Most individuals participate in some of the rituals and/or regular activities of religious institutions such as churches or synagogues. Through such involvements, people are offered vital assistance in dealing with developmental changes, opportunities for personal development and for group support, and more generally, a sense of continuity and of meaning in life. This paper deals with only one small aspect of Jewish observance, an aspect of the centuries-old required weekly prayer groups-the minyan. The prime emphasis resides in the rarely recognized, nonliturgical dimension of this small group experience. Using psychoanalysis in the sense of a general psychology as background, I have considered the minyan as combining elements of a psychological support system and of a small group. In addition to the gratification of affiliative needs (social hunger) and the countering of loneliness and of isolation, this group experience helps its members maintain an intergenerational sense of personal identity and of self-esteem. In the face of marked life stressors such as death in the family, religious institutions such as the minyan, with its prescribed ritual steps for grieving (i.e., kaddish), fulfill especially significant preventive and restitutive mental health functions. I have also hypothesized that on a covert, fantasy level, the caring and nurturing family-like weekday minyan may even represent a mother-symbol (mother group) in line with people's universal need to establish a psychological union with others, thus restoring an earlier, conflict-free state of the child-mother bond. In an extended societal sense, the earlier emphasis in Western cultures on the virtual worship of individuality, autonomy, and independence has given way recently to a renewed appreciation of cooperation, communalism, and altruism. The minyan, as a small religious communal aggregate with its inherent climate of mutuality, reciprocity, and continuity, has, in a sense, anticipated these new
Fiorini, Rodolfo A; De Giacomo, Piero; L'Abate, Luciano
Reliably expanding our clinical practice and lowering our overhead with telepsychiatry, telepsychology, distance counseling and online therapy, requires resilient and antifragile system and tools. When utilized appropriately these technologies may provide greater access to needed services to include more reliable treatment, consultation, supervision, and training. The wise and proper use of technology is fundamental to create and boost outstanding social results. We present, as an example, the main steps to achieve application resilience and antifragility at system level, for diagnostic and therapeutic telepractice and telehealth support, devoted to psychiatry and psychology application. This article presents a number of innovations that can take psychotherapy treatment, supervision, training, and research forward, towards increased effectiveness application.
Svetlák, M; Suchý, A
Health care professionals, especially those working in cancer care, represent a subgroup of helping professions that requires special psychological care. Recent findings clearly show that a lack of regular psychological care for oncologists and oncology nurses leads to higher rate of psychiatric and physical illness, poorer quality of life, higher employee fluctuation rates and lower quality of provided medical care. In spite of this, the special psychological care for cancer care professionals is still lacking and theoretical and practical level of their undergraduate and postgraduate education in psychology does not satisfy the demands of clinical practice. Regular group meetings seem to be an effective way of psychological care. They provide an opportunity for the participants to view own problems from a distance and to seek new options. It allows them to gain new insights from the discussed situations and to get support or feedback from colleagues. Regular group meetings also represent a key component of self-care and it is an important preventive factor of exhaustion that has been shown to cause medical or personal misconducts. In this context, the aim of the present paper is to describe the basic theoretical background for regular group meetings of oncologists and oncology nurses and to refer about the current practice within the Czech health care system.
Carney-Crompton, Shawn; Tan, Josephine
Comparison of traditional (aged 18-22) and nontraditional (35-44) female college students (21 each) showed that traditional students had poorer psychological functioning (more depression and anxiety) when less satisfied with emotional support. Psychological functioning of nontraditional students was independent of emotional and instrumental…
Horwitz, Briana N.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Charles, Susan T.
Emotional support from family and friends is associated with lower psychological distress. This study examined whether genetic and environmental influences explain associations among family support, friend support, and psychological distress. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study and included 947 pairs of MZ, same-sex DZ, and opposite-sex DZ twins. Results showed that a genetic factor explains the relationship between friend support and psychological ...
Светлана Анатольевна Калашникова
Full Text Available This work is aimed to determine the content characteristic of interaction of a child with disabilities and his living environment, psychological analysis of the options for the child development in different types of this interaction. It is based on the principles of system analysis. Child development is presented as a process and the result of interaction between the system components "child with disabilities – living environment". Interaction is considered in terms of compliance, non-compliance of system components.The article identifies the types of system interactions "special child – living environment" (adaptive, developing, maladaptive, deforming and gives their content characteristics. Integrative potential is considered as a condition, the result and complete description of the system "special child – living environment". It includes the personal potential possibilities of a child with disabilities and the resources of living environment according to the child’s needs. The presented model is applicable to the analysis of family or education environment of disabled child to create and carry out the individual program of child development and creation of optimal conditions for the socialization and integration.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-13
Kalashnikova Svetlana Anatolyevna
Full Text Available This work is aimed to determine the content characteristic of interaction of a child with disabilities and his living environment, psychological analysis of the options for the child development in different types of this interaction. It is based on the principles of system analysis. Child development is presented as a process and the result of interaction between the system components "child with disabilities – living environment". Interaction is considered in terms of compliance, non-compliance of system components. The article identifies the types of system interactions "special child – living environment" (adaptive, developing, maladaptive, deforming and gives their content characteristics. Integrative potential is considered as a condition, the result and complete description of the system "special child – living environment". It includes the personal potential possibilities of a child with disabilities and the resources of living environment according to the child’s needs. The presented model is applicable to the analysis of family or education environment of disabled child to create and carry out the individual program of child development and creation of optimal conditions for the socialization and integration.
This is a book about systems, including: systems in which humans control machines; systems in which humans interact with humans and the machine component is relatively unimportant; systems which are heavily computerized and those that are not; and governmental, industrial, military and social systems. The book deals with both traditional systems like farming, fishing and the military, and with systems just now tentatively emerging, like the expert and the interactive computer system. The emphasis is on the system concept and its implications for analysis, design and evaluation of these many di
Fleming, Pete; King, Lorraine; Royle, Jane
A service evaluation was performed exploring nurses' perceptions of a clinical psychology facilitated peer support group in a spinal injury rehabilitation setting. To determine whether staff found the meetings useful while, more broadly, to highlight the need to support and supervise nursing staff in psychological care appropriately. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to the 30 members of staff who worked on the ward. Seventeen questionnaires were returned (57%). Data was analysed using thematic analysis. The meetings were viewed as a place to discuss issues, and a safe protected space to share stresses. Staff felt the meetings aided team cohesion and helped them share ideas and draw up clinical strategies. Meetings aided stress management and confidence building. Staff considered the meetings to increase their psychological awareness and understanding. Staff involved in the acute care and rehabilitation of spinal injured patients are consistently exposed to highly demanding and stressful clinical environments. Support meetings where staff can discuss patient and ward issues are invaluable. Other clinical nursing areas would benefit from similar support systems.
In this research, to what extent the variables of perceived social support (family, friends and special people) and assertiveness predicted the psychological well-being levels of candidate psychological counselors. The research group of this study included totally randomly selected 308 candidate psychological counselors including 174 females…
Objective: The current study sought to investigate the association between age, gender, social support and the psychological wellbeing of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLHA) in Ghana. Method: Cross-sectional data containing information on demographics, social support and psychological well-being (stress, ...
Behrens, Troy T.
This document notes that the academic and emotional needs of undergraduates planning their futures in psychology are not often addressed. It proposes self-help support groups as a means of alleviating the tension and stress faced by psychology majors. The model for the support group described in this paper is adapted from Yalom's (1985) 11…
Dures, Emma; Almeida, Celia; Caesley, Judy; Peterson, Alice; Ambler, Nicholas; Morris, Marianne; Pollock, Jon; Hewlett, Sarah
The consequences of inflammatory arthritis can include depression, anxiety and low mood, reducing patients' quality of life and increasing pressure on the healthcare system. Treatment guidelines recommend psychological support, but data are lacking on the provision available. A postal survey concerning psychological support provision was sent to rheumatology units in 143 acute trusts across England. Nurses from 73 rheumatology units (51%) responded. Overall, 73% rated their unit's psychological support provision as 'inadequate' and only 4% rated it as 'good'. Few units believed that psychological support did not fall within their remit (12%), yet only 8% had a psychologist in the team. Most units (68%) did not routinely screen patients to identify psychological difficulties. Referral to other service providers was reported in 42% of units, with 3% very satisfied with this provision. Within units, services containing elements of psychological support ranged from occupational therapy (81%) to psychology/counselling (14%). Psychological approaches used by team members ranged from shared decision making (77%) to cognitive-behavioural approaches (26%). The current barriers to providing psychological support were lack of clinical time and available training (86% and 74%, respectively), and delivery costs (74%). Future facilitators included management support (74%) and availability of skills training (74%). Rheumatology units viewed psychological support provision as part of their remit but rated their overall provision as inadequate, despite some team members using psychological skills. To improve provision, clinicians' training needs must be addressed and organizational support generated, and further research needs to define adequate psychological support provision from the patient perspective. © 2014 The Authors. Musculoskeletal Care published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Henry , Man-Machine System Experiments. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press , 1972. Parsons , Talcott , Structure and Process in Modern Societies, The Free...B146-155, Dec. 1965. Heany, D. F. , " Education - The Critical Link in Getting Managers to Use Management Systems." Interfaces, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 1...34Toward a Psychological Theory of Education ," of Humanistic Psychology, Vol. IX, No. 1, pp. 17-52, 1969. Mogni, Ben , "The Computer’s Role in Marketing
A. V. Starkov
Full Text Available The essence of medical and psychological support is a continuous monitoring of functional and mental state of specialists and the system of mental health interventions aimed at maintaining the optimal level of occupational performance. The scientific basis of this direction is the idea of an integrated system of professional psychological and physiological adaptation in normal conditions, in condition of pre-pathology and pathology. Psychophysiological (professional and psychological examination of specialists is an integral part of medical and psychological support, and presents a set of measures aimed at in-depth study of individual psychological characteristics of personality and evaluation of the specialists' organism functional reserves in the process of their occupational duties implementation to determine the conformity of their professionally important qualities to the requirements of specific occupational activity.
The study investigated stress events, perceived stress and social support in relation to various common health behaviours among black South African students. The sample included 624 students: 314 Grade 12 Secondary school students and 310 third year social science university students in South Africa. The study found ...
van der Zee, KI; Buunk, BP; Sanderman, R
Social support seems to be positively related to psychological well-being. Studies have shown that individual differences exist in the ability to mobilize and use sources of support. The current study focused on locus of control as a personality factor that might be related to this ability, In 2
Members of the helping professions are not immune from physical or psychological impairments that interfere with competent and ethical practice. The types of problems faced by psychologists and the help offered by one support program are presented. The purpose of the Psychologist Support Program (PSP) of the Ontario (Canada) Psychological…
Argon, Türkan; Ekinci, Serkan
This study aimed to determine the relationship between secondary school teachers' view regarding Organizational Support and Psychological Contract Violation. The study conducted with relational screening model included 230 secondary school teachers employed in Bolu central district in 2014-2015 academic year. Perceived Organizational Support Scale…
Schrank, B; Brownell, T; Tylee, A; Slade, M
This paper reviews the literature on positive psychology with a special focus on people with mental illness. It describes the characteristics, critiques, and roots of positive psychology and positive psychotherapy, and summarises the existing evidence on positive psychotherapy. Positive psychology aims to refocus psychological research and practice on the positive aspects of experience, strengths, and resources. Despite a number of conceptual and applied research challenges, the field has rapidly developed since its introduction at the turn of the century. Today positive psychology serves as an umbrella term to accommodate research investigating positive emotions and other positive aspects such as creativity, optimism, resilience, empathy, compassion, humour, and life satisfaction. Positive psychotherapy is a therapeutic intervention that evolved from this research. It shows promising results for reducing depression and increasing well-being in healthy people and those with depression. Positive psychology and positive psychotherapy are increasingly being applied in mental health settings, but research evidence involving people with severe mental illness is still scarce. The focus on strengths and resources in positive psychology and positive psychotherapy may be a promising way to support recovery in people with mental illness, such as depression, substance abuse disorders, and psychosis. More research is needed to adapt and establish these approaches and provide an evidence base for their application.
Westermann, Jürgen; Lange, Tanja; Textor, Johannes; Born, Jan
Sleep benefits the consolidation of psychological memory, and there are hints that sleep likewise supports immunological memory formation. Comparing psychological and immunological domains, we make the case for active system consolidation that is similarly established in both domains and partly
Westermann, J.; Lange, T.; Textor, J.C.; Born, J. van den
Sleep benefits the consolidation of psychological memory, and there are hints that sleep likewise supports immunological memory formation. Comparing psychological and immunological domains, we make the case for active system consolidation that is similarly established in both domains and partly
Burns, Matthew K.; Warmbold-Brann, Kristy; Zaslofsky, Anne F.
Ecological systems theory (EST) has been suggested as a framework to provide effective school psychology services, but previous reviews of research found questionable consistency between methods and the principles of EST. The current article reviewed 349 articles published in "School Psychology Review" (SPR) between 2006 and 2015 and…
Addonizio, Frank Patrick
The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship among sources and levels of stress, coping patterns, sources and levels of social support, and psychological distress for MSW students. Stress is a common feeling experienced by people throughout life and it is important to understand the way they cope with their stressors. Most of the…
Medin, Douglas L
Psychological science is increasingly diverse in the tools available for research and the questions it is able to ask. But this potential is seriously limited by a lack of diversity in study populations, in situations and contexts explored, and in the researchers themselves. The current situation is problematic and difficult to change because of niche construction processes that favor the status quo. Systems level changes are needed to support a healthy psychological science.
Lee, Carol Hj; Duck, Isabelle M; Sibley, Chris G
To explore the distribution of New Zealanders' support towards the legalisation of euthanasia and examine demographic and psychological factors associated with these attitudes. 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) survey. This survey included an item on people's attitudes towards euthanasia, and information on their demographic and psychological characteristics. The majority of New Zealanders expressed support for euthanasia, which was assessed by asking "Suppose a person has a painful incurable disease. Do you think that doctors should be allowed by law to end the patient's life if the patient requests it?" Non-religious, liberal, younger, employed, non-parents and those living in rural areas were more supportive. Those of Pacific or Asian ethnicity, with lower income and higher deprivation, education and socio-economic status were less supportive. Furthermore, those high on extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism showed more support, while those high on agreeableness and honesty-humility exhibited less support. There is strong public support for euthanasia when people are asked whether doctors should be allowed by law to end the life of a patient with a painful incurable disease upon their request. There are reliable demographic and personality differences in support for euthanasia.
Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.
A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member. 7 figs.
Nijsse, G.J.P.; Spronck, J.W.
There is described a support system enabling supporting an object such as a platform (1) free from vibration, in that bearing elements (50) have a stiffness (k) which at a working point (z0) equals zero. A bearing element (50) comprises two magnetic couplings (51, 52) provided by permanent magnets
Program which can improve early support of the combined F4B (Navy)/F4C (AF) Program, and other weapon system programs. The findings, in general, in the...F4 aircraft program support those found in the TITAN II Missile Program which are being implemented by the Air Force, i.e., the value of the use of the...provisioning team concept and of a reduction in the lay-in time of spare parts. There appears to be a requirement for stronger intra-Service support of the aircraft leading to possible economic inter-Service support . (Author)
Briki, Walid; den Hartigh, Ruud; Markman, Keith; Gernigon, Christophe
Objective:The present study examined changes in sport supporters’ psychological momentum (PM) during a simulated cycling competition through the lens of the dynamical systems approach. Design:Participants were asked to support one of two competing cyclists involved in a race that was displayed on a
Winefield, H R; Winefield, A H; Tiggemann, M
A large sample (N = 483) of community-living adults (M age = 23.6 years) responded to questions about the frequency and adequacy of emotional, practical, and informational support during the past month from three sources-confidants, peers, and supervisors-using the Multi-Dimensional Support Scale. Factor analysis was used to distinguish meaningful regularities in item responses, and the resulting five scales have high internal reliability. Scores correlated significantly with measures of self-esteem, depressive affect, and psychological disturbance according to the General Health Questionnaire. To investigate what contribution support measures could make to the prediction of psychological well-being, hierarchical regression analyses were carried out with stressors entered first and support scores entered second. As expected, respondents' psychological well-being was related to their level of life stress; however, the addition of social support measures doubled the explained variance in measures of psychological well-being. The support measure with the strongest association with well-being was the frequency of supportive behaviors toward the respondent by close family and friends.
Kisić, Tatjana; Konstantinidis, Nada; Kolarović, Jovanka; Kaćanski, Natasa
A family of a child with cancer needs continuous help and support from medical and other professionals, relatives, friends and community at the moment of making diagnosis and during the treatment. The goal of this study was to find out the most frequent sources of individual or community based psychological support, reported by parents of children suffering from malignant diseases. We focused on the help received at the moment of making diagnosis and within the first and second year of treatment. We analyzed data obtained by a questionnaire specially designed for parents of children suffering from different malignancies. The poll was conducted from April 2007 till October 2009 at the Hematology/Oncology Department of Children's Hospital of Novi Sad and it included 72 parents of both sexes, whose children were treated at our Department in the period from 2007 to 2009. The children were of different age. The parents selected the following forms of support as the most important: support given by the emotional partner and other family members (together with sick and healthy child), communication with and accessibility of hospital stuff (physicians at the first place, but also psychologists, nurses, other parents, support groups...). They also expressed their need for contacting friends, relatives and other close people. The selected forms of support are extremely important for the patients (regardless of age) and for their family. All forms of organized and professionally conducted psycho-social support of patients and their family result in higher quality of psychological survival during the treatment and further rehabilitation of patients after rejoining their primary social environment. Family is the primary and the most important social surrounding within which disease both happens and is resolved. Adequate support can help family to overcome such crises, thus leading to the positive outcome.
Jørgensen, L.N.; Noe, E.; Langvad, A.M.
by these three groups to make their decisions varies and therefore different ways of using decision support systems need to be provided. Decision support systems need to be developed in close dialogue and collaboration with user groups.......The highly complex knowledge of scientific disciplines makes nuanced analysis and modelling possible. However, the information produced often does not reach farmers because it is presented in a way that does not correspond to the way their work is carried out in practice. The decision support...... 1000 farmers). A sociological investigation of farmers' decision-making styles in the area of crop protection has shown that arable farmers can be divided into three major groups: (a) system-orientated farmers, (b) experience-based farmers and (c) advisory-orientated farmers. The information required...
Ripamonti, Carla; Borreani, Claudia; Maruelli, Alice; Proserpio, Tullio; Pessi, Maria Adelaide; Miccinesi, Guido
Spiritual and religious needs are part of a patient's clinical history. The aim of the study was to validate the System of Belief Inventory (SBI-15R) in Italy. It is a feasible way to collect useful information on spiritual needs and resources of patients at any stage of the disease. After the translation procedure, the psychometric properties of the Italian version of SBI-15R were evaluated in patients with non-advanced cancer cared for in four care settings. All patients were administered the Italian version of SBI-15R together with an hoc item inquiring about spirituality--"I believe I am a spiritual person", which was supposed to be correlated with the SBI-15R score. A total of 257 patients were enrolled (mean age, 53.6 years; 191 females, 50% breast cancers, 12% had mestastases). As regards spirituality and religious beliefs, 47.9% were churchgoers; 42% believers but not churchgoers, and 7.8% non-believers; 86.7% of the patients were catholic. The construct validity was high both for the Belief Scale (Cronbach alpha = 0.946) and for the Support Scale (Cronbach alpha = 0.897). The mean (+/- SD) SBI-15R scores of the different groups of patients (known-groups validity) for the "Support" scale was 9.7 (+/- 3.4) for churchgoers, 4.9 (+/- 3.2) for believers non-churchgoers, and 0.8 (+/- 1.4) for non-believers (P scale, it was 25.4 (+/- 4.8) for churchgoers, 18.1 (+/- 6.3) for believers non-churchgoers, and 3.4 (+/- 3.5) for non-believers (P scale was 0.890 (0.841; 0.939 95% CI) and for the "Belief" scale was 0.969 (0.955; 0.984 95% CI). The correlation between the statement "I believe I am a spiritual person" and the SBI-15R scores was 0.475 for the "Support" scale and 0.473 for the "Belief" scale." The Italian version of SBI-15R is a valid and reliable assessment tool to evaluate religiousness and spirituality in cancer patients.
Romero, Daniel H; Riggs, Shelley A; Ruggero, Camilo
With rising numbers of student veterans on today's college campuses, multicultural competence in college counseling centers increasingly includes an understanding of military culture and its relation to the psychological health and functioning of student veterans. Research on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with college student veterans' mental health is scarce. The current study examines the contributions of coping style and family social support on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in a student veteran sample. We also tested the moderating role of family social support in the relationship between coping style and psychological symptoms. Data from 136 student veterans were analyzed by using path analysis. Results revealed that avoidant coping and family social support significantly predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Avoidant coping also significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. In addition, findings indicated that family social support moderated the relationship between problem-focused coping and depression, as well as between avoidant coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression but not posttraumatic stress. Implications of results for college and university counselors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Lee Anderson; Jerry Mosier; Geoffrey Chandler
The Visual Management Support System (VMSS) is an extension of an existing computer program called VIEWIT, which has been extensively used by the U. S. Forest Service. The capabilities of this program lie in the rapid manipulation of large amounts of data, specifically opera-ting as a tool to overlay or merge one set of data with another. VMSS was conceived to...
Maryam Sedaqat Far
Full Text Available The modern world with all the blessings of easier and more pleasant life is a world full of unsolved contradictions and complexities. industrialization of communities, the expansion of class gap and poverty, lack of proper management systems, lack of proper sanitation and lack of access to home and many other things have caused irreparable social damage on the body of society. One of these injuries is the problem of sexual violence against women and rape and deliberate and widespread harassment of women in different environments, including enterprises, community, neighborhood, streets and more. Rape is a wrong act and is punished hard in the Iranian criminal law or social convention. Yet, in the meantime, the women affected by this type of sexual violence not only do not enjoy the legal protections but also face identity crisis due to participation in family and community. So the issue of Psychiatric and psychological support for the female victims should be put on the priority of law and women's rights organization committed to ending violence. Methods: this study has been conducted via descriptive and analytical method and library and Internet tools. To describe the psychiatric and psychological support to reduce the psychological effects incurred to female victim in the crime of rape, female victims were interviewed using a case study. To complete the obtained information and analyze research findings using interview, some of the findings of provincial criminal court judges, public courts prosecutors, psychologists and psychiatrists were examined. Finding: The best legal action in support of women victim is psychiatric and psychological supports for these women in safe houses. Women who are suffering from this scourge often commit suicide or live with the fear of this event or their natural life is seriously disrupted. Therefore, it is incumbent on legislators to approve strong support rules in helping and supporting the victim and raped
Kitchingman, Taneile A; Wilson, Coralie J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian; Woodward, Alan
In order to respond to crises with appropriate intervention, crisis workers are required to manage their own needs as well as the needs of those they respond to. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine whether telephone crisis support workers experience elevated symptoms of psychological distress and are impaired by elevated symptoms. Studies were identified in April 2015 by searching three databases, conducting a gray literature search, and forward and backward citation chaining. Of 113 identified studies, seven were included in the review. Results suggest that that telephone crisis support workers experience symptoms of vicarious traumatization, stress, burnout, and psychiatric disorders, and that they may not respond optimally to callers when experiencing elevated symptoms of distress. However, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn due to the paucity and methodological limitations of available data. While the most comprehensive search strategy possible was adopted, resource constraints meant that conference abstracts were not searched and authors were not contacted for additional unpublished information. There is an urgent need to identify the impact of telephone crisis support workers' role on their well-being, the determinants of worker well-being in the telephone crisis support context, and the extent to which well-being impacts their performance and caller outcomes. This will help inform strategies to optimize telephone crisis support workers' well-being and their delivery of support to callers.
The peer review and journal system have shortcomings, and both computers and the Internet have made complementary or alternative systems attractive. In this article, I recommend that we implement a new platform for open communication of psychological science on a dedicated website to complement the current review and journal system, with reader reviews of the articles and with all behavioral scientists being eligible to publish and review articles. The judged merit of articles would be based on the citations and the ratings of the work by the whole scientific community. This online journal will be quicker, more democratic, and more informative than the current system. Although the details of the system should be debated and formulated by a committee of scientists, adding this online journal to the existing publications of a society such as the Association for Psychological Science has few risks and many possible gains. An online journal deserves to be tried and assessed.
Stoyer, Michael Ryan
This study examined the relationship between course pedagogy and supportive group factors with variables of multicultural competency and multicultural counseling self-efficacy at the completion of a multicultural psychology course. The participants were students in graduate clinical psychology, counseling psychology, and school psychology programs…
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the socio-psychological support and re-socialization of adolescents who are in conflict with the law. Effective conditions for social and psychological support and re-socialization of adolescents in the situation of the offense, according to the authors, is directly related to the response mechanisms of the state and society on juvenile delinquency. Therefore, this article focuses on the analysis of different ways to respond to juvenile delinquency in the Russian and foreign governmental systems. A separate section is devoted to the practice of restorative justice, which is implemented on the border of the legal, social, educational and psychological areas and is an important component of social and psychological support to the teenager in the situation of the offense and a valuable resource to support system and creating conditions for the re-socialization of juvenile offenders
Beeler, Patrick Emanuel; Bates, David Westfall; Hug, Balthasar Luzius
Clinical decision support (CDS) systems link patient data with an electronic knowledge base in order to improve decision-making and computerised physician order entry (CPOE) is a requirement to set up electronic CDS. The medical informatics literature suggests categorising CDS tools into medication dosing support, order facilitators, point-of-care alerts and reminders, relevant information display, expert systems and workflow support. To date, CDS has particularly been recognised for improving processes. CDS successfully fostered prevention of deep-vein thrombosis, improved adherence to guidelines, increased the use of vaccinations, and decreased the rate of serious medication errors. However, CDS may introduce errors, and therefore the term "e-iatrogenesis" has been proposed to address unintended consequences. At least two studies reported severe treatment delays due to CPOE and CDS. In addition, the phenomenon of "alert fatigue" - arising from a high number of CDS alerts of low clinical significance - may facilitate overriding of potentially critical notifications. The implementation of CDS needs to be carefully planned, CDS interventions should be thoroughly examined in pilot wards only, and then stepwise introduced. A crucial feature of CPOE in combination with CDS is speed, since time consumption has been found to be a major factor determining failure. In the near future, the specificity of alerts will be improved, notifications will be prioritised and offer detailed advice, customisation of CDS will play an increasing role, and finally, CDS is heading for patient-centred decision support. The most important research question remains whether CDS is able to improve patient outcomes beyond processes.
Woody, William Douglas
William Douglas Woody completed his doctoral work at Colorado State University and is now Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of Northern Colorado. He teaches and conducts research in the areas of psychology and the law, social psychology, and history and systems of psychology. He is the recipient of regional and national teaching…
種市, 康太郎; 大塚, 泰正; 小杉, 正太郎
This study examined the effects of job event stressors and social support on psychological stress reactions. A total of 2,873 male employees in an industrial research institute completed a Job Events Check List (including job event stressors) and a Job Stress Scale (including social support and psychological stress reactions). Results showed that work support had buffering effects on 5 of the 14 relationships between job event stressors and psychological stress reactions. Non-work support had...
Zhao, Qian; Chen, Haoyang; Yan, Hongyan; He, Yan; Zhu, Li; Fu, WenTing; Shen, Biyu
This study aimed (i) to complement existing research by focusing on body image disturbance issues in Chinese Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) patients; (ii) to investigate how Chinese patients make sense of disease diagnosis and perceived cultural influences within the context of their SLE. A total of 118 SLE patients underwent standardized laboratory examinations and completed several questionnaires. Independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Chi-square test, and multivariate analysis using backward stepwise logistic regression model were used to analyze these data. We found 18.3% SLE patients had BID, which were significantly higher than the control group (.8%). SLE patients are more concerned about their physical changes caused by disease. There were significant correlations among personal health insurance, complication of diabetes, appearance of new rash, depression, anxiety, self-esteem and BID in patients with SLE. Meanwhile, logistic regression analysis revealed that appearance of new rash and high anxiety were significantly associated with BID in SLE patients. In conclusion, it is beneficial to pay attention to the physical and mental health of patients with rheumatic disease from the perspective of body image, to understand their needs and to provide effective and effective service for them.
Full Text Available The Parent Child Psychological Support Program (PCPS was established in an area of South West Dublin in 2001. Since then until May 2008 it has offered its services to over 700 children and their parents. This preventative, parenting support service is available to all parents of children aged 3 to 18 months within its catchment area. During periodical visits, the infant’s development and growth are measured and parents receive specific information about their child’s progress. Parents are empowered in their parenting practices, thus promoting consistency and synchrony in parent-child interaction. Between 2001 and 2006, 538 parents and their infants participated in the Program. Out of these cases, 130 (24.16% were considered to require additional support and were included in the Monthly Meeting Case Review (MM based on initial concerns The aims of this study were: 1. to review the first five years of MM cases and to explore the socio-demographic profile of the MM cases in comparison to those not in need of additional support (non-MM and 2. To illustrate an approach to refining the case review process which will inform practice and provides the service providers with better understanding of the early detection of parent-child relation difficulties. In pursuing this goal the cases screened over five years of practice were analyzed to explore the structure of the different factors by using statistical techniques of data reduction, i.e. factor analysis. The results showed that the MM group differed on several socio-demographic dimensions from the non-MM group and there was a four factor structure underlying the case review decision process. Implications of this research are discussed.
Ai, Hongshan; Hu, Junmin
This study examined the moderator effect of psychological resilience on the relationship between social support and loneliness of the "left-behind" children. A total of 200 left-behind girls and 214 left-behind boys completed the measures of psychological resilience, social support, and loneliness. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that psychological resilience moderated the association between social support and loneliness. When left-behind children reported a low level of psychological resilience, those with high social support reported lower scores in loneliness than those with low social support. However, the impact of social support on loneliness was much smaller in the high psychological resilience group, compared with that in low psychological resilience group. © The Author(s) 2014.
Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM; Jaspers, JPC; Kamps, WA; Klip, EC
Objective: To investigate levels of support and the concurrent and prospective effects of support on the psychological functioning of parents of children with cancer in a prospective longitudinal study. Methods: Parents' (n = 128) self-perceived level of psychological distress, quantity of support,
Beven, G.; Vander Ark, S. T.; Holland, A. W.
Since NASA began human presence on the International Space Station (ISS) in November 1998, crews have spent two to seven months onboard. In March 2015 NASA and Russia embarked on a new era of ISS utilization, with two of their crewmembers conducting a one-year mission onboard ISS. The mission has been useful for both research and mission operations to better understand the human, technological, mission management and staffing challenges that may be faced on missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. The work completed during the first 42 ISS missions provided the basis for the pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight work completed by NASA's Space Medicine Operations Division, while our Russian colleagues provided valuable insights from their long-duration mission experiences with missions lasting 10-14 months, which predated the ISS era. Space Medicine's Behavioral Health and Performance Group (BHP) provided pre-flight training, evaluation, and preparation as well as in-flight psychological support for the NASA crewmember. While the BHP team collaboratively planned for this mission with the help of all ISS international partners within the Human Behavior and Performance Working Group to leverage their collective expertise, the US and Russian BHP personnel were responsible for their respective crewmembers. The presentation will summarize the lessons and experience gained within the areas identified by this Working Group as being of primary importance for a one-year mission.
Full Text Available Developmental Psychology seems to have come to an unifying theoretical framework which may make feasible to overcome the fragmentation so frequently referred to within the discipline. This is indicated by the widespread support being given to the systems approach, enriched by dialectic and contextual postulates. In this article, we briefly review the antecedents of this approach and explore its core concepts, indicating their roots and the precise way in which they are applied to developmental analyses today. We also examine the implications of the systems approach for developmental investigation, and its challenges.
A subtheory of self-determination theory, basic needs theory (BNT), examines the ways in which social-environmental factors interact with athletes' physical and psychological wellness. When the three psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness) identified in BNT are met in a sport setting, athletes' perceptions of well-being and…
Full Text Available Background Divorce is a transition period in which divorcing individuals face restructuring of the family system and adjustment to changes. The psychological well-being of divorcees can serve as an important indicator of the adjustment process. The achievement of well-being does not come easily for many reasons, one of which is the experience related to a sense of loss associated with the marriage break-up. Social support is a major relational resource for overcoming the crisis and successfully adjusting to post-divorce life. Participants and procedure The sample consisted of 157 individuals after divorce: 120 women and 37 men (mean age = 41.29. Instruments employed in the study included the Sense of Loss Scale (DS, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ-23, and sociodemographic data. Results Our results show that perceived social support is a partial mediator of the relationship between the sense of loss associated with divorce and the psychological well-being of individuals after divorce. For the vast majority of the respondents their parents, friends and acquaintances were the major source of support. About one third of the participants were given support by their siblings and their own children. Conclusions The study confirms the mediating role of support in building well-being after experiencing loss related to dissolution of marriage. This means that for divorced women and men perceived social support is one of the key resources that have a significant impact on achieving psychological well-being after divorce, since it is related to mitigating the negative impact of the sense of loss associated with marriage break-up.
As the Army transitions to modern digital technology it faces a major challenge in designing computer-implemented training to support the acquisition, retention, and transfer of skills required to operate these systems...
Luo, Yang; Wang, Honghong
The purpose of this study was to explore the factors affecting nurse students' psychological status, and the interactions between mental symptoms and stressful factors, coping style and social support in their early clinical experiences. We assessed clinically 288 college nurse students during their first period by adopting College Seniors Stress Scale (CSSS), Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ), Support Questionnaire and Symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90). The result of this study was that (1) positive correlations were found between stressful events, negative coping style and the total scores of SCL-90 (r=0.487, 0.462, pcoping style, social support and the total scores of SCL-90 (r=-0.192, -00.135, pstressful factors, negative coping style and social support all have main effects on mental symptoms (F=34.062, 16.090, 20.898, Pcoping style has no main effect on mental symptoms (F=1.853, P>0.05), but interactions relate to stressful factors and positive coping style (F=14.579, Pcoping style and social support. In order to improve the psychological condition of nursing students, aside from reducing the stress incidents and avoiding negative coping, it is very necessary to enhance the social support systems and to encourage them to adopt the positive coping styles.
Chen, Ji-Kang; Wei, Hsi-Sheng
Objectives: This paper examines how peer social support mediates the association between school victimization and student psychological health among junior-high students in an Asian context (Taiwan), and further examines how gender and ethnicity differ in the interrelationships of school violence, peer social support and psychological health.…
Cook, James R; Kilmer, Ryan P
For almost two decades, the federal government has supported the development of integrated models of mental health service delivery for children and families, known as systems of care (SOCs), that strive to be child-centered, family-focused, community-based, and culturally competent. These efforts align well with the values and principles (e.g., empowerment, collaboration, strengths emphasis, focus on macro-level social/system change) central to community psychology (CP; Kloos et al. in Community psychology, Cengage Learning, Belmont, 2012). Despite the convergence of many core values, CPs have historically been underrepresented in key roles in SOC initiatives. However, this has changed in recent years, with increasing examples of community psychology skills and principles applied to the development, implementation, and evaluation of SOCs. Because successful and sustainable implementation of SOCs requires community and system-level change, and SOCs are increasingly being urged to adopt a stronger "public health" orientation (Miles et al. in A public health approach to children's mental health: a conceptual framework, Georgetown University Center for Child and Human Development, National Technical Assistance Center for Children's Mental Health, Washington, DC, 2010), there is great potential for CPs to play important roles in SOCs. This paper discusses opportunities and roles for CPs in SOCs in applied research and evaluation, community practice, and training.
Rousseau, Vincent; Salek, Salwa; Aubé, Caroline; Morin, Estelle M
Recent research has demonstrated that the perception of injustice at work may increase psychological health-related problems. The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effect of coworker support and work autonomy on the relationships between both distributive and procedural justice and psychological distress. Results, on the basis of responses to questionnaires given to 248 prison employees, show that coworker support moderates the relationships between both forms of justice and psychological distress. Specifically, these relationships are weakened when employees benefit from a high level of coworker support. Furthermore, work autonomy moderates the relationship between procedural justice and psychological distress but not the relationship between distributive justice and psychological distress. Thus, procedural injustice is less likely to increase psychological distress when the level of work autonomy is high. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Case, Rosalind Jl; Anderson, Alastair; Walsh, Rodney
To examine the psychological and psychosocial service needs of mothers of children with craniofacial anomalies (CFAs). Mothers (n = 55) of children from newborn to 6 years with CFA completed self-report measures of psychological distress, quality of life and perceived social support. Mothers' psychological distress levels were significantly higher than those in a normative population. Mothers reported lower quality of life than the normative sample. Social support mediated the relationship between quality of life and psychological distress. While most mothers reported a willingness to receive formal psychological support for issues relating to their child's CFA, few had been offered such services. Mothers of children with CFAs may experience increased psychological distress in comparison with the general population. Increased social support may reduce the risk of psychological distress, thus enhancing quality of life among such mothers. The majority of mothers of children with CFAs in Australia may not be routinely offered psychological support services in spite of their elevated psychological risk. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Quattrone, P. D.
Extended manned space missions which include interplanetary missions require regenerative life support systems. Manned mission life support considerations are placed in perspective and previous manned space life support system technology, activities and accomplishments in current supporting research and technology (SR&T) programs are reviewed. The life support subsystem/system technologies required for an enhanced duration orbiter (EDO) and a space operations center (SOC), regenerative life support functions and technology required for manned interplanetary flight vehicles, and future development requirements are outlined. The Space Shuttle Orbiters (space transportation system) is space cabin atmosphere is maintained at Earth ambient pressure of 14.7 psia (20% O2 and 80% N2). The early Shuttle flights will be seven-day flights, and the life support system flight hardware will still utilize expendables.
van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Loeys, Tom; Mabbe, Elien; Gargurevich, Rafael
Autonomy-supportive parenting yields manifold benefits. To gain more insight into the family-level dynamics involved in autonomy-supportive parenting, the present study addressed three issues. First, on the basis of self-determination theory, we examined whether mothers' satisfaction of the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness related to autonomy-supportive parenting. Second, we investigated maternal autonomy support as an intervening variable in the mother-child similarity in psychological need satisfaction. Third, we examined associations between autonomy-supportive parenting and autonomy-supportive sibling interactions. Participants were 154 mothers (M age = 39.45, SD = 3.96) and their two elementary school-age children (M age = 8.54, SD = 0.89 and M age = 10.38, SD = 0.87). Although mothers' psychological need satisfaction related only to maternal autonomy support in the younger siblings, autonomy-supportive parenting related to psychological need satisfaction in both siblings and to an autonomy-supportive interaction style between siblings. We discuss the importance of maternal autonomy support for family-level dynamics. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
B. Wierenga (Berend); P.A.M. Oude Ophuis (Peter); K.R.E. Huizingh; P.F.A.M. Campen, van
textabstractMarketing Decision Support Systems (MDSS) show a large variety in functionality and form. In this paper a scale is developed that measures the sophistication of a Marketing Decision Support System. This scale, based on Guttman's Scalogram Analysis, is hierarchical in nature: more
Wang, Zhizhong; Koenig, Harold G; Ma, Hui; Al Shohaib, Saad
We examined the relationship between religious involvement and psychological distress and explored the mediating effects of social support and purpose in life in university students in western, mid-western, and eastern China. Cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1812 university students was conducted. The Purpose in Life scale, Duke Social Support Index, and Religious Commitment Inventory-10 were administered, along with Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test two models of the mediation hypothesis, examining direct, indirect, and total effects. Model 1 (with direction of effect hypothesized from religiosity to psychological distress) indicated that religious involvement had a direct effect on increasing psychological distress (β = 0.23, p purpose in life and social support (β = -.40, p purpose in life and social support that then lead to lower psychological distress.
Mitchell, Ian; Evans, Lynne; Rees, Tim; Hardy, Lew
The purpose of this article was to examine the main and stress-buffering effect relationships between social support and psychological responses to injury. The article presents two studies, both of which matched social support types with injury stressors. Study 1 used measures of stressors, perception of social support availability, and psychological responses of injured athletes. Study 2 utilized measures of stressors, received social support, and psychological responses of injured athletes. During physiotherapy clinic visits, injured athletes (Study 1, N = 319; Study 2, N = 302) completed measures of stressors, social support, and psychological responses to injury. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and moderated hierarchical regression were used to analyse the data. In both studies, CFA suggested adequate model fit for measures of social support and psychological responses to injury. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses in Study 1 revealed significant (p stressors and psychological responses; that is, the relationships between social support, stressors, and psychological responses to sport injury may differ with regard to received or perceived available support. The findings have important implications for the design of social support interventions with injured athletes aimed at alleviating the detrimental effects of injury stressors. What is already known on this subject? The health, social, and sport-injury related research suggests that social support has the potential to moderate (i.e., buffer) those psychological responses to stress that are detrimental to health and well-being. Despite what is a growing body of empirical research that has explored the role of social support in a sport injury context, there has been a paucity of research that has examined how social support functions in relation to injury-related stressors and psychological responses, particularly with regard to the effect of perceived and received support. In addition, there has been
Full Text Available The study aimed to discuss the possibility of providing psychological support for mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders via traditional Russian tea party. Questionnaire results, according to which mothers of children with ASD are essentially focused on receiving psychological counseling in the area of child development and education are presented. However personal problems of the woman, including psychological weightiness is usually taken a back seat. The research supports a hypothesis that informal format of tea party allows mothers decreasing psychological distance with psychologist, feeling at ease. The article includes an analysis of psychological meetings focused on personal life questions of participants. The results obtained in the research showed effectiveness of this approach. The Russian tea party is a meeting form that fosters the growth of confidence toward psychologist, expanding the range of personal questions that could be discussed. The mothers had the opportunity of open communication with each other, reported psychological safety valve.
Full Text Available This paper presents a review of relations between dynamical systems and de-velopment theories. To do this, mentioned some background of the emergence of complex systems in psychology is mentioned, which result in their inclusion in developmental psychology, especially with the synergetic and its application to the problem of the motion of Bernstein. Explain Esther Thelen and Paul van Geert developmental psychology is eplained, which describes various properties of non-linear dynamical systems and some types of methods for studying psychological change. The paper concludes by pointing out some consequences of the implemen-tation of this approach and potential challenges for a science of change.
Campos, Belinda; Ullman, Jodie B; Aguilera, Adrian; Dunkel Schetter, Christine
Familism, a cultural value that emphasizes warm, close, supportive family relationships and that family be prioritized over self, has been associated with psychological health. The goal of this work was to fill a gap in the literature on how familism contributes to psychological health. Drawing from conceptual links between familism and close relationship processes, we hypothesized that familism contributes to better psychological health by facilitating closeness and social support. A university sample of U.S. women and men of Latino (n = 173), European (n = 257), and Asian (n = 642) cultural backgrounds completed measures of familism, closeness to family members, general perceived social support, and psychological health as indexed by perceived stress, general mental health, and depressive symptoms. Structural equation multiple-group modeling analyses found direct effects of familism on closeness to family members and perceived social support and an indirect effect of familism on better psychological health via greater closeness to family members and greater perceived social support. These effects did not differ by cultural background. Consistent with previous research, however, Latinos reported the highest levels of familism of the three cultural groups, and women reported higher familism and support as well as poorer psychological health than men. Discussion is focused on the implications of these findings for understanding the association of familism with psychological health and the relevance of the familism construct for diverse U.S. groups.
N hasan neghad
Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological hardiness is a personal factor and social support is regarded as an environmental factor that can facilitate adjustment to disease. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between adaptation with psychological hardiness and social support in individuals with Multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: Seventy two females with MS and 25 males with MSwere selected through randomized sampling from two MS centers. Main variables of the study including adaptation, psychological hardiness, and social supportwere assessed respectively by Adaptation Inventory, Personal Attitudes Survey, and Social Support Questionnaire. Results: Spearman correlation coefficients revealed that there are significant relationships between adaptation and psychological hardiness (p<0.0001, as well as between adaptation and social support (p<0.0001. In addition, Multiple linear Regression showed that psychological hardiness (β= -0.483 and social support (β= -0.240 can explain 35/1% of adaptation variance in individuals with MS. Psychological hardinessproved to have a more important role in adaptation of individuals with MS. Conclusion: The study data demonstrated that personal factors like psychological hardiness and environmental factors such as social support can predict adjustment in individuals with MS. In order to clarify mechanisms of these factors on adaptation in individuals with MS, morelongitudinal and experimental studiesare required. These results are alsoapplicable in designing therapeutic programs for individuals with MS.
Zeleeva, Vera P.; Bykova, Svetlana S.; Varbanova, Silvia
The relevance of the study is due to the importance of psychological and pedagogical support for students in university that would prevent difficulties in learning activities and increase adaptive capacity through the development of relevant personal traits. Therefore, this article is aimed at solving the problem of arranging psychological and…
N Е Aimautova
Full Text Available The article helms the reader to the results of the sociological services market observation. A basic selling scheme is outlined with the components of interactions space as well as the set of "must-have" psychological skills and competencies essential for the seller highlighted as factors of high priority. The principal stages of the selling process are identified. The notion of "offeror" who meets the desires of the client purchasing sociological services is introduced. The prominent role of psychological selling techniques is emphasized in the guidelines to be abided by the sociologist in order to prevent potential misunderstandings and conflicts as well as to establish new contacts and keep old ties with the client after making a deal.
Odéssia Fernanda Gomes de Assis
Full Text Available This paper is a case study of a patient who came to us complaining of difficulties within the family due to the fact that he could not deny anything to people. The case was analyzed based on the framework of Analytical Psychology, founded mainly on Carl Gustav Jung. Psychological counseling sessions were held, and after the sessions, theoretical approaches have been made based on the material presented by the patient. The interventions were performed with the goal of enabling the patient and insights she sought other ways to position themselves in the world and to relate to the people around. Over the course of the sessions, the patient was able to construct a context in which allow and deny more in accordance with their abilities and possibilities.
Turner, Katrina M; Winder, Rachel; Campbell, John L; Gandhi, Manish; Dickens, Chris M; Richards, Suzanne
Objective To explore patients’ and nurses’ views on the feasibility and acceptability of providing psychological care within cardiac rehabilitation services. Design In-depth interviews analysed thematically. Participants 18 patients and 7 cardiac nurses taking part in a pilot trial (CADENCE) of an enhanced psychological care intervention delivered within cardiac rehabilitation programmes by nurses to patients with symptoms of depression. Setting Cardiac services based in the South West of England and the East Midlands, UK. Results Patients and nurses viewed psychological support as central to good cardiac rehabilitation. Patients’ accounts highlighted the significant and immediate adverse effect a cardiac event can have on an individual’s mental well-being. They also showed that patients valued nurses attending to both their mental and physical health, and felt this was essential to their overall recovery. Nurses were committed to providing psychological support, believed it benefited patients, and advocated for this support to be delivered within cardiac rehabilitation programmes rather than within a parallel healthcare service. However, nurses were time-constrained and found it challenging to provide psychological care within their existing workloads. Conclusions Both patients and nurses highly value psychological support being delivered within cardiac rehabilitation programmes but resource constraints raise barriers to implementation. Consideration, therefore, should be given to alternative forms of delivery which do not rely solely on nurses to enable patients to receive psychological support during cardiac rehabilitation. Trial registration number ISCTRN34701576. PMID:28864707
Domínguez, Daniela G; Bobele, Monte; Coppock, Jacqueline; Peña, Ezequiel
Positive psychologists have contributed to our understandings of how positive emotions and flexible cognition enhance resiliency. However, positive psychologists' research has been slow to address the relational resources and interactions that help nonheterosexual families overcome adversity. Addressing overlooked lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) and systemic factors in positive psychology, this article draws on family resilience literature and LGBTQ literature to theorize a systemic positive psychology framework for working with nonheterosexual families. We developed the LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology framework that integrates positive psychology's strengths-based perspective with the systemic orientation of Walsh's (1996) family resilience framework along with the cultural considerations proposed by LGBTQ family literature. We theorize that the LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology framework takes into consideration the sociopolitical adversities impacting nonheterosexual families and sensitizes positive psychologists, including those working in organized care settings, to the systemic interactions of same-sex loving relationships. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Nemeroff, Robin; Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Meyer, Joseph F.
Social support has been shown to buffer the relationship between life stress and psychological distress in late life. However, little attention has been paid to personality variables that are associated with the capacity to effectively utilize social support. Although the buffering effects of social support were replicated in our sample of 134…
Kotake, Kumiko; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Kai, Ichiro; Iwanaga, Kazuyo; Takahashi, Aya
The objective is to clarify whether social support and acquisition of alternative voice enhance the psychological adjustment of laryngectomized patients and which part of the psychological adjustment structure would be influenced by social support. We contacted 1445 patients enrolled in a patient association using mail surveys and 679 patients agreed to participate in the study. The survey items included age, sex, occupation, post-surgery duration, communication method, psychological adjustment (by the Nottingham Adjustment Scale Japanese Laryngectomy Version: NAS-J-L), and the formal support (by Hospital Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-25: HPSQ-25). Social support and communication methods were added to the three-tier structural model of psychological adjustment shown in our previous study, and a covariance structure analysis was conducted. Formal/informal supports and acquisition of alternative voice influence only the "recognition of oneself as voluntary agent", the first tier of the three-tier structure of psychological adjustment. The results suggest that social support and acquisition of alternative voice may enhance the recognition of oneself as voluntary agent and promote the psychological adjustment.
Department of Veterans Affairs — Clinical Information Support System (CISS) is a web-based portal application that provides a framework of services for the VA enterprise and supplies an integration...
MacElroy, R D; Kliss, M; Straight, C
The long-held human dream of travel to the stars and planets will probably be realized within the next quarter century. Preliminary analyses by U.S. scientists and engineers suggests that a first trip to Mars could begin as early as 2016. A proposal by U.S.S.R. space planners has suggested that an effort involving the cooperation and collaboration of many nations could begin by 2011. Among the major considerations that must be made in preparation for such an excursion are solidification of the scientific, economic and philosophical rationales for such a trip made by humans, and realistic evaluations of current and projected technical capabilities. Issues in the latter category include launch and propulsion systems, long term system stability and reliability, the psychological and physiological consequences of long term exposure to the space environment, the development and use of countermeasures to deleterious human physiological responses to the space environment, and life support systems that are both capable of the immense journey and reliable enough to assure their continued operation for the duration of the voyage. Many of the issues important in the design of a life support system for a Mars trip are based on reasonably well understood data: the human requirements for food, oxygen and water. However, other issues are less well-defined, such as the demands that will be made on the system for personal cleanliness and hygiene, environmental cleanliness, prevention or reduction of environmental toxins, and psychological responses to the environment and to the diet. It is much too early to make final decisions about the characteristics of the long-duration life support system needed for travel to Mars, or for use on its surface. However, it is clear that life support systems will evolve during the next few decades form the relatively straightforward systems that are used on Shuttle and Soyuz, to increasingly more complex and regenerative systems. The Soviet Union
Smyth, Bobby P; Ducray, Kevin; Cullen, Walter
Heroin-dependent adolescents demonstrate high rates of comorbid psychological problems. Among heroin-dependent adults, opiate substitution treatment (OST) programmes appear to reduce mental health problems. We sought to examine the impact of OST on psychological well-being in adolescents, as this is unknown. We conducted a prospective study examining psychological well-being in heroin dependent adolescents, aged 18 years or younger, engaged in outpatient psychologically supported OST. Patients were treated with either methadone or buprenorphine. This was complimented with individual key working, counselling (motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy) and group work focusing on life skills. The Beck Youth Inventory was used to measure psychological well-being at treatment entry and repeated after 4 months of treatment. Among 55 consecutive treatment episodes, we examined the 32 episodes where the patient persisted with the OST programme. Polysubstance use was the norm at treatment entry. At follow-up, the median doses of methadone and buprenorphine were 50 mgs and 8 mgs, respectively. Only three patients were treated with antidepressant medication. There was significant improvement in the mean depression (65.0 to 57.9, P = 0.001), anxiety (61.7 to 57.0, P = 0.006) and anger (57.8 to 54.6, P = 0.009) subscale scores. The self-concept and disruptive behaviour subscale scores did not improve significantly. In this relatively short-term follow-up, psychosocially assisted OST appears to be associated with improved psychological well-being in heroin-dependent adolescents, especially in the area of depressive and anxiety symptoms. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Full Text Available This article describes the meaning of the terms „aggression“, „aggressive“ and „aggressive behavior“. It specifies the nature and basic principles of psychological counseling. It aims to present techniques and best practices for overcoming the consequences of aggressive behavior. It describes a number intervention methods such as separation of the role functions from the personal reactions; progressive muscle relaxation, pragmatism to the manifestations of undesirable behavior, breathing techniques, visualization of positive images, method of biological feedback, meditation, neuro-linguistic programming, realistic approach to events, situations and persons involved in them, clear definition of their capabilities and competencies. These ways of influence are illustrated by describing two specific cases. They are suitable for both individual and group counseling. An examination of the symptoms and consequences of the aggressive behavior provides essential information on the experiences of the counselor’s clients as well as their relationship to the past, present and future.
Mardon, Austin; Nichol, Kenneth; Mardon, Catherine
Time, too much of and the resulting boredom is a major psychological barrier to multi year inner solar system space missions. Cross training which could be facilitated by online in flight educational programs might serve mission purposes and distract astronauts from the natural multiyear boredom to and from Mars. The personnel selected will be motivated well educated and likely very intelligent. They might have even experience some educational online and computer based education during their educational history. Distance learning is become more and more common in the educational landscape in the world. The mission doctor might learn geology. The geologist might learn ship systems. The pilot might learn basic medical treatment. The advantage of having planned out learning schemes might have major morale boosting factors by giving the self motivated high achieving crew something to direct their energies toward. The time lag could be compensated for by AI spacecraft educational software. Also for recreational purposes archeology or cultural studies could be taught to give greater breadth of interest. Online educational institutions might even do curriculum for free if they could be used afterward and before. Many high achievers have diverse interests and this might boost morale by allowing them to learn about a field of study that they had always had an interest in but their career took them in a different direction
Jobeir, Houssine; Peton, Gabrielle; Brigand, Alain; Chatain, Carine; Sass, Catherine; Moulin, Jean-Jacques
Social vulnerability often leads to the expression of psychological distress. The Health Examination Center of Côtes d'Armor, in Quimper, experimented with the development and implementation of psychological counseling for a highly socio-economically vulnerable population. As part of a periodic health examination, the center offers psychological counseling to patients with pathological sleep disorders and who lack sufficient psychological support. The Health Examination Center's framework and the context of the periodic health examination have facilitated the establishment of a tailored non-stigmatizing intervention well-embedded within the institutional environment. Marginalized people in situations of psychological distress are offered an opportunity to be listened to, and to receive counseling, appropriate prevention services and access to care.
Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Montero-Piñar, María Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Plazaola-Castaño, Juncal; Martín-Baena, David
To determine the effect of two kinds of intimate partner violence (IPV) (physical and psychological) in the previous 12 months (current) and before the previous 12 months (past) on psychological well-being among women aged 18 to 70 years who attend primary healthcare centers in Spain; and to analyze the effect of the duration of lifetime IPV and social support on psychological well-being. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 10,322 women randomly recruited in primary healthcare centers in Spain. Outcome variables were three indicators of psychological well-being (psychological distress, psychotropic drug use, and self-perceived health). Predictor variables were the different types of IPV, IPV timing (current and past), duration of lifetime IPV, and social support. Logistic regression models were fitted. Both types of IPV increased the probability of worse psychological well-being in both IPV timings (current and past). Longer duration of lifetime IPV, friends network size, and tangible support were independently associated with worse psychological well-being. However, an interaction between current IPV and family network size was found. The probability of poor self-perceived health status was reduced by 29% among women exposed to current IPV who had a large family network (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.94). Psychological well-being was independently affected by IPV (types and duration) and social support (friends network size, tangible support). Only family network size mitigates the negative consequences of IPV on self-perceived health status.
Qadir, Farah; Khalid, Amna; Medhin, Girmay
This study aimed to identify prevalence rates of psychological distress among Pakistani women seeking help for primary infertility. The associations of social support, marital adjustment, and sociodemographic factors with psychological distress were also examined. A total of 177 women with primary infertility were interviewed from one hospital in Islamabad using a Self-Reporting Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. The data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013. The prevalence of psychological distress was 37.3 percent. The results of the logistic regression suggested that marital adjustment and social support were significantly negatively associated with psychological distress in this sample. These associations were not confounded by any of the demographic variables controlled in the multivariable regression models. The role of perceived social support and adjustment in marriage among women experiencing primary infertility are important factors in understanding their psychological distress. The results of this small-scale effort highlight the need for social and familial awareness to help tackle the psychological distress related to infertility. Future research needs to focus on the way the experience of infertility is conditioned by social structural realities. New ways need to be developed to better take into account the process and nature of the infertility experience.
Roohafza, Hamidreza; Feizi, Awat; Afshar, Hamid; Mazaheri, Mina; Behnamfar, Omid; Hassanzadeh-Keshteli, Ammar; Adibi, Peyman
AIM: To provide a structural model of the relationship between personality traits, perceived stress, coping strategies, social support, and psychological outcomes in the general population. METHODS: This is a cross sectional study in which the study group was selected using multistage cluster and convenience sampling among a population of 4 million. For data collection, a total of 4763 individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire on demographics, personality traits, life events, coping with stress, social support, and psychological outcomes such as anxiety and depression. To evaluate the comprehensive relationship between the variables, a path model was fitted. RESULTS: The standard electronic modules showed that personality traits and perceived stress are important determinants of psychological outcomes. Social support and coping strategies were demonstrated to reduce the increasing cumulative positive effects of neuroticism and perceived stress on the psychological outcomes and enhance the protective effect of extraversion through decreasing the positive effect of perceived stress on the psychological outcomes. CONCLUSION: Personal resources play an important role in reduction and prevention of anxiety and depression. In order to improve the psychological health, it is necessary to train and reinforce the adaptive coping strategies and social support, and thus, to moderate negative personality traits. PMID:27354968
Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015
Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful evaluation and support system for support professionals will help improve student outcomes. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Support Professional Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all support professionals do their best work…
Emm-Collison, Lydia G; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B
Grounded within self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, in press), three studies were conducted to develop and psychometrically test a measure of adolescents' perceptions of psychological need support for exercise (viz., for autonomy, competence, and relatedness): the Adolescent Psychological Need Support in Exercise Questionnaire (APNSEQ). In Study 1, 34 items were developed in collaboration with an expert panel. Through categorical confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory, responses from 433 adolescents were used to identify the best fitting and performing items in Study 2. Here, a three-factor nine-item measure showed good fit to the data. In Study 3, responses from an independent sample of 373 adolescents provided further evidence for the nine-item solution as well as for internal consistency, criterion validity, and invariance across gender and social agent (friends, family, and physical education teacher). The APNSEQ was supported as a measure of adolescents' perceptions of psychological need support within the context of exercise.
Smeesters, Hannah; Skinner, Chas; Martin, Jo
A lack of knowledge in diabetes self management skills, such as insulin administration, glucose testing and diet, have been identified in a high percentage of adults with the condition ever since insulin treatment was first introduced (Watkins et al, 1967; Murata et al, 2003). Adult support weeke...
Miles, Belva A.
Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory has been adapted by Lent, Brown, and Hackett (1994) to form social cognitive career theory (SCCT). The theory posits three interlocking steps in academic and career development: interest, choice goal, and choice goal action. Self-efficacy, outcome expectations, barriers, and supports are hypothesized to…
Kimberly A. Rapoza
Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.
Betts, Lucy R.; Cross, Amanda
While there are a number of technologies that have been used, with varying levels of success, to support visually impaired students, the purpose of this article is to reflect upon the authors' experiences of supporting a visually impaired student through a nine-month level two undergraduate biological psychology module. The authors developed a…
Chan, David W.
Examines teacher stress, self-efficacy, social support, and psychological distress in a sample of Chinese prospective teachers (n=83) in Hong Kong. Reports that the teachers experienced higher levels of symptoms in somatic problems followed by anxiety and dysphoria. Discusses self-efficacy and social support as protective factors for teacher…
Bohan, Jason; Friel, Niamh; Szymanek, Larissa
Here we report on a new initiative which supported first-year psychology undergraduates in developing their information literacy skills. These skills were taught in a small-group tutorial setting with tutor guidance and peer-supported activities. We measured student's Autonomous Learning and Academic Self-Efficacy before and after the teaching…
Margrove, K. L.; Gustowska, M.; Grove, L. S.
There is increasing concern over the number of university students and university staff who require psychological support; however, little is known about the impact of this on higher education (HE) staff. University employees (n = 91) from two UK universities completed an anonymous survey which explored their experience of providing support for…
Benson, Paul R.
This study examined the characteristics of the support networks of 106 mothers of children with ASD and their relationship to perceived social support, depressed mood, and subjective well-being. Using structural equation modeling, two competing sets of hypotheses were assessed: (1) that network characteristics would impact psychological adjustment…
Nieves Achón, Zaida; Otero Ramos, Idania
This research paper presents the results of a project aimed at the design, implementation and evaluation of a proposal for a Knowledge Based System (sbc) for psychological counseling. The need for such a system arises from the demands of today’s society and from the transformations imposed over this professional field. These challenges confront us to the question of whether programming and sbc as an alternate tool for psychological and educational counseling for youths and teenagers. As an an...
Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Melançon, Claudiane
The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three high schools located in low, moderate, and high socioeconomic areas. Participants were in the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades, and each completed a self-administered questionnaire. The use of avoidant coping strategies partially mediated the link between parental psychological violence and behavior problems among girls. The use of approach coping strategies partially mediated the link between parental psychological violence and behavior problems among boys. In all cases, coping enhanced this link. No protective role of social support was found. On the contrary, this variable was found to increase the relationship between parental psychological violence and externalized behavior problems among boys. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at strengthening coping skills and social support in adolescents may not be effective in alleviating various behavioral symptoms associated with parental psychological violence. They highlight the importance of prevention of psychologically violent parental practices, instead of only reacting to the problem after it has occurred.
Arnold, Bill W.
A support system, an excavation arrangement, and a process of supporting an object are disclosed. The support system includes a weight-bearing device and a camming mechanism positioned below the weight-bearing device. A downward force on the weight-bearing device at least partially secures the camming mechanism to opposing surfaces. The excavation arrangement includes a borehole, a support system positioned within and secured to the borehole, and an object positioned on and supported by the support system. The process includes positioning and securing the support system and positioning the object on the weight-bearing device.
Younggren, Jeffrey N.; Boisvert, Jennifer A.; Boness, Cassandra L.
This article examines the role conflicts that psychologists may face in their practices related to the evaluation and certification of emotional support animals (ESAs). It reviews the legal differences between ESAs and service animals (SAs), outlines ethical guidelines and legal policies/regulations regarding the use of ESAs, and examines the potential role conflicts that exist when a treating psychologist is certifying the need for an ESA. Finally, it makes recommendations to assist psycholo...
In fact, it is deeply entrenched in their ways of life and they have various sayings encouraging and preaching social support e.g. “Eniyan laso mi, timo ba weyin timo reni mi, eniyan laso mi” meaning “people are my convering, when I look back and see my people, I know I am not naked”. Another one says, “Taja ba leni leyin, ...
Bebanic, Vedrana; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne; Raanaas, Ruth Kjærsti; Bang Nes, Ragnhild
The aims of this study were to examine associations between reported exposure to psychological and physical violence and psychological distress (PD) among men and women, and to explore the possible mediating or moderating roles of sense of mastery and social support. We used data from the nationally representative Norwegian Health and Level of Living Survey in 2005 and 2012 (Weighted N = 19,386). PD was measured with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, using the subscales for anxiety and depression separately and in combination. Analyses were conducted using hierarchical logistic regression with complex sample adjustment. Altogether, 3.8% of men and 5.4% of women reported psychological violence during the last 12 months, while 2.3% and 1.6% reported physical violence, respectively. Both forms of violence were associated with excess risk of comorbid anxiety and depressive symptoms above clinical cut-point (CAD) in men and women alike, and CAD occurred more frequently than anxiety or depressive problems separately. Sense of mastery, but not social support, partly mediated the association between both forms of violence and CAD in men, whereas both partly mediated the association between psychological violence and CAD in women. No moderator role was indicated. Overall, the results provide evidence for excess risk of PD, particularly CAD, in men and women reporting exposure to violence. Sense of mastery and to a lesser degree social support were shown to constitute significant mediators, underscoring the importance of systems for strengthening coping strategies and social support among violence victims, such as psychological and practical support by the health services. © The Author(s) 2015.
The purpose of this revision of the System Design Description (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical support system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience/users are design engineers. This type of SDD both ''leads'' and ''trails'' the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD trails the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to electrical support systems are obtained from the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher-level requirements documents such as the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), and fire hazards analyses. The above-mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canon and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD contains several appendices that include supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists, and Appendix C includes a list of system procedures.
McCluskey, T.L.; Kotsialos, A.; Müller, J.P.; Klugl, F.; Schumann, R.
The work on Autonomic Road Transport Support (ARTS) presented here aims at\\ud meeting the challenge of engineering autonomic behavior in Intelligent Transportation\\ud Systems (ITS) by fusing research from the disciplines of traffic engineering\\ud and autonomic computing. Ideas and techniques from leading edge artificial intelligence\\ud research have been adapted for ITS over the last years. Examples include\\ud adaptive control embedded in real time traffic control systems, heuristic algorithm...
Turner, Katrina M; Winder, Rachel; Campbell, John L; Richards, David A; Gandhi, Manish; Dickens, Chris M; Richards, Suzanne
To explore patients' and nurses' views on the feasibility and acceptability of providing psychological care within cardiac rehabilitation services. In-depth interviews analysed thematically. 18 patients and 7 cardiac nurses taking part in a pilot trial (CADENCE) of an enhanced psychological care intervention delivered within cardiac rehabilitation programmes by nurses to patients with symptoms of depression. Cardiac services based in the South West of England and the East Midlands, UK. Patients and nurses viewed psychological support as central to good cardiac rehabilitation. Patients' accounts highlighted the significant and immediate adverse effect a cardiac event can have on an individual's mental well-being. They also showed that patients valued nurses attending to both their mental and physical health, and felt this was essential to their overall recovery. Nurses were committed to providing psychological support, believed it benefited patients, and advocated for this support to be delivered within cardiac rehabilitation programmes rather than within a parallel healthcare service. However, nurses were time-constrained and found it challenging to provide psychological care within their existing workloads. Both patients and nurses highly value psychological support being delivered within cardiac rehabilitation programmes but resource constraints raise barriers to implementation. Consideration, therefore, should be given to alternative forms of delivery which do not rely solely on nurses to enable patients to receive psychological support during cardiac rehabilitation. ISCTRN34701576. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Heindel, Allan; Napier, H. Albert
Following a review of the contributions of computers and managerial science/operations research to the management of libraries, this paper introduces the concept of decision support systems. DSS, a blending of these techniques, can lead to more effective decisions by library managers. A case study of the utilization of a DSS in the budgeting…
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder that has negative effect on physical function, psychological condition, interpersonal, family and social relationship and in general, on psychological well being. The aim of this study was to investigate of psychological profile in diabetic patients and it's relatioship with social support. Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 120 diabetic patients have been selected among of those that systematically refered to Diabetes Clinic of Emam Khomeini Hospital in order to follow their therapeutic process in Ardabil . Data gathering was accomplished by two tests: SCL-90-R and Social Support Scale. Finally data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and T-test on SPSS-17 software and p-value less than 0.05 considered as significant. Results: Results showed that 70% of diabetic patients had problems in somatic complaint and obsession, 62.5% in sensitivity, 72.5% in depression, 62.5% in anxiety, 55% in hostility, 67.5% in paranoid thoughts, 27.5% in phobia and 37.5% in psychosis. Correlations between social support with somatic complaint, obsession, sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility and paranoid thoughts were negatively significant. Family support associated significantly with all of the psychological variables but friend Support had no significant correlation with them. Conclusion: The range of psychological problems experienced by diabetic patients is more extensive and these problems have significant relationship with social support. Thus, attention to different dimensions of psychological health is necessary and social support-based interventions can be more effective.
Full Text Available The paper considers the units of psychological systems proposed in the works of the founders of activity theory (L.S. Vygotsky, A.N. Leontiev, S.L. Rubinstein and others from the perspective of a fuzzy logic model of the unity of opposite sides of the units developed by the author. A clear distinction is drawn between the concepts of 'unit', 'basic unit' and 'cell' of a psychological system. The paper also reviews some goals, outcomes and means of exploring psychological systems with the 'method of units'. This method is aimed at finding components in a system that have significant features in common with this system, features which can turn into each other through the 'moments of their equality' or unity. Describing such transitions (for example, of conscious actions into unconscious operations helps to reveal the mechanisms of the corresponding psychological processes. The paper draws a comparison between the 'chunks of information' in cognitive psychology and the 'units of psychological interaction' in activity theory
DeFreese, J D; Smith, Alan L
Social support and negative social interactions have implications for athlete psychological health, with potential to influence the links of stress-related experiences with burnout and well-being over time. Using a longitudinal design, perceived social support and negative social interactions were examined as potential moderators of the temporal stress-burnout and burnout-well-being relationships. American collegiate athletes (N = 465) completed reliable and valid online assessments of study variables at four time points during the competitive season. After controlling for dispositional and conceptually important variables, social support and negative social interactions did not moderate the stress-burnout or burnout-well-being relationships, respectively, but did simultaneously contribute to burnout and well-being across the competitive season. The results showcase the importance of sport-related social perceptions to athlete psychological outcomes over time and inform development of socially driven interventions to improve the psychological health of competitive athletes.
Biological theories of brain and psychological theories of mind are two systems of explanation that seem related to one another. The nature of the relationship is problematic and constitutes the age-old mind-body problem. The most prominent solutions currently are variations of materialism. While psychological theories can be consistent with materialism, there remains a difficulty in comprehending nonphysical (social, psychological) causes of physical effects. This difficulty is an obstacle to integration in psychiatry, where we routinely assume that illnesses that include or depend on biological dysfunction are caused multifactorially by causal agents such as perceived parental warmth, parental loss, stressful life events, genetics, and personality (Hammen et al. 1992; Kendler et al. 1993). Unity theory adopts the stance that neurobiological theories and psychological theories are essentially disparate explanations of the same psychobiological events; thus the relationship of mind to brain is one of shared reference (Goodman 1991; Maunder 1995). In Goodman's model the gap between biological and psychological systems is not bridgeable. Different conceptual categories refer to the same referents but cannot interact with each other. Stepping into the breach, systems theory has been presented as offering a language that can bridge the gap between psychological and biological theories of causation (Schwartz 1981; Weiner 1989). Thus, there is a controversy about the applicability of systems theory for integration in psychiatry.
Tatyana Gennadevna Pronyushkina
Full Text Available This article discusses the management of production team, in particular the developed theoretical model of socio-psychological support work processes for management of production team. The author of the research are formulated the purpose and objectives of social-psychological work on management of the production team. Developed in the study a theoretical model aimed at determining the conditions and the identification of features of effective management of the enterprise taking into account the socio-psychological characteristics of its staff. Tasks include: definition of the main characteristics of the production team and their severity, the analysis of these characteristics and identifying opportunities for their transformation, development of recommendations for management of social-psychological work on effects on the characteristics of the collective enterprise.Practical study of the activities of a number of businesses have shown the need to improve socio-psychological support of management processes production team: introducing a social and psychological planning team and develop the practice of sociological research on the state of the team, to ensure the smoothing of relations between workers and management through periodic meetings, creations of conditions for feedback, maintaining healthy competition among team members.
Pokrovskiĭ, B L
Given the data about the establishment of the professional psychological selection system in the Air Force in 1958-1964 in the NIIIAM Air Force by the team psychological department under the leadership of K.K.Platonova. Given the names of the developers of this system and given the results of their research. The result of all made work the order of Air Force Commander about the introduction of the psychological selection in Higher Military Aviation School of Pilots, starting from a set of 1964 became. Recommendations for professional psychological selection of a wide range of aviation professionals in various fields, and in the future - and other professionals of the Armed Forces, became the results of future work.
Pesántez-Avilés, Fernando; Cevallos-León Wong, Verónica; Robles-Bykbaev, Vladimir; Borck-Vintimilla, Estefanía.; Flores-Andrade, Santiago; Pineda-Villa, Yenner; Pacurucu-Pacurucu, Ana
When children are taken apart from their parents because of many violence situations, they are taken to foster homes, where they share place with kids who have lived similar situations. United Nations Children's Fund (2014) refer that Children who have been abused or neglected, often may have low self-esteem and other emotional problems, which can lead, at worst, to risky behaviors and self-harm . They also could tend to internalize that behavior, repeating the pattern of violence and abuse as a response to their environment. In this line, the latest estimates provided by SOS Children's Village International show a global complex picture: around 24 million of children in the world live in foster homes, one billion of children live in conflict-affected areas; and, furthermore, there is a lack of mental health professionals in most of the countries. On those grounds, in this paper we propose an intelligent ecosystem to provide support for psychologists during the psychodiagnosis and intervention with children, especially the ones who are in foster homes. Currently, the system is able to automatically determine some psychological traits, according to responses provided by each patient. One part of the diagnostic system is based on two psychological tests: the Draw-A-Person test and the Draw-A-Family test. The results obtained on the first stage let the system establish different challenges according to the skills that the evaluated child needs to develop. Our proposed approach was tested in a population of 124 children (93 school students, and 31 living in shelters), and has achieved encouraging results (80% of precision in patient's profile determination).
Seçil BAL TAŞTAN
-EFFICACY PERCEPTION AND SOCIAL SUPPORTAbstract: The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between psychological empowerment and psychological well being. Additionally, it is aimed to find evidences about the mediating role of individuals’ self-efficacy perception and the moderating role of perceived supervisor social support on the relationship between psychological empowerment and psychological well-being at work. The effect of psychological empowerment on work-related psychological well-being and the roles of self-efficacy and social support were examined through a structured research survey which has been performed among teaching staff working in public primary schools in Istanbul-Kadıköy. The hypotheses were generated and empirically tested by the data obtained from the participants. The results have demonstrated that all four dimensions of the psychological empowerment had significantly positive relationships with psychological well-being states of the individuals. Moreover, the statistical findings have revealed that self-efficacy perception had a partial mediating role and perceived social support had a significant moderating role on the relationship between psychological empowerment and well-being. Furthermore, the findings of this study have provided insights to various public and private organizations from different sectors which aim to enhance psychological well-being of the individuals and try to improve their work-related positive affections at the workplace.
A model of the human visual system is investigated for psychological correlates. A priori hypotheses from the model concerned with human...identification of defocused letters as well as identification of rotated letters have been validated with the computer model. Gestalt principles of similarity...is also psychologically correlated. It is further postulated that the human perceptual space is the image domain from spatially filtered transforms of
Full Text Available Problems of research considered in present article, is the study of the bases and guidelines of the organization and the content of the psychological support to teachers with signs of burnout. With the method of burnout diagnosis of V.V. Boyko surveyed 502 teachers, 264 of them - work in special (correctional educational institutions (average age 41,06 years, 238 - in general education (mean age 39,95 years. The symptoms of burnout and symptoms of its formation phase were analyezed (on the model of V. Boyko. Significant differences in the study groups of teachers are set on the basis of the experience of stressful circumstances, feeling "driven into the cage" and inadequate selective emotional response, as well as the frequency of occurrence of the parameter signs Resistance phase. On the basis of similarity of signs of dominance in the manifestations of burnout in teachers study groups concluded that there is basic opportunity of developing a single model of psychological assistance for teachers with signs of burnout, regardless of the type or kind of educational institution. A number of landmarks for the organization and content of the psychological work with the teachers were suggested, based on the creation of conditions for their psychological support and psychological support technology, built on the basis of the process approach.
Educational psychology has recently experienced something of a revival in the provision of psychological therapy. This revival has aligned with general developments in evidence-based psychology. A product of this has been more frequent delivery of empirically supported therapies in practice settings, for example, anxiety reduction programmes in…
Sections on modeling, experimental activities during the grant period, and topics under consideration for the future are contained. The sessions contain discussions of: four concurrent modeling approaches that were being integrated near the end of the period (knowledge-based modeling support infrastructure and data base management, object-oriented steady state simulations for three concepts, steady state mass-balance engineering tradeoff studies, and object-oriented time-step, quasidynamic simulations of generic concepts); interdisciplinary research activities, beginning with a discussion of RECON lab development and use, and followed with discussions of waste processing research, algae studies and subsystem modeling, low pressure growth testing of plants, subsystem modeling of plants, control of plant growth using lighting and CO2 supply as variables, search for and development of lunar soil simulants, preliminary design parameters for a lunar base life support system, and research considerations for food processing in space; and appendix materials, including a discussion of the CELSS Conference, detailed analytical equations for mass-balance modeling, plant modeling equations, and parametric data on existing life support systems for use in modeling.
Gagne, Marie-Helene; Melancon, Claudiane
The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three…
Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane
observed no difference between the two groups in quality of life or psychological well-being, while coping to some extent seemed related to participation in internet support groups. CONCLUSION: This study adds to the discussion on social inequality in internet use by cancer patients, showing that patients...
Simsek, Omer Faruk; Demir, Meliksah
Past empirical research relying on self-determination theory (SDT) has consistently shown that parental support of basic psychological needs (BPN) is associated with adolescent happiness. Yet, the specific mechanisms accounting for this link are still undetermined. The present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by testing a…
Sun, Huimin; Zhang, Junjian; Fu, Xuedong
To investigate psychological status, coping, social support, and psychosocial factors associated with people living with HIV/AIDS in a highly HIV-infected area of central China. Cross-sectional descriptive correlation study. Of 200 individuals with HIV/AIDS registered at the "Warm Homestead" health care center (central China), all who met the eligibility criteria (n=103) were recruited; 94 of these completed questionnaires. Four anonymous self-administered questionnaires were used: (a) demographic data questionnaire, (b) Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), (c) Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire, and (d) Perceived Social Support Scale questionnaire. Participants had low education levels and family incomes. The majority (n=87, 92.6%) had become infected due to improper procedures during plasma donations. Participants reported moderately high levels of perceived social support, but their high SCL-90 scores indicated high levels of psychological distress. The most frequently used coping style was confrontation. Both acceptance-resignation and avoidance coping styles were significantly correlated with high distress (high SCL-90 total and subscale scores). Public health personnel and AIDS professionals may consider further interventions to promote psychological health in HIV/AIDS-positive individuals in highly HIV-infected areas of China, as the available social support did not seem to be effective in decreasing psychological pathology or mobilizing their coping strategies.
Ruthig, Joelle C.; Haynes, Tara L.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.
The first year of college presents numerous challenges experienced as overwhelming by some freshmen who may become overly stressed and depressed. This longitudinal study examined perceived academic control (PAC) as a mediator of optimism and social support's buffering effects on freshman students' psychological health. Multiple regressions…
Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Wang, Jing-Jy; Yen, Maiofen; Liu, Tzu-Ti
Institutionalized elderly who are frail and dependent are vulnerable to be abused by overwhelmed caregivers especially caregiver psychological abusive behavior is a growing but hidden problem with few evidence-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational support group in alleviating caregiver's…
Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Hastings, Richard P.; Crowe, Rachel; Pemberton, Jemma
Background: Several studies have reported relationships between life events and psychological problems in people with intellectual disabilities. In contrast to the general literature, data have consistently been collected via proxy informants and putative moderator variables such as social support have not been examined. Materials and Methods:…
Gehani, Ashish; Kirchner, Florent; Shankar, Natarajan
Digital evidence is playing an increasingly important role in prosecuting crimes. The reasons are manifold: financially lucrative targets are now connected online, systems are so complex that vulnerabilities abound and strong digital identities are being adopted, making audit trails more useful. If the discoveries of forensic analysts are to hold up to scrutiny in court, they must meet the standard for scientific evidence. Software systems are currently developed without consideration of this fact. This paper argues for the development of a formal framework for constructing “digital artifacts” that can serve as proxies for physical evidence; a system so imbued would facilitate sound digital forensic inference. A case study involving a filesystem augmentation that provides transparent support for forensic inference is described.
A summary of support activities performed to ensure the quality and reliability of the Skylab food system design is reported. The qualification test program was conducted to verify crew compartment compatibility, and to certify compliance of the food system with nutrition, preparation, and container requirements. Preflight storage requirements and handling procedures were also determined. Information on Skylab food items was compiled including matters pertaining to serving size, preparation information, and mineral, calorie, and protein content. Accessory hardware and the engraving of food utensils were also considered, and a stowage and orientation list was constructed which takes into account menu use sequences, menu items, and hardware stowage restrictions. A food inventory system was established and food thermal storage tests were conducted. Problems and comments pertaining to specific food items carried onboard the Skylab Workshop were compiled.
Knisely, J E; Northouse, L
A descriptive exploratory design was used to examine the relationship between the level of social support, the level of psychological distress, and the extent of help-seeking behavior in a nonprobability sample of 53 hospitalized adult psychiatric patients. The subjects completed the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and a researcher-designed Help-Seeking Behavior Questionnaire. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficients and t test were used to analyze the data. No significant correlation was found between the level of psychological distress and either the level of social support or the extent of help seeking. Social support and help seeking were highly correlated. These results have an implication for nursing practice pertaining to the focus of patient treatment both during hospitalization and in postdischarge planning.
Measham, Toby; Guzder, Jaswant; Rousseau, Cécile; Pacione, Laura; Blais-McPherson, Morganne; Nadeau, Lucie
The support of refugee children and their families is a worldwide concern. This article will highlight models of mental health care for refugee children and their families, focusing on collaborative care with primary care providers. Case vignettes are provided to illustrate how collaborative care can support refugee children׳s psychological well-being and positive adaptation following migration. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Aims: The main aim of this thesis was to describe the psychological distress, coping and social support among women in the diagnostic and preoperative phase of breast cancer using quantitative and qualitative approaches in sequence. This included descriptions of relationships between demographic variables, social support, anxiety, coping and defence strategies among women with suspected breast cancer, as well as in-depth descriptions of the women’s experiences after having rece...
Full Text Available Evolution-minded researchers posit that the suite of human cognitive adaptations may include forgiveness systems. According to these researchers, forgiveness systems regulate interpersonal motivation toward a transgressor in the wake of harm by weighing multiple factors that influence both the potential gains of future interaction with the transgressor and the likelihood of future harm. Although behavioral research generally supports this evolutionary model of forgiveness, the model’s claims have not been examined with available neuroscience specifically in mind, nor has recent neuroscientific research on forgiveness generally considered the evolutionary literature. The current review aims to help bridge this gap by using evolutionary psychology and cognitive neuroscience to mutually inform and interrogate one another. We briefly summarize the evolutionary research on forgiveness, then review recent neuroscientific findings on forgiveness in light of the evolutionary model. We emphasize neuroscientific research that links desire for vengeance to reward-based areas of the brain, that singles out prefrontal areas likely associated with inhibition of vengeful feelings, and that correlates the activity of a theory-of-mind network with assessments of the intentions and blameworthiness of those who commit harm. In addition, we identify gaps in the existing neuroscientific literature, and propose future research directions that might address them, at least in part.
Billingsley, Joseph; Losin, Elizabeth A R
Evolution-minded researchers posit that the suite of human cognitive adaptations may include forgiveness systems. According to these researchers, forgiveness systems regulate interpersonal motivation toward a transgressor in the wake of harm by weighing multiple factors that influence both the potential gains of future interaction with the transgressor and the likelihood of future harm. Although behavioral research generally supports this evolutionary model of forgiveness, the model's claims have not been examined with available neuroscience specifically in mind, nor has recent neuroscientific research on forgiveness generally considered the evolutionary literature. The current review aims to help bridge this gap by using evolutionary psychology and cognitive neuroscience to mutually inform and interrogate one another. We briefly summarize the evolutionary research on forgiveness, then review recent neuroscientific findings on forgiveness in light of the evolutionary model. We emphasize neuroscientific research that links desire for vengeance to reward-based areas of the brain, that singles out prefrontal areas likely associated with inhibition of vengeful feelings, and that correlates the activity of a theory-of-mind network with assessments of the intentions and blameworthiness of those who commit harm. In addition, we identify gaps in the existing neuroscientific literature, and propose future research directions that might address them, at least in part.
Full Text Available This study investigates the specific role of burnout as a mediator in the relationship between psychological capital and psychological well-being (PWB in direct support staff of specialist autism services. A time lagged design with three data-collection points was conducted to survey 56 professionals (direct support staff who work at a Spanish center specialized in autism. Participants completed measures of psychological capital, burnout and PWB. The hypothesized model was tested using structural equation modeling. Our findings show that psychological capital has a significant main effect on PWB. The results also show that psychological capital in the work environment should result in lower burnout which in turn, should lead to higher degrees of PWB in the direct support staff of autism services. Our results support that psychological capital is a key variable in the working life of the direct support staff of autism services. The findings suggest the need of implementing programmes which strengthen each individual's psychological capital in order to prevent burnout and achieve a greater PWB.
The literature on gender differences related to psychological health among in-theater service members who are deployed in a combatant role is limited. Much focuses on retrospective reports of service members who have returned from deployment. Potential key factors that contribute to gender differences in psychological health among combatants are found in literature across several topic areas, but integration of findings across disciplines is lacking. A growing body of literature on gender differences related to psychological health of postdeployment military populations suggests males and females respond differently to perceived levels of social support pre-and postdeployment. One study on service members who were deployed suggested no significant gender differences related to reported psychological health symptoms, but did appear to find significant gender differences related to reported perception of unit morale. In another related area, research explores how ostracism impacts physical and psychological health of individuals and organizations, and can result in perceptions of physical pain, although research on gender differences related to the impact of ostracism is scarce. Research has also begun to focus on sex differences in pain responses, and has identified multiple biopsychosocial, genetic, and hormonal factors that may contribute as potential underlying mechanisms. In this brief review, we focus on and begin to integrate relevant findings related to the psychological health of females in combat roles, gender differences in the impact of perception of social support on psychological health, the psychological and physical impact of ostracism on individuals and organizations, and the current literature on sex differences in pain perception. We conclude with a synthesis and discussion of research gaps identified through this review, implications for clinical practice, and potential future research directions. In conclusion, there appear to be gender
Force that Increases with distance is different than dark energy as I am arguing for existence of force based on psychological and astronomical bases. Hubble shift, doppler shift, comet return, quasar zoo and quasars and psychological evidence of interest in distant objects lends support to a force like gravity, nuclear, weak, strong, virtual, decay, biological, growth forces which increases its intensity with distance unlike gravity which decreases in intensity with distance. Jane Frances Back Struck contributed to this finding with her request that her grandparents have "perfect justice" even though her grandparents had died before she was born; interest increasing with distance from grandparents.
Parcesepe, Angela; Tymejczyk, Olga; Remien, Robert; Gadisa, Tsigereda; Kulkarni, Sarah Gorrell; Hoffman, Susie; Melaku, Zenebe; Elul, Batya; Nash, Denis
Recent World Health Organization HIV treatment guideline expansion may facilitate timely antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. However, large-scale success of universal treatment strategies requires a more comprehensive understanding of known barriers to early ART initiation. This work aims to advance a more comprehensive understanding of interrelationships among three known barriers to ART initiation: psychological distress, HIV-related stigma, and low social support. We analyzed cross-sectional interview data on 1175 adults initiating ART at six HIV treatment clinics in Ethiopia. Experience of each form of HIV-related stigma assessed (e.g., anticipatory, internalized, and enacted) was associated with increased odds of psychological distress. However, among those who reported enacted HIV-related stigma, there was no significant association between social support and psychological distress. Interventions to improve mental health among people living with HIV should consider incorporating components to address stigma, focusing on strategies to prevent or reduce the internalization of stigma, given the magnitude of the relationship between high internalized stigma and psychological distress. Interventions to increase social support may be insufficient to improve the mental health of people living with HIV who experienced enacted HIV-related stigma. Future research should examine alternative strategies to manage the mental health consequences of enacted HIV-related stigma, including coping skills training.
Longman, Huon; O'Connor, Erin; Obst, Patricia
Previous research examining players of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) suggests that players form meaningful relationships with each other. Other research indicates that people may derive social support from online sources, and this social support has been associated with greater well-being. This study used an online survey of players (N = 206) of the MMOG World of Warcraft (WoW) to examine if social support can be derived from MMOGs and to examine its relationship with negative psychological symptoms. Players of WoW were found to derive social support from playing and a positive relationship was found between game engagement and levels of in-game social support. Higher levels of in-game social support were associated with fewer negative psychological symptoms, although this effect was not maintained after accounting for social support derived from the offline sources. Additionally, a small subsample of players (n = 21) who played for 44 to 82 hours per week (M = 63.33) was identified. These players had significantly lower levels of offline social support and higher levels of negative symptoms compared to the rest of the sample. This study provides evidence that social support can be derived from MMOGs and the associated potential to promote well-being but also highlights the potential harm from spending excessive hours playing.
Full Text Available // Introduction: The impact of the diagnosis of an oncologic disease is well-known in terms of psychological adjustment and quality of life. On the other hand it is known that depressive symptoms may also overlap the physical symptoms of cancer and cancer treatment, which may interfere in their detection and appropriate treatment approach. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to explore the relationship between psychological adjustment to lung cancer, self-compassion, social support and emotional negative states in patients with lung cancer. Method: Fifty-five patients diagnosed with lung cancer (38 men and 17 women with ages ranging from 44 to 87 years old participated in the study. A set of self-report instruments was used: the Mini Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (MiniMac, the Self-compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003, the Social Support Satisfaction Scale (SSSS and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21. Results: Significant correlations were found between psychological adjustment, psychopathology, emotion regulation strategies (self-compassion, and social support. The predictive models for psychological adjustment and stress related symptomatology include self-compassion and social support as significant predictive variables. Regarding the predictive model for depressive symptomatology, mindfulness seems to be the only significant predictor. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that these patients may benefit, in their therapeutic approach, from the development of this kind of strategies (new ways of relating themselves with their emotional experiences and quality of their social networks in order to promote a better psychological adjustment to their clinical condition.
Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang
Self-esteem can be derived from the relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem). However, it is unclear what the importance of relational self-esteem is for mental health and whether social support from others promotes relational self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between relational self-esteem and a multitude of indicators of psychological well-being among children affected by HIV. We also examined how social support from others would affect relational self-esteem. Results indicated that relational self-esteem was positively associated with psychological well-being. Support from significant others rather than others predicted increased relational self-esteem. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Östergren, Per-Olof; Canivet, Catarina; Moghadassi, Mahnaz; Lindeberg, Sara; Karasek, Robert; Isacsson, Sven-Olof
Purpose Little is known about the interaction between job control and social support at work on common mental disorders. To examine whether there is a synergistic interaction effect between job control and social support at work on general psychological distress and whether it differs by the level of job demands. Methods About 1,940 male and female workers from the Malmö Shoulder and Neck Study were chosen for this cross-sectional study. Job control, social support at work, and job demands were measured by the Swedish version of the Job Content Questionnaire, and general psychological distress was assessed by the General Health Questionnaire. Results A significant excessive risk increase for general psychological distress was observed when workers had both low job control and low social support at work in both men and women. The synergistic effect was stronger in women, when job demands were low (Rothman’s synergy index was 2.16 vs. 1.51 when job demands were high). However, in male workers, while a strong synergistic effect between job control and social support at work was found when job demands were low (synergy index was 9.25), there was an antagonistic effect when job demands were high (synergy index was 0.52). Conclusions There was a synergistic interaction effect between job control and social support at work on general psychological distress, but the synergistic effect or its effect size differed by the level of job demands and gender. An atomic, additive approach to the risk assessment of the psychosocial work characteristics on common mental disorders could be misleading or lead to a risk underestimation. PMID:20582551
Uyanik, Hatice; Shogren, Karrie A; Blanck, Peter
Purpose This article reviews existing literature on positive psychology, supported decision-making (SDM), employment, and disability. It examines interventions and assessments that have been empirically evaluated for the enhancement of decision-making and overall well-being of people with disabilities. Additionally, conceptual themes present in the literature were explored. Methods A systematic review was conducted across two databases (ERIC and PsychINFO) using various combination of keywords of 'disabilit*', work rehabilitation and employment terms, positive psychology terms, and SDM components. Seven database searches were conducted with diverse combinations of keywords, which identified 1425 results in total to be screened for relevance using their titles and abstracts. Database search was supplemented with hand searches of oft-cited journals, ancestral search, and supplemental search from grey literature. Results Only four studies were identified in the literature targeting SDM and positive psychology related constructs in the employment and job development context. Results across the studies indicated small to moderate impacts of the assessment and interventions on decision-making and engagement outcomes. Conceptually there are thematic areas of potential overlap, although they are limited in the explicit integration of theory in supported decision-making, positive psychology, disability, and employment. Conclusion Results suggest a need for additional scholarship in this area that focuses on theory development and integration as well as empirical work. Such work should examine the potential utility of considering positive psychological interventions when planning for SDM in the context of career development activities to enhance positive outcomes related to decision-making, self-determination, and other positive psychological constructs.
Stulz, Alexandra; Boinon, Diane; Dauchy, Sarah; Delaloge, Suzette; Brédart, Anne
This cross-sectional study for couples explores the relationship between the perceptions within the couple of the spouse's supportive behaviors and the psychological adjustment of both partners during treatment for breast cancer. Forty-eight women operated on for a non-metastatic breast cancer and their spouses completed questionnaires assessing psychological adjustment (STAI, BDI-SF), and the spouse's support behaviors during discussions about the disease (PSE). Support behaviors are positively valued by both partners, especially non-verbal comfort and concrete actions. Support by minimization is associated with fewer depressive symptoms in patients and spouses. For spouses, the positive perception of support by concrete action is associated with a lower depression score. Moreover, high adjustment difficulties for spouses are linked to greater perception differences between partners on emotional support and minimization. These results highlight the importance of non-verbal comfort and minimization for the perception of social support within the couple, and the usefulness of support by concrete actions proposed by spouses. Advices for professionals are available.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Support systems. 417.307 Section 417.307... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.307 Support systems. (a) General. (1) A flight safety system must include the systems required by this section to support the functions of the flight...
Hart, James J.
Describes a strategy for teaching the history and systems of psychology. The approach uses A. H. Smith's (1982) "great ideas model," and T. S. Kuhn's (1962) conception of paradigm shifts and revolution in science as analytical devises. A summary of evaluations of this approach by students is provided. (Author/JDH)
Donadello, Ivan; Spoto, Andrea; Sambo, Francesco; Badaloni, Silvana; Granziol, Umberto; Vidotto, Giulio
The clinical assessment of mental disorders can be a time-consuming and error-prone procedure, consisting of a sequence of diagnostic hypothesis formulation and testing aimed at restricting the set of plausible diagnoses for the patient. In this article, we propose a novel computerized system for the adaptive testing of psychological disorders.…
Нина Львовна Сунгурова
Full Text Available The article presents the theoretical foundations of psychological researches of the process of informatization in education, is denoted the problem information and computer activity of students. Information-computer activity of students means a qualitatively special kind of activity. In the interaction of with the modern technologies there are changes and development the indicative and operational and technical components of the activity, the spatial and temporal boundaries are transformed, the motivation of applications is formed. Information-computer environment as the context activity of the subject becomes the new source of the psychic neoplasms. The article discusses the psychological effects of using of information technologies, the conditions for ensuring the success of information and computer activity of students are allocated. The author offers a program of psycho-pedagogical support of training of students in the information and educational environment. The technology includes the following areas: the diagnostic, consultative work of the teacher and students' own activity. The organization of student support enhances knowledge about the socio-psychological aspects of the of information technology, social valuable motivation is formed, skills of the avoidance negative consequences of informatization are developed. In the process of work monitoring is conducted, individual-typological features of personality of students in interaction with technology are studied, correction of deviations is held, the psychological readiness of the subject to a productive application of information and computer technology is formed, information competence develops.
Ksiazek, J; Gaworska-Krzemińska, A; Piotrkowska, R
The care of a cancer patient undergoes considerable changes. Patients' most important need is a demand of support in dealing with somatic, psychological, emotional and social complaints. The purpose of this research is to analyse the realization of the psychological support of a cancer patient based on nursing care process records. The research analysis is based on 150 nursing care case histories of cancer children and adults treated in the Independent Public Clinical Hospital No 1 of the Academic Clinical Centre at the Medical University of Gdańsk in such wards as: Paediatric Haematology, Paediatric Chemotherapy, Adults' Haematology, Oncology and Radiotherapy, Thoracic Surgery. Evaluation chart of nursing care histories and statistical methods were tools in this research. The nursing case history evaluation chart created for this very research is successfully used by members of nursing records team in all of 61 wards. The results indicate that in all analysed wards the most problematic factor for nurses was taking the patients' (children's) habits and free time planning into account while establishing the plan of action. In numerous cases a stated nursing care diagnosis was not connected with the realization of psychological support. Providing patients with the feeling of safety and contact with family was positively assessed. In the care process nurses should pay more attention to the evaluation of patients and their families' need of social support.
Benson, Paul R
This study examined the characteristics of the support networks of 106 mothers of children with ASD and their relationship to perceived social support, depressed mood, and subjective well-being. Using structural equation modeling, two competing sets of hypotheses were assessed: (1) that network characteristics would impact psychological adjustment directly, and (2) that network effects on adjustment would be indirect, mediated by perceived social support. Results primarily lent support to the latter hypotheses, with measures of network structure (network size) and function (proportion of network members providing emotional support) predicting increased levels of perceived social support which, in turn, predicted decreased depressed mood and increased well-being. Results also indicated that increased interpersonal strain in the maternal network was directly and indirectly associated with increased maternal depression, while being indirectly linked to reduced well-being. Study limitations and implications are discussed.
CyberPsychology and Behavior 8, 3 (2005), 187-211.  T. Parsons & A.A. Rizzo, Affective Outcomes of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Anxiety...VH System for Providing Healthcare Information and Support508  G. Riva, Virtual Reality in Psychotherapy: Review, CyberPsychology and Behavior 8...3 (2005), 220- 230.  F.D. Rose, B.M. Brooks & A.A. Rizzo, Virtual Reality in Brain Damage Rehabilitation: Review, CyberPsychology and Behavior
Yusupov, V V; Ovchinnikov, B V; Korzunin, V A; Nagibovich, O A; Goncharenko, A Yu; Porozhnikov, P A
The authors analysed state and prospects of medical-and-psychological support of military servicemen, which is supposed to consider as a complex of measures aimed at monitoring of professional psychological health, professional-and-psychological expertise, psychophysiological and pharmacological, correction, and medical-and-psychological rehabilitation. Organisation and maintaince of the above mentioned measures should be carried out by specialists of medical--and-psychological support groups and medical-and-psychological correction.
Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Finnegan, Lorna; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L
Most Thai women continue to work throughout their pregnancy; however, little is known about job strain and its relation to psychological distress. This study aimed to examine: (1) the direct effects of job strain, perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on psychological distress and (2) the moderating effect of perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping guided this cross-sectional study. Full-time employed pregnant women (N = 300) were recruited from three antenatal clinics in Thailand. Thai versions of the following instruments were used: the State-Anxiety Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (psychological distress), the Job Content Questionnaire (job strain and perceived workplace support), the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (perceived family support), and the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (coping strategies). Job strain with other predictors explained 54% of the variance in psychological distress. In the separate hierarchical multiple linear regression models, two types of coping strategies, seeking social support and wishful thinking, moderated the effects of job strain on psychological distress. Perceived family support had a direct effect in reducing psychological distress. Job strain is a significant contributor to psychological distress. The average levels of seeking social support and wishful thinking were most beneficial in moderating the negative impact of job strain on psychological distress. Since perceived workplace and family support did not have moderating effects, stress management programs for decreasing the levels of job strain should be developed.
Ordin, Yaprak S; Karayurt, Özgül
Liver transplant recipients must adapt to a new life after transplant. We report the effects of a support group on physical and psychosocial adaptation of liver transplant recipients. The study used a quasi-experimental design, comparing an intervention group and a control group. Data were collected between January 2011 and May 2012 with 73 liver transplant recipients. A patient identification form, Modified Transplant Symptom Occurrence and Symptom Distress Scale - 58, and SF-36 were used for data collection. The intervention group attended support group meetings, while the control group received a routine follow-up. Data were analyzed with t test and The Repeated Measures ANOVA with 1 between-group factor. The results indicated that the support group intervention increases physical, psychological, and social adaptation of liver transplant recipients. Specifically, this effect of the support group was accrued after support group intervention and decreased 3 months after intervention. A support group intervention can have a positive effect on liver transplant recipients' physical, psychological, and social adaptations.
Full Text Available The differential-cognitological point of view, giftedness is “a systemic quality of a personality that develops throughout life and determines their abilities to achieve exceptionally high results in one or more activities compared to those of other people”. Herewith, it is the fundamental concept of general aptitude, under which “the level of general abilities development that determines the range of activities in which a person can achieve great success” is understood. Within the structure of general aptitude intellectual giftedness is singled out as the level of development, as well as the type of organization of individual mental experience, which ensure an opportunity of creative intellectual activity, i. e. an activity, related to the creation of subjectively and objectively new ideas, to the use of innovative approaches to solving problems and openness to controversial aspects of the situation and so on. In order to identify talented children and adults the value of intellectual quotient (IQ is still most commonly used. Psychometric approach (the measurement of psychic phenomena with the help of standardized IQ tests to the diagnosis of intellectual giftedness, which is dominant in psychological diagnostics today, by definition, cannot “measure” the phenomena of an individual psyche, since the modern level of psychological science does not allow to proceed to psychological diagnosis, let alone prediction of a certain person`s behavior, on the basis of individual results in performing a psychological test (psychometric test of intelligence, personality questionnaire, projective methods etc. In our opinion, many problems in psychological and pedagogical support of gifted children could be avoided by making use of cognitive-style approach to diagnosis of intellectual giftedness, creative abilities, propensities and peculiar mental traits of a separate individuality. Objectivity of such an approach is corroborated by the results
Costa, Rosalia; Dunsford, Michael; Skagerberg, Elin; Holt, Victoria; Carmichael, Polly; Colizzi, Marco
Puberty suppression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) is prescribed to relieve the distress associated with pubertal development in adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) and thereby to provide space for further exploration. However, there are limited longitudinal studies on puberty suppression outcome in GD. Also, studies on the effects of psychological support on its own on GD adolescents' well-being have not been reported. This study aimed to assess GD adolescents' global functioning after psychological support and puberty suppression. Two hundred one GD adolescents were included in this study. In a longitudinal design we evaluated adolescents' global functioning every 6 months from the first visit. All adolescents completed the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale (UGDS), a self-report measure of GD-related discomfort. We used the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) to assess the psychosocial functioning of adolescents. At baseline, GD adolescents showed poor functioning with a CGAS mean score of 57.7 ± 12.3. GD adolescents' global functioning improved significantly after 6 months of psychological support (CGAS mean score: 60.7 ± 12.5; P effective in the clinical management of psychosocial functioning difficulties in GD adolescents. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Kusuma Wijaya Ridi Putra
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the leading causes of death and it is caused by genetics, nutrition, and unhealthy behaviors. Therefore, changes in lifestyle associated with eating behaviors in diabetes mellitus patients greatly impact on their quality of life. There are many factors related with changes in lifestyle of diabetes mellitus patients, especially eating behaviors. Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationships between self-efficacy, psychological stress, family support, and eating behaviors among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in Sidoarjo, Indonesia. Method: A total of 117 T2DM patients from the Sidoarjo Community Health Center were included in the analysis. Using SPSS IBM 21.0 program, Pearson product moment correlation was performed to analyze data. Results: The findings showed that self-efficacy and family support had positive relationship with eating behaviors (r = .692, p < .001; r = .683, p < .001, respectively. Psychological stress had negative relationship with eating behaviors (r = -.327, p < .001. Conclusion: Self-efficacy, family support, and psychological stress had relationship with eating behaviors. Nurses should pay attention to the factors to make T2DM patients into a long-term commitment toward healthy eating behaviors.
Full Text Available Orientation: The unconscious impact of organisational transformation is often neglected and even denied. This research revealed the manifestation and impact of high levels and different forms of anxiety experienced by employees during transformation.Research objective: The objective was to study and describe the manifesting systems psychodynamic behaviour amongst support staff during organisational transformation.Motivation for the study: Organisational transformation is mostly researched from a leadership viewpoint. Little research data are available on the experiences of support staff on the receiving end of decisions about and implementation of transformation.Research design, approach and method: A qualitative approach within the phenomenological hermeneutic interpretive stance was used. The research was set in a government organisation. A semi-structured interview with four conveniently and purposefully chosen support staff members was thematically analysed using systems psychodynamics as theoretical paradigm.Main findings: Four themes manifested, namely de-authorisation and detachment, being bullied and seduced by leadership, the organisation in the mind as incompetent, and a dangerous and persecutory system. In the discussion, the basic assumptions and relevant constructs are interpreted.Practical implications: Understanding the transformation experiences of support staff could assist the industrial psychologist to facilitate appropriate support in coaching more junior staff towards increasing wellness and work performance.Contribution: Organisational transformation is highlighted as an anxiety provoking experience especially on the lower levels of the organisation. Its potentially deep and complex psychological impact could possibly derail parts of the system if not managed in a psychologically contained manner.
Nielsen, Ingrid; Newman, Alexander; Smyth, Russell; Hirst, Giles; Heilemann, Barbara
The influence of instructor support, family support and psychological capital (PsyCap) on the subjective well-being of postgraduate business students, including whether PsyCap mediates the proposed support--well-being relationship were examined in this study. It was further investigated whether family support moderates this proposed mediated…
Yamada, Yukari; Klugar, Miloslav; Ivanova, Katerina; Oborna, Ivana
Psychological distress among medical students is commonly observed during medical education and is generally related to poor academic self-perception. We evaluated the role of peer social support at medical schools in the association between psychological distress and academic self-perception. An online survey was conducted in a medical degree program for 138 international students educated in English in the Czech Republic. The Medical Student Well-Being Index was used to define the students' psychological distress. Perceived peer social support was investigated with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Poor academic self-perception was defined as the lowest 30% of a subscale score of the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure. Analyses evaluated the presence of additive interactions between psychological distress and peer social support on poor academic self-perception, adjusted for possible confounders. Both psychological distress and low peer social support were negatively associated with poor academic self-perception, adjusted for local language proficiency and social support from family. Students with psychological distress and low peer social support had an odds ratio of 11.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-56.6) for poor academic self-perception as compared with those without distress who had high peer social support. The presence of an additive interaction was confirmed in that the joint association was four times as large as what would have been expected to be on summing the individual risks of psychological distress and low peer social support (synergy index = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.3-14.9). Psychological distress and low peer social support may synergistically increase the probability of poor academic self-perception among international medical students. Promoting peer social relationships at medical school may interrupt the vicious cycle of psychological distress and poor academic performance.
Mitchell, C. A.
Long-duration future habitation of space involving great distances from Earth and/or large crew sizes (eg, lunar outpost, Mars base) will require a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) to simultaneously revitalize atmosphere (liberate oxygen and fix carbon dioxide), purify water (via transpiration), and generate human food (for a vegetarian diet). Photosynthetic higher plants and algae will provide the essential functions of biomass productivity in a CELSS, and a combination of physicochemical and bioregenerative processes will be used to regenerate renewable resources from waste materials. Crop selection criteria for a CELSS include nutritional use characteristics as well as horticultural characteristics. Cereals, legumes, and oilseed crops are used to provide the major macronutrients for the CELSS diet. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) was established at Purdue University to establish proof of the concept of the sustainability of a CELSS. The Biosphere 2 project in Arizona is providing a model for predicted and unpredicted situations that arise as a result of closure in a complex natural ecosystem.
Mitchell, C A
Long-duration future habitation of space involving great distances from Earth and/or large crew sizes (eg, lunar outpost, Mars base) will require a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) to simultaneously revitalize atmosphere (liberate oxygen and fix carbon dioxide), purify water (via transpiration), and generate human food (for a vegetarian diet). Photosynthetic higher plants and algae will provide the essential functions of biomass productivity in a CELSS, and a combination of physicochemical and bioregenerative processes will be used to regenerate renewable resources from waste materials. Crop selection criteria for a CELSS include nutritional use characteristics as well as horticultural characteristics. Cereals, legumes, and oilseed crops are used to provide the major macronutrients for the CELSS diet. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) was established at Purdue University to establish proof of the concept of the sustainability of a CELSS. The Biosphere 2 project in Arizona is providing a model for predicted and unpredicted situations that arise as a result of closure in a complex natural ecosystem.
April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jing Xing
This is the second of two papers that discuss the literature review conducted as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) effort to develop a hybrid human reliability analysis (HRA) method in response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020. This review was conducted with the goal of strengthening the technical basis within psychology, cognitive science and human factors for the hybrid HRA method being proposed. An overview of the literature review approach and high-level structure is provided in the first paper, whereas this paper presents the results of the review. The psychological literature review encompassed research spanning the entirety of human cognition and performance, and consequently produced an extensive list of psychological processes, mechanisms, and factors that contribute to human performance. To make sense of this large amount of information, the results of the literature review were organized into a cognitive framework that identifies causes of failure of macrocognition in humans, and connects those proximate causes to psychological mechanisms and performance influencing factors (PIFs) that can lead to the failure. This cognitive framework can serve as a tool to inform HRA. Beyond this, however, the cognitive framework has the potential to also support addressing human performance issues identified in Human Factors applications.
Merrick, Alistair D; Grieve, Alan; Cogan, Nicola
Despite increased risk of experiencing challenging behaviour, psychological impacts on community and residential staff supporting adults with autistic spectrum conditions are under-explored. Studies examining related roles indicate protective psychological factors may help maintain staff well-being. This study investigated relationships between motivational orientation (eudaimonic or hedonic), challenging behaviour frequency and type (physical, verbal or self-injurious) and psychological impacts (anxiety, depression and life satisfaction). Participants (N = 99) were recruited from six organisations providing autism-specific adult services within Scotland. A series of binary logistic regressions demonstrated weekly challenging behaviour exposure (compared to monthly or daily) significantly increased the likelihood of anxiety caseness. Increased eudaimonic motivation significantly reduced the likelihood of anxiety caseness while also predicting higher life satisfaction. Furthermore, having high levels of eudaimonic motivation appeared to moderate the impact of weekly challenging behaviour exposure on anxiety. No motivational orientation or challenging behaviour factor significantly predicted depression. This sample also demonstrated higher anxiety, lower depression and equivalent life satisfaction levels compared with general population norms. The results highlight the need for considering staff's motivational orientations, their frequency of exposure to challenging behaviour, and both positive and negative psychological outcomes, if seeking to accurately quantify or improve well-being in this staff population.
Brocklehurst, Paul R
The aim of this paper is to introduce the reader to personal construct psychology as a theory to help understand the process of change in facilitative and mentoring relationships. Continuing professional development is critical if practitioners are to keep up to date with new ideas, techniques, and materials. However, is it important not only to consider what is learnt, it is also important to understand the how of learning in order to develop an approach that leads to lifelong learning. Mentoring, coaching, and appraisal are all facilitative processes that aim to encourage professionals to engage with their own development. This leads to differing degrees of both behavioural and attitudinal change. As a result, it is useful to have a theory that can help an individual to understand these changes and to identify any difficulties that are associated with them. Personal construct psychology has long been recognised as a potential framework for personal development. It has been used extensively in a broad range of domains, including clinical and educational psychology, management, and psychotherapy. Personal construct psychology is a useful theory for understanding the facilitative process because it enables the facilitator to form a conceptual framework to comprehend behavioural and attitudinal change. Its underlying philosophical approach also supports lifelong learning, given its emphasis on an enquiring mind and reflection, both of which are key to continuing professional development.
Sakamoto, Nobuhiro; Takiguchi, Shuji; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Okuyama, Toru; Nakaguchi, Tomohiro; Kubota, Yosuke; Ito, Yoshinori; Sugano, Koji; Wada, Makoto; Akechi, Tatsuo
Although currently many advanced colorectal cancer patients continuously receive chemotherapy, there are very few findings with regard to the supportive care needs of such patients. The purposes of this study were to investigate the patients' perceived needs and the association with psychological distress and/or quality of life, and to clarify the characteristics of patients with a high degree of unmet needs. Ambulatory colorectal cancer patients who were receiving chemotherapy were asked to complete the Short-Form Supportive Care Needs Survey questionnaire, which covers five domains of need (health system and information, psychological, physical, care and support, and sexuality needs), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire. Complete data were available for 100 patients. Almost all of the top 10 most common unmet needs belonged to the psychological domain. The patients' total needs were significantly associated with both psychological distress (r = 0.65, P psychological distress and/or quality of life suggest that interventions that respond to patients' needs may be one possible strategy for ameliorating psychological distress and enhancing quality of life. Female patients' needs should be evaluated more carefully.
Cherry, Katie E; Sampson, Laura; Nezat, Pamela F; Cacamo, Ashley; Marks, Loren D; Galea, Sandro
Natural disasters are associated with catastrophic losses. Disaster survivors return to devastated communities and rebuild homes or relocate permanently, although the long-term psychological consequences are not well understood. The authors examined predictors of psychological outcomes in 219 residents of disaster-affected communities in south Louisiana. Current coastal residents with severe property damage from the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, and exposure to the 2010 British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon oil spill were compared and contrasted with former coastal residents and an indirectly affected control group. Participants completed measures of storm exposure and stressors, religiosity, perceived social support, and mental health. Non-organizational religiosity was a significant predictor of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Follow-up analyses revealed that more frequent participation in non-organizational religious behaviors was associated with a heightened risk of PTSD. Low income and being a coastal fisher were significant predictors of depression symptoms in bivariate and multivariate models. Perceived social support had a protective effect for all mental health outcomes, which also held for symptoms of depression and GAD in multivariate models. People who experienced recent and severe trauma related to natural and technological disasters are at risk for adverse psychological outcomes in the years after these events. Individuals with low income, low social support, and high levels of non-organizational religiosity are also at greater risk. Implications of these data for current views on the post-disaster psychological reactions and the development of age-sensitive interventions to promote long-term recovery are discussed.
Galina N. Zhulina
Full Text Available The aim of the research is to study the peculiarities of teenagers’ professional self-determination inclined to deviant behavior, the design of the psychological and pedagogical program of professional self-determination for adolescents. Methods. The methods involve theoretical analysis on the research problem, empirical methods and techniques (methods in diagnostics of tendency to deviant behavior (SOPS by A. N. Orel, questionnaire to determine the professional readiness by L. N. Kabardova; questionnaire «The knowledge about the world of professions» by E. A. Klimov; the questionnaire for determining personal professional perspective by N. S. Pryazhnikov, methods of mathematical statistics (the MannWhitney test. Results. The age differences of some components of adolescents’ professional self-determination are revealed. It is proved that there are differences for some components of professional self-determination of adolescents, inclined and not inclined to deviant behavior. The program project of psychological and pedagogical support of professional self-determination for adolescents is proposed. Scientific novelty and theoretical significance of the work consists in the expansion of scientific ideas about the psychological characteristics of adolescents who are prone to deviant forms of behavior. The study clarifies the scientific view of professional self-determination of a teenager and organization of psychological and pedagogical support of driving in instability of society. Practical significance. The results allow to solve practical problems of professional self-determination of adolescents. The obtained results can be used in advisory, developmental directions of practical psychologist in education, in building programs of prevention deviant behavior for teenagers. The results of the study served as the basis for designing the program of psycho-pedagogical support of adolescents’ professional self-determination.
Kong, G W S; Chung, T K H; Lok, I H
To assess the effectiveness of supportive counselling after miscarriage. Randomised controlled trial. University hospital. Two hundred and eighty women with miscarriage. Women were randomised to receive supportive counselling from a nurse (at diagnosis and 2 weeks later) or routine care. Psychological wellbeing was measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Primary outcome measured the proportion of women suffering psychological distress (GHQ-12 score ≥4) at 3 months after miscarriage. Secondary outcomes were GHQ-12 and BDI scores at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months. There was no difference in the proportion of women suffering psychological distress at 3 months after miscarriage (17.1% in counselling group versus 24.4% in control group; 95% CI -0.034 to 0.177; P = 0.19). However, for the subgroup of women (n = 152) with high baseline GHQ-12 scores, the median GHQ-12 score in the counselling group was significantly lower than the control group at 6 weeks (median score 3 versus 4.5 in counselling and control groups; P = 0.04) and 3 months (median score 1 versus 2.5 in counselling and control groups; P = 0.03). Similarly, for women with high baseline BDI scores (BDI > 12), the proportion for women continuing to score high was significantly lower in the counselling group 6 weeks after miscarriage (33.3 versus 61.1% in counselling group and control group; P = 0.03). Although the results of current study do not justify routine counselling of all women following miscarriage, a supportive counselling programme for selected women with high levels of psychological distress is promising and merits further investigation. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Field, Richard J.; Gallas, Jason A. C.; Schuldberg, David
Recent work has introduced social dynamic models of people's stress-related processes, some including amelioration of stress symptoms by support from others. The effects of support may be ;direct;, depending only on the level of support, or ;buffering;, depending on the product of the level of support and level of stress. We focus here on the nonlinear buffering term and use a model involving three variables (and 12 control parameters), including stress as perceived by the individual, physical and psychological symptoms, and currently active social support. This model is quantified by a set of three nonlinear differential equations governing its stationary-state stability, temporal evolution (sometimes oscillatory), and how each variable affects the others. Chaos may appear with periodic forcing of an environmental stress parameter. Here we explore this model carefully as the strength and amplitude of this forcing, and an important psychological parameter relating to self-kindling in the stress response, are varied. Three significant observations are made: 1. There exist many complex but orderly regions of periodicity and chaos, 2. there are nested regions of increasing number of peaks per cycle that may cascade to chaos, and 3. there are areas where more than one state, e.g., a period-2 oscillation and chaos, coexist for the same parameters; which one is reached depends on initial conditions.
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Support systems. 193.2609 Section 193.2609 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2609 Support systems. Each support system or foundation of each...
Full Text Available The article describes the aims, tasks and fundamental principles of psychological support of crime investigation with the involvement of minors as a one of the aspects of criminalistical support of the preliminary investigation in the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation are revealed. Discusses the following areas of psychological support of investigation of criminal cases with participation of minors: participation of a psychologist in the investigative actions, the preliminary interviews with the aim of preparing minors for investigation, the business of the investigator in the choice of tactics of investigative actions and other issues, psychological examination of the minor, the receipt of additional information from minors using methods of applied psychology, compiling a subjective portrait of the alleged offender, psychological analysis of testimonies of minors and others. Also this article discusses the basic principles end actual techniques of interview of minor sexual abuses victims are examined including NICHD Protocol developed by the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, NICHD.
Frankenhuis, Willem E; Panchanathan, Karthik; Clark Barrett, H
Interactions between evolutionary psychologists and developmental systems theorists have been largely antagonistic. This is unfortunate because potential synergies between the two approaches remain unexplored. This article presents a method that may help to bridge the divide, and that has proven fruitful in biology: dynamic optimization. Dynamic optimization integrates developmental systems theorists' focus on dynamics and contingency with the 'design stance' of evolutionary psychology. It provides a theoretical framework as well as a set of tools for exploring the properties of developmental systems that natural selection might favor, given particular evolutionary ecologies. We also discuss limitations of the approach. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Tromp, D.M.; Rheede, van A.; Blomme, R.J.
Turnover of highly educated employees in the hospitality industry is growing rapidly. A predictor of turnover in the hospitality industry recently put forward, but not yet fully researched, is psychological strain. This chapter investigates the role of psychological strain and organizational support
van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Mabbe, Elien
This study examined the unique relations between multiple sources (i.e., mothers, teachers, and siblings) of perceived daily autonomy support and psychological control and children's basic psychological needs and well-being. During 5 consecutive days, 2 children from 154 families (M[subscript age] youngest child = 8.54 years; SD = 0.89 and…
Weinstein, Netta; Legate, Nicole; Ryan, William S; Sedikides, Constantine; Cozzolino, Philip J
Important others' perceptions influence self-perceptions. This presents a challenge for the critical developmental task of integrating all aspects of identity, as identities that are devalued or stigmatized by society are harder to own than valued ones. Across 3 studies, we tested the idea that conflictual or stigmatized identities are harder to own, or integrate into the self, than are nonconflictual ones, and we examine how receiving autonomy support for an identity-support for authentic identity exploration and expression-can facilitate ownership of that identity. Cross-sectional (n = 543), experience-sampling (n = 66), and experimental methods (n = 209) tested the dynamics of autonomy-supportive others on identity ownership. Data from these studies converge to show that conflictual identities are indeed harder to own than nonconflictual ones, but that autonomy support predicts greater ownership and psychological health, especially for conflictual identities. In the final study, we replicate these dynamics in 3 identities stigmatized by society: sexual minority, ethnic minority, and gender minority identities. Findings reveal the importance of integrating all aspects of identity-particularly those that are conflictual or stigmatized-into one's self-concept. We consider implications for counseling and clinical practice, as well as broadly for the psychological health of stigmatized individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Muhammad Farid Ilhamuddin
Full Text Available This study aims to know the relation between religiousity (X1 and psychological well being (Y, the relation between optimism (X2 and psychological well being (Y, as well as the relation between social support (X3 and psychological well being (Y of students of MAN in the entire Malang city. This study was a non-experimental study with causal relationship study plan. The result of this research showed that there was a positive significant between X1 and Y, X2 and Y, X3 and Y; X1, X2, X3 had strong linear relation with Y; the influence of the three independent logical well being (Y, optimism (X2 dan psychological well being (Y, social support (X3 and psychological well being (Y student of MAN se-Kota Malang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan religiusitas (X1 dan psychological well being (Y, optimis (X2 dan psychological well being (Y, social support (X3 dan psychological well being (Y peserta didik MAN se-kota Malang. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah non experimental research dengan jenis penelitian causal relationship study. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada hubungan positif signifikan antara X1 dan Y, X2 dan Y, X3 dan Y; X1, X2, X3 memiliki hubungan linear yang kuat dengan Y; pengaruh ketiga variabel independen psychological well being (Y, optimism (X2 dan psychological well being (Y, social support (X3 dan psychological well being (Y peserta didik MAN se-Kota Malang.
Horita, Yuji; Otsuka, Yasumasa
In the NIOSH Generic Job Stress Model, social support is assumed to moderate the relationship between job stressors and stress responses. However, few studies have investigated how to enhance social support in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between interpersonal helping behavior, social support, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor among Japanese workers. A total of 240 workers in manufacturing companies returned a questionnaire regarding their interpersonal helping behavior, social support, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor (response rate = 96.0%). After excluding 40 participants due to missing responses, data from a total of 200 participants (163 male and 37 female, mean age = 40.3 yr) were used in the final analyses. Interpersonal helping behavior was assessed by the Japanese version of the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale. The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire was used to measure job stressors, psychological stress responses, social support, and vigor. Structured equation modeling was performed to examine the relationships between interpersonal helping behavior, social support, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor. Interpersonal helping behavior had a statistically significant negative effect on psychological stress response through increasing social support. However, interpersonal helping behavior had a statistically significant positive effect on psychological stress response through increasing the quantitative workload. Of these two effects, the former was stronger than the latter. In addition, interpersonal helping behavior had a statistically significant positive effect on vigor through increasing social support. Although interpersonal helping behavior, which helps other workers may increase quantitative workload, leading to high levels of psychological stress responses, that same behavior strengthens trust and team spirit among workers and may
O'Sullivan, Dympna; Fraccaro, Paolo; Carson, Ewart; Weller, Peter
Clinical decision support systems are interactive software systems designed to help clinicians with decision-making tasks, such as determining a diagnosis or recommending a treatment for a patient. Clinical decision support systems are a widely researched topic in the computer science community, but their inner workings are less well understood by, and known to, clinicians. This article provides a brief explanation of clinical decision support systems and some examples of real-world systems. It also describes some of the challenges to implementing these systems in clinical environments and posits some reasons for the limited adoption of decision-support systems in practice. It aims to engage clinicians in the development of decision support systems that can meaningfully help with their decision-making tasks and to open a discussion about the future of automated clinical decision support as a part of healthcare delivery. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.
Bean, Corliss; Harlow, Meghan; Kendellen, Kelsey
Youth leadership programming has become an increasingly common context to foster basic psychological needs and promote youth development. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore strategies involved in fostering youth needs support within six leadership programs. Two leaders and 30 youth participated in semi-structured interviews to better understand the strategies used to foster needs support. Findings revealed that leaders were able to foster a sense of relatedness among youth through building trusting adult-youth relationships and nurturing an inclusive environment. Maximizing choice and negotiating youth voice helped to foster youth's autonomy. Finally, creating a task-oriented climate and providing intentional opportunities for skill-building helped to foster youth's competence. Findings suggest that training for leaders is critical in understanding what, and how strategies should be employed to help foster youth needs support in leadership programming. Limitations and future directions are outlined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Crockett, Lisa J; Iturbide, Maria I; Torres Stone, Rosalie A; McGinley, Meredith; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo
This study examined the relations between acculturative stress and psychological functioning, as well as the protective role of social support and coping style, in a sample of 148 Mexican American college students (67% female, 33% male; mean age = 23.05 years, SD = 3.33). In bivariate analyses, acculturative stress was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Moreover, active coping was associated with better adjustment (lower depression), whereas avoidant coping predicted poorer adjustment (higher levels of depression and anxiety). Tests of interaction effects indicated that parental support and active coping buffered the effects of high acculturative stress on anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms. In addition, peer support moderated the relation between acculturative stress and anxiety symptoms. Implications for reducing the effects of acculturative stress among Mexican American college students are discussed. 2007 APA
Colletta, Nancy Donahue
Examined the impact of support systems on post-divorce family functioning. Results suggest that families under extreme stress need to be provided with relatively high levels of support or their dissatisfaction with support systems will appear in harsher and more restrictive relationships with children. (Author)
Discusses issues connected with developing information systems for competitive intelligence support; defines the elements of an effective competitive information system; and summarizes issues affecting system design and implementation. Highlights include intelligence information; information needs; information sources; decision making; and…
Janeiro, J.; Knoll, S.W.; Lukosch, S.G.; Kolfschoten, G.L.
Today, engineering systems offer a variety of local and webbased applications to support collaboration by assisting groups in structuring activities, generating and sharing data, and improving group communication. To ensure the quality of collaboration, engineering system design needs to analyze and
Goense, Pauline Brigitta; Boendermaker, Leonieke; van Yperen, Tom
Objective: This systematic review evaluates the content of effective support provided to practitioners of evidence-based interventions in order to establish and maintain treatment integrity. Method: Four articles covering six outcome studies are included in this review, these studies (1) adequately
Kenny, Maureen E; Gallagher, Laura A; Alvarez-Salvat, Rose; Silsby, John
Study 1 examined the relationships between parental attachment, academic achievement, and psychological distress among a multiethnic sample of academically successful inner-city high school students (19 White, 54 Black, 9 Asian, 18 Hispanic). These students participated in an enrichment program designed to prepare high school students for college success. The results suggest that the affective quality of maternal attachment is positively associated with grade point average, and the affective quality of paternal attachment is negatively associated with depressive symptoms. In Study 2, case examples provide an examination of sources of support, life stress, and patterns of resilience. Implications for prevention and intervention are also discussed.
Unnikrishnan, S.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Fazal, I.; Louwerse, M.C.; Mogulkoc, B.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; de Boer, Meint J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt
The invention relates to a method for making a glass supported micro or nano system, comprising the steps of: i) providing a glass support; ii) mounting at least one system on at least one glass support; and iii) bonding the system to the glass support, such that the system is circumferentially
Sturrock, Bonnie A; Xie, Jing; Holloway, Edith E; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Keeffe, Jill E; Fenwick, Eva K; Rees, Gwyneth
The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and determinants of desire for and use of psychological support in patients with low vision. The study was cross-sectional, utilizing telephone-administered interviews. Patients were recruited from Vision Australia and the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital with visual acuity of less than 6/12 in the better eye. Measures were the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, Stigma Scale for Receiving Psychological Help, Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, and Impact of Vision Impairment Questionnaire. Of the total 161 participants (mean ± SD, 69.94 ± 15.76 years; 67% female), 63% desired psychological support, but only 20% reported ever receiving this. Higher levels of depressive symptoms and poorer coping in relation to vision impairment were significantly associated with desire for psychological support. Younger age, experience/s of depression, and beliefs about depression and its treatment were associated with use of professional support. Many patients with low vision desired psychological support but were not receiving this, suggesting barriers to receipt of care. This highlights the need for early screening of emotional difficulties, depression education, and easy access to psychological support within low vision services.
Matheson, Katherine M; Barrett, Tessa; Landine, Jeff; McLuckie, Alan; Soh, Nerissa Li-Weh; Walter, Garry
The authors examine the prevalence of psychological distress, the stressors experienced, and the supports used by medical students and residents during their medical training at a Canadian university. This study used an online survey that included a standardized instrument to evaluate psychological distress (Kessler-10) and Likert-based survey items that examined stress levels related to family relationships, living accommodations, commuting, finances, and program requirements. Depressive symptoms, substance use, and suicidal ideation were also measured, as were supports accessed (e.g., counseling) and students' perceptions of the overall supportiveness of the university. Non-parametric descriptive statistics were used to examine the prevalence of psychological distress, sources of stress, and supports accessed. Surveys were received from 381 students (37% response). Most students (60%) reported normal levels of psychological distress on the K10 (M = 19.5, SD = 6.25), and a subgroup reported high to very high levels of psychological distress. A small number also reported substance use, symptoms of depression, and/or suicidal ideation. These results indicate that students experience psychological distress from a number of stressors and suggest that medical schools should act as key partners in supporting student well-being by promoting self-care, educating students on the risks of burnout, and developing programs to support at-risk students.
Ortiz-Santamaria, Vera; Puig, Celia; Soldevillla, Cristina; Barata, Anna; Cuquet, Jordi; Recasens, Asunción
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease which involves the gastrointestinal tract in about 90% of cases. It may contribute to nutritional deterioration. To assess whether the application of a nutritional support protocol to these patients could improve their nutritional status and quality of life. Single center prospective study, performed on an outpatient basis, in a county hospital. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) was used to screen risk for malnutrition. Health questionnaire SF-36 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used to assess quality of life and psychopathology respectively. Weight, height, energy and protein requirements, macronutrient intake and nutritional biochemical parameters were evaluated. Nutritional intervention was performed in patients at risk for malnutrition. Of the 72 patients, 12.5% were at risk for malnutrition. Iron deficiency anemia (18.35%) and vitamin D deficiency (54%) were the most frequently observed nutritional deficits. The questionnaires on psychopathology and quality of life showed a high prevalence of anxiety and depression, and lower level poor quality of life in the physical and mental component. No significant improvements were observed in the weight, food intake, nutritional biochemical parameters, psychopathology and quality of life follow-up. Dietary intervention was able to maintain body weight and food intake. Iron deficiency anemia and vitamin D deficiency improved with iron and vitamine D supplements. No deterioration was observed in psychological assessment or quality of life. Studies with larger numbers of patients are needed to assess the efficacy of this intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Boyle, Michael P
To compare adults who stutter with and without support group experience on measures of self-esteem, self-efficacy, life satisfaction, self-stigma, perceived stuttering severity, perceived origin and future course of stuttering, and importance of fluency. Participants were 279 adults who stutter recruited from the National Stuttering Association and Board Recognized Specialists in Fluency Disorders. Participants completed a Web-based survey comprised of various measures of well-being including the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, a measure of perceived stuttering severity, the Self-Stigma of Stuttering Scale, and other stuttering-related questions. Participants with support group experience as a whole demonstrated lower internalized stigma, were more likely to believe that they would stutter for the rest of their lives, and less likely to perceive production of fluent speech as being highly or moderately important when talking to other people, compared to participants with no support group experience. Individuals who joined support groups to help others feel better about themselves reported higher self-esteem, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction, and lower internalized stigma and perceived stuttering severity, compared to participants with no support group experience. Participants who stutter as an overall group demonstrated similar levels of self-esteem, higher self-efficacy, and lower life satisfaction compared to averages from normative data for adults who do not stutter. Findings support the notion that self-help support groups limit internalization of negative attitudes about the self, and that focusing on helping others feel better in a support group context is linked to higher levels of psychological well-being. At the end of this activity the reader will be able to: (a) describe the potential psychological benefits of stuttering self-help support groups for people who stutter, (b) contrast between
Lobanova, E. N.; Zmitrovich, A. I.; Voshevoz, A. A.; Krivko-Krasko, A. V.
In this article we consider concepts and components of the Financial Decision Making System that is being developed in the Institute of Business and Management Technology, BSU. Such system can be successfully used either for training experts in financial analytics and financial management or for financial managers and financial directors in an enterprise for the effective financial decision making.
A review of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is presented in which emphasis is given to recent mission accomplishments and current directions of research. Existing and new military UAV programs are listed with reference to funding, the type of vehicle, and level of development. Several trends are established including the reliance of UVAs on global positioning satellites and advanced electronics and the growth of the UVA industry. UVAs that are in advanced stages of development or have been deployed include short-range UAV such as the Pioneer, the Pointer, the Sky Owl, and the Hunter. Key UAV systems are described such as the Advanced Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance System, the Maritime Vertical Takeoff and Landing, and other VTOL systems. Very small UVAs and Exdrones are also discussed, and a weather reconnaissance system and surveillance systems are mentioned.
Jose, Rupa; Novaco, Raymond W
Social support has been found in many studies to be a protective factor for those exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV), but personal resilience has received far less attention. The present study concerns 136 female IPV victims seeking a temporary restraining order (TRO) from a Family Justice Center (FJC). The relationships between IPV victimization, social support, resilience, and psychological distress were examined. Hierarchical regressions found that both perceived social support and self-reported resilience were inversely associated with distress symptoms. Higher social support was associated with lower trauma symptoms, controlling for abuse history, demographics, and resilience. Higher resilience was associated with lower mood symptoms and lower perceived stress, controlling for abuse history, demographics, and social support. No significant associations were recorded for anger symptoms. These findings suggest that fostering resilience can have important health benefits for IPV victims, above and beyond the well-known benefits of social support. Ways that resilience might be cultivated in this population and other implications for practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Orientation: The researchers conducted a literature review to analyse the assumptions of systems psychodynamics, the Tavistock model of group relations, object relations theory and the most relevant constructs in the systems psychodynamic perspective. They then described the assumptions and most relevant constructs in the positive psychology perspective in order to analyse theoretically the psychological effect of large-scale sports events on a community or country. The objective of the empirical study was to investigate some of the unconscious emotions, fears, anxieties and conflicts (dynamics that prevailed in South Africa before the 2010 Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA World Cup and some of the positive emotional experiences associated with it.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to analyse and describe the psychological experiences of South Africans before the 2010 FIFA World Cup.Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted the study from the systems psychodynamic and positive psychology perspectives. The study comprised a qualitative, explorative and social phenomenological study. The researchers conducted interviews with a wide range of their colleagues and clients.Main findings: The results seemed to indicate that South Africans had had a number of positive and negative experiences before the 2010 FIFA World Cup.Practical/managerial implications: The researchers presented the findings as a number of systems psychodynamic and positive psychology themes.Contribution/value-add: This study presents original research that contributes valuable new knowledge to the positive psychology and systems psychodynamic perspectives.
US Agency for International Development — PTRAMS is a travel data collection system for PPL that collects information on both the basic details of an employee's trips (destination, length, purpose, etc.) and...
US Agency for International Development — DTRAMS is a travel data collection system for DCHA that collects information on both the basic details of an employee's trips (destination, length, purpose, etc.)...
US Agency for International Development — HTRAMS is a travel data collection system for GH that collects information on both the basic details of an employee's trips (destination, length, purpose, etc.) and...
Walker-Springett, Kate; Jefferson, Rebecca; Böck, Kerstin; Breckwoldt, Annette; Comby, Emeline; Cottet, Marylise; Hübner, Gundula; Le Lay, Yves-François; Shaw, Sylvie; Wyles, Kayleigh
The success or failure of environmental management goals can be partially attributed to the support for such goals from the public. Despite this, environmental management is still dominated by a natural science approach with little input from disciplines that are concerned with the relationship between humans and the natural environment such as environmental psychology. Within the marine and freshwater environments, this is particularly concerning given the cultural and aesthetic significance of these environments to the public, coupled with the services delivered by freshwater and marine ecosystems, and the vulnerability of aquatic ecosystems to human-driven environmental perturbations. This paper documents nine case studies which use environmental psychology methods to support a range of aquatic management goals. Examples include understanding the drivers of public attitudes towards ecologically important but uncharismatic river species, impacts of marine litter on human well-being, efficacy of small-scale governance of tropical marine fisheries and the role of media in shaping attitudes towards. These case studies illustrate how environmental psychology and natural sciences can be used together to apply an interdisciplinary approach to the management of aquatic environments. Such an approach that actively takes into account the range of issues surrounding aquatic environment management is more likely to result in successful outcomes, from both human and environmental perspectives. Furthermore, the results illustrate that better understanding the societal importance of aquatic ecosystems can reduce conflict between social needs and ecological objectives, and help improve the governance of aquatic ecosystems. Thus, this paper concludes that an effective relationship between academics and practitioners requires fully utilising the skills, knowledge and experience from both sectors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
the read/ write access type of all global variables and a list of the general registers and their access type. * Added the necessary software to...power approaches, using a Fresnel Lens Optical Landing System (FLOLS), and a ship’s-qualified Landing Signal Officer (LSO). All aproaches were terminated...34 and "read- write " 0 privilege levels. The CPL catalog software is written in FORTRAN 77 and operates on the SEL 32-77 computer system using an MPX
An estimated 20% of children who present to hospital emergency departments following potentially traumatic events (e.g., serious injuries, road traffic accidents, assaults) will develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a consequence. The development of PTSD can have a substantial impact on a child's developmental trajectory, including their emotional, social and educational wellbeing. Despite this, only a small proportion will access mental health services, with the majority relying on informal sources of support. Parents, in particular, are often the primary source of support. However, it remains unclear what types of parental responses may be effective, and parents themselves report experiencing uncertainty about the best approach. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined the capacity for specific aspects of parental responding in the aftermath of child trauma to facilitate or hinder children's psychological recovery. We conducted a longitudinal study of 132 parent-child pairs, recruited following the child's experience of trauma and subsequent attendance at one of four regional emergency departments. At an initial assessment, within 1 month post-trauma, we examined how parents appraised and responded to their child following the event, using both questionnaires and direct observations. Child-report questionnaires were used to assess PTSD symptom severity at 1 month, and at a follow up 6 months later. Children also reported on their own appraisals of the trauma and their coping behaviours, which were considered as potential mediators between parental support and later child symptoms. Controlling for relevant covariates and initial PTSD symptoms, parent negative appraisals of the trauma and encouragement of avoidant coping in children were associated with higher child-reported PTSD symptoms at 6 month follow-up. There was some evidence that children's own trauma related appraisals and coping styles mediated these effects. Findings indicate that
Full Text Available Effective approaches and psychological support of pediatric patients provided by health professionals are complex processes. The negative reactions and fear that pediatric patients develop during their hospitalization hamper cooperation with health professionals. The pediatric nursing staff is called upon to apply appropriate techniques for managing these situations.The purpose of this paper was to investigate, through contemporary literature review, methods of technical and psychological support of pediatric patients, applied by nurses in everyday clinical practice. The management of negative reactions and fear of pediatric patients requires individualized approach, given the uniqueness of each one of them. However, there are some general measures which may bring the ultimate results. According to literature some of them are: creation of a sincere relationship through targeted discussion, application of documented interactive educational programs to familiarize with nursing and medical procedures, distraction during painful acts, such as venipuncture or bladder catheterization, and finally high perception to identify nonverbal reactions.Awareness and familiarization of health professionals with appropriate methods will improve the relationship between pediatric patients and healthcare providers.
Uliukin, I M; Bolekhan, V N; Iusupov, V V; Bulan'kov, Iu I; Orlova, E S
The article contains the analysis of materials about HIV infection and the status of work on its early detection among soldiers. Currently, the figures have a tendency to stabilization, but there is an increase in the persantage of HIV-infected persons performing military service under the contract, as well as the actualization sexual way of infection. The insufficient effectiveness of the barrier screening during the laboratory examination of recruits may contribute the increase in the incidence of HIV infection. Have been reviewed the questions medical-diagnostic and medical-psychological support of HIV-infected soldiers. Been analyzed the social consequences of delays in seeking medical help of patients in this group, the opportunities and challenges of their dispensary observation. It was noted that early detection of HIV infection and proper medical and psychological support in the dynamics of pathological process helps to reduce the number of new cases and improve their outcomes and to reduce the period of efficiency recovery of military personnel.
Wei, Jie; Zhao, Ping; Chen, Li-Jun; Qin, Hui-Qing; Shi, Wang-Hong; Guo, Wei; Zhen, Ying
To explore the effects of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic of patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia and improve the level of diagnosis and treatment. From August 2009 to April 2010, 231 patients (obtained 217 effective responses) with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia were recruited. Among the patients, there were 123 males and 94 females, with an average age of (38.00 +/- 5.67) years (ranged from 15 to 66 years). Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used to test social support and psychological characteristic and compared the difference of psychological, personality traits and norm, then analyzed the effect of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic. Two hundred and seventeen (93.9%) patients completed the questionnaire. Compared with normal 16PF scores, there were significant differences in factor scores of intelligence, stability, excitability, perseverance,social boldness, vigilance, sophistication, experimental, independence and tonicity (P personality traits and psychological characteristic between patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia and norms. Improving social support level and optimizing personality traits can improve psychological profile of these patients.
Souesme, Guillaume; Martinent, Guillaume; Ferrand, Claude
Based on the self-determination theory, the aim of the present study was (1) to provide a better understanding of older people's psychological needs satisfaction in geriatric care units, then to link this information with depressive symptoms and apathy; (2) to examine whether the perceived autonomy support from health care professionals differs between needs satisfaction profiles; and (3) to investigate for all participants how each need satisfaction was related to depressive symptoms and apathy. Participants (N=100; Mage=83.33years, SD=7.78, 61% female) completed the measures of psychological needs satisfaction, perceived autonomy support, geriatric depression and apathy. Sociodemographic data were also collected. Cluster analyses showed three distinct profiles: one profile with low-moderate need satisfaction, one profile with high-moderate need satisfaction and one profile with high need satisfaction. These profiles are distinct, and did not differ in terms of participants' characteristics, except gender. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) revealed that participants with low-moderate need satisfaction profile have significantly higher level of depressive symptoms and apathy, and lower levels of perceived autonomy support than participants of the two other profiles. Moreover, for all participants, regression analyses revealed that both competence and relatedness needs satisfaction significantly and negatively explained 28% of the variance in depressive symptoms score and 44% of the variance in apathy score. Our results highlight the interest to examine more thoroughly the variables fostering autonomy-supportive environment in geriatric care units, and to deepen the relationship between competence and relatedness needs satisfaction and depressive symptoms and apathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kiebles, Jennifer L; Doerfler, Bethany; Keefer, Laurie
Adjustment to chronic disease is a multidimensional construct described as successful adaptation to disease-specific demands, preservation of psychological well-being, functional status, and quality of life. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be particularly challenging due to the unpredictable, relapsing and remitting course of the disease. All participants were patients being treated in an outpatient gastroenterology clinic at a university medical center. Participants completed a survey of questionnaires assessing illness perceptions, stress, emotional functioning, disease acceptance, coping, disease impact, and disease-specific and health-related quality of life. Adjustment was measured as a composite of perceived disability, psychological functioning, and disease-specific and health-related quality of life. Participants were 38 adults with a diagnosis of either Crohn's disease (45%) or ulcerative colitis (55%). We observed that our defined adjustment variables were strongly correlated with disease characteristics (r = 0.33-0.80, all P disease acceptance (r = 0.34-0.74, P adjustment was associated with greater bowel and systemic health, increased activities engagement and symptom tolerance, less pain, less perceived stress, and fewer gastroenterologist visits. All adjustment variables were highly correlated (r = 0.40-0.84, P disease management including cognitive, emotional, and behavioral factors beyond the traditional medical and psychological (depression and anxiety) components.
N. V. Mazurova
Full Text Available Study aim: to study the peculiarities of parents' emotional responses to the stress caused by their child’s hospitalization and operation to distinguish risk factors of losing personality potential by family members. Study participants and methods. The empirical study involved 82 parents (15 fathers and 67 mothers and 76 children of preschool, primary school and juvenile age. A package of techniques involving analysis of medical cards, observation, structured conversation, mental stress calculation questionnaire, the “Incomplete sentences” technique, systematization of results and mathematical data treatment methods was defined. Theoretical analysis of the issue of emotional response of parents to stressful situations connected with their child’s congenital malformations and the need in operative intervention was made. Results. It was shown that all members of a family as a single system are subject to stress. The reaction of parents to their child’s operation depends on their personal characteristics, system of beliefs and life attitudes. Conclusions. The emotional condition of parents influences their child’s psychological condition and the efficacy of treatment. Supporting the family psychologically during pre- and post-operative stages allows to reduce the level of emotional discomfort of children and their parents.
Macelroy, R. D. (Editor); Smernoff, D. T. (Editor); Klein, H. P. (Editor)
Life support systems in space travel, in closed ecological systems were studied. Topics discussed include: (1) problems of life support and the fundamental concepts of bioregeneration; (2) technology associated with physical/chemical regenerative life support; (3) projection of the break even points for various life support techniques; (4) problems of controlling a bioregenerative life support system; (5) data on the operation of an experimental algal/mouse life support system; (6) industrial concepts of bioregenerative life support; and (7) Japanese concepts of bioregenerative life support and associated biological experiments to be conducted in the space station.
L. V. Miller
We present the results of research and practice of professionals providing psychological support to the subjects of education environment in crisis situations, as well as the author experience in providing emergency counseling. We emphasize that the effectiveness of psychological support is determined by interaction between experts of the same and others departments. We describe the limits of competence of educational institutions specialists. A special role in the provision of psychological ...
Tuan Q. Tran; Karen M. Feigh; Amy R. Pritchett
According to theories of cognitive processing style or cognitive control mode, human performance is more effective when an individual’s cognitive state (e.g., intuition/scramble vs. deliberate/strategic) matches his/her ecological constraints or context (e.g., utilize intuition to strive for a "good-enough" response instead of deliberating for the "best" response under high time pressure). Ill-mapping between cognitive state and ecological constraints are believed to lead to degraded task performance. Consequently, incorporating support systems which are designed to specifically address multiple cognitive and functional states e.g., high workload, stress, boredom, and initiate appropriate mitigation strategies (e.g., reduce information load) is essential to reduce plant risk. Utilizing the concept of Cognitive Control Models, this paper will discuss the importance of tailoring support systems to match an operator's cognitive state, and will further discuss the importance of these ecological constraints in selecting and implementing mitigation strategies for safe and effective system performance. An example from the nuclear power plant industry illustrating how a support system might be tailored to support different cognitive states is included.
Brunetto, Yvonne; Xerri, Matthew; Farr-Wharton, Ben; Shacklock, Kate; Farr-Wharton, Rod; Trinchero, Elisabetta
The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of nurses' psychological capital and managerial support, plus specific safety interventions (managerial safety priorities, safety training satisfaction), on nurses' in-role safety performance. Most hospitals in industrialized countries have adopted selective (often the least costly) aspects of safety, usually related to safety policies. However, patient safety remains a challenge in many countries. Research shows that training can be used to upskill employees in psychological capital, with statistically significant organizational and employee benefits, but this area is under-researched in nursing. Data were collected using a survey-based, self-report strategy. The emerging patterns of data were then compared with the findings of previous research. Quantitative survey data were collected during 2014 from 242 nurses working in six Australian hospitals. Two models were tested and analysed using covariance-based Structural Equation Modelling. Psychological capital and safety training satisfaction were important predictors of nurses' in-role safety performance and as predictors of nurses' perceptions of whether management implements what it espouses about safety ('managerial safety priorities'). Managerial support accounted for just under a third of psychological capital and together, psychological capital and managerial support, plus satisfaction with safety training, were important to nurses' perceptions of in-role safety performance. Organizations are likely to benefit from upskilling nurses and their managers to increase nurses' psychological capital and managerial support, which then will enhance nurses' satisfaction with training and in-role safety performance perceptions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Baker, Sarah R; Owens, Jan; Stern, Melanie; Willmot, Derrick
To examine the role of parents' coping strategies and social support in the family impact of cleft lip and palate (CLP) and levels of adjustment and psychological distress and to investigate whether a child's age, type of cleft, or other reported medical problems influenced such outcomes. A cross-sectional study. One hundred three parents of children or young adults with CLP recruited from families attending a multidisciplinary cleft lip and palate clinic. Family impact, psychological distress, and positive adjustment were assessed using validated psychological questionnaires. Findings indicated that while there were many impacts of a child's CLP, negative outcomes (family impact, psychological distress) were not high. In contrast, parents reported high levels of positive adjustment or stress-related growth as a result of their child's condition. Participants also reported high levels of social support and relied more on the use of approach rather than avoidance-oriented coping strategies. Having more support from friends and family was associated with less negative family impact, lower psychological distress, and better adjustment. Greater use of approach coping was associated with more positive adjustment; whereas, avoidant coping was associated with a greater family impact and more psychological distress. Having a younger child and/or a child with medical problems in addition to CLP was associated with a greater impact on the family. How parents cope with their child's condition and the levels of support received may have implications for caregivers, the family unit, and the delivery of more family-oriented CLP services.
Roberts, Michael M.
The evolution of decision support systems (DSS) has enabled computer and information technology to assist the management process of decision making. Decision support systems are designed to look forward in time, to forecast outcomes of uncertain events. A 70-item bibliography is included. (MLW)
Al-Gamal, Ekhlas; Long, Tony
Cerebral palsy, with a prevalence in Europe of 2-2.5 per 1000 live births, is the most common severe physical disability affecting children. While many parents have positive perceptions of their disabled children, caring for a child with disability can be exhausting and stressful, and social support is an important coping resource. There is little evidence about how having a child with cerebral palsy affects Jordanian parents. The purpose of this study was to provide insight into the psychological distress and perceived support among Jordanian parents living with a child with cerebral palsy. In 2010, a cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational design was used with a nonprobability sample of 204 Jordanian parents. Both mothers and fathers, interviewed individually rather than in pairs, were recruited from health care centres that provided comprehensive care for children with cerebral palsy in Jordan and from designated schools for special education. The Gross Motor Function Classification System, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Beck Depression Inventory, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) were administered to parents. Descriptive statistical analysis was applied. Bivariate correlation analysis was undertaken to examine the relationship between variables. More than 60% of parents often felt nervous and stressed. The mean score on the PSS was 27.0 (SD=9.33), and the mean score on the MSPSS was 58.9 (SD=15.1). Severe disability in the child was associated with high mental distress in the parent and linked to low support from friends. There was a significant negative correlation between parental stress, depression and social support. Parents with the most psychological distress were the least well supported. This study has implications for health professionals in terms of developing strategies for reducing parental stress. There are implications for policy to provide support for
Sabatelli, Ronald M.; Anderson, Stephen A.
Examined differentiation patterns within marital, parental, and parent/child relationships and support level experienced within peer relationships as predictors of anxiety and depression in college students (n=60). Peer support and system of dynamics significantly covaried with reported levels of depression. Only differentiation level found within…
Full Text Available This paper presents the metaplanning approach as a methodology to design and represent the spatial planning process aiming at improving the spatial planning process effectiveness and transparency. It is argued metaplanning may represent the missing link between Planning Support Systems design and Geodesign, and it may support the design of Planning Support System and its agile implementation along with the design of the planning process. A brief example is given aiming at showing the practical implementation of this approach.
Thomas, Evan A.
Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.
The purpose of this research project was to develop a searchable database compiled with internal and external audit findings/observations. The data will correspond to the findings and observations from the date of Center-wide implementation of the ISO 9001-2000 standard to the present (2003-2008). It was derived and extracted from several sources and was in multiple formats. Once extracted, categorization of the findings/observations would be possible. The final data was mapped to the ISO 9001-2000 standard with the understanding that it will be displayed graphically. The data will be used to verify trends, associate risks, and establish timelines to identify strengths and weaknesses to determine areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center Business Management System Internal Audit Program.
Stebbings, Juliette; Taylor, Ian M; Spray, Christopher M
Within the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, research has considered the consequences of coaches' autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors on various athlete outcomes (e.g., motivation and performance). The antecedents of such behaviors, however, have received little attention. Coaches (N = 443) from a variety of sports and competitive levels completed a self-report questionnaire to assess their psychological need satisfaction, well-being and perceived interpersonal behaviors toward their athletes. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that coaches' competence and autonomy need satisfaction positively predicted their levels of psychological well-being, as indexed by positive affect and subjective vitality. In turn, coaches' psychological well-being positively predicted their perceived autonomy support toward their athletes, and negatively predicted their perceived controlling behaviors. Overall, the results highlight the importance of coaching contexts that facilitate coaches' psychological need satisfaction and well-being, thereby increasing the likelihood of adaptive coach interpersonal behavior toward athletes.
This paper describes the efforts of a private Australian school system to implement practices that facilitate system-wide school effectiveness. The Diocese of Parramatta, a system of 73 primary and secondary Catholic schools, implemented system-level practices that embody elements of Fullan's (1987) notions of support and pressure. The…
Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner; Wilson, W. Cody
This empirical study investigated three mechanisms of protection (preventive, compensatory, buffering) for two factors (emotional social support, sense of personal control) in the relationship between exposure to community violence and psychological distress among 947 diverse, older adolescents. Findings indicate that social support and sense of…
Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip
A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in parallel computing systems. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity.
Park, Ki Tae
This study examines how levels of marital quality change the effect of social support on postpartum psychological distress among new Korean mothers using the Panel Study on Korean Children (N = 1585). In accord with findings from previous studies, this study shows that low marital quality negatively affects new mothers' mental health, but that social support alleviates psychological distress independent of marital quality. The main finding of this research is that the moderating effect of social support is contingent on levels of marital quality. Aggregated social support moderates the effects of marital quality on new mothers' mental health only when the level of marital quality is low. Furthermore, each dimension of social support (emotional, informational, and instrumental) only has a moderating effect when marital quality is low. The findings highlight the fact that the moderating effect of social support varies with the individual context and so customized social support that fits individual needs matters for the mental health of new mothers.
VanderArk, Steve; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert; Cockrell, Gabrielle
The Behavioral Health and Performance group at NASA Johnson Space Center provides psychological support services and behavioral health monitoring for ISS astronauts and their families. The ISS began as an austere outpost with minimal comforts of home and minimal communication capabilities with family, friends, and colleagues outside of the Mission Control Center. Since 1998, the work of international partners involved in the Space Flight Human Behavior and Performance Working Group has prepared high-level requirements for behavioral monitoring and support. The "buffet" of services from which crewmembers can choose has increased substantially. Through the process of development, implementation, reviewing effectiveness and modifying as needed, the NASA and Wyle team have proven successful in managing the psychological health and well being of the crews and families with which they work. Increasing the crew size from three to six brought additional challenges. For the first time, all partners had to collaborate at the planning and implementation level, and the U.S. served as mentor to extrapolate their experiences to the others. Parity in available resources, upmass, and stowage had to be worked out. Steady progress was made in improving off-hours living and making provisions for new technologies within a system that has difficulty moving quickly on certifications. In some respect, the BHP support team fell victim to its previous successes. With increasing numbers of crewmembers in training, requests to engage our services spiraled upward. With finite people and funds, a cap had to placed on many services to ensure that parity could be maintained. The evolution of NASA BHP services as the ISS progressed from three- to six-crew composition will be reviewed, and future challenges that may be encountered as the ISS matures in its assembly-complete state will be discussed.
MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR
Honda, Ayumi; Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Honda, Sumihisa
When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work.
In October of 2010, Serbian Association for Psycho-Oncology, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health of Serbia and the National Health Insurance has launched the first national telephone line for free psychological counseling and support for oncology patients and their families. The aim of this study was to present results of the first national telephone helpline for psychological support for oncological patients and their families. METHODS The telephone line for the psychological help and support was available from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m., seven days a week and on holidays. A total of 12 previously educated psychologists were involved, with two on duty in the mornings and two in the afternoons.The basic work principles of the Line were anonymity for users (if they wished), free of charge service available to patients from all of Serbia, careful listening, emphatic reflection on anything communicated by users and adequate counselling. Since the beginning of the project (October 2010 up to April 2011) we received a total of 2,748 calls from across Serbia. Almost half of these calls were repeated calls, as patients asked for continuous psychological counselling. Larger percent (63.9%) of women called, when compared to men (35.4%) who used the Line. Most (52.4%) conversations were categorized as "psychological support and counseling," and as continual psychological counseling work (21.1%). The large number of calls suggests that this kind of public, free service for psychosocial and psychological support to cancer patients is necessary in Serbia.
V. P. Martsenyuk
Conclusions. The complex qualitative behavior of diseases models depending on parameters and controllers was observed in our investigation even without considering probabilistic nature of the majority of quantities and parameters of information models. KEY WORDS: data mining, system analysis, medical research, decision making
Seshan, Panchalam K.; Ganapathi, Balasubramanian; Jan, Darrell L.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.
Generic hierarchical model of life-support system developed to facilitate comparisons of options in design of system. Model represents combinations of interdependent subsystems supporting microbes, plants, fish, and land animals (including humans). Generic model enables rapid configuration of variety of specific life support component models for tradeoff studies culminating in single system design. Enables rapid evaluation of effects of substituting alternate technologies and even entire groups of technologies and subsystems. Used to synthesize and analyze life-support systems ranging from relatively simple, nonregenerative units like aquariums to complex closed-loop systems aboard submarines or spacecraft. Model, called Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS), coded in such chemical-process-simulation languages as Aspen Plus and expressed as three-dimensional spreadsheet.
Decision support is an extension of electronic health record or electronic patient record systems. As well as enabling health professionals to look up information about individual patients stored in the system and to consult evidence-based guidance, they give advice on the treatment and management most appropriate for that patient. They are designed to help with the process of clinical decision making. Computerised decision-support systems match patient characteristics to a computerised knowledge base to produce patient-specific assessments or recommendations. Decision support can be paper-based, but computerised systems have the advantage of being able to quickly process patient-specific information and match it to computerised decision rules or algorithms. This article discusses the benefits and limitations of using decision-support technology, which is becoming increasingly important as the use of health information technology systems becomes more common across healthcare.
Han, Jeong Yeob; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Yoon, Hye Jin; Shim, Minsun; McTavish, Fiona M; Gustafson, David H
Despite the benefits and growing availability of online cancer support groups, many breast cancer patients still do not actively participate in them. To better understand cancer patients' online information- and support-seeking behaviors, this study explores how various social and psychological characteristics predict different levels of engagement with an online breast cancer support group: posters, lurkers, and nonusers. The study sample included 231 recently diagnosed breast cancer patients. Data included baseline survey scores of demographic, disease-related, and psychosocial factors and automatically collected discussion group use data over the 4-month intervention. Patterns of engagement with the cancer support group differed according to the patients' characteristics, suggesting that (a) cancer patients have very different orientations to and engagement with an online support group, and (b) deficits in social and psychological resources may not be barriers to participation in a cancer support group, but rather motivators to interact with other patients. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of their findings.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 1. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic Information System to target restoration actions in watersheds of arid environment: A case study of Hathmati watershed, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat. Dhruvesh P Patel Prashant K Srivastava ...
Eagly, Alice H
Duarte et al.'s arguments for increasing political diversity in social psychology are based on mischaracterizations of social psychology as fundamentally flawed in understanding stereotype accuracy and the effects of attitudes on information processing. I correct their misunderstandings while agreeing with their view that political diversity, along with other forms of diversity, stands to benefit social psychology.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the data and the experience of the victim support service VDS info and victim support service in regard to the issue of psychological abuse at the work place. Data relates to the period from January 1st until December 31st 2008. The data presented in this paper refer to victims' characteristics as well as the ways of providing them assistance and support.
Harmon, Joel I.
The use of computerized decision support systems in higher education for making tactical institutional decisions is reviewed, with attention to the kind of administrative problems that lie somewhere between programmed to nonprogrammed decisions and require a combination of computer support and administrative judgment. (MSE)
Jones, Harry W.
Systems engineering is an organized way to design and develop systems, but the initial system design concepts are usually seen as the products of unexplained but highly creative intuition. Axiomatic design is a mathematical approach to produce and compare system architectures. The two axioms are:- Maintain the independence of the functional requirements.- Minimize the information content (or complexity) of the design. The first axiom generates good system design structures and the second axiom ranks them. The closed system human life support architecture now implemented in the International Space Station has been essentially unchanged for fifty years. In contrast, brief missions such as Apollo and Shuttle have used open loop life support. As mission length increases, greater system closure and increased recycling become more cost-effective.Closure can be gradually increased, first recycling humidity condensate, then hygiene wastewater, urine, carbon dioxide, and water recovery brine. A long term space station or planetary base could implement nearly full closure, including food production. Dynamic systems theory supports the axioms by showing that fewer requirements, fewer subsystems, and fewer interconnections all increase system stability. If systems are too complex and interconnected, reliability is reduced and operations and maintenance become more difficult. Using axiomatic design shows how the mission duration and other requirements determine the best life support system design including the degree of closure.
Full Text Available Advances in Physics and Mathematics have proven that our complex world does not obey anymore the standard linear modelling systems rules. This paradigm seems to take over much of the scientific research in all sciences. Psychologists, no matter what their orientation is, are striving to create global models that can explain and predict human behaviour and emotions. In this quest, there have been elaborated many meta-analyses that gather relevant findings in order to create a conceptual framework of understanding human behaviour and affect. This paper presents arguments for sustaining the curvilinear relationships hypothesis that occur between variables (job satisfaction, job performance, age in an organizational context research. Conclusions set up a new conceptualization of the variable dynamic relationship inferences in Psychology.
This is a guide for transportation professionals on why and how to deploy winter Maintenance Decision Support Systems (MDSS). Adverse winter weather can cause traffic delays and crashes. Treating the effects of winter weather can also have impacts on...
V. A. Tunda; E. A. Tunda
Moodle (Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment) is the system developed by the English-speaking community around the world for more than 10 years, supports both, offline and online training...
Burleson, Donald K.; Leivano, Rodrigo J.
Describes the use of a decision support system to operate on a database for academic scheduling. Discusses the scheduling environment, database subsystem, dialog subsystem, modeling subsystem, and output formats. (JM)
Gadalla, Tahany M
Gerontological social workers and other health professionals are often dealing with older adults in psychological distress. Greater clarity on the relationship between stress and psychological distress will enhance the efficacy of outreach and treatment initiatives for older adults. This study explored the underlying causal structure of the relationships of common life stressors and psychosocial resources for Canadians 65 years and older (542 men and 835 women). Using structural equation modeling of data collected in the National Population Health Survey in 2004-2005 and 2002-2003, the roles played by socioeconomic conditions, physical health, chronic stress, sense of mastery, and perceived social support in the stress-psychological distress relationship were estimated and compared. Findings revealed that chronic stress was the strongest determinant of the level of psychological distress for both genders; however its effect was higher for men compared to women. Poor physical health played a more important role in determining women's psychological distress compared to men. Higher levels of mastery and perceived social support were associated with lower levels of psychological distress for both men and women. These associations were somewhat stronger for men compared with women. Socio-economic conditions played a minor role in the stress-mental health relationship for both genders.
Vlasov, Vladimir; Chebotareva, Victoria; Rakhimov, Marat; Kruglikov, Sergey
An intelligent system for SAP ERP user support is proposed in this paper. It enables automatic replies on users’ requests for support, saving time for problem analysis and resolution and improving responsiveness for end users. The system is based on an ensemble of machine learning algorithms of multiclass text classification, providing efficient question understanding, and a special framework for evidence retrieval, providing the best answer derivation.
Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.
In the spring of 1987, we undertook to provide environmental enrichment to nonhuman primate subjects in ways that would complement and even contribute to the bio-behaviorial science that justified the monkeys' captivity. Of course, the psychological well-being of captive primates--and indeed all research species-- has been an area of intense research activity since the 1985 amendment of the Animal Welfare Act. This mandate for researchers to ensure the psychological, as well as physical, fitness of experimental animals catalyzed the humane and scientific interests of the research community. The contemporary literature is replete with proposed means both of assaying and of providing enrichment and well-being. Notwithstanding, consensus on either assessment or intervention has yet to be reached. The paradigm we employed was modelled after successful efforts with chimpanzees. An automated test system was constructed in which subjects responded to computer tasks by manipulating a joystick. The tasks, interactive game-like versions of many of the classic testing paradigms of cognitive and comparative psychology, permitted the controlled presentation of stimuli and demands without the required presence of a human experimenter. Despite significant barriers to the success, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and a variety of other primate species (including, of course, humans) have mastered the skills necessary for testing in this paradigm. Previous experiments have illustrated the utility of the test system for addressing questions of learning, memory, attention, perception, and motivation. Additional data have been reported to support the contention that the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) serves its other raison d'etre--providing environmental enrichment and assessing psychological well-being. This paper is designed to augment previous descriptions of the technology and the paradigm for scientists and caretakers interested in environmental
Guy Paré; Claude Sicotte; Hélène Jacques
OBJECTIVE: Motivated by the need to push further our understanding of physicians' acceptance of clinical information systems, we propose a relatively new construct, namely, psychological ownership...
Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for
This paper presents an advanced support system for Tactical Asset Allocation. Asset allocation explains over 90% of portfolio performance (Brinson, Hood and Beebower, 1988). Tactical asset allocation adjusts a strategic portfolio on the basis of short term market outlooks. The system includes
Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.
The 1991 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters' Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to foster communication among NASA, industrial, and academic specialists, and to integrate their inputs and disseminate information to them. The overall objective of systems analysis within the Life Support Technology Program of OAST is to identify, guide the development of, and verify designs which will increase the performance of the life support systems on component, subsystem, and system levels for future human space missions. The specific goals of this workshop were to report on the status of systems analysis capabilities, to integrate the chemical processing industry technologies, and to integrate recommendations for future technology developments related to systems analysis for life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with time allocated for discussion of both technology status and time-phased technology development recommendations. Key personnel from NASA, industry, and academia delivered inputs and presentations on the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.
Drachsler, Hendrik; Verbert, Katrien; Santos, Olga C.; Manouselis, Nikos
This chapter presents an analysis of recommender systems in TechnologyEnhanced Learning along their 15 years existence (2000-2014). All recommender systems considered for the review aim to support educational stakeholders by personalising the learning process. In this meta-review 82 recommender
Sukhopluyeva, V. S.; Kuznetsov, D. Y.
In this article, several existing ready-to-use solutions for the HelpDesk are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of these systems are identified. Architecture of software solution for a corporate user support system is presented in a form of the use case, state, and component diagrams described by using a unified modeling language (UML).
Niers, L.; Stasse-Wolthuis, M.; Rombouts, F.M.; Rijkers, G.T.
Newborn babies possess a functional but immature immune system as a defense against a world teeming with microorganisms. Breast milk contains a number of biological, active compounds that support the infant's immune system. These include secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), which confers specific
Vonk, G.; Geertman, S.; Schot, P.P.
Insight into the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of planning support systems (PSS) is fragmented between users and system developers. The lack of combined insights blocks development in the right direction and makes potential users hesitant to apply PSS in planning. This
Hall, Owen P., Jr.
This article outlines an approach for developing and applying computerized decision support systems to the formulation and evaluation of public policy. To meet the challenge of financial resource limitations, new management systems must be developed to improve both governmental efficiency and decision-making effectiveness. (Author/BS)
Full Text Available Existing research has found that parental migration may negatively impact the psychological adjustment of left-behind children. However, limited longitudinal research has examined if and how future orientation (individual protective factor and social support (contextual protective factor are associated with the indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction, school satisfaction, happiness, and loneliness of left-behind children. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the differences in psychological adjustment between left-behind children and non-left behind children (comparison children in rural areas, and explored the protective roles of future orientation and social support on the immediate (cross-sectional effects and subsequent (lagged effects status of psychological adjustment for both groups of children, respectively. The sample included 897 rural children (Mage = 14.09, SD = 1.40 who participated in two waves of surveys across six months. Among the participants, 227 were left-behind children with two parents migrating, 176 were with one parent migrating, and 485 were comparison children. Results showed that, (1 left-behind children reported lower levels of life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as a higher level of loneliness in both waves; (2 After controlling for several demographics and characteristics of parental migration among left-behind children, future orientation significantly predicted life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness in both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models, as well as loneliness in the longitudinal regression analysis. Social support predicted immediate life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as subsequent school satisfaction. Similar to left-behind children, comparison children who reported higher scores in future orientation, especially future expectation, were likely to have higher scores in most indicators of
Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Zhu, Maoling
Existing research has found that parental migration may negatively impact the psychological adjustment of left-behind children. However, limited longitudinal research has examined if and how future orientation (individual protective factor) and social support (contextual protective factor) are associated with the indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction, school satisfaction, happiness, and loneliness) of left-behind children. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the differences in psychological adjustment between left-behind children and non-left behind children (comparison children) in rural areas, and explored the protective roles of future orientation and social support on the immediate (cross-sectional effects) and subsequent (lagged effects) status of psychological adjustment for both groups of children, respectively. The sample included 897 rural children (Mage = 14.09, SD = 1.40) who participated in two waves of surveys across six months. Among the participants, 227 were left-behind children with two parents migrating, 176 were with one parent migrating, and 485 were comparison children. Results showed that, (1) left-behind children reported lower levels of life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as a higher level of loneliness in both waves; (2) After controlling for several demographics and characteristics of parental migration among left-behind children, future orientation significantly predicted life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness in both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models, as well as loneliness in the longitudinal regression analysis. Social support predicted immediate life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as subsequent school satisfaction. Similar to left-behind children, comparison children who reported higher scores in future orientation, especially future expectation, were likely to have higher scores in most indicators of psychological
Wang, Xiu-feng; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Qing-hua; Min, Jian-Xin; Ma, Na; Luo, Lai-Cheng
Psychological stress has become a common and important cause of premature ovarian failure (POF). Therefore, it is very important to explore the mechanisms of POF resulting from psychological stress. Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into control and model groups. Biomolecules associated with POF (β-EP, IL-1, NOS, NO, GnRH, CRH, FSH, LH, E2, P, ACTH, and CORT) were measured in the control and psychologically stressed rats. The regulation relationships of the biomolecules were explored in the...
Simons, Laura; Elman, Igor; Borsook, David
Our understanding of chronic pain involves complex brain circuits that include sensory, emotional, cognitive and interoceptive processing. The feed-forward interactions between physical (e.g., trauma) and emotional pain and the consequences of altered psychological status on the expression of pain have made the evaluation and treatment of chronic pain a challenge in the clinic. By understanding the neural circuits involved in psychological processes, a mechanistic approach to the implementation of psychology-based treatments may be better understood. In this review we evaluate some of the principle processes that may be altered as a consequence of chronic pain in the context of localized and integrated neural networks. These changes are ongoing, vary in their magnitude, and their hierarchical manifestations, and may be temporally and sequentially altered by treatments, and all contribute to an overall pain phenotype. Furthermore, we link altered psychological processes to specific evidence-based treatments to put forth a model of pain neuroscience psychology. PMID:24374383
Bean, Roy A.; Barber, Brian K.; Crane, D. Russell
Associations among three dimensions of parenting (support, behavioral control, psychological control) and measures of adolescent depression, delinquency, and academic achievement were assessed in a sample of African American youth. All data were adolescent self-reports by way of school-administered questionnaires in random samples of classrooms in…
Li, Chieh; Li, Huijun
This study investigated Chinese immigrant parents' perspectives on Chinese immigrant children's psychological well-being, acculturative stress, and sources of support. We conducted focus groups with 22 Chinese immigrant parents of school-aged children (16 mothers and 6 fathers); obtained participants' sociocultural and linguistic backgrounds and…
Wang, Aiping; Chen, Lang; Zhao, Bo; Xu, Yan
This study investigates 311 first-year students' psychological and behavior adaptation to college and the mediate role of coping strategies and social support. The investigates reveal that: (1) first-year students who are from countryside, live in poor families, speak in dialects or major in science and engineering have poorer adaptation to…
Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Byeong Seok
The purpose of this study was to explore how social support, mother's psychological status, and maternal sensitivity affected attachment security in children with disabilities by using the structural equation model (SEM). Subjects were 141 pairs of children with disabilities and theirs mothers. Empirical data was obtained through a series of…
Siu, Oi-Ling; Phillips, David R.
The "dual-channel" hypothesis (Lawton, 1996), which suggests the dual-antecedent pattern for positive and negative aspects of psychological well-being, was tested by examining the differential relationships between objective and subjective measures of family support (family contact, family quality, perceived importance of family) and…
Lowe, Sarah R.; Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.
Objective: In this study, we examined the influence of pre-disaster perceived social support on post-disaster psychological distress among survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Method: Participants (N = 386) were low-income mothers between 18 and 34 years of age at baseline (M = 26.4, SD = 4.43). The majority (84.8%) was African American; 10.4%…
Sisman, Fatma Nevin; Tok, Ozlem; Ergun, Ayse
Nail-biting is one of the most common behavioral problems in children. This study aimed to examine factors affecting nail-biting among adolescents and the effects of psychological state and social support on nail-biting. This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and May of 2014 in seven schools in Istanbul (N = 724). Data were…
This study examines the relationships among Taiwanese ninth graders' perceptions of autonomy support versus psychological control in the classroom context, work engagement versus academic burnout, and their avoidance of help seeking as well as self-handicapping behaviors. Four hundred and thirty-five ninth-grade Taiwanese students completed a…
Dunn, Marianne G.; O'Brien, Karen M.
This study examined the relative contributions of (a) gender, (b) perceived stress, (c) social support from family and significant other, and (d) positive and negative dimensions of religious coping to the prediction of the psychological health and meaning in life among 179 Central American immigrants from El Salvador and Guatemala. Findings…
Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong
There are three dimensions through which to measure university support for students' transition to university life: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. Previous research studies show that there are relationships among those adjustments. However, less is known about gender differences in these relationships. The…
Ellis, Sonja J; Kitzinger, Celia; Wilkinson, Sue
A questionnaire comprising two scales, the short form of the Attitudes Towards Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG-S; Herek, 1984) and the newly devised Support for Lesbian and Gay Human Rights Scale (SLGHR) were administered to 226 students taking undergraduate psychology courses at universities in the United Kingdom, to assess their attitudes towards lesbians and gay men, and their level of support for lesbian and gay human rights. The results indicated that whilst only a small percentage of respondents expressed negative attitudes towards lesbians and gay men on the ATLG-S, the sample as a whole did not overwhelmingly support lesbian and gay human rights. The lack of support for lesbian and gay human rights is discussed in relation to its implications for psychology students as future practitioners and policymakers.
John P.T. Mo
Full Text Available The Australian Defence Force and industry are undergoing significant changes in the way they work together in capability enhancement programs. There are capability gaps in maintaining and supporting current obligations during major asset acquisition, which has migrated into the front line of Royal Air Force Fighter Groups as a new capability. This paper examines a steady state support solution and argues that in order to interchange from one support solution to a new architecture there must be a period for transition, which may need its own interim business model and operational service. A preliminary study of several existing support solutions reveals the generic elements that need to be parameterized and traced through the support system architecture trajectory.
Shaker H. El-Sappagh; El-Masri, Samir
This paper proposes an open and distributed clinical decision support system architecture. This technical architecture takes advantage of Electronic Health Record (EHR), data mining techniques, clinical databases, domain expert knowledge bases, available technologies and standards to provide decision-making support for healthcare professionals. The architecture will work extremely well in distributed EHR environments in which each hospital has its own local EHR, and it satisfies the compatibi...
Hustache, Sarah; Moro, Marie-Rose; Roptin, Jacky; Souza, Renato; Gansou, Grégoire Magloire; Mbemba, Alain; Roederer, Thomas; Grais, Rebecca F; Gaboulaud, Valérie; Baubet, Thierry
Little is known about the impact of psychological support in war and transcultural contexts and in particular, whether there are lasting benefits. Here, we present an evaluation of the late effect of post-rape psychological support provided to women in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. Women who attended the Médecins Sans Frontières program for sexual violence in Brazzaville during the conflict were selected to evaluate the psychological consequences of rape and the late effect of post-rape psychological support. A total of 178 patients met the eligibility criteria: 1) Women aged more than 15 years; 2) raped by unknown person(s) wearing military clothes; 3) admitted to the program between the 1/1/2002 and the 30/4/2003; and 4) living in Brazzaville. The initial diagnosis according to DSM criteria showed a predominance of anxious disorders (54.1%) and acute stress disorders (24.6%). One to two years after the initial psychological care, 64 women were evaluated using the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ), the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF) and an assessment scale to address medico-psychological care in emergencies (EUMP). Two patients (3.1%) met the needed criteria for PTSD diagnosis from the TSQ. Among the 56 women evaluated using GAF both as pre and post-test, global functioning was significantly improved by initial post-rape support (50 women (89.3%) had extreme or medium impairment at first post-rape evaluation, and 16 (28.6%) after psychological care; p = 0.04). When interviewed one to two years later, the benefit was fully maintained (16 women (28.6%) presenting extreme or medium impairment). We found the benefits of post-rape psychological support to be present and lasting in this conflict situation. However, we were unable to evaluate all women for the long-term impact, underscoring the difficulty of leading evaluation studies in unstable contexts. Future research is needed to validate these findings in other settings.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the impact of psychological support in war and transcultural contexts and in particular, whether there are lasting benefits. Here, we present an evaluation of the late effect of post-rape psychological support provided to women in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. Methods Women who attended the Médecins Sans Frontières program for sexual violence in Brazzaville during the conflict were selected to evaluate the psychological consequences of rape and the late effect of post-rape psychological support. A total of 178 patients met the eligibility criteria: 1 Women aged more than 15 years; 2 raped by unknown person(s wearing military clothes; 3 admitted to the program between the 1/1/2002 and the 30/4/2003; and 4 living in Brazzaville. Results The initial diagnosis according to DSM criteria showed a predominance of anxious disorders (54.1% and acute stress disorders (24.6%. One to two years after the initial psychological care, 64 women were evaluated using the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF and an assessment scale to address medico-psychological care in emergencies (EUMP. Two patients (3.1% met the needed criteria for PTSD diagnosis from the TSQ. Among the 56 women evaluated using GAF both as pre and post-test, global functioning was significantly improved by initial post-rape support (50 women (89.3% had extreme or medium impairment at first post-rape evaluation, and 16 (28.6% after psychological care; p = 0.04. When interviewed one to two years later, the benefit was fully maintained (16 women (28.6% presenting extreme or medium impairment. Conclusion We found the benefits of post-rape psychological support to be present and lasting in this conflict situation. However, we were unable to evaluate all women for the long-term impact, underscoring the difficulty of leading evaluation studies in unstable contexts. Future research is needed to validate these
Reczek, Corinne; Zhang, Zhe
Relationships with children are important for parents' psychological well-being, yet limited research addresses whether and how relationships with adult children matter for aging parents' psychological well-being in mid- to later life. We used four waves of national longitudinal data (Americans' Changing Lives, N = 1,692) and growth curve models to test how multiple dimensions of the intergenerational relationship-social support, strain, equity, and dissatisfaction-shape mid- to later life parents' psychological distress over time. Results showed that social support and strain were associated with parents' distress at baseline but not over time, while relationship equity and dissatisfaction affected change in parents' psychological distress over time. Findings further showed how the effects of dissatisfaction varied for mothers and fathers. This study adds to an understanding of the social context of aging by drawing attention to how specific dimensions of the parent-child tie matter longitudinally for mid- to later life parents' psychological distress. © The Author(s) 2015.
Ellis, S J; Kitzinger, C.; Wilkinson, S
A questionnaire comprising two scales, the short form of the Attitudes Towards Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG-S; Herek, 1984) and the newly devised Support for Lesbian and Gay Human Rights Scale (SLGHR) were administered to 226 students taking undergraduate psychology courses at universities in the United Kingdom, to assess their attitudes towards lesbians and gay men, and their level of support for lesbian and gay human rights. The results indicated that whilst only a small percentage of r...
Elangovan Aravind Raj
Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Caregivers of persons with schizophrenia experience more stress due to the nature of the symptoms as well as the prolonged duration of illness. The current study is an attempt to understand the subjective components of burden, distress, and social support in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in Indian context and its linkage with their sociodemographic profile and patient′s illness profile. Methodology: Thirty-two caregivers of patients with schizophrenia from a psychiatric inpatient facility of a multidisciplinary hospital were studied using descriptive research design. Results: The result shows that negative symptoms of patients, subdomains of burden (burden on well-being, marital burden, burden on relations, and burden due to perceived severity were the predictors of subjective burden. Burden on well-being and respondent′s age were predictors of psychological distress. Conclusion: Inclusive treatment services would enhance the quality of life of the caregivers and would help them in ensuring long-term care for the patients with schizophrenia.
Comorbidity structure of psychological disorders in the online e-PASS data as predictors of psychosocial adjustment measures: psychological distress, adequate social support, self-confidence, quality of life, and suicidal ideation.
Al-Asadi, Ali M; Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny
A relative newcomer to the field of psychology, e-mental health has been gaining momentum and has been given considerable research attention. Although several aspects of e-mental health have been studied, 1 aspect has yet to receive attention: the structure of comorbidity of psychological disorders and their relationships with measures of psychosocial adjustment including suicidal ideation in online samples. This exploratory study attempted to identify the structure of comorbidity of 21 psychological disorders assessed by an automated online electronic psychological assessment screening system (e-PASS). The resulting comorbidity factor scores were then used to assess the association between comorbidity factor scores and measures of psychosocial adjustments (ie, psychological distress, suicidal ideation, adequate social support, self-confidence in dealing with mental health issues, and quality of life). A total of 13,414 participants were assessed using a complex online algorithm that resulted in primary and secondary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) diagnoses for 21 psychological disorders on dimensional severity scales. The scores on these severity scales were used in a principal component analysis (PCA) and the resulting comorbidity factor scores were related to 4 measures of psychosocial adjustments. A PCA based on 17 of the 21 psychological disorders resulted in a 4-factor model of comorbidity: anxiety-depression consisting of all anxiety disorders, major depressive episode (MDE), and insomnia; substance abuse consisting of alcohol and drug abuse and dependency; body image-eating consisting of eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorders; depression-sleep problems consisting of MDE, insomnia, and hypersomnia. All comorbidity factor scores were significantly associated with psychosocial measures of adjustment (Psocial support, self-confidence, and quality of life. This
Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf
(PDM) and product lifecycle management (PLM) systems offer support by automating and managing some of the operational complexity of modular design activities. PLM system tools are used for handling a variety of product definitions, to manage workflow of development activities, and to measure relational......A modular design strategy both enables, but also demands, parallelism in design activities and collaboration between a diversity of disciplines in companies, which often involves supporting computer-based tools for enhancing interaction, design management, and communication. Product data management...... properties such as cost and performance. Companies often use a PLM tool for management of CAD files, documents, and drawings, but they do not take advantage of the full potential of the PLM system to support the development activities of modular product designs. The key result of this paper...
Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Brocker-Vriends, A.H.; Asperen, C.J. van; Sijmons, R.H.; Seynaeve, C.; Gool, A.R. van; Klijn, J.G.M.; Tibben, A.
This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis
van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.
This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis
Asikhia, Olubusayo Aduke; Mohangi, Kesh
Various studies have reported a huge increase in the numbers of orphaned adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa and its effects on their psychological, emotional and behavioural development. Yet, their needs are seldom recognised or adequately addressed in policy and programmes.This article uses a qualitative study to report the experiences of 11 orphaned adolescents (5 boys and 6 girls aged between 15 and 18 years) affected by HIV and AIDS in a secondary school (in Atteridgeville, Pretoria, South Africa) and the school support provided by them. The primary data-generation strategies were informal interviews and the Beck Youth Inventories-II (BYI-II) (adopted to measure the participants' level of emotional, behavioural and psychological problems). All interview transcriptions with the participants were thematically analysed. BYI-II data were subjected to T scores (in percentages) to know the participant's psychological, behavioural and emotional problems in order to compare it with their perceptions on the degree of support provided by the school. Result shows that participants have a high prevalence of psychological, behavioural and emotional problems and that the school support provided to them (teachers' support, the general school environment and the degree of discrimination, labelling and bullying that exists in the school) was not sufficient. The participants, however, reported a high level of support from the principal. In conclusion, we have suggested the urgent need for teachers to acquire and possess basic knowledge and skills in caring and paying attention to learners affected by HIV and AIDS and for government agencies and NGOs working with HIV-and AIDS-affected children, to focus on proposals that address the psychological, behavioural and emotional problems in such affected adolescents.
Gupta, Vishal; Agarwal, Upasna A; Khatri, Naresh
This study examines the factors that mediate and moderate the relationships of perceived organizational support with work engagement and organization citizenship behaviour. Specifically, affective commitment is posited to mediate and psychological contract breach to moderate the above relationships. Nurses play a critical role in delivering exemplary health care. For nurses to perform at their best, they need to experience high engagement, which can be achieved by providing them necessary organizational support and proper working environment. Data were collected via a self-reported survey instrument. A questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 750 nurses in nine large hospitals in India during 2013-2014. Four hundred and seventy-five nurses (63%) responded to the survey. Hierarchical multiple regression was used for statistical analysis of the moderated-mediation model. Affective commitment was found to mediate the positive relationships between perceived organizational support and work outcomes (work engagement, organizational citizenship behaviour). The perception of unfulfilled expectations (psychological contract breach) was found to moderate the perceived organizational support-work outcome relationships adversely. The results of this study indicate that perceived organizational support exerts its influence on work-related outcomes and highlight the importance of taking organizational context, such as perceptions of psychological contract breach, into consideration when making sense of the influence of perceived organizational support on affective commitment, work engagement and citizenship behaviours of nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.
Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R.; Webster, Noah J.; Antonucci, Toni C.
This study examines the complex role of family networks in shaping adult psychological well-being over time. We examine the unique and interactive longitudinal influences of family structure (i.e., composition and size) and negative family relationship quality on psychological well-being among young (ages 18-34), middle-aged (ages 35-49), and…
Schepers, J.; de Jong, A.; Wetzels, M.; de Ruyter, K.
In this paper, the authors propose that psychological safety, a sense of interpersonal trust and being valued in a work team, is an important determinant of groupware technology adoption in an educational setting. They develop and test a model of antecedents and consequences of psychological safety. Data were collected from 361 university…
V. G. Sherstjuk
Full Text Available Purpose. Developing the methodology for providing academic integrity in the university. The methodology is based on Web-oriented academic integrity support system, developed by the authors, which enters into the information system of learning process control. Academic integrity support system is aimed at maintaining academic integrity as a basic institutional value, which will help to reduce corruption, plagiarism and other types of academic dishonesty. Methodology. The methodology of problem to solve is based on the development of the information system of education process control with the integral elements of quality control. The information subsystem of academic integrity support is its basic part. Findings. The proposed information system allows us to fulfill the following levels: educational process monitoring; audit of internal processes, which is necessary for developing the effective quality control system; assessment of achievements of educational process participants; formalization of the interaction of educational process participants. The system is aimed at the development of new academic society based on the following principles: open access to the information, at which the access of wide audience to the information provides participation, forming the sense of responsibility and social control; transparency of the information, by which its relevance, quality, reliability are meant; responsibility of all members of educational process; measurability, at which any action in educational process should be measured; detail of describing the actions, results and processes; support, which is meant by automatic tools of the realization of the principles of open access to the information, transparency of the information, responsibility of all participants of educational process, measurability, detail, support. The practical realization of information system is based on the development of a common repository of university information. The
Vestergaard Mogensen, Martin
contribute by building real world Collaborative Pervasive Computing Systems, including the Activity-Based Collaboration system and the iHospital system, which has been deployed and evaluated. Secondly, we contribute with novel hybrid and fusion Software Architectures. Moreover, we propose separating......Collaborative Pervasive Computing Systems (CPCS) are currently being deployed to support areas such as clinical work, emergency situations, education, ad-hoc meetings, and other areas involving information sharing and collaboration.These systems allow the users to work together synchronously......, but from different places, by sharing information and coordinating activities. Several researchers have shown the value of such distributed collaborative systems. However, building these systems is by no means a trivial task and introduces a lot of yet unanswered questions. The aforementioned areas...
This paper presents an advanced support system for Tactical Asset Allocation. Asset allocation explains over 90% of portfolio performance (Brinson, Hood and Beebower, 1988). Tactical asset allocation adjusts a strategic portfolio on the basis of short term market outlooks. The system includes a prediction model that forecasts quarterly excess returns on the S&PSOO, an optimization model that adjusts a user-specified strategic portfolio on the basis of the excess return forecast, and a compone...
Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Bolstridge, Mark; Rucker, James; Day, Camilla M J; Erritzoe, David; Kaelen, Mendel; Bloomfield, Michael; Rickard, James A; Forbes, Ben; Feilding, Amanda; Taylor, David; Pilling, Steve; Curran, Valerie H; Nutt, David J
Psilocybin is a serotonin receptor agonist that occurs naturally in some mushroom species. Recent studies have assessed the therapeutic potential of psilocybin for various conditions, including end-of-life anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and smoking and alcohol dependence, with promising preliminary results. Here, we aimed to investigate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of psilocybin in patients with unipolar treatment-resistant depression. In this open-label feasibility trial, 12 patients (six men, six women) with moderate-to-severe, unipolar, treatment-resistant major depression received two oral doses of psilocybin (10 mg and 25 mg, 7 days apart) in a supportive setting. There was no control group. Psychological support was provided before, during, and after each session. The primary outcome measure for feasibility was patient-reported intensity of psilocybin's effects. Patients were monitored for adverse reactions during the dosing sessions and subsequent clinic and remote follow-up. Depressive symptoms were assessed with standard assessments from 1 week to 3 months after treatment, with the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS) serving as the primary efficacy outcome. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN14426797. Psilocybin's acute psychedelic effects typically became detectable 30-60 min after dosing, peaked 2-3 h after dosing, and subsided to negligible levels at least 6 h after dosing. Mean self-rated intensity (on a 0-1 scale) was 0·51 (SD 0·36) for the low-dose session and 0·75 (SD 0·27) for the high-dose session. Psilocybin was well tolerated by all of the patients, and no serious or unexpected adverse events occurred. The adverse reactions we noted were transient anxiety during drug onset (all patients), transient confusion or thought disorder (nine patients), mild and transient nausea (four patients), and transient headache (four patients). Relative to baseline, depressive symptoms were markedly reduced 1
Full Text Available The rich in content side of organization and leadthrough of psychological training is described. Psychological training is intended for trainings employments of judoists of the initial stage of preparation in the annual loop. The important criterion of optimization of psychological, technical, tactical and physical preparation of judoists is formed of their psychomotor processes. Functional mobility, force of the nervous system, latent period, is selected, simple and difficult visile-motor reaction.
Bennecke, Elena; Werner-Rosen, Knut; Thyen, Ute; Kleinemeier, Eva; Lux, Anke; Jürgensen, Martina; Grüters, Annette; Köhler, Birgit
Disorders/diversity of sex development (dsd) is an umbrella term for congenital conditions often diagnosed within childhood. As most parents are unprepared for this situation, psychological support (PsySupp) is recommended. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which parents express a need for PsySupp. Three hundred twenty-nine parents of children with dsd were included; 40.4 % of the parents indicated to have a need for PsySupp, only 50 % of this group received it adequately. The diagnoses partial gonadal dysgenesis, partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (pAIS) and disorders of androgen synthesis are associated with a high need for PsySupp in parents (54, 65, and 50 %). Sex assignment surgery neither reduced nor increased the need for PsySupp. Taking a picture, radiography, laparoscopy, gonadal biopsy, gonadectomy and hormonal puberty induction are associated with a high need for PsySupp. There was no association between the need for PsySupp and the parents' perception of the appearance of the genitalia. Having a child with dsd is associated with a high need for PsySupp in parents. In particular, parents of children with XY-dsd with androgen effects other than hypospadias expressed a high need of PsySupp. PsySupp for parents should be an obligatory part of interdisciplinary care to reduce fears and concerns. What is known • In parents, having a child with dsd provokes insecurities and fears. Hence, psychological support is recommended as part of the interdisciplinary care. What is new • This is the first study investigating the subjective need for psychological support in a large sample of parents of children with dsd in Germany. We present data on the subjective need for psychological support of the parents, related diagnoses and factors, which should be considered in psychological counselling.
Life support systems that involve recycling of atmospheres, water, food and waste are so complex that models incorporating all the interactions and relationships are vital to design, development, simulations, and ultimately to control of space qualified systems. During early modeling studies, FORTRAN and BASIC programs were used to obtain numerical comparisons of the performance of different regenerative concepts. Recently, models were made by combining existing capabilities with expert systems to establish an Intelligent Design Support Environment for simpliflying user interfaces and to address the need for the engineering aspects. Progress was also made toward modeling and evaluating the operational aspects of closed loop life support systems using Time-step and Dynamic simulations over a period of time. Example models are presented which show the status and potential of developed modeling techniques. For instance, closed loop systems involving algae systeMs for atmospheric purification and food supply augmentation, plus models employing high plants and solid waste electrolysis are described and results of initial evaluations are presented.
van Beusekom, Frits; Brazier, Frances; Schipper, Piet; Treur, Jan; del Pobil, A.P.
In this paper a knowledge-based decision support system is described that determines the abiotic (chemical and physical) characteristics of a site on the basis of in-homogeneous samples of plant species. Techniques from the area of non-monotonic reasoning are applied to model multi-interpretable
Van Der Merwe, A
Full Text Available models. The three features of the decision support system are first to assist in the scheduling process of assigning grapes from the different suppliers to the different tipping bins by suggesting rapidly and in an automated fashion a possible schedule...
Del Rosso, Angela; Mikhaylova, Svetlana; Baccini, Marco; Lupi, Ilaria; Matucci Cerinic, Marco; Maddali Bongi, Susanna
Anxious and depressive symptoms are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). Our objective is to assess their prevalence and association with district and global disability and psychological variables. 119 SSc patients were assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Clinical depression and anxiety were defined for HADS score cutoff ≥ 8. Patients were assessed for psychological symptoms (RSES, COPE-NIV), hand (HAMIS, CHFDS, fist closure, and hand opening) and face disability (MHISS, mouth opening), global disability, and fatigue (HAQ, FACIT). Both depression and anxiety in SSc are 36%. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher HADS-D score than patients with depression only (P = 0.001). HADS-A and -D are positively correlated with global disability, hands and mouth disability, fatigue, self-esteem and avoidance coping strategy, and, only HADS-A, also with social support (P anxiety correlate to local and global disabilities and psychological characteristics. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher level of depressive symptoms.
Reports an error in "A longitudinal person-centered perspective on youth social support: Relations with psychological wellbeing" by Joseph Ciarrochi, Alexandre J. S. Morin, Baljinder K. Sahdra, David Litalien and Philip D. Parker ( Developmental Psychology , 2017[Jun], Vol 53, 1154-1169). In the article, the approach utilized (and illustrated in the authors' online supplements) for tests of distributional similarity conducted in the context of Latent Transition Analyses (LTA) is suboptimal, and has been recently optimized in a webnote prepared by Morin and Litalien (2017). This webnote should be consulted by anyone thinking to rely on similar methodologies in the LTA context. Importantly, distributional similarity was not supported in Ciarrochi et al. (2017) using either the initial or optimized method, so that the application of the optimized method results in no change in the reported results. As part of this correction, the online supplemental materials have been updated to direct readers to the webnote. The reference for the Morin and Litalien (2017) webnote is included in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-17082-001.) Past research suggests that perceived social support from parents, teachers, and peers are all positively associated with wellbeing during adolescence. However, little longitudinal research has examined the implications of distinctive combinations of social support for developing adolescents. To address this limitation, we measured multiple dimensions of social support, psychological ill-health, and wellbeing in a sample of 2034 Australian adolescents (M age = 13.7; 49.6% male) measured in Grades 8 and 11. Latent transition analyses identified a 6-profile solution for both waves of data, and revealed substantial inequality in perceived social support. Two "socially rich" profiles corresponded to 7% of the sample and had high social support (>1SD above sample mean) from at least two sources
Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.
Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…
Hollon, Steven D; Ponniah, Kathryn
The mood disorders are prevalent and problematic. We review randomized controlled psychotherapy trials to find those that are empirically supported with respect to acute symptom reduction and the prevention of subsequent relapse and recurrence. We searched the PsycINFO and PubMed databases and the reference sections of chapters and journal articles to identify appropriate articles. One hundred twenty-five studies were found evaluating treatment efficacy for the various mood disorders. With respect to the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), and behavior therapy (BT) are efficacious and specific and brief dynamic therapy (BDT) and emotion-focused therapy (EFT) are possibly efficacious. CBT is efficacious and specific, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) efficacious, and BDT and EFT possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence following treatment termination and IPT and CBT are each possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence if continued or maintained. IPT is possibly efficacious in the treatment of dysthymic disorder. With respect to bipolar disorder (BD), CBT and family-focused therapy (FFT) are efficacious and interpersonal social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) possibly efficacious as adjuncts to medication in the treatment of depression. Psychoeducation (PE) is efficacious in the prevention of mania/hypomania (and possibly depression) and FFT is efficacious and IPSRT and CBT possibly efficacious in preventing bipolar episodes. The newer psychological interventions are as efficacious as and more enduring than medications in the treatment of MDD and may enhance the efficacy of medications in the treatment of BD. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Nicklaus, Dennis J.; /Fermilab
The Fermilab control system, ACNET, is used for controlling the Tevatron and all of its pre-accelerators. However, other smaller experiments at Fermilab have been using different controls systems, in particular DOOCS and EPICS. This paper reports some of the steps taken at Fermilab to integrate support for these outside systems. We will describe specific tools that we have built or adapted to facilitate interaction between the architectures. We also examine some of the difficulties that arise from managing this heterogeneous environment. Incompatibilities as well as common elements will be described.
John B. Carter
Full Text Available Impulse is a new memory system architecture that adds two important features to a traditional memory controller. First, Impulse supports application‐specific optimizations through configurable physical address remapping. By remapping physical addresses, applications control how their data is accessed and cached, improving their cache and bus utilization. Second, Impulse supports prefetching at the memory controller, which can hide much of the latency of DRAM accesses. Because it requires no modification to processor, cache, or bus designs, Impulse can be adopted in conventional systems. In this paper we describe the design of the Impulse architecture, and show how an Impulse memory system can improve the performance of memory‐bound scientific applications. For instance, Impulse decreases the running time of the NAS conjugate gradient benchmark by 67%. We expect that Impulse will also benefit regularly strided, memory‐bound applications of commercial importance, such as database and multimedia programs.
Skatkov A. V.
Full Text Available The paper is concerned with a structure synthesis of monitoring systems. In the article a decision support system for such synthesis was proposed and described. In the first phase of the process, the proposed classification of monitoring systems is used. Then adaptive algorithms, simulation and analytic modeling are used. The results of studies carried out by means of the proposed program are represented. The topicality of proposed approach was demonstrated. It should be mentioned, that algorithms were thoroughly described, the computing experiments were carried out. The authors believe that the proposed decision support system has many advantages and, consequently, is very useful in structure synthesis of monitoring systems.
Roz Shafran; Sophie D Bennett; Mhairi McKenzie Smith
There are strong calls from many national and international bodies for there to be a ‘holistic’ and integrated approach to the understanding and management of psychological and physical health needs...
Are there more than cross-sectional relationships of social support and support networks with functional limitations and psychological distress in early rheumatoid arthritis? the European Research on Incapacitating Diseases and Social Support Longitudinal
Demange, V.; Guillemin, F.; Suurmeijer, T.P.; Moum, T.; Doeglas, D.; Briancon, S.; van den Heuvel, W.J.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether greater social support and support network are cross-sectionally associated with less functional limitations and psychological distress in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA); whether this association is constant over time; and whether increases in social
Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek
This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups.
Full Text Available In the last 10 years sport psychology expanded its applicability in a variety of fields which have helped to address some of the challenges related to high level performance and sport competition. When we talk about performance in its wider sense, sport psychology is able to help develop a better understanding on how strategies can be adopted in improving general human performance levels. This includes increasing the knowledge of key concepts such as motivation, self-confidence and resilience. Furthermore performance in its wider sense helps in the understanding of the impact of stress and arousal and how these can affect both positively and negatively performance levels including appreciating individual differences as well as dynamics between groups of individuals. In this paper performance rather than solely be related to the field of competitive or professional sport has been discussed in people with ASCs and aims to explore how by adopting a positive psychological model in the formulation of individual assessments and subsequent interventions have led to improvement in individual skills, participation, engagement and ultimately quality of life. Positive psychological principles, such as the role of wellbeing and wellness, the PERMA Model has increased our understanding of human potentials, performance and wellbeing. The aim of this paper is to present and reflect on the applicability and benefits of adopting sport psychology models, the PERMA model and positive psychological principles in special education and care settings with the presentation and discussion of their theoretical and some practical implementation in two case studies.
Tehrani, Fleur T; Roum, James H
An overview of different methodologies used in various intelligent decision support systems (IDSSs) for mechanical ventilation is provided. The applications of the techniques are compared in view of today's intensive care unit (ICU) requirements. Information available in the literature is utilized to provide a methodological review of different systems. Comparisons are made of different systems developed for specific ventilation modes as well as those intended for use in wider applications. The inputs and the optimized parameters of different systems are discussed and rule-based systems are compared to model-based techniques. The knowledge-based systems used for closed-loop control of weaning from mechanical ventilation are also described. Finally, in view of increasing trend towards automation of mechanical ventilation, the potential utility of intelligent advisory systems for this purpose is discussed. IDSSs for mechanical ventilation can be quite helpful to clinicians in today's ICU settings. To be useful, such systems should be designed to be effective, safe, and easy to use at patient's bedside. In particular, these systems must be capable of noise removal, artifact detection and effective validation of data. Systems that can also be adapted for closed-loop control/weaning of patients at the discretion of the clinician, may have a higher potential for use in the future.
Bassett, D. A.; Middleton, J. A.; Brimley, W. J. G.; Young, T. W.
The Mobile Servicing System (MSS), Canada's contribution to the International Space Station Program will perform a vital role in the on-orbit operations of the Space Station. This role will include activities in Assembly, Maintenance, Attached Payload Servicing, and Berthing/deberthing operations. This paper provides a description of the operations role of the MSS in the Assembly Sequence of the International Space Station. The launch sequence and on-orbit checkout and integration of the early elements of the MSS will be described in detail. Berthing and cargo transfer operations between the MSS and the STS Orbiter will be discussed as will operations scenarios during the early assembly sequence. The support and training efforts in support of early operations are discussed, and a description of the Canadian Operations support facilities are provided.
Sukartini, Tintin Sukartini; Nursalam, Nursalam Nursalam; M.Has, Eka Mishbahatul; Asmoro, Candra Panji; Misutarno, Misutarno Misutarno
Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that infects cells of the immune system, destroying or damaging the function of cells of the immune system. This makes the immune system becomes weaker, and people become more liable to infection. A lot of new detected HIV transmission source comes from former workers who work abroad. The challenge is how to improve the psychological response of people living with HIV (PLWHA) to be able to socialize confident and not worry about...
Sepelak, George R.
A support system for nuclear reactor pressure vessels which can withstand all possible combinations of stresses caused by a postulated core disrupting accident during reactor operation. The nuclear reactor pressure vessel is provided with a flange around the upper periphery thereof, and the flange includes an annular vertical extension formed integral therewith. A support ring is positioned atop of the support ledge and the flange vertical extension, and is bolted to both members. The plug riser is secured to the flange vertical extension and to the top of a radially outwardly extension of the rotatable plug. This system eliminates one joint through which fluids contained in the vessel could escape by making the fluid flow path through the joint between the flange and the support ring follow the same path through which fluid could escape through the plug risers. In this manner, the sealing means to prohibit the escape of contained fluids through the plug risers can also prohibit the escape of contained fluid through the securing joint.
da Rocha, Raphael Pacheco; Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez
This article discusses the development of a computerized support to demands for treatment of a wide spectrum and diverse nature. Developed under SPM platform (Situação, Problema e Melhoria), the practitioner seeks to provide an ergonomic aid from the identification and characterization of the processes of analysis demands. The interest of a technological support the practice of ergonomics is a domestic origin, which already features a wide universe. For purposes of this article will be drawn the line defined by the universe in the Federal Public Service occupations within the guidelines set Subsystem Integrated System for Health Care Workers of the Federal Government. The development of this system initially intended to assist the practitioner in ergonomics mapping situations in which the federal public servant has been undergoing for the second time that can classify and then treat them.
Full Text Available Background: The Weibull distribution is one of the most important lifetime distributions in applied statistics. Weibull analysis is the leading method in the world for fitting and analyzing lifetime data. We discuss one of the earliest decision support system for the assessment of a distribution for the parameters of the Weibull reliability model using expert information. We then present a different approach to assess the parameters distribution.
Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Ken Thomas
A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. A prototype COSS was developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the Human System Simulation Laboratory.
Nevill, Gail E., Jr.; Hessel, Michael I., Jr.; Rodriguez, Jose; Morgan, Steve (Editor)
NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project centers on growing plants and recycling wastes in space. The current version of the biomass production chamber (BPC) uses a hydroponic system for nutrient delivery. To optimize plant growth and conserve system resources, the content of the nutrient solution which feeds the plants must be constantly monitored. The macro-nutrients (greater than ten ppm) in the solution include nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulphur; the micro-nutrients (less than ten ppm) include iron, copper, manganese, zinc, and boron. The goal of this project is to construct a computer-controlled system of ion detectors that will accurately measure the concentrations of several necessary ions in solution. The project focuses on the use of a sensor array to eliminate problems of interference and temperature dependence.
Hansen, Nina B.; Sara B. Eriksen; Elklit, Ask
Background: Research has documented severe mental health problems in female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). Therefore, providing effective treatment is pivotal. Few studies have investigated the effects of intervention programs on reducing the harmful consequences of IPV.Objective: The present study examined the effects of a specific three-phase intervention program for female victims of IPV on psychological symptoms (PTSD, anxiety, and depression) and perceived social support. Gi...
Full Text Available Rates of psychological distress are high following diagnosis and treatment of brain tumor. There can be multiple barriers to accessing psychological support, including physical and cognitive impairments and geographical limitations. Tele-based support could provide an effective and more flexible option for delivering psychological interventions. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility and utility of a telephone-based psychotherapy intervention for people with brain tumor. A single-case multiple-baseline design was employed with a 4-7 week baseline phase, 10-week treatment phase and 5-week maintenance phase including a booster session. Four participants with a benign or malignant brain tumor (3 males & 1 female; aged 34 to 49 years, received 10 sessions of tele-based therapy and a booster session at four weeks post-treatment. Levels of depression, anxiety, and illness cognitions were monitored on a weekly basis throughout each phase whilst measures of quality of life, stress and self-concept were administered at the start and end of each phase. Weekly measures were analysed using a combination of both visual analysis and Tau-U statistics. Of the four participants, two of them demonstrated significant gains in mental health (depression and/or anxiety and a significant decrease in their levels of helplessness (p<.05. The other two participants did not show gains in mental health or change in illness cognitions. All participants reported improvement in quality of life post-treatment. The results of the study provide preliminary support concerning the feasibility and utility of tele-based therapy for some people with brain tumor. Further research examining factors influencing the outcomes of tele-based psychological support is needed.
Full Text Available Childhood vaccination is widely considered to be one of the most successful public health interventions. Yet, the effective delivery of vaccination depends upon public willingness to vaccinate. Recently, many countries have faced problems with vaccine hesitancy, where a growing number of parents perceive vaccination to be unsafe or unnecessary, leading some to delay or refuse vaccines for their children. Effective intervention strategies for countering this problem are currently sorely lacking, however. Here, we propose that this may be because existing strategies are grounded more in intuition than insights from psychology. Consequently, such strategies are sometimes at variance with basic psychological principles and assumptions. By going against the grain of cognition, such strategies potentially run the risk of undermining persuasive efforts to reduce vaccine hesitancy. We demonstrate this by drawing on key insights from cognitive and social psychology to show how various known features of human psychology can lead many intuitively appealing intervention strategies to backfire, yielding unintended and undesirable repercussions. We conclude with a summary of potential avenues of investigation that may be more effective in addressing vaccine hesitancy. Our key message is that intervention strategies must be crafted that go with the grain of cognition by incorporating key insights from the psychological sciences.
Stepanenko, N P; Levitskaia, T E; Matveeva, E A; Zaĭtsev, A A; Konovalov, A B; Tren'kaeva, N A; Akimova, K K; Kremeno, S V; Dostovalova, O V; Merzliakova, N V
To study dynamics of the indicators of the hormonal and psychological status as well as psychological features of significance for the sportive performance under conditions of rehabilitative treatment during training and post-training periods in the child athlete engaged in rhythmic gymnastics. The study included 42 child athletes at the age from 8 to 15 years engaged in rhythmic gymnastics. The children of the study group (group 1, n=17) received the combined restorative treatment under conditions of regular training while those comprising group 2 group (n=25) were given a similar treatment in the absence of the training load. All athletes underwent clinical and laboratory examination before and after the treatment for the assessment of their psychological status. The study has demonstrated that additional physical activities were responsible for the development of negative changes in the hormonal and psychological spheres of the child athletes. As a result, they experienced the impairment of certain qualities significant for their sportive performance. The rehabilitative measures during different periods of the training cycle promote normalization of all parameters of the hormonal, psychological, and physical status of the child athletes; moreover, they improve the adaptive capacity of the children.
Voltolini, Alessandra; Minotti, Anna; Verde, Alessandro; Cipriani, Manlio; Garascia, Andrea; Turazza, Fabio; Macera, Francesca; Perna, Enrico; Russo, Claudio F; Fumagalli, Emilia; Frigerio, Maria
Heart disease has an impact on patient's identity and self-perception. Taking into account the wide literature about psychological aspects before and after heart transplant, it clearly emerges that there is a lack of data and results for patients up to implantation of ventricular assist devices (VAD). The aim of the present study was to explore quality of life and factors correlated with psychological adjustment in patients supported with VAD. From February 2013 to August 2014, 18 patients (17 male, mean age 57 years) under clinical evaluation before and after VAD implantation were enrolled. During interviews, patients were assessed with EuroQoL-5D questionnaire to monitor improvement of quality of life before implantation and at 3 and 6 months; critical issues, needs and point of views of patients have been described. A significant improvement in the quality of life score was observed at 3 (score 38 [interquartile range 30-40] vs 75 [60-80], ppsychological state investigated by the test showed a clear and positive trend. All patients need to empower through complete information about the device, related risks and life expectancy. Interdisciplinary approach improved compliance with therapy. Successful treatment and efficient psychological care are closely related to assessment and continuous clinical support. This approach ensures a better selection of patients and improves their compliance. Further data are needed to support our preliminary observations and to explore long-term quality of life.
Theodore, Lea A.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Dioguardi, Richard J.
Discusses origin of school psychology in Greece which emerged with services for mentally disabled in 1937. Explains how laws were instituted with the growing demand for educational services for students with social and emotional needs. Includes discussions on diverse roles of school psychologists, present status of special education, and influence…
Tracy N. Tacuban
Full Text Available The Barangay Decision Support and Mapping System aims to address the needs of the barangay for efficient information and decision processing. It allows the record of all the barangay residents and enables the user to create and edit the barangay map using the generally-accepted symbols or icons. It automates the barangay clearances, and permits. It allows the storage and retrieval of barangay-approved ordinances, meetings and resolutions. It records environmental problems and the solutions provided. The system also records cases of domestic violence, disputes and the actions taken by the concerned officials. Moreover, the system provides the necessary reports that can be used by the barangay officials for their barangay planning activities. The system’s functionality was tested by the Barangay Officials of San Miguel, Guimaras as respondents of the study. The respondents strongly agree that the system’s functionality conforms to their needs and requirements. With regards to the ease of use of the system as perceived by the respondents, the respondents agreed that the study is easy to use and the interface of the system is well designed. The reliability and validity of the system was tested by five (5 ICT professionals using ISO 9126 standard. Based on their responses, the system’s evaluation shows that the system conforms to international standards and is therefore valid and reliable to use.
Aitken, Leanne M; Rattray, Janice; Kenardy, Justin; Hull, Alastair M; Ullman, Amanda J; Le Brocque, Robyne; Mitchell, Marion; Davis, Chelsea; Castillo, Maria I; Macfarlane, Bonnie
Diaries summarizing intensive care are routine practice in some countries, although evidence to support diary use is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify whether distress post-intensive care influences patients' and relatives' choice as to whether they would like to receive a diary and what information delivery method is preferred. Intensive care patients admitted for at least 3 days and their relatives participated in an exploratory mixed methods study. Interviews were conducted 3 to 5 months after discharge. Psychological distress was assessed using Kessler-10 and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Checklist - 5. Perceptions of benefit of diaries were assessed using a 4-point Likert scale. Differences were examined using Fisher exact test (PPsychological distress was evident in 25 (47%) patients and 5 (23%) relatives. Participants' psychological health was similar for those who perceived diaries as beneficial, and those who did not. Themes included memory, process, and impact, although opinions were diverse. Patient and relative preferences of receiving a diary are not related to psychological distress. Diverse opinions around common themes suggest the need for a range of interventions to aid psychological recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shimon Y. Nof
Full Text Available Collaborative Decision Support Systems, CDSS, depend on cost-effective collaboration among the decision participants. Those may include, in addition to human decision makers, non-human entities such as robots, software and hardware agents, sensors, and autonomous instruments. The purpose of this article is to explore the impact that CCT, the Collaborative Control Theory, has on cyber supported augmentation of collaboration in general, and its proven and potential impacts on CDSS in particular. Three recent case studies are discussed. The correlation between CDSS decision process and quality; and the level of CCT-based collaboration augmentation and the resulting level of Collaborative Intelligence, CI, is presented. It is concluded that while there are clear positive impacts of CCT based augmentation and level of CI, they need to be measured and optimized, not maximized. Further research in this area is also described.
Full Text Available This research examined the role of psychological availability as a means of psychological engagement between self-initiated expatriates (SIEs and their host-country nationals (HCNs colleagues during their work and interaction adjustment. To reveal this process, this study presented the concept of psychological availability, which refers to an individual’s belief that they are physically, cognitively, and emotionally ready or confident to engage the self with their colleagues, as a mediator between proactive personality and adjustment. Also, it investigated the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability and how it was moderated by supportive supervisor relations. We hypothesized, this relationship would be weakened/strengthened when SIEs and HCNs received low/high level of support from their supervisor. This study was conducted as a quantitative study, data was used from 342 SIEs and 342 HCNs working in mainland China. Our finding supported the hypothesis that psychological availability mediated the relationship between proactive personality and their adjustment to an international work environment; in addition, the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability would be stronger when the level of superiors relations support is high between SIEs and HCNs. This study demonstrated the value of proactive personality as an antecedent effect and supportive supervisor relations as a moderating effect, and investigated how these factors can lead to a sense of psychological availability and boost psychological engagement between SIEs and HCNs in order to improve the adjustment between them.
Jannesari, Milad; Wang, Zhongming; McCall, Jacob; Zheng, Boyang
This research examined the role of psychological availability as a means of psychological engagement between self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) and their host-country nationals (HCNs) colleagues during their work and interaction adjustment. To reveal this process, this study presented the concept of psychological availability, which refers to an individual’s belief that they are physically, cognitively, and emotionally ready or confident to engage the self with their colleagues, as a mediator between proactive personality and adjustment. Also, it investigated the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability and how it was moderated by supportive supervisor relations. We hypothesized, this relationship would be weakened/strengthened when SIEs and HCNs received low/high level of support from their supervisor. This study was conducted as a quantitative study, data was used from 342 SIEs and 342 HCNs working in mainland China. Our finding supported the hypothesis that psychological availability mediated the relationship between proactive personality and their adjustment to an international work environment; in addition, the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability would be stronger when the level of superiors relations support is high between SIEs and HCNs. This study demonstrated the value of proactive personality as an antecedent effect and supportive supervisor relations as a moderating effect, and investigated how these factors can lead to a sense of psychological availability and boost psychological engagement between SIEs and HCNs in order to improve the adjustment between them. PMID:29225587
Davey, Amanda; Bouman, Walter P; Arcelus, Jon; Meyer, Caroline
There is a paucity of research in the area of social support and psychological well-being among people with gender dysphoria. The present study aimed to investigate levels of social support among individuals with gender dysphoria compared with a matched control group. It also aimed to examine the relationship between social support and psychological well-being. Participants were 103 individuals diagnosed with gender dysphoria (according to ICD-10 criteria) attending a national gender identity clinic and an age- and gender-matched nonclinical control group recruited via social networking websites. All participants completed measures of social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, MSPSS), psychopathology (Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, SCL), quality of life (Short Form 36 version 2, SF), and life satisfaction (Personal Wellbeing Index, PWI). Trans women reported significantly lower MSPSS total and MSPSS family scores compared with control women, although these differences in levels of social support were no longer significant when SCL depression was controlled for. No significant differences were found between trans men and any other group. MSPSS scores did not significantly predict SCL subscales but did predict both SF subscales and PWI total scores. Trans women perceived themselves to be lacking social support. Given that social support is beneficial to quality of life and life satisfaction in those with gender dysphoria, this is of great concern. Though these findings have been derived from correlational results, extended research may highlight the value of clinicians helping trans women to seek out and maintain social support. Additionally, efforts could be made to educate and challenge attitudes of nontrans people towards those with gender dysphoria. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Bjorklund, David F
Although agreeing with R. Lickliter and H. Honeycutt (2003) that evolutionary psychology lacks and should adopt a coherent developmental model to explain how evolved mechanisms become expressed in phenotypes, it is argued that adhering to the principles of developmental systems theory, despite enhancing evolutionary psychology, would not change appreciably its basic focus. The concepts of innateness and modularity, what is inherited and what evolves, as well as the possible role of developmental plasticity in the evolution of human cognition are discussed. It is proposed that evolutionary psychology can incorporate the developmental systems perspective into its theorizing, with the end result being a science that more closely reflects human nature.
Bailey, Katherine Stallings
The Family and Medical Leave Act ("FMLA") recognizes an employee's right to take leave to care for a qualifying family member. In light of the Act's remedial nature, the intended scope of the care provision is broad, but its definitional details are sparse. As a result of the attendant interpretive discretion afforded to courts, the Seventh Circuit announced its rejection of the requirement-- first articulated by the Ninth Circuit--that care provided during travel be related to continuing medical treatment. A facial analysis of the resulting circuit split fails to appreciate the fundamental difference between the Seventh and Ninth Circuits' considerations: the distinction between physical and psychological care. Whereas physical care is readily measurable, psychological care is less defined and, consequently, ripe to facilitate FMLA abuse. Efforts to combat this potential lead courts to impose judicially devised limitations on psychological care, but judicial discretion still infuses some uncertainty into proceedings. For employers, the best remedy lies in the FMLA's optional certification provision, which requires medical validation of an employee’s need for leave. In requiring certification, employers should distinguish between physical and psychological care, maximize the FMLA’s informational requirements, and implement complete and consistent request and approval procedures.
Adolescents with homosexual and bisexual orientations have higher levels of psychological distress than other adolescents. Drawing from previous studies, I hypothesize that this epidemiological pattern is due largely to the interpersonal problems that sexual minorities experience at home and at school. Analysis of longitudinal data based on a…
de Wit, M.; Pulgaron, E.R.; Pattino-Fernandez, A.M.; Delamater, A.M.
The significant role of psychosocial factors in the management of type 1 diabetes in youth has been well documented. The International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) therefore published the Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines for psychological care of young patients.
Benka, Jozef; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Calfova, Anna; Macejova, Zelmira; Middel, Berrie; Lazurova, Ivica; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Groothoff, Johan W.
Introduction: The objective of the study was to investigate the course of psychological distress in early rheumatoid arthritis patients and to explore the strength of its associations with disease-related variables over time. A further aim focused specifically on the associations between social
Rini, Christine; Redd, William H.; Austin, Jane; Mosher, Catherine E.; Meschian, Yeraz Markarian; Isola, Luis; Scigliano, Eileen; Moskowitz, Craig H.; Papadopoulos, Esperanza; Labay, Larissa E.; Rowley, Scott; Burkhalter, Jack E.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; DuHamel, Katherine N.
Objective: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) survivors who are 1 to 3 years posttransplant are challenged by the need to resume valued social roles and activities--a task that may be complicated by enduring transplant-related psychological distress common in this patient population. The present study investigated whether transplant…
The present study used an ecological framework to examine the relationships among adolescents' perceptions of school climate, social competence, and behavioral and psychological adjustment in the middle school years. This study improved upon prior studies by using "structural equation modeling" to investigate the hypothesized mediating…
Grant H. Kruger
Full Text Available Information overload of the anesthesiologist through technological advances have threatened the safety of patients under anesthesia in the operating room (OR. Traditional monitoring and alarm systems provide independent, spatially distributed indices of patient physiological state. This creates the potential to distract caregivers from direct patient care tasks. To address this situation, a novel reactive agent decision support system with graphical human machine interface was developed. The system integrates the disparate data sources available in the operating room, passes the data though a decision matrix comprising a deterministic physiologic rule base established through medical research. Patient care is improved by effecting change to the care environment by displaying risk factors and alerts as an intuitive color coded animation. The system presents a unified, contextually appropriate snapshot of the patient state including current and potential risk factors, and alerts of critical patient events to the operating room team without requiring any user intervention. To validate the efficacy of the system, a retrospective analysis focusing on the hypotension rules were performed. Results show that even with vigilant and highly trained clinicians, deviations from ideal patient care exist and it is here that the proposed system may allow more standardized and improved patient care and potentially outcomes.
Ishikawa, Takumi; Takahashi, Junko; Kasai, Mai; Shiina, Takayuki; Iijima, Yuka; Takemura, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Kuwata, Takeshi
In Japan, cancer is the most prevalent cause of death; the number of patients suffering from cancer is increasing. Hence, there is an increased burden on pathologists to make diagnoses. To reduce pathologists' burden, researchers have developed methods of auto-pathological diagnosis. However, virtual slides, which are created when glass slides are digitally scanned, saved in a unique format, and it is difficult for researchers to work on the virtual slides for developing their own image processing method. This paper presents the support system for pathologists and researchers who use auto-pathological diagnosis (P-SSD). Main purpose of P-SSD was to support both of pathologists and researchers. P-SSD consists of several sub-functions that make it easy not only for pathologists to screen pathological images, double-check their diagnoses, and reduce unimportant image data but also for researchers to develop and apply their original image-processing techniques to pathological images. We originally developed P-SSD to support both pathologists and researchers developing auto-pathological diagnoses systems. Current version of P-SSD consists of five main functions as follows: (i) Loading virtual slides, (ii) making a supervised database, (iii) learning image features, (iv) detecting cancerous areas, (v) displaying results of detection. P-SSD reduces computer memory size random access memory utilization and the processing time required to divide the virtual slides into the smaller-size images compared with other similar software. The maximum observed reduction in computer memory size and reduction in processing time is 97% and 99.94%, respectively. Unlike other vendor-developed software, P-SSD has interoperability and is capable of handling virtual slides in several formats. Therefore, P-SSD can support both of pathologists and researchers, and has many potential applications in both pathological diagnosis and research area.
Full Text Available Aims: In Japan, cancer is the most prevalent cause of death; the number of patients suffering from cancer is increasing. Hence, there is an increased burden on pathologists to make diagnoses. To reduce pathologists′ burden, researchers have developed methods of auto-pathological diagnosis. However, virtual slides, which are created when glass slides are digitally scanned, saved in a unique format, and it is difficult for researchers to work on the virtual slides for developing their own image processing method. This paper presents the support system for pathologists and researchers who use auto-pathological diagnosis (P-SSD. Main purpose of P-SSD was to support both of pathologists and researchers. P-SSD consists of several sub-functions that make it easy not only for pathologists to screen pathological images, double-check their diagnoses, and reduce unimportant image data but also for researchers to develop and apply their original image-processing techniques to pathological images. Methods: We originally developed P-SSD to support both pathologists and researchers developing auto-pathological diagnoses systems. Current version of P-SSD consists of five main functions as follows: (i Loading virtual slides, (ii making a supervised database, (iii learning image features, (iv detecting cancerous areas, (v displaying results of detection. Results: P-SSD reduces computer memory size random access memory utilization and the processing time required to divide the virtual slides into the smaller-size images compared with other similar software. The maximum observed reduction in computer memory size and reduction in processing time is 97% and 99.94%, respectively. Conclusions: Unlike other vendor-developed software, P-SSD has interoperability and is capable of handling virtual slides in several formats. Therefore, P-SSD can support both of pathologists and researchers, and has many potential applications in both pathological diagnosis and research
Full Text Available One of the measures of the quality of education system is equal access to the education opportunity to enable learning for everyone. In the recent years, multiple conventions, declarations, announcements and resolutions regarding inclusive education have been approved internationally and included in the Latvian law of education. Nevertheless, even with the abundant amount of data and previous research results, the introduction and provision of inclusive education in practice has been controversial. The main focus has been placed on child inclusion within the educational system, but support for teachers and parents or legal guardians has not always been sufficient. For inclusive education to be truly successful, all involved parties should be receiving adequate support. Aim of the present study: analysis and evaluation of the present state of inclusive education framework and its success within the Latvian educational system. Materials and methods: literature review, survey. Conclusions: Inclusion of children with special educational needs in the inclusive education framework is a complicated pedagogical and psychological process requiring a specific attitude and preparedness of the education professionals, school staff, parents, children and society as a whole.
Full Text Available The exponential growth of information on the web far exceeds the capacity of present day information retrieval systems and search engines, making information integration on the web difficult. In order to overcome this, semantic web technologies were proposed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C to achieve a higher degree of automation and precision in information retrieval systems. Semantic web, with its promise to deliver machine understanding to the traditional web, has attracted a significant amount of research from academia as well as from industries. Semantic web is an extension of the current web in which data can be shared and reused across the internet. RDF and ontology are two essential components of the semantic web architecture which support a common framework for data storage and representation of data semantics, respectively. Ontologies being the backbone of semantic web applications, it is more relevant to study various approaches in their application, usage, and integration into web services. In this article, an effort has been made to review the research work being undertaken in the area of design and development of ontology supported information systems. This paper also briefly explains the emerging semantic web technologies and standards.
Hoff, J. E.; Howe, J. M.; Mitchell, C. A.
The feasibility of using higher plants in a controlled ecological life support system is discussed. Aspects of this system considered important in the use of higher plants include: limited energy, space, and mass, and problems relating to cultivation and management of plants, food processing, the psychological impact of vegetarian diets, and plant propagation. A total of 115 higher plant species are compared based on 21 selection criteria.
Chang, Yia-Ling; Chiou, Ai-Fu; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Lin, Kuan-Chia
Up to 74% of patients with heart failure report poor sleep in Taiwan. Poor symptom management or sleep hygiene may affect patients' sleep quality. An effective educational programme was important to improve patients' sleep quality and psychological distress. However, research related to sleep disturbance in patients with heart failure is limited in Taiwan. To examine the effects of a tailored educational supportive care programme on sleep disturbance and psychological distress in patients with heart failure. randomised controlled trial. Eighty-four patients with heart failure were recruited from an outpatient department of a medical centre in Taipei, Taiwan. Patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n=43) or the control group (n=41). Patients in the intervention group received a 12-week tailored educational supportive care programme including individualised education on sleep hygiene, self-care, emotional support through a monthly nursing visit at home, and telephone follow-up counselling every 2 weeks. The control group received routine nursing care. Data were collected at baseline, the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks after patients' enrollment. Outcome measures included sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, anxiety, and depression. The intervention group exhibited significant improvement in the level of sleep quality and daytime sleepiness after 12 weeks of the supportive nursing care programme, whereas the control group exhibited no significant differences. Anxiety and depression scores were increased significantly in the control group at the 12th week (pcare programme (p>.05). Compared with the control group, the intervention group had significantly greater improvement in sleep quality (β=-2.22, pcare programme could effectively improve sleep quality and psychological distress in patients with heart failure. We suggested that this supportive nursing care programme should be applied to clinical practice in cardiovascular nursing. Copyright © 2016
Bhui, Kamaldeep; Silva, Maria Joao; Harding, Seeromanie; Stansfeld, Stephen
The purpose of the study is to test whether bullying in adolescents relates to poor mental health and whether social support mitigated this effect. In 2001, 28 schools in East London were randomly selected for surveys of two representative mixed ability classes: year 7 (11-12 years) and year 9 (13-14 years). Repeated measures were obtained from the same pupils 2 years later, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (total difficulties score [TDS]) as a measure of psychological distress. A simple one-level random intercepts model with measurements nested within pupils was used to investigate the effects of bullying and social support from friends and family on TDS. We also assessed whether culturally congruent friendships offered a mental health advantage. Bullying was associated with a higher mean TDS (coefficient, 95% confidence interval: White British: 2.15, 1.41-2.88; Bangladeshi: 1.65, .91-2.4); a high level of family social support was associated with a lower TDS (White British: -2.36, -3.33 to -1.39; Bangladeshi: -2.34, -3.15 to -.149). Social support from friends was helpful for White British adolescents (-1.06, -2.07 to -.04). Culturally congruent friendships offered no general advantage. Bullying is associated with psychological distress; family social support is independently associated with less psychological distress. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nina B. Hansen
Full Text Available Background: Research has documented severe mental health problems in female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV. Therefore, providing effective treatment is pivotal. Few studies have investigated the effects of intervention programs on reducing the harmful consequences of IPV. Objective: The present study examined the effects of a specific three-phase intervention program for female victims of IPV on psychological symptoms (PTSD, anxiety, and depression and perceived social support. Given that many of the women dropped out before and during the intervention program, potential differences in initial levels of psychological symptoms, perceived social support, as well as descriptive variables were explored between the women who completed the whole program and the groups of women who dropped out prematurely. Method: The initial sample consisted of 212 female victims of IPV. Symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and level of perceived social support were measured with validated scales before the start of the intervention and after completion of each treatment phase. Results: Results showed a significant effect of the intervention program on reducing psychological symptoms and increasing levels of perceived social support. Effect sizes ranged from medium to very high. Significant positive effects were found for each of the treatment phases. There were no significant differences between the women who completed the whole program and those women who dropped out prematurely in terms of initial level of symptoms and perceived social support as well as descriptive characteristics. Conclusions: Specifically developed intervention programs for female victims of IPV are effective in reducing the harmful personal consequences of IPV. Future studies should consider employing controlled study designs and address the issue of high drop out rates found in intervention studies.
Tschuschke, Volker; Karadaglis, Georgios; Evangelou, Kalliopi; Gräfin von Schweinitz, Clara; Schwickerath, Jürgen
Introduction This prospective study reports on the impact of psychological factors on women with primary breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. These women are in a special situation, where they not only have to deal with the shock of the cancer diagnosis but also with the fact that the malignant tumor will not be removed immediately but only after completing chemotherapy. A situation like this is stressful and requires a personal strength which not every woman may have. Methods In a prospective study 53 patients were assessed using various psychological and psycho-oncological questionnaires which aimed to evaluate their psychological stress and their coping resources. The women were evaluated before starting systemic treatment (t-1) and again immediately after completing chemotherapy but prior to surgery (t-2). The patients were also asked about their coping strategies at t-1 and t-2. Using the Ulm Coping Manual (UCM) the interviews were rated by independent assessors blinded to the respective patient's medical data. Patients were followed up for 3.7-5.5 years after completing chemotherapy. Results Patients with poor psychosocial adjustment to the situation were identified prior to starting treatment (at t-1). The social coping strategies of these women were found to be inadequate. Their coping behavior was characterized by resignation and they did not attempt to seek social support. This was found to increase their overall risk of recurrence or of developing another type of malignancy during the follow-up period. The study also identified patients who coped significantly better with primary systemic treatment by strengthening their coping strategies. Conclusion Careful psychological screening of women's vulnerabilities or strengths immediately after the diagnosis and prior to any oncological treatment is strongly recommended. This would help to identify those patients early on who will require additional psycho-oncological support due to their
Jorge Eliseo Gómez Gómez
Full Text Available With the inclusion of ubiquitous computing in education, it is intended that the student is an active agent in its formation process and interacts with its context. This paper presents the design and implementation of architecture for ubiquitous learning environments in which they integrate physical spaces with applications which are then executed by users. The system supports objects augmented with RFID tags, NFC and QR Code. Each tag contains data that uniquely identiﬁes the resource. To validate the proposed architecture is developed experimentally tested a prototype at the end of it is done to verify that the proposed architecture improves the academic performance of students.
Adanir, T; Erdogan, I; Hunerli, G; Unveren, G; Dasci, H; Cetin, H Y; Ozsan, I; Aydin, U
We searched to see whether psychological support for relatives of intensive care unit patients helps them to donate organs of their brain-dead relatives. After receiving ethics committee permission, first-degree relatives of 200 general intensive care unit patients were enrolled in the study. The participants were divided into 2 groups randomly: an interview group (n = 100) and a control group (n = 100). Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire. Interviews with the psychologist and patients' relatives in the interview group were therapeutic in nature and were conducted according to the relatives' psychosocial needs in an unstructured format. In the control group, the psychologist and patients' relatives were not interviewed. The study utilized demographic data, the questionnaire for relatives of patients to mention their attitude on organ donation and the reasons for this choice, and the Participant Information Form to record demographic data and relatives' degree of relationship with the patient. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups when compared according to sex ratio, patient age, and duration of patients' hospital stay. Whereas in the interview group, 75% agreed to allow their relatives to be organ donors, only 32% in the control group agreed (P psychological support for the relatives of the potential brain-dead donor to cope with the psychological problems to be faced can improve the rate of organ donation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Transit Operations Decision Support Systems (TODSS) are decision support systems designed to support dispatchers in real-time bus operations : management in response to incidents, special events, and other changing conditions in order to restore serv...
Full Text Available This study investigated the prevalence of psychological distress among parents in Western Sydney households and examined its relationship with household financial, family and life stressors, and potential resilience factors. As part of a longer-term study, parents from Western Sydney, New South Wales (NSW, completed computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI in May 2011 (N=439. Respondents were primary caregivers of at least one child (aged 4–16. Responses were weighted to reflect the Western Sydney population. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between parent experiences of stressor and resilience factors and reported psychological distress. Overall, 10.7% (95% CI: 7.8, 14.5 reported experiencing high/very high levels of psychological distress. Multivariate analysis indicated that financial hardship factors formed the strongest associations with psychological distress particularly housing and job security factors and, specifically, inability to meet mortgage/rent payments (OR=5.15, 95% CI: 1.74–15.25, p=0.003, poor self-rated health (OR=4.48, 95% CI: 1.88–10.64, p=0.001, adult job loss (OR=3.77, 95% CI: 1.33–10.66, p=0.013, and other family/life events (OR=2.30, 95% CI: 1.05–5.03, p=0.037. High personal resilience was common within this parent population and was a significant protective factor for high psychological distress (OR=0.14, 95% CI: 0.06–0.34, p<0.001. The findings support the development of targeted interventions to promote parent coping strategies in the context of household financial hardship.
The problem of designing work support systems for flexible, dynamic work environments is discussed and a framework for analysis of work in terms of behavior shaping constraints is described. The application of 'ecological interfaces' presenting to the user a map of the relational structure...... of the work space is advocated from the thesis that a map is a better guidance of discretionary tasks than is a route instruction. For the same reason, support of system design is proposed in terms of maps of the design territory, rather than in terms of guidelines....
Fiorini, Rodolfo A; De Giacomo, Piero; L'Abate, Luciano
Human beings have increasingly shown a willingness to adopt Internet, mHealth and telehealth applications as a part of managing their health. Recent technological advances in the use of the Internet and video technologies has greatly impacted the provision of psychotherapy and other clinical services as well as how the training of psychotherapists may be conducted. When utilized appropriately these technologies may provide greater access to needed services to include treatment, consultation, supervision, and training. The major issue in such a development is whether online interventions will be structured or unstructured. The proper use of technology is fundamental to create and boost outstanding results. We present a strategic review and, as an example, the main steps to develop and achieve application resilience and antifragility at system level, for diagnostic and therapeutic telepractice and telehealth support. This article presents a number of innovations that can take psychotherapy treatment, supervision, training, and research forward, towards increased effectiveness application.
Didem Rodoplu Şahin
Full Text Available The relation with the work and the role of managers and organizational factors are effective on psychological capital and individual performance of employees. This article investigates the impact of the work engagement, performanmce, empowerment, organizational support and transformational leadership on psychological capital using survey data.
Lovell, Brian; Moss, Mark; Wetherell, Mark A.
Elevated psychological distress and concomitant dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated as one pathway that links the stress of caregiving with adverse health outcomes. This study assessed whether perceived social support might mitigate the psychological, endocrine and health consequences of caregiver…
Griessmair, Michele; Strunk, Guido; Vetschera, Rudolf; Koeszegi, Sabine T
It is generally acknowledged that the medium influences the way we communicate and negotiation research directs considerable attention to the impact of different electronic communication modes on the negotiation process and outcomes. Complexity theories offer models and methods that allow the investigation of how pattern and temporal sequences unfold over time in negotiation interactions. By focusing on the dynamic and interactive quality of negotiations as well as the information, choice, and uncertainty contained in the negotiation process, the complexity perspective addresses several issues of central interest in classical negotiation research. In the present study we compare the complexity of the negotiation communication process among synchronous and asynchronous negotiations (IM vs. e-mail) as well as an electronic negotiation support system including a decision support system (DSS). For this purpose, transcripts of 145 negotiations have been coded and analyzed with the Shannon entropy and the grammar complexity. Our results show that negotiating asynchronically via e-mail as well as including a DSS significantly reduces the complexity of the negotiation process. Furthermore, a reduction of the complexity increases the probability of reaching an agreement.
Shaker H. El-Sappagh
Full Text Available This paper proposes an open and distributed clinical decision support system architecture. This technical architecture takes advantage of Electronic Health Record (EHR, data mining techniques, clinical databases, domain expert knowledge bases, available technologies and standards to provide decision-making support for healthcare professionals. The architecture will work extremely well in distributed EHR environments in which each hospital has its own local EHR, and it satisfies the compatibility, interoperability and scalability objectives of an EHR. The system will also have a set of distributed knowledge bases. Each knowledge base will be specialized in a specific domain (i.e., heart disease, and the model achieves cooperation, integration and interoperability between these knowledge bases. Moreover, the model ensures that all knowledge bases are up-to-date by connecting data mining engines to each local knowledge base. These data mining engines continuously mine EHR databases to extract the most recent knowledge, to standardize it and to add it to the knowledge bases. This framework is expected to improve the quality of healthcare, reducing medical errors and guaranteeing the safety of patients by helping clinicians to make correct, accurate, knowledgeable and timely decisions.
Venema, E; Otten, S; Vlaskamp, C
Various studies have found that direct support professionals (DSPs) play an important role in determining the degree to which people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are included in society. However, less research has been conducted on the psychological processes that may influence the behavioural intentions of DSPs to actually engage with and invest effort in supporting their clients' inclusion. Five possible psychological variables are identified in the literature: attitudes, social norms, experienced competencies, identity and meta-evaluation. In our research, we tested whether these processes influence the (intended) efforts DSPs make to facilitate their clients' inclusion. A structured questionnaire was sent to 927 DSPs working in one of three different locations (an ordinary non-segregated setting, a reversed non-segregated setting and a residential facility). Of these, 336 DSPs completed the questionnaire. Several variables revealed differences between the three locations, specifically in efforts to facilitate inclusion, attitudes, social norms, experienced competencies and professional identity. Looking at the overall means, we found (relatively) high scores for the experienced competencies, role identity and meta-evaluation. In contrast, the means were relatively negative regarding the DSPs' attitudes to inclusion and their assumed social norms. Direct support professionals' efforts to facilitate inclusion depend on their attitude towards inclusion, the experienced competencies, their role identity, the DSPs' meta-evaluation and, indirectly through attitudes, also on the assumed social norms of the relevant stakeholders. Organizations responsible for supporting people with ID and which may want their DSPs to make greater efforts to facilitate inclusion should pay attention to these psychological variables. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kusuma Wijaya Ridi Putra; Chanandchidadussadee Toonsiri; Suwanna Junprasert
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the leading causes of death and it is caused by genetics, nutrition, and unhealthy behaviors. Therefore, changes in lifestyle associated with eating behaviors in diabetes mellitus patients greatly impact on their quality of life. There are many factors related with changes in lifestyle of diabetes mellitus patients, especially eating behaviors. Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationships between self-efficacy, psychological stress, fa...
„We shape our buildings and afterwards, our buildings shape us,” is a quote by W. Churchill that illustrates the importance of the person – environment – well being relationship. Although there is no environmental determinism, our surrounding is an important factor in the way we feel and perform in build spaces. Environmental psychology developed numerous tools for analysing and evaluating these influences. Not all of these findings come to the attention of architects or designers or people i...
Girolamo, Henry J.; Darty, Mark A.; Wessling, Francis C., III
The Maintenance and Repair Support System (MARSS) is a new, revolutionary platform for mobile computing and communications designed for the soldier operating on the digital battlefield of the future. MARSS is the first major research and development program that addresses the issues of mounting mobile computing apparatus directly onto the human body and represents an important leap forward toward hands free man-machine interface. The goal of the program was to develop a system capable of workstation level performance in a package that fits comfortably with the human body and enhances the user's ability to perform complex tasks that would otherwise require extensive learning and time to accomplish. The MARSS system uses advanced micro-optical displays such as the active matrix electroluminescent image source for near real time video display across a spectrum of rugged technology that can benefit both military and commercial users. The MARSS effort is a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency program in collaboration with the US Army Soldier Systems Command (SSCOM) executed by McDonnell Douglas under SSCOM contract number DAAK60-95-C2029.
Full Text Available The general regularities detecting in the psychological development of person is modern theoretical problem of psychology. So the computer-aided informational system was made as the psychological item for the resolving of this problem. The system stores empirical data, makes processing and generalization of the results, creates the new psychological tests and compares the results in Kamchatka region with other regions’ results by the identical parameters
Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick
The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher, classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students. Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided psychometric support for the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (Malecki et al., A working manual on the development of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (2000). Unpublished manuscript, Northern Illinois University, 2003) across gender, and demonstrated gender differences in perceptions of support in early adolescence. In addition, there were significant associations between all sources of support with depressive symptoms, anxiety, self-esteem, and academic adjustment, but fewer significant unique effects of each source. Parental support was a robust unique predictor of adjustment for both boys and girls, and classmates' support was a robust unique predictor for boys. These results illustrate the importance of examining gender differences in the social experience of adolescents with careful attention to measurement and analytic issues.
Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Flowe, Heather D; Vostanis, Panos; Chivers, Sally
This project describes the development of the Resilient Systems Scales, created to address conceptual and methodological ambiguities in assessing the ecological systems model of resilience. Across a number of samples (total N = 986), our findings suggest that the Resilient Systems Scales show equivalence to a previously reported assessment (Maltby, Day, & Hall, 2015 ) in demonstrating the same factor structure, adequate intercorrelation between the 2 measures of resilience, and equivalent associations with personality and well-being. The findings also suggest that the Resilient Systems Scales demonstrate adequate test-retest reliability, compare well with other extant measures of resilience in predicting well-being, and map, to varying degrees, onto positive expression of several cognitive, social, and emotional traits. The findings suggest that the new measure can be used alongside existing measures of resilience, or singly, to assess positive life outcomes within psychology research.
V. A. Tunda
Full Text Available Moodle (Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment is the system developed by the English-speaking community around the world for more than 10 years, supports both, offline and online training. In most cases, Moodle is used to support and connect learning face-to-face with online training, as well as with other types of learning. Moodle allows you to ask all sorts of questions and assess responses in a variety of ways. The central concept of Moodle is a course in which one or more teachers offer students resources (such as files, folders, Web pages and participate in interactive activities (such as forums, wikis, blogging, lessons, seminars, assignments, examinations. Students and teachers can change roles, mutually assess each other, share knowledge on the topics of study in the glossary and database system.In the English-speaking world, there are public sites with detailed documentation on Moodle, which is constantly verified and modified in accordance with emerging new versions of the system; Russian versions do not have public sites with detailed translation of the English-language documentation. On what and to whom you want to perform actions in the daily practice of the modern versions, only the barest of outlines on paid seminars and presentations to those who started the implementation of Moodle in your organization are given. And this despite the fact that the system has a great variety of Moodle (over 500 settings with different levels of functionality to be performed, to maintain and develop specially organized by the team of specialists. The question is not only about creating a training course in Moodle. It's about maintaining the health of the system within the institution, such as a University. Under the "health maintenance" means: availability and preservation of up-to-date documentation on system and manuals on Moodle separately for administrators, managers, teachers and students at their level, training consultants
Wang, Judy Y; Glover, Wiljeana J; Rhodes, Alison M; Nightingale, Deborah
The influence of individual-level factors such as pretraumatic risk and protective factors and the availability of unit-level and enterprise-level factors on psychological health outcomes have been previously considered individually, but have not been considered in tandem across the U.S. Military psychological health system. We use the existing literature on military psychological health to build a conceptual system dynamics model of the U.S. Military psychological health system "service-cycle" from accession and deployment to future psychological health screening and treatment. The model highlights a few key observations, challenges, and opportunities for improvement for the system that relate to several topics including the importance of modeling operational demand combined with the population's psychological health as opposed to only physical health; the role of resilience and post-traumatic growth on the mitigation of stress; the positive and negative effects of pretraumatic risk factors, unit support, and unit leadership on the service-cycle; and the opportunity to improve the system more rapidly by including more feedback mechanisms regarding the usefulness of pre- and post-traumatic innovations to medical leaders, funding authorities, and policy makers. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
assess the behavior of each system based on its internal status and on the topology of its dependencies on systems connected to it. Designers and decision makers can therefore quickly analyze and explore the behavior of complex systems and evaluate different architectures under various working conditions. The methods support educated decision making both in the design and in the update process of systems architecture, reducing the need to execute extensive simulations. In particular, in the phase of concept generation and selection, the information given by the methods can be used to identify promising architectures to be further tested and improved, while discarding architectures that do not show the required level of global features. The methods, when used in conjunction with appropriate metrics, also allow for improved reliability and risk analysis, as well as for automatic scheduling and re-scheduling based on the features of the dependencies and on the accepted level of risk. This dissertation illustrates the use of the two methods in sample aerospace applications, both in the operational and in the developmental domain. The applications show how to use the developed methodology to evaluate the impact of failures, assess the criticality of systems, quantify metrics of interest, quantify the impact of delays, support informed decision making when scheduling the development of systems and evaluate the achievement of partial capabilities. A larger, well-framed case study illustrates how the Systems Operational Dependency Analysis method and the Systems Developmental Dependency Analysis method can support analysis and decision making, at the mid and high level, in the design process of architectures for the exploration of Mars. The case study also shows how the methods do not replace the classical systems engineering methodologies, but support and improve them.
The life support systems on the International Space Station (ISS) are the culmination of an extensive effort encompassing development, design, and test to provide the highest possible confidence in their operation on ISS. Many years of development testing are initially performed to identify the optimum technology and the optimum operational approach. The success of this development program depends on the accuracy of the system interfaces. The critical interfaces include the specific operational environment, the composition of the waste stream to be processed and the quality of the product. Once the development program is complete, a detailed system schematic is built based on the specific design requirements, followed by component procurement, assembly, and acceptance testing. A successful acceptance test again depends on accurately simulating the anticipated environment on ISS. The ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) provides an excellent example of where this process worked, as well as lessons learned that can be applied to the success of future missions. More importantly, ISS has provided a test bed to identify these design issues. Mechanical design issues have included an unreliable harmonic drive train in the Urine Processor's fluids pump, and seals in the Water Processor's Catalytic Reactor with insufficient life at the operational temperature. Systems issues have included elevated calcium in crew urine (due to microgravity effect) that resulted in precipitation at the desired water recovery rate, and the presence of an organosilicon compound (dimethylsilanediol) in the condensate that is not well removed by the water treatment process. Modifications to the WRS to address these issues are either complete (and now being evaluated on ISS) or are currently in work to insure the WRS has the required reliability before embarking on a mission to Mars.
Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Goozee, Rhianna; Payne, Erika; Barrable, Alexia; Tzotzoli, Patapia
Recent evidence suggests that there is an increasing need for accessible and anonymous services to support higher education (HE) students suffering from psychological and/or academic difficulties. Such difficulties can lead to several negative outcomes, including poor academic performance, sub-optimal mental health, reduced study satisfaction, and dropout from study. Currently, universities in the UK lack financial resources and the on-campus mental health services traditionally offered to students are increasingly economically unsustainable. Compounded by the perceived stigma of using such services, mental health providers have been driven to address the escalating needs of students through online services. In this paper, we review online support systems identified through a literature search and a manual search of references in the identified papers. Further systems were identified through web searches, and systems still in development were identified by consultation with researchers in the field. We accessed systems online to extract relevant information, regarding the main difficulties addressed by the systems, the psychological techniques used and any relevant research evidence to support their effectiveness. A large number of web-based support systems have been developed to support mental health and wellbeing, although few specifically target HE students. Further research is necessary to establish the effectiveness of such interventions in providing a cost-effective alternative to face-to-face therapy, particularly in certain settings such as HE institutions.
Mulfari, Davide; Celesti, Antonio; Fazio, Maria; Villari, Massimo; Puliafito, Antonio
Nowadays, customized AT software solutions allow their users to interact with various kinds of computer systems. Such tools are generally available on personal devices (e.g., smartphones, laptops and so on) commonly used by a person with a disability. In this paper, we investigate a way of using the aforementioned AT equipments in order to access many different devices without assistive preferences. The solution takes advantage of open source hardware and its core component consists of an affordable Linux embedded system: it grabs data coming from the assistive software, which runs on the user's personal device, then, after processing, it generates native keyboard and mouse HID commands for the target computing device controlled by the end user. This process supports any operating system available on the target machine and it requires no specialized software installation; therefore the user with a disability can rely on a single assistive tool to control a wide range of computing platforms, including conventional computers and many kinds of mobile devices, which receive input commands through the USB HID protocol.
Polites, Michael E.
Gimballed scanning devices or instruments are the subject of this invention. Scanning is an important aspect of space science. To achieve a scan pattern some means must be provided which impart to the payload an oscillatory motion. Various forms of machines have been employed for controllably conferring on scanning instruments predetermined scan patterns. They include control moment gyroscopes, reaction wheels, torque motors, reaction control systems, and the like. But rotating unbalanced mass (RUM) devices are a new and efficient way to generate scans in gimballed payloads. RUM devices are superior to previous scanning apparatus, but they require power consuming and frequently complex auxiliary control systems to position and reposition the particular scan pattern relative to a target or a number of targets. Herein the control system is simplified. The most frequently employed method for achieving the various scan patterns is to gimbal the scanning device. Gimbals are suspended in such a way that they can be activated to generate the scan pattern. The suspension means described is for payloads supported in gimbals wherein the payload rotation is restricted by a flex pivot so that the payload oscillates, thereby moving in a scan pattern.
Brown, June SL; Boardman, Jed; Whittinger, Naureen; Ashworth, Mark
Referrals for psychological treatment have been problematic for many years. Even though GPs have attempted to limit access into the small psychological treatment services, long waiting lists have developed which have deterred referrals and deferred psychological care. GPs have understandably been frustrated. In addition, the consultation rate for psychological problems is low when compared with the rate of identified mental health problems in population surveys. Possible reasons include patients' failure to recognise the problem as psychological and thus not consulting one's GP, and/or the problem not being detected by the GP. While a self-referral system may be seen as a way of trying to allow non-consulters to receive treatment, this has been viewed with some scepticism since it may allow the ‘worried well’ to access already limited services. However, a study has shown that those self-referring to advertised psychological workshops had high levels of psychological morbidity and also were more representative of the population, in terms of ethnicity, than GP referrals. The government has set up the Increasing Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme to address some of the service shortfalls by expanding the provision of psychological therapists. Notably, the IAPT programme is allowing self-referrals such that any member of the public can access the service directly, bypassing general practice. Although not available at all the sites, this represents a radical shift from the present system in which access to talking therapy is generally only available through direct referral by the GP. The implications of this new development are discussed. PMID:20423587
García-Dasí, M; Torres-Ortuño, A; Cid-Sabatel, R; Barbero, J
Persons with haemophilia, living with their condition from infancy, require attention from a biopsychosocial approach, in which both the biological and the biographical dimension are addressed. These patients and their environment may benefit greatly from having professionals to help them manage, pre-emptively if possible, to adapt to the disease, cope with the experience of suffering and overcome the difficulties caused by chronicity. The ultimate goal of the interventions was to achieve the best quality of life possible with tailored objectives throughout the patient's life, including disease control, addressing the particular difficulties, and achieving optimal empowerment. This article aims to describe the role of Health Psychology and its professionals in supporting the young patient with haemophilia and provide a brief guide that might be useful for health professionals involved in his care. From the psychological perspective, this paper focuses on communication of diagnosis, the role and support of the family, issues during infancy, childhood and adolescence and how the healthcare team can address them to provide successful support. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
This study examines predictors of social support and mental health among 36 lesbian and 39 heterosexual couples who were waiting to adopt. Lesbian preadoptive partners perceived less support from family than heterosexual partners but similar levels of support from friends. Lesbian and heterosexual partners reported similar levels of well-being.…
Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.
Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.
Bujak, Andrzej; Śliwa, Zdzisław; Gębczyńska, Alicja
The modern world is changing introducing robots, remotely controlled vehicles and other crewless means of transportation to reduce people's mistakes, as the main cause of incidents and crashes during traffic. New technologies are supporting operators and drivers, and according to some studies they can even replace them. Such programs as: AHS, UAH, IVBSS or MTVR are under development to improve traffic flow and its safety, to reduce traffic hazards and crashes. It is necessary to analyze such concepts and implement them boldly, including Polish logistics' companies, new programs, highways' system etc., as they will be applied in the future, so it is necessary to prepare logistics infrastructure ahead of time in order to capitalize on these improvements. The problem is quite urgent as transportation in the country must not be outdated to meet clients' expectations and to keep pace with competing foreign companies.
Full Text Available In today’s dynamically changing environment marketing has a significant role. Creating successful marketing strategies requires large amount of high quality information of various kinds and data types. A powerful database management system is a necessary condition for marketing strategies creation support. The paper briefly describes the field of marketing strategies and specifies the features that should be provided by database systems in connection with these strategies support. Major commercial (Oracle, DB2, MS SQL, Sybase and open-source (PostgreSQL, MySQL, Firebird databases are than examined from the point of view of accordance with these characteristics and their comparison in made. The results are useful for making the decision before acquisition of a database system during information system’s hardware architecture specification.
France. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Capt Psy José Puente Inspección General de Sanidad-Unidad de Psicologia [Joint Medical Office-Unit of...subgroup was to design a survey to be carried out by individual member nations to gather the opinions/attitudes of operational leaders with some...order to cope with any psychological or stress-related problems that might occur during the operation/mission? At least one individual from every
Linton, John C
Psychologists have made important contributions in academic health centers (AHC), but the reputation of psychology as a discipline has been mixed, by turns viewed as a superfluous soft science, or seen as an important contributor to the AHC mission. AHCs currently face exceptional challenges to the viability of AHCs, including: planned alterations from fee-for-service to value-based funding that requires high quality at lower cost; and rising demands to demonstrate competence in trainees. Now more than ever, psychologists can and must help AHCs to meet these challenges.
Schmalzel, John; Figueroa, Jorge F.; Turowski, Mark; Morris, John
The development, deployment, operation and maintenance of Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) applications require the storage and processing of tremendous amounts of low-level data. This data must be shared in a secure and cost-effective manner between developers, and processed within several heterogeneous architectures. Modern database technology allows this data to be organized efficiently, while ensuring the integrity and security of the data. The extensibility and interoperability of the current database technologies also allows for the creation of an associated support database system. A support database system provides additional capabilities by building applications on top of the database structure. These applications can then be used to support the various technologies in an ISHM architecture. This presentation and paper propose a detailed structure and application description for a support database system, called the Health Assessment Database System (HADS). The HADS provides a shared context for organizing and distributing data as well as a definition of the applications that provide the required data-driven support to ISHM. This approach provides another powerful tool for ISHM developers, while also enabling novel functionality. This functionality includes: automated firmware updating and deployment, algorithm development assistance and electronic datasheet generation. The architecture for the HADS has been developed as part of the ISHM toolset at Stennis Space Center for rocket engine testing. A detailed implementation has begun for the Methane Thruster Testbed Project (MTTP) in order to assist in developing health assessment and anomaly detection algorithms for ISHM. The structure of this implementation is shown in Figure 1. The database structure consists of three primary components: the system hierarchy model, the historical data archive and the firmware codebase. The system hierarchy model replicates the physical relationships between
Ballesteros, Francisco; Labrador, Francisco J
The aim of this work is to study the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia (PD/Ag), as well as the characteristics of the treatment and its results and cost in a University Psychology Clinic. Fifty patients demanded psychological assistance for PD/Ag; 80% were women, with an average age of 29.22 years (SD = 9.03). Mean number of evaluation sessions was 3.26 (SD = 1.03), and of treatment sessions, 13.39 (SD = 9.237). Of the patients, 83.33% were discharged (that is, questionnaire scores were below the cut-off point indicated by the authors, and no PD/Ag was observed at readministration of the semistructured interview), 5.5% refused treatment, and 11% were dropouts. The average number of treatment sessions of patients who achieved therapeutic success was 15.13 (SD = 8.98). Effect sizes (d) greater than 1 were obtained in all the scales. Changes in all scales were significant (p < .05). The estimated cost of treatment for patients who achieved therapeutic success was 945.12€. The treatment results are at least similar to those of studies of efficacy and effectiveness for PD/Ag. The utility of generalizing treatments developed in research settings to a welfare clinic is discussed.
Full Text Available The study employed a self-determination theory (SDT framework to explore pre-service teachers’ perceptions of their professional training in relation to motivational outcomes. We hypothesized that students’ perceptions of basic psychological need support will be positively associated with their sense of relatedness, competence, and autonomous motivation and negatively associated with controlled motivation. Sense of relatedness, competence, and autonomous motivation were hypothesized to be positively associated with personal accomplishment, engagement, and self-exploration and negatively associated with emotional exhaustion. The study was conducted within a multicultural context, which enabled exploration of the hypotheses among students from two different cultural backgrounds. Based on the universality of SDT, we expected that the general models would be similar for both cultures, although some mean level and correlational paths may be different. The sample (N = 308; mean age 23.4 consisted of Muslim Arab-Bedouin (55.3% and Jewish (44.7% pre-service teachers enrolled in the same teachers’ college in Israel. The participants completed self-report surveys assessing their sense of basic psychological need support, autonomous and controlled motivation, self-accomplishment, engagement, self-exploration, and emotional exhaustion. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that need support contributed positively to autonomous motivation, sense of relatedness, and sense of competence in both cultures. Autonomous motivation contributed positively to sense of self-accomplishment, engagement, and self-exploration. Competence in turn was positively related to engagement and negatively related to emotional exhaustion, and relatedness was associated with engagement only among the Bedouin students, and with self-accomplishment only among the Jewish students. These results indicate that sense of need support is highly important regardless
Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a decision support system (DSS for a low-voltage grid with renewable energy sources (photovoltaic panels and wind turbine which aims at achieving energy balance in a pilot microgrid with less energy consumed from the network. The DSS is based on a procedural decision algorithm that is applied on a pilot microgrid, with energy produced from renewable energy sources, but it can be easily generalized for any microgrid. To underline the benefits of the developed DSS two case scenarios (a household and an office building with different energy consumptions were analyzed. The results and throw added value of the paper is the description of an implemented microgrid, the development and testing of the decision support system on real measured data. Experimental results have demonstrated the validity of the approach in rule-based decision switching.
Goins, R Turner; Noonan, Carolyn; Gonzales, Kelly; Winchester, Blythe; Bradley, Vickie L
Among older American Indian women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we examined the association between mental health and T2DM control and if social support modifies the association. Survey data were linked to T2DM medical record information. Mental health measures were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale and the National Anxiety Disorders Screening Day instrument. T2DM control was all HbA1c values taken post mental health measures. There was not a significant association between depressive symptomatology and higher HbA1c although increased depressive symptomatology was associated with higher HbA1c values among participants with low social support. There was a significant association between psychological trauma and higher HbA1c values 12months [mean 7.5, 95% CI 7.0-8.0 for no trauma vs. mean 7.0, 95% CI 6.3-7.6 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.7-9.1 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)] and 6months later [mean 7.2, 95% CI 6.7-7.7 for no trauma vs. mean HbA1c 6.8, 95% CI 6.2-7.4 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.6-9.2 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)]. High social support attenuated the association between psychological trauma and HbA1c values. T2DM programs may consider activities that would strengthen participants' social support and thereby building on an intrinsic community strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Åslund, Cecilia; Larm, Peter; Starrin, Bengt; Nilsson, Kent W
Financial stress is an important source of distress and is related to poor mental and physical health outcomes. The present study investigated whether tangible social support could buffer the effect of financial stress on psychological and psychosomatic health. Two separate postal surveys were sent to random samples in five counties in Sweden in 2004 and 2008, with a total of 84 263 respondents. The questionnaires included questions about financial stress, tangible social support, psychosomatic symptoms, and psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12). Individuals with high financial stress and low tangible social support had six to seven times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and many psychosomatic symptoms. By contrast, individuals with high financial stress and high tangible social support had only two to three times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and three to four times increased odds ratios for many psychosomatic symptoms, suggesting a buffering effect of tangible social support. Consistent with the buffering hypothesis, there were significant interactions between financial stress and social support, particularly in relation to low psychological well-being. Social support had its strongest effect at high levels of financial stress. The question whether the altering of our social networks may improve physical health is important for the prevention of ill health in people experiencing financial stress. Strengthening social networks may have the potential to influence health-care costs and improve quality of life.
Yu, Chengfu; Li, Xian; Zhang, Wei
Problematic online game use (POGU) has become a serious global public health concern among adolescents. However, its influencing factors and mediating mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study provides the first longitudinal design to test stage-environment fit theory empirically in POGU. A total of 356 Chinese students reported on teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, school engagement, and POGU in the autumn of their 7th-9th grade years. Path analyses supported the proposed pathway: 7th grade teacher autonomy support increased 8th grade basic psychological needs satisfaction, which in turn increased 9th grade school engagement, which ultimately decreased 9th grade POGU. Furthermore, 7th grade teacher autonomy support directly increased 9th grade school engagement, which in turn decreased 9th grade POGU. These findings suggest that teacher autonomy support is an important protective predictor of adolescent POGU, and basic psychological needs satisfaction and school engagement are the primary mediators in this association.
Taylor, Ian M; Lonsdale, Chris
Using basic psychological needs theory (BPNT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) as our guiding framework, we explored cultural differences in the relationships among physical education students' perceptions of teacher autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, subjective vitality and effort in class. Seven hundred and fifteen students (age range from 13 to 15 years) from the U.K. and Hong Kong, China, completed a multisection inventory during a timetabled physical education class. Multilevel analyses revealed that the relationships among autonomy support, subjective vitality and effort were mediated by students' perceptions of psychological need satisfaction. The relationship between autonomy support and perceptions of competence was stronger in the Chinese sample, compared with the U.K. sample. In addition, the relationship between perceptions of relatedness and effort was not significant in the Chinese students. The findings generally support the pan-cultural utility of BPNT and imply that a teacher-created autonomy supportive environment may promote positive student experiences in both cultures.
Bernabé, Miguel; Botia, José Manuel
This study's objective is to examine the relationship between emotional demands and emotional social support at work, and the impact of resilience on health. A cross-sectional study of 156 firefighters was conducted. Descriptive analyses of the study's variables were performed, along with structural equation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. The results suggest statistically significant relationships among the study's variables. Social support from one's boss and intense emotional demands were found to have an interaction effect on firefighters' resilience. The findings confirm the mediating role of resilience and the relationship with emotional social support from the boss on firefighters' occupational health. © The Author(s) 2015.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GRID has had a successfully completed Phase I 'Mobile Online Intelligent Decision Support System' (MOIDSS). The system developed into a total solution that supports...
Liu, Jianping; Kjaergard, Lise Lotte; Als-Nielsen, Bodil
Liver support systems may bridge patients to liver transplantation or recovery from liver failure. This review is to evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of artificial and bioartificial support systems for acute and acute-on-chronic liver failure....
Thomas, Ken [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lew, Roger [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ulrich, Tom [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Villim, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
A report was published by the Idaho National Laboratory in September of 2012, entitled Design to Achieve Fault Tolerance and Resilience, which described the benefits of automating operator actions for transients. The report identified situations in which providing additional automation in lieu of operator actions would be advantageous. It recognized that managing certain plant upsets is sometimes limited by the operator’s ability to quickly diagnose the fault and to take the needed actions in the time available. Undoubtedly, technology is underutilized in the nuclear power industry for operator assistance during plant faults and operating transients. In contrast, other industry sectors have amply demonstrated that various forms of operator advisory systems can enhance operator performance while maintaining the role and responsibility of the operator as the independent and ultimate decision-maker. A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. The COSS does not supplant the role of the operator, but rather provides rapid assessments, computations, and recommendations to reduce workload and augment operator judgment and decision-making during fast-moving, complex events. This project proposes a general model for a control room COSS that addresses a sequence of general tasks required to manage any plant upset: detection, validation, diagnosis, recommendation, monitoring, and recovery. The model serves as a framework for assembling a set of technologies that can be interrelated to assist with each of these tasks. A prototype COSS has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based
Thomas, Ken [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lew, Roger [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ulrich, Tom [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Villim, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
A report was published by the Idaho National Laboratory in September of 2012, entitled Design to Achieve Fault Tolerance and Resilience, which described the benefits of automating operator actions for transients. The report identified situations in which providing additional automation in lieu of operator actions would be advantageous. It recognized that managing certain plant upsets is sometimes limited by the operator’s ability to quickly diagnose the fault and to take the needed actions in the time available. Undoubtedly, technology is underutilized in the nuclear power industry for operator assistance during plant faults and operating transients. In contrast, other industry sectors have amply demonstrated that various forms of operator advisory systems can enhance operator performance while maintaining the role and responsibility of the operator as the independent and ultimate decision-maker. A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. The COSS does not supplant the role of the operator, but rather provides rapid assessments, computations, and recommendations to reduce workload and augment operator judgment and decision-making during fast-moving, complex events. This project proposes a general model for a control room COSS that addresses a sequence of general tasks required to manage any plant upset: detection, validation, diagnosis, recommendation, monitoring, and recovery. The model serves as a framework for assembling a set of technologies that can be interrelated to assist with each of these tasks. A prototype COSS has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based
Best, Allan; Berland, Alex; Herbert, Carol; Bitz, Jennifer; van Dijk, Marlies W; Krause, Christina; Cochrane, Douglas; Noel, Kevin; Marsden, Julian; McKeown, Shari; Millar, John
Purpose - The British Columbia Ministry of Health's Clinical Care Management initiative was used as a case study to better understand large-scale change (LSC) within BC's health system. Using a complex system framework, the purpose of this paper is to examine mechanisms that enable and constrain the implementation of clinical guidelines across various clinical settings. Design/methodology/approach - Researchers applied a general model of complex adaptive systems plus two specific conceptual frameworks (realist evaluation and system dynamics mapping) to define and study enablers and constraints. Focus group sessions and interviews with clinicians, executives, managers and board members were validated through an online survey. Findings - The functional themes for managing large-scale clinical change included: creating a context to prepare clinicians for health system transformation initiatives; promoting shared clinical leadership; strengthening knowledge management, strategic communications and opportunities for networking; and clearing pathways through the complexity of a multilevel, dynamic system. Research limitations/implications - The action research methodology was designed to guide continuing improvement of implementation. A sample of initiatives was selected; it was not intended to compare and contrast facilitators and barriers across all initiatives and regions. Similarly, evaluating the results or process of guideline implementation was outside the scope; the methods were designed to enable conversations at multiple levels - policy, management and practice - about how to improve implementation. The study is best seen as a case study of LSC, offering a possible model for replication by others and a tool to shape further dialogue. Practical implications - Recommended action-oriented strategies included engaging local champions; supporting local adaptation for implementation of clinical guidelines; strengthening local teams to guide implementation; reducing
Wan, Y H; Ma, S S; Xu, S J; Zhang, S C; Hao, J H; Tao, F B
Objective: To explore the relationship between adverse experience in childhood, social support, and physical and psychological sub-health status among middle school students in 3 cities in China. Methods: 15 278 adolescents were selected as subjects from 20 junior and senior middle schools located in 3 cities of China by stratified cluster sampling method. The survey collected the demographic information, ACEs, social support and physical-psychological status. A total of 14 820 valid questionnaires were retained for analysis. We assessed ACE score (count of six categories of childhood adversity), social support (adolescent social support questionnaire), and the prevalence of two outcomes: physiological and psychological sub-health status. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between adverse childhood experiences, social support, and physiological and psychological sub-health status. Results: The prevalence of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 26.4% (3 917/14 820) and 24.1%(3 572/14 820), respectively. A total of 89.4% (13 247/14 820) reported at least 1 adverse childhood experiences. The rates of physiological and psychological sub-health status were higher among girls (28.1%(2 092/7 443), 26.0%(1 932/7 443)) than boys (24.7%(1 825/7 377), 22.2%(1 640/7 377)). Among adolescents without ACEs, the rate of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 15.4%(243/1 573) and 10.4%(163/1 573), for those with 5-6 ACEs, the rate were 40.9%(636/1 556) and 43.6%(678/1 556). Among adolescents with higher social support, the rate of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 19.9%(724/3 635) and 13.0%(474/3 635) for those with lower social support, the rate of physiological and psychological sub-health status were 35.9%(1 403/3 913) and 39.0%(1 528/3 913). The rates of physiological and psychological sub-health status were higher with more ACE exposure or less social support. At each level of ACE exposure
Life Support Systems are critical to sustain human habitation of space over long time periods. As orbiting space habitats become operational in the future, support systems such as atmo-sphere, food, water etc. will play a very pivotal role in sustaining life. To design a long-duration space habitat, it's important to consider the full gamut of human experience of the environment. Long-term viability depends on much more than just the structural or life support efficiency. A space habitat isn't just a machine; it's a life experience. To be viable, it needs to keep the inhabitants satisfied with their condition. This paper provides conceptual research on several key factors that influence the growth and sustainability of humans in a space habitat. Apart from the main life support system parameters, the architecture (both interior and exterior) of the habitat will play a crucial role in influencing the liveability in the space habitat. In order to ensure the best possible liveability for the inhabitants, a truncated (half cut) torus is proposed as the shape of the habitat. This structure rotating at an optimum rpm will en-sure 1g pseudo gravity to the inhabitants. The truncated torus design has several advantages over other proposed shapes such as a cylinder or a sphere. The design provides minimal grav-ity variation (delta g) in the living area, since its flat outer pole ensures a constant gravity. The design is superior in economy of structural and atmospheric mass. Interior architecture of the habitat addresses the total built environment, drawing from diverse disciplines includ-ing physiology, psychology, and sociology. Furthermore, factors such as line of sight, natural sunlight and overhead clearance have been discussed in the interior architecture. Substantial radiation shielding is also required in order to prevent harmful cosmic radiations and solar flares from causing damage to inhabitants. Regolith shielding of 10 tons per meter square is proposed for the
D'iakovich, M P; Pavlov, A V
There was observed medical-psychological and social aspects of professional adaptation of staff of criminal-executive system, was given evaluation of conditions of their work. Was learned risk of damage of health, adaptational potential, personal peculiarities of staff Was learned valuable-motivation sphere, self-concept of competitionability, type of life position, several elements of mode of life of the staff. Was educed decreasing of adaptational capabilities, high personal anxiety and low stress firmness among high number of young specialists. Was formed an apprehension about effectiveness of their professional adaptation in conditions of absence of system of dynamic medical-psychological observe and prophylactic measures.
Bogartz, R S
A compact glance at the history and impact of mathematical models in development provides background for predicting the fate of dynamical systems modeling in developmental psychology. Dynamic models are considered and the articles by Thelen and Ulrich (1991) and van Geert (1991) are summarized. Deterministic and probabilistic models are compared and some cautions are presented along with a consideration of forms that can be attained by linear models in comparison to those well known in logistic difference models. Reactions to the research by Rabinowitz, Grant, Howe, and Walsh; Kreindler and Lumsden; and Cooney and Troyer are given, with some concluding remarks on survival of dynamical systems modeling in developmental psychology.
Mason, Craig A.; Lombard, Joanna L.; Martinez, Frank; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Spokane, Arnold R.; Newman, Frederick L.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José
Background Research on contextual and neighborhood effects increasingly includes the built (physical) environment's influences on health and social well-being. A population-based study examined whether architectural features of the built environment theorized to promote observations and social interactions (e.g., porches, windows) predict Hispanic elders’ psychological distress. Methods Coding of built environment features of all 3,857 lots across 403 blocks in East Little Havana, Florida, and enumeration of elders in 16,000 households was followed by assessments of perceived social support and psychological distress in a representative sample of 273 low socioeconomic status (SES) Hispanic elders. Structural-equation modeling was used to assess relationships between block-level built environment features, elders’ perceived social support, and psychological distress. Results Architectural features of the front entrance such as porches that promote visibility from a building's exterior were positively associated with perceived social support. In contrast, architectural features such as window areas that promote visibility from a building's interior were negatively associated with perceived social support. Perceived social support in turn was associated with reduced psychological distress after controlling for demographics. Additionally, perceived social support mediated the relationship of built environment variables to psychological distress. Conclusions Architectural features that facilitate direct, in-person interactions may be beneficial for Hispanic elders’ mental health. PMID:19196696
Brown, Scott C; Mason, Craig A; Lombard, Joanna L; Martinez, Frank; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Spokane, Arnold R; Newman, Frederick L; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José
Research on contextual and neighborhood effects increasingly includes the built (physical) environment's influences on health and social well-being. A population-based study examined whether architectural features of the built environment theorized to promote observations and social interactions (e.g., porches, windows) predict Hispanic elders' psychological distress. Coding of built environment features of all 3,857 lots across 403 blocks in East Little Havana, Florida, and enumeration of elders in 16,000 households was followed by assessments of perceived social support and psychological distress in a representative sample of 273 low socioeconomic status (SES) Hispanic elders. Structural-equation modeling was used to assess relationships between block-level built environment features, elders' perceived social support, and psychological distress. Architectural features of the front entrance such as porches that promote visibility from a building's exterior were positively associated with perceived social support. In contrast, architectural features such as window areas that promote visibility from a building's interior were negatively associated with perceived social support. Perceived social support in turn was associated with reduced psychological distress after controlling for demographics. Additionally, perceived social support mediated the relationship of built environment variables to psychological distress. Architectural features that facilitate direct, in-person interactions may be beneficial for Hispanic elders' mental health.
Liu, Li; Wen, Fengting; Xu, Xin; Wang, Lie
This study aimed to examine the potential effects of perceived organizational support (POS) and psychological capital (PsyCap) on combating depressive and anxious symptoms among Chinese underground coal miners. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a coal-mining population in northeast China. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS) scale and the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ), which measure depressive and anxious symptoms, POS and PsyCap were distributed to 2,500 underground coal miners (1,925 effective respondents). Hierarchical linear regression was performed to examine the associations of POS and PsyCap (self-efficacy, hope, resilience and optimism) with depressive and anxious symptoms and the moderating roles of PsyCap and its components. The mediating roles of PsyCap and its components were examined using asymptotic and resampling strategies. The mean levels of depressive and anxious symptoms were 19.91 and 49.69, respectively. POS, PsyCap, hope, resilience, optimism and POS × PsyCap were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. POS, PsyCap, resilience, POS × PsyCap and POS × resilience were negatively associated with anxious symptoms. PsyCap, hope, resilience and optimism partially mediated the association between POS and depressive symptoms. PsyCap and resilience partially mediated the association between POS and anxious symptoms. POS, PsyCap, hope, resilience and optimism could be effective resources for reducing depressive and anxious symptoms. PsyCap, hope, resilience and optimism act as moderators and mediators in the associations of POS with depressive and anxious symptoms. Managers should promote supportive settings and investment in PsyCap to improve workers' mental health.
Tomcikova, Z; Madarasova Geckova, A; Orosova, O; van Dijk, J P; Reijneveld, S A
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks and the contribution of socioeconomic position, family structure, social support from family and well-being to this association. We obtained data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3, 49.0% males; response rate 93%). Respondents completed questionnaires on how often they had been drunk in the last 4 weeks, whether their parents were divorced, their socioeconomic position (education of parents, family affluence), the composition of the household (one or two parents/step-parents), social support from the family and their own well-being. Parental divorce was found to have an effect on adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks, as well as high socioeconomic position, low social support from the family and high depression/anxiety. The effect of divorce on drunkenness decreased only slightly after adding social support into the model. Our findings indicate that parental divorce has a persistent influence on risk behavior independent of the influence of socioeconomic position and well-being. Parental divorce may increase the likelihood of drunkenness more than other factors such as low parental support and poor socioeconomic position. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Fabio Diniz de Souza
Full Text Available Objective: To explore some possibilities of computer applications in medicine, and to discuss an online infertility clinical decision support system. Methods: Retrospective data were obtained from 52 couples, and then entered into the online tool. Both its results and the initial diagnoses obtained by the treating physicians were compared with the final diagnoses established by laparoscopy and other diagnostic tests (semen analysis, hormone analysis, endometrial biopsy, ultrasound and hysteroscopy. The initial hypothesis of the research was that the online tool’s output was statistically associated with the final diagnoses. In order to verify that hypothesis, a chi-square (氈2 test with Yates’ correction for continuity (P<0.05 was performed to verify if the online tool’s and the doctor’s diagnoses were statistically associated with the final diagnoses. Results: Four etiological factors were present in more than 50% of the couples (ovarian, tubal-peritoneal, uterine, and endometriosis. The statistical results confirmed the research hypothesis for eight out of the nine etiological factors (ovarian, tubal-peritoneal, uterine, cervical, male, vaginal, psychosomatic, and endometriosis; P<0.05. Since there were no cases related to the immune factor in the sample, further clinical data are necessary in order to assess the online tool’s performance for that factor. Conclusions: The online tool tends to present more false-positives than false negatives, whereas the expert physician tends to present more false-negatives than false-positives. Therefore, the online tool and the doctor seem to complement each other. Finally, the obtained results suggest that the infertility online tool discussed herein might be a useful research and instructional tool.
Gyori, Miklos; Aagaard, Morten; Kanizsai-Nagy, Ildiko
HANDS Project is aimed at developing a cognitive support system for high functioning (HF) adolescents with ASD, running on smartphones and PDAs, complemented by a webbased management system. It is designed to teach/facilitate adaptive social behaviours and daily living skills, and is based....... This paper focuses on the structure and core functions of the system and the methodology and findings of psychological efficiency testing of its first prototype. Methods Testing Prototype I involved qualitative and quantitative methods of 3 disciplines: persuasive software design, educational research...
Witherington, David C.
The dynamic systems perspective has been touted as an integrative metatheoretical framework for the study of stability and change in development. However, two dynamic systems camps exist with respect to the role higher-order form, once emergent, plays in the process of development. This paper evaluates these two camps in terms of the overarching…
American Psychologist, 2013
Psychologists practice in an increasingly diverse range of health care delivery systems. The following guidelines are intended to assist psychologists, other health care providers, administrators in health care delivery systems, and the public to conceptualize the roles and responsibilities of psychologists in these diverse contexts. These…
Buttar, Aliya; Clements-Nolle, Kristen; Haas, Joseph; Reese, Fritz
The prevalence of mental illness and suicide among female adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system is alarmingly high and there is a need to identify risk factors that may be amenable to intervention. This study examined the independent association between dating violence and poor mental health (psychological distress and attempted suicide) among 305 female adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system in Nevada. Overall, 28% of the sample met the criteria for clinically significant psychological distress and 18% had attempted suicide with intent to die. After controlling for well-established risk factors such as sexual orientation, childhood abuse, and substance abuse, dating violence remained independently associated with psychological distress and attempted suicide. These findings suggest that mental health programming for this population may be more effective if it includes a focus on dating violence.
Bentley, T A; Teo, S T T; McLeod, L; Tan, F; Bosua, R; Gloet, M
The prevalence of telework and other forms of mobile working enabled by digital technology is increasing markedly. Following a socio-technical systems approach, this study aims to examine the role of organisational social support and specific support for teleworkers in influencing teleworker wellbeing, the mediating role of social isolation, potentially resulting from a person-environment mismatch in these relationships, and possible differences in these relationships between low-intensity and hybrid teleworkers. Teleworkers' (n = 804) perceptions of support and telework outcomes (psychological strain, job satisfaction, and social isolation) were collected using an on-line survey of teleworking employees distributed within 28 New Zealand organisations where knowledge work was undertaken. Organisational social support and teleworker support was associated with increased job satisfaction and reduced psychological strain. Social isolation mediated the relationship between organisational social support and the two outcome variables, and some differences were observed in the structural relationships for hybrid and low-intensity teleworker sub-samples. These findings suggest that providing the necessary organisational and teleworker support is important for enhancing the teleworker-environment fit and thereby ensuring desirable telework outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Pahlevan Sharif, Saeed; Ahadzadeh, Ashraf Sadat; Sharif Nia, Hamid
To examine the relationship between organizational support for nursing practice and nurse-assessed quality of care and nurses' job satisfaction in hospital settings and to investigate the mediating role of psychological well-being in the aforementioned relationships. There has been growing concern about quality of care in healthcare organizations. The past research has documented the effect of nurse practice environment on nurses' quality of care and job satisfaction. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism behind these associations. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken. Data were collected from two large public hospitals in Iran between February - March 2017. A sample of 345 nurses participated in the study. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and partial least squared-structural equation modelling. The results showed that nurses' perception of organizational support was related to their quality of care, job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Also, there was a positive relationship between nurses' psychological well-being and their quality of care and job satisfaction. Moreover, psychological well-being partially mediated the relationship between organizational support with nurse-assessed quality of care and nurses' job satisfaction. The findings suggest that organizational support for nursing practice and psychological well-being are two factors that contribute to caring behaviour of nurses and their job satisfaction. Also, positively perceived organizational support generates favourable psychological well-being which in turn enhances nurses' quality of care and job satisfaction. The findings highlight the importance of establishing a supportive nurse practice environment and paying attention to the nurses' psychological well-being in healthcare sectors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Taylor, Ronald D.; Seaton, Eleanor; Dominguez, Antonio
The association of kin social support with mothers' adjustment and family relations was assessed among 204 African American mothers and adolescents who were on average 14.45 years of age. Also examined was the association of mothers' adjustment with family relations and adolescents' adjustment. Findings revealed that kin social and emotional…
Tomcikova, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J. P.; Reijneveld, S. A.
Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks and the contribution of socioeconomic position, family structure, social support from family and well-being to this association. Methods: We
Nekouei, Zohreh Khayyam; Doost, Hamid Taher Neshat; Yousefy, Alireza; Manshaee, Gholamreza; Sadeghei, Masoumeh
Although psychological factors are now recognized as playing a significant and independent role in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) and its complications, many of these factors are correlated with each other. The present study is aimed at examining the association between alexithymia and anxiety depression, stress, quality of life, and social support in CHD patients. In this research 398 patients with coronary heart disease (166 females and 232 males) from the city of Isfahan were selected using random sampling. The tools used included depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21), Health-related to Quality Of Life (HRQOL-26), Multiple Scale Perceived Social Support (MSPSS-12), and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling by using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS21) (IBM Corp: Armonk, New York.U.S.) and Asset Management Operating System (AMOS21) SPSS, an IBM Company: Chicago, U.S. Software. Results of the structural equation model showed an acceptable goodness of fit, for the explanation alexithymia that was significantly associated with lower HRQOL and social support and increasing anxiety, depression, and stress. Alexithymia may increase anxiety, depression, and stress and can be a predisposing factor to poorer HRQOL and social support.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design a working prototype Geospatial Decision Support Toolkit (GeoKit) that will enable scientists, agencies, and stakeholders to configure and deploy...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is submitted under the Innovative Tools and Techniques Supporting the Practical Uses of Earth Science Observations topic. We seek to create a prototype...
Castillo, Ranielle S; Kelemen, Arpad
Clinical decision support systems have the potential to improve patient care in a multitude of ways. Clinical decision support systems can aid in the reduction of medical errors and reduction in adverse drug events, ensure comprehensive treatment of patient illnesses and conditions, encourage the adherence to guidelines, shorten patient length of stay, and decrease expenses over time. A clinical decision support system is one of the key components for reaching compliance for Meaningful Use. In this article, the advantages, potential drawbacks, and clinical decision support system adoption barriers are discussed, followed by an in-depth review of the characteristics that make a clinical decision support system successful. The legal and ethical issues that come with the implementation of a clinical decision support system within an organization and the future expectations of clinical decision support system are reviewed.
AD-A251 873 A DESCRIPTION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPE AT THE DEFENSE SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT COLLEGE ISTJ ENFP I- Carl Bryant, Ph.D. w_=_ William H. Cummings...DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE unlimited 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 5. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 6a. NAME OF PERFORMING... ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION (If applicable) Defense Systems Mgmt. College FD-MD Defense Systems Management College 6c
Ng, Petrus; Chan, Winky
Emotional ups and downs are common among people with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) as they live with fears about treatment, pain from the illness and unexpected "flare-ups." The side effects of medications have a severe impact on their self-esteem and lead to psychological distress. This paper reports a study on the impact of a psychosocial group program on the self-esteem and psychosocial functioning of people with SLE. A total of 56 people with SLE were recruited to participate in a 6-week, 2.5-hour weekly session psychosocial group. The group served to equip members with knowledge and skills to cope with SLE and stress arising from the illness, to enhance their self-confidence and develop a positive attitude toward the illness, and to enhance their social support network. The members were assessed before the commencement and during the last session of the groups with Rosenberg's Self-esteem Inventory and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30). Results showed that members obtained better scores in self-esteem (p self-esteem and psychosocial functioning of people with SLE after the psychosocial group program. The implications for psychosocial programs for people with SLE are discussed.
Casey, Tristan; Griffin, Mark A; Flatau Harrison, Huw; Neal, Andrew
Safety climate research has reached a mature stage of development, with a number of meta-analyses demonstrating the link between safety climate and safety outcomes. More recently, there has been interest from systems theorists in integrating the concept of safety culture and to a lesser extent, safety climate into systems-based models of organizational safety. Such models represent a theoretical and practical development of the safety climate concept by positioning climate as part of a dynamic work system in which perceptions of safety act to constrain and shape employee behavior. We propose safety climate and safety culture constitute part of the enabling capitals through which organizations build safety capability. We discuss how organizations can deploy different configurations of enabling capital to exert control over work systems and maintain safe and productive performance. We outline 4 key strategies through which organizations to reconcile the system control problems of promotion versus prevention, and stability versus flexibility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Nannings, Barry; Abu-Hanna, A.
Decision support telemedicine systems (DSTSs) are systems combining elements from telemedicine and clinical decision support systems. Although emerging more, these types of systems have not been given much attention in the literature. Our objective is to define the term DSTS, to propose a general
The ultimate goal for my efforts during this internship was to help prepare for the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated modal test (IMT) with Rodney Rocha. In 2018, the Structural Engineering Loads and Dynamics Team will have 10 days to perform the IMT on the SLS Integrated Launch Vehicle. After that 10 day period, we will have about two months to analyze the test data and determine whether the integrated vehicle modes/frequencies are adequate for launching the vehicle. Because of the time constraints, NASA must have newly developed post-test analysis methods proven well and with technical confidence before testing. NASA civil servants along with help from rotational interns are working with novel techniques developed and applied external to Johnson Space Center (JSC) to uncover issues in applying this technique to much larger scales than ever before. We intend to use modal decoupling methods to separate the entangled vibrations coming from the SLS and its support structure during the IMT. This new approach is still under development. The primary goal of my internship was to learn the basics of structural dynamics and physical vibrations. I was able to accomplish this by working on two experimental test set ups, the Simple Beam and TAURUS-T, and by doing some light analytical and post-processing work. Within the Simple Beam project, my role involves changing the data acquisition system, reconfiguration of the test set up, transducer calibration, data collection, data file recovery, and post-processing analysis. Within the TAURUS-T project, my duties included cataloging and removing the 30+ triaxial accelerometers, coordinating the removal of the structure from the current rolling cart to a sturdy billet for further testing, preparing the accelerometers for remounting, accurately calibrating, mounting, and mapping of all accelerometer channels, and some testing. Hammer and shaker tests will be performed to easily visualize mode shapes at low frequencies. Short
Frankenhuis, Willem E.; Panchanathan, Karthik; Clark Barrett, H.
Interactions between evolutionary psychologists and developmental systems theorists have been largely antagonistic. This is unfortunate because potential synergies between the two approaches remain unexplored. This article presents a method that may help to bridge the divide, and that has proven fruitful in biology: dynamic optimization. Dynamic…
Leiblum, M. D.; And Others
Describes the production of a computer-aided, self-testing system for university students enrolled in a first-year course in biological psychology. Project aspects described include selection, acquisition and description of software; question banks and test structures; modes of use (computer or printed version); evaluation; and future plans. (11…
Arkes, Hal R.
Evaluates the Teaching Information Processing System (TIPS), which utilizes frequent testing over course units in an undergraduate psychology course. It is not necessary for students to demonstrate mastery before moving to new material, no proctoring is required, and self-pacing is eliminated. Students indicate positive attitudes about TIPS and…
Fortner-Wood, Cheryl; Armistead, Leigh; Marchand, Anna; Morris, F. Benjamin
Student response systems (SRSs) are reported to increase student interest, interaction, and engagement and result in "deeper" learning. However, the effects on learning are still suspect. Here, outcomes were compared for students in SRS and traditional sections of 200-level and 500-level psychology courses. Results showed SRS students…
Argues that social relations, organization, and psychology of today's classroom system are interdependent and suggests that they became important factors in England and the United States through the market and disciplinary revolution of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Examines the educational practices of the English charity school…
Discusses possible advantages of focusing more extensively on the history of selected areas or fields of psychology in a history and systems course. Argues that this topical approach may allow students to see different insights more clearly and the advantages provided by a historical approach. Includes a bibliography of source materials. (DSK)
Rossen, Eric; Williams, Barbara Bole
January 2014 marked the 25th anniversary of the formal adoption of the National School Psychology Certification System (NSPCS) by NASP leadership. This article briefly traces the history of the NSPCS from the efforts that occurred in the late 1980s to develop this national credential, recent changes to renewal requirements, the development of the…
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mandatory computerized support enforcement system. 302.85 Section 302.85 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT... “Automated Systems for Child Support Enforcement: A Guide for States.” This guide is available from the Child...
Cooper, W; Demarteau, M; Fast, J; Hanagaki, K; Johnson, M; Kuykendall, W; Lubatti, H; Matulik, M; Nomerotski, A; Quinn, B; Wang, J
Carbon fiber support structures have become common elements of detector designs for high energy physics experiments. Carbon fiber has many mechanical advantages but it is also characterized by high conductivity, particularly at high frequency, with associated design issues. This paper discusses the elements required for sound electrical performance of silicon detectors employing carbon fiber support elements. Tests on carbon fiber structures are presented indicating that carbon fiber must be regarded as a conductor for the frequency region of 10 to 100 MHz. The general principles of grounding configurations involving carbon fiber structures will be discussed. To illustrate the design requirements, measurements performed with a silicon detector on a carbon fiber support structure at small radius are presented. A grounding scheme employing copper-kapton mesh circuits is described and shown to provide adequate and robust detector performance.
Controls Contardo Chesapeake Instruments Electronic Systems Hydrosysterns Ocean Systems Government Systems . WEEKLY STATUS ITEMS Receivable Days...Crosn Salps -KxtocnaI (T,i-l!ltiTcr>. (T.C.D) Sales DoductLotis (T,C,r)) Net Sains (T,(J,D) Cost of Good;! Sold <T,C,D) Cross
Moscato, Alba; Varescon, Isabelle
Very little research is made on professional home caregivers in support of seniors, especially those dealing with alcohol misuse. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between professional home caregivers and seniors with alcohol misuse, in terms of job satisfaction, professional life and emotional exhaustion. 99 professional home caregivers completed a professional data questionnaire (ESVP) and an inventory of professional burnout (MBI). Demographic and professional data, as well as dimensions of professional life satisfaction and professional exhaustion questionnaires were analyzed. Out of the 99 participants, 36 professional home caregivers reported difficulties dealing with alcohol misuse in seniors. The mean age of the home caregivers was 35 years old and half of them did not receive any training for support. The majority of them qualified the relationship with the aged as "distant and nonexistent". In contrast, most of them were satisfied with regard to the relationship with the relatives of the subjects, and were almost as many to call it "cordial" as well as "cold distant, non-existent". Job satisfaction was positively correlated with the satisfaction of the relationship with the relatives. Emotional exhaustion was negatively correlated with their job satisfaction in the support of the subjects. This study is, to our knowledge, the first one to highlight the importance for professional home caregivers to have good relationships with the relatives of seniors with alcohol misuse. Research in this area is scarce, despite the development of home care for the elderly, whatever their pathologies, and at the early start of a French ministerial plan on society's adaptation to ageing.
This study aimed to organize the system features of decision support technologies targeted at nursing practice into assessment, problem identification, care plans, implementation, and outcome evaluation. It also aimed to identify the range of the five stage-related sequential decision supports that computerized clinical decision support systems provided. MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE were searched. A total of 27 studies were reviewed. The system features collected represented the characteristics of each category from patient assessment to outcome evaluation. Several features were common across the reviewed systems. For the sequential decision support, all of the reviewed systems provided decision support in sequence for patient assessment and care plans. Fewer than half of the systems included problem identification. There were only three systems operating in an implementation stage and four systems in outcome evaluation. Consequently, the key steps for sequential decision support functions were initial patient assessment, problem identification, care plan, and outcome evaluation. Providing decision support in such a full scope will effectively help nurses' clinical decision making. By organizing the system features, a comprehensive picture of nursing practice-oriented computerized decision support systems was obtained; however, the development of a guideline for better systems should go beyond the scope of a literature review.
Banda Castro, Ana Lilia; Morales Zamorano, Miguel Arturo
This study aimed to confirm that social participation may influence empowerment as one ofthe four components explained by the theory. The hypothesis proposes systemic interaction of two components of empowerment: intrapersonal and behavioral. 113 urban residents participated in the study. The hypotheses were tested through the use of structural modeling. An intrapersonal component of empowerment, composed of positive empowerment, negative empowerment and socio-political control was identified...
Lucariello, Joan M.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Anderman, Eric M.; Dwyer, Carol; Ormiston, Heather; Skiba, Russell
Psychological science has much to contribute to preK-12 education because substantial psychological research exists on the processes of learning, teaching, motivation, classroom management, social interaction, communication, and assessment. This article details the psychological science that led to the identification, by the American Psychological…
Golden, Jeannette; Conroy, Ronán M; Lawlor, Brian A
Social networks have been associated with a wide variety of health outcomes in older people. We examined the dimensions underlying the Wenger social support network type assessment to identify dimensions associated with mental and physical health. We interviewed 1334 community-dwelling participants aged 65+. The Geriatric Mental State automated geriatric examination for computer-assisted taxonomy interview was used to rate psychiatric symptoms and quality of life. Cognitive impairment was defined as a score of social support network domains: family (distance from and contact with relatives) and social engagement. Social engagement was associated with a lower age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of depression (odds ratio for a one-tertile increase 0.48), generalised anxiety disorder (OR 0.60), cognitive impairment (OR 0.68) and physical disability (OR 0.62) all p social engagement domain was also associated with better quality of life (OR 1.5) self-rated happiness (OR 1.3) and rating life as worth living (OR 1.4). The family domain, on the other hand, was not significantly associated with any health outcome. The results suggest that elective relationships and social engagement are the 'active ingredients' of social networks which promote health in later life.
Gilman, Ekaterina; Milara, Iván Sánchez; Cortes, Marta; Riekki, Jukka
New technologies enable novel types of learning activities that differ radically from traditional approach of visiting lectures and doing homework assignments. Namely, these technologies support transforming our everyday environments into learning environments. This concept is referred to in the literature as ubiquitous learning. Enriching…
... learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients learn to cope with psychological stress. Such support can reduce levels of depression, anxiety, and disease- and treatment-related symptoms among patients. Approaches can include the ...
Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario
The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Girling, Isabella; Colville, Susie; Borrelli, Mimi; Bowman, Nicola; Christie, Deborah
The paediatric and adolescent clinical psychology service at the University College London Hospital provides age-appropriate services to young people up to 19 years of age under the care of a hospital consultant. This short report describes how young people and parents experience what we provide as a systemic paediatric psychology team from referral to discharge. A semi-structured questionnaire was designed to gather service user perspectives on the systemic clinical psychology service. The questionnaire included open and closed questions to generate qualitative and quantitative data about the different stages of the treatment process. A total of 44/79 families discharged in the previous year were contacted by phone. The majority of young people and parents were happy being called to discuss the referral before being offered an appointment and liked the way in which the psychologist worked with the family. The majority of young people and parents reported their situation had improved as a result of the work offered by the psychology team. Negative aspects of the experience reflected the realities of service driven constraints including having to travel a long distance for the appointment, lack of rooms and having to be discharged at 19 years of age. Service user feedback is imperative to providing a high standard of care. This study highlighted positive experiences of a systemic service and indicated areas for future improvement that we are attempting to address. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available This paper outlines the state of affairs in psychobiological research on psychotrauma and PTSD with a focus on the role of the oxytocin system in traumatic stress. With a high prevalence of trauma and PTSD in the Netherlands, new preventive and therapeutic interventions are needed. The focus is on the role of social support and bonding in coming to grips with psychological trauma, about the oxytocin system as a basis for reducing the stress response and creating a feeling of bonding, about binding words to painful emotions in psychotherapy, and about the bonds between researchers and clinicians.
Flokstra - de Blok BMJ
Full Text Available Bertine MJ Flokstra - de Blok,1,2 Thys van der Molen,1,2 Wianda A Christoffers,3 Janwillem WH Kocks,1,2 Richard L Oei,4 Joanne NG Oude Elberink,2,4 Emmy M Roerdink,5 Marie Louise Schuttelaar,3 Jantina L van der Velde,1,2 Thecla M Brakel,1,6 Anthony EJ Dubois2,5 1Department of General Practice, 2GRIAC Research Institute, 3Department of Dermatology, 4Department of Allergology, 5Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Pediatric Allergy, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 6Teaching Unit, Department of Social Psychology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Background: Management of allergic patients in the population is becoming more difficult because of increases in both complexity and prevalence. Although general practitioners (GPs are expected to play an important role in the care of allergic patients, they often feel ill-equipped for this task. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an allergy management support system (AMSS for primary care. Methods: Through literature review, interviewing and testing in secondary and primary care patients, an allergy history questionnaire was constructed by allergists, dermatologists, GPs and researchers based on primary care and specialists’ allergy guidelines and their clinical knowledge. Patterns of AMSS questionnaire responses and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE-test outcomes were used to identify diagnostic categories and develop corresponding management recommendations. Validity of the AMSS was investigated by comparing specialist (gold standard and AMSS diagnostic categories. Results: The two-page patient-completed AMSS questionnaire consists of 12 (mainly multiple choice questions on symptoms, triggers, severity and medication. Based on the AMSS questionnaires and sIgE-test outcome of 118 patients, approximately 150 diagnostic categories of allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, anaphylaxis, food allergy, hymenoptera allergy and other
Nistor Rozalia; Nistor Costel; Muntean Mihaela-Carmen
Computer systems that form larger, comprehensive study is an essential field in business administration and management, areas considered major economic zone. Thus, systems must respond to the problems of managing hardware, software, data and computer networks in a strategic way to success in business. The importance of information systems lies mainly in the understanding of effective and accountable to all the leaders (managers) or persons in an organization need to adapt to the global inform...
Wang, Qian; Chan, Hoi-Wing; Lin, Li
Despite ample evidence for the benefits of parental autonomy support and the harms of parental psychological control to Chinese adolescents' well-being, little is known about what foreshadows these parenting behaviors among Chinese parents. The current research addressed this gap in the literature. It tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of self-development socialization goals (i.e., regarding a positive sense of self in terms of holding optimistic attitudes toward oneself, feeling autonomous in one's actions, and establishing one's independence from others, as important for adolescents to develop) and adolescents' school performance may interact to predict parental autonomy support and psychological control in urban China. Three hundred and forty-one Chinese seventh graders (mean age = 13.30 years, 58 % female) and their parents (186 mothers and 155 fathers) participated. Parents reported on their own and their spouses' endorsement of self-development socialization goals; adolescents reported on parental autonomy support and psychological control; and adolescents' grades were obtained from school records. Significant interactions were found between parents' socialization goals and adolescents' grades in predicting parenting behaviors. When adolescents were doing well at school, the stronger parents' endorsement of self-development socialization goals, the greater their autonomy support and the lesser their psychological control; when adolescents were doing poorly at school, regardless of parents' socialization goals, their autonomy support was relatively low and their psychological control was relatively high. These findings highlight a tension between parental concerns over adolescents' self-development and academic success, which needs to be resolved to promote autonomy support and prevent psychological control among urban Chinese parents.
Senneseth, Mette; Hauken, May A; Matthiesen, Stig B; Gjestad, Rolf; Laberg, Jon C
Partners of cancer patients report psychological distress and reduced quality of life. However, partners' mental health status and quality of life during child-rearing years and the influence of social support and hardiness on their well-being have not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to describe psychological distress, quality of life, social support, and hardiness of the partners facing spousal cancer during child-rearing years and investigate whether social support or hardiness moderated the relationship between psychological distress and quality of life. Cross-sectional data were collected in Norway from December 2013 to July 2015 as part of the Cancer-PEPSONE study. Five questionnaires were administered to 14 females and 21 males (n = 35). Participants reported more psychological distress and lower quality-of-life scores than other healthy Norwegian populations. Psychological distress seemed to be associated with their not being in control of their futures. Received social support moderated the effect of psychological distress on quality of life. Facing spousal cancer during child-rearing years seemed to have a substantial impact on partners' mental health and an adverse impact on their quality of life. Accordingly, these partners' self-care abilities may be reduced. Received social support may reduce the multiple burdens and consequently allow for enhancement of self-care. Interventions should aim to improve the social support provided to child-rearing partners, which may improve their quality of life. Providing adequate information about their partner's cancer illness and treatment may enhance their feelings of control, which may be beneficial for their mental health status.
Koortzen, Pieter; Oosthuizen, Rudolf M
... theoretically the psychological effect of large-scale sports events on a community or country. The objective of the empirical study was to investigate some of the unconscious emotions, fears, anxieties and conflicts...
Courcy, François; Morin, Alexandre J S; Madore, Isabelle
Exposure to workplace violence has been identified as a serious and universal issue facing modern organizations. The present study focuses more specifically on exposure to psychological violence, and its association with turnover intentions as mediated by workplace affective commitment. In addition, we also explore the moderating role of various facets of job demands (role stressors) and resources (social support) on the aforementioned relations. Data collected from 1,228 university employees indicated that experiencing psychological violence at work was associated with lower levels of workplace affective commitment and higher levels of turnover intentions, and that the relation between psychological violence and turnover intentions was partially mediated by commitment. Furthermore, role stressors and social support were found to moderate the negative relation between exposure to psychological violence and workplace affective commitment, as well as between commitment and turnover intentions, but not the direct relation between psychological violence and turnover intentions. Theoretical and research implications for the literature on psychological violence and practical suggestions for minimizing its damaging consequences are proposed.
Wiebe Wiersema; Christian Köppe; Ronald Bijvank
Many quality aspects of software systems are addressed in the existing literature on software architecture patterns. But the aspect of system administration seems to be a bit overlooked, even though it is an important aspect too. In this work we present three software architecture patterns that,
Groothuis, Marga M.; Svensson, Jorgen S.; Breuker, J.; Leenes, R.E.; Winkels, R.
This article discusses the use of expert systems as a means of achieving juridical quality within administrative organisations. Do these systems really improve the quality of decision making and provide the desired guarantees with respect to the correct treatment of clients?
Atkinson, Anthony P.
Decompositional analysis is the process of constructing explanations of the characteristics of whole systems in terms of characteristics of parts of those whole systems. Cognitive psychology is an endeavour that develops explanations of the capacities of the human organism in terms of descriptions of the brain's functionally defined information-processing components. This paper details the nature of this explanatory strategy, known as functional analysis. Functional analysis is contrasted wit...
Hurd, Noelle M; Albright, Jamie; Wittrup, Audrey; Negrete, Andrea; Billingsley, Janelle
The current study explored whether cumulative appraisal support from as many as five natural mentors (i.e., nonparental adults from youth's pre-existing social networks who serve a mentoring role in youth's lives) led to reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety via improved global self-worth among underrepresented college students. Participants in the current study included 340 college students (69% female) attending a 4-year, predominantly White institution of higher education. Participants were first-generation college students, students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, and/or students from underrepresented racial/ethnic minority groups. Participants completed surveys during the Fall and Spring of their first year of college and in the Spring of their second and third years of college. Results of the structural equation model (including gender, race/ethnicity, and extraversion as covariates) indicated that greater total appraisal support from natural mentoring relationships predicted decreases in students' psychological distress via increases in self-worth (indirect effects assessed via boot-strapped confidence intervals; 95% CI). The strength of association between appraisal support and self-worth was not moderated by the proportion of academic natural mentors. Findings from the current study extend previous research by measuring multiple natural mentoring relationships and pinpointing supportive exchanges that may be of particular consequence for the promotion of healthy youth development. Institutional efforts to reinforce pre-existing natural mentoring relationships and encourage the onset of new natural mentoring relationships may serve to bolster the well-being and success of underrepresented students attending predominantly White universities.
Ohboshi, N; Kambayashi, Y; Takahashi, T
One of the advantages of current database systems is the capability to enforce global integrity constraints on a large amount of data. Input of contradicting data will be rejected by database systems in order to maintain correctness. On the other hand, in medical information systems it may be necessary to realize two or more databases in one system, where there are some controlled contradictions among these databases. For example, if a doctor wants to hide the real disease name from the patient in critical condition, the database viewed by the patient should be different from the real database, although each of these databases should be conflict free and large amounts of data are shared by both. This kind of problem was not discussed for commercial business-oriented databases. Data sharing and data security are important functions required for medical information systems. There are, however, cases when we need to show non-real data to some users. Security mechanisms usually prevent a user from retrieving critical data. If a request for retrieval of some data is rejected by the system, a user may find there is something secret being kept from him. In order to cope with these situations, we introduce the POSTGRES database system. POSTGRES is a generalized relational database system developed at the University of California. The form of POSTGRES rule is as follows: On event (To) object WHERE POSTQUEL-qualification Then Do [instead] POSTQUEL-command(s) The POSTGRES rule shows that event is retrieve, replace, delete, append, new (i.e., replace or append) or old (i.e., delete or replace). The concept of objects is introduced in object-oriented databases. In relational database systems, an object corresponds to each data value, an attribute, or a relation. The optional keyword "instead" indicates that the action indicated by POSTQUEL-command(s) is to be performed instead of the action which caused the rule to activate. This keyword plays very important role for our
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diving support systems. 56.50-110 Section 56.50-110... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-110 Diving support systems. (a) In addition to the requirements of this part, piping for diving installations which is permanently installed...
Full Text Available The article represents synthesis of results obtained in the process of development of SonaRes - the decision support system for ultrasonographic diagnosis. The system structure, its main components are described, the series of problems with which the developers of Clinical Decision Support Systems confront are examined.
Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 41; Issue 6. A strategic decision support system ... This paper aims to develop a strategic decision support system for logistics and supply chain network design of a multi-stage, multi-commodity, and multi-period distribution and transportation system. A mixed integer linear programming ...
Bos, A.; Breebaart, L.; Neerincx, M.A.; Wolff, M.
This paper describes an intelligent maintenance system for Supporting Crew OPErations (SCOPE). SCOPE supports the astronauts onboard the ISS and helps them to maximize the availability of complex payload systems. SCOPE detects system failures, guides the isolation of the root causes of failure, and
Full Text Available Arm support systems provide support throughout daily tasks, training or in an industrial environment. During the last decades a large diversity of actuated arm support systems have been developed. To analyze the actuation principles in these systems, an overview of actuated arm support systems is provided. This overview visualizes the current trends on research and development of these support systems and distinguishes three categories. These categories depend mainly on the functional status of the user environment, which defines the specifications. Therefore, the actuated arm support systems are classified according to their user environment, namely: ambulatory, rehabilitation and industrial. Furthermore, three main actuation principles and three mechanical construction principles have been identified.
van Driessche, Anne; Jotheeswaran, A T; Murthy, G V S; Pilot, Eva; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pant, Hira; Singh, Vivek; Dpk, Babu
Parents of children with hearing impairment are at increased risk of mental health morbidities. We examined the predictive factors associated with caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities in parents and family caregivers of children with hearing impairment. In total, n = 201 parents and family caregivers of children with and without hearing impairment aged 3 to 16 years were recruited. Caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities were measured using the Zarit Burden scale and the World Health Organization's Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Presence of behavioural problems in children was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. After adjustment, low educational attainment and domestic violence were found to be associated with caregiving strain, whereas dissatisfaction with social support from family, behavioural problems in children, and domestic violence strongly predicted psychological morbidities. Addressing the mental healthcare needs of parents may help in downsizing the impact of psychological morbidities on the well-being of children with hearing impairment.
Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment, perceived organizational support (POS, and psychological capital (PsyCap and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330 completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%. Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes’ asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.
Wang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Li; Zou, Futing; Hao, Junhui; Wu, Hui
This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330) completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.
Full Text Available Mobile health (mHealth could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons with moderate to high distress. Over a 4-week period, the intervention will be compared to a self-monitoring without intervention group and a passive control group. Telephone interviews will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention (4 weeks, and 12-week follow-up to assess study outcomes. The primary outcome will be improvement of mental health. Secondary outcomes will include well-being, intentions toward help-seeking and help-seeking behavior, user activation, attitudes toward mental-health services, perceived stigmatization, smartphone app quality, user satisfaction, engagement, and adherence with the intervention. Additionally, data from the user’s daily life as collected during self-monitoring will be used to investigate risk and protective factors of mental health in real-world settings. Therefore, this study will allow us to demonstrate the effectiveness of a smartphone application as a widely accessible and low-cost intervention to improve mental health on a population level. It also allows to identify new assessment approaches in the field of psychiatric epidemiology.
Beiwinkel, Till; Hey, Stefan; Bock, Olaf; Rössler, Wulf
Mobile health (mHealth) could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons with moderate to high distress. Over a 4-week period, the intervention will be compared to a self-monitoring without intervention group and a passive control group. Telephone interviews will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention (4 weeks), and 12-week follow-up to assess study outcomes. The primary outcome will be improvement of mental health. Secondary outcomes will include well-being, intentions toward help-seeking and help-seeking behavior, user activation, attitudes toward mental-health services, perceived stigmatization, smartphone app quality, user satisfaction, engagement, and adherence with the intervention. Additionally, data from the user's daily life as collected during self-monitoring will be used to investigate risk and protective factors of mental health in real-world settings. Therefore, this study will allow us to demonstrate the effectiveness of a smartphone application as a widely accessible and low-cost intervention to improve mental health on a population level. It also allows to identify new assessment approaches in the field of psychiatric epidemiology.
Lajic, Zoran; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam
In this paper a basic idea of a fault-tolerant monitoring and decision support system will be explained. Fault detection is an important part of the fault-tolerant design for in-service monitoring and decision support systems for ships. In the paper, a virtual example of fault detection...... will be presented for a containership with a real decision support system onboard. All possible faults can be simulated and detected using residuals and the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) algorithm....
Oyama, H; Wakao, F; Okamura, H
We have been examining the potential value of a VR system for the palliative care of cancer. We recently developed palliative care system which consists of a 100-inch-wide screen, HMD (Head-mounted display) and 8-mm video or a PC. Our goal is to use VR techniques to help alleviate a patient's stress and concern regarding their cancer during hospitalization. We can use this system to present (1) personal video movies, (2) video letters from friends and family, (3) personal video instruction about medical examinations, and (4) interactive information about their cancer using a PC-based VR system. Our preliminary results indicate that interesting VR presentations are useful for reducing stress.
Our nation relies on accurate geospatial information to map, measure, and monitor transportation infrastructure and the surrounding landscapes. This project focused on the application of Unmanned Aircraft systems (UAS) as a novel tool for improving e...
The Department of Homeland Security’s Control Systems Security Program (CSSP) is working with industry to secure critical infrastructure sectors from cyber intrusions that could compromise control systems. This document describes CSSP’s current activities with industry organizations in developing cyber security standards for control systems. In addition, it summarizes the standards work being conducted by organizations within the sector and provides a brief listing of sector meetings and conferences that might be of interest for each sector. Control systems cyber security standards are part of a rapidly changing environment. The participation of CSSP in the development effort for these standards has provided consistency in the technical content of the standards while ensuring that information developed by CSSP is included.
Engel, Joshua Allen
The Environmental Control System provides a controlled air purge to Orion and SLS. The ECS performs this function by processing 100% ambient air while simultaneously controlling temperature, pressure, humidity, cleanliness and purge distribution.
Venkata Ramasubbarao GODAVARTHI
Full Text Available Providing space for parking, public amenities, etc in multi-storey buildings at town centres has created a need to go deep excavations into ground. Deep excavations are supported by systems like conventional retaining walls, sheet pile walls, braced walls, diaphragm walls and pile walls. This article describes various excavation supporting systems that are in vogue essentially contiguous pile wall and its advantages. A detailed design methodology of an excavation supporting system is furnished in this study. A case study on the Contiguous pile wall retaining system for supporting a deep excavation at a town centre is presented.
G V Ozhiganova
The necessity of research on higher spiritual and self-regulative capacities in the context of ancient oriental system of knowledge is expressed. The historical and psychological methods of studying ancient knowledge are described. The methods of the history of psychology, proposed by the author, are used: such as the method of revealing scientific knowledge reserves, aimed at restoring and practical mastering the psychological heritage of ancient times, as well as the experimental method, in...
Prokhorenko, I O
Interrelations between peculiarities of psychological profile of patients of senior age groups (according to Cattel), level of stress hormones in blood and background pathology of cardiovascular system were studied. Levels of catecholamine and corticosteroids in dynamics, rate of magnesium in erythrocytes and calcium in plaques of coronary arteries as well as fats, Holter ECG, daily profiles of blood pressure, vasomotor function of endothelium and microcirculation were analysed. It is established that stress hormones indirectly determine original form of stress reaction depending on patients' psychological profile. This contributes to the development of one or another form of cardiovascular system pathology. Excessive alcohol intake also promotes progression of cardiovascular system pathology. Depression, being a reflection of disbalance of stress hormones levels, can be used as a marker of unfavourable course of cardiovascular pathology.
Stock, Nicola Marie; Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Rumsey, Nichola
Cleft in the lip and/or the palate (CL/P) is considered to be a lifelong condition, yet relatively little is known about the long-term outcomes for patients. Existing literature is largely outdated and conflicted, with an almost exclusive focus on medical aspects and deficits. To explore the psychological adjustment and possible support needs of a large number of adults born with CL/P from their own perspective. Fifty-two individual telephone interviews eliciting qualitative data. Qualitative analysis identified five themes. Participants reported a range of challenges in relation to discharge from the service, additional surgery as an adult, social and romantic relationships, higher education, vocational achievement, and access to psychological support. The findings imply that most adults with a cleft adjust well to these challenges and report many positive outcomes. For a minority of patients, issues attributed to the cleft may continue to cause distress in adulthood. Adults with CL/P may require psychological support, information about the heritability of cleft, signposting and referrals from nonspecialists, support regarding further treatment, and opportunities to take part in research and activities. New issues arising in adulthood, such as entering the workplace, forming long-term relationships, and starting a family, may warrant both further investigation and additional support. Further work is needed to identify the factors that contribute to psychological distress and resilience, as well as the timing of particular points of risk and opportunity for personal growth.
van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Verstuyf, Joke; Boone, Liesbet; Smets, Jos
Although several studies have established the beneficial effects of self-endorsed forms of motivation for lasting therapeutic change, the way patients with an eating disorder can be encouraged to volitionally pursue change has received less attention. On the basis of Self-Determination Theory, this longitudinal study addressed the role of an autonomy-supportive environment and psychological need satisfaction in fostering self-endorsed motivation for change and subsequent weight gain. Female inpatients (n = 84) with mainly anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa filled out questionnaires at the onset of, during, and at the end of treatment regarding their perceived autonomy support from parents, staff members, and fellow patients, their psychological need satisfaction, and their reasons for undertaking change. Furthermore, the body mass index (BMI) of the patients at the onset and end of treatment was assessed by the staff. Path analyses were used to investigate the relations between these constructs. At the start of treatment, perceived parental autonomy support related positively to self-endorsed motivation through psychological need satisfaction. Perceived staff and fellow patients autonomy support related to changes in self-endorsed motivation over the course of treatment through fostering change in psychological need satisfaction. Finally, relative increases in self-endorsed motivation related to relative increases in BMI throughout treatment in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa. These results point to the importance of an autonomy-supportive context for facilitating self-endorsed motivation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Walters, David H.; Barrett, Larry K.; Boyd, Ronald; Bazaj, Suresh; Mitchell, Lionel; Brosi, Fred
The objective of this task was to take a fresh look at the NASA Space Network Control (SNC) element for the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) such that it can be made more efficient and responsive to the user by introducing new concepts and technologies appropriate for the 1997 timeframe. In particular, it was desired to investigate the technologies and concepts employed in similar systems that may be applicable to the SNC. The recommendations resulting from this study include resource partitioning, on-line access to subsets of the SN schedule, fluid scheduling, increased use of demand access on the MA service, automating Inter-System Control functions using monitor by exception, increase automation for distributed data management and distributed work management, viewing SN operational control in terms of the OSI Management framework, and the introduction of automated interface management.
Randleff, Lars Rosenberg
During a mission over enemy territory a fighter aircraft may be engaged by ground based threats. The pilot can use different measures to avoid the aircraft from being detected by e.g. enemy radar systems. If the enemy detects the aircraft a missile may be fired to seek and destroy the aircraft....... Such a missile will almost always be either radar guided or heat seeking. It will be launched from a permanent launch pad, or it will be man portable and small enough to fit in the boot of a car. The probability of a missile being detected by onboard sensors depends on the type of missile. If a missile...... altitude and airspeed, and the availability of countermeasures. Radar systems, guidance of missiles, and electronic countermeasures are all parts of the electronic warfare domain. A brief description of this domain is given. It contains an introduction to both systems working on-board the aircraft...
Ye, Yanming; Yin, Jianwei; Xu, Yueshen
Process recommendation technologies have gained more and more attention in the field of intelligent business process modeling to assist the process modeling. However, most of the existing technologies only use the process structure analysis and do not take the social features of processes into account, while the process modeling is complex and comprehensive in most situations. This paper studies the feasibility of social network research technologies on process recommendation and builds a social network system of processes based on the features similarities. Then, three process matching degree measurements are presented and the system implementation is discussed subsequently. Finally, experimental evaluations and future works are introduced. PMID:24672309
In the diploma thesis we focused on the development of the system that belongs to software solutions in the field of graphology. In cooperation with an expert in the field of graphology we created a user friendly system that enables managing and saving the measurements. The Machine learning methods were tested on the data that we had at disposal. We decided to include the kNN method. A simple interface for entering any number of decision rules was also implemented. With the help of the expert...
Liao, Mei-Nan; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chen, Miin-Fu; Wang, Chao-Hui; Jane, Sui-Whi
Few studies have comprehensively examined the effectiveness of information and psychosocial support on all dimensions of cancer patients' supportive care needs. To investigate the effects of education and psychological support on anxiety, symptom distress, social support, and unmet supportive care needs of Taiwanese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer over 3 months after surgery. Two-group, non-randomised quasi-experimental design. The general surgical outpatient department of the largest teaching medical centre in northern Taiwan. Women newly diagnosed with breast cancer (N=80) were divided into experimental (n=40) and control (n=40) groups. The experimental group received education and psychological support in the form of individual face-to-face and telephone follow-up sessions; the control group received routine care. Data were collected during the patients' first postoperative visit (baseline), 1 month after surgery, and 3 months after surgery. After adjusting for covariates, the levels of symptom distress and unmet needs for participants in the experimental group were lower at 1 and 3 months after surgery than for those in the control group, with the results at 3 months achieving significance. However, the sexuality needs for both groups were not significantly different at 1 and 3 months. Furthermore, levels of state anxiety were significantly lower for the experimental group at 1 and 3 months than for the control group. The education and psychological support components of our intervention programme effectively improved the unmet supportive care needs of patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer 3 months after surgery. Following prolonged treatment, women with breast cancer still have physical, psychological, and information care needs. Thus, clinical healthcare personnel should continually and actively provide culturally sensitive, individualised, and accessible information and psychological support to these patients. Crown Copyright © 2013
In this thesis we have focused on the techniques and principles from the field of human computer interaction to design, implement and evaluate the Kristina coaching system. We paid special attention to the effects on user perception when feedback was presented in different formats. Kristina is a
Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann; Nielsen, Morten
We study a flexible method for constructing curvelet-type frames. These curvelet-type systems have the same sparse representation properties as curvelets for appropriate classes of smooth functions, and the flexibility of the method allows us to give a constructive description of how to construct...
Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.
This dissertation focuses on data-analytic approaches that improve our understanding of power system applications to promote better decision-making. It tackles issues of risk analysis, uncertainty management, resource estimation, and the impacts of climate change. Tools of data mining and statistical modeling are used to bring new insight to a variety of complex problems facing today's power system. The overarching goal of this research is to improve the understanding of the power system risk environment for improved operation, investment, and planning decisions. The first chapter introduces some challenges faced in planning for a sustainable power system. Chapter 2 analyzes the driving factors behind the disparity in wind energy investments among states with a goal of determining the impact that state-level policies have on incentivizing wind energy. Findings show that policy differences do not explain the disparities; physical and geographical factors are more important. Chapter 3 extends conventional wind forecasting to a risk-based focus of predicting maximum wind speeds, which are dangerous for offshore operations. Statistical models are presented that issue probabilistic predictions for the highest wind speed expected in a three-hour interval. These models achieve a high degree of accuracy and their use can improve safety and reliability in practice. Chapter 4 examines the challenges of wind power estimation for onshore wind farms. Several methods for wind power resource assessment are compared, and the weaknesses of the Jensen model are demonstrated. For two onshore farms, statistical models outperform other methods, even when very little information is known about the wind farm. Lastly, chapter 5 focuses on the power system more broadly in the context of the risks expected from tropical cyclones in a changing climate. Risks to U.S. power system infrastructure are simulated under different scenarios of tropical cyclone behavior that may result from climate
Johnson, Elizabeth L; Dewar, Callum D; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Endestad, Tor; Meling, Torstein R; Knight, Robert T
The ability to represent and select information in working memory provides the neurobiological infrastructure for human cognition. For 80 years, dominant views of working memory have focused on the key role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) [1-8]. However, more recent work has implicated posterior cortical regions [9-12], suggesting that PFC engagement during working memory is dependent on the degree of executive demand. We provide evidence from neurological patients with discrete PFC damage that challenges the dominant models attributing working memory to PFC-dependent systems. We show that neural oscillations, which provide a mechanism for PFC to communicate with posterior cortical regions , independently subserve communications both to and from PFC-uncovering parallel oscillatory mechanisms for working memory. Fourteen PFC patients and 20 healthy, age-matched controls performed a working memory task where they encoded, maintained, and actively processed information about pairs of common shapes. In controls, the electroencephalogram (EEG) exhibited oscillatory activity in the low-theta range over PFC and directional connectivity from PFC to parieto-occipital regions commensurate with executive processing demands. Concurrent alpha-beta oscillations were observed over parieto-occipital regions, with directional connectivity from parieto-occipital regions to PFC, regardless of processing demands. Accuracy, PFC low-theta activity, and PFC → parieto-occipital connectivity were attenuated in patients, revealing a PFC-independent, alpha-beta system. The PFC patients still demonstrated task proficiency, which indicates that the posterior alpha-beta system provides sufficient resources for working memory. Taken together, our findings reveal neurologically dissociable PFC and parieto-occipital systems and suggest that parallel, bidirectional oscillatory systems form the basis of working memory. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Boertjes, E.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Vonk, J.; Apers, Peter M.G.
Many applications dealing with complex processes require database support for nested transactions. Current commercial database systems lack this kind of support, offering flat, non-nested transactions only. This paper presents a three-layer architecture for implementing nested transaction support on
Erin Noonan-Wright; Tonja S. Opperman; Mark A. Finney; Tom Zimmerman; Robert C. Seli; Lisa M. Elenz; David E. Calkin; John R. Fiedler
A new decision support tool, the Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS) has been developed to support risk-informed decision-making for individual fires in the United States. WFDSS accesses national weather data and forecasts, fire behavior prediction, economic assessment, smoke management assessment, and landscape databases to efficiently formulate and apply...
Full Text Available In this report, we introduce the Hinoki project, which set out to develop web-based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL systems for Japanese language learners more than a decade ago. Utilizing Natural Language Processing technologies and other linguistic resources, the project has come to encompass three systems, two corpora and many other resources. Beginning with the reading assistance system Asunaro, we describe the construction of Asunaro's multilingual dictionary and it's dependency grammar-based approach to reading assistance. The second system, Natsume, is a writing assistance system that uses large-scale corpora to provide an easy to use collocation search feature that is interesting for it's inclusion of the concept of genre. The final system, Nutmeg, is an extension of Natsume and the Natane learner corpus. It provides automatic correction of learners errors in compositions by using Natsume for its large corpus and genre-aware collocation data and Natane for its data on learner errors.-----V poročilu predstavljamo projekt Hinoki, ki je bil zastavljen pred več kot desetimi leti za izdelavo spletnih sistemov za računalniško podprto učenje japonščine kot tujega jezika. Z uporabo jezikovnih tehnologij in drugih jezikovnih virov so bili v okviru projekta razviti trije sistemi, dva korpusa in veliko drugih virov. V nadaljevanju predstavljamo sistem Asunaro za podporo branju, izgradnjo njegovega večjezičnega slovarja in pristop k podpori branju, ki sloni na odvisnostni slovnici; sistem za podporo pisanju Natsume s preprostim vmesnikom za iskanje žanrsko določenih kolokacij v obsežnih korpusih; ter sistem Nutmeg za samodejno popravljanje napak. Nutmeg je nadgradnja sistema Natsume in učnega korpusa Natane, ponuja samodejno popravljanje napak med samim pisanjem z uporabo žanrsko določenih kolokacijskih informacij iz obsežnih korpusov preko sistema Natsume in informacij o napakah piscev, ki se učijo japonščine kot tujega
Full Text Available The Theory of Universals in Values (TUV, a reliable and validated conceptualization of personal values used in psychology, is used to examine the effect of system feedback delivered by a Decision Support System (DSS on personal values. The results indicate that value-based decision-making behavior can be influenced by DSS feedback to address value congruence in decision-making. User behavior was shown to follow the outcomes expected by operant theory when feedback was supportive and to follow the outcomes of reactance theory when feedback was challenging. This result suggests that practitioners and Information System (IS researchers should consider user values when designing computerized decision feedback to adjust a system’s design such that the potential user backlash is avoided or congruence between organizational and personal values is achieved.
... system was known as the Licensing Support System (LSS). In November, 1998 the Commission approved... Panel will continue to be drawn from those interests that will be affected by the use of the LSN...
exception. The capabilities of the system can now logically occur to keep pace with the ever increasing sophistication of balloon bourne instrumentation. The...8217 I’kL m)J1)t Cr fac (A a Ciso ilUded in theI L蓑 llt (2i II i11t C for da&1t al 0 og Yi n1g ari1d pr1-o g ramIl ex chan1ge riled a. TheC (niJILtt’l...there are some ozenera I areajs which are felt to be logical and necessary advance- inents in the system cap~abilities: * Implement a computer based
Makuni, Kazuki; Miwa, Masafumi; Fujigaki, Motoharu; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Soga, Masato; Nakashima, Atsushi
When we do aerial photography and an environmental research, a remote control helicopter (R/C helicopter) is excellent tool in the next point. For example, the cost of aerial photography and an environmental research work by R/C helicopter are low, also R/C helicopter pilot reservation fee are low price, and free from aviation law in Japan. But, R/C helicopter maneuvering and aerial photographing skills are necessary, and these are difficult to learn. Additionally, if the visibility of R/C helicopter is getting bad when it goes far away, operation is getting difficult. These problems are caused by the badness of autonomous stability on R/C helicopter system. In this study, we propose a new angle detection sensor for 3 axial rotations which is based on the development of the easy and safe steering system for the operation person.
Jones, Harry W.
A hardware system's failure rate often increases over time due to wear and aging, but not always. Some systems instead show reliability growth, a decreasing failure rate with time, due to effective failure analysis and remedial hardware upgrades. Reliability grows when failure causes are removed by improved design. A mathematical reliability growth model allows the reliability growth rate to be computed from the failure data. The space shuttle was extensively maintained, refurbished, and upgraded after each flight and it experienced significant reliability growth during its operational life. In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) is much more difficult to maintain and upgrade and its failure rate has been constant over time. The ISS Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) reliability has slightly decreased. Failures on ISS and with the ISS CDRA continue to be a challenge.
such as data error checking, and begin software unit verification, system level software and hardware verification, and thorough use testing. The...su.ch as data input validation, user wamings, alerts and messages, oscr interface rcquircme~ts, funmiooal requtremcnts and error handling...Part 807); labeling (21 CfR Part 801); medical device reporting (reponing of medico ! 12 Page 2 - Mr. Cl•ris Meador device-re lated odverse events
High Performance Distributed Computing ( HPDC ’01), pages 383–394, San Francisco, CA, August 2001. IEEE Computer Society.  Fred Douglis, Ramon...Performance Distributed Computing ( HPDC ’99), pages 47–54, Los Angeles, CA, August 1999.  R. H. Katz. Adaptation and mobility in wireless information...Performance Distributed Computing ( HPDC ’94), pages 166–175, San Francisco, CA, August 1994.  Amitabh Srivastava and Alan Eustace. ATOM: A system for
Riebeling, Christian; Jungnickel, Harald; Luch, Andreas; Haase, Andrea
The assessment of potential health risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is a challenging task due to the high number and great variety of already existing and newly emerging ENMs. Reliable grouping or categorization of ENMs with respect to hazards could help to facilitate prioritization and decision making for regulatory purposes. The development of grouping criteria, however, requires a broad and comprehensive data basis. A promising platform addressing this challenge is the systems biology approach. The different areas of systems biology, most prominently transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, each of which provide a wealth of data that can be used to reveal novel biomarkers and biological pathways involved in the mode-of-action of ENMs. Combining such data with classical toxicological data would enable a more comprehensive understanding and hence might lead to more powerful and reliable prediction models. Physico-chemical data provide crucial information on the ENMs and need to be integrated, too. Overall statistical analysis should reveal robust grouping and categorization criteria and may ultimately help to identify meaningful biomarkers and biological pathways that sufficiently characterize the corresponding ENM subgroups. This chapter aims to give an overview on the different systems biology technologies and their current applications in the field of nanotoxicology, as well as to identify the existing challenges.
Dito, Scott Joseph
The Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space (SWORDS) rocket is a dedicated small satellite launcher that will minimize danger and complexity in order to allow soldiers in the field to put payloads of up to 25kg into orbit from the field. The SWORDSG2 project is the development of a model, simulation, and ultimately a working application that will control and monitor the cryogenic fluid delivery to the SWORDS rocket for testing purposes. To accomplish this, the project is using the programming language environment Gensym G2. The environment is an all-inclusive application that allows development, testing, modeling, and finally operation of the unique application through graphical and programmatic methods. In addition, observation of the current cryogenic fluid delivery system in the Kennedy Space Center Cry Lab has allowed me to gain valuable experience of fluid systems and propelant delivery that is valuable to our team when developing amd modeling our own system.The ultimate goal of having a test-ready application to show to the heads of the project, and demonstrating G2's capabilities, by late 2014 will require hard work and intense study and understanding of not only the programming aspect but also the physical phenomena we want to model, observe, and control.
Norman, Kent L
In this study, I seek to emphasize the contributions of cognitive psychology and human factors research in the design of menu selection systems. Menu selection systems are used in computer interfaces to allow users to enter choices, set parameters, and navigate to items, functions, and locations. Designers of these systems have many choices concerning the organizational structure and layout of the menu interface. I review several of these concerning hierarchies of menus, organization and clustering of items, and item distinctiveness. Special attention is given to cases in which designer's intuition differed from theory and experimental results. Cognitive psychology and human factors have contributed both theory and empirical research that have helped to resolve differences of opinion and establish general principles for design. It is argued that cognitive psychology has contributed substantially to the design of better menu selection systems. It is imperative that designers continue to apply these findings to interfaces that they develop and that researchers continue to study the characteristics and efficacy of innovative menu designs as they appear.
Tschürtz, Hans; Schedl, Gabriele
System failures in safety-critical domains can lead to harmful consequences for humans, the environment and for the system itself. The field of 'system safety' provides relief and aims at identifying possible risks already during the project planning phase of the system development. This requires modern project management support. The realisation of innovative ideas in software often in-creases the complexity and increasingly leads to dangerous system states or even system failures that put the safety of the system at risk.
Xie, Fei; Feng, Fei; Wang, Fu-bei; Wu, Qiong-shui; Zeng, Li-bo
In order to improve moving mirror drive of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, we design a dynamic scanning system based on flexible hinge support. Using the flexible hinge support way and the voice coil motor drive mode. Specifically, Using right Angle with high accuracy high stability type flexible hinge support mechanism support moving mirror, dynamic mirror can be moved forward and backward driven by voice coil motor reciprocating motion, DSP control system to control the moving mirror at a constant speed. The experimental results show that the designed of moving mirror scanning system has advantages of stability direction, speed stability, superior seismic performance.
Boudreault-Bouchard, Anne-Marie; Dion, Jacinthe; Hains, Jennifer; Vandermeerschen, Jill; Laberge, Luc; Perron, Michel
This study aims at investigating the impact of parental practices on youths' adjustment. In all, 605 adolescents completed questionnaires at ages 14, 16 and 18. Self-esteem, psychological distress as well as parental emotional support and coercive control were measured. Analyses based on individual growth models revealed that self-esteem increased with age, but psychological distress remained stable over time. Boys reported higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of psychological distress than girls. Maternal and paternal emotional support reinforced self-esteem over time. Maternal coercive control undermined self-esteem, but only at ages 16 and 18. Psychological distress decreased with parental emotional support but increased with parental coercive control at ages 14, 16 and 18. Overall, these results indicate that positive parental practices are related to youths' well-being. These findings support the importance of establishing intervention strategies designed to promote best practices among parents of teenagers to help them develop into well-adjusted adults. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Mulder, Regina H; König, Christoph; Anselmann, Veronika
Given the lack of active nurses in industrialized countries throughout the world, in combination with demographic changes, it is of utmost importance to protect nurses' well-being and to prevent psychological distress, because of their strong association with premature occupational leave. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of quality of leadership and social support at work on well-being and psychological distress of nurses and to determine whether nurses' overcommitment mediates the relationship between the abovementioned determinants and the outcomes. A cross-sectional survey design was used to gather our data. This study utilized part of the database of the Nurses' Early Exit Study. A total of 34,771 nurses (covering all nurse qualifications) working in hospitals, nursing homes, and home-care institutions in 8 European countries filled out a questionnaire (response rate = 51.4%). For all model variables (job satisfaction, satisfaction with salary, positive affectivity, personal burnout, negative affectivity, quality of leadership, social support from immediate supervisor, social support from near colleagues, and overcommitment), psychometrically sound, that is, valid and reliable measures were used. Outcomes from testing a structural equation mediation model indicated that, respectively, positive and negative influences of leadership quality and social support from supervisor and colleagues on nurses' well-being and psychological distress are partially mediated, that is, reduced, by nurses' overcommitment. Social work environment is highly important in relation to nurses' well-being and psychological distress.
Wijnberg-Williams, Barbara J.; Kamps, Willem A.; Klip, C.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.
Objective To explore the effects of social support on psychological distress of parents of pediatric cancer patients using a prospective design over a 5-year period. Methods Parents of children diagnosed with cancer participated at diagnosis (T1), 6 months (T2), 12 months (T3), and 5 years later
Full Text Available In the paper the issue of ecological-oriented product design is addressed. The definitions that concern product design are listed and the factors that make them important for the manufacturers are indicated. The method of ecological-oriented product assessment during the design process (implemented in the 3D CAD system, drawn-up by authors, is used for the analysis. The assessment of real household appliance using the method is presented and the conclusions from the evaluation are drawn.
Drysdale, Alan; Thomas, Mark; Fresa, Mark; Wheeler, Ray
Attention is given to CELSS, a critical technology for the Space Exploration Initiative. OCAM (object-oriented CELSS analysis and modeling) models carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen recycling. Multiple crops and plant types can be simulated. Resource recovery options from inedible biomass include leaching, enzyme treatment, aerobic digestion, and mushroom and fish growth. The benefit of using many small crops overlapping in time, instead of a single large crop, is demonstrated. Unanticipated results include startup transients which reduce the benefit of multiple small crops. The relative contributions of mass, energy, and manpower to system cost are analyzed in order to determine appropriate research directions.
浅原, 京子; 内堀, 晃彦; 江原, 史朗; 久保田, 良輔
Providing necessary support for students with difficulties or special needs requires a college-wide framework. This paper reports how National Institute of Technology, Ube College has been developing its system to support students with developmental disabilities for the past several years, and discusses what more can and should be done to keep improving its current system.
Nguyen, Frank; Klein, James D.; Sullivan, Howard
Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) deliver relevant support information to users while they are performing tasks. The present study examined the effect of different types of EPSS on user performance, attitudes, system use and time on task. Employees at a manufacturing company were asked to complete a procedural software task and…
van Eenennaam, Martijn; Heijenk, Geert
Vehicle-to-vehicle communications is a promising technique for driver support systems to increase traï¬ƒc safety and eï¬ƒciency. A proposed system is the Congestion Assistant , which aims at supporting drivers when approaching and driving in a traï¬ƒc jam. Studies have shown great potential for
Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015
Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful educator evaluation and support system will help improve teaching and learning. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Teacher Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all teachers improve. Through the Model, the goal is to help create a…
Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015
Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful educator evaluation and support system will help improve teaching, learning, and school leadership. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Building Administrator Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all building administrators improve.…
Liu, J P; Gluud, L L; Als-Nielsen, B
Artificial and bioartificial liver support systems may 'bridge' patients with acute or acute-on-chronic liver failure to liver transplantation or recovery.......Artificial and bioartificial liver support systems may 'bridge' patients with acute or acute-on-chronic liver failure to liver transplantation or recovery....
Xu, YuePing; Xu, Yue-Ping; Booij, Martijn J.; Mynett, Arthur; Mynett, Arthur E.
Models are essential in a decision support system for river basin management. In a decision support system for integrated planning and management, the use of appropriate models is important to avoid models being either too simple or too complex. In this paper, appropriate models refer to models that
van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Langrial, Sitwat; Ploderer, Bernd; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Berkovsky, Shlomo; Freyne, Jill
The First International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems attracted a great research interest. The selected papers focused on abstraction, implementation and evaluation of Behavior Change Support Systems. The workshop is an evidence of how researchers from around the globe have their own
WIERENGA, B; OPHUIS, PAMO; HUIZINGH, EKR; VANCAMPEN, PAFM
Marketing Decision Support Systems (MDSS) show a large variety in functionality and form. In this paper a scale is developed that measures the sophistication of a Marketing Decision Support System. This scale, based on Guttman's Scalogram Analysis, is hierarchical in nature: more sophisticated MDSS
Daniela I. POSTOLACHE (MALES)
Accounting information, processed through modern type of decision support systems, in appropriate economic analysis framework, using previous experience, gives extra knowledge to forestry managers. In our paper, we conducted a literature review, in the field of decision support systems used in international forestry, but also about the Romanian prospects and achievements in this area. Our results are useful to researchers and developers of decision support intelligent solutions, to forestry a...
Atsuhiko Ota; Hiroshi Yatsuya; Junji Mase; Yuichiro Ono
Evidence is limited concerning the influences of high psychological job strain and low social support at work on daytime secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which demonstrates anti-cortisol effects. We carried out a cross-sectional study to examine the associations of job strain and social support with daytime secretion amounts of DHEA and cortisol and daytime variation of the cortisol-to-DHEA ratio (C/D ratio) in healthy female workers. Study subjects comprised 115 healthy female nur...
Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Sheikh, Taiwo Lateef; Gidado, Saheed; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick; Olayinka, Adebola; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Shuaib, Faisal; Adeyemi, Joseph; Uzoma, Ogbonna; Ahmed, Abubakar; Doherty, Funmi; Nyanti, Sarah Beysolow; Nzuki, Charles Kyalo; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Oyemakinde, Akin; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Abdus-Salam, Ismail Adeshina; Obiako, Reginald O
By September 2014, an outbreak of Ebola Viral Disease (EVD) in West African countries of Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Senegal and Nigeria, had recorded over 4500 and 2200 probable or confirmed cases and deaths respectively. EVD, an emerging infectious disease, can create fear and panic among patients, contacts and relatives, which could be a risk factor for psychological distress. Psychological distress among this subgroup could have public health implication for control of EVD, because of potential effects on patient management and contact tracing. We determined the Prevalence, pattern and factors associated with psychological distress among survivors and contacts of EVD and their relatives. In a descriptive cross sectional study, we used General Health Questionnaire to assess psychological distress and Oslo Social Support Scale to assess social support among 117 participants who survived EVD, listed as EVD contacts or their relatives at Ebola Emergency Operation Center in Lagos, Nigeria. Factors associated with psychological distress were determined using chi square/odds ratio and adjusted odds ratio. The mean age and standard deviation of participants was 34 +/ - 9.6 years. Of 117 participants, 78 (66.7%) were females, 77 (65.8%) had a tertiary education and 45 (38.5%) were health workers. Most frequently occurring psychological distress were inability to concentrate (37.6%) and loss of sleep over worry (33.3%). Losing a relation to EVD outbreak (OR = 6.0, 95% CI, 1.2-32.9) was significantly associated with feeling unhappy or depressed while being a health worker was protective (OR = 0.4, 95% CI, 0.2-0.9). Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) showed losing a relation (AOR = 5.7, 95% CI, 1.2-28.0) was a predictor of "feeling unhappy or depressed", loss of a relation (AOR = 10.1, 95% CI, 1.7-60.7) was a predictor of inability to concentrate. Survivors and contacts of EVD and their relations develop psychological distress. Development of psychological distress could be