, this approach reaches supernatural and spiritual aspects of human beings. The writer tends to argue that the common ground shared by the mystical aspects of the Western world, in the perspective of transpersonal psychology, and Sufism in Islam lays in the fact that each entity puts great emphasis on managing and increasing the spiritual aspect of human.Keywords: transpersonal psychology, tasawuf, common ground.

  20. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes treatment outcomes ultimately depend on patients and their ability to make long-term behavioural changes that support good self-care and metabolic control. Patients' perceptions about diabetes and diabetes-related complications can have a strong influence on their emotional well...... of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  1. Proliferation resistance of a hypothetical sodium fast reactor under an assumed breakout scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlock, Jeremy [Non-Proliferation and Safeguards, AECL Chalk River Laboratories, Stn. 91, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Inoue, Naoko; Senzaki, Masao [Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA (Japan); Bley, Dennis [Buttonwood Consulting Inc., Oakton, VA (United States); Wonder, Ed [National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Energy (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR and PP) Working Group of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) conducted a high-level pathway analysis of a hypothetical sodium fast reactor and integral fuel processing facility (called collectively the 'Example Sodium Fast Reactor' or ESFR), as a test of the effectiveness of its analysis methodology. From a common set of assumed host-state capabilities and objectives, a number of threat scenarios emerge (Concealed Diversion, Concealed Misuse, Breakout or Overt Misuse, and Theft/Sabotage). This paper presents the results of the analysis based on the Breakout scenario. A distinguishing aspect of Breakout scenario consideration concerns the optimal use of the time from breakout to weapons readiness, which is related to the Proliferation Time measure. The goal of analyzing the breakout scenario was therefore to complement other analyses involving the Concealed Misuse and Diversion scenarios by exploring the minimum post-breakout time to weapons readiness. Four target strategies were chosen for analysis: (1) Diversion of LEU feed material at front-end of the ESFR facility; (2) Misuse of the reactor facility to irradiate fertile material; (3) Misuse of the reactor facility to irradiate material in the in-core fuel storage basket; and (4) Misuse of the fuel processing facility to higher-purity TRU. The investigation identified several general 'sub-strategies' within the Breakout scenario, dependent upon the aggressiveness with which a State pursues its intent to break out (including its aversion to the risk of detection). The sub-strategy chosen by a proliferant state will affect both the time available and potential complexity for proliferation activities. The sub-strategy chosen is itself affected by political factors (foreign relations agenda of state, probability of external intervention after breakout, external dependence of proliferant state's supply chain, etc.) These factors

  2. Cognitive frames in psychology: demarcations and ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurevich, Andrey V

    2009-06-01

    As there seems to be a recurrent feeling of crisis in psychology, its present state is analyzed in this article. The author believes that in addition to the traditional manifestations that have dogged psychology since it emerged as an independent science some new features of the crisis have emerged. Three fundamental "ruptures" are identified: the "horizontal" rupture between various schools and trends, the "vertical" rupture between natural science and humanitarian psychology, and the "diagonal" rupture between academic research and applied practice of psychology. These manifestations of the crisis of psychology have recently been compounded by the crisis of its rationalistic foundations. This situation is described in terms of the cognitive systems in psychology which include meta-theories, paradigms, sociodigms and metadigms.

  3. Gestalt psychology: the forgotten paradigm in abnormal psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M; Uhlhaas, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    Gestalt views of psychopathology are almost completely ignored in mainstream psychology and psychiatry. However, a review of available evidence indicates a remarkable consistency between these views and current data from experimental psychopathology and cognitive neuroscience. This consistency is especially pronounced in the area of schizophrenia. In addition, there is a convergence of cognitive and neurobiological evidence regarding the validity of early Gestalt views of both normal brain-behavior relationships and disordered ones, as in schizophrenia. This article reviews some contributions of Gestalt psychology regarding schizophrenia and examines these views in light of more recent findings from cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and experimental psychopathology. We conclude that Gestalt theory is a viable theoretical framework from which to understand schizophrenia. Specifically, it appears that a breakdown of Gestalt organizational processes may characterize both the cognitive and the brain processes in schizophrenia.

  4. Big Questions Facing Vocational Psychology: A Cognitive Information Processing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Robert C.; Lenz, Janet G.; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon the authors' experience in developing cognitive information processing theory in order to examine three important questions facing vocational psychology and assessment: (a) Where should new knowledge for vocational psychology come from? (b) How do career theories and research find their way into practice? and (c) What is…

  5. Supporting the Basic Psychological Needs of Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangraw, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    A subtheory of self-determination theory, basic needs theory (BNT), examines the ways in which social-environmental factors interact with athletes' physical and psychological wellness. When the three psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness) identified in BNT are met in a sport setting, athletes' perceptions of well-being and…

  6. Positive Psychology and Positive Education: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    The recently fashionable theories of positive psychology have educational ramifications at virtually every level of engagement, culminating in the model of positive education. In this critical review, I scrutinize positive education as a potential theory in educational psychology. Special attention is given to conceptual controversies and…

  7. Dual Processes in the Psychology of Mathematics Education and Cognitive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Ellen; Van Dooren, Wim; Schaeken, Walter; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2009-01-01

    Research in the psychology of mathematics education has been confronted with the fact that people blatantly fail to solve tasks they are supposed to be able to solve correctly given their available domain-specific knowledge and skills. Also researchers in cognitive psychology have encountered such phenomena. In this paper, theories that have been…

  8. Critical Contributions of Piaget to Humanistic Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Russell N.

    Humanistic psychologists now embrace many of the same principles which served as the basis for Piaget's theory. These same theories were described earlier by John Locke and Immanuel Kant, and were the basis of the new "Humanism" movement in Germany in the 18th century. If one considers humanistic psychology as a kind of culmination of…

  9. Choice Theory: A New Psychology 0/ Personal Freedom. William Glasser. New York: Harper Perennial, 1998. The Language ofChoice Theory. William Glasser & Carleen Glasser. New York: Harper Perennial, 1999.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Novak

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available William Glasser has been around for a long time. For the last four decades he has been at the evolving forefront of the movement for therapeutic approaches to education. Starting out with a behavioural orientation in the 1960s, his first version of reality therapy was an intuitively rich but, by his own admission, a theoretically misguided perspective. At the end of that decade he applied this concept to creating "schools without failure" and gave new life to classroom meetings. In the 70s, with added enthusiasm, he extended his outlook and wrote about an identity society and the contentious concept of positive addictions as ways to move people towards pro-social behaviours. However, it was not until the 80s that he found a deeper theoretical orientation for his clinical intuitions. Disavowing his previous behaviourist perspective, he modified William Powers's (1973 cybernetic theory in order to develop a systematic perceptual approach to counselling (1981. This approach emphasized people's internal motivation and their desire to bring about a match between internal reference perceptions and external perceptions. Later that decade he applied this perceptual approach to education and management. In the early 90s he combined his perceptual approach with the born-again Deming movement and wrote about quality schools and teachers. Now, as that decade has come to an end, he has once again consolidated his theoretical work and become even more focused in its application.

  10. Psychology and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Nancy M.

    1985-01-01

    Considers recent efforts within the field of psychology to understand issues involving gender. Demonstrates patterns of development within feminist psychology and its relation to mainstream psychology. Examines status of the field, two case studies, and new research. (Author/SA)

  11. I Assumed You Knew: Teaching Assumptions as Co-Equal to Observations in Scientific Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Mead, C.; Anbar, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Introductory science curricula typically begin with a lesson on the "nature of science". Usually this lesson is short, built with the assumption that students have picked up this information elsewhere and only a short review is necessary. However, when asked about the nature of science in our classes, student definitions were often confused, contradictory, or incomplete. A cursory review of how the nature of science is defined in a number of textbooks is similarly inconsistent and excessively loquacious. With such confusion both from the student and teacher perspective, it is no surprise that students walk away with significant misconceptions about the scientific endeavor, which they carry with them into public life. These misconceptions subsequently result in poor public policy and personal decisions on issues with scientific underpinnings. We will present a new way of teaching the nature of science at the introductory level that better represents what we actually do as scientists. Nature of science lessons often emphasize the importance of observations in scientific work. However, they rarely mention and often hide the importance of assumptions in interpreting those observations. Assumptions are co-equal to observations in building models, which are observation-assumption networks that can be used to make predictions about future observations. The confidence we place in these models depends on whether they are assumption-dominated (hypothesis) or observation-dominated (theory). By presenting and teaching science in this manner, we feel that students will better comprehend the scientific endeavor, since making observations and assumptions and building mental models is a natural human behavior. We will present a model for a science lab activity that can be taught using this approach.

  12. A meta-analysis of the relationship between rational beliefs and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Horea-Radu; David, Daniel Ovidiu

    2018-06-01

     Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) model of psychological health assumes that rational beliefs cause functional emotions and adaptive behavior, but the presumed role of rational beliefs as protective factor against psychological distress/disorders is still in debate. An important step in validating an evidence-based therapy is to investigate the underling theoretical assumptions. Thus, the aim of the present meta-analysis is to investigate the direction and magnitude of the relationship between rational beliefs and psychological distress.  Our search identified 26 studies that met our criteria. We evaluated the effect size using the random-effects model and we tested the moderator role of several variables. The overall results revealed a medium negative association between rational beliefs and psychological distress, r = -0.31. The strongest association was found for unconditional acceptance beliefs (r = -0.41). The results add empirical evidence for the underling theory of REBT and revealed that the strength of the association between rational beliefs and distress is robust for a wide range of emotional problems. Therefore, rational beliefs could be a trans-diagnostic protective factor against distress. Moreover, results emphasized that rational beliefs type is an important factor, suggesting an increased focus in therapy on the developing of unconditional acceptance and self-acceptance beliefs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The importance of Franz Brentano's act-psychology / A importância da act-psychology de Franz Brentano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturnino Pesquero Ramón

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to redeem Franz Brentano's paternity of his Intentionality Theory, which sustains his act-psychology, which postulates, among other thesis, the indissociabitity between idea and action for explaining the specificity of human behavior. For that, he is considered one of the creators of modern psychology, as emancipated from philosophy. This assumption is subjacent to Psychoanalysis, Gestalt-Psychology and Cognitive-Phenomelogical Psychology.

  14. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  15. Sensitivity of Attitude Determination on the Model Assumed for ISAR Radar Mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, S.; Krag, H.

    2013-09-01

    Inverse synthetic aperture radars (ISAR) are valuable instrumentations for assessing the state of a large object in low Earth orbit. The images generated by these radars can reach a sufficient quality to be used during launch support or contingency operations, e.g. for confirming the deployment of structures, determining the structural integrity, or analysing the dynamic behaviour of an object. However, the direct interpretation of ISAR images can be a demanding task due to the nature of the range-Doppler space in which these images are produced. Recently, a tool has been developed by the European Space Agency's Space Debris Office to generate radar mappings of a target in orbit. Such mappings are a 3D-model based simulation of how an ideal ISAR image would be generated by a ground based radar under given processing conditions. These radar mappings can be used to support a data interpretation process. E.g. by processing predefined attitude scenarios during an observation sequence and comparing them with actual observations, one can detect non-nominal behaviour. Vice versa, one can also estimate the attitude states of the target by fitting the radar mappings to the observations. It has been demonstrated for the latter use case that a coarse approximation of the target through an 3D-model is already sufficient to derive the attitude information from the generated mappings. The level of detail required for the 3D-model is determined by the process of generating ISAR images, which is based on the theory of scattering bodies. Therefore, a complex surface can return an intrinsically noisy ISAR image. E.g. when many instruments on a satellite are visible to the observer, the ISAR image can suffer from multipath reflections. In this paper, we will further analyse the sensitivity of the attitude fitting algorithms to variations in the dimensions and the level of detail of the underlying 3D model. Moreover, we investigate the ability to estimate the orientations of different

  16. Towards an expansive hybrid psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2011-01-01

    sources of mediators that are the brain, the body, social practices and technological artefacts. It is argued that the mind is normative in the sense that mental processes do not simply happen, but can be done more or less well, and thus are subject to normative appraisal. The expanded hybrid psychology......This article develops an integrative theory of the mind by examining how the mind, understood as a set of skills and dispositions, depends upon four sources of mediators. Harré’s hybrid psychology is taken as a meta-theoretical starting point, but is expanded significantly by including the four...... is meant to assist in integrating theoretical perspectives and research interests that are often thought of as incompatible, among them neuroscience, phenomenology of the body, social practice theory and technology studies. A main point of the article is that these perspectives each are necessary...

  17. The argument from moral psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Milevski, Voin

    2015-01-01

    The argument from moral psychology is one of the strongest arguments that non-cognitivists use against cognitivism-the metaethical position according to which our moral judgements express beliefs. According to this argument, once we put together the Humean theory of motivation and motivational internalism, we yield the conclusion that cognitivism cannot represent the correct view about the semantic function of moral discourse. I will first attempt to show that a neurological syndrome, called ...

  18. Psychological Perspectives on Interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrij, Aldert; Meissner, Christian A; Fisher, Ronald P; Kassin, Saul M; Morgan, Charles A; Kleinman, Steven M

    2017-11-01

    Proponents of "enhanced interrogation techniques" in the United States have claimed that such methods are necessary for obtaining information from uncooperative terrorism subjects. In the present article, we offer an informed, academic perspective on such claims. Psychological theory and research shows that harsh interrogation methods are ineffective. First, they are likely to increase resistance by the subject rather than facilitate cooperation. Second, the threatening and adversarial nature of harsh interrogation is often inimical to the goal of facilitating the retrieval of information from memory and therefore reduces the likelihood that a subject will provide reports that are extensive, detailed, and accurate. Third, harsh interrogation methods make lie detection difficult. Analyzing speech content and eliciting verifiable details are the most reliable cues to assessing credibility; however, to elicit such cues subjects must be encouraged to provide extensive narratives, something that does not occur in harsh interrogations. Evidence is accumulating for the effectiveness of rapport-based information-gathering approaches as an alternative to harsh interrogations. Such approaches promote cooperation, enhance recall of relevant and reliable information, and facilitate assessments of credibility. Given the available evidence that torture is ineffective, why might some laypersons, policymakers, and interrogation personnel support the use of torture? We conclude our review by offering a psychological perspective on this important question.

  19. Psychology of anomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso Benbenaste

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomie is a phenomenon which not only affects daily life but also the quality of institutions and therefore, as studied by economic neo-institutionalism, the possibilities of economic development. So far the treatment of this phenomenon comes predominantly from the sociological theory. In the fi rst part of this paper we recognize some of Emile Durkheim´s contributions, adding Nino´s perspicacious comments as regards “anomia boba” (“dull anomie”.Then we describe, what makes the main purpose of this article, what we believe to be the basic psychological confi guration of a population in which anomie is not perceived as a negative value. That basic confi guration, which takes as a reference observations and data from our own research, consists of the following four characteristics-defi ned psychologically as regressive features: a The individual development represented as opposite to social interest; b tendency to represent the hierarchy as authoritarianism, where there is no difference between authority and authoritarianism; c the primarization of secondary links; d male chauvinism.

  20. Artificial Psychology: The Psychology of AI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Crowder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Having artificially intelligent machines that think, learn, reason, experience, and can function autonomously, without supervision, is one of the most intriguing goals in all of Computer Science. As the types of problems we would like machines to solve get more complex, it is becoming a necessary goal as well. One of the many problems associated with this goal is that what learning and reasoning are have so many possible meanings that the solution can easily get lost in the sea of opinions and options. The goal of this paper is to establish some foundational principles, theory, and concepts that we feel are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. With this fully autonomous, learning, reasoning, artificially intelligent system (an artificial brain, comes the need to possess constructs in its hardware and software that mimic processes and subsystems that exist within the human brain, including intuitive and emotional memory concepts. Presented here is a discussion of the psychological constructs of artificial intelligence and how they might play out in an artificial mind.

  1. Cognitive Theories and the Concept of Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhytaryuk Marian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The general aim of cognitivists - the attempt to compare logical and illogical, rational and irrational in the human behavior - can be considered as one of the main object not only in the psychology, but also in the journalism. If you don’t take into account assumed problems, the truth can be treated as a lie, an importance as an irrationality, an advantage as defects. In practice the ignorance of balancing, consonance and knowledge for the benefit of “must” turned round for tendentiousness, propaganda, manipulation, rationing of authoritarian and totalitarian models of journalism or for passing from journalistic standards in total. Therefore the article describes the spectrum of cognition in the context of modern Journalism and problems of Media practices, including the balance in journalism in terms of theories of consistency.

  2. Dismantling institutional racism: theory and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M; Mason, Mondi; Yonas, Michael; Eng, Eugenia; Jeffries, Vanessa; Plihcik, Suzanne; Parks, Barton

    2007-06-01

    Despite a strong commitment to promoting social change and liberation, there are few community psychology models for creating systems change to address oppression. Given how embedded racism is in institutions such as healthcare, a significant shift in the system's policies, practices, and procedures is required to address institutional racism and create organizational and institutional change. This paper describes a systemic intervention to address racial inequities in healthcare quality called dismantling racism. The dismantling racism approach assumes healthcare disparities are the result of the intersection of a complex system (healthcare) and a complex problem (racism). Thus, dismantling racism is a systemic and systematic intervention designed to illuminate where and how to intervene in a given healthcare system to address proximal and distal factors associated with healthcare disparities. This paper describes the theory behind dismantling racism, the elements of the intervention strategy, and the strengths and limitations of this systems change approach.

  3. 24 CFR 1000.24 - If an Indian tribe assumes environmental review responsibility, how will HUD assist the Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...? 1000.24 Section 1000.24 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.24 If an Indian tribe assumes...

  4. [Alfred Adler and the psychology of aesthetic surgery in the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, S L

    2002-01-01

    The quest for a psychological theory to explain the effects of aesthetic surgery reached its high point in the 1920s with the adoption of Alfred Adler's theory of the inferiority complex. The basis for this theory was Adler's early work in the psychological response of the body to disease and "degeneration". Aesthetic surgeons sought out the Adlerian model rather than a Freudian one as purely psychological while its roots, and their own theories, were clearly somatic in origin.

  5. A Brief History of the Development of Abnormal Psychology: A Training Guide. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, William R.

    Presented for practitioners is a history of the development of abnormal psychology. Areas covered include the following: Early medical concepts, ideas carried over from literature, early treatment of the mentally ill, development of the psychological viewpoint, Freud's psychoanalytic theory, Jung's analytic theory, the individual psychology of…

  6. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  8. Biocultural Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Joseph; Clasen, Mathias; Jonsson, Emelie

    2017-01-01

    Biocultural theory is an integrative research program designed to investigate the causal interactions between biological adaptations and cultural constructions. From the biocultural perspective, cultural processes are rooted in the biological necessities of the human life cycle: specifically human...... of research as contributions to a coherent, collective research program. This article argues that a mature biocultural paradigm needs to be informed by at least 7 major research clusters: (a) gene-culture coevolution; (b) human life history theory; (c) evolutionary social psychology; (d) anthropological...... forms of birth, growth, survival, mating, parenting, and sociality. Conversely, from the biocultural perspective, human biological processes are constrained, organized, and developed by culture, which includes technology, culturally specific socioeconomic and political structures, religious...

  9. The Journey Towards Africanising Psychology in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Oppong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychology has come a long way since its origin in Africa and Ghana in particular. In this paper, an attempt is made to explore the current state of psychological knowledge in Ghana as well as the associated problems in the application of such knowledge. It was concluded that the approach to the study and application of psychological knowledge and tests has been too Eurocentric and westernized. As a result, it limits the applicability of the approach to the African setting, and yet, Western theorists may expect African psychologists to apply the theories to Africans. On the basis of this criticism, the scope of Pan-African psychology is defined and suggestions for pursuing an Africanisation project are presented. It is expected that the strategies that this paper advocates for indigenizing psychology in Africa can equally be useful to psychologists in other developing regions of the world.

  10. Taking time seriously. A theory of socioemotional selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, L L; Isaacowitz, D M; Charles, S T

    1999-03-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory claims that the perception of time plays a fundamental role in the selection and pursuit of social goals. According to the theory, social motives fall into 1 of 2 general categories--those related to the acquisition of knowledge and those related to the regulation of emotion. When time is perceived as open-ended, knowledge-related goals are prioritized. In contrast, when time is perceived as limited, emotional goals assume primacy. The inextricable association between time left in life and chronological age ensures age-related differences in social goals. Nonetheless, the authors show that the perception of time is malleable, and social goals change in both younger and older people when time constraints are imposed. The authors argue that time perception is integral to human motivation and suggest potential implications for multiple subdisciplines and research interests in social, developmental, cultural, cognitive, and clinical psychology.

  11. Direct and Indirect Effects of Psychological Contract Breach on Academicians’ Turnover Intention in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Buyukyilmaz, Ozan; Cakmak, Ahmet F.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the assumed direct and indirect relationships between psychological contract breach and turnover intention through psychological contract violation and perceived organizational support. Data for the sample was collected from 570 academicians from a variety of universities in Turkey. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses. The results show that psychological contract breach was positively related to turnover intention and psycholog...

  12. Integrating and Analyzing Psychosocial and Stage Theories To Challenge the Development of the Injured Collegiate Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Laura L.

    2003-01-01

    Integrated a psychosocial developmental theory (the Kubler-Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Chickering and Reisser psychosocial and developmental theory) for challenging injured collegiate student-athletes' personal development. A search of online databases from…

  13. Cognitive psychology and depth psychology backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The sixth chapter gives an insight into the risk perception process which is highly determined by emotions, and, thus, deals with the psychological backgrounds of both the conscious cognitive and the subconscious intuitive realms of the human psyche. The chapter deals with the formation of opinion and the origination of an attitude towards an issue; cognitive-psychological patterns of thinking from the field of risk perception; the question of man's rationality; pertinent aspects of group behaviour; depth psychological backgrounds of the fear of technology; the collective subconscious; nuclear energy as a preferred object of projection for various psychological problems of modern man. (HSCH) [de

  14. History of development and modern condition of Chinese military psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr G. Karayani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Russian military psychology is actively analyzing the achievements gained over the years of its reform and with great interest turns to the military psychological experience of foreign armies. Acquaintance with this experience allows Russian military psychology to assess its place in the world military psychological science, to assess the dynamics and fidelity of the general direction of development. In this regard, it is quite interesting to get acquainted with the state, capabilities, and the most important guidelines for the development of the Chinese military psychology. Objective. The objective of this paper is to get acquainted with the invaluable experience of trial and error, ups and downs, stagnation and real breakthroughs, which can be learnt through getting acquainted with the history and modern functioning of the psychological structures of the Chinese army. Design. The paper considers the centuries-old history and a modern condition of military psychology in China. The methodological foundations of the Chinese military psychology are proved to be the philosophical ideas of Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism. Theoretical sources Chinese military psychology is rooted in the writings of the great thinkers and generals of ancient China – Sun Tzu, Wu Tzu, Zhuge Liang. The two most vigorously developing areas of military psychology: the psychological selection of military personnel, theory and practice of psychological warfare. The historical analysis of traditions and technologies development for the period of four thousand years is given. The development of psychological selection in the army of China was affected by cooperation with the American psychologists during the Second World War. The overall state and program approach to perfect the system of selecting military men using the psychology methods is underlined. Historical development tendencies and the Chinese paradigm of the theory and practice of psychological war

  15. Realizing the promise of social psychology in improving public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. Quantitative Psychology Research : The 80th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society, Beijing, 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ark, L.A.; Bolt, D.M.; Wang, W.-C.; Douglas, J.A.; Wiberg, M.

    2016-01-01

    The research articles in this volume cover timely quantitative psychology topics, including new methods in item response theory, computerized adaptive testing, cognitive diagnostic modeling, and psychological scaling. Topics within general quantitative methodology include structural equation

  17. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  18. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  19. Understanding Self-Controlled Motor Learning Protocols through the Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanli, Elizabeth A; Patterson, Jae T; Bray, Steven R; Lee, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT). Three micro-theories within the macro-theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory, and Organismic Integration Theory) are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  20. Understanding self-controlled motor learning protocols through the self determination theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Sanli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT. Three micro theories within the macro theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory & Organismic Integration Theory are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  1. A Method for The Assessing of Reliability Characteristics Relevant to an Assumed Position-Fixing Accuracy in Navigational Positioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Specht Cezary

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method which makes it possible to determine reliability characteristics of navigational positioning systems, relevant to an assumed value of permissible error in position fixing. The method allows to calculate: availability , reliability as well as operation continuity of position fixing system for an assumed, determined on the basis of formal requirements - both worldwide and national, position-fixing accuracy. The proposed mathematical model allows to satisfy, by any navigational positioning system, not only requirements as to position-fixing accuracy of a given navigational application (for air , sea or land traffic but also the remaining characteristics associated with technical serviceability of a system.

  2. General Psychological Implications of the Human Capacity for Grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2018-06-01

    Much theorizing in psychology and related disciplines begins with a given model of the mind that is then applied in research projects to study concrete phenomena. Sometimes psychological research can be theory-driven in quite an explicit way, approaching the logic of the hypothetico-deductive method. Others reject this and prefer to work inductively, and, in the extreme case of positivism, perhaps try to avoid theorizing altogether. In this article I shall suggest another way to think of the relationship between psychological theories and psychological phenomena. My suggestion is not simply to replace the hypothetico-deductive model with an inductive one, but to argue that the most direct route to theories of the human mind that grasp its complexity is to begin with the Kantian question of transcendental philosophy: X exists - how is X possible? In the context of this article, I apply this questioning to the phenomenon of grief: Grief exists - what general psychological theory of the mind do we need in order to account for its possibility? I attempt to extract three general psychological points from the existence of grief, viz. (1) the deep relationality of the self, (2) the limitations of evolutionary accounts, and (3) the normativity of psychological phenomena. I shall argue that these are general psychological lessons to be learned from grief, although they could also be arrived at by considering several other significant psychological phenomena.

  3. Psychological contracts of hospice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Audrey Elizabeth; Sambrook, Sally

    2010-12-01

    Psychological contracts have been described as individuals' beliefs regarding the obligations, expectations, and contributions that exist between them and their employer. They can be influenced by the organization's culture and philosophy, through human resources policies, and through the employee's personality and characteristics. Owing to the recent economic crisis, hospices in the UK are currently in a transitional phase and are being expected to demonstrate efficiencies that might be more in line with a business model than a health-care environment. This may conflict with the philosophical views of hospice nurses. To support nurses through this transition, it might be helpful to understand the antecedents of hospice nurses' behaviour and how they construct their psychological contracts. Failure to offer adequate support might lead to negative outcomes such as a desire to leave the organisation, poorer quality work, or disruptive behaviour. This study used a modified grounded theory approach involving in-depth interviews to explore the context and content of the psychological contracts of hospice nurses in the UK. Four main themes emerged: the types of psychological contracts formed, how the contracts are formed, their contents, and the breaches and potential violations the nurses perceive.

  4. Persistent misunderstandings of inclusive fitness and kin selection : Their ubiquitous appearance in social psychology textbooks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Justin H.

    2007-01-01

    Inclusive fitness theory and kin selection theory are among the most recognizable theories associated with evolutionary biology and psychology—they are also among the most widely misunderstood. The problem begins early, in undergraduate psychology textbooks. Here, ten social psychology textbooks

  5. 42 CFR 137.291 - May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.291 May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal environmental...

  6. 42 CFR 137.286 - Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal agencies when they assume these Federal environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal agencies... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.286 Do Self-Governance... Self-Governance Tribes are required to assume Federal environmental responsibilities for projects in...

  7. Beyond an Assumed Mother-Child Symbiosis in Nutritional Guidelines: The Everyday Reasoning behind Complementary Feeding Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    Researchers question the implications of the way in which "motherhood" is constructed in public health discourse. Current nutritional guidelines for Danish parents of young children are part of this discourse. They are shaped by an assumed symbiotic relationship between the nutritional needs of the child and the interest and focus of the…

  8. Quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    This introduction to the ideas and techniques of quantum field theory presents the material as simply as possible and is designed for graduate research students. After a brief survey of particle physics, the quantum theory of scalar and spinor fields and then of gauge fields, is developed. The emphasis throughout is on functional methods, which have played a large part in modern field theory. The book concludes with a bridge survey of ''topological'' objects in field theory and assumes a knowledge of quantum mechanics and special relativity

  9. Is Psychoanalysis a Folk Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arminjon, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Even as the neuro-psychoanalytic field has matured, from a naturalist point of view, the epistemological status of Freudian interpretations still remains problematic at a naturalist point of view. As a result of the resurgence of hermeneutics, the claim has been made that psychoanalysis is an extension of folk psychology. For these “extensionists,” asking psychoanalysis to prove its interpretations would be as absurd as demanding the proofs of the scientific accuracy of folk psychology. I propose to show how Dennett’s theory of the intentional stance allows us to defend an extensionist position while sparing us certain hermeneutic difficulties. In conclusion, I will consider how Shevrin et al. (1996) experiments could turn extensionist conceptual considerations into experimentally testable issues. PMID:23525879

  10. Challenging the Conceptual Limits in Health Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kasper Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This contribution explores the connection between health and subjectivity. Up until recently a marginally discussed topic in health theories, recent critical research in health psychology introduces notions of subjectivity to theories of health. These notions can be linked to phenomenology......, embodied subjectivity, and psychosocial theories that have moved away from a partial, internal understanding of subjectivity. These recent theories tend to define subjectivity as a coherence of concrete, embodied and situated subjectivity that extends capabilities and activities towards a world of social....... Hence, I will argue for the concept of conduct of life as an important concept for health psychology. The concept of conduct of life enables an analysis of how people conduct their activities and of their access to life possibilities, within social settings and societal power systems. The concept can...

  11. On integrating Jungian and other theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, David

    2015-09-01

    This paper consists of reflections on some of the processes, subtleties, and 'eros' involved in attempting to integrate Jungian and other analytic perspectives. Assimilation of other theoretical viewpoints has a long history in analytical psychology, beginning when Jung met Freud. Since its inception, the Journal of Analytical Psychology has provided a forum for theoretical syntheses and comparative psychoanalysis. Such attempts at synthesizing other theories represent analytical psychology itself trying to individuate. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  12. Exchange relationships: examining psychological contracts and perceived organizational support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline A-M; Conway, Neil

    2005-07-01

    The authors surveyed 347 public sector employees on 4 measurement occasions to investigate the conceptual distinctiveness of the psychological contract and perceived organizational support (POS) and how they are associated over time. Results support the distinctiveness of the 2 concepts. In terms of their interrelationships over time, by drawing on psychological contract theory the authors found little support for a reciprocal relationship between POS and psychological contract fulfillment. Under an alternative set of hypotheses, by drawing on organizational support theory and by separating psychological contract fulfillment into its 2 components (perceived employer obligations and inducements), the authors found that perceived employer inducements were positively related to POS, which, in turn, was negatively related to perceived employer obligations. The results suggest that POS and the components of psychological contract fulfillment are more important in predicting organizational citizenship behavior than psychological contract fulfillment. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Development and Application of Methods for Estimating Operating Characteristics of Discrete Test Item Responses without Assuming any Mathematical Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samejima, Fumiko

    In latent trait theory the latent space, or space of the hypothetical construct, is usually represented by some unidimensional or multi-dimensional continuum of real numbers. Like the latent space, the item response can either be treated as a discrete variable or as a continuous variable. Latent trait theory relates the item response to the latent…

  14. Historiography of Czech psychology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoskovcová, S.; Hoskovec, J.; Plháková, A.; Šebek, M.; Švancara, J.; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 309-334 ISSN 1093-4510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Czech psychologists * Czechoslovak psychology * ideologic influences on psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2010

  15. Teachers and Psychological Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, George W., Jr.

    The importance of the written psychological report is explored, and, in particular, its relationship to teachers' needs and requirements is discussed. Additionally, the characteristics of a "good" psychological report are listed, and teachers are advised to use these criteria in evaluating the psychological reports they are receiving. (Author)

  16. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  17. What is Political Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  18. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  19. Revealed Preference Theory, Rationality, and Neoclassical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revealed Preference Theory (Samuelson 1938) is an attempt to establish economic theory as a genuine empirical science by ridding it of nonempirical psychological concepts. Samuelson's goal was to rid economic theory of the last vestiges of utility analysis. Samuelson structured his theory on a set of preference axioms ...

  20. An introduction to string theory

    OpenAIRE

    West, Peter C

    1989-01-01

    These notes are based on lectures given by Michael Green during Part III of the Mathematics Tripos (the Certificate for Advanced Study in Mathematics) in the Spring of 2003. The course provided an introduction to string theory, focussing on the Bosonic string, but treating the superstring as well. A background in quantum field theory and general relativity is assumed. Some background in particle physics, group theory and conformal field theory is useful, though not essential. A number of appe...

  1. Decolonising Australian Psychology: Discourses, Strategies, and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Dudgeon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colonisation in Australia has had a devastating and lasting impact on the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia (herein referred to as Indigenous Australians. This paper discusses the role of psychology in Australia and the negative impact that certain disciplinary theories and practices have had on Indigenous Australians. The impact has been further exacerbated by the failure of mainstream policy makers and mental health practitioners to recognise the key, distinctive cultural and social determinants that contribute to Aboriginal health and wellbeing. There is a growing response by Aboriginal psychologists, critical social theorists, and their allies to decolonise psychological theory and practice to redress this situation. This paper outlines key decolonising strategies that have been effective in interrupting those aspects of psychology that are inimical to Aboriginal wellbeing.

  2. Amorphous gauge glass theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Bennett, D.L.

    1987-08-01

    Assuming that a lattice gauge theory describes a fundamental attribute of Nature, it should be pointed out that such a theory in the form of a gauge glass is a weaker assumption than a regular lattice model in as much as it is not constrained by the imposition of translational invariance; translational invariance is, however, recovered approximately in the long wavelength or continuum limit. (orig./WL)

  3. How Developments in Psychology and Technology Challenge Validity Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Validity is the sine qua non of properties of educational assessment. While a theory of validity and a practical framework for validation has emerged over the past decades, most of the discussion has addressed familiar forms of assessment and psychological framings. Advances in digital technologies and in cognitive and social psychology have…

  4. Teaching Function and Practice Thinking of Psychological Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weidong

    2010-01-01

    Psychology teaching was implemented in virtue of excellent psychological movies, which not only could help to stimulate students' interest, and make the abstract theory concretion and visualization, but also provide the scenes similar to the reality for students' learning with attempts to improve their learning achievement. However, as for the…

  5. Book Review MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY FOR AFRICA GAJ van Dyk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "Adelai van Heerden"

    Only through the exploration of contextually relevant research, can there be ... psychology in its contextual contribution, both in terms of theory and practice under ... development of tailor-made psychological plans to maintain the morale of ... These roles require specialist skills, attitudes and knowledge to bridge the gap (p.

  6. Formal Epistemology and New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeifer, Niki; Douven, Igor

    This position paper advocates combining formal epistemology and the new paradigm psychology of reasoning in the studies of conditionals and reasoning with uncertainty. The new paradigm psychology of reasoning is characterized by the use of probability theory as a rationality framework instead of

  7. Prior approval: the growth of Bayesian methods in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mark; Baguley, Thom

    2013-02-01

    Within the last few years, Bayesian methods of data analysis in psychology have proliferated. In this paper, we briefly review the history or the Bayesian approach to statistics, and consider the implications that Bayesian methods have for the theory and practice of data analysis in psychology.

  8. Exploring the Psychological Contract of the Canadian Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nordick, Glenn

    1999-01-01

    ... between the members of the Canadian Forces, the military leadership, and the Government of Canada. This paper uses the theory of psychological contracting to explore the culture of the Canadian Forces (CF...

  9. Commonsense Psychology and the Functional Requirements of Cognitive Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon, Andrew S

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we argue that previous models of cognitive abilities (e.g. memory, analogy) have been constructed to satisfy functional requirements of implicit commonsense psychological theories held by researchers and nonresearchers alike...

  10. School Counselors and Psychological Aspects of Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, David A.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an overview of some of the more common psychological theories and behavioral variables associated with learning disabilities. Reviews Adlerian Rational Emotive and behavioral and hypnotherapy approaches as intervention strategies for the counselor confronted with learning disabled students. (LLL)

  11. Expanding the Role for Psychology in Addressing Environmental Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clayton, Susan; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Swim, Janet; Bonnes, Mirilia; Steg, Linda; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Carrico, Amanda

    Environmental challenges, though daunting, present an important area for psychologists to apply their knowledge. Psychological theories, research methods, and interventions are essential for examining the questions about human impacts, tendencies, and capacities that are integral to constructing

  12. Critical Psychologies for Critical Health Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Health education is largely informed by psychological theories and practices that pursue reductionist views of people learning. However, critical attention is moving to understand health in ways that reconsider relationships to context and the forms of life within which everyday living takes place. This shift is apparent in theoretical…

  13. Suicide in Maine: A Social Psychological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbiati, David L.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a field study on five proximal social psychological variables derived from Farber's theory of suicide: Hope in the Future Time Perspective; Demands for Interpersonal Giving; the Availability of Succorance; Demands for the Exercising of Competence; and the degree of Toleration of Suicide. (Author)

  14. Impact of Psychological Needs on Luxury Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Mao (Ning); M.J. McAleer (Michael); S. Bai (Shuyu)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper examines the impact of psychological needs on luxury consumption. Veblen’s Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) invented the term “conspicuous consumption” to describe luxury goods and services, in which Veblen indicated the purpose of luxury consumption was to display

  15. Using History to Teach Contemporary Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beins, Bernard C.

    2011-01-01

    Gaining a perspective on the evolution of psychological concepts can show students the power of theory and societal perspective in shaping scientific ideas across time. In this article, the author uses two constructs, the broad concept of intelligence and the narrow concept of combat stress reaction, to illustrate how psychologists have grappled…

  16. A psychological lens on the acquisition process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.H. Reus (Taco)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe application of psychological theories to understand the world of business can be a fascinating exercise. Some might argue that an artificial legal entity and its administrative processes cannot be examined in the same way as humans and their behaviour can be. However, empirical

  17. Psychology or semiotics: persons or subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Cultural studies and especially semiological theory has recently sought to re-conceptualise classical problems considered in academic psychology such as perception, identity, and "subjectivity". It is argued that these theorizations are reductionist and/or theoretically incoherent without an adequate epistemology. Yet they have become for many students of the human sciences the conventional modes of analyzing such questions as personal identity.

  18. Semantique et psychologie (Semantics and Psychology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ny, Jean-Francois

    1975-01-01

    Semantic activities constitute a sub-class of psychological activities; from this point of departure the article discusses such topics as: idiosyncrasies, meaning and causality, internal determinants, neo-associationism, componential theories, noun- and verb-formation, sentences and propositions, semantics and cognition, mnemesic compontents, and…

  19. Psychological Flexibility, ACT, and Organizational Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2006-01-01

    This paper offers organizational behavior management (OBM) a behavior analytically consistent way to expand its analysis of, and methods for changing, organizational behavior. It shows how Relational Frame Theory (RFT) suggests that common, problematic, psychological processes emerge from language itself, and they produce psychological…

  20. An introduction to contemporary work psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.C.W.; Jonge, de J.; Taris, Toon W.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive overview of work psychology, with coverage of classic models, current theories, and contemporary issues affecting the 21st-century worker. Examines the positive aspects of work–motivation, performance, creativity, and engagement—instead of focusing only on adverse