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Sample records for psychological screening tools

  1. The STarT Back Screening Tool and Individual Psychological Measures: Evaluation of Prognostic Capabilities for Low Back Pain Clinical Outcomes in Outpatient Physical Therapy Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Mark D.; Fritz, Julie M.; Robinson, Michael E.; Asal, Nabih R.; Nisenzon, Anne N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychologically informed practice emphasizes routine identification of modifiable psychological risk factors being highlighted. Objective The purpose of this study was to test the predictive validity of the STarT Back Screening Tool (SBT) in comparison with single-construct psychological measures for 6-month clinical outcomes. Design This was an observational, prospective cohort study. Methods Patients (n=146) receiving physical therapy for low back pain were administered the SBT and a battery of psychological measures (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire physical activity scale and work scale [FABQ-PA and FABQ-W, respectively], Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], 11-item version of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia [TSK-11], and 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]) at initial evaluation and 4 weeks later. Treatment was at the physical therapist's discretion. Clinical outcomes consisted of pain intensity and self-reported disability. Prediction of 6-month clinical outcomes was assessed for intake SBT and psychological measure scores using multiple regression models while controlling for other prognostic variables. In addition, the predictive capabilities of intake to 4-week changes in SBT and psychological measure scores for 6-month clinical outcomes were assessed. Results Intake pain intensity scores (β=.39 to .45) and disability scores (β=.47 to .60) were the strongest predictors in all final regression models, explaining 22% and 24% and 43% and 48% of the variance for the respective clinical outcome at 6 months. Neither SBT nor psychological measure scores improved prediction of 6-month pain intensity. The SBT overall scores (β=.22) and SBT psychosocial scores (β=.25) added to the prediction of disability at 6 months. Four-week changes in TSK-11 scores (β=−.18) were predictive of pain intensity at 6 months. Four-week changes in FABQ-PA scores (β=−.21), TSK-11 scores (β=−.20) and SBT overall scores (β=−.18) were predictive of

  2. The STarT back screening tool and individual psychological measures: evaluation of prognostic capabilities for low back pain clinical outcomes in outpatient physical therapy settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneciuk, Jason M; Bishop, Mark D; Fritz, Julie M; Robinson, Michael E; Asal, Nabih R; Nisenzon, Anne N; George, Steven Z

    2013-03-01

    Psychologically informed practice emphasizes routine identification of modifiable psychological risk factors being highlighted. The purpose of this study was to test the predictive validity of the STarT Back Screening Tool (SBT) in comparison with single-construct psychological measures for 6-month clinical outcomes. This was an observational, prospective cohort study. Patients (n=146) receiving physical therapy for low back pain were administered the SBT and a battery of psychological measures (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire physical activity scale and work scale [FABQ-PA and FABQ-W, respectively], Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], 11-item version of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia [TSK-11], and 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]) at initial evaluation and 4 weeks later. Treatment was at the physical therapist's discretion. Clinical outcomes consisted of pain intensity and self-reported disability. Prediction of 6-month clinical outcomes was assessed for intake SBT and psychological measure scores using multiple regression models while controlling for other prognostic variables. In addition, the predictive capabilities of intake to 4-week changes in SBT and psychological measure scores for 6-month clinical outcomes were assessed. Intake pain intensity scores (β=.39 to .45) and disability scores (β=.47 to .60) were the strongest predictors in all final regression models, explaining 22% and 24% and 43% and 48% of the variance for the respective clinical outcome at 6 months. Neither SBT nor psychological measure scores improved prediction of 6-month pain intensity. The SBT overall scores (β=.22) and SBT psychosocial scores (β=.25) added to the prediction of disability at 6 months. Four-week changes in TSK-11 scores (β=-.18) were predictive of pain intensity at 6 months. Four-week changes in FABQ-PA scores (β=-.21), TSK-11 scores (β=-.20) and SBT overall scores (β=-.18) were predictive of disability at 6 months. Physical therapy treatment was

  3. Substation noise screening tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maybee, Nigel; Everton, Pascal [HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp. (Canada)], email: nigel.maybee@hfpacoustical.com; Chow, Vincent [Altalink Management Ltd. (Canada)], email: Vincent.Chow@AltaLink.ca

    2011-07-01

    Alberta noise regulations require energy-related facilities to conduct predictions on sound levels, especially for large and medium noise sources. This is usually done with well-known modelling software, but that can be disadvantageous when assessing the noise impact of smaller noise sources, such as transformer substations. This paper focuses on the development of a spreadsheet substation noise screening tool to assess the noise impact of a small transformer substation with precision and ease-of-use. Three aspects must be considered: transformer sound levels, which can be provided by the manufacturer or extracted from accepted sound level references; sound power calculations, which depend on the substation size and operating regime; and sound propagation calculations, which take into account the distance of the receptor from the substation and sound absorption by the air and ground. Comparison of results obtained with this tool with results generated by standard sound modelling software shows the utility, accuracy and ease-of-use of this screening method for assessing the noise impact of transformer substations.

  4. Psychological tools for knowledge acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueter, Henry H.; Olson, Judith Reitman

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition is said to be the biggest bottleneck in the development of expert systems. The problem is getting the knowledge out of the expert's head and into a computer. In cognitive psychology, characterizing metal structures and why experts are good at what they do is an important research area. Is there some way that the tools that psychologists have developed to uncover mental structure can be used to benefit knowledge engineers? We think that the way to find out is to browse through the psychologist's toolbox to see what there is in it that might be of use to knowledge engineers. Expert system developers have relied on two standard methods for extracting knowledge from the expert: (1) the knowledge engineer engages in an intense bout of interviews with the expert or experts, or (2) the knowledge engineer becomes an expert himself, relying on introspection to uncover the basis of his own expertise. Unfortunately, these techniques have the difficulty that often the expert himself isn't consciously aware of the basis of his expertise. If the expert himself isn't conscious of how he solves problems, introspection is useless. Cognitive psychology has faced similar problems for many years and has developed exploratory methods that can be used to discover cognitive structure from simple data.

  5. Radiation Emergency Preparedness Tools: Psychological First Aid

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-30

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Practical Tools for Radiation Emergency Preparedness. A specialist working with CDC's Radiation Studies Branch describes Psychological First Aid and a newly developed multimedia training program, entitled "Psychological First Aid in Radiation Disasters.".  Created: 12/30/2010 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Radiation Studies Branch and Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/13/2011.

  6. Psychological and Behavioral Impact of Participation in Ovarian Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Andrykowski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of costs and benefits associated with cancer screening should include consideration of any psychological and behavioral impact associated with screening participation. Research examining the psychological and behavioral impact of screening asymptomatic women for ovarian cancer (OC was considered. Research has focused upon potential negative psychological (e.g., distress and behavioral (e.g., reduced future screening participation impact of false positive (FP OC test results. Results suggest FP OC screening results are associated with greater short-term OC-specific distress. While distress dissipates over time it may remain elevated relative to pre-screening levels for several weeks or months even after clinical follow-up has ruled out malignancy. The likelihood of participation in future OC screening may also be reduced. Research focused upon identification of any beneficial impact of participation in OC screening associated with receipt of “normal” results was also considered. This research suggests that a “normal” screening test result can have psychological benefits, including increased positive affect and beliefs in the efficacy of screening. It is concluded that any psychological or behavioral harms attributable to OC screening are generally very modest in severity and duration and might be counterbalanced by psychological benefits accruing to women who participate in routine OC screening and receive normal test results.

  7. Psychological and Behavioral Impact of Participation in Ovarian Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrykowski, Michael A

    2017-03-08

    Evaluation of costs and benefits associated with cancer screening should include consideration of any psychological and behavioral impact associated with screening participation. Research examining the psychological and behavioral impact of screening asymptomatic women for ovarian cancer (OC) was considered. Research has focused upon potential negative psychological (e.g., distress) and behavioral (e.g., reduced future screening participation) impact of false positive (FP) OC test results. Results suggest FP OC screening results are associated with greater short-term OC-specific distress. While distress dissipates over time it may remain elevated relative to pre-screening levels for several weeks or months even after clinical follow-up has ruled out malignancy. The likelihood of participation in future OC screening may also be reduced. Research focused upon identification of any beneficial impact of participation in OC screening associated with receipt of "normal" results was also considered. This research suggests that a "normal" screening test result can have psychological benefits, including increased positive affect and beliefs in the efficacy of screening. It is concluded that any psychological or behavioral harms attributable to OC screening are generally very modest in severity and duration and might be counterbalanced by psychological benefits accruing to women who participate in routine OC screening and receive normal test results.

  8. Psychological distress associated with cancer screening: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad-Friedman, Emma; Coleman, Sarah; Traeger, Lara N; Pirl, William F; Goldman, Roberta; Atlas, Steven J; Park, Elyse R

    2017-10-15

    Current national cancer screening recommendations include the potential risk of psychological harm related to screening. However, data on the relation of psychological distress to cancer screening is limited. The authors conducted a systematic review to assess psychological distress associated with cancer screening procedures. Studies that administered measures of psychological distress between 2 weeks before and 1 month after the screening procedure were included. In total, 22 eligible studies met criteria for review, including 13 observational trials and 9 randomized controlled trials. Eligible studies used a broad range of validated and unvalidated measures. Anxiety was the most commonly assessed construct and was measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Studies included breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, and cervical screening procedures. Distress was low across procedures, with the exception of colorectal screening. Distress did not vary according to the time at which distress was measured. None of the studies were conducted exclusively with the intention of assessing distress at the time of screening. Evidence of low distress during the time of cancer screening suggests that distress might not be a widespread barrier to screening among adults who undergo screening. However, more studies are needed using validated measures of distress to further understand the extent to which screening may elicit psychological distress and impede adherence to national screening recommendations. Cancer 2017;123:3882-94. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  9. Measuring psychological consequences of screening: adaptation of the psychological consequences questionnaire into Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsburger, A. J.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; van As, E.; Cockburn, J.; de Koning, H. J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychometric properties of a Dutch adaptation of an originally Australian instrument measuring the psychological impact of breast cancer screening. METHODS: The three subscales (emotional, physical, social) of the Psychological Consequences Questionnaire (PCQ) underwent

  10. Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET) Users Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pincock, Layne [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This document is the users guide to using the Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET). SET is a tool for comparing multiple fuel cycle options against a common set of criteria and metrics. It does this using standard multi-attribute utility decision analysis methods.

  11. Psychological screening for the children with habitual snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, Sun Bin; Yoo, Chan Kee; Kim, Hyoung-Mi

    2014-12-01

    Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the major determinants of habitual snoring in pediatric population. Behavioral hyperactivity and schooling problems have been repeatedly reported in these children, and it may underlie more extensive behavioral disturbances, particularly for the obese children. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of emotional and behavioral problems using outpatient-based psychological screening tools in the children with habitual snoring. Total 235 patients and 170 controls, who aged 4-9 years were enrolled. Body mass index (BMI) z-score was obtained for age and gender and parental sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD) questionnaire was used to assess severity of sleep-disordered breathing (SBD). Psychological assessment was performed using standardized questionnaires including Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Children presenting habitual snoring had significantly higher mean scores on almost all scales of SDQ, and SCARED than community controls. Around 20% of the children with habitual snoring, compared with 10-11% of controls had significant levels of distress that could adversely impact treatment outcomes. There was no interaction between obstructive sleep apnea severity and behavioral ratings. The scores for emotional distress and hyperactivity were more prominent in the obese children. Significant psychological distress or impairment in social interactions was observed in children with higher SRBD scores. Our findings suggest that the presence of habitual snoring in young children is associated wide spectrum of behavioral problems and the level of psychological distress might be evaluated at the time of the diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of a screening programme for psychological distress in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasso, Gabriella; Di Leo, Silvia; Caruso, Anita; Decensi, Andrea; Beccaro, Monica; Berretta, Laura; Bongiorno, Laura; Cosimelli, Maurizio; Finelli, Stefania; Rondanina, Gabriella; Santoni, Wissya; Stigliano, Vittoria; Costantini, Massimo

    2010-12-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the feasibility of a screening procedure for psychological distress in cancer survivors. Consecutive series of 339 cancer patients from three centres were requested to fill in two questionnaires measuring psychological distress (PDI) and social support (MOSS). Psychological intervention was offered to patients with significant degree of distress. Most patients accepted to be screened (72.0%; n = 244), and a subgroup (16.0%) showed high psychological distress. A higher ratio of distressed patients was observed among those with lower social support (P = 0.017). A significant (P psychological distress and social support was observed. A psychological intervention was offered to patients with high psychological distress, but only 15.6% completed it. Results from this study provide both some insights into the characteristics of psychological distress and some input on issues that may arise when implementing a screening procedure for psychological distress in cancer survivors. Further research is needed to assess both the clinical significance of distress and the most appropriate tools to carry out screening procedures within the target population.

  13. Screening for cancer-related distress: Summary of evidence from tools to programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, P. E.; Johansen, C.; Mitchell, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. A number of studies have addressed the development and testing of tools for measuring cancer-related distress. Except for studies of diagnostic validity, knowledge on the effect of screening for psychological distress on psychological well-being is limited. We aimed to describe...... inclusion criterion was randomized controlled trials concerning the effect of screening for psychological distress on psychological outcomes. We compared the randomized trials on the following aspects: design and methods, setting and sample, screening and intervention, effects on psychological distress...... screening approaches and to evaluate the benefits of screening linked with associated treatment. Trials should include distress as a patient outcome, use appropriate samples, include a detailed, theory-based distress management plan, offer staff training and ideally track staff and patient use of subsequent...

  14. The psychological impact of screening for type 2 diabetes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, M.C.; Snoek, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, there was little empirical data regarding the psychological impact of screening for type 2 diabetes. There is now some progress in this area, as evidenced by emerging population based studies reporting on the effects of screening for type 2 diabetes on perceived health status and

  15. Implementing a perinatal substance abuse screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallman, Carol M; Smith, Pat Bohling; Moore, Karen

    2011-08-01

    Newborns exposed to illicit drugs or alcohol in utero can face physical, social, and emotional obstacles. Outcomes for children with fetal alcohol syndrome disorders are well documented in the literature. Data exist on the effects of maternal illicit drug use. Identifying perinatal substance abuse can increase positive outcomes for newborns and create the opportunity for mothers to access assistance through referrals to community resources.This article provides insight on how hospitals can implement an effective screening tool through patient surveying and testing, nurse education, and collaboration with community agencies in a multidisciplinary advisory committee setting.This discussed method of universal perinatal screening results in increased positive screens and increased referrals for care and support. Emphasis is placed on universal screening and testing methods. Nurses are trained in motivational interview techniques that convey empathy, listening, and objectivity. Community agencies partner with hospital staff through onsite meetings with families that determine the best discharge plan for the newborn. The multidisciplinary advisory committee meets continually to discuss future enhancements.

  16. Knowledge of prenatal screening and psychological management of test decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2010-01-01

    well-being respectively worries in pregnancy. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study with 6,427 pregnant women consecutively included before the time of a nuchal translucency scan. Participants were recruited from three Danish obstetric departments offering prenatal screening free of charge...... level of knowledge for the pregnant women making choices about participation in prenatal screening for Down's syndrome in order to improve psychological management of test decisions. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  17. Designing a Pediatric Severe Sepsis Screening Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eSepanski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We sought to create a screening tool with improved predictive value for pediatric severe sepsis and septic shock that can be incorporated into the electronic medical record and actively screen all patients arriving at a pediatric Emergency Department (ED. Gold standard severe sepsis cases were identified using a combination of coded discharge diagnosis and physician chart review from 7,402 children who visited a pediatric ED over two months. The tool’s identification of severe sepsis was initially based on International Consensus Conference on Pediatric Sepsis (ICCPS parameters that were refined by an iterative, virtual process that allowed us to propose successive changes in sepsis detection parameters in order to optimize the tool’s predictive value based on receiver operating curve (ROC characteristics. Age-specific normal and abnormal values for heart rate (HR and respiratory rate (RR were empirically derived from 143,603 children seen in a second pediatric ED over three years. Univariate analyses were performed for each measure in the tool to assess its association with severe sepsis and to characterize it as an early or late indicator of severe sepsis. A split-sample was used to validate the final, optimized tool. The final tool incorporated age-specific thresholds for abnormal HR and RR and employed a linear temperature correction for each category. The final tool’s positive predictive value was 48.7%, a significant, nearly three-fold improvement over the original ICCPS tool. False positive Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS identifications were nearly six-fold lower.

  18. Clinical and psychological effects of excessive screen time on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues-Montanari, Sophie

    2017-04-01

    Over recent years, screen time has become a more complicated concept, with an ever-expanding variety of electronic media devices available throughout the world. Television remains the predominant type of screen-based activity among children. However, computer use, video games and ownership of devices, such as tablets and smart phones, are occurring from an increasingly young age. Screen time, in particular, television viewing, has been negatively associated with the development of physical and cognitive abilities, and positively associated with obesity, sleep problems, depression and anxiety. The physiological mechanisms that underlie the adverse health outcomes related to screen time and the relative contributions of different types of screen and media content to specific health outcomes are unclear. This review discusses the positive and negative effects of screen time on the physiological and psychological development of children. Furthermore, recommendations are offered to parents and clinicians. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  19. Assessment of psychological barriers to cervical cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Assessment of psychological barriers to cervical cancer screening among women in Kumasi, Ghana using a mixed methods approach. *Williams M1, Kuffour G2, Ekuadzi E3, Yeboah M4, ElDuah M1, Tuffour P2. 1. Department of Health Behavior, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA. 2. Department of Pharmaceutics ...

  20. The Dialectic as a Tool for Teaching Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Presents dialectical thinking as a useful tool in teaching psychology. Argues that the basic notion of dialectical thinking is that ideas evolve in cycles. Provides examples of dialectical thinking in psychology and methods of using it in teaching. Contrasts the dialectical model for teaching with the more traditional model. (DSK)

  1. Screening for psychological distress: A new approach to identify the patient's psychological needs in a pilot study on oral cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisolefsky, Franziska; Rana, Madiha; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rana, Majeed

    2017-08-01

    A new screening tool has been developed to predict the psychological needs of patients with oral cancer. The new screening method was developed inductively. Screening was pretested using interviews and implemented with 71 patients with oral cancer. Factor analysis was carried out to shorten the questionnaire. Negative and positive aspects explain forty per cent of the variance in distress, which should be adequate for a first screening. Seventy-nine per cent of the items deal with stable traits such as personality. The patients' objective need for support has to be another important part of this new screening. Personality and other traits are good predictors for psychological distress. Longitudinal studies need to assess these new aspects of screening cancer patients to find out if they need psycho-oncological support. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of screening for psychological distress on patient outcomes in cancer : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    Objective: Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients

  3. Eating disorders in female athletes: use of screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jessica; Aerni, Giselle; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Screening female athletes for eating disorders is not performed commonly even though the American College of Sports Medicine, National Athletic Trainer Association, and International Olympic Committee have guidelines recommending screening. Eating disorders are more prevalent in the female athlete population than in the general population and carry short-term and long-term consequences that can affect sport performance. There are several screening tools available that have been studied in the general population and fewer tools that were validated specifically in female athletes. Female athletes with eating disorder pathology often have different factors and environmental pressures contributing to their pathology that can be identified best with an athlete-specific screening tool. We will discuss various screening tools available and the evidence for each one. Screening for eating disorders in all female athletes is an important part of the preparticipation examination and should be done using a tool specifically validated for the female athlete.

  4. Development of TUA-WELLNESS screening tool for screening risk of mild cognitive impairment among community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanoh D

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Divya Vanoh,1 Suzana Shahar,1 Razali Rosdinom,2 Normah Che Din,3 Hanis Mastura Yahya,4 Azahadi Omar5 1Dietetic Programme, Centre of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Department of Psychiatry, University Kebangsaan Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Health Psychology Programme, 4Nutrition Programme, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 5Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background and aim: Focus on screening for cognitive impairment has to be given particular importance because of the rising older adult population. Thus, this study aimed to develop and assess a brief screening tool consisting of ten items that can be self-administered by community dwelling older adults (TUA-WELLNESS. Methodology: A total of 1,993 noninstitutionalized respondents aged 60 years and above were selected for this study. The dependent variable was mild cognitive impairment (MCI assessed using neuropsychological test batteries. The items for the screening tool comprised a wide range of factors that were chosen mainly from the analysis of ordinal logistic regression (OLR and based on past literature. A suitable cut-off point was developed using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: A total of ten items were included in the screening tool. From the ten items, eight were found to be significant by ordinal logistic regression and the remaining two items were part of the tool because they showed strong association with cognitive impairment in previous studies. The area under curve (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity for cut-off 11 were 0.84%, 83.3%, and 73.4%, respectively. Conclusion: TUA-WELLNESS screening tool has been used to screen for major risk factors of MCI among Malaysian older adults. This tool is only suitable for basic MCI risk screening purpose and should not be used for diagnostic

  5. A comparison of two psychological screening methods currently used for inpatients in a UK burns service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Laura; Tew, Victoria; Rai, Lovedeep

    2017-12-01

    Various types of psychological screening are currently used in the UK to identify burn patients who are experiencing psychological distress and may need additional support and intervention during their hospital admission. This audit compared two types of psychological screening in 40 burn inpatients. One screening method was an unpublished questionnaire designed to explore multiple areas of potential distress for those who have experienced burns. The other method was an indirect psychological screen via discussions within multi-disciplinary team (MDT) meetings where a Clinical Psychologist was present to guide and prompt psychological discussions. Data was collected between November 2012 and September 2016. Results suggested that both screening methods were similar in identifying patients who benefit from more formal psychological assessment. Indeed, statistical analysis reported no difference between the two screening methods (N=40, p=.424, two-tailed). In conclusion, measuring distress in burns inpatients using a burns-specific questionnaire and psychological discussions within MDT meetings are similar in their ability to identify patients in need of more thorough psychological assessment. However, both screening methods identified patients who were in need of psychological input when the other did not. This suggests that psychological screening of burns inpatients, and the psychological difficulties that they can present with, is complex. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods of screening are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experience with breast cancer, pre-screening perceived susceptibility and the psychological impact of screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Absetz, Pilvikki; Aro, Arja R; Sutton, Stephen R

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study examined whether the psychological impact of organized mammography screening is influenced by women's pre-existing experience with breast cancer and perceived susceptibility (PS) to the disease. From a target population of 16,886, a random sample of women with a normal...... responded to the follow-ups. Psychological impact was measured as anxiety (STAI-S), depression (BDI), health-related concerns (IAS), and breast cancer-specific beliefs and concerns. Data was analyzed with repeated measures analyses of variance, with estimates of effect size based on Eta-squared. Women...

  7. Nutrition screening tools: Does one size fit all? A systematic review of screening tools for the hospital setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.; Guaitoli, P.R.; Jansma, E.P.; de Vet, H.C.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims: Numerous nutrition screening tools for the hospital setting have been developed. The aim of this systematic review is to study construct or criterion validity and predictive validity of nutrition screening tools for the general hospital setting. Methods: A systematic review of

  8. Technology Addiction among Treatment Seekers for Psychological Problems: Implication for Screening in Mental Health Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aswathy; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Thamilselvan, P; Marimuthu, P

    2017-01-01

    Technology usage has seen an increase among users. The usage varies from social, personal, and psychological reasons. Users are frequently using to overcome mood states as well as to manage the other psychological states. This work is going to explore the information technology use among subjects with a psychiatric disorder. A total of 75 subjects were assessed using background data sheet, internet addiction impairment index, video game use pattern, pornography addiction screening tool and screening for mobile phone use, from in-patient and out-patient setting of tertiary mental health setting. It showed the presence of addiction to mobile, internet, video game, and pornography. Age was found to be negatively correlated with this addiction. Average usage time had been associated with management of mood states. The addiction to information technology had been associated with a delay in initiation of sleep. This work has implication for screening technology addiction among subjects seeking treatment for psychological problems and motivate them to develop the healthy use of technology.

  9. The psychological profile of women attending breast-screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, S; Chaitchik, S; Kreitler, H

    1990-01-01

    Though the benefits of early detection of breast cancer are generally known, only few women attend breast-screening examinations. The study was designed to gain insight into the problem by exploring the psychological profile of clinic attenders. In order to find out whether there is such a profile, 210 self-referred women were compared with 210 nonattending women, from the same working and social environments, matched in age, education and occupational level. All subjects were administered 10 tests in 7 domains. The tests were administered as part of a health survey. The results showed that clinic attenders scored higher on negative emotions and total emotions and lower on positive emotions; higher on repression; lower on daydreams; lower on range of self-concept, references to others and negative self-references but higher on positive self-references; scored higher on self-references describing oneself in a functional and in a passive way and scored lower on those describing oneself in terms of one's attitudes, body and appearance; scored lower on neuroticism; scored lower on different somatic complaints and health orientation but higher in alexithymia. No differences were found in authoritarianism, locus of control and self-complexity. Conclusions are that there is a psychological profile of clinic attenders, that it is focused on dysphoric emotions, psychological disease promotion and defensiveness and that it includes characteristics of the construct that is sometimes called the cancer-prone personality.

  10. Suicide Risk Screening Tools and the Youth Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Sharon

    2016-08-01

    The use of suicide risk screening tools is a critical component of a comprehensive approach to suicide risk assessment. Since nurses frequently spend more time with patients than any other healthcare professional, they are in key positions to detect and prevent suicidal behavior in youth. To inform nurses about suicide risk screening tools for the youth population. Suicide risk screening tools are research-based standardized instruments that are used to identify people who may be at risk for suicide. A literature search was performed using the Athabasca University Library Resource, the databases of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar. Nurses are cautioned to utilize suicide risk screening tools as only part of the suicide risk assessment in youth populations and avoid the danger of relying on tools that may result in a blind application of evidence to the detriment of clinical experience and judgement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Psychological empowerment of NGO women in Iran: Designing a tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Fataneh; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Sadeghi, Roya; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Laverack, Glenn

    2017-09-01

    As the core of health promotion, proper assessment of empowerment is a base for planning for a process that increases people's control on their decisions, lifestyle, and effective activities for their health. To design and develop a special tool to assess the empowerment of NGO women in Iran. This successive exploratory study of combinational type was conducted in 2015 in two steps. In the first step, using comments of participants and the help of authentic texts related to this field, dimensions of psychological empowerment were developed. In the second step, psychometric properties of the scale or tool were determined using formal content, and structural validity and reliability were determined using internal consistency and stability via SPSS version 21. In the first step, the initial tool including 58 items was developed in the form of eight domains. In the second step, based on exploratory factor analysis (EFA), the number of items was reduced to 37. Considering the eigenvalues of higher than one, items were classified into eight factors. KMO index was 0.896 in this study. Reliability of the tool was 0.81 using Cronbach's alpha. This tool is able to predict 66.1% of total changes in psychological empowerment. A questionnaire with relevant reliability and validity, including eight domains of participation, motivation, cognitive thinking, critical thinking, self-efficacy, intention, perceived control and social support was developed to measure psychological empowerment of NGO women in Iran.

  12. Mental health screening tools in correctional institutions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael S; Colman, Ian; Simpson, Alexander I F; McKenzie, Kwame

    2013-10-29

    Past studies have identified poor rates of detection of mental illness among inmates. Consequently, mental health screening is a common feature to various correctional mental health strategies and best practice guidelines. However, there is little guidance to support the selection of an appropriate tool. This systematic review compared the sensitivity and specificity of mental health screening tools among adult jail or prison populations. A systematic review of MEDLINE and PsycINFO up to 2011, with additional studies identified from a search of reference lists. Only studies involving adult jail or prison populations, with an independent measure of mental illness, were included. Studies in forensic settings to determine fitness to stand trial or criminal responsibility were excluded. Twenty-four studies met all inclusion and exclusion criteria for the review. All articles were coded by two independent authors. Study quality was coded by the lead author. Twenty-two screening tools were identified. Only six tools have replication studies: the Brief Jail Mental Health Screen (BJMHS), the Correctional Mental Health Screen for Men (CMHS-M), the Correctional Mental Health Screen for Women (CMHS-W), the England Mental Health Screen (EMHS), the Jail Screening Assessment Tool (JSAT), and the Referral Decision Scale (RDS). A descriptive summary is provided in lieu of use of meta-analytic techniques due to the lack of replication studies and methodological variations across studies. The BJMHS, CMHS-M, CMHS-W, EMHS and JSAT appear to be the most promising tools. Future research should consider important contextual factors in the implementation of a screening tool that have received little attention. Randomized or quasi-randomized trials are recommended to evaluate the effectiveness of screening to improve the detection of mental illness compared to standard practices.

  13. Examining waist and neck circumferences as screening tools for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-16

    May 16, 2014 ... Original Research: Examining waist and neck circumferences as screening tools for metabolic syndrome. 106 ... Keywords: metabolic syndrome, anthropometric, waist circumference, neck circumference, sub-Saharan Caucasian. Abstract. Objectives: .... the lower costal rib and the iliac crest, perpendicular.

  14. Frailty Screening Tools for Elderly Patients Incident to Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Ismay N; Goto, Namiko A; Boereboom, Franciscus T J; Bots, Michiel L; Verhaar, Marianne C; Hamaker, Marije E

    2017-09-07

    A geriatric assessment is an appropriate method for identifying frail elderly patients. In CKD, it may contribute to optimize personalized care. However, a geriatric assessment is time consuming. The purpose of our study was to compare easy to apply frailty screening tools with the geriatric assessment in patients eligible for dialysis. A total of 123 patients on incident dialysis ≥65 years old were included frailty screening tools were compared with the geriatric assessment: the Fried Frailty Index, the Groningen Frailty Indicator, Geriatric8, the Identification of Seniors at Risk, the Hospital Safety Program, and the clinical judgment of the nephrologist. Outcome measures were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. In total, 75% of patients were frail according to the geriatric assessment. Sensitivity of frailty screening tools ranged from 48% (Fried Frailty Index) to 88% (Geriatric8). The discriminating features of the clinical judgment were comparable with the other screening tools. The Identification of Seniors at Risk screening tool had the best discriminating abilities, with a sensitivity of 74%, a specificity of 80%, a positive predictive value of 91%, and a negative predictive value of 52%. The negative predictive value was poor for all tools, which means that almost one half of the patients screened as fit (nonfrail) had two or more geriatric impairments on the geriatric assessment. All frailty screening tools are able to detect geriatric impairment in elderly patients eligible for dialysis. However, all applied screening tools, including the judgment of the nephrologist, lack the discriminating abilities to adequately rule out frailty compared with a geriatric assessment. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. Screening tools for postpartum depression: validity and cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to review the main postpartum screening tools currently used in terms of their ability to screen for postnatal depression. Furthermore, the cultural characteristics of depressive postpartum symptomatology are examined. Method: A systematic literature search was conducted for the period ...

  16. Developing an undue influence screening tool for Adult Protective Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Mary Joy; Nerenberg, Lisa; Navarro, Adria E; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2017-03-01

    The study purpose was to develop and pilot an undue influence screening tool for California's Adult Protective Services (APS) personnel based on the definition of undue influence enacted into California law January 1, 2014. Methods included four focus groups with APS providers (n = 33), piloting the preliminary tool by APS personnel (n = 15), and interviews with four elder abuse experts and two APS administrators. Social service literature-including existing undue influence models-was reviewed, as were existing screening and assessment tools. Using the information from these various sources, the California Undue Influence Screening Tool (CUIST) was developed. It can be applied to APS cases and potentially adapted for use by other professionals and for use in other states. Implementation of the tool into APS practice, policy, procedures, and training of personnel will depend on the initiative of APS management. Future work will need to address the reliability and validity of CUIST.

  17. Screen Recording: An Essential Classroom Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, April; Christianson, Jenn; Schafer, Raye; Whitney, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Technology has opened up avenues for deaf and hard of hearing students that were previously inaccessible. No longer dependent on such equipment as chalkboards and filmstrip projectors, tools such as Smart Boards, computers, and even iPads have become part of the standard educational experience for many children. For teachers at the Washington…

  18. Blood pressure to height ratio as a screening tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Current methods of detection of childhood hypertension are cumbersome and contribute to under‑diagnosis hence, the need to generate simpler diagnostic tools. The blood pressure to height ratio has recently been proposed as a novel screening tool for prehypertension and hypertension in some populations.

  19. Climate project screening tool: an aid for climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni Lyn Morelli; Sharon Yeh; Nikola M. Smith; Mary Beth Hennessy; Constance I. Millar

    2012-01-01

    To address the impacts of climate change, land managers need techniques for incorporating adaptation into ongoing or impending projects. We present a new tool, the Climate Project Screening Tool (CPST), for integrating climate change considerations into project planning as well as for developing concrete adaptation options for land managers. We designed CPST as part of...

  20. Detecting acute distress and risk of future psychological morbidity in critically ill patients: validation of the intensive care psychological assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Dorothy M; Hankins, Matthew; Smyth, Deborah A; Rhone, Elijah E; Mythen, Michael G; Howell, David C J; Weinman, John A

    2014-09-24

    The psychological impact of critical illness on a patient can be severe, and frequently results in acute distress as well as psychological morbidity after leaving hospital. A UK guideline states that patients should be assessed in critical care units, both for acute distress and risk of future psychological morbidity; but no suitable method for carrying out this assessment exists. The Intensive care psychological assessment tool (IPAT) was developed as a simple, quick screening tool to be used routinely to detect acute distress, and the risk of future psychological morbidity, in critical care units. A validation study of IPAT was conducted in the critical care unit of a London hospital. Once un-sedated, orientated and alert, critical care patients were assessed with the IPAT and validated tools for distress, to determine the IPAT's concurrent validity. Fifty six patients took IPAT again to establish test-retest reliability. Finally, patients completed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety questionnaires at three months, to determine predictive validity of the IPAT. One hundred and sixty six patients completed the IPAT, and 106 completed follow-up questionnaires at 3 months. Scale analysis showed IPAT was a reliable 10-item measure of critical care-related psychological distress. Test-retest reliability was good (r =0.8). There was good concurrent validity with measures of anxiety and depression (r =0.7, P psychological morbidity was good (r =0.4, P psychological morbidity (AUC =0.7). The IPAT was found to have good reliability and validity. Sensitivity and specificity analysis suggest the IPAT could provide a way of allowing staff to assess psychological distress among critical care patients after further replication and validation. Further work is also needed to determine its utility in predicting future psychological morbidity.

  1. Comment on ‘Psychological distress in patients with cancer: is screening the effective solution?'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Boenink; O Visser; P.C. Huijgens; J Dekker; A.T.F. Beekman; E.H. Collette; H Bomhof-Roordink; prof Berno van Meijel; A.M. Braamse; F.J. Snoek; M.H.M. van der Linden; H.M. Verheul

    2013-01-01

    Screening for psychological distress in patients with cancer is currently being debated in the British Journal of Cancer. Screening has been recommended, as elevated levels of distress have been consistently observed and clinicians tend to overlook the need of psychological support (Carlson et al,

  2. New diagnostic tool for robotic psychology and robotherapy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libin, Elena; Libin, Alexander

    2003-08-01

    Robotic psychology and robotherapy as a new research area employs a systematic approach in studying psycho-physiological, psychological, and social aspects of person-robot communication. An analysis of the mechanisms underlying different forms of computer-mediated behavior requires both an adequate methodology and research tools. In the proposed article we discuss the concept, basic principles, structure, and contents of the newly designed Person-Robot Complex Interactive Scale (PRCIS), proposed for the purpose of investigating psychological specifics and therapeutic potentials of multilevel person-robot interactions. Assuming that human-robot communication has symbolic meaning, each interactive pattern evaluated via the newly developed scale is assigned certain psychological value associated with the person's past life experiences, likes and dislikes, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral traits or states. PRCIS includes (1) assessment of a person's individual style of communication with the robotic creature based on direct observations; (2) the participant's evaluation of his/her new experiences with an interactive robot and evaluation of its features, advantages and disadvantages, as well as past experiences with modern technology; and (3) the instructor's overall evaluation of the session.

  3. Psychological impact of positive cervical cancer screening results among Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaka, Yukari; Inada, Haruhiko; Hiranuma, Yuri; Ichikawa, Masao

    2017-02-01

    While cervical cancer screening is useful for detecting and then treating the disease at an early stage, most women with screen-positive results are free from cervical cancer but nevertheless subject to the unnecessary worry entailed in receiving such results. The purpose of this study was to examine whether receiving a screen-positive result was actually related to psychological distress among Japanese women who underwent cervical cancer screening. We conducted a questionnaire survey at health facilities in a semiurban city of Ibaraki prefecture, involving 1744 women who underwent cervical cancer screening and 72 who received screen-positive results and then underwent further testing. We used the K6 scale to assess their psychological distress (K6 score ≥5) and performed multiple logistic regression analyses to estimate the relative effect of receiving screen-positive results on psychological distress. Psychological distress was more prevalent among women with screen-positive results (OR 2.22; 95 % CI 1.32-3.74), while it was also related to history of mental health consultation (OR 2.26; 95 % CI 1.69-3.01) and marital status (OR 1.32; 95 % CI 1.02-1.70). Receiving a positive cervical cancer screening result was associated with psychological distress. To alleviate this psychological impact, the current form of communicating the screening results should be reconsidered.

  4. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence in Orthopedic Patients: A Comparison of Three Screening Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Dosanjh, Sonia; Petrisor, Brad; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit

    2012-01-01

    Accurately identifying victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) can be a challenge for clinicians and clinical researchers. Multiple instruments have been developed and validated to identify IPV in patients presenting to health care practitioners, including the Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) and the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). The purpose…

  5. Computerized tools in psychology: cross cultural and genetically informative studies of memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ismatullina V.; Zakharov I.; Nikulchev E.; Malykh S.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we presented the computerized tools for psychological studies of memory. The importance of implementing computerized automated tools for psychological studies is discussed. It has been shown that this tools can be used both for cross-cultural and genetically informative studies. The validity of these tools for cross-cultural and genetically informative studies of memory can be seen as the first step to use automated computerized tools for big data collection in psychology.

  6. Computerized tools in psychology: cross cultural and genetically informative studies of memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismatullina V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we presented the computerized tools for psychological studies of memory. The importance of implementing computerized automated tools for psychological studies is discussed. It has been shown that this tools can be used both for cross-cultural and genetically informative studies. The validity of these tools for cross-cultural and genetically informative studies of memory can be seen as the first step to use automated computerized tools for big data collection in psychology.

  7. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Using Telemedicine Tools: Pilot Study in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra J. Eszes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes. Telemedicine tools can prevent blindness. We aimed to investigate the patients’ satisfaction when using such tools (fundus camera examination and the effect of demographic and socioeconomic factors on participation in screening. Methods. Pilot study involving fundus camera screening and self-administered questionnaire on participants’ experience during fundus examination (comfort, reliability, and future interest in participation, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors was performed on 89 patients with known diabetes in Csongrád County, a southeastern region of Hungary. Results. Thirty percent of the patients had never participated in any ophthalmological screening, while 25.7% had DR of some grade based upon a standard fundus camera examination and UK-based DR grading protocol (Spectra™ software. Large majority of the patients were satisfied with the screening and found it reliable and acceptable to undertake examination under pupil dilation; 67.3% were willing to undergo nonmydriatic fundus camera examination again. There was a statistically significant relationship between economic activity, education and marital status, and future interest in participation. Discussion. Participants found digital retinal screening to be reliable and satisfactory. Telemedicine can be a strong tool, supporting eye care professionals and allowing for faster and more comfortable DR screening.

  8. Psychological distress following fecal occult blood test in colorectal cancer screening--a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, Klaus; Ladelund, Steen; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the possible psychological side-effect of participating in a colorectal cancer (CRC)-screening program.......To evaluate the possible psychological side-effect of participating in a colorectal cancer (CRC)-screening program....

  9. Thermography as a screening and diagnostic tool: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Anita; Berentson-Shaw, Jessica

    2012-03-09

    To determine the effectiveness of digital infrared thermography for the detection of breast cancer in a screening population, and as a diagnostic tool in women with suspected breast cancer. A comprehensive search of electronic databases together with a search of international websites was conducted. Diagnostic studies comparing thermography with mammography for screening in asymptomatic populations; or comparing thermography with histology in women with suspected breast cancer; were eligible for inclusion. Quality of included studies was appraised using the QUADAS criteria. One study reported results for thermography in screening population and five studies reported diagnostic accuracy of thermography in women with suspected breast cancer. Overall, studies were of average quality. Sensitivity for thermography as a screening tool was 25% (specificity 74%) compared to mammography. Sensitivity for thermography as a diagnostic tool ranged from 25% (specificity 85%) to 97% (specificity 12%) compared to histology. Currently there is not sufficient evidence to support the use of thermography in breast cancer screening, nor is there sufficient evidence to show that thermography provides benefit to patients as an adjunctive tool to mammography or to suspicious clinical findings in diagnosing breast cancer.

  10. Subgrouping For Patients With Low Back Pain: A Multidimensional Approach Incorporating Cluster Analysis & The STarT Back Screening Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneciuk, Jason M.; Robinson, Michael E.; George, Steven Z.

    2014-01-01

    Early screening for psychological distress has been suggested to improve patient management for individuals experiencing low back pain. This study compared two approaches to psychological screening (i.e., multidimensional and unidimensional) so that preliminary recommendations on which approach may be appropriate for use in clinical settings other than primary care could be provided. Specifically, this study investigated STarT Back Screening Tool (SBT): 1) discriminant validity by evaluating its relationship with unidimensional psychological measures and 2) construct validity by evaluating how SBT risk categories compared to empirically derived subgroups using unidimensional psychological and disability measures. Patients (n = 146) receiving physical therapy for LBP were administered the SBT and a battery of unidimensional psychological measures at initial evaluation. Clinical measures consisted of pain intensity and self-reported disability. Several SBT risk dependent relationships (i.e., SBT low psychological measure scores with depressive symptom scores associated with the strongest influence on SBT risk categorization. Empirically derived subgroups indicated that there was no evidence of distinctive patterns amongst psychological or disability measures other than high or low profiles, therefore two groups may provide a more clear representation of the level of pain associated psychological distress, maladaptive coping and disability in this setting, as compared to three groups which have been suggested when using the SBT in primary care settings. PMID:25451622

  11. Effects of Screening for Psychological Distress on Patient Outcomes in Cancer: a Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identified as distressed; and (2) effects of screening for distress on distress outcomes. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases were searched through April 6, 2011 with manual searches of 45 relevant journals, reference list review, citation tracking of included articles, and trial registry reviews through June 30, 2012. Articles in any language on cancer patients were included if they (1) compared treatment for patients with psychological distress to placebo or usual care in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); or (2) assessed the effect of screening on psychological distress in a RCT. Results There were 14 eligible RCTs for treatment of distress, and 1 RCT on the effects of screening on patient distress. Pharmacological, psychotherapy and collaborative care interventions generally reduced distress with small to moderate effects. One study investigated effects of screening for distress on psychological outcomes, and it found no improvement. Conclusion Treatment studies reported modest improvement in distress symptoms, but only a single eligible study was found on the effects of screening cancer patients for distress, and distress did not improve in screened patients versus those receiving usual care. Because of the lack of evidence of beneficial effects of screening cancer patients for distress, it is premature to recommend or mandate implementation of routine screening. PMID:23751231

  12. Collective screening tools for early identification of dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Olga V. C. A.; Andrade, Paulo E.; Capellini, Simone A.

    2015-01-01

    Current response to intervention models (RTIs) favor a three-tier system. In general, Tier 1 consists of evidence-based, effective reading instruction in the classroom and universal screening of all students at the beginning of the grade level to identify children for early intervention. Non-responders to Tier 1 receive small-group tutoring in Tier 2. Non-responders to Tier 2 are given still more intensive, individual intervention in Tier 3. Limited time, personnel and financial resources derail RTI’s implementation in Brazilian schools because this approach involves procedures that require extra time and extra personnel in all three tiers, including screening tools which normally consist of tasks administered individually. We explored the accuracy of collectively and easily administered screening tools for the early identification of second graders at risk for dyslexia in a two-stage screening model. A first-stage universal screening based on collectively administered curriculum-based measurements was used in 45 7 years old early Portuguese readers from 4 second-grade classrooms at the beginning of the school year and identified an at-risk group of 13 academic low-achievers. Collectively administered tasks based on phonological judgments by matching figures and figures to spoken words [alternative tools for educators (ATE)] and a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of collective and individual assessments were both administered to all children and constituted the second-stage screening. Low-achievement on ATE tasks and on collectively administered writing tasks (scores at the 25th percentile) showed good sensitivity (true positives) and specificity (true negatives) to poor literacy status defined as scores ≤1 SD below the mean on literacy abilities at the end of fifth grade. These results provide implications for the use of a collectively administered screening tool for the early identification of children at risk for dyslexia in a classroom setting

  13. Collective screening tools for early identification of dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valéria Campana Dos Anjos Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current response to intervention models (RTI favor a three-tier system. In general, Tier 1 consists of evidence-based, effective reading instruction in the classroom and universal screening of all students at the beginning of the grade level to identify children for early intervention. Nonresponders to Tier 1 receive small-group tutoring in Tier 2. Nonresponders to Tier 2 are given still more intensive, individual intervention in Tier 3. Limited time, personnel and financial resources derail RTI’s implementation in Brazilian schools because this approach involves procedures that require extra time and extra personnel in all three tiers, including screening tools which normally consist of tasks administered individually. We explored the accuracy of collectively and easily administered screening tools for the early identification of second graders at risk for dyslexia in a two-stage screening model. A first-stage universal screening based on collectively administered curriculum-based measurements was used in 45 seven years old early Portuguese readers from 4 second-grade classrooms at the beginning of the school year and identified an at-risk group of 13 academic low-achievers. Collectively administered tasks based on phonological judgments by matching figures and figures to spoken words (Alternative Tools for Educators-ATE and a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of collective and individual assessments were both administered to all children and constituted the second-stage screening. Low-achievement on ATE tasks and on collectively administered writing tasks (scores at the 25th percentile showed good sensitivity (true positives and specificity (true negatives to poor literacy status defined as scores ≤ 1 SD below the mean on literacy abilities at the end of fifth grade. These results provide implications for the use of a collectively administered screening tool for the early identification of children at risk for dyslexia in a

  14. Collective screening tools for early identification of dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Olga V C A; Andrade, Paulo E; Capellini, Simone A

    2014-01-01

    Current response to intervention models (RTIs) favor a three-tier system. In general, Tier 1 consists of evidence-based, effective reading instruction in the classroom and universal screening of all students at the beginning of the grade level to identify children for early intervention. Non-responders to Tier 1 receive small-group tutoring in Tier 2. Non-responders to Tier 2 are given still more intensive, individual intervention in Tier 3. Limited time, personnel and financial resources derail RTI's implementation in Brazilian schools because this approach involves procedures that require extra time and extra personnel in all three tiers, including screening tools which normally consist of tasks administered individually. We explored the accuracy of collectively and easily administered screening tools for the early identification of second graders at risk for dyslexia in a two-stage screening model. A first-stage universal screening based on collectively administered curriculum-based measurements was used in 45 7 years old early Portuguese readers from 4 second-grade classrooms at the beginning of the school year and identified an at-risk group of 13 academic low-achievers. Collectively administered tasks based on phonological judgments by matching figures and figures to spoken words [alternative tools for educators (ATE)] and a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of collective and individual assessments were both administered to all children and constituted the second-stage screening. Low-achievement on ATE tasks and on collectively administered writing tasks (scores at the 25th percentile) showed good sensitivity (true positives) and specificity (true negatives) to poor literacy status defined as scores ≤1 SD below the mean on literacy abilities at the end of fifth grade. These results provide implications for the use of a collectively administered screening tool for the early identification of children at risk for dyslexia in a classroom setting.

  15. THE USEPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY RISK SCREENING TOOL (MFFRST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmetal ProtectionAgenccy's Metal Finishing Facility Risk Screening Tool (MFFRST)William M. Barrett Jr, Ph.D. , P.E. ; Paul Harten, Ph.D.1, and Matthew Lorber The US Environmental Protection Agency completed the development of the first version of...

  16. Frailty screening tools for elderly patients incident to dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Ismay N.; Goto, Namiko A.; Boereboom, Franciscus T J; Bots, Michiel L.; Verhaar, Marianne C.; Hamaker, Marije E

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectivesA geriatric assessment is an appropriatemethod foridentifying frail elderly patients. In CKD, it may contribute to optimize personalized care. However, a geriatric assessment is time consuming. The purpose of our study was to compare easy to apply frailty screening tools

  17. Dietary screening tool identifies nutritional risk in older adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Mitchell, Diane C; Hartman, Terryl J; Lawrence, Frank R; Sempos, Christopher T; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Background: No rapid methods exist for screening overall dietary intakes in older adults. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a scoring system for a diet screening tool to identify nutritional risk in community-dwelling older adults. Design: This cross-sectional study in older adults (n = 204) who reside in rural areas examined nutrition status by using an in-person interview, biochemical measures, and four 24-h recalls that included the use of dietary supplements. Results: The dietary screening tool was able to characterize 3 levels of nutritional risk: at risk, possible risk, and not at risk. Individuals classified as at nutritional risk had significantly lower indicators of diet quality (Healthy Eating Index and Mean Adequacy Ratio) and intakes of protein, most micronutrients, dietary fiber, fruit, and vegetables. The at-risk group had higher intakes of fats and oils and refined grains. The at-risk group also had the lowest serum vitamin B-12, folate, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin concentrations. The not-at-nutritional-risk group had significantly higher lycopene and β-carotene and lower homocysteine and methylmalonic acid concentrations. Conclusion: The dietary screening tool is a simple and practical tool that can help to detect nutritional risk in older adults. PMID:19458013

  18. Residency application screening tools: A survey of academic medical centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Kristen; Leinum, Corey J; Desai, Sonya; Pettit, Natasha N; Fuller, Patrick D

    2015-06-01

    The current use and content of screening tools utilized by ASHP-accredited pharmacy residency programs were assessed. A survey consisting of 19 questions assessing residency programs and the screening of pharmacy residency program applicants was e-mailed to residency directors of 362 pharmacy residency programs at 105 University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC)-member institutions. Questions gathered general program demographic information, data related to applicant growth from residency years 2010-11 to 2011-12, and information about the residency screening processes currently used. Responses were received from 73 residency program sites (69.5%) of the 105 UHC-member institutions to whom the e-mail was sent. Many sites used screening tools to calculate applicants' scores and then determined which candidates to invite for an onsite interview based on applicants' scores and group discussion. Seventy-eight percent (n = 57) of the 73 responding institutions reported the use of a screening tool or rubric to select applicants to invite for onsite interviews. The most common method of evaluation was individual applicant review before meeting as a group to discuss candidate selection. The most important factor for determining which residency candidate to interview was the overall impression based on the candidate's curriculum vitae (CV) and letters of recommendation. Most residency programs in UHC-member hospitals used a screening tool to determine which applicants to invite for an onsite interview. The most important factor for determining which residency candidate to interview was the overall impression based on the candidate's CV and letters of recommendation. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutritional Risk Screening 2002, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Malnutrition Screening Tool, and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool Are Good Predictors of Nutrition Risk in an Emergency Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabito, Estela Iraci; Marcadenti, Aline; da Silva Fink, Jaqueline; Figueira, Luciane; Silva, Flávia Moraes

    2017-08-01

    There is an international consensus that nutrition screening be performed at the hospital; however, there is no "best tool" for screening of malnutrition risk in hospitalized patients. To evaluate (1) the accuracy of the MUST (Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool), MST (Malnutrition Screening Tool), and SNAQ (Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire) in comparison with the NRS-2002 (Nutritional Risk Screening 2002) to identify patients at risk of malnutrition and (2) the ability of these nutrition screening tools to predict morbidity and mortality. A specific questionnaire was administered to complete the 4 screening tools. Outcomes measures included length of hospital stay, transfer to the intensive care unit, presence of infection, and incidence of death. A total of 752 patients were included. The nutrition risk was 29.3%, 37.1%, 33.6%, and 31.3% according to the NRS-2002, MUST, MST, and SNAQ, respectively. All screening tools showed satisfactory performance to identify patients at nutrition risk (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve between 0.765-0.808). Patients at nutrition risk showed higher risk of very long length of hospital stay as compared with those not at nutrition risk, independent of the tool applied (relative risk, 1.35-1.78). Increased risk of mortality (2.34 times) was detected by the MUST. The MUST, MST, and SNAQ share similar accuracy to the NRS-2002 in identifying risk of malnutrition, and all instruments were positively associated with very long hospital stay. In clinical practice, the 4 tools could be applied, and the choice for one of them should be made per the particularities of the service.

  20. Psychological consequences of screening for cardiovascular risk factors in an un-selected general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; S. Andersen, John; K. Jacobsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Concerns that general health checks, including screening for risk factors to ischemic heart disease (IHD),have negative psychological consequences seem widely unfounded; however, previous studies are only based on selfreports from participants. Aim: To investigate if risk factor...

  1. Mini-Nutritional Assessment, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, and Nutrition Risk Screening Tool for the Nutritional Evaluation of Older Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donini, Lorenzo M; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Molfino, Alessio; Rosano, Aldo; Lenzi, Andrea; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2016-10-01

    Malnutrition plays a major role in clinical and functional impairment in older adults. The use of validated, user-friendly and rapid screening tools for malnutrition in the elderly may improve the diagnosis and, possibly, the prognosis. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA), considered as a reference tool, MNA short form (MNA-SF), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), and Nutrition Risk Screening (NRS-2002) in elderly institutionalized participants. Participants were enrolled among nursing home residents and underwent a multidimensional evaluation. Predictive value and survival analysis were performed to compare the nutritional classifications obtained from the different tools. A total of 246 participants (164 women, age: 82.3 ± 9 years, and 82 men, age: 76.5 ± 11 years) were enrolled. Based on MNA, 22.6% of females and 17% of males were classified as malnourished; 56.7% of women and 61% of men were at risk of malnutrition. Agreement between MNA and MUST or NRS-2002 was classified as "fair" (k = 0.270 and 0.291, respectively; P < .001), whereas the agreement between MNA and MNA-SF was classified as "moderate" (k = 0.588; P < .001). Because of the high percentage of false negative participants, MUST and NRS-2002 presented a low overall predictive value compared with MNA and MNA-SF. Clinical parameters were significantly different in false negative participants with MUST or NRS-2002 from true negative and true positive individuals using the reference tool. For all screening tools, there was a significant association between malnutrition and mortality. MNA showed the best predictive value for survival among well-nourished participants. Functional, psychological, and cognitive parameters, not considered in MUST and NRS-2002 tools, are probably more important risk factors for malnutrition than acute illness in geriatric long-term care inpatient settings and may account for the low predictive

  2. The Clinical Breast Examination: A Useful Screening Tool?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The standardization of the clinical breast examination as a screening tool for breast cancer has been a topic of controversy. Current recommendations vary significantly from organization to organization without consensus. There currently does not seem to be sufficient evidence regarding overall survival benefit of the clinical breast exam. However, as adjunct screening with mammography, it may help find earlier breast cancers and the up to 5–10% of cancers missed by mammography. The most appropriate standardized protocol may be that the clinical breast exam can be performed at the discretion of the provider and patient, with more inclination toward use in women in whom the exam carries greater sensitivity.

  3. Technology addiction among treatment seekers for psychological problems: implication for screening in mental health setting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Das, Aswathy; Sharma, ManojKumar; Thamilselvan, P; Marimuthu, P

    2017-01-01

    .... Materials and Methods: A total of 75 subjects were assessed using background data sheet, internet addiction impairment index, video game use pattern, pornography addiction screening tool and screening for mobile phone use...

  4. Screening tools for identification of elder abuse: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallione, Chiara; Dal Molin, Alberto; Cristina, Fabio V B; Ferns, Hilary; Mattioli, Mark; Suardi, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    To review the efficacy and accuracy of tools administered to older people, intended to detect and measure elder abuse. The mistreatment of older people represents a widespread problem, with exponential growth risk, especially considering the progressive ageing of the world population. It could have serious consequences for the victim's health if not recognised early, denounced and stopped. Abuse is often undetected by service providers because there is a lack of awareness surrounding the magnitude of the problem. Education and formal training in the signs of abuse are also generally poorly developed, as are reporting procedures which would lead to further investigation. Systematic review. Comprehensive database searches of MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE and Scopus were undertaken. Screening of 695 articles resulted in 11 included. Appraisal and analysis using PRISMA Statement and STROBE checklist were undertaken. Eleven screening tools have been presented: H-S/EAST, VASS, EASI, CASE, BASE, E-IOA, EAI, EPAS, CPEABS, OAPAM and OAFEM, all aimed at healthcare professional or, in some cases, expected to be specifically used by nurses. The fundamental function of any assessment instrument is to guide through a standardised screening process and to ensure that signs of abuse are not missed. Several tools have been tested; some have demonstrated a moderate to good internal consistency and some have been validated to allow an early identification. None have been evaluated against measurable violence or health outcomes. Nurses and all healthcare providers should screen patients routinely. However, we are not able to recommend a single tool as the selection and implementation has to be appropriate to the setting. Furthermore, the study population and the possibility of using multiple tools in combination should be taken into consideration, to assess all the aspects of violence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A Monte Carlo tool to simulate breast cancer screening programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forastero, C.; Zamora, L. I.; Guirado, D.; Lallena, A. M.

    2010-09-01

    A Monte Carlo tool which permits the simulation of screening mammography programmes is developed. Various statistical distributions describing different parameters involved in the problem are used: the characteristics of the population under study, a tumour growth model and a model for tumour detection based on parameters such as sensitivity and specificity which depends on the woman's age. We reproduce results of different actual programmes. The model enables us to find out the configuration (the age of the women who attend the screening trials and screening frequency) which produces maximum benefits with minimum risks. In addition, the model has permitted us to validate some of the assumed hypothesis, such as the probability distribution of the tumour detection as a function of the tumour size, the frequency of the histological types and the transition probability between different histological types.

  6. Telenovela: an innovative colorectal cancer screening health messaging tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melany Cueva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alaska Native people have nearly twice the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and mortality as the US White population. Objective. Building upon storytelling as a culturally respectful way to share information among Alaska Native people, a 25-minute telenovela-style movie, What's the Big Deal?, was developed to increase CRC screening awareness and knowledge, role-model CRC conversations, and support wellness choices. Design. Alaska Native cultural values of family, community, storytelling, and humor were woven into seven, 3–4 minute movie vignettes. Written post-movie viewing evaluations completed by 71.3% of viewers (305/428 were collected at several venues, including the premiere of the movie in the urban city of Anchorage at a local movie theater, seven rural Alaska community movie nights, and five cancer education trainings with Community Health Workers. Paper and pencil evaluations included check box and open-ended questions to learn participants' response to a telenovela-style movie. Results. On written-post movie viewing evaluations, viewers reported an increase in CRC knowledge and comfort with talking about recommended CRC screening exams. Notably, 81.6% of respondents (249/305 wrote positive intent to change behavior. Multiple responses included: 65% talking with family and friends about colon screening (162, 24% talking with their provider about colon screening (59, 31% having a colon screening (76, and 44% increasing physical activity (110. Conclusions. Written evaluations revealed the telenovela genre to be an innovative way to communicate colorectal cancer health messages with Alaska Native, American Indian, and Caucasian people both in an urban and rural setting to empower conversations and action related to colorectal cancer screening. Telenovela is a promising health communication tool to shift community norms by generating enthusiasm and conversations about the importance of having recommended colorectal

  7. Telenovela: an innovative colorectal cancer screening health messaging tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Slatton, Jozieta; Dignan, Mark; Underwood, Emily; Landis, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Alaska Native people have nearly twice the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality as the US White population. Building upon storytelling as a culturally respectful way to share information among Alaska Native people, a 25-minute telenovela-style movie, What's the Big Deal?, was developed to increase CRC screening awareness and knowledge, role-model CRC conversations, and support wellness choices. Alaska Native cultural values of family, community, storytelling, and humor were woven into seven, 3-4 minute movie vignettes. Written post-movie viewing evaluations completed by 71.3% of viewers (305/428) were collected at several venues, including the premiere of the movie in the urban city of Anchorage at a local movie theater, seven rural Alaska community movie nights, and five cancer education trainings with Community Health Workers. Paper and pencil evaluations included check box and open-ended questions to learn participants' response to a telenovela-style movie. On written-post movie viewing evaluations, viewers reported an increase in CRC knowledge and comfort with talking about recommended CRC screening exams. Notably, 81.6% of respondents (249/305) wrote positive intent to change behavior. Multiple responses included: 65% talking with family and friends about colon screening (162), 24% talking with their provider about colon screening (59), 31% having a colon screening (76), and 44% increasing physical activity (110). Written evaluations revealed the telenovela genre to be an innovative way to communicate colorectal cancer health messages with Alaska Native, American Indian, and Caucasian people both in an urban and rural setting to empower conversations and action related to colorectal cancer screening. Telenovela is a promising health communication tool to shift community norms by generating enthusiasm and conversations about the importance of having recommended colorectal cancer screening exams.

  8. Palliative Care Providers' Practices Surrounding Psychological Distress Screening and Treatment: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Elissa; Eghan, Claude; Moran, Sheila; Herr, Keela; Reid, M Carrington

    2017-01-01

    To investigate how inpatient palliative care teams nationwide currently screen for and treat psychological distress. A web-based survey was sent to inpatient palliative care providers of all disciplines nationwide asking about their practice patterns regarding psychological assessment and treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and responses, and analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether certain disciplines were more likely to utilize specific treatment modalities. A total of N = 236 respondents were included in the final analyses. Providers reported that they encounter psychological distress regularly in their practice and that they screen for distress using multiple methods. When psychological distress is detected, providers reported referring patients to an average of 3 different providers (standard deviation = 1.46), most frequently a social worker (69.6%) or chaplain (65.3%) on the palliative care team. A total of 84.6% of physicians and 54.5% of nurse practitioners reported that they prescribe anxiolytics or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors to patients experiencing psychological distress. This study revealed significant variability and redundancy in how palliative care teams currently manage psychological distress. The lack of consistency potentially stems from the variability in the composition of palliative care teams across care settings and the lack of scientific evidence for best practices in psychological care in palliative care. Future research is needed to establish best practices in the screening and treatment of psychological distress for patients receiving palliative care.

  9. STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment). Consensus validation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, P

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Older people experience more concurrent illnesses, are prescribed more medications and suffer more adverse drug events than younger people. Many drugs predispose older people to adverse events such as falls and cognitive impairment, thus increasing morbidity and health resource utilization. At the same time, older people are often denied potentially beneficial, clinically indicated medications without a valid reason. We aimed to validate a new screening tool of older persons\\' prescriptions incorporating criteria for potentially inappropriate drugs called STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons\\' Prescriptions) and criteria for potentially appropriate, indicated drugs called START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right, i.e. appropriate, indicated Treatment). METHODS: A Delphi consensus technique was used to establish the content validity of STOPP\\/START. An 18-member expert panel from academic centers in Ireland and the United Kingdom completed two rounds of the Delphi process by mail survey. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by determining the kappa-statistic for measure of agreement on 100 data-sets. RESULTS: STOPP is comprised of 65 clinically significant criteria for potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people. Each criterion is accompanied by a concise explanation as to why the prescribing practice is potentially inappropriate. START consists of 22 evidence-based prescribing indicators for commonly encountered diseases in older people. Inter-rater reliability is favorable with a kappa-coefficient of 0.75 for STOPP and 0.68 for START. CONCLUSION: STOPP\\/START is a valid, reliable and comprehensive screening tool that enables the prescribing physician to appraise an older patient\\'s prescription drugs in the context of his\\/her concurrent diagnoses.

  10. Radiographic Absorptiometry as a Screening Tool in Male Osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S J; Nielsen, Morten M.; Ryg, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis screening with dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA) is not recommended due to low diagnostic utility and costs. Radiographic absorptiometry (RA) determines bone mineral density (BMD) of the phalangeal bones of the hand and is a potential osteoporosis pre-screening tool. Purpose......: To determine the ability of RA to identify patients with osteoporosis in a male population. Material and Methods: As part of the Odense Androgen Study, we measured BMD of the intermediate phalanges of the second to fourth finger, lumbar spine (L2-L4), and total hip in 218 men aged 60-74 years (mean 68.8 years......), randomly invited from the population, using RA (MetriScan) and DXA (Hologic 4500-A). Osteopenia and osteoporosis were defined as a T-score of less than -1.0 and -2.5, respectively, in the hip and/or lumbar spine. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) were computed...

  11. Accuracy of quick and easy undernutrition screening tools--Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, and modified Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool--in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M. W.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; Hopmans, Wendy; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M. M. J.; de Vos, Rien; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quick-and-easy undernutrition screening tools, ie, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with respect to their accuracy in detecting undernutrition measured by a

  12. Malnutrition risk in hospitalized children : use of 3 screening tools in a large European population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chourdakis, Michael; Hecht, Christina; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Joosten, Koen F. M.; Karagiozoglou-Lainpoudi, Thomais; Koetse, Harma A.; Ksiazyk, Janusz; Lazea, Cecilia; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Koletzko, Berthold; Hulst, Jessie M.

    Background: Several malnutrition screening tools have been advocated for use in pediatric inpatients. Objective: We evaluated how 3 popular pediatric nutrition screening tools [i.e., the Pediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS), the Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Pediatrics

  13. Evaluation of the nutrition screening tool for childhood cancer (SCAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexia J; White, Melinda; Viani, Karina; Mosby, Terezie T

    2016-02-01

    Malnutrition is a serious concern for children with cancer and nutrition screening may offer a simple alternative to nutrition assessment for identifying children with cancer who are at risk of malnutrition. The present paper aimed to evaluate the nutrition screening tool for childhood cancer (SCAN). SCAN was developed after an extensive review of currently available tools and published screening recommendation, consideration of pediatric oncology nutrition guidelines, piloting questions, and consulting with members of International Pediatric Oncology Nutrition Group. In Study 1, the accuracy and validity of SCAN against pediatric subjective global nutrition assessment (pediatric SGNA) was determined. In Study 2, subjects were classified as 'at risk of malnutrition' and 'not at risk of malnutrition' according to SCAN and measures of height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and body composition were compared between the groups. The validation of SCAN against pediatric SGNA showed SCAN had 'excellent' accuracy (0.90, 95% CI 0.78-1.00; p < 0.001), 100% sensitivity, 39% specificity, 56% positive predictive value and 100% negative predictive value. When subjects in Study 2 were classified into 'at risk of malnutrition' and 'not at risk of malnutrition' according to SCAN, the 'at risk of malnutrition' group had significantly lower values for weight Z score (p = 0.001), BMI Z score (p = 0.001) and fat mass index (FMI) (p = 0.04), than the 'not at risk of malnutrition' group. This study shows that SCAN is a simple, quick and valid tool which can be used to identify children with cancer who are at risk of malnutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Salivary calcium concentration as a screening tool for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Maryam; Masooleh, Irandokht Shenavar; Leyli, Ehsan Kazemnejad; Nikoukar, Laia Rahbar

    2013-04-01

    Measurements of salivary calcium level may be a useful screening tool for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether this measure is valid compared with dual-energy X-ray (Bone Mineral Density) screening tools in osteoporosis. A case-control study was carried out in 40 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (T-score ≤ -2.5) and 40 women without osteoporosis (T-score > -1 bone mineral density). Salivary samples were collected and calcium concentrations were measured and expressed as mg/dL. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses was used to determine the optimal cut-off thresholds for salivary calcium in healthy postmenopausal women. The cut-off point for salivary calcium was 6.1 mg/dL. The sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for identifying women with osteoporosis, were 67.5 (95%CI 52.33-82.67) and 60% (95%CI 44.62-75.38). The area under curve (AUC) was 0.678 (95%CI 0.56-0.79), the positive predictive value (PPV) was 62.79 (95%CI 47.74-77.84) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 64.86% (95%CI 49.27-80.46). The positive likelihood ratio was 1.688 and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.542. Salivary calcium concentration discriminates between women with and without osteoporosis and constitutes a useful tool for screening for osteoporosis. © 2012 The Authors International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2012 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide in College Student Suicide Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Geoffrey L

    2016-04-01

    Suicide screening on campus is limited by effectiveness of existing questionnaires. This study tests whether Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) constructs may be more effective in screening than traditional risk factors measures like the Interactive Screening Protocol (ISP). Participants were 188 traditional-age students from three different campuses recruited through a subject pool and peer recruiters. IPTS risk variables as a set explained all likelihood of higher risk responses to suicidality questions that was otherwise explained by risk factors, plus additional likelihood besides. Current IPTS measures are no screening "magic bullet," but further inquiry into use of these constructs is warranted. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  16. Testing the woman abuse screening tool to identify intimate partner violence in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L; Katz, Alan R

    2015-04-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Development of a screening tool for the identification of psychooncological treatment need in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraner, Verena; Giesinger, Johannes; Kemmler, Georg; Taucher, Susanne; Hubalek, Michael; Weber, Barbara; Rumpold, Gerhard; Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara; Holzner, Bernhard

    2009-09-01

    In breast cancer patients the diagnosis, treatment and aftercare of the physical disease cause a large amount of psychosocial distress, which can have a variety of negative consequences on patients' physical and mental well-being. Although about one-third of the patients show heightened psychosocial distress that may require psychooncological interventions its detection in daily clinical routine is poor and referral to mental health professionals is insufficient. The aim of the study was to develop a short screening tool for the detection of need for psychooncological treatment (POT) in breast cancer patients. Over a period of six months, 115 breast cancer outpatients attending the Department of Gynaecology at Innsbruck Medical University were consecutively included in the study. Logistic regression analysis and ROC analyses were used to identify the most predictive item set from a set of questionnaires (EORTC-QLQ-C30, HADS and Hornheide Screening Instrument) and other additional questions. Data from 105 breast cancer patients (mean age 58.8, SD 12.3) were available for analysis. A logistic regression equation containing the EORTC-QLQ-C30 scales Emotional Functioning and Role Functioning as well as the yes-no question after psychiatric/psychological/psychotherapeutic treatment at any point in lifetime showed highest predictive power with regard to need of POT (AUC=0.88; CI 95% 0.82-0.95). A pilot study (n=20) investigating applicability of a computerized version of this screening tool in oncological routine showed high acceptance and feasibility. The developed PO-screening tool showed high diagnostic accuracy regarding POT needs. The short assessment time and good usability of its computerized version allowed easy implementation in daily oncological routine.

  18. [Screening for bipolar disorder in primary care patients with psychological symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, Enric; López-Rodríguez, Juan A; Escobar-Rabadán, Francisco; Téllez-Lapeira, Juan; Mínguez, José; Párraga, Ignacio; Suárez-Hernández, Tatiana; Piñero, María José; Guzón, Marta-Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the proportion of positive results in the screening of bipolar disorder (BD) among primary care patients presenting with psychological symptoms, and to analyze their characteristics. Multicenter cross-sectional study. Nineteen Primary Care clinics in different Spanish regions. A total of 360 consecutive primary care patients aged 18 to 70, presenting with psychological symptoms. Screening for BP was performed by means of the Mood Disorders Questionnaire. Data on quality of life (EuroQol-5D) and functional impairment (Sheehan Disability Inventory) were obtained. Data on psychiatric comorbidity and data on the use of psychotropic medication were acquired by review of medical records. Of the patients screened, 11.9% were positive (95%CI: 8.8%-15.7%). Only two patients had a diagnosis of BP in their clinical records and, although more than half received treatment with antidepressants, only two received treatment with mood stabilizers. Positive screening is associated with work, social and family dysfunction, greater perceived stress and poor quality of life. BD screening in primary care patients with psychological problems leads to a striking proportion of positive results, indicating that there may be a significant prevalence of BP patients, most of them undiagnosed and untreated. Further research is needed to determine the role that Primary Care can or should assume in the screening, diagnosis and management of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Eysenck's PEN and Lanyon's Psychological Screening Inventory in a Group of American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehryar, A. H.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Eysenck's PEN Inventory and Lanyon's Psychological Screening Inventory were given to groups of male and female American undergraduates from a state university. A factorial analysis of the intercorrelations showed that three major factors could account for the bulk of correlations among the nine differently labeled characteristics covered by the…

  20. Premenstrual Symptom Screening Tool: A Useful Tool for DSM-5 Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Ozdel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the usefulness of Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST in detecting Premenstrual Dysphoric Syndrome (PMDD and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS in a Turkish sample. Material and Method: One hundred and eighteen women were included in the study. Participants were menstruating women, between the ages of 18 and 49 years who work in various departments of Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Teaching and Research Hospital. Sociodemographic data collection form, PSST, and Symptom Check List (SCL-90-R were given to the participants, filled out by participants and checked out by researchers. Participants were divided into three groups (i.e., women with subthreshold premenstrual symptoms, women with PMDD, and women with PMS according to the scores they get on the PSST. These groups were compared according to PSST scores and SCL-90-R scores. Results: Internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach %u03B1=0.928 for the items of the tool. In this sample, the prevalence of the PMDD and PMS were 15.2 % (n=18 and 32.2 % (n=38 respectively. When we compare the scores on SCL-90-R subscales there were significant differences between the PMDD, PMS, and women with subthreshold groups. Besides there were significant differences for the three groups in terms of percentages of women who reported moderate to severe symptoms on the four items that are essential to PMDD diagnosis. Discussion: Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool is a useful tool to detect candidates for PMDD and moderate to severe PMS.

  1. Psychiatric screening and interventions for minor refugees in Europe: an overview of approaches and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlings, Annerieke; Hein, Irma

    2017-11-10

    Currently hundreds of thousands of minor refugees entered Europe. This group has been exposed to traumatic events pre-, during, and post-migration and is at increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders. In this article, we describe the results of our literature search on screening and interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in minor refugees, in order to make recommendations for clinical practice. Results show that studies on diagnostic accuracy of assessment instruments and efficacy of mental healthcare interventions in this population are lacking. Traumatic experiences pre-flight, during the flight and at resettlement, superimposed by parental PTSD, and other contextual factors, might lead to more than 25% of minor refugees developing PTSD. To enhance the number of minor refugees recognized with PTSD, we recommend the use of a brief screening instrument. A public health approach, focusing on environmental supportive factors is the first step in treatment for this group, followed by short-term psychological group interventions focusing on psycho-education and stress reduction. Minor refugees with no improvement in PTSD symptoms by these interventions need referral to specialized mental health care services. Mental health providers should be culturally competent. What is Known: • Post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, sleeping problems, and depression are the most common psychiatric disorders in minor refugees. • Evidence based methods on screening and interventions in minor refugees with psychiatric disorders are lacking. What is New: • In the absence of validated screening tools a best practice reliable, quick and child-friendly tool is presented. • A layered system for mental health care and psychosocial support in minor refugees is explained.

  2. Accuracy of quick and easy undernutrition screening tools--Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, and modified Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool--in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M W; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Hopmans, Wendy; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M M J; de Vos, Rien; De Mol, Bas A J M

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quick-and-easy undernutrition screening tools, ie, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with respect to their accuracy in detecting undernutrition measured by a low-fat free mass index (FFMI; calculated as kg/m(2)), and secondly, to assess their association with postoperative adverse outcomes. Between February 2008 and December 2009, a single-center observational cohort study was performed (n=325). A low FFMI was set at ≤14.6 in women and ≤16.7 in men measured using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. To compare the accuracy of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire in detecting low FFMI sensitivity, specificity, and other accuracy test characteristics were calculated. The associations between the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and adverse outcomes were analyzed using logistic regression analyses with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) presented. Sensitivity and receiver operator characteristic-based area under the curve to detect low FFMI were 59% and 19%, and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60 to 0.82) and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.68) for the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, respectively. Accuracy of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool improved when age and sex were added to the nutritional screening process (sensitivity 74%, area under the curve: 0.72 [95% CI: 0.62 to 0.82]). This modified version of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, but not the original Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool or Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, was associated with prolonged intensive care unit and hospital stay (odds ratio: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.4; odds ratio: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.7). The accuracy to detect a low FFMI was considerably higher for the Malnutrition

  3. A modern artificial intelligence Playware art tool for psychological testing of group dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagliarini, Luigi; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2015-01-01

    and the psychological findings. We describe the modern artificial intelligence implementation of this instrument. Between an art piece and a psychological test, at a first cognitive analysis, it seems to be a promising research tool. In the discussion we speculate about potential industrial applications, as well....

  4. The Graz Malnutrition Screening (GMS): a new hospital screening tool for malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Regina E; Eglseer, Doris; Eisenberger, Anna; Wirnsberger, Gerhard H

    2016-02-28

    Despite the significant impact of malnutrition in hospitalised patients, it is often not identified by clinical staff in daily practice. To improve nutritional support in hospitals, standardised routine nutritional screening is essential. The Graz Malnutrition Screening (GMS) tool was developed for the purpose of malnutrition risk screening in a large hospital setting involving different departments. It was the aim of the present study to validate the GMS against Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) and Mini Nutritional Assessment-short form (MNA-sf) in a randomised blinded manner. A total of 404 randomly selected patients admitted to the internal, surgical and orthopaedic wards of the University Hospital Graz were screened in a blinded manner by different raters. Concurrent validity was determined by comparing the GMS with the NRS and in older patients (70+ years) with the MNA-sf additionally. According to GMS, 31·9 or 28·5% of the admitted patients were categorised as at 'risk of malnutrition' (depending on the rater). According to the reference standard of NRS, 24·5% of the patients suffered from malnutrition. Pearson's r values of 0·78 compared with the NRS and 0·84 compared with the MNA showed strong positive correlations. Results of accuracy (0·85), sensitivity (0·94), specificity (0·77), positive predictive value (0·76) and negative predictive value (0·95) of GMS were also very high. Cohen's κ for internal consistency of the GMS was 0·82. GMS proves to be a valid and reliable instrument for the detection of malnutrition in adult patients in acute-care hospitals.

  5. Bullying: Effects on School-Aged Children, Screening Tools, and Referral Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Katie; Cassidy, Brenda; Mitchell, Ann M

    2017-01-01

    Bullying is not a new concept or behavior, and is now gaining national attention as a growing public health concern. Bullying leads to short- and long-term physical and psychological damage to both the victims and the bullies. The serious implications of bullying drive a clinical mandate for teachers and school nurses to be educated and adequately trained to identify and address bullying within schools. This review of the literature describes screening tools that can be utilized to identify both victims and bullies. In addition, referral services utilizing collaborative intervention measures are discussed. This literature review will help school nurses and teachers to identify and expand their role in school-wide bullying prevention and intervention measures.

  6. A rapid screening tool for fatigue impact in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Daphne

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is a common complaint in multiple sclerosis (MS and often interferes with daily functioning. Both clinicians and researchers may need to detect high levels of fatigue impact using a time and effort efficient tool. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of a rapid screening instrument for fatigue impact in multiple sclerosis. Methods Three visual analogue scales (VAS for assessing the impact of fatigue were developed. Sixty two subjects with definite MS (mean age 52 +/- 10.5 years; 29 women and 24 healthy controls (mean age 52 +/- 14 years; 13 women completed all VAS scales (range 0–100, the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS (range 7–63, the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS (range 0–84 and the Guy's Neurological Disability Scale (GNDS (range 0–5. All tests were repeated with an interval of maximum three days. To evaluate the reproducibility, intraclass correlations (ICC were calculated, based on one-way analysis of variance for repeated measurements. Validity was considered by means of correlation coefficients. ROC analysis was used to determine the accuracy of the VAS scales. Results The ICC of the VAS scales ranged from 0.68 to 0.69. VAS scales showed low to moderate correlation with FSS, MFIS and GNDS (Kendall's tau 0.23–0.45 and were not related with physical or cognitive performance, or with depression. All VAS scales were able to discriminate between subjects with MS and controls. Twenty five subjects with MS had a Fatigue Severity Scale score of 36 or more and were classified into the "fatigue" group. ROC analysis showed that VAS_1 is most useful to classify subjects in the "fatigue" group. A cut-off value of VAS_1 of 59 displayed 76% sensitivity and 72% specificity. When using the MFIS score of 40 or more to classify the groups, VAS_1 remained the strongest tool, with 81% sensitivity and 77% specificity at a cut-off value of 59. Conclusion The VAS for the impact of fatigue on daily life (VAS_1

  7. Facilitator psychological constructs for mammography screening among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymoori, Parvaneh; Moshki, Mehdi; Roshani, Daem

    2014-01-01

    While many researchers often use a theoretical framework for mammogram repeat interventions, it seems they do not apply an identified mediation analysis method. The aim of this study was to determine the mediators of mammogram replication behavior in two tailored interventions for non-adherent Iranian women. A sample population of 184 women over 50 years old in Sanandaj, Iran, was selected for an experiment. Participants were randomly allocated into one of the three conditions: 1) an intervention based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) 2) an intervention based on an integration of the HBM and selected constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), and 3) a control group. Constructs were measured before the intervention, and after a 6-month follow-up. Perceived self-efficacy, behavioral control, and subjective norms were recognized as mediators in the HBM and selected constructs from the TPB intervention. Perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers, self-efficacy and behavioral control met the criteria for mediation in the HBM intervention. This study was successful in establishing mediation in a sample of women. Our findings enrich the literature on mammography repeat, indicating key intervention factors, and relegating redundant ones in the Iranian populations. The use of strategies to increase mammography repeat, such HBM and TPB constructs is suggested to be important for maintaining a screening behavior, once the behavior has been adopted.

  8. ALBA Screening Instrument (ASI): A brief screening tool for Lewy Body Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Basalo, M M; Fernandez, M C; Ojea Quintana, M; Rojas, J I; Garcia Basalo, M J; Bogliotti, E; Campora, N; Fernandez, M; Berrios, W; Cristiano, E; Golimstok, A

    Early detection of neurodegenerative diseases is essential for treatment and proper care of these patients. Screening tools available today are effective for several types of dementia. However, there is no one specific for Lewy Body Dementia (LBD). The aim of this paper is to present a tool for early detection of LBD, accessible even for non-medical staff. We stratified subjects (MMSE>20) into four groups: health controls (HC), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), LBD and other dementias (Alzheimer and vascular). All subjects (age range 50-90) were examined with a comprehensive neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric evaluation, as well as neuroimaging to differentiate diagnosis between groups, fulfilling corresponding criteria. Both neurologists and neuropsychologists were blind to the performance on clinical evaluations and ASI, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the instrument were determined to differentiate LBD from other groups. We evaluated 427 subjects, 91 HC, 140 with MCI and 196 with dementia. In the dementia group, 75 were diagnosed with LBD and 121 with other dementias. ASI total score was 12.7±0.4 for LBD, 2.9±0.2 for HC, 5±0.7 for MCI, and 5.4±2.6 for other causes of dementia. ROC curve analysis showed a sensitivity of 90.7% and a specificity of 93.6% stands, with 9 as the cutoff with better test performance compared against other groups. ASI is a brief screening tool for LBD with high sensitivity and specificity and useful even for non-medical staff. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Feasibility of brief psychological distress screening by a community-based telephone helpline for cancer patients and carers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchison Sandy D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to one-third of people affected by cancer experience ongoing psychological distress and would benefit from screening followed by an appropriate level of psychological intervention. This rarely occurs in routine clinical practice due to barriers such as lack of time and experience. This study investigated the feasibility of community-based telephone helpline operators screening callers affected by cancer for their level of distress using a brief screening tool (Distress Thermometer, and triaging to the appropriate level of care using a tiered model. Methods Consecutive cancer patients and carers who contacted the helpline from September-December 2006 (n = 341 were invited to participate. Routine screening and triage was conducted by helpline operators at this time. Additional socio-demographic and psychosocial adjustment data were collected by telephone interview by research staff following the initial call. Results The Distress Thermometer had good overall accuracy in detecting general psychosocial morbidity (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale cut-off score ≥ 15 for cancer patients (AUC = 0.73 and carers (AUC = 0.70. We found 73% of participants met the Distress Thermometer cut-off for distress caseness according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (a score ≥ 4, and optimal sensitivity (83%, 77% and specificity (51%, 48% were obtained with cut-offs of ≥ 4 and ≥ 6 in the patient and carer groups respectively. Distress was significantly associated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores (total, as well as anxiety and depression subscales and level of care in cancer patients, as well as with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety subscale for carers. There was a trend for more highly distressed callers to be triaged to more intensive care, with patients with distress scores ≥ 4 more likely to receive extended or specialist care. Conclusions Our data suggest that it was feasible

  10. Screening the psychological laboratory: Hugo Münsterberg, psychotechnics, and the cinema, 1892-1916.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    According to Hugo Münsterberg, the direct application of experimental psychology to the practical problems of education, law, industry, and art belonged by definition to the domain of psychotechnics. Whether in the form of pedagogical prescription, interrogation technique, hiring practice, or aesthetic principle, the psychotechnical method implied bringing the psychological laboratory to bear on everyday life. There were, however, significant pitfalls to leaving behind the putative purity of the early psychological laboratory in pursuit of technological utility. In the Vocation Bureau, for example, psychological instruments were often deemed too intimidating for a public unfamiliar with the inner workings of experimental science. Similarly, when psychotechnical means were employed by big business in screening job candidates, ethical red flags were raised about this new alliance between science and capital. This tension was particularly evident in Münsterberg's collaboration with the Paramount Pictures Corporation in 1916. In translating psychological tests into short experimental films, Münsterberg not only envisioned a new mass medium for the dissemination of psychotechnics, but a means by which to initiate the masses into the culture of experimental psychology.

  11. Review Essay: Introducing Students to the Tools of Psychological Research

    OpenAIRE

    Robert B. Faux

    2002-01-01

    Psychologische Methoden der Datenerhebung und -analyse können für viele Lehrende und Studierende eine sehr entmutigende Aufgabe sein. Auch aus diesem Grund ist das Buch von Nicky HAYES – Doing Psychological Research: Gathering and Analyzing Data (2000) – ein wichtiger Beitrag. Es richtet sich an Studienanfänger(innen) der Psychologie und behandelt sowohl quantitative als auch qualitative Ansätze. Das Buch ist in zwei Teile gegliedert: Teil I behandelt Erhebungsmethoden, Teil II widmet sich de...

  12. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Screening Tools to Detect Eating Disorders in Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Alyssa J; Erickson, Casey D; Tierney, Dayna K; Houston, Megan N; Bacon, Cailee E Welch

    2016-12-01

    Clinical Scenario: Eating disorders in female athletes are a commonly underdiagnosed condition. Better screening tools for eating disorders in athletic females could help increase diagnosis and help athletes get the treatment they need. Focused Clinical Question: Should screening tools be used to detect eating disorders in female athletes? Summary of Key Findings: The literature was searched for studies that included information regarding the sensitivity and specificity of screening tools for eating disorders in female athletes. The search returned 5 possible articles related to the clinical question; 3 studies met the inclusion criteria (2 cross-sectional studies, 1 cohort study) and were included. All 3 studies reported sensitivity and specificity for the Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire version 2, the Brief Eating Disorder in Athletes Questionnaire version 2, and the Physiologic Screening Test to Detect Eating Disorders Among Female Athletes. All 3 studies found that the respective screening tool was able to accurately identify female athletes with eating disorders; however, the screening tools varied in sensitivity and specificity values. Clinical Bottom Line: There is strong evidence to support the use of screening tools to detect eating disorders in female athletes. Screening tools with higher sensitivity and specificity have demonstrated a successful outcome of determining athletes with eating disorders or at risk for developing an eating disorder. Strength of Recommendation: There is grade A evidence available to demonstrate that screening tools accurately detect female athletes at risk for eating disorders.

  13. Screening malnutrition in hospital outpatients. Can the SNAQ malnutrition screening tool also be applied to this population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelemaat, F; Kruizenga, H M; de Vet, Henrica C W; Seidell, J C; Butterman, M.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A E

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is known from earlier studies that only 15% of the malnourished hospital outpatient population is recognized and receives nutritional treatment. To increase this number, a quick and easy malnutrition screening tool would be helpful. Because such a tool is lacking, we developed

  14. Screening malnutrition in hospital outpatients. Can the SNAQ malnutrition screening tool also be applied to this population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelemaat, F.; Kruizenga, H.M.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Seidell, J.C.; Butterman, M.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.

    2008-01-01

    Background & aims: It is known from earlier studies that only 15% of the malnourished hospital outpatient population is recognized and receives nutritional treatment. To increase this number, a quick and easy malnutrition screening tool would be helpful. Because such a tool is lacking, we developed

  15. Evaluation of a two-question screening tool in the detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Women Abuse Screening Tool–short lacks sufficient sensitivity and therefore is not an ideal screening tool for this primary care ambulatory setting. The low sensitivity can be attributed to the participants' understanding of the screening questions, which utilise Eurocentric definitions of intimate partner violence.

  16. Subgrouping for patients with low back pain: a multidimensional approach incorporating cluster analysis and the STarT Back Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneciuk, Jason M; Robinson, Michael E; George, Steven Z

    2015-01-01

    Early screening for psychological distress has been suggested to improve patient management for individuals experiencing low back pain. This study compared 2 approaches to psychological screening (ie, multidimensional and unidimensional) so that preliminary recommendations on which approach may be appropriate for use in clinical settings other than primary care could be provided. Specifically, this study investigated aspects of the STarT Back Screening Tool (SBT): 1) discriminant validity by evaluating its relationship with unidimensional psychological measures and 2) construct validity by evaluating how SBT risk categories compared to empirically derived subgroups using unidimensional psychological and disability measures. Patients (N = 146) receiving physical therapy for LBP were administered the SBT and a battery of unidimensional psychological measures at initial evaluation. Clinical measures consisted of pain intensity and self-reported disability. Several SBT risk-dependent relationships (ie, SBT low low profiles; therefore, 2 groups may provide a clearer representation of the level of pain-associated psychological distress, maladaptive coping, and disability in this setting compared with 3 groups as suggested when using the SBT in primary care settings. This study suggests that the SBT can replace administering several unidimensional psychological measures as a first-line screening measure for psychological distress. However, clinicians need to be aware of the potential for misclassification with SBT results when compared to unidimensional measures. This study also suggests that a modified SBT risk stratification scheme based on empirically derived subgroups could potentially assist in identifying elevated levels of pain-associated psychological distress, maladaptive coping, and disability in practice settings outside of primary care. Patients identified with elevated levels of pain-associated distress and maladaptive coping may be indicated for

  17. [Reliability and validity of warning signs checklist for screening psychological, behavioral and developmental problems of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X N; Zhang, Y; Feng, W W; Wang, H S; Cao, B; Zhang, B; Yang, Y F; Wang, H M; Zheng, Y; Jin, X M; Jia, M X; Zou, X B; Zhao, C X; Robert, J; Jing, Jin

    2017-06-02

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability and validity of warning signs checklist developed by the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China (NHFPC), so as to determine the screening effectiveness of warning signs on developmental problems of early childhood. Method: Stratified random sampling method was used to assess the reliability and validity of checklist of warning sign and 2 110 children 0 to 6 years of age(1 513 low-risk subjects and 597 high-risk subjects) were recruited from 11 provinces of China. The reliability evaluation for the warning signs included the test-retest reliability and interrater reliability. With the use of Age and Stage Questionnaire (ASQ) and Gesell Development Diagnosis Scale (GESELL) as the criterion scales, criterion validity was assessed by determining the correlation and consistency between the screening results of warning signs and the criterion scales. Result: In terms of the warning signs, the screening positive rates at different ages ranged from 10.8%(21/141) to 26.2%(51/137). The median (interquartile) testing time for each subject was 1(0.6) minute. Both the test-retest reliability and interrater reliability of warning signs reached 0.7 or above, indicating that the stability was good. In terms of validity assessment, there was remarkable consistency between ASQ and warning signs, with the Kappa value of 0.63. With the use of GESELL as criterion, it was determined that the sensitivity of warning signs in children with suspected developmental delay was 82.2%, and the specificity was 77.7%. The overall Youden index was 0.6. Conclusion: The reliability and validity of warning signs checklist for screening early childhood developmental problems have met the basic requirements of psychological screening scales, with the characteristics of short testing time and easy operation. Thus, this warning signs checklist can be used for screening psychological and behavioral problems of early childhood

  18. Screening for psychological morbidity in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women using community counselors in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranix-Chibanda, Lynda; Chibanda, Dixon; Chingono, Albert; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Wells, Jennifer; Maldonado, Yvonne; Chipato, Tsungai; Shetty, Avinash K

    2005-12-01

    To examine the prevalence of psychological morbidity in HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women seeking antenatal care in Zimbabwe. Pregnant women were screened for psychological morbidity at the initial antenatal care visit using the 14-item Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ) before voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT). The primary outcome measure was "cases," as determined by a SSQ score of >or= 8. Demographic characteristics and HIV status were compared between cases and noncases to determine the risk factors for psychological morbidity. Of the 437 participants, psychological morbidity was detected in 73 (17%) women before undergoing VCT. Risk factors for psychological morbidity included having a spouse older than 35 years of age. HIV infection by itself was not a risk factor for psychological morbidity for women. There is a high burden of psychological morbidity among pregnant women in Zimbabwe. Mental health services should be integrated into antenatal care to improve psychological health for all women in Zimbabwe.

  19. Psychological impact of electrocardiogram screening in National Collegiate Athletic Association athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Irfan M; Annett, Scott; Ewing, Joseph A; Abdelfattah, Ramy; Sutphin, Brittan; Conley, Kyle; Rothmier, Justin; Harmon, Kimberly G; Drezner, Jonathan A

    2017-10-01

    Determine the psychological impact of false-positive ECG screening in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes. Athletes representing seven NCAA institutions received a standardised history, physical examination and ECG interpreted using the 2013 Seattle Criteria. Assessments of health attitudes, anxiety and impact of screening on sport were conducted using validated prescreen and postscreen measurements. 1192 student-athletes participated (55.4% male, median age 19 years, 80.4% Caucasian). 96.8% of athletes had a normal cardiovascular screen, 2.9% had a false-positive ECG and 0.3% were diagnosed with a serious cardiac condition. Prior to screening, 4.5% worried about potentially harbouring cardiac disease and 70.1% preferred knowing about an underlying condition, rather than play sports without this knowledge. There was no difference in anxiety described by athletes with a normal versus false-positive screen (p=0.369). Reported anxiety levels during screening also did not differ when analysed by different gender, race, division of play or sport. Athletes with normal and false-positive screens had similar levels of satisfaction (p=0.714) and would recommend ECG screening to other athletes at similar rates (p=0.322). Compared with athletes with a normal screen, athletes with false-positive results also reported feeling safer during competition (p>0.01). In contrast, athletes with false-positive screens were more concerned about the possibility of sports disqualification (pAthletes with a false-positive ECG do not experience more anxiety than athletes with a normal screen but do express increased concern regarding sports disqualification and the development of a cardiac disorder. These findings do not justify avoiding advanced cardiovascular screening protocols. Further understanding of athlete experiences could better prepare the practising physician to counsel athletes with an abnormal ECG. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  20. Available screening tools for adults suffering from bipolar affective disorder in primary care: An integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Staci; Elliott, Lydia; Comer, Linda

    2015-05-01

    To assess the efficacy of six tools utilized in primary care for the screening of bipolar affective disorder (BPAD). BPAD has historically been underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed followed by inappropriate treatment leading to detrimental relapses, suicide, and increased risks for comorbidities. An electronic search was conducted to identify articles in the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, ERIC, National Guideline Clearinghouse, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences collection, and PsycARTICLES. Other information was also collected from the NIH, CDC, Healthy People 2020, the Black Dog Institute, and the Center for Quality Assessment and Improvement for Mental Health. Evidence indicates that primary care providers are often the first and sometimes sole provider, which signifies the importance of early detection and screening of BPAD in primary care. By implementing the use of appropriate screening tools and following recommended treatment and intervention guidelines, the prevention of relapse is increased, and comorbidities are more frequently diagnosed leading to an overall improved quality of life. Primary care practitioners play a vital role in appropriately screening for BPAD and implementing the recommended treatments to increase prevention of relapse and promote a healthier and more socially successful quality of life. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  1. A Systematic Review of the Effect of Individualized Risk Communication Strategies on Screening Uptake and Its Psychological Predictors: The Role of Psychology Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bould, Kathryn; Daly, Blanaid; Dunne, Stephen; Scott, Suzanne; Asimakopoulou, Koula

    2016-12-09

    People might be more likely to attend for health screening if they are told their individual risk of an illness. The way this risk of ill-health is communicated might have an effect on screening uptake or its psychological proxies. It is possible that the format, presentation, and details of the information as well as the complexity of an intervention and use of psychological theory to inform the intervention may impact the effectiveness of individual risk communication. This systematic review collates, analyses and synthesizes the evidence for effectiveness of these aspects of individual risk communication. The synthesis indicated that written, individualized risk scores or categories are effective at supporting screening uptake and its psychological proxies. Complex, or theory-based interventions, surprisingly, are no more effective than simpler or atheoretical interventions.

  2. Malnutrition risk in hospitalized children: use of 3 screening tools in a large European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourdakis, Michael; Hecht, Christina; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Joosten, Koen Fm; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Koetse, Harma A; Ksiazyk, Janusz; Lazea, Cecilia; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Koletzko, Berthold; Hulst, Jessie M

    2016-05-01

    Several malnutrition screening tools have been advocated for use in pediatric inpatients. We evaluated how 3 popular pediatric nutrition screening tools [i.e., the Pediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS), the Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Pediatrics (STAMP), and the Screening Tool for Risk of Impaired Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGKIDS)] compared with and were related to anthropometric measures, body composition, and clinical variables in patients who were admitted to tertiary hospitals across Europe. The 3 screening tools were applied in 2567 inpatients at 14 hospitals across 12 European countries. The classification of patients into different nutritional risk groups was compared between tools and related to anthropometric measures and clinical variables [e.g., length of hospital stay (LOS) and infection rates]. A similar rate of completion of the screening tools for each tool was achieved (PYMS: 86%; STAMP: 84%; and STRONGKIDS: 81%). Risk classification differed markedly by tool, with an overall agreement of 41% between tools. Children categorized as high risk (PYMS: 25%; STAMP: 23%; and STRONGKIDS: 10%) had a longer LOS than that of children at low risk (1.4, 1.4, and 1.8 d longer, respectively; P malnutrition risk varied across the pediatric tools used. A considerable portion of children with subnormal anthropometric measures were not identified with all of the tools. The data obtained do not allow recommending the use of any of these screening tools for clinical practice. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01132742. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Albuminuria as pre-screening tool for better risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozyilmaz, Akin

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are common health problems and originates predominantly from generalized atherosclerosis. Diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia are well known risk factors for atherosclerosis. Screening for and treatment of these risk factors

  4. Development of ultra-high-density screening tools for microbial "omics".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon J Bean

    Full Text Available High-throughput genetic screens in model microbial organisms are a primary means of interrogating biological systems. In numerous cases, such screens have identified the genes that underlie a particular phenotype or a set of gene-gene, gene-environment or protein-protein interactions, which are then used to construct highly informative network maps for biological research. However, the potential test space of genes, proteins, or interactions is typically much larger than current screening systems can address. To push the limits of screening technology, we developed an ultra-high-density, 6144-colony arraying system and analysis toolbox. Using budding yeast as a benchmark, we find that these tools boost genetic screening throughput 4-fold and yield significant cost and time reductions at quality levels equal to or better than current methods. Thus, the new ultra-high-density screening tools enable researchers to significantly increase the size and scope of their genetic screens.

  5. Interrelationships of adolescent physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and social and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Ronald J; Janssen, Ian; Haug, Ellen; Kololo, Hanna; Annaheim, Beatrice; Borraccino, Alberto

    2009-09-01

    To examine how adolescent physical activity (PA) and screen-based media sedentary behaviours (SBM) relate to psychological and social health and identify cross-national differences in these relationships. Associations were examined in five regions using two Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) countries from each. Self-reported psychological and social health indices such as self-image, perceived health status, and Life Satisfaction were positively related to PA in all five regions but, with a few exceptions, negatively related to SBM. Negative health indices such as health complaints and tobacco use were negatively related to PA but, with exceptions, positively related to SBM. Significant regional differences were present. Regional differences in correlates of PA and SBM suggest cultural differences in potential effects of PA and SBM and the need to tailor school and public health efforts to the different meanings of PA and SBM for positive and negative health consequences.

  6. Best Practices in Educational Psychology: Using Evolving Concept Maps as Instructional and Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehl, Michelle M.; Fives, Helenrose

    2011-01-01

    We describe the implementation of evolving concept maps in two different graduate-level educational psychology courses: "The Adolescent Learner" and "Theories of Learning and Cognition." We provide an explicit description of how we used evolving concept maps as instructional and assessment tools in our respective classes, changes in the…

  7. Readers' theatre: a communication tool for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Melany; Dignan, Mark; Kuhnley, Regina

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer mortality for Alaska Native people, yet it can be almost totally prevented through colonoscopy screenings. A 25-minute Readers' Theatre script was developed with and for Alaska Native and American Indian Community Health Workers (CHWs) and the people in their communities to provide CRC screening information, model ways to talk about CRC screening, increase comfort with talking about CRC, and encourage healthy lifestyle choices. Grounded in Indigenous methodologies, this paper describes the collaborative development, implementation, and evaluation of a CRC Readers' Theatre. 94% (161/172) of participants from 11 Readers' Theatre completed a written evaluation. 90% (145) of participants reported feeling more comfortable talking about CRC and 77% (124) described healthy changes they planned to make. Readers' Theatre was associated with increased knowledge, comfort talking about CRC, and served as a catalyst for positive intent to change behavior.

  8. Evaluating Oral Fluid as a Screening Tool for Lead Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Sher Lynn; Geller, Robert J; Hannigan, Robyn; Sun, Yu; Mangla, Anil

    2016-11-01

    Screening for lead poisoning is necessary in young children, but obtaining the needed blood sample is unpleasant and sometimes very difficult. Use of an alternative screening method that is less unpleasant and less difficult would likely help to increase the percent of children receiving screening. To evaluate the correlation of oral fluid and blood lead in a clinical setting, and to ascertain the acceptability and feasibility of obtaining oral fluid from a young child in the clinical setting. Oral fluid samples were collected from a convenience sample of 431 children aged 6 months to 5 years already due to receive a blood lead test in a primary care clinic. Blood lead results obtained at the same time were available for 407 children. The results of the two tests were compared with the blood lead test considered to be the "gold standard". Data analysis used Pearson correlations, scatter plots, linear regression, ANOVA and Bland-Altman analysis. 431 patients had oral fluid samples available for analysis, and 407 patients had blood samples available. Patients who had both blood concentrations lead values less than the value recommended for further intervention occurred in 176; no patients had elevated blood lead values with below-intervention oral fluid values. The negative predictive value of an oral fluid lead below the screening cutoff value was 100%. The use of oral fluid to screen for elevated body burdens of lead instead of the usual blood lead sample is feasible with a negative predictive value of 100%, while eliminating the need for blood for lead screening in more than half of these children. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Climate risk screening tools and their application: A guide to the guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traerup, S.; Olhoff, A.

    2011-07-01

    Climate risk screening is an integral part of efforts to ascertain current and future vulnerabilities and risks related to climate change. It is a prerequisite for identifying and designing adaptation measures, and an important element in the process of integrating, or mainstreaming, climate change adaptation into development project, planning and policy processes. There is an increasing demand and attention among national stakeholders in developing countries to take into account potential implications of climate variability and change for planning and prioritizing of development strategies and activities. Subsequently, there is a need for user friendly guidance on climate risk screening tools and their potentials for application that targets developing country stakeholders. This need is amplified by the sheer volume of climate change mainstreaming guidance documents and risk screening and assessment tools available and currently under development. Against this background, this paper sets out to provide potential users in developing countries, including project and programme developers and managers, with an informational entry point to climate risk screening tools. The emphasis in this report is on providing: 1) An overview of available climate risk screening and assessment tools along with indications of the tools available and relevant for specific purposes and contexts (Section 3). 2) Examples of application of climate risk screening and assessment tools along with links to further information (Section 4). Before turning to the respective sections on available climate risk screening tools and examples of their application, a delimitation of the tools included in this paper is included in Section 2. This section also provides a brief overview of how climate screening and related tools fit into decision making steps at various planning and decision making levels in conjunction with an outline of overall considerations to make when choosing a tool. The paper is

  10. AOD Screening Tools for College Students. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), the goal of screening in student health or other college settings is to reduce alcohol-related harm. NIAAA points out that identifying those students at greatest risk for alcohol problems is the first step in prevention. Colleges and universities have used a number of…

  11. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

  12. MR angiography as a screening tool for intracranial aneurysms: feasibility, test characteristics, and interobserver agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaymakers, T. W.; Buys, P. C.; Verbeeten, B.; Ramos, L. M.; Witkamp, T. D.; Hulsmans, F. J.; Mali, W. P.; Algra, A.; Bonsel, G. J.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Vonk, C. M.; Buskens, E.; Limburg, M.; van Gijn, J.; Gorissen, A.; Greebe, P.; Albrecht, K. W.; Tulleken, C. A.; Rinkel, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: MR angiography may be an appropriate tool to screen for unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Feasibility, test characteristics, and interobserver agreement in evaluation of MR angiograms were assessed by members of the MARS (Magnetic resonance Angiography in Relatives of patients with

  13. Comparison of traditional trigger tool to data warehouse based screening for identifying hospital adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Kevin J; Devisetty, Vikram K; Patel, Amitkumar R; Malkenson, David; Sama, Pradeep; Thompson, William K; Landler, Matthew P; Barnard, Cynthia; Williams, Mark V

    2013-02-01

    Research supports medical record review using screening triggers as the optimal method to detect hospital adverse events (AE), yet the method is labour-intensive. This study compared a traditional trigger tool with an enterprise data warehouse (EDW) based screening method to detect AEs. We created 51 automated queries based on 33 traditional triggers from prior research, and then applied them to 250 randomly selected medical patients hospitalised between 1 September 2009 and 31 August 2010. Two physicians each abstracted records from half the patients using a traditional trigger tool and then performed targeted abstractions for patients with positive EDW queries in the complementary half of the sample. A third physician confirmed presence of AEs and assessed preventability and severity. Traditional trigger tool and EDW based screening identified 54 (22%) and 53 (21%) patients with one or more AE. Overall, 140 (56%) patients had one or more positive EDW screens (total 366 positive screens). Of the 137 AEs detected by at least one method, 86 (63%) were detected by a traditional trigger tool, 97 (71%) by EDW based screening and 46 (34%) by both methods. Of the 11 total preventable AEs, 6 (55%) were detected by traditional trigger tool, 7 (64%) by EDW based screening and 2 (18%) by both methods. Of the 43 total serious AEs, 28 (65%) were detected by traditional trigger tool, 29 (67%) by EDW based screening and 14 (33%) by both. We found relatively poor agreement between traditional trigger tool and EDW based screening with only approximately a third of all AEs detected by both methods. A combination of complementary methods is the optimal approach to detecting AEs among hospitalised patients.

  14. Screening for substance abuse risk in cancer patients using the Opioid Risk Tool and urine drug screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Joshua S; Owens, Justine E; Blackhall, Leslie J

    2014-07-01

    The use of opioids for management of cancer-related pain has increased significantly and has been associated with a substantial rise in rates of substance abuse and diversion. There is a paucity of data not only on the prevalence of substance abuse in cancer patients, but also for issues of drug use and diversion in family caregivers. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of risk factors for substance abuse and diversion, and abnormal urine drug screens in cancer patients receiving palliative care. A retrospective chart review was performed for patients with cancer who were seen in the University of Virginia Palliative Care Clinic during the month of September 2012. We evaluated Opioid Risk Tool variables and total scores, insurance status, and urine drug screen results. Of the 114 cancer patients seen in September 2012, the mean Opioid Risk Tool score was 3.79, with 43% of patients defined as medium to high risk. Age (16-45 years old, 23%) and a personal history of alcohol (23%) or illicit drugs (21%) were the most common risk factors identified. We obtained a urine drug screen on 40% of patients, noting abnormal findings in 45.65%. Opioids are an effective treatment for cancer-related pain, yet substantial risk for substance abuse exits in the cancer population. Screening tools, such as the Opioid Risk Tool, should be used as part of a complete patient assessment to balance risk with appropriate relief of suffering.

  15. Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the fibromyalgia rapid screening tool (FiRST)

    OpenAIRE

    Celiker, Reyhan; Altan, Lale; Rezvani, Aylin; Aktas, Ilknur; Tastekin, Nurettin; Dursun, Erbil; Dursun, Nigar; Sar?kaya, Selda; Ozdolap, Senay; Akgun, Kenan; Zateri, Coskun; Birtane, Murat

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] An easy-to-use, psychometrically validated screening tool for fibromyalgia is needed. This study aims to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool by correlating it with 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 269 Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation clinic outpatients. Patients completed a questionnaire includi...

  16. Creating a Cambodia-specific developmental milestone screening tool - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoun, Chanpheaktra; Stoey, Lina Saem; van't Ende, Katja; Kumar, Varun

    2012-06-01

    Approximately 600 million people are living with various types of disabilities throughout the world and over 200 million children under age of 5 years old not reach their developmental potential. These adverse outcomes can be prevented through early detection and treatment. To accurately assess the development of children, a culturally appropriate screening tool must be used. Cambodia lacks such tool and other studies have shown that western tools are not valid in other cultures. This study aimed at creating a culturally appropriate screening tool - called the Angkor Hospital for Children Developmental Milestone Assessment Tool (AHC DMAT) - for screening neurodevelopmental disability in Cambodian children. STUDY DESIGN, SUBJECT, OUTCOME MEASURES: Western milestones from the DDST II were used with cultural modifications. Children of both genders and aged from 1 month to 6 years assumed to have normal development were included in two pilot screenings (N=100 and N=63) with further modifications to the AHC DMAT made as necessary after each screening. The final AHC DMAT consists of 140 milestones (49% directly from DDST II, 17% modified DDST II, 34% added through expert opinion). Extensive revision of the DDST II was needed in order to create a more valid Cambodian screening tool. This study was the first step to create a Cambodian-specific screening tool but further large-scale testing of the AHC DMAT is needed to strengthen the tool's validity and to identify the age-range percentiles of each milestone before it can be used for neurodevelopment screening. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Review of Cultural Adaptations of Screening Tools for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Sandra; Linas, Keri; Jacobstein, Diane; Biel, Matthew; Migdal, Talia; Anthony, Bruno J.

    2015-01-01

    Screening children to determine risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders has become more common, although some question the advisability of such a strategy. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify autism screening tools that have been adapted for use in cultures different from that in which they were developed, evaluate the cultural…

  18. Evaluation of a two-question screening tool in the detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Saimen

    determine the operating characteristics of a two-question screening tool for intimate partner violence (Women Abuse Screening. Tool–short); and (2) ..... women: taking action and generating evidence. Geneva: World. Health Organization, 2010. 21. Machisa M, Jewkes R, Morna CL, et al. The war at home – GBV. Indicators ...

  19. Validation of an extended French version of ID Migraine™ as a migraine-screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streel, Sylvie; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Dardenne, Nadia; Hoge, Axelle; Bruyère, Olivier; Albert, Adelin; Guillaume, Michèle; Schoenen, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Migraine has a considerable social, economic, physical and emotional burden but remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. A specific migraine screening tool could help remove barriers to health care and be an attractive instrument for epidemiological studies. The objective of this work was to assess the validity of an extended French version of ID Migraine™ as a migraine-screening tool. Sixty-seven subjects from the NESCaV study (2010-2012) completed the migraine screen and were diagnosed by a neurologist specializing in headache medicine using the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition criteria (gold standard). Agreement between the two diagnoses was evaluated by Cohen kappa coefficient (κ). Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the migraine screen were calculated. Migraine was diagnosed in 21 (31.3%) of the 67 subjects according to the screening tool and in 24 (35.8%) by the neurologist (κ = 0.90). The prevalence of migraine was unrelated to age, gender, education and perception of financial resources. Sensitivity and specificity of the screen were 87.5% and 100%, respectively. The screen prevalence of migraine with aura was 10.4% (sensitivity and specificity: 83.3% and 96.7%, respectively). The extended French version of ID Migraine™ (ef-ID Migraine) is a validated tool to screen migraine in French-speaking countries. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Enhancing BECCUS (Bio-Energy Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage) Screening Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gragg, Evan James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Middleton, Richard Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-31

    This report describes the benefits of the BECCUS screening tools. The goals of this project are to utilize NATCARB database for site screening; enhance NATCARB database; run CO2-EOR simulations and economic models using updated reservoir data sets (SCO2T-EOR).

  1. Auditory brainstem response – a valid and cost-effective screening tool for vestibular schwannoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafique, Irfan; Wennervaldt, Kasper; Melchiors, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Conclusion: Contemporary auditory brainstem response (ABR) is not valid as a screening tool for VS, when considering the sensitivity of 80%, the specificity of 77%, and the positive predictive value of 3.4%, MRI screening is superior to ABR in Denmark when considering cost-effectiveness...

  2. e-Health Tools for Targeting and Improving Melanoma Screening: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilasha Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The key to improved prognosis for melanoma is early detection and diagnosis, achieved by skin surveillance and secondary prevention (screening. However, adherence to screening guidelines is low, with population-based estimates of approximately 26% for physician-based skin cancer screening and 20–25% for skin self-examination. The recent proliferation of melanoma detection “e-Health” tools, digital resources that facilitate screening in patients often outside of the clinical setting, may offer new strategies to promote adherence and expand the proportion and range of individuals performing skin self-examination. The purpose of this paper is to catalog and categorize melanoma screening e-Health tools to aid in the determination of their efficacy and potential for adoption. The availability and accessibility of such tools, their costs, target audience, and, where possible, information on their efficacy, will be discussed with potential benefits and limitations considered. While e-Health tools targeting melanoma screening are widely available, little has been done to formally evaluate their efficacy and ability to aid in overcoming screening barriers. Future research needs to formally evaluate the potential role of e-Health tools in melanoma prevention.

  3. Dwell time and psychological screening outcomes among military service members with multiple combat deployments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Andrew J; Heltemes, Kevin J; Clouser, Mary C; Han, Peggy P; Galarneau, Michael R

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies have found that longer dwell times, or the period of time between deployments, may be protective against combat-related psychological outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between dwell time and psychological morbidity, while accounting for combat exposure. U.S. Marines with two combat deployments between 2005 and 2008 were identified from electronic deployment records. Those who screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder and depression, and who were referred for mental health services were identified from the Post-Deployment Health Assessment. For the final study sample of 3,512 Marines, dwell time was calculated as time between deployments, and was analyzed as a ratio over length of first deployment. After adjustment for all covariates, there was an interaction (p = 0.01) between dwell time and combat exposure on mental health referral outcome. For personnel with maximum reported combat exposure, longer dwell times were associated with a 49% to 92% reduced odds of mental health referral. Longer dwell times may be protective against combat-related psychological outcomes. Because multiple deployments are likely to be the norm in future military operations, regulating dwell time, particularly for those with greater risk of combat exposure, should continue to be explored. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. GPCALMA: a Grid-based tool for Mammographic Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Cerello, P.(Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy); Bagnasco, S; Bottigli, U.; Cheran, SC; Delogu, P.; Fantacci, ME; Fauci, F.; Forni, G.; Lauria, A.; Lopez Torres, E.; Magro, R.; Masala, GL; Oliva, P.; Palmiero, R.; Ramello, L

    2004-01-01

    The next generation of High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments requires a GRID approach to a distributed computing system and the associated data management: the key concept is the Virtual Organisation (VO), a group of distributed users with a common goal and the will to share their resources. A similar approach is being applied to a group of Hospitals which joined the GPCALMA project (Grid Platform for Computer Assisted Library for MAmmography), which will allow common screening programs for e...

  5. AMMOS: Automated Molecular Mechanics Optimization tool for in silico Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencheva, Tania; Lagorce, David; Pajeva, Ilza; Villoutreix, Bruno O; Miteva, Maria A

    2008-01-01

    Background Virtual or in silico ligand screening combined with other computational methods is one of the most promising methods to search for new lead compounds, thereby greatly assisting the drug discovery process. Despite considerable progresses made in virtual screening methodologies, available computer programs do not easily address problems such as: structural optimization of compounds in a screening library, receptor flexibility/induced-fit, and accurate prediction of protein-ligand interactions. It has been shown that structural optimization of chemical compounds and that post-docking optimization in multi-step structure-based virtual screening approaches help to further improve the overall efficiency of the methods. To address some of these points, we developed the program AMMOS for refining both, the 3D structures of the small molecules present in chemical libraries and the predicted receptor-ligand complexes through allowing partial to full atom flexibility through molecular mechanics optimization. Results The program AMMOS carries out an automatic procedure that allows for the structural refinement of compound collections and energy minimization of protein-ligand complexes using the open source program AMMP. The performance of our package was evaluated by comparing the structures of small chemical entities minimized by AMMOS with those minimized with the Tripos and MMFF94s force fields. Next, AMMOS was used for full flexible minimization of protein-ligands complexes obtained from a mutli-step virtual screening. Enrichment studies of the selected pre-docked complexes containing 60% of the initially added inhibitors were carried out with or without final AMMOS minimization on two protein targets having different binding pocket properties. AMMOS was able to improve the enrichment after the pre-docking stage with 40 to 60% of the initially added active compounds found in the top 3% to 5% of the entire compound collection. Conclusion The open source AMMOS

  6. GPURFSCREEN: a GPU based virtual screening tool using random forest classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, P B; Ajay, Mathias K; Nufail, M; Gopakumar, G; Jaleel, U C A

    2016-01-01

    In-silico methods are an integral part of modern drug discovery paradigm. Virtual screening, an in-silico method, is used to refine data models and reduce the chemical space on which wet lab experiments need to be performed. Virtual screening of a ligand data model requires large scale computations, making it a highly time consuming task. This process can be speeded up by implementing parallelized algorithms on a Graphical Processing Unit (GPU). Random Forest is a robust classification algorithm that can be employed in the virtual screening. A ligand based virtual screening tool (GPURFSCREEN) that uses random forests on GPU systems has been proposed and evaluated in this paper. This tool produces optimized results at a lower execution time for large bioassay data sets. The quality of results produced by our tool on GPU is same as that on a regular serial environment. Considering the magnitude of data to be screened, the parallelized virtual screening has a significantly lower running time at high throughput. The proposed parallel tool outperforms its serial counterpart by successfully screening billions of molecules in training and prediction phases.

  7. Evaluation of the neurobehavioral screening tool in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFrance, Michael-Anne; McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Nash, Kelly; Andrew, Gail; Loock, Christine; Oberlander, Tim F; Koren, Gideon; Rasmussen, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for validated tools to screen children at risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The Neurobehavioral Screening Tool (NST) is one of several promising screening measures for FASD, though further evidence is needed to establish the tool's psychometric utility. To assess the predictive accuracy of the NST among children with an FASD diagnosis, with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) but no FASD diagnosis, and typically developing controls. The NST was completed by caregivers of children ages 6 to 17, including 48 with FASD, 22 with PAE, and 32 typically developing non-exposed controls. Predictive accuracy coefficients were calculated using Nash et al. (2006) criteria, and compared against controls. An alternative scoring scheme was also investigated to determine optimum referral thresholds using item-level total scores. The NST yielded 62.5% sensitivity for participants with FASD and 50% for PAE. Specificity values were 100% with no typically developing control scoring positive. Within the FASD group there was a trend for higher sensitivity among adolescents aged 12 to17 (70.8%) compared with children aged 6 to 11 years (54.2%), p = 0.23. The findings support a growing body of literature evidencing psychometric promise for the clinical utility of the NST as an FASD screening tool, though further research on possible age-effects is warranted. The availability of a validated clinical screening tool for FASD, such as the NST, would aid in accurately screening a large number of children and lead to a timelier diagnostic referral.

  8. GPCALMA: a Grid-based tool for mammographic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerello, P; Bagnasco, S; Bottigli, U; Cheran, S C; Delogu, P; Fantacci, M E; Fauci, F; Forni, G; Lauria, A; Lopez Torres, E; Magro, R; Masala, G L; Oliva, P; Palmiero, R; Ramello, L; Raso, G; Retico, A; Sitta, M; Stumbo, S; Tangaro, S; Zanon, E

    2005-01-01

    The next generation of high energy physics (HEP) experiments requires a GRID approach to a distributed computing system: the key concept is the Virtual ORGANISATION (VO), a group of distributed users with a common goal and the will to share their resources. A similar approach, applied to a group of hospitals that joined the GPCALMA project (Grid Platform for Computer Assisted Library for MAmmography), will allow common screening programs for early diagnosis of breast and, in the future, lung cancer. The application code makes use of neural networks for the image analysis and is useful in improving the radiologists' diagnostic performance. GRID services allow remote image analysis and interactive online diagnosis, with a potential for a relevant reduction of the delays presently associated with screening programs. A prototype of the system, based on AliEn GRID Services [1], is already available, with a central server running common services [2] and several clients connecting to it. Mammograms can be acquired in any location; the related information required to select and access them at any time is stored in a common service called Data Catalogue, which can be queried by any client. Thanks to the PROOF facility [3], the result of a query can be used as input for analysis algorithms, which are executed on the nodes where the input images are stored,. The selected approach avoids data transfers for all the images with a negative diagnosis and allows an almost real time diagnosis for the set of images with high cancer probability.

  9. VIRTUAL REALITY AS A TOOL FOR THE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL PHENOMENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Aymerich-Franch

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality is a technology that drastically alters the environment and self-representation through the creation of virtual worlds and avatars. These transformations facilitate the analysis of social and psychological phenomena hardly observable in a real environment. The paper presents the virtual reality as a methodological tool and describes the possibilities this technology offers to researchers in the field of Social Sciences presenting the results of the most relevant studies that have used this tool following the paradigm of Transformed Social Interaction and presents a case study.

  10. Trends in the use of standardized tools for developmental screening in early childhood: 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radecki, Linda; Sand-Loud, Nina; O'Connor, Karen G; Sharp, Sanford; Olson, Lynn M

    2011-07-01

    Early identification of developmental delays is essential for optimal early intervention. An American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2002 Periodic Survey of Fellows found education programs promoted screening implementation. In 2006, the AAP issued a revised policy statement with a detailed algorithm. Since the 2002 Periodic Survey, no national surveys have examined the effectiveness of policy, programmatic, and educational enhancements. The goal of this study was to compare pediatricians' use of standardized screening tools from 2002 to 2009. A national, random sample of nonretired US AAP members were mailed Periodic Surveys (2002: N=1617, response rate: 55%; 2009: N=1620, response rate: 57%). χ(2) analyses were used to examine responses across survey years; a multivariate logistic regression model was developed to compare differences in using ≥1 formal screening tools across survey years while controlling for various individual and practice characteristics. Pediatricians' use of standardized screening tools increased significantly between 2002 and 2009. The percentage of those who self-reported always/almost always using ≥1 screening tools increased over time (23.0%-47.7%), as did use of specific instruments (eg, Ages & Stages Questionnaire, Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status). No differences were noted on the basis of physician or practice characteristics. The percentage of pediatricians who reported using ≥1 formal screening tools more than doubled between 2002 and 2009. Despite greater attention to consistent use of appropriate tools, the percentage remains less than half of respondents providing care to patients younger than 36 months. Given the critical importance of developmental screening in early identification, evaluation, and intervention, additional research is needed to identify barriers to greater use of standardized tools in practice. Copyright © 2011 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Screening for malnutrition among nursing home residents - a comparative analysis of the mini nutritional assessment, the nutritional risk screening, and the malnutrition universal screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, R; Winning, K; Uter, W; Kaiser, M J; Sieber, C C; Volkert, D; Bauer, J M

    2013-04-01

    The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) has recommended the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA®), the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS), and the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) for nutritional screening in various settings and age groups. While in recent years all three tools have been applied to nursing home residents, there is still no consensus on the most appropriate screening tool in this specific setting. The present study aims at comparing the MNA, the NRS, and the MUST with regard to applicability, categorization of nutritional status, and predictive value in the nursing home setting. MNA, NRS, and MUST were performed on 200 residents from two municipal nursing homes in Nuremberg, Germany. Follow-up data on infection, hospitalization, and mortality were collected after six and again after twelve months. Among 200 residents (mean age 85.5 ± 7.8 years) the MNA could be completed in 188 (94.0%) and the NRS and MUST in 198 (99.0%) residents. The prevalence of 'malnutrition' according to the MNA was 15.4%. The prevalence of 'risk of malnutrition' (NRS) and 'high risk of malnutrition' (MUST), respectively, was 8.6% for both tools. The individual categorization of nutritional status showed poor agreement between NRS and MUST on the one hand and MNA on the other. For all tools a significant association between nutritional status and mortality was demonstrated during follow-up as classification in 'malnourished', respectively 'high risk of malnutrition' or 'nutritional risk', was significantly associated with increased hazard ratios. However, the MNA showed the best predictive value for survival among well-nourished residents. The evaluation of nutritional status in nursing home residents by MNA, NRS, and MUST shows significant differences. This observation may be of clinical relevance as nutritional intervention is usually based on screening results. As the items of the MNA reflect particularities of the nursing home

  12. Screening tool development for health impact assessment of large administrative structural changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anne Katrine; Nicolaisen, Henriette; Linnrose, Karina

    2008-01-01

    available on the Internet and in the scientific literature, in many cases lack of access to those tools creates a barrier to the use of HIA. RESULTS: Denmark is undergoing a major structural change in state administration, moving many responsibilities from the state to the local level. Newly constructed....... CONCLUSIONS: This article describes a newly constructed screening tool for use at the local level, and describes how we approached the construction of the tool....

  13. Psychological distress among Plains Indian mothers with children referred to screening for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Tassy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress (PD includes symptoms of depression and anxiety and is associated with considerable emotional suffering, social dysfunction and, often, with problematic alcohol use. The rate of current PD among American Indian women is approximately 2.5 times higher than that of U.S. women in general. Our study aims to fill the current knowledge gap about the prevalence and characteristics of PD and its association with self-reported current drinking problems among American Indian mothers whose children were referred to screening for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Methods Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was conducted from maternal interviews of referred American Indian mothers (n = 152 and a comparison group of mothers (n = 33 from the same Plains culture tribes who participated in an NIAAA-funded epidemiology study of FASD. Referred women were from one of six Plains Indian reservation communities and one urban area who bore children suspected of having an FASD. A 6-item PD scale (PD-6, Cronbach's alpha = .86 was constructed with a summed score range of 0-12 and a cut-point of 7 indicating serious PD. Multiple statistical tests were used to examine the characteristics of PD and its association with self-reported current drinking problems. Results Referred and comparison mothers had an average age of 31.3 years but differed (respectively on: education ( Conclusions Psychological distress among referred mothers is significantly associated with having a self-reported drinking problem. FASD prevention requires multi-level prevention efforts that provide real opportunities for educational attainment and screening and monitoring of PD and alcohol use during the childbearing years. Mixed methods studies are needed to illuminate the social and cultural determinants at the base of the experience of PD and to identify the strengths and protective factors of unaffected peers who reside within the same

  14. Feasibility of the STarT back screening tool in chiropractic clinics: a cross-sectional study of patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Johannesen, Else; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    The STarT back screening tool (SBT) allocates low back pain (LBP) patients into three risk groups and is intended to assist clinicians in their decisions about choice of treatment. The tool consists of domains from larger questionnaires that previously have been shown to be predictive of non...... was described in terms of sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios.In this cohort 59% were in the SBT low risk, 29% in the medium risk and 11% in high risk group. The SBT risk groups were positively associated with all of the psychological questionnaires. The SBT high risk group had positive likelihood...

  15. [Postpartum psychological disorders: Screening and prevention after birth. Guidelines for clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydlowski, S

    2015-12-01

    Focusing on the mother's postpartum psychological and psychiatric disorders. Bibliographic research carried out by the data banks and the recommendations of learned societies from the following French words translated into English: postpartum, perinatal, postpartum, breastfeeding, birth, weaning, peripartum, lactation, postnatal, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, depression, anxiety, psychosis. These keywords were combined with the following words: prevalence, incidence, recurrence, development, identification, scale, assessment, test, father, man, husband, partner, hormones, treatment, intervention, prevention, testing, therapy, medicine, medication, to prescribe, prescription. The months following the birth are a transitional period, and psychological alterations concern all parents (LE2). It is more difficult in case of psychosocial risk factors (LE2). In situations of proven psychological difficulties, the impact on the psycho-emotional development of children can be important (LE3). Among these difficulties, postpartum depression is the most common situation. Given its prevalence (about 13 %) and because of its implications for the entire family, it's an important health issue (LE2). However, the risk is generally higher in the perinatal period for all mental disorders (LE3). Pregnancy and postpartum are periods favorable to develop links with health professionals. New parents are often looking for support to deal with the upheavals associated with the birth. The postpartum period is thus for clinicians a unique opportunity to address the mental, social and somatic aspects of the health of their patients (professional agreement). Early detection and treatment of mental disorders are essential for family functioning and parent-child relationship (professional agreement). The issue of screening and prevention of postpartum mental disorders is fundamental and requires involvement of all professional receiving parents and babies in the aftermath of the birth

  16. Transcutaneous bilirubinometry as a screening tool for neonatal jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, R J; Laing, I A; Kirk, J M

    1995-02-01

    Between 25 and 50% of all term newborns develop clinical jaundice, and a serum bilirubin level above 260 microml/l (15 mg/dl) is found in 3% of normal term infants. In the United Kingdom many newborn infants with clinical jaundice have blood samples sent to biochemistry laboratories for assessment of the plasma bilirubin concentration. We planned to assess the cost in terms of finance, medical staff time, numbers of blood samples, and family delay in leaving hospital. We demonstrated that reflectance bilirubinometry is a reliable screening method for identifying which caucasian infants require to have plasma bilirubin concentrations measured in the laboratory. The Minolta Airshields transcutaneous bilirubinometer provided reproducible data, saved time and costs, and often spared infants a capillary or venous blood sample. The transcutaneous bilirubinometer provides a digital assessment of skin pigmentation by xenon reflectance. It has previously been shown to be possible to derive an estimate of plasma bilirubin from the number displayed by the meter and it is suggested as a method for identifying which infants need plasma bilirubin estimations.

  17. Prevalence and related factors of psychological distress among cancer inpatients using routine Distress Thermometer and Chinese Health Questionnaire screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Yu-Jie; Chiu, Nien-Mu; Wang, Liang-Jen; Li, Shau-Hsuan; Lee, Chun-Yi; Wu, Ming-Kung; Chen, Chien-Chih; Wu, Yi-Shan; Lee, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines suggest routine screening for distress among cancer patients for immediate early psychiatric care. However, previous studies focusing on routine screening for psychological distress among cancer inpatients in Taiwan are scant. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and related factors of psychological distress and mental illness among cancer inpatients in Taiwan. This study was conducted as a retrospective chart review in a general hospital in southern Taiwan. Cancer inpatients were regularly screened by nursing staff using the Distress Thermometer and the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire. Positive screening results on either instrument were followed by a non-commanded referral to psychiatrists for clinical psychiatric diagnosis and treatment. Of the 810 participants in this study, 179 (22.1%) were recognized as having psychological distress. Younger age (odds ratio [OR] =1.82), having head and neck cancer (OR =2.43), and having not received chemotherapy (OR =1.58) were significantly related to psychological distress. Among the 56 patients (31.3%) with psychological distress who were referred to psychiatrists, the most common mental illness was adjustment disorder (n=22, 39.2%), followed by major depressive disorder (n=13, 23.2%), depressive disorder not otherwise specified (n=6, 10.7%), and anxiety disorder not otherwise specified (n=4, 7.1%). Our study indicated that cancer inpatients with psychological distress were more likely to be younger in age, have head and neck cancer, and have not received chemotherapy. The most common psychiatric disorder was adjustment disorder. Early detection of psychological distress and prompt psychiatric consultation and management are very important for cancer inpatients.

  18. Italian normative data for a stroke specific cognitive screening tool: the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, M; Varalta, V; Sardella, L; Capitani, D; Zoccolotti, P; Antonucci, G

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive deficits occur in most stroke patients and cognitive impairment is an important predictor of adverse long term outcome. However, current screening measures, such as the Mini Mental State Examination or the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, do not provide information tuned for evaluating the impact of cognitive impairment in the early phase after stroke. The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) represents an important new development in this regard. The OCS is now available for assessment of Italian individuals and the aim of this study is to standardize the OCS on a large sample of healthy Italian participants stratified for age, gender and education level. Results confirmed the influence of these factors in several of the OCS tasks. Age-, education- and gender-adjusted norms are provided for the ten sub-tests of the test. The availability of normative data represents an important prerequite for the reliable use of OCS with stroke patients.

  19. Digital Screen Time Limits and Young Children's Psychological Well-Being: Evidence From a Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K; Weinstein, Netta

    2017-12-13

    There is little empirical understanding of how young children's screen engagement links to their well-being. Data from 19,957 telephone interviews with parents of 2- to 5-year-olds assessed their children's digital screen use and psychological well-being in terms of caregiver attachment, resilience, curiosity, and positive affect in the past month. Evidence did not support implementing limits (linked screen time to attachment and positive affect. Results suggest a critical cost-benefit analysis is needed to determine whether setting firm limits constitutes a judicious use of caregiver and professional resources. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Novel Screening Tool for Stroke Using Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Vida; Goyal, Nitin; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Hosseinichimeh, Niyousha; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Elijovich, Lucas; Metter, Jeffrey E; Alexandrov, Anne W; Liebeskind, David S; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Zand, Ramin

    2017-06-01

    The timely diagnosis of stroke at the initial examination is extremely important given the disease morbidity and narrow time window for intervention. The goal of this study was to develop a supervised learning method to recognize acute cerebral ischemia (ACI) and differentiate that from stroke mimics in an emergency setting. Consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department with stroke-like symptoms, within 4.5 hours of symptoms onset, in 2 tertiary care stroke centers were randomized for inclusion in the model. We developed an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The learning algorithm was based on backpropagation. To validate the model, we used a 10-fold cross-validation method. A total of 260 patients (equal number of stroke mimics and ACIs) were enrolled for the development and validation of our ANN model. Our analysis indicated that the average sensitivity and specificity of ANN for the diagnosis of ACI based on the 10-fold cross-validation analysis was 80.0% (95% confidence interval, 71.8-86.3) and 86.2% (95% confidence interval, 78.7-91.4), respectively. The median precision of ANN for the diagnosis of ACI was 92% (95% confidence interval, 88.7-95.3). Our results show that ANN can be an effective tool for the recognition of ACI and differentiation of ACI from stroke mimics at the initial examination. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. A Comparison of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Psychological Screening Inventory in a Delinquent Sample and a Comparison Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, Barry J.; Bolton, Neil

    1981-01-01

    Compared the scores of reformatory inmates and technical college students on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Psychological Screening Inventory. Two factors accounted for most of the variance. Neuroticism was common to both groups. The second factor in the delinquent group was extraversion. (Author/JAC)

  2. Screening tool for late-effect pediatric neuro-oncological clinics: a treatment-oriented questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg-Kushnir, Noa; Freedman, Sigal; Eshel, Rina; Zwerdling, Nirit; Elhasid, Ronit; Dvir, Rina; Yalon, Michal; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Constantini, Shlomi

    2013-08-01

    Many survivors of pediatric brain tumors (SPBTs) suffer from long-term late effects (LEs). Our aim was to create a practical screening tool for detecting LEs in this population. Such a screening tool will improve our ability to identify those patients who may benefit from treatment in LE clinics while focusing on individual relevant issues. We developed the Treatment-Oriented Screening Questionnaire (TOSQ); a self-reported, risk-based questionnaire that addresses all LEs SPBTs can potentially suffer. As a basis for the TOSQ design we used the Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines published by the Children's Oncology Group. Output includes individual recommendations for further treatment. We prospectively assessed whether the TOSQ can accurately detect treatment targets in SPBTs by comparing patient and caregiver questionnaire scores with physician evaluations. Data are presented from 41 SPBTs. The TOSQ is a precise screening tool for identifying LEs in SPBTs based on the significant correlation (P patient difficulties and quality of life. The TOSQ is the first described screening tool for identification of LEs designed specifically for SPBTs. It is simple to use and provides a valid, comprehensive and economic assessment followed by targeted treatment plan for each patient. By repeatedly using the TOSQ over the years, we can improve our ability to detect and give focused treatment to those who require assistance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Development of an innovative uav-mountd screening tool for landfill gas emisiions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, L.; Thomasen, T. B.; Valbjørn, I. L.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of landfill gas emission hot spots are potentially a very time consuming process, and the use of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based screening tool could be an effective investigation strategy. In this study, the potential use of a long-wave thermal infrared camera was investiga......Identification of landfill gas emission hot spots are potentially a very time consuming process, and the use of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based screening tool could be an effective investigation strategy. In this study, the potential use of a long-wave thermal infrared camera...

  4. Development of an innovative uav-mounted screening tool for landfill gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Thomasen, T. B.; Valbjørn, I. L.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of landfill gas emission hot spots are potentially a very time consuming process, and the use of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based screening tool could be an effective investigation strategy. In this study, the potential use of a long-wave thermal infrared camera was investiga......Identification of landfill gas emission hot spots are potentially a very time consuming process, and the use of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based screening tool could be an effective investigation strategy. In this study, the potential use of a long-wave thermal infrared camera...

  5. Patient-completed or symptom-based screening tools for endometriosis: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surrey, Eric; Carter, Cathryn M; Soliman, Ahmed M; Khan, Shahnaz; DiBenedetti, Dana B; Snabes, Michael C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this review was to evaluate existing patient-completed screening questionnaires and/or symptom-based predictive models with respect to their potential for use as screening tools for endometriosis in adult women. Validated instruments were of particular interest. We conducted structured searches of PubMed and targeted searches of the gray literature to identify studies reporting on screening instruments used in endometriosis. Studies were screened according to inclusion and exclusion criteria that followed the PICOS (population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, study design) framework. A total of 16 studies were identified, of which 10 described measures for endometriosis in general, 2 described measures for endometriosis at specific sites, and 4 described measures for deep-infiltrating endometriosis. Only 1 study evaluated a questionnaire that was solely patient-completed. Most measures required physician, imaging, or laboratory assessments in addition to patient-completed questionnaires, and several measures relied on complex scoring. Validation for use as a screening tool in adult women with potential endometriosis was lacking in all studies, as most studies focused on diagnosis versus screening. This literature review did not identify any fully validated, symptom-based, patient-reported questionnaires for endometriosis screening in adult women.

  6. Ability of different screening tools to predict positive effect on nutritional intervention among the elderly in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Beermann, Tina; Kjær, Stine

    2013-01-01

    Routine identification of nutritional risk screening is paramount as the first stage in nutritional treatment of the elderly. The major focus of former validation studies of screening tools has been on the ability to predict undernutrition. The aim of this study was to validate Mini Nutritional...... Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002), Body Mass Index (BMI)...

  7. Screening for Malnutrition in Community Dwelling Older Japanese: Preliminary Development and Evaluation of the Japanese Nutritional Risk Screening Tool (NRST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htun, N C; Ishikawa-Takata, K; Kuroda, A; Tanaka, T; Kikutani, T; Obuchi, S P; Hirano, H; Iijima, K

    2016-02-01

    Early and effective screening for age-related malnutrition is an essential part of providing optimal nutritional care to older populations. This study was performed to evaluate the adaptation of the original SCREEN II questionnaire (Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition, version II) for use in Japan by examining its measurement properties and ability to predict nutritional risk and sarcopenia in community-dwelling older Japanese people. The ultimate objective of this preliminary validation study is to develop a license granted full Japanese version of the SCREEN II. The measurement properties and predictive validity of the NRST were examined in this cross-sectional study of 1921 community-dwelling older Japanese people. Assessments included medical history, and anthropometric and serum albumin measurements. Questions on dietary habits that corresponded to the original SCREEN II were applied to Nutritional Risk Screening Tool (NRST) scoring system. Nutritional risk was assessed by the Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI) and the short form of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF). Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. The nutritional risk prevalences determined by the GNRI and MNA-SF were 5.6% and 34.7%, respectively. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 13.3%. Mean NRST scores were significantly lower in the nutritionally at-risk than in the well-nourished groups. Concurrent validity analysis showed significant correlations between NRST scores and both nutritional risk parameters (GNRI or MNA-SF) and sarcopenia. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) of NRST for the prediction of nutritional risk were 0.635 and 0.584 as assessed by GNRI and MNA-SF, respectively. AUCs for the prediction of sarcopenia were 0.602 (NRST), 0.655 (age-integrated NRST), and 0.676 (age and BMI-integrated NRST). These results indicate that the NRST is a

  8. CrossCheck: an open-source web tool for high-throughput screen data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafov, Jamil; Najafov, Ayaz

    2017-07-19

    Modern high-throughput screening methods allow researchers to generate large datasets that potentially contain important biological information. However, oftentimes, picking relevant hits from such screens and generating testable hypotheses requires training in bioinformatics and the skills to efficiently perform database mining. There are currently no tools available to general public that allow users to cross-reference their screen datasets with published screen datasets. To this end, we developed CrossCheck, an online platform for high-throughput screen data analysis. CrossCheck is a centralized database that allows effortless comparison of the user-entered list of gene symbols with 16,231 published datasets. These datasets include published data from genome-wide RNAi and CRISPR screens, interactome proteomics and phosphoproteomics screens, cancer mutation databases, low-throughput studies of major cell signaling mediators, such as kinases, E3 ubiquitin ligases and phosphatases, and gene ontological information. Moreover, CrossCheck includes a novel database of predicted protein kinase substrates, which was developed using proteome-wide consensus motif searches. CrossCheck dramatically simplifies high-throughput screen data analysis and enables researchers to dig deep into the published literature and streamline data-driven hypothesis generation. CrossCheck is freely accessible as a web-based application at http://proteinguru.com/crosscheck.

  9. Healthcare Providers' Perceptions of the Utility of Psychosocial Screening Tools in Childhood Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Battista, Ashley; Hancock, Kelly; Cataudella, Danielle; Johnston, Donna; Cassidy, Marilyn; Punnett, Angela; Shama, Wendy; Barrera, Maru

    2015-07-01

    To examine the perceptions of healthcare providers (HCPs) regarding the utility of two psychosocial screening tools designed for pediatric oncology, the Psychosocial Assessment Tool-Revised (PATrev) and the Psychosocial Care Checklist (PCCL). Repeated measures comparative study. Four pediatric health centers in Ontario, Canada. 15 oncologists, 14 nurses, and 8 social workers. Using a visual analog scale (VAS), participants were asked to rate how useful they found (a) the psychosocial summary derived from the parent-completed PATrev, used to assess family psychosocial risk, and (b) the HCP-completed PCCL, used to identify family psychosocial needs. Measures were completed soon after diagnosis and six months later. Mann-Whitney U tests were used for analyses. VAS scores. Pediatric oncology HCPs differ in their acceptance of the psychosocial screening tools tested. The highest utility ratings for both instruments were from nurses, and the lowest utility ratings were from social workers; moderate ratings were obtained from oncologists. Psychosocial screening tools can identify the psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families throughout the cancer trajectory. Consequently, these tools could foster communication among colleagues (medical and nonmedical) who are caring for children with cancer about the psychosocial needs of this population and the allocation of resources to address those needs. Nurses seem to value these tools more than other HCPs, which may have positive implications for their clinical practice.

  10. Neuropathic pain in cancer: systematic review, performance of screening tools and analysis of symptom profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, M R; Boland, E G; Bouhassira, D; Freynhagen, R; Hardy, J; Hjermstad, M J; Mercadante, S; Pérez, C; Bennett, M I

    2017-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the methodological quality of rigorous neuropathic pain assessment tools in applicable clinical studies, and determine the performance of screening tools for identifying neuropathic pain in patients with cancer. Systematic literature search identified studies reporting use of Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS), Douleur Neuropathique en 4 (DN4) or painDETECT (PDQ) in cancer patients with a clinical diagnosis of neuropathic or not neuropathic pain. Individual patient data were requested to examine descriptor item profiles. Six studies recruited a total of 2301 cancer patients of which 1564 (68%) reported pain. Overall accuracy of screening tools ranged from 73 to 94%. There was variation in description and rigour of clinical assessment, particularly related to the rigour of clinical judgement of pain as the reference standard. Individual data from 1351 patients showed large variation in the selection of neuropathic pain descriptor items by cancer patients with neuropathic pain. LANSS and DN4 items characterized a significantly different neuropathic pain symptom profile from non-neuropathic pain in both tumour- and treatment-related cancer pain aetiologies. We identified concordance between the clinician diagnosis and screening tool outcomes for LANSS, DN4 and PDQ in patients with cancer pain. Shortcomings in relation to standardized clinician assessment are likely to account for variation in screening tool sensitivity, which should include the use of the neuropathic pain grading system. Further research is needed to standardize and improve clinical assessment in patients with cancer pain. Until the standardization of clinical diagnosis for neuropathic cancer pain has been validated, screening tools offer a practical approach to identify potential cases of neuropathic cancer pain.

  11. Early psychological screening of intensive care unit survivors: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Anna; Brück, Emily; Schandl, Anna; Bottai, Matteo; Sackey, Peter

    2017-11-09

    A majority of patients survive their episode of critical illness but up to 30% of patients suffer from psychological problems such as post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression in the year after intensive care unit (ICU) stay. A method to identify discharged patients at risk for adverse psychological outcome would be helpful in the triage for ICU follow-up and could enable early intervention. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether early screening with validated questionnaires after ICU discharge can identify patients at risk for symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression 3 months after ICU stay. We performed a prospective observational cohort study in the general ICU at the Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden. All adult patients surviving ≥ 24 hours in the ICU in a 9-month period were eligible for inclusion. Patients with mental disability, serious auditory and visual disorder, aphasia or who were unable to understand Swedish were excluded. One hundred and thirty-two patients were included and visited by a follow-up nurse within 1 week after ICU discharge. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms Checklist-10 (PTSS-10) were administered. Three months after ICU discharge the patients received the same questionnaires by postal mail. We assessed the predictive values of the questionnaires using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). For correlation calculations, we used Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Negative and positive predictive values for each questionnaire were calculated. Eighty-two patients returned the follow-up questionnaires. We found correlation between early and late scores and reasonable predictive precision regarding 3-month outcomes, with an AUROC of 0.90 for PTSS-10 part B, 0.80 for the HADS anxiety subscale and 0.75 for the HADS depression subscale. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression

  12. Preliminary Validation of a Screening Tool for Adolescent Panic Disorder in Pediatric Primary Care Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Alexander H.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Hershorin, Eugene R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the validity of a brief screening tool for adolescent panic disorder (PD) in a primary care setting. A total of 165 participants (ages 12-17 years) seen in two pediatric primary care clinics completed the Autonomic Nervous System Questionnaire (ANS; Stein et al. in Psychosomatic Med 61:359-364, 40). A subset of those screening…

  13. A Screening Tool to Measure Eye Contact Avoidance in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Scott S.; Venema, Kaitlin M.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the reliability, validity and factor structure of the Eye Contact Avoidance Scale (ECAS), a new 15-item screening tool designed to measure eye contact avoidance in individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Internal consistency of the scale was acceptable to excellent and convergent validity with the Social Responsiveness Scale, Second…

  14. The Micral-Test as a screening tool to detect micro- albuminuria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    girls were recruited. The number of subjects recruited from each age group depended on the proportions of the different age groups of patients on the clinic register. The Micral-Test as a screening tool to detect micro- albuminuria in children 5 - 15 years old with sickle cell anaemia, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital.

  15. PROFSS : A screening tool for early identification of functional somatic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gol, Janna M; Burger, Huibert; Janssens, Karin A M; Slaets, Joris P J; Gans, Rijk O B; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate a brief screening tool for predicting functional somatic symptoms (FSS) based on clinical and non-clinical information from the general practitioner referral letter, and to assess its inter-rater reliability. Methods: The-derivation sample consisted of 357

  16. A developmental screening tool for toddlers with multiple domains based on Rasch analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Wen Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: MuSiC can be applied simultaneously to well-child care visits as a universal screening tool for children aged 1–3 years on multiple domains. Items with sound validity for infants need to be further developed.

  17. PLASMA PROTEIN PROFILING AS A HIGH THROUGHPUT TOOL FOR CHEMICAL SCREENING USING A SMALL FISH MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R. Tod, Michael J. Hemmer, Kimberly A. Salinas, Sherry S. Wilkinson, James Watts, James T. Winstead, Peggy S. Harris, Amy Kirkpatrick and Calvin C. Walker. In press. Plasma Protein Profiling as a High Throughput Tool for Chemical Screening Using a Small Fish Model (Abstra...

  18. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Depression Screening Tools among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailey, Sarah H.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the validity and the sensitivity and specificity of depression screening tools among adults with intellectual and disabilities (ID). Subjects (N = 75) were interviewed with the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Glasgow Depression Scale for People with a Learning Disability (GDS-LD) and also completed a clinical…

  19. Translation and discriminative validation of the STarT Back Screening Tool into Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Albert, Hanne; Kent, Peter

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The STarT Back Screening Tool (STarT) is a nine-item patient self-report questionnaire that classifies low back pain patients into low, medium or high risk of poor prognosis. When assessed by GPs, these subgroups can be used to triage patients into different evidence-based treatment...

  20. Relationship between dependence on modern communication tools and psychological well-being in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Afradi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays due to technological advance and its direct impact on the quality of human life, addressing the issue of health and its determinants is very important. Maintaining public health is one of the most fundamental issues in each community. The aim of the study was to survey relationship between dependence on modern communication tools (internet and mobile phones and psychological well-being. 300 university students was selected according to cluster sampling method. The questionnaires were distributed to the students and 141 completed questionnaires were collected. The Young Internet addiction test and mobile phone addiction index were used to measure the predictor variables and the Ryff psychological well-being scale was used for the criterion variable. Multiple regression analysis gave a multiple correlation coefficient (R of 0.347 and adjusted coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.120. According to the calculated Beta values, the variable of dependence on mobile phones with the value of 0.196 showed the greatest power for explaining the autonomy component. The results showed a significant negative relationship between independent variables, i.e. dependence on the Internet and mobile phones, and dependent variables, i.e. psychological well-being and its components.

  1. START (screening tool to alert doctors to the right treatment)--an evidence-based screening tool to detect prescribing omissions in elderly patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, P J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Inappropriate prescribing encompasses acts of commission i.e. giving drugs that are contraindicated or unsuitable, and acts of omission i.e. failure to prescribe drugs when indicated due to ignorance of evidence base or other irrational basis e.g. ageism. There are considerable published data on the prevalence of inappropriate prescribing; however, there are no recent published data on the prevalence of acts of omission. The aim of this study was to calculate the prevalence of acts of prescribing omission in a population of consecutively hospitalised elderly people. METHODS: A screening tool (screening tool to alert doctors to the right treatment acronym, START), devised from evidence-based prescribing indicators and arranged according to physiological systems was prepared and validated for identifying prescribing omissions in older adults. Data on active medical problems and prescribed medicines were collected in 600 consecutive elderly patients admitted from the community with acute illness to a teaching hospital. On identification of an omitted medication, the patient\\'s medical records were studied to look for a valid reason for the prescribing omission. RESULTS: Using the START list, we found one or more prescribing omissions in 57.9% of patients. In order of prevalence, the most common prescribing omissions were: statins in atherosclerotic disease (26%), warfarin in chronic atrial fibrillation (9.5%), anti-platelet therapy in arterial disease (7.3%) and calcium\\/vitamin D supplementation in symptomatic osteoporosis (6%). CONCLUSION: Failure to prescribe appropriate medicines is a highly prevalent problem among older people presenting to hospital with acute illness. A validated screening tool (START) is one method of systematically identifying appropriate omitted medicines in clinical practice.

  2. Relative exchangeable copper: a promising tool for family screening in Wilson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocello, Jean-Marc; El Balkhi, Souleiman; Woimant, France; Girardot-Tinant, Nadège; Chappuis, Philippe; Lloyd, Carla; Poupon, Joël

    2014-04-01

    Family screening is a main step for the diagnosis in Wilson disease. This study was undertaken to evaluate the value of relative exchangeable copper for family screening. Data from family screening were collected from the French National Center of Reference for Wilson disease. Subjects who were first- or second-degree relatives of the index case underwent clinical examination and biological parameters. Of 127 subjects examined, copper abnormalities or low ceruloplasminemia were detected in 21 subjects, corresponding to 5 patients with Wilson disease, 14 heterozygous ATP7B carriers and 2 subjects with no ATP7B mutations. Relative exchangeable copper determination significantly discriminates heterozygous ATP7B carriers and subjects with no ATP7B mutations from WD patients with a cutoff of 15%. Exchangeable copper appears to be a promising tool for family screening in Wilson disease. © 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Screening for psychological distress in follow-up care to identify head and neck cancer patients with untreated distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebber, Anne-Marie H; Jansen, Femke; Cuijpers, Pim; Leemans, C René; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate screening in follow-up care to identify head and neck cancer (HNC) patients with untreated psychological distress. From November 2009 until December 2012, we investigated the use of OncoQuest (a touch screen computer system to monitor psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)) and quality of life (HRQOL; EORTC QLQ-C30 and H&N35 module) in routine follow-up care. Patients who screened positive for psychological distress (HADS-T >14, HADS-A >7, or HADS-D >7) were asked whether they received psychological or psychiatric treatment. During the study period of 37 months, OncoQuest was used by 720 individual HNC patients, of whom 714 had complete HADS data. Psychological distress was present in 206 patients (29 %). Of those patients who fulfilled in- and exclusion criteria (n = 137), 25 received psychological treatment (18 %). Receipt of psychological treatment was significantly related to a higher score on the HADS total scale (19.6 vs. 16.9; p = 0.019), a lower (worse) score on the EORTC QLQ-C30 scale emotional functioning (46.0 vs. 58.6; p = 0.023), a higher (worse) score on fatigue (58.2 vs. 46.4; p = 0.032), problems with sexuality (44.1 vs. 34.4; p = 0.043), oral pain (43.8 vs. 28.8; p = 0.011) and speech problems (37.0 vs. 25.3; p = 0.042). Screening for psychological distress via OncoQuest is beneficial because 82 % of HNC patients identified with an increased level of distress who do not yet receive mental treatment were identified. Patients who did receive treatment reported more distress and worse quality of life, which may be explained because patients with more severe problems maybe more inclined to seek help or might be detected easier by caregivers and referred to supportive care more often.

  4. The m/r SEBT: development of a functional screening tool for dance educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret; Batson, Glenna

    2014-12-01

    Dance screenings provide direct and indirect data bearing on a dancer's readiness to undertake rigorous physical training. Rarely, however, are dance teachers able to translate results from these screenings into practical technical knowledge. In this article, an example of a preseason assessment tool is presented that translates scientific findings into useful information for dance teachers conducting auditions. Designed as a baseline assessment of the dancer during auditioning, the m/r SEBT tool helps teachers stratify technical levels, identify injury risk, and consequently assist with immediate and appropriate recommendations for supplemental training and//or follow-up with a medical professional. The tool evolved out of more than 3 years of collaborative, multisite research utilizing the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) as a dynamic test of balance. Modifications were made to render the test more dance-specific and to increase balance challenges. Within the 3-year period, more than 100 dancers were tested in four sites, two in the United States and two in the United Kingdom. Despite the relatively large collective sample size, neither the original SEBT nor its modifications (m/r SEBT) held robust face or content validity as balance screens. What did emerge, however, were qualitative criteria that the authors organized into a feasible assessment tool for preseason auditions. While this tool awaits further validation, its current evolution helps serve as a bridge between dance teachers' clinical and practical knowledge.

  5. Can abstract screening workload be reduced using text mining? User experiences of the tool Rayyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Hanna; Brolund, Agneta; Hellberg, Christel; Silverstein, Rebecca; Stenström, Karin; Österberg, Marie; Dagerhamn, Jessica

    2017-09-01

    One time-consuming aspect of conducting systematic reviews is the task of sifting through abstracts to identify relevant studies. One promising approach for reducing this burden uses text mining technology to identify those abstracts that are potentially most relevant for a project, allowing those abstracts to be screened first. To examine the effectiveness of the text mining functionality of the abstract screening tool Rayyan. User experiences were collected. Rayyan was used to screen abstracts for 6 reviews in 2015. After screening 25%, 50%, and 75% of the abstracts, the screeners logged the relevant references identified. A survey was sent to users. After screening half of the search result with Rayyan, 86% to 99% of the references deemed relevant to the study were identified. Of those studies included in the final reports, 96% to 100% were already identified in the first half of the screening process. Users rated Rayyan 4.5 out of 5. The text mining function in Rayyan successfully helped reviewers identify relevant studies early in the screening process. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The Democritos Movement Screening Tool for Preschool Children (DEMOST-PRE©): development and factorial validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambas, Antonis; Venetsanou, Fotini

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was (a) to develop an assessment tool (the Democritos Movement Screening Tool for Preschool Children - DEMOST-PRE), designed to provide preschool educators, clinicians and researchers with information about assessment and screening of the motor proficiency of children aged 4-6 years, as well as the development and control of movement programmes and (b) to assess its factorial validity. First, tool's content and face validity were established and its final structure was determined. Then, the DEMOST-PRE was administered to 435 children (197 girls) aged 48-71 months (M=60.48 months, SD=6.98). The factor analysis conducted revealed two distinct components. Present evidence combined with the DEMOST-PRE administrative traits make it promising for preschool aged children's assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment tools in obesity - psychological measures, diet, activity, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beechy, Laura; Galpern, Jennie; Petrone, Andrew; Das, Sai Krupa

    2012-08-20

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity has led to an increased need for measurement tools for research, management and treatment of the obese person. The physical size limitations imposed by obesity, variations in body composition from that of normal weight, and a complex psychopathology all pose tremendous challenges to the assessment of an obese person. There is little published research regarding what tools can be used with confidence. This review is designed to provide researchers and clinicians with a guide to the current and emerging measurement tools specifically associated with obesity research and practice. Section 1 addresses psychological measures of well being. Sections 2, 3, and 4 focus on the assessment of food intake, activity, and body composition. All sections address basic challenges involved in the study and management of obesity, and highlight methodological issues associated with the use of common assessment tools. The best available methods for use in the obese both in research and clinical practice are recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating the reliability of an injury prevention screening tool: Test-retest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelman, Michael A; Kincaid, Madeline; Denny, Sarah; Wervey Arnold, Melissa; FitzGerald, Michael; Carle, Adam C; Mara, Constance A

    2016-10-01

    A standardized injury prevention (IP) screening tool can identify family risks and allow pediatricians to address behaviors. To assess behavior changes on later screens, the tool must be reliable for an individual and ideally between household members. Little research has examined the reliability of safety screening tool questions. This study utilized test-retest reliability of parent responses on an existing IP questionnaire and also compared responses between household parents. Investigators recruited parents of children 0 to 1 year of age during admission to a tertiary care children's hospital. When both parents were present, one was chosen as the "primary" respondent. Primary respondents completed the 30-question IP screening tool after consent, and they were re-screened approximately 4 hours later to test individual reliability. The "second" parent, when present, only completed the tool once. All participants received a 10-dollar gift card. Cohen's Kappa was used to estimate test-retest reliability and inter-rater agreement. Standard test-retest criteria consider Kappa values: 0.0 to 0.40 poor to fair, 0.41 to 0.60 moderate, 0.61 to 0.80 substantial, and 0.81 to 1.00 as almost perfect reliability. One hundred five families participated, with five lost to follow-up. Thirty-two (30.5%) parent dyads completed the tool. Primary respondents were generally mothers (88%) and Caucasian (72%). Test-retest of the primary respondents showed their responses to be almost perfect; average 0.82 (SD = 0.13, range 0.49-1.00). Seventeen questions had almost perfect test-retest reliability and 11 had substantial reliability. However, inter-rater agreement between household members for 12 objective questions showed little agreement between responses; inter-rater agreement averaged 0.35 (SD = 0.34, range -0.19-1.00). One question had almost perfect inter-rater agreement and two had substantial inter-rater agreement. The IP screening tool used by a single individual had excellent

  9. The development of a mental health screening tool and referral pathway for police custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noga, Heather L; Walsh, Elizabeth C L; Shaw, Jenny J; Senior, Jane

    2015-04-01

    Time spent in police custody should present an opportunity for the early identification of mental ill health. However, this stage of the criminal justice system (CJS) is currently the least developed in terms of its links with health and social services. In England, police custody sergeants administer a standardized risk assessment tool to determine a detainee's need for health-care and/or risk reduction measures while detained. Specialized mental health services are often reliant on this process to generate referrals; however, previous research has shown this to be ineffective. The aim of this study was to develop an improved mental health screening tool and referral pathway to better identify individuals with mental ill health in police custody. Mental health professionals, police officers and service users across six sites throughout England took part in qualitative interviews, controlled feedback consultations and an action learning group. By combining a previously validated CJS mental health screening tool with elements of the custody risk assessment, the Police Mental Health Screening Questionnaire (PolQuest) was created. It is accompanied by a referral pathway that outlines services' responsibilities, expected actions and response times. The study resulted in a screening tool, referral pathway and training package. PolQuest is expected to facilitate the mental health screening of all adult detainees; improve the early identification of mental ill health; aid timely access to services; provide clear indicators for referral; and reduce ambiguity in the roles and responsibilities of staff across a range of criminal justice and health-care services. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the validity of four fall-related psychological measures in a community-based falls risk screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Delilah S; Ellis, Rebecca; Kosma, Maria; Fabre, Jennifer M; McCarter, Kevin S; Wood, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    We examined the measurement properties offall-related psychological instruments with a sample of 133 older adults (M age = 74.4 years, SD = 9.4). Measures included the Comprehensive Falls Risk Screening Instrument, Falls-efficacy Scale-International (FES-I), Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC), modified Survey ofActivities and Fear ofFalling in the Elderly (mSAFFE), Consequences of Falling (CoF), Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), and 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The FES-I, ABC, mSAFFE, and CoF were significantly correlated with each othe, with SF-36, and with mobility. The ABC and mSAFFE were significantly correlated with PASE. The ABC differentiated between fallers and nonfallers and predicted total falls risk. Findings can assist with the selection of psychological instruments in a falls risk screening context.

  11. Review of nutritional screening and assessment tools and clinical outcomes in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Zhang, Haifeng; Lin, Zheng; Li, Xinli; Kong, Xiangqin; Sun, Gouzhen

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that undernutrition as defined using multidimensional nutritional evaluation tools may affect clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF). The evidence supporting this correlation is unclear. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review to critically appraise the use of multidimensional evaluation tools in the prediction of clinical outcomes in HF. We performed descriptive analyses of all identified articles involving qualitative analyses. We used STATA to conduct meta-analyses when at least three studies that tested the same type of nutritional assessment or screening tools and used the same outcome were identified. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to validate our positive results. We identified 17 articles with qualitative analyses and 11 with quantitative analysis after comprehensive literature searching and screening. We determined that the prevalence of malnutrition is high in HF (range 16-90 %), particularly in advanced and acute decompensated HF (approximate range 75-90 %). Undernutrition as identified by multidimensional evaluation tools may be significantly associated with hospitalization, length of stay and complications and is particularly strongly associated with high mortality. The meta-analysis revealed that compared with other tools, Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scores were the strongest predictors of mortality in HF [HR (4.32, 95 % CI 2.30-8.11)]. Our results remained reliable after conducting sensitivity analyses. The prevalence of malnutrition is high in HF, particularly in advanced and acute decompensated HF. Moreover, undernutrition as identified by multidimensional evaluation tools is significantly associated with unfavourable prognoses and high mortality in HF.

  12. Mineotaur: a tool for high-content microscopy screen sharing and visual analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Bálint; Chessel, Anatole; Carazo Salas, Rafael E

    2015-12-17

    High-throughput/high-content microscopy-based screens are powerful tools for functional genomics, yielding intracellular information down to the level of single-cells for thousands of genotypic conditions. However, accessing their data requires specialized knowledge and most often that data is no longer analyzed after initial publication. We describe Mineotaur ( http://www.mineotaur.org ), a open-source, downloadable web application that allows easy online sharing and interactive visualisation of large screen datasets, facilitating their dissemination and further analysis, and enhancing their impact.

  13. Dysphagia screening in subacute care settings using the Italian version of the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (I-RBWH) dysphagia screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzanica, F; Scarponi, L; Pedrali, S; Pizzorni, N; Pinotti, C; Foieni, F; Zuccotti, G; Schindler, A

    2017-02-01

    The large majority of the available dysphagia screening tools has been developed for the stroke population. Only few screening tools are suitable for heterogeneous groups of patients admitted to a subacute care unit. The Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (RBWH) dysphagia screening tool is a nurse-administered, evidence-based swallow screening tool for generic acute hospital use that demonstrates excellent sensitivity and specificity. No Italian version of this tool is available to date. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and screening accuracy of the Italian version of the RBWH (I-RBWH) dysphagia screening tool. A total of 105 patients consecutively admitted to a subacute care unit were enrolled. Using the I-RBWH tool, each patient was evaluated twice by trained nurses and once by a speech and language pathologist (SLP) blind to nurses' scores. The SLP also performed standardised clinical assessment of swallowing using the Mann assessment of swallowing ability (MASA). During the first and the second administration of the I-RBWH by nurses, 28 and 27 patients, respectively, were considered at risk of dysphagia, and 27 were considered at risk after SLP assessment. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was satisfactory. Comparison between nurse I-RBWH scores and MASA examination demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity of the I-RBWH dysphagia screening tool up to 93% and 96%, respectively; the positive and negative predictive values were 90% and 97%, respectively. Thus, the current findings support the reliability and accuracy of the I-RBWH tool for dysphagia screening of patients in subacute settings. Its application in clinical practice is recommended. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  14. Ground-Truthing Validation to Assess the Effect of Facility Locational Error on Cumulative Impacts Screening Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Sadd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and government regulators have developed numerous tools to screen areas and populations for cumulative impacts and vulnerability to environmental hazards and risk. These tools all rely on secondary data maintained by government agencies as part of the regulatory and permitting process. Stakeholders interested in cumulative impacts screening results have consistently questioned the accuracy and completeness of some of these datasets. In this study, three cumulative impacts screening tools used in California were compared, and ground-truth validation was used to determine the effect database inaccuracy. Ground-truthing showed substantial locational inaccuracy and error in hazardous facility databases and statewide air toxics emission inventories of up to 10 kilometers. These errors resulted in significant differences in cumulative impact screening scores generated by one screening tool, the Environmental Justice Screening Method.

  15. Psychological Factors Associated with Paranursing Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Robert; Haller, Katherine

    The psychological factors associated with paranursing expertise were examined in a study of 135 certified nursing assistants (CNAs) at a geriatric nursing facility in Amarillo, Texas. Data were collected through a project-developed screening tool called the Geriatric Employee Screening Tool (GEST), which is a true-false instrument patterned after…

  16. Screening Commercial Vehicle Drivers for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Tools, Barriers, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kelly A; Yap, Tracey; Turner, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder characterized by a cessation of breathing during sleep, leading to poor sleep patterns and daytime somnolence. Daytime somnolence is of particular concern for commercial vehicle drivers, whose crash risk increases 50% with untreated OSA. The process of diagnosing and treating OSA in commercial drivers begins with effective and consistent screening. Therefore, the researchers screened drivers with both the STOP-Bang Questionnaire and the Obstructive Sleep Apnea Evaluation Worksheet (OSAEW) and compared the two tools. Drivers screening positive on the STOP-Bang Questionnaire, OSAEW, and both questionnaires were 28%, 23%, and 13%, respectively. Sleep study referrals were made for 50 drivers; 12 drivers were scheduled for sleep tests within 3 months. Health care provider referral rates for drivers screening at high risk (37%) and commercial driver monitoring rates (24%) were both low. Recommendations to improve OSA screening and testing practices include Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration-mandated screening and referral guidelines, employee-facilitated sleep testing, and OSA awareness campaigns.

  17. Usability Testing of a National Substance Use Screening Tool Embedded in Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Anne; DeStio, Catherine; McCullagh, Lauren; Kapoor, Sandeep; Morley, Jeanne; Conigliaro, Joseph

    2016-07-08

    Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is currently being implemented into health systems nationally via paper and electronic methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the integration of an electronic SBIRT tool into an existing paper-based SBIRT clinical workflow in a patient-centered medical home. Usability testing was conducted in an academic ambulatory clinic. Two rounds of usability testing were done with medical office assistants (MOAs) using a paper and electronic version of the SBIRT tool, with two and four participants, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed to determine the impact of both tools on clinical workflow. A second round of usability testing was done with the revised electronic version and compared with the first version. Personal workflow barriers cited in the first round of testing were that the electronic health record (EHR) tool was disruptive to patient's visits. In Round 2 of testing, MOAs reported favoring the electronic version due to improved layout and the inclusion of an alert system embedded in the EHR. For example, using the system usability scale (SUS), MOAs reported a grade "1" for the statement, "I would like to use this system frequently" during the first round of testing but a "5" during the second round of analysis. The importance of testing usability of various mediums of tools used in health care screening is highlighted by the findings of this study. In the first round of testing, the electronic tool was reported as less user friendly, being difficult to navigate, and time consuming. Many issues faced in the first generation of the tool were improved in the second generation after usability was evaluated. This study demonstrates how usability testing of an electronic SBRIT tool can help to identify challenges that can impact clinical workflow. However, a limitation of this study was the small sample size of MOAs that participated. The results may have been biased to

  18. Narrative psychological content analysis as a tool for psychological status monitoring of crews in isolated, confined and extreme settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmann, B.; Balázs, L.; Fülöp, É.; Hargitai, R.; Kabai, P.; Péley, B.; Pólya, T.; Vargha, A.; László, J.

    2011-05-01

    This paper is about a pilot application of narrative psychological content analysis in the psychological status monitoring of Crew 71 of a space analog simulation environment, the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). Both the method and its theoretical framework, Scientific Narrative Psychology, are original developments by Hungarian psychologists [5] (László, 2008). The software was NooJ, a multilingual linguistic development environment [11] (Silberztein, 2008). Three measures were conceptualized and assessed: emotional status, team spirit and subjective physical comfort. The results showed the patterns of these three measures on a daily basis at group level, and allowed for detecting individual differences as well. The method is adaptable to languages involved in space psychology, e.g. Russian, French and German in addition to English.

  19. Screening for psychological distress in very long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laage, Astrid; Allodji, Rodrigue; Dauchy, Sarah; Rivollet, Sophie; Fayech, Chiraz; Fresneau, Brice; Oberlin, Odile

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of psychological distress (PD) in a cohort of 348 adult childhood cancer survivors with a very long-term follow-up and assessed the characteristics associated with this distress (cancer type, treatment, sex, age at diagnosis, self-reported late effects, social support, type of remembrance, time since the diagnosis, age at evaluation), assuming that with time since the diagnosis, the PD of survivors will approximate that of the general population. Before attending a long-term follow-up consultation, survivors were sent 3 questionnaires: the Brief Symptom Inventory-18, the Impact of Event Scale, and the Illness Worry Scale (IWS). During the visit, they were administered the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) by a psychologist. The mean age of the survivors was 38.5 years (18.1-65.8) at consultation, 7 years (0.0-18.0) at cancer diagnosis, and mean time since diagnosis was 31.5 years (8.8-56.1). Multiple regression analyses of the data collected from self-administered questionnaires confirmed that being female, living alone, and self-reported late effects were associated with the high scores for all scales. Negative remembrances and being accompanied to the clinic were associated with higher IWS scores. Unlike the initial hypothesis, the MINI showed that, compared with controls, survivors experienced a higher prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders even after a very long time since the diagnosis. These findings show that a substantial subset of survivors experiment a high prevalence of PD, higher than the general population, and should be screened for PD whatever the time since the diagnosis.

  20. Internet-Based Learning Tools:Development and Learning Psychology (DLP Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tavares

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The project aims to establish a deeper involvement of students and teachers in the learning process by using the ICT in higher education. We will try to address the following two questions: "how can the use of ICT help educators to accomplishing their academic goals and how do the students use the ICT to develop their academic skills?" The work team constituted by four teaching staff and two researchers at the University of Aveiro has developed a project on the 'Development and Learning Psychology' course. The course follows the traditional style of lecturing but with a Web site as a supporting tool aiming at increasing the involvement and responsibility of the students in the class.

  1. Maternal vaccination and preterm birth: using data mining as a screening tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Jensen, Henrik; Stensballe, Lone

    2007-01-01

    Objective The main purpose of this study was to identify possible associations between medicines used in pregnancy and preterm deliveries using data mining as a screening tool. Settings Prospective cohort study. Methods We used data mining to identify possible correlates between preterm delivery...... measure Preterm birth, a delivery occurring before the 259th day of gestation (i.e., less than 37 full weeks). Results Data mining had indicated that maternal vaccination (among other factors) might be related to preterm birth. The following regression analysis showed that, the women who reported being...... further studies. Data mining, especially with additional refinements, may be a valuable and very efficient tool to screen large databases for relevant information which can be used in clinical and public health research....

  2. TANGO - a screening tool to identify comorbidities on the causal pathway of nocturia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Wendy F; Rose, Georgie E; Ervin, Claire F; Goldin, Jeremy; Whishaw, David M; Khan, Fary

    2017-06-01

    To develop a robust screening metric for use in identifying non-lower urinary tract comorbidities pertinent to the multidisciplinary assessment of patients with nocturia. Variables having a significant risk association with nocturia of greater than once per night were identified. Discriminating items from validated and reliable tools measuring these comorbidities were identified. A self-completed 57-item questionnaire was developed and a medical checklist and pertinent clinical measures added. Pre-determined criteria were applied to retain or remove items in the development of the Short-Form (SF) screening tool. The tool was administered to 252 individuals with nocturia who were attending either a tertiary level Sleep, Continence, Falls or Rehabilitation service for routine care. Data collected were subjected to descriptive analysis; criteria were applied to reduce the number of items. Using pre-determined domains, a nocturia screening metric, entitled TANGO, was generated. The acronym TANGO stands for Targeting the individual's Aetiology of Nocturia to Guide Outcomes. The demographic characteristics of the sample are described, along with item endorsement levels. The statistical and structural framework to justify deleting or retaining of items from the TANGO Long-Form to the SF is presented. The resultant TANGO-SF patient-completed nocturia screening tool is reported. A novel all-cause diagnostic metric for identifying co-existing morbidities of clinical relevance to nocturia in patients who present across disciplines and medical specialties has been developed. TANGO has the potential to improve practice and smooth inequalities associated with a siloed approach to assessment and subsequent care of patients with nocturia. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Accuracy of Brief Screening Tools for Identifying Postpartum Depression Among Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Kartik K.; Zlotnick, Caron; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Ware, Crystal

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and 3 subscales for identifying postpartum depression among primiparous adolescent mothers. METHODS: Mothers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to prevent postpartum depression completed a psychiatric diagnostic interview and the 10-item EPDS at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postpartum. Three subscales of the EPDS were assessed as brief screening tools: 3-item anxiety subscale (EPDS-3), 7-item depressive symptoms subscale (EPDS-7), and 2-item subscale (EPDS-2) that resemble the Patient Health Questionnaire-2. Receiver operating characteristic curves and the areas under the curves for each tool were compared to assess accuracy. The sensitivities and specificities of each screening tool were calculated in comparison with diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder. Repeated-measures longitudinal analytical techniques were used. RESULTS: A total of 106 women contributed 289 postpartum visits; 18% of the women met criteria for incident postpartum depression by psychiatric diagnostic interview. When used as continuous measures, the full EPDS, EPDS-7, and EPDS-2 performed equally well (area under the curve >0.9). Optimal cutoff scores for a positive depression screen for the EPDS and EPDS-7 were lower (≥9 and ≥7, respectively) than currently recommended cutoff scores (≥10). At optimal cutoff scores, the EPDS and EPDS-7 both had sensitivities of 90% and specificities of >85%. CONCLUSIONS: The EPDS, EPDS-7, and EPDS-2 are highly accurate at identifying postpartum depression among adolescent mothers. In primary care pediatric settings, the EPDS and its shorter subscales have potential for use as effective depression screening tools. PMID:24344102

  4. Is the presence of a validated malnutrition screening tool associated with better nutritional care in hospitalized patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglseer, Doris; Halfens, Ruud J G; Lohrmann, Christa

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between the use of clinical guidelines and the use of validated screening tools, evaluate the nutritional screening policy in hospitals, and examine the association between the use of validated screening tools and the prevalence of malnutrition and nutritional interventions in hospitalized patients. This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study. Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire on three levels: institution (presence of a guideline for malnutrition), department (use of a validated screening tool), and patient (e.g., malnutrition prevalence). In all, 53 hospitals with 5255 patients participated. About 45% of the hospitals indicated that they have guidelines for malnutrition. Of the departments surveyed, 38.6% used validated screening tools as part of a standard procedure. The nutritional status of 74.5% of the patients was screened during admission, mostly on the basis of clinical observation and patient weight. A validated screening tool was used for 21.2% of the patients. Significant differences between wards with and without validated screening tools were found with regard to malnutrition prevalence (P = 0.002) and the following interventions: referral to a dietitian (P nutritional intake (P = 0.001), and adjustment of the meal ambiance (P Nutritional screening with validated tools in hospitalized patients remains poor. Generally, the nutritional status of patients is screened with unreliable parameters such as clinical observation and body mass index. The results of the present study suggest that the use of validated malnutrition screening tools is associated with better nutritional care and lower malnutrition prevalence rates in hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The ligase chain reaction Mycobacterium tuberculosis assay uses ligase chain reaction technology to detect tuberculous DNA sequences in clinical specimens. A study was undertaken to determine its sensitivity and specificity as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis. METHODS: The study was conducted on 2420 clinical specimens (sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, pleural fluid, urine) submitted for primary screening for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to a regional medical microbiology laboratory. Specimens were tested in parallel with smear, ligase chain reaction, and culture. RESULTS: Thirty nine patients had specimens testing positive by the ligase chain reaction assay. Thirty two patients had newly diagnosed tuberculosis, one had a tuberculosis relapse, three had tuberculosis (on antituberculous therapy when tested), and three had healed tuberculosis. In the newly diagnosed group specimens were smear positive in 21 cases (66%), ligase chain reaction positive in 30 cases (94%), and culture positive in 32 cases (100%). Using a positive culture to diagnose active tuberculosis, the ligase chain reaction assay had a sensitivity of 93.9%, a specificity of 99.8%, a positive predictive value of 83.8%, and a negative predictive value of 99.9%. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the largest clinical trial to date to report the efficacy of the ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The authors conclude that ligase chain reaction is a useful primary screening test for tuberculosis, offering speed and discrimination in the early stages of diagnosis and complementing traditional smear and culture techniques.

  6. Development of a mnemonic screening tool for identifying subjects with Hunter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Gabriel M; Morin, Isabelle; Whiteman, David A H

    2013-07-01

    The Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS), an international, long-term observational registry of patients with Hunter syndrome, was used to develop a simple mnemonic screening tool (HUNTER) to aid in the diagnosis of Hunter syndrome. Data regarding the prediagnosis prevalence of ten specific signs and symptoms present in individual patients enrolled in the HOS were used to develop the HUNTER mnemonic screening tool. A total score of 6 or greater using a weighting scheme in which certain manifestations were assigned a weight of 2 (facial dysmorphism, nasal obstruction or rhinorrhea, enlarged tongue, enlarged liver, enlarged spleen, joint stiffness) and others assigned a weight of 1 (hernia, hearing impairment, enlarged tonsils, airway obstruction or sleep apnea) correctly identified 95 % of patients who had no family history of Hunter syndrome or who were not diagnosed prenatally. No association between age at diagnosis and HUNTER score was found. The HUNTER mnemonic appears to be a useful screening tool. Further validation in the clinical setting will be necessary to confirm its utility.

  7. Parental psychological distress and anxiety after a successful IVF/ICSI procedure with and without preimplantation genetic screening : Follow-up of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, F.; Houtzager, B. A.; Paap, M C S; Middelburg, K J; Hadders-Algra, M; Bos, A.F.; Kok, J.H.

    Background: Infertility treatment has an acknowledged psychological impact on women and their partners; however, information about the development of parental well-being after child birth is inconclusive. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) has been suggested to increase the efficacy of

  8. Parental psychological distress and anxiety after a successful IVF/ICSI procedure with and without preimplantation genetic screening: Follow-up of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, F.; Houtzager, B. A.; Paap, M. C. S.; Middelburg, K. J.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Bos, A. F.; Kok, J. H.; Cobben, Jan Maarten; van der Heide, Maaike; Koomen, Alice; Repping, Sjoerd; Silberbusch, Lobke; Twisk, Moniek; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; van der Veen, Fulco; Bos, Arend F.; Haadsma, Maaike; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Heineman, Maas Jan; van Hoften, Jacorina; Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Keating, Paul; Seggers, Jorien

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infertility treatment has an acknowledged psychological impact on women and their partners; however, information about the development of parental well-being after child birth is inconclusive. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) has been suggested to increase the efficacy of

  9. Parental psychological distress and anxiety after a successful IVF/ICSI procedure with and without Preimplantation Genetic Screening. Follow-up of a randomised controlled trail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, F.; Houtzager, B.A.; Paap, Muirne; Middelburg, K.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Bos, A.F.; Kok, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Infertility treatment has an acknowledged psychological impact on women and their partners; however, information about the development of parental well-being after child birth is inconclusive. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) has been suggested to increase the efficacy of

  10. Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions/Screening Tools to Alert Doctors to Right Treatment Medication Criteria Modified for U.S. Nursing Home Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodyakov, Dmitry; Ochoa, Aileen; Olivieri-Mui, Brianne L; Bouwmeester, Carla; Zarowitz, Barbara J; Patel, Meenakshi; Ching, Diana; Briesacher, Becky

    2017-03-01

    To develop a set of prescribing indicators measurable with available data from electronic nursing home (NH) databases by adapting the European-based 2014 Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions (STOPP) and Screening Tools to Alert Doctors to Right Treatment (START) criteria of potentially inappropriate and underused medications for the U.S. A two-stage expert panel process. In the first stage, the investigator team reviewed 114 criteria for compatibility and measurability. In the second stage, an online modified e-Delphi (OMD) panel was convened to rate the validity of criteria, and two webinars were held to identify criteria with highest relevance to U.S. NHs. Seventeen experts with recognized reputations in NH care participated in the e-Delphi panel and 12 in the webinar. Compatibility and measurability were assessed by comparing criteria with U.S. terminology and setting standards and data elements in NH databases. Validity was rated using a 9-point Likert-type scale (1 = not valid at all, 9 = highly valid). Mean, median, interpercentile ranges, and agreement were determined for each criterion score. Relevance was determined by ranking the mean panel ratings on criteria that reached agreement; the webinar participants reviewed and approved half of the criteria with the highest mean values. Fifty-three STOPP/START criteria were deemed to be compatible with the U.S. NH setting and measurable using data from electronic NH databases. E-Delphi panelists rated 48 criteria as valid for U.S. NHs. Twenty-four criteria were deemed to be most relevant, consisting of 22 measures of potentially inappropriate medications and two measures of underused medications. This study created the first explicit criteria for assessing the quality of prescribing in U.S. NHs. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Do Racial Disparities Exist in the Use of Prostate Cancer Screening and Detection Tools in Veterans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M’Liss A.; Luo, Suhong; Chrusciel, Timothy; Yan, Yan; Grubb, Robert L.; Carson, Kenneth; Scherrer, Jeffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether racial disparities exist in the use of prostate cancer screening and detection tools in veterans. Methods and Materials Administrative data was obtained from the Corporate Data Warehouse on a national cohort of 275,831 veterans (21% AA) ages 40–70 years who were free of heart disease, an elevated PSA level (> 4.0 ng/mL), other clinical signs of prostate cancer, prostate cancer diagnosis, and treatment for prostate cancer between 10/1/1998 – 9/30/2000. Subjects were followed until 9/30/2007. Regular users were defined as those with at least one annual visit to the Veterans Healthcare Administration (VHA) between 10/1/1998 and 9/30/2000. We sought to determine if race was significantly associated with PSA testing, time to elevated PSA detection, time to prostate biopsy and time to diagnosis of prostate cancer. Chi square tests, logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used to test for associations between race and prostate cancer variables. Results 84% of veterans ages 40–70 years undergo PSA testing. AA veterans are as likely as white veterans to undergo PSA testing. Screened AA veterans are more likely to have a PSA > 4 ng/mL, undergo prostate biopsy and be diagnosed with prostate cancer than screened white veterans. The time intervals to undergoing a prostate biopsy and being diagnosed with prostate cancer were statistically significantly shorter (although unlikely of clinical significance) for AA veterans with a PSA level > 4 ng/mL than that for white veterans with a PSA level > 4 ng/mL. When routine care in regular VHA users was compared to that of participants in major screening trials such as Prostate, Lung, Ovarian and Colon Cancer (PLCO) Trial and European Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC), prostate biopsy rates were lower (30% versus 40–86%), prostate cancer detection rates/person biopsied were higher (49% versus 31–45%), and incidence of prostate cancer was 1.1% versus 4.9–8

  12. Do racial disparities exist in the use of prostate cancer screening and detection tools in veterans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M'Liss A; Luo, Suhong; Chrusciel, Timothy; Yan, Yan; Grubb, Robert L; Carson, Kenneth; Scherrer, Jeffrey F

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether racial disparities exist in the use of prostate cancer screening and detection tools in veterans. Administrative data were obtained from the Corporate Data Warehouse on a national cohort of 275,831 veterans (21% African American [AA]) between the ages of 40 and 70 years who were free of heart disease, did not have an elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) level (>4 ng/ml), did not have other clinical signs of prostate cancer, had not been diagnosed with prostate cancer, and had not received treatment for prostate cancer between January 10, 1998 and September 30, 2000. Subjects were followed up until September 30, 2007. Regular users were defined as those with at least 1 annual visit to the Veterans Healthcare Administration (VHA) between October 1, 1998 and September 30, 2000. We sought to determine if race was significantly associated with PSA testing, the time to elevated PSA detection, the time to prostate biopsy, and the time to diagnosis of prostate cancer. Chi-square tests, logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to test for associations between race and prostate cancer variables. Eighty-four percent of the veterans between the ages 40 and 70 years undergo PSA testing. AA veterans are as likely as white veterans to undergo PSA testing. Screened AA veterans are more likely to have a PSA>4 ng/ml, undergo prostate biopsy, and be diagnosed with prostate cancer than screened white veterans. The time intervals between undergoing a prostate biopsy and being diagnosed with prostate cancer were statistically significantly shorter (although unlikely of clinical significance) for AA veterans with a PSA level>4 ng/ml than that for white veterans with a PSA level>4 ng/ml. When routine care in regular VHA users was compared with that of participants in major screening trials such as Prostate, Lung, Ovarian and Colon Cancer Trial and European Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer, prostate biopsy rates were lower (30% vs. 40

  13. A comparison of two tools to screen potentially inappropriate medication in internal medicine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, A-L; Spasojevic, S; Leszek, A; Théodoloz, M; Bonnabry, P; Fumeaux, T; Schaad, N

    2017-10-08

    Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) is an important issue for inpatient management; it has been associated with safety problems, such as increases in adverse drugs events, and with longer hospital stays and higher healthcare costs. To compare two PIM-screening tools-STOPP/START and PIM-Check-applied to internal medicine patients. A second objective was to compare the use of PIMs in readmitted and non-readmitted patients. A retrospective observational study, in the general internal medicine ward of a Swiss non-university hospital. We analysed a random sample of 50 patients, hospitalized in 2013, whose readmission within 30 days of discharge had been potentially preventable, and compared them to a sample of 50 sex- and age-matched patients who were not readmitted. PIMs were screened using the STOPP/START tool, developed for geriatric patients, and the PIM-Check tool, developed for internal medicine patients. The time needed to perform each patient's analysis was measured. A clinical pharmacist counted and evaluated each PIM detected, based on its clinical relevance to the individual patient's case. The rates of screened and validated PIMs involving readmitted and non-readmitted patients were compared. Across the whole population, PIM-Check and STOPP/START detected 1348 and 537 PIMs, respectively, representing 13.5 and 5.4 PIMs/patient. Screening time was substantially shorter with PIM-Check than with STOPP/START (4 vs 10 minutes, respectively). The clinical pharmacist judged that 45% and 42% of the PIMs detected using PIM-Check and STOPP/START, respectively, were clinically relevant to individual patients' cases. No significant differences in the rates of detected and clinically relevant PIM were found between readmitted and non-readmitted patients. Internal medicine patients are frequently prescribed PIMs. PIM-Check's PIM detection rate was three times higher than STOPP/START's, and its screening time was shorter thanks to its electronic interface. Nearly

  14. Evaluation of a screening tool for bleeding disorders in a US multisite cohort of women with menorrhagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Claire S; Faiz, Ambarina; Heit, John A; Kouides, Peter A; Lukes, Andrea; Stein, Sidney F; Byams, Vanessa; Miller, Connie H; Kulkarni, Roshni

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of a simple screening tool for bleeding disorders in a multisite population of women with menorrhagia. Women with menorrhagia between the ages of 18 and 50 years from 6 geographically diverse US centers underwent hemostatic testing for bleeding disorders, complete blood cell count, and ferritin. A questionnaire that contained all elements of the 8-question screening tool was administered. Sensitivity of the screening tool, a screening tool with a pictorial blood assessment chart (PBAC) score of >185, and a screening tool with serum ferritin were calculated for hemostatic disorders. Two hundred and seventeen women who were identified with a PBAC score of ≥100 participated in the study. The sensitivity of the screening tool was 89% for hemostatic defects, and sensitivity increased to 93% and 95% with a serum ferritin level of ≤20 ng/mL and a PBAC score of >185, respectively. This study confirms the usefulness of a short screening tool for the stratification of women with menorrhagia for hemostatic evaluation. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk factors for neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected patients and comparison of different screening tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Moreira de Souza

    Full Text Available HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND is relatively frequent among HIV-infected patients and is often underdiagnosed. Assessment of HAND in daily clinical practice is challenging and different tools have been proposed. Objective : To evaluate risk factors and compare different screening tools for neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected patients. Methods : HIV-infected patients were evaluated using the International HIV-Dementia Scale (IHDS, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and a neurocognitive self-perception questionnaire recommended by the European AIDS Clinical Society. Sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory data were obtained through chart review and patient interview. Results : Among the 63 patients included, low performance on the IHDS was observed in 54.0% and IHDS score was inversely associated with age (OR 0.13; 95%CI [0.02-0.67]. Regarding cognitive self-perception, 63.5% of patients reported no impairment on the three domains covered by the questionnaire. Among those patients self-reporting no problems, 42.1% had low performance on the IHDS. None of the patients scored below the education-adjusted cut-off on the MMSE. Conclusion : IHDS scores suggestive of HAND were observed in more than half of the patients and lower scores were found among older patients. There was low agreement between the different tools, suggesting that the MMSE may be inadequate for assessing HAND. The self-assessment questionnaire had low sensitivity and might not be useful as a screening tool.

  16. Psychological Impact of Primary Screening (PIPS) for HPV: a protocol for a cross-sectional evaluation within the NHS cervical screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Emily; Marlow, Laura; Forster, Alice S; Moss, Sue; Myles, Jonathan; Kitchener, Henry; Patnick, Julietta; Waller, Jo

    2016-12-23

    The NHS Cervical Screening Programme is now using human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as the primary test in six sentinel sites in England, with the intention of rolling this out across the whole of England. Previous research evaluating HPV testing in the cervical screening context suggests that an HPV-positive result may increase anxiety beyond that associated with abnormal cytology, but this has not been explored in the context of primary HPV testing. The main aim of this study is to explore the impact of the HPV primary screening programme on anxiety and distress. A cross-sectional between-groups design (total N ∼ 673) will be employed to assess the psychological impact of different HPV and cytology results at three time points: shortly after receiving the results, and 6 and 12 months later. Women will fall into one of six groups based on their screening results. The primary outcomes will be anxiety and general distress. Secondary outcomes will include understanding of screening results, perceived risk of cervical cancer, psychosexual functioning, intention to attend future screening and knowledge of HPV. General linear modelling will be used to test for differences between groups and changes over the three time points. Health Research Authority approval was received on 26 September 2016. Ethical approval was received from London- Surrey Borders NHS Research Ethics Committee on 30 August 2016. Section 251 approval was received from the Confidentiality Advisory Group on 24 August 2016. Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publication and presentation at national and international conferences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. No psychological distress in sportsmen aged 45 years and older after cardiovascular screening, including cardiac CT : The Measuring Athlete’s Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, M. M.; Braber, T. L.; Prakken, N. H J; Doevendans, P. A F M; Backx, F. J G; Grobbee, D. E.; Rienks, R.; Nathoe, H. M.; Bots, M. L.; Velthuis, B. K.; Mosterd, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged ≥45 years. Methods Coronary artery

  18. No psychological distress in sportsmen aged 45 years and older after cardiovascular screening, including cardiac CT : The Measuring Athlete's Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, M. M.; Braber, T. L.; Prakken, N. H. J.; Doevendans, P. A. F. M.; Backx, F. J. G.; Grobbee, D. E.; Rienks, R.; Nathoe, H. M.; Bots, M. L.; Velthuis, B. K.; Mosterd, A.

    Background Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged >= 45 years. Methods Coronary

  19. Validating a screening tool for mental health and substance use risk in an Indigenous prison population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Coralie; Dingle, Kaeleen; Clavarino, Alexandra; Najman, Jake M; Alati, Rosa; Heffernan, Edward B

    2013-11-01

    The Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS) is a validated culturally appropriate and widely used tool in the community for assessing substance use and mental disorder. This research aimed to assess the utility of this tool in an Indigenous prison population. The study used data collected from a cross-sectional study of mental health among Indigenous inmates in Queensland custodial centres (n = 395, 84% male). Participants were administered a modified version of the IRIS and International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnoses of substance use, depressive and anxiety disorders obtained using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The concurrent validity of the modified IRIS was assessed against those of the CIDI. Three hundred and twelve people screened as high risk for a substance use disorder and 179 were high risk for mental problems. There were 73% of males and 88% of females diagnosed with a mental disorder. The IRIS was an effective screener for substance use disorders, with high sensitivity of 94% and low specificity of 33%. The screener was less effective in identifying depression (sensitivity 82%, specificity 59%) and anxiety (sensitivity 68%, specificity 60%). The IRIS is the first culturally appropriate screening instrument to be validated for the risk of drug and alcohol and mental disorder among Indigenous adults in custody. This study demonstrated that the IRIS is a valid tool for screening of alcohol and drug use risk among an incarcerated Indigenous population. The IRIS could offer an opportunity to improve the identification, treatment and health outcomes for incarcerated Indigenous adults. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Validation of the G8 screening tool in older patients with aggressive haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velghe, Anja; Petrovic, Mirko; De Buyser, Stefanie; Demuynck, Rein; Noens, Lucien

    2014-12-01

    Incidence rates of haematological malignancies increase with age. In these older cancer patients, important information may be missed without a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA). A validated screening instrument is needed to identify those patients for whom a CGA would be beneficial. The G8 has recently been validated as a screening tool for older cancer patients in need of a CGA. To test the performance of the G8 screening tool in older patients with aggressive haematological malignancies to identify those who would benefit from a CGA. Cross-sectional study of patients ≥70 years with a recently diagnosed haematological malignancy. G8, CGA (including six questionnaires) and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G) were completed in each patient. The CGA was considered abnormal when at least one questionnaire showed an impaired score. Fifty patients with median age of 76 years were included; 88% (N = 44) had an abnormal CGA. ROC curve analyses revealed a G8 score ≤14 obtained a sensitivity of 89% (95% CI 75-96) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI 54-100), suggesting an optimal cut-off point. AUC ± SE was 0.949 ± 0.030. Inclusion of comorbidity in the CGA did not change the performance of the G8 (0.943 ± 0.034; P = 0.895). The G8 can be used as a valid screening tool in older patients with aggressive haematological malignancies to identify those patients who would benefit from a CGA. Comorbidity should be assessed routinely and independently of the G8. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. BFH-OST, a new predictive screening tool for identifying osteoporosis in postmenopausal Han Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Z

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Zhao Ma, Yong Yang,* JiSheng Lin, XiaoDong Zhang, Qian Meng, BingQiang Wang, Qi Fei* Department of Orthopedics, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To develop a simple new clinical screening tool to identify primary osteoporosis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in postmenopausal women and to compare its validity with the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA in a Han Chinese population.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, enrolling 1,721 community-dwelling postmenopausal Han Chinese women. All the subjects completed a structured questionnaire and had their bone mineral density measured using DXA. Using logistic regression analysis, we assessed the ability of numerous potential risk factors examined in the questionnaire to identify women with osteoporosis. Based on this analysis, we build a new predictive model, the Beijing Friendship Hospital Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (BFH-OST. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to compare the validity of the new model and OSTA in identifying postmenopausal women at increased risk of primary osteoporosis as defined according to the World Health Organization criteria.Results: At screening, it was found that of the 1,721 subjects with DXA, 22.66% had osteoporosis and a further 47.36% had osteopenia. Of the items screened in the questionnaire, it was found that age, weight, height, body mass index, personal history of fracture after the age of 45 years, history of fragility fracture in either parent, current smoking, and consumption of three of more alcoholic drinks per day were all predictive of osteoporosis. However, age at menarche and menopause, years since menopause, and number of pregnancies and live births were irrelevant in this study. The logistic regression analysis and item reduction yielded a final tool (BFH-OST based on age

  2. Screening for psychological distress in adult primary brain tumor patients and caregivers: considerations for cancer care coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa eTrad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThis study aimed to assess psychological distress (PD as scored by the Distress Thermometer (DT in adult primary brain tumor (PBT patients and caregivers in a clinic setting, and ascertain if any high risk sub-groups for PD exist. Material and MethodsFrom May 2012 to August 2013, n=96 patients and n=32 caregivers (CG underwent DT screening at diagnosis, and a differing cohort of n=12 patients and n=14 caregivers at first recurrence. Groups were described by diagnosis (high grade, low grade and benign, and English versus non-English speaking. Those with DT score≥4 met caseness criteria for referral to psycho-oncology services. One-way ANOVA tests were conducted to test for between group differences where appropriate.ResultsAt diagnosis and first recurrence, 37.5% and 75.0% (respectively of patients had DT scores above the cut-off for distress. At diagnosis, 78.1% of caregivers met caseness criteria for distress. All caregivers at recurrence met distress criterion. Patients with high grade glioma had significantly higher scores than those with a benign tumor. For patients at diagnosis, non-English speaking participants did not report significantly higher DT scores than English speaking participants.DiscussionPsychological distress is particularly elevated in caregivers, and in patients with high grade glioma at diagnosis. Effective PD screening, triage and referral by skilled care coordinators is vital to enable timely needs assessment, psychological support and effective intervention.

  3. Anxiety and psychological stress before prenatal screening in first-time mothers who conceived through IVF/ICSI or spontaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwiche, Joëlle; Lawrence, Cindy; Vial, Yvan; Wunder, Dorothea; Stiefel, Friedrich; Germond, Marc; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; de Roten, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Mothers' general anxiety, anxiety about the well-being of the child and psychological stress before prenatal testing was studied by comparing women who conceived through in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with women who conceived naturally. Before the first trimester screening test for Down's syndrome, a group of 51 women who conceived through IVF/ICSI and a group of 54 women who conceived spontaneously completed the State Scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (S-Anxiety; Spielberger, 1983), the Fear of Bearing a Physically or Mentally Handicapped Child Subscale of the Pregnancy-related Anxiety Questionnaire (PRAQ-R; Huizink et al., 2004), the Psychological Stress Measure (PSM; Lemyre & Tessier, 1988), and the Prenatal Psychosocial Profile (PPP; Curry, Campbell, & Christian, 1994). Women who conceived through IVF/ICSI had more elevated levels of general anxiety and psychological stress than the women who conceived naturally; however, no difference was observed between the two groups for anxiety specifically related to the health of the child. These results underline the need to monitor women's emotional state after conception via IVF/ICSI-when counseling usually ends-and around the time of the first trimester screening. Counseling might thus be extended.

  4. Improving Major Depressive Episode Assessment: A New Tool Developed by Formal Psychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Francesca; Spoto, Andrea; Ghisi, Marta; Vidotto, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Major depressive episode (MDE) can manifest with different features. Discriminating between different types of MDEs is crucial for proper treatment. The aim of this study is to propose a new tool for MDE assessment in bipolar disorder (BD) or major depressive disorder (MDD) to overcome some limitations of current rating scales. The proposed tool investigates all of the clinical features of different MDEs and gives qualitative information, differentiating patients with the same score but different symptoms and psychopathology severity. To achieve this purpose authors used a new methodology called Formal Psychological Assessment (FPA). FPA allows creating relations between the items of an assessment tool, and the set of diagnostic criteria of a given clinical disorder. In the application at hand, given the capability to analyze all clinical features, FPA appears a useful way to highlight and differentiate between inhibited and agitated depressive symptoms. Method: The new tool contains 41 items constructed through 23 clinical criteria from the DSM-5 and literature symptoms. In line with FPA, starting from a set of items and a set of clinical criteria, a Boolean matrix was built assigning to each item its own set of clinical criteria. The participants include 265 in the control group and 38 patients with MDE (diagnosed with MDD or BD) who answered the QuEDS. After 1 month, 63 participants performed the test again and 113 took the Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale to analyze convergent—divergent validity. Results: The scale showed adequate reliability and validity. A hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis highlighted the presence of three sub factors (affective, somatic, and cognitive) and one high-order factor (depression). Conclusions: The new tool is potentially able to inform clinicians about the patients' most likely diagnostic configuration. Indeed, the clinical state of a patient consists of the subset of items he/she answered affirmatively, along with

  5. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT): a review of the evidence for use as a screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Fiona J; Tucker, Lorraine; Young, Ken C

    2016-02-01

    Breast screening with full-field digital mammography (FFDM) fails to detect 15-30% of cancers. This figure is higher for women with dense breasts. A new tomographic technique in mammography has been developed--digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT)--which allows images to be viewed in sections through the breast and has the potential to improve cancer detection rates. Results from retrospective reading studies comparing DBT with FFDM have been largely favourable with improvement in sensitivity and specificity. Increases in diagnostic accuracy have been reported as being independent of breast density; however there are mixed reports regarding the detection of microcalcification. Prospective screening studies using DBT with FFDM have demonstrated increased rates in cancer detection compared with FFDM alone. A reduction in false-positive recall rates has also been shown. Screening with the addition of DBT would approximately double radiation dose; however a simulated FFDM image can be generated from a DBT scan. The combination of simulated FFDM images and DBT is being evaluated within several studies and some positive results have been published. Interval cancer rates for the UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) demonstrate the limited sensitivity of FFDM in cancer detection. DBT has the potential to increase sensitivity and decrease false-positive recall rates. It has approval for screening and diagnostics in several countries; however, there are issues with DBT as a screening tool including additional reading time, IT storage and connectivity, over-diagnosis, and cost effectiveness. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness trials are needed before the implementation of DBT in NHSBSP can be considered. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Lyapunov Function Based Remedial Action Screening Tool Using Real-Time Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Joydeep [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ben-Idris, Mohammed [University of Nevada, Reno; Faruque, Omar [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Deb, Sidart [LCG Consulting, Los Altos, CA

    2016-03-30

    This report summarizes the outcome of a research project that comprised the development of a Lyapunov function based remedial action screening tool using real-time data (L-RAS). The L-RAS is an advanced computational tool that is intended to assist system operators in making real-time redispatch decisions to preserve power grid stability. The tool relies on screening contingencies using a homotopy method based on Lyapunov functions to avoid, to the extent possible, the use of time domain simulations. This enables transient stability evaluation at real-time speed without the use of massively parallel computational resources. The project combined the following components. 1. Development of a methodology for contingency screening using a homotopy method based on Lyapunov functions and real-time data. 2. Development of a methodology for recommending remedial actions based on the screening results. 3. Development of a visualization and operator interaction interface. 4. Testing of screening tool, validation of control actions, and demonstration of project outcomes on a representative real system simulated on a Real-Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) cluster. The project was led by Michigan State University (MSU), where the theoretical models including homotopy-based screening, trajectory correction using real-time data, and remedial action were developed and implemented in the form of research-grade software. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) contributed to the development of energy margin sensitivity dynamics, which constituted a part of the remedial action portfolio. Florida State University (FSU) and Southern California Edison (SCE) developed a model of the SCE system that was implemented on FSU's RTDS cluster to simulate real-time data that was streamed over the internet to MSU where the L-RAS tool was executed and remedial actions were communicated back to FSU to execute stabilizing controls on the simulated system. LCG Consulting developed the visualization

  7. BFH-OSTM, a new predictive screening tool for identifying osteoporosis in elderly Han Chinese males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin J

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available JiSheng Lin,1 Yong Yang,1 XiaoDong Zhang,1 Zhao Ma,1 Hao Wu,2 Yongjin Li,3 Xiuquan Yang,4 Qi Fei,1 Ai Guo1 1Department of Orthopedics, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Xicheng District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Fangzhuang Community Health Service Center, Fengtai District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Tuanjiehu Community Health Service Center, Chaoyang District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Wangzuo Community Health Service Center, Fengtai District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To develop and validate a new clinical screening tool to identify primary osteoporosis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in two elderly Han Chinese male populations.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, enrolling 1,870 community-dwelling and 574 hospital-checkup elderly Han Chinese males aged ≥50 years. All subjects completed a structured questionnaire and had their bone mineral density (BMD measured using DXA. Using logistic regression analysis in the 1,870 community-dwelling males, we assessed the ability of numerous potential clinical risk factors to identify male with osteoporosis. Multiple variable regression analysis and item reduction yielded a final tool named the Beijing Friendship Hospital Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool for Elderly Male (BFH-OSTM. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was generated to compare the validation of the BFH-OSTM and Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA for identifying elderly male at increased the risk of primary osteoporosis in the 574 hospital-checkup males.Results: In screening the 1,870 community-dwelling subjects with DXA, 14.2% (266/1,870 had osteoporosis, and a further 51.8% (969/1,870 had osteopenia. Of the items screened in the questionnaire, weight, height and previous history of fragility fracture were predictive of osteoporosis. A final tool (BFH-OSTM was based on body weight and fragility fracture

  8. DockFlow - a prototypic PharmaGrid for virtual screening integrating four different docking tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Antje; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Ghanem, Moustafa; Azam, Nabeel; Kalaitzopoulos, Dimitrios; Yu, Kunqian; Kasam, Vinod

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present DockFlow, a prototypic version of a PharmaGrid. DockFlow is supporting pharmaceutical research through enabling virtual screening on the Grid. The system was developed in the course of the BRIDGE project funded by the European Commission. Grids have been used before to run compute- and data-intensive virtual screening experiments, like in the WISDOM project. With DockFlow, however, we addressed a variety of problems yet unsolved, like the diversity of results produced by different docking tools. We also addressed the problem of analysing the data produced in a distributed virtual screening system applying a combinatorial docking approach. In DockFlow we worked on a grid-based problem solving environment for virtual screening with the following major features: execution of four different docking services (FlexX, AutoDock, DOCK and GAsDock) at locations in Europe and China remotely from a common workflow, storage of the results in a common Docking Database providing a shared analysis platform for the collaboration partners and combination of the results. The DockFlow prototype is evaluated on two scientific case studies: malaria and avian flu.

  9. Is high pressure liquid chromatography an effective screening tool for characterization of molecular defects in hemoglobinopathies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorchung, Nikhil; Phillip, Joseph; Sarkar, Ravi Shankar; Prasad, Rupesh; Dutta, Vibha

    2013-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies constitute entities that are generated by either abnormal hemoglobin or thalassemias. high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) is one of the best methods for screening and detection of various hemoglobinopathies but it has intrinsic interpretive problems. The study was designed to evaluate the different mutations seen in cases of hemoglobinopathies and compare the same with screening tests. 68 patients of hemoglobinopathies were screened by HPLC. Mutation studies in the beta globin gene was performed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based allele-specific Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS). Molecular analysis for the sickle cell mutation was done by standard methods. The IVS 1/5 mutation was the commonest mutation seen and it was seen in 26 (38.23%) of the cases. This was followed by the IVS 1/1, codon 41/42, codon 8/9, del 22 mutation, codon 15 mutation and the -619 bp deletion. No mutation was seen in eight cases. There was a 100% concordance between the sickle cell trait as diagnosed by HPLC and genetic testing. Our study underlies the importance of molecular testing in all cases of hemoglobinopathies. Although HPLC is a useful screening tool, molecular testing is very useful in accurately diagnosing the mutations. Molecular testing is especially applicable in cases with an abnormal hemoglobin (HbD, HbE and HbS) because there may be a concomitant inheritance of a beta thalassemia mutation. Molecular testing is the gold standard when it comes to the diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies.

  10. Development of a standardized occupational therapy screening tool for visual perception in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Deirdre M; McKenna, Kryss; Fleming, Jennifer

    2005-06-01

    Occupational therapy assessment and treatment of visual perceptual impairments are integral to the rehabilitation of clients following stroke and other acquired brain injuries. Occupational therapists need to identify the nature of visual perceptual performance impairments in order to choose rehabilitation intervention strategies appropriate for remediation of specific problems or to compensate for limitations in daily function. This paper describes the variations in visual perception terminology and occupational therapy approaches to visual perceptual assessment. Limitations of existing assessment tools for visual perception are highlighted in terms of reliability, validity, normative information, length of time to administer, and comprehensiveness in screening for visual perceptual impairment. In response to these limitations, a battery of items, called the Occupational Therapy Adult Perceptual Screening Test (OT-APST) was selected to screen adults comprehensively for impairments of agnosia, visuospatial skills including body scheme and neglect, constructional skills, apraxia, and acalculia. It also includes a subtest to evaluate functional skills directly observed during screening. This new battery has established reliability, validity and age-stratified normative data for adults 16 to 97 years of age. The OT-APST is recommended for use in conjunction with observational assessment of activities of daily living for clients with stroke and acquired brain injury.

  11. Feasibility of the STarT back screening tool in chiropractic clinics: a cross-sectional study of patients with low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongsted Alice

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The STarT back screening tool (SBT allocates low back pain (LBP patients into three risk groups and is intended to assist clinicians in their decisions about choice of treatment. The tool consists of domains from larger questionnaires that previously have been shown to be predictive of non-recovery from LBP. This study was performed to describe the distribution of depression, fear avoidance and catastrophising in relation to the SBT risk groups. A total of 475 primary care patients were included from 19 chiropractic clinics. They completed the SBT, the Major Depression Inventory (MDI, the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ, and the Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Associations between the continuous scores of the psychological questionnaires and the SBT were tested by means of linear regression, and the diagnostic performance of the SBT in relation to the other questionnaires was described in terms of sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios. In this cohort 59% were in the SBT low risk, 29% in the medium risk and 11% in high risk group. The SBT risk groups were positively associated with all of the psychological questionnaires. The SBT high risk group had positive likelihood ratios for having a risk profile on the psychological scales ranging from 3.8 (95% CI 2.3 - 6.3 for the MDI to 7.6 (95% CI 4.9 - 11.7 for the FABQ. The SBT questionnaire was feasible to use in chiropractic practice and risk groups were related to the presence of well-established psychological prognostic factors. If the tool proves to predict prognosis in future studies, it would be a relevant alternative in clinical practice to other more comprehensive questionnaires.

  12. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  13. Polyphenol metabolism provides a screening tool for beneficial effects of Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thill, Jana; Regos, Ionela; Farag, Mohamed A; Ahmad, Asma F; Kusek, Justyna; Castro, Ana; Schlangen, Karin; Carbonero, Christine Hayot; Gadjev, Ilya Z; Smith, Lydia M J; Halbwirth, Heidi; Treutter, Dieter; Stich, Karl

    2012-10-01

    Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin) is a traditional fodder legume showing multiple benefits for the environment, animal health and productivity but weaker agronomic performance in comparison to other legumes. Benefits can be mainly ascribed to the presence of polyphenols. The polyphenol metabolism in O. viciifolia was studied at the level of gene expression, enzyme activity, polyphenol accumulation and antioxidant activity. A screening of 37 accessions regarding each of these characters showed a huge variability between individual samples. Principal component analysis revealed that flavonols and flavan 3-ols are the most relevant variables for discrimination of the accessions. The determination of the activities of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and flavonol synthase provides a suitable screening tool for the estimation of the ratio of flavonols to flavan 3-ols and can be used for the selection of samples from those varieties that have a specific optimal ratio of these compounds for further breeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. μ-structured devices as tools for screening process intensification in biocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodla, Vijaya Krishna; Woodley, John

    and characterization for economic evaluation before scale-up. Microstructured devices have been used as screening tools that allow paradigm changes in process development by shortening process development times through modularity and intensification. Customized reactor designs and process configurations by integrating...... part of the thesis is focused on the development of novel reactor configurations for biocatalysis. A combination of micro reactors and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been found to contribute significantly towards the understanding of diffusional properties of the substrate and the product....... Such knowledge is subsequently applied to design customized reactor configurations. It has been demonstrated that this knowledge can be crucial for the choice and design of reactors. The second part focuses on developing μ-scale modules for rapid screening and integrating process units. The increase...

  15. Validating SPICES as a Screening Tool for Frailty Risks among Hospitalized Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Udin Aronow

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Older patients are vulnerable to adverse hospital events related to frailty. SPICES, a common screening protocol to identify risk factors in older patients, alerts nurses to initiate care plans to reduce the probability of patient harm. However, there is little published validating the association between SPICES and measures of frailty and adverse outcomes. This paper used data from a prospective cohort study on frailty among 174 older adult inpatients to validate SPICES. Almost all patients met one or more SPICES criteria. The sum of SPICES was significantly correlated with age and other well-validated assessments for vulnerability, comorbid conditions, and depression. Individuals meeting two or more SPICES criteria had a risk of adverse hospital events three times greater than individuals with either no or one criterion. Results suggest that as a screening tool used within 24 hours of admission, SPICES is both valid and predictive of adverse events.

  16. Technology Addiction among Treatment Seekers for Psychological Problems: Implication for Screening in Mental Health Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Aswathy; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Thamilselvan, P.; Marimuthu, P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Technology usage has seen an increase among users. The usage varies from social, personal, and psychological reasons. Users are frequently using to overcome mood states as well as to manage the other psychological states. This work is going to explore the information technology use among subjects with a psychiatric disorder. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 subjects were assessed using background data sheet, internet addiction impairment index, video game use pattern, pornogra...

  17. Tool for Rapid & Easy Identification of High Risk Diabetic Foot: Validation & Clinical Pilot of the Simplified 60 Second Diabetic Foot Screening Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gail Woodbury

    Full Text Available Most diabetic foot amputations are caused by ulcers on the skin of the foot i.e. diabetic foot ulcers. Early identification of patients at high risk for diabetic foot ulcers is crucial. The 'Simplified 60-Second Diabetic Foot Screening Tool' has been designed to rapidly detect high risk diabetic feet, allowing for timely identification and referral of patients needing treatment. This study aimed to determine the clinical performance and inter-rater reliability of 'Simplified 60 Second Diabetic Foot Screening Tool' in order to evaluate its applicability for routine screening.The tool was independently tested by n=12 assessors with n=18 Guyanese patients with diabetes. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by calculating Cronbach's alpha for each of the assessment items. A minimum value of 0.60 was considered acceptable. Reliability scores of the screening tool assessment items were: 'monofilament test' 0.98; 'active ulcer' 0.97; 'previous amputation' 0.97; 'previous ulcer' 0.97; 'fixed ankle' 0.91; 'deformity' 0.87; 'callus' 0.87; 'absent pulses' 0.87; 'fixed toe' 0.80; 'blisters' 0.77; 'ingrown nail' 0.72; and 'fissures' 0.55. The item 'stiffness in the toe or ankle' was removed as it was observed in only 1.3% of patients. The item 'fissures' was also removed due to low inter-rater reliability. Clinical performance was assessed via a pilot study utilizing the screening tool on n=1,266 patients in an acute care setting in Georgetown, Guyana. In total, 48% of patients either had existing diabetic foot ulcers or were found to be at high risk for developing ulcers.Clinicians in low and middle income countries such as Guyana can use the Simplified 60-Second Diabetic Screening Tool to facilitate early detection and appropriate treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Implementation of this screening tool has the potential to decrease diabetes related disability and mortality.

  18. VitalQPlus: a potential screening tool for early diagnosis of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui CF

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chee Fai Sui,1 Long Chiau Ming,2,3 Chin Fen Neoh,2,4 Baharudin Ibrahim1 1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 3Brain Degeneration and Therapeutics Group, 4Collaborative Drug Discovery Research (CDDR Group, Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences (PLS Community of Research (CoRe, UiTM, Selangor, Malaysia Background: This study utilized a validated combination of a COPD Population Screener (COPD-PS questionnaire and a handheld spirometric device as a screening tool for patients at high risk of COPD, such as smokers. The study aimed to investigate and pilot the feasibility and application of this combined assessment, which we termed the “VitalQPlus”, as a screening tool for the early detection of COPD, especially in primary care settings. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study screening potentially undiagnosed COPD patients using a validated five-item COPD-PS questionnaire together with a handheld spirometric device. Patients were recruited from selected Malaysian government primary care health centers. Results: Of the total of 83 final participants, only 24.1% (20/83 were recruited from Perak and Penang (peninsular Malaysia compared to 75.9% (63/83 from Sabah (Borneo region. Our dual assessment approach identified 8.4% of the surveyed patients as having potentially undiagnosed COPD. When only the Vitalograph COPD-6 screening tool was used, 15.8% of patients were detected with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV1/FEV6 ratio at <0.75, while 35.9% of patients were detected with the COPD-PS questionnaire. These findings suggested that this dual assessment approach has a greater chance of identifying potentially undiagnosed COPD patients compared to the Vitalograph COPD-6 or COPD-PS questionnaire when used alone. Our findings show that patients with more symptoms (scores of ≥5 yielded twice the percentage of outcomes of FEV1

  19. Detecting limited health literacy in Brazil: development of a multidimensional screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinario, Daniel; Mansur, Leticia Lessa; Carthery-Goulart, Maria Teresa; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi; Nitrini, Ricardo

    2014-03-01

    Screening questions have been proposed as practical tools for detecting limited functional health literacy, but have achieved only moderate accuracy in previous studies. We hypothesized that a combination of screening questions and demographic characteristics could better predict a patient's functional health literacy. Three hundred and twenty-two hospital users from São Paulo, Brazil, were interviewed for demographic information and answered questions about literacy habits and perceived difficulties. The Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults was used to classify individuals as having adequate or limited functional health literacy. Of the 322 participants, 102 (31.7%) presented limited functional health literacy. The final logistic model included six predictors. The three demographic variables were educational attainment, mother's educational attainment and major lifetime occupation (manual or non-manual). The three questions concerned 'frequency of use of computers', 'difficulty with writing that have precluded the individual from getting a better job' and 'difficulty reading the subtitles while watching a foreign movie'. A simple score was derived to constitute a practical tool we named the Multidimensional Screener of Functional Health Literacy (MSFHL). The sensitivity of the MSFHL in detecting limited functional health literacy was 81.4% and the specificity was 87.7%, with an area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.95). The MSFHL was better than educational attainment in accurately classifying functional health literacy status (p = 0.0018). We have developed a screening tool based on three demographic characteristics and three simple questions which provides an accurate prediction of a patient's functional health literacy level.

  20. Assessing the validity and reliability of the MUST and MST nutrition screening tools in renal inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Caroline S; Campbell, Katrina L; Dimakopoulos, Ioannis; Dockrell, Mark E C

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and the Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) in hospital inpatients with renal disease. A cross-sectional and longitudinal study. The study took place on 3 renal inpatient wards in a tertiary hospital in south London. A total of 276 participants were recruited. Not applicable. Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing the MUST and MST tools completed by nursing staff with the subjective global assessment tool completed by dietetic staff. Predictive validity was evaluated by assessing the association between malnutrition and length of hospital stay. Mid-upper arm circumference and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy were used to assess construct validity. In the reliability study, the MUST and MST tools were repeated on the same day by nursing staff. MUST had a sensitivity of 53.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.6% to 60.0%) and a specificity of 78.3% (95% CI, 70.1% to 85.2%), and MST had a sensitivity of 48.7% (95% CI, 41.7% to 54.0%) and a specificity of 85.5% (95% CI, 77.9 to 91.3) when compared with subjective global assessment. Risk of malnutrition as identified by MUST but not the MST tools had a significantly longer length of hospital stay (P = .038 and .061). Both MUST and MST tools identified patients at risk of malnutrition had a significantly lower mid-upper arm circumference (P = .005 and P = .029, respectively) and percent fat mass (P = .023 and P = .052, respectively). Reliability assessed by kappa was 0.58 for MUST (95% CI, 0.20 to 0.80) and 0.33 for MST (95% CI, -0.03 to 0.54). The MUST and MST nutrition tools are not sensitive enough to identify all of the malnourished renal inpatients, despite being fairly reliable and related to other nutrition status markers. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An ecotoxicological screening tool to prioritise acid mine drainage impacted streams for future restoration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available : An ecotoxicological screening tool to prioritise acid mine drainage impacted streams for 1 future restoration 2 3 4 5 Corresponding author: Prof A-M Botha 6 Department of Genetic, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, 7 Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa... of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, 23 Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa; 24 cCSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 25 dDepartment of Genetic, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag 2600, Stellenbosch 7600, South...

  2. The Feasibility of Tree Coring as a Screening Tool for Selected Contaminants in the Subsurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen

    attained through established site characterization methods. The site investigations showed that the use of tree coring as a screening tool for heavy metals and BTEX in the subsurface is more complex than for chlorinated solvents. Heavy metals were expected to be good candidates for tree coring due...... contaminated site and trees from a nearby non-contaminated site (reference trees) is necessary. This approach has demonstrated significantly elevated concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) in trees grown at highly contaminated sites, while less or no significant elevated...

  3. Solubility prediction, solvate and cocrystal screening as tools for rational crystal engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschen, Christoph; Klamt, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    The fact that novel drug candidates are becoming increasingly insoluble is a major problem of current drug development. Computational tools may address this issue by screening for suitable solvents or by identifying potential novel cocrystal formers that increase bioavailability. In contrast to other more specialized methods, the fluid phase thermodynamics approach COSMO-RS (conductor-like screening model for real solvents) allows for a comprehensive treatment of drug solubility, solvate and cocrystal formation and many other thermodynamics properties in liquids. This article gives an overview of recent COSMO-RS developments that are of interest for drug development and contains several new application examples for solubility prediction and solvate/cocrystal screening. For all property predictions COSMO-RS has been used. The basic concept of COSMO-RS consists of using the screening charge density as computed from first principles calculations in combination with fast statistical thermodynamics to compute the chemical potential of a compound in solution. The fast and accurate assessment of drug solubility and the identification of suitable solvents, solvate or cocrystal formers is nowadays possible and may be used to complement modern drug development. Efficiency is increased by avoiding costly quantum-chemical computations using a database of previously computed molecular fragments. COSMO-RS theory can be applied to a range of physico-chemical properties, which are of interest in rational crystal engineering. Most notably, in combination with experimental reference data, accurate quantitative solubility predictions in any solvent or solvent mixture are possible. Additionally, COSMO-RS can be extended to the prediction of cocrystal formation, which results in considerable predictive accuracy concerning coformer screening. In a recent variant costly quantum chemical calculations are avoided resulting in a significant speed-up and ease-of-use. © 2015 Royal

  4. Barriers and facilitators for implementing a new screening tool in an emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Jeanette W.; Sivertsen, Ditte M.; Petersen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to identify the factors that were perceived as most important as facilitators or barriers to the introduction and intended use of a new tool in the emergency department among nurses and a geriatric team. Background: A high incidence of functional decline after hospitalisation...... were identified in the emergency department. These cultures applied to different professional roles and identity, different actions and sense making and identified how barriers and facilitators linked to the new screening tool were perceived. Relevance for clinical practice: The results show...... that different cultures exist in the same local context and influence the perception of barriers and facilitators differently. These cultures must be identified and addressed when implementation is planned....

  5. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and a single screening question as screening tools for depressive disorder in Dutch advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmenhoven, Franca; van Rijswijk, Eric; Engels, Yvonne; Kan, Cornelis; Prins, Judith; van Weel, Chris; Vissers, Kris

    2012-02-01

    Depression is highly prevalent in advanced cancer patients, but the diagnosis of depressive disorder in patients with advanced cancer is difficult. Screening instruments could facilitate diagnosing depressive disorder in patients with advanced cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the validity of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and a single screening question as screening tools for depressive disorder in advanced cancer patients. Patients with advanced metastatic disease, visiting the outpatient palliative care department, were asked to fill out a self-questionnaire containing the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and a single screening question "Are you feeling depressed?" The mood section of the PRIME-MD was used as a gold standard. Sixty-one patients with advanced metastatic disease were eligible to be included in the study. Complete data were obtained from 46 patients. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristics analysis of the BDI-II was 0.82. The optimal cut-off point of the BDI-II was 16 with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 69%. The single screening question showed a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 94%. The BDI-II seems an adequate screening tool for a depressive disorder in advanced cancer patients. The sensitivity of a single screening question is poor.

  6. Parent-child relationships: developing a brief attachment-screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Beverley

    2009-03-01

    Parent-child relationships, known as attachments, underpin the emotional health and wellbeing of infants. Difficulties within this relationship can have far-reaching consequences for both parents and children. Health visitors within public health teams have a unique opportunity to support this relationship at an early stage. This paper describes the first stage of a study to develop a parent to infant attachment-screening tool. The aim of this stage was to develop items for inclusion in the tool, using parent focus groups to draw out relevant terminologies for aspects of the attachment relationship. Set in community venues within a primary care trust, a purposive maximum variation sample of 10 parents took part in three separate focus groups. Transcripts rich in parental descriptions of the parent-child relationship were recorded, transcribed and analysed. During the next stage of the study, a further focus group will develop the scaling of the items within the tool, which takes the form of a parent-completed questionnaire. Future stages will focus on piloting and validation of the tool, as well as testing for parental acceptability, internal consistency and reliability.

  7. BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Lina; Ravoet, Jorgen; de Miranda, Joachim R; Wenseleers, Tom; Mueller, Matthias Y; Moritz, Robin F A; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2012-01-01

    The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty) are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for viral loads necessitates the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction approach in which different viruses can be targeted simultaneously. A new multiparameter assay, called "BeeDoctor", was developed based on multiplex-ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA) technology. This assay detects 10 honeybee viruses in one reaction. "BeeDoctor" is also able to screen selectively for either the positive strand of the targeted RNA bee viruses or the negative strand, which is indicative for active viral replication. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the MLPA assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiology of viruses in honeybee populations. "BeeDoctor" was used for screening 363 samples from apiaries located throughout Flanders; the northern half of Belgium. Using the "BeeDoctor", virus infections were detected in almost eighty percent of the colonies, with deformed wing virus by far the most frequently detected virus and multiple virus infections were found in 26 percent of the colonies.

  8. BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina De Smet

    Full Text Available The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for viral loads necessitates the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction approach in which different viruses can be targeted simultaneously. A new multiparameter assay, called "BeeDoctor", was developed based on multiplex-ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA technology. This assay detects 10 honeybee viruses in one reaction. "BeeDoctor" is also able to screen selectively for either the positive strand of the targeted RNA bee viruses or the negative strand, which is indicative for active viral replication. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the MLPA assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiology of viruses in honeybee populations. "BeeDoctor" was used for screening 363 samples from apiaries located throughout Flanders; the northern half of Belgium. Using the "BeeDoctor", virus infections were detected in almost eighty percent of the colonies, with deformed wing virus by far the most frequently detected virus and multiple virus infections were found in 26 percent of the colonies.

  9. Differentially pumped spray deposition as a rapid screening tool for organic and perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Scholes, Fiona H; Watkins, Scott E; Kim, Dong-Yu; Vak, Doojin

    2016-02-08

    We report a spray deposition technique as a screening tool for solution processed solar cells. A dual-feed spray nozzle is introduced to deposit donor and acceptor materials separately and to form blended films on substrates in situ. Using a differential pump system with a motorised spray nozzle, the effect of film thickness, solution flow rates and the blend ratio of donor and acceptor materials on device performance can be found in a single experiment. Using this method, polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) are fabricated with numerous combinations of thicknesses and blend ratios. Results obtained from this technique show that the optimum ratio of materials is consistent with previously reported values confirming this technique is a very useful and effective screening method. This high throughput screening method is also used in a single-feed configuration. In the single-feed mode, methylammonium iodide solution is deposited on lead iodide films to create a photoactive layer of perovskite solar cells. Devices featuring a perovskite layer fabricated by this spray process demonstrated a power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.9%.

  10. Pap screening goals and perceptions of pain among black, Latina, and Arab women: steps toward breaking down psychological barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauss, Julie W; Mabiso, Athur; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2013-06-01

    Understanding women's psychological barriers to getting Papanicolaou (Pap) screening has potential to impact cancer disparities. This study examined pain perceptions of Pap testing among black, Latina, and Arab women and goal setting to receive Pap tests. Data on 420 women, in a longitudinal study, were analyzed using Chi-square tests of differences and generalized linear mixed models. At baseline, 30.3 % of black and 35.5 % of Latina women perceived Pap tests to be very painful compared to 24.2 % of Arab women. Perceptions of pain influenced goal settings, such as scheduling a first ever Pap test (odds ratio=0.58, 95 % confidence interval 0.14-0.94). Immediately following the intervention, women's perception that Pap tests are very painful significantly declined (P value <0.001) with Arab and black women registering the greatest improvements (20.3 and 17.3 % reduction, respectively, compared to 8.4 % for Latina). Having the perception that the Pap test is very painful significantly reduces the likelihood of black, Latina, and Arab women setting the goal to schedule their first ever Pap test. Latina women are the least likely to improve their perception that the Pap test is very painful, though national statistics show they have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer. These findings are instructive for designing tailored interventions to break down psychological barriers to Pap screening among underserved women.

  11. A Transparent Decision Support Tool in Screening for Laryngeal Disorders Using Voice and Query Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Minelga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is a transparent tool for analysis of voice (sustained phonation /a/ and query data capable of providing support in screening for laryngeal disorders. In this work, screening is concerned with identification of potentially pathological cases by classifying subject’s data into ’healthy’ and ’pathological’ classes as well as visual exploration of data and automatic decisions. A set of association rules and a decision tree, techniques lending themselves for exploration, were generated for pathology detection. Data pairwise similarities, estimated in a novel way, were mapped onto a 2D metric space for visual inspection and analysis. Accurate identification of pathological cases was observed on unseen subjects using the most discriminative query parameter and six audio parameters routinely used by otolaryngologists in a clinical practice: equal error rate (EER of 11.1% was achieved using association rules and 10.2% using the decision tree. The EER was further reduced to 9.5% by combining results from these two classifiers. The developed solution can be a useful tool for Otolaryngology departments in diagnostics, education and exploratory tasks.

  12. Validation of the Greek Version of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zis, Panagiotis; Brozou, Vassiliki; Stavropoulou, Evmorfia; Argyra, Erifilli; Siafaka, Ioanna; Kararizou, Evangelia; Bouhassira, Didier; Perrot, Serge; Zis, Vassileios; Vadalouca, Athina

    2017-09-01

    The Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool (FiRST) is a brief, simple, and straightforward self-administered questionnaire that was developed by Perrot et al. for the detection of fibromyalgia syndrome in patients with diffuse chronic pain. The aim of our study was to develop and validate the Greek version of FiRST. The study was set up as a prospective observational study. The original French version of FiRST was adapted into Greek using forward and backward translation. Patients with chronic diffuse pain with a clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia and osteoarthritis based on the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology were invited to participate to the study. Of the 101 patients who met our inclusion criteria, 42 were diagnosed with fibromyalgia and 59 with osteoarthritis. The 2 groups did not differ significantly regarding gender and pain characteristics (duration, intensity). Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.79. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 89% (95% confidence interval = 83 to 95%; SE: 0.032, P Greek version of FiRST is a valid screening tool for fibromyalgia in daily practice. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  13. Validation of the Malnutrition Screening Tool for use in a Community Rehabilitation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipold, Claire E; Bertino, Shaylyn B; L'Huillier, Heather M; Howell, Paula M; Rosenkotter, Michelina

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine if the Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) is valid for use within the Community Rehabilitation Program (CRP) setting. Secondary outcome measures were to assess malnutrition prevalence in the CRP population and to determine trends between malnutrition and age, body mass index (BMI) and falls history. This study used a cross-sectional design. All clients admitted to a Melbourne metropolitan CRP during the study period had the MST completed at intake. A total of 160 participants were then selected at random and a Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) was completed by an experienced dietitian. Participants were classified as well nourished or malnourished, and this result was compared to their MST score. Data analysis was completed to determine the predictive value of the MST compared to SGA, which was expressed using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Out of the 160 participants, 34.0% were identified as malnourished. The MST achieved a sensitivity of 72.2% and a specificity of 83.8% with positive predictive value of 69.6% and negative predictive value of 85.4% compared to the SGA. Participants in the malnourished group were older and had a lower BMI (P valid screening tool for use in this population and has relatively low burden to complete. Consequently, the MST could be included in the client initial needs identification to be completed when admitted to the program. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  14. Psychological effects of false-positive results in expanded newborn screening in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jun Tu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: As more families participate expanded newborn screening for metabolic disorders in China, the overall number of false positives increases. Our goal was to assess the potential impact on parental stress, perceptions of the child's health, and family relationships. METHODS: Parents of 49 infants with false-positive screening results for metabolic disorders in the expanded newborn screening panel were compared with parents of 42 children with normal screening results. Parents first completed structured interview using likert scales, closed and open questions. Parents also completed the parenting stress index. RESULTS: A total of 88 mothers and 41 fathers were interviewed. More mothers in the false-positive group reported that their children required extra parental care (21%, compared with 5% of mothers in the normal-screened group (P<0.001. 39% of mothers in the false-positive group reported that they worry about their child's future development, compared with 10% of mothers in the normal-screened group (P<0.001. Fathers in the false-positive group did not differ from fathers in the normal-screened group in reporting worry about their child's extra care requirements, and their child's future development. Children with false-positive results compared with children with normal results were triple as likely to experience hospitalization (27%vs 9%, respectively; P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The results showing false-positive screening results may affect parental stress and the parent-child relationship. Parental stress and anxiety can be reduced with improved education and communication to parents about false-positive results.

  15. [Comparative analysis of child development screening tools designed and validated in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcajo-Castelán, Rodrigo; Sidonio-Aguayo, Beatriz; Alcacio-Mendoza, Jorge Augusto; López-Díaz, Giovana Lucía

    In recent years a number of child development screening tools have been developed in Mexico; however, their properties have not been compared. The objective of this review was to compare the report quality and risk bias of the screening tools developed and validated in Mexico in their published versions. A search was conducted in databases, gray literature and cross references. The resultant tests were compared and analyzed using STARD, QUADAS and QUADAS-2 criteria. "Valoración Neuroconductual del Desarrollo del Lactante" (VANEDELA), "Evaluación del Desarrollo Infantil or EDI" (CDE in English), "Prueba de Tamiz del Neurodesarrollo infantil" (PTNI), "Cartillas de Vigilancia para identificar alteraciones en el Desarrollo del Lactante" (CVDL) and "Indicadores de riesgo del Perfil de Conductas de Desarrollo" (INDIPCD-R) were included for the comparison. No test fulfilled all STARD items. The most complete in their methodological description were VANEDELA and EDI. The areas lacking more data on the reports were recruiting and patient selection (VANEDELA, PTNI, CVDL, INDIPCD-R). In QUADAS evaluation, all had some risk bias, but some serious concerns of risk bias were raised by patient sampling and by the choice of gold standard in two tests (PTNI, INDIPCD-R). Child development screening tests created and validated in Mexico have variable report quality and risk bias. The test with the best validation report quality is VANEDELA and the one with the lowest risk of bias is EDI. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiographic Absorptiometry as a Screening Tool in Male Osteoporosis: Results from the Odense Androgen Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S.J.; Nielsen, M.M.F.; Ryg, J.; Wraae, K.; Andersen, M.; Brixen, K. (Dept. of Endocrinology, Odense Univ. Hospital, Odense (Denmark))

    2009-07-15

    Background: Osteoporosis screening with dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA) is not recommended due to low diagnostic utility and costs. Radiographic absorptiometry (RA) determines bone mineral density (BMD) of the phalangeal bones of the hand and is a potential osteoporosis pre-screening tool. Purpose: To determine the ability of RA to identify patients with osteoporosis in a male population. Material and Methods: As part of the Odense Androgen Study, we measured BMD of the intermediate phalanges of the second to fourth finger, lumbar spine (L2-L4), and total hip in 218 men aged 60-74 years (mean 68.8 years), randomly invited from the population, using RA (MetriScan) and DXA (Hologic 4500-A). Osteopenia and osteoporosis were defined as a T-score of less than -1.0 and -2.5, respectively, in the hip and/or lumbar spine. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) were computed. Results: BMDRA of the phalanges correlated significantly with BMDDXA of the hip (R=0.47, P<0.001) and lumbar spine (R=0.46, P<0.001). A total of 105 men (48.2%) were osteopenic and 15 (6.9%) osteoporotic. The AUC (Sweden) value for detecting osteoporosis was 0.75 (0.06). The sensitivity and specificity of RA in identifying osteoporosis were 0.93 and 0.50, respectively. Conclusion: BMDRA correlated weakly with BMDDXA of the lumbar spine and total hip, and RA has a moderate ability to identify osteoporotic individuals. Nevertheless, RA may be used as a pre-screening tool in men, since the diagnosis may be ruled out in half the population at little cost.

  17. Designing and Validation of a Hindi-language Parent Self-report Developmental Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rahul; Arora, Anshita; Anand, Rohit; Malhotra, Shahzadi; Mittal, Medha; Juneja, Monica

    2017-07-15

    To design and validate Hindi-language parent self-report developmental screening questionnaires for 9-month and 18-month-old Indian children. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary-care pediatric hospital from April 2014 to March 2016. In each age group (9-month and 18-month), 45 children were enrolled for designing of questionnaires (30 for obtaining parental observations of current development and 15 for pre-testing). For validation of tool, 100 children (60 low risk and 40 high risk) were enrolled in each age group. For designing, observations regarding current developmental milestones were obtained from parents and a list of all enumerated milestones was prepared. After detailed discussion by a team of developmental pediatricians, pediatric resident, clinical psychologist and language specialist, milestones were chosen for drafting of questionnaires. In each age group, drafts were pre-tested and required modifications were done. The final questionnaires contained 20 items each to be scored on a Likert scale (total score ranging from 20 to 60, a lower score indicating a higher risk of developmental delay). These questionnaires were validated against Developmental Assessment Scale for Indian Infants (DASII), a gold standard instrument. On ROC analysis, the 9-month and 18-month screening tool had area under curve of 0.988 and 0.953, respectively, for detecting developmental delay. Score ≤50 on the 9-months questionnaire had sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87.2%. Score ≤49 on the 18-months questionnaire had sensitivity of 91.4% and specificity of 88.7%. The new questionnaires have a promising role in developmental screening of children at the time of routine immunizations in our country.

  18. Body Dysmorphic Disorder in aesthetic rhinoplasty: Validating a new screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekakis, Garyfalia; Picavet, Valerie A; Gabriëls, Loes; Grietens, Jente; Hellings, Peter W

    2016-08-01

    To validate a new screening tool for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in patients seeking aesthetic rhinoplasty. We performed a prospective instrument validation study in an academic rhinology clinic. The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire-Aesthetic Surgery (BDDQ-AS) is a seven-item short questionnaire validated in 116 patients undergoing aesthetic rhinoplasty. Screening was positive if the patient acknowledged on the BDDQ-AS that he/she was concerned about their appearance (question 1 = yes) AND preoccupied with these concerns (question 2 = yes) AND that these concerns caused at least moderate distress or impairment in different domains of daily life (question 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 ≥ 3 or question 7 = yes). Construct validity was assessed by comparing the BDDQ-AS to the Sheehan Disability Scale and the Derriford Appearance Scale-59. To determine concurrent validity, the BDDQ-AS was compared to the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for BDD. Finally, the predictive value of the BDDQ-AS on satisfaction 12 months after rhinoplasty was evaluated using a visual analogue scale and the Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation. Reliability of the BDDQ-AS was adequate, with Cronbach alpha = .83 for rhinoplasty patients and .84 for controls. Sensitivity was 89.6% and specificity 81.4%. BDDQ-AS-positive patients (n = 55) were more impaired in daily life and experienced more appearance-related distress and dysfunction compared to BDDQ-AS-negative patients. Moreover, they had more severe BDD symptoms. Finally, BDDQ-AS-positive patients were less satisfied after surgery compared to BDDQ-AS-negative patients. We hereby validated a new screening tool for BDD in an aesthetic rhinoplasty population. 3b. Laryngoscope, 126:1739-1745, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. South Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and psychological mediators of faecal occult blood colorectal screening participation: A prospective test of a process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbell, Sheina; Szczepura, Ala; Weller, David; Gumber, Anil; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-12-01

    Although ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) correlate with health inequality, efforts to explain variance in health behavior attributable to these factors are limited by difficulties in population sampling. We used ethnicity identification software to test effects of psychological beliefs about screening as mediators of ethnicity and SES on faecal occult blood colorectal screening behavior in a no-cost health care context. Adults aged 50-67 years (N = 1,678), of whom 28% were from minority South Asian religiolinguistic ethnic groups (Hindu-Gujarati/Hindi, Muslim-Urdu and Sikh-Punjabi), participated in a prospective survey study. Subsequent screening participation was determined from medical records. Screening nonparticipation in the most deprived SES quintile was 1.6 times that of the least deprived quintile. Nonparticipation was 1.6 times higher in South Asians compared with non-Asians. A process model in which psychological variables mediated effects of ethnicity and SES on uptake was tested using structural equation modeling. Self-efficacy and perceived psychological costs of screening were, respectively, positive and negative direct predictors of uptake. Paths from Hindu, Muslim, and Sikh ethnicity, and SES on uptake were fully mediated by lower self-efficacy and higher perceived psychological costs. Paths from South Asian ethnicity to participation via self-efficacy and psychological costs were direct, and indirect via SES. SES is implicated, but does not fully account for low colorectal screening uptake among South Asians. Targeting increased self-efficacy and reduced perceived psychological costs may minimize health inequality effects. Future research should test independent effects of SES and ethnicity on lower self-efficacy and higher psychological costs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. A brief marital satisfaction screening tool for use in primary care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Justin; Kerley, Sara; Kibelstis, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    In the last 3 decades, research has shown consistent association with marriage and mortality and morbidity benefits. Despite the known emotional and physiological benefits of marriage, and the high rate of marriage failure, there are no well-defined screening tools to identify at-risk marriages in primary care settings. Patients presenting to a family medicine clinic were asked to complete a one-item screening question about the level of satisfaction with their marriage. Participants were also asked to fill out the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), a validated 32-item marital adjustment scale. A total of 159 of 208 (76%) respondents completed the survey. The average DAS score was 111 (SD=21.5), similar to the national average of 114 (SD=17.8). Using the DAS as the gold standard for marital satisfaction, we assessed the level of agreement between the one item screener and the longer DAS. A Pearson's Correlation Coefficient showed a correlation of 0.67. ROC curve showed sensitivity 86% and specificity 86% for the one item screener. Area under the curve was 0.89 (95% CI=0.83-0.93). In addition, analysis of variance showed that predictors of marital satisfaction included more dinners shared a week (compared 0--2, 3-6, 7 nights a week) and dates a month (0, 1--3, >3). Paired t test showed perceived health and living with spouse to be significant. The one-item screening question was shown to have good correlation to the gold standard, as well as acceptable sensitivity and specificity for identifying current dissatisfaction with marriage in a primary care setting. Further research is needed to determine if screening in a primary care setting, correlated with early intervention, can help improve satisfaction and avoid divorce.

  1. Thermographic image analysis as a pre-screening tool for the detection of canine bone cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Samrat; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Fu, Jiyuan; Marino, Dominic J.; Loughin, Catherine A.; Sackman, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Canine bone cancer is a common type of cancer that grows fast and may be fatal. It usually appears in the limbs which is called "appendicular bone cancer." Diagnostic imaging methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT scan), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more common methods in bone cancer detection than invasive physical examination such as biopsy. These imaging methods have some disadvantages; including high expense, high dose of radiation, and keeping the patient (canine) motionless during the imaging procedures. This project study identifies the possibility of using thermographic images as a pre-screening tool for diagnosis of bone cancer in dogs. Experiments were performed with thermographic images from 40 dogs exhibiting the disease bone cancer. Experiments were performed with color normalization using temperature data provided by the Long Island Veterinary Specialists. The images were first divided into four groups according to body parts (Elbow/Knee, Full Limb, Shoulder/Hip and Wrist). Each of the groups was then further divided into three sub-groups according to views (Anterior, Lateral and Posterior). Thermographic pattern of normal and abnormal dogs were analyzed using feature extraction and pattern classification tools. Texture features, spectral feature and histogram features were extracted from the thermograms and were used for pattern classification. The best classification success rate in canine bone cancer detection is 90% with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80% produced by anterior view of full-limb region with nearest neighbor classification method and normRGB-lum color normalization method. Our results show that it is possible to use thermographic imaging as a pre-screening tool for detection of canine bone cancer.

  2. German Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the STarT Back Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebischer, Bernhard; Hill, Jonathan C; Hilfiker, Roger; Karstens, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Although evidence based treatment approaches for acute low back pain are available, the prevention of persistent disabling symptoms remains a challenge. Subgroup targeted treatment using adequate screening tools may be a key component for the development of new treatment concepts and is demonstrating promising early evidence. The Keele STarT Back Screening Tool is a practical instrument, developed to stratify patients with back pain according to their risk of persistent disabling symptoms. The aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the STarT tool into German (STarT-G) and to investigate its psychometric properties. The translation was performed according to internationally accepted guidelines and pretested to assess face validity among patients. Psychometric testing was then performed within a cross-sectional cohort of adult patients attending physiotherapy practices for back pain. Patients completed a booklet containing STarT-G and 5 reference standard questionnaires. Measurement properties of the STarT-G were explored including construct validity, floor and ceiling effects, and discriminative abilities. The pretests (n=25) showed good face validity including strong comprehension and acceptability of the STarT-G with only item 5 (fear avoidance) manifesting some ambiguities. The questionnaires were sent to 74 and completed by 50 patients (68%) of whom mean age was 46 (SD 14.5) years and 52% were male. Spearman's rank correlations for construct validity ranged from 0.35 to 0.56. AUCs for discriminative ability ranged from 0.79 to 0.91. Neither floor nor ceiling effects were observed. There were 28 (57%) participants defined as low risk, 17 (35%) as medium risk, and 4 (8%) as high risk. STarT-G is linguistically valid for German speaking countries. For the selected population, the correlations indicate acceptable validity and AUC showed satisfying discrimination. Data for psychometric properties have to be confirmed in a large scale study with

  3. A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

  4. Tools for Teaching Cognitive Psychology: Using Public Service Announcements for Education on Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Lisa D.

    2011-01-01

    To understand the relevance of cognitive psychology, students in a cognitive psychology course were required to complete a detailed plan for a public service announcement focusing on environmental issues. The final exam was a Microsoft Office PowerPoint presentation incorporating at least eight concepts from the course. Students in the course…

  5. Comparison of a novel, simple nutrition screening tool for adult oncology inpatients and the Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) against the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Clare; Fleuret, Catherine; Pickard, Jennifer M; Mohammed, Kabir; Black, Gayle; Wedlake, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Oncology inpatients are at high risk of malnutrition. Identification of at risk patients by nutrition screening requires a practical and easy to use tool. In this study, we have compared a simple, novel nutrition screening tool designed for an oncology inpatient setting and the Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) against the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). This was an observational study to compare assessment of nutritional status by PG-SGA with nutrition screening using the Royal Marsden Nutrition Screening Tool (RMNST) and the MST. Patients were recruited from a single tertiary cancer centre. One hundred and twenty-six oncology inpatients underwent a full nutritional assessment and nutrition screening. The PG-SGA tool identified 90 (71%) patients as malnourished or at risk and 36 (29%) patients as well-nourished. The RMNST had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 53%, and the MST had a sensitivity of 66% and a specificity of 83 %. Predictive value (ROC AUC) of both screening tools was excellent at 0.84 and 0.83 for RMNST and MST, respectively. This study identified a high prevalence of malnutrition in the population with 71% of patients being identified as malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. The RMNST had an excellent sensitivity for identifying patients who were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition in the inpatient setting although it had a poor specificity. The MST had a poorer sensitivity of 66 %. We would recommend that the RMNST is trialled in other oncology inpatient settings and also in the outpatient setting.

  6. Screening for traumatic exposure and psychological distress among war-affected adolescents in post-conflict northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, John D; O'Callaghan, Paul S; Richards, Justin A; Eakin, John G; Rafferty, Harry

    2012-09-01

    The war in northern Uganda has had a debilitating effect on the mental health of children and adolescents in the population. This study measures the prevalence and considers the aetiology of psychological distress in war-affected adolescents 4 years after the end of the conflict. This is a cross-sectional study of 205 adolescents, aged 12-19, from a boarding primary school in Gulu, northern Uganda. A war experiences checklist was developed with the assistance of local professionals. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) measured post-traumatic stress symptoms. Finally, the Acholi Psychosocial Assessment Instrument (APAI) was used to measure locally described mental health constructs similar to the Western concepts of depression and anxiety. Four years after the end of the war, 57% of the students were still found to have clinically significant levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms using a similar cut-off score to previous studies among the same population. Both components of traumatic exposure: (i) the number of types of traumatic event experienced; and (ii) whether the adolescent was abducted were significantly associated with psychological distress. There was a strong correlation between post-traumatic stress symptoms and internalising symptoms. War-affected adolescents may continue to suffer from significant psychological stress in the years following the cessation of conflict. Multiple exposure to a number of different types of traumatic event may directly increase the likelihood of psychological distress especially for those exposed to the most extreme violence. The feasibility of employing a locally developed and validated screening instrument is demonstrated. Implications for future research and intervention in post-conflict areas are considered.

  7. Comorbid Psychological Conditions in Pediatric Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Hope L; Slater, Shalonda K

    2016-02-01

    Children and adolescents with chronic daily headaches (CDH) often have comorbid psychological conditions, though their prevalence is unclear. Pediatric patients with CDH may have higher rates of disorders such as anxiety and depression. However, some researchers have found that scores on depression and anxiety screening measures for pediatric patients with migraine are within reference range. Barriers to identify patients with psychiatric disorders have included limited validated screening tools and lack of available mental health resources. Several validated screening tools have recently been used in studies of pediatric patients with CDH. Once identified, treatment of comorbid psychological conditions may lead to improved functioning and headache outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Validation of the basic foot screening checklist: a population screening tool for identifying foot ulcer risk in people with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Virginia M; Hobbs, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the validity, reliability, and predictive value of the Basic Foot Screening Checklist. Five hundred patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance were screened by a generalist foot screener and a specialist podiatric physician to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Basic Foot Screening Checklist. One hundred twelve of the 500 participants had their feet screened by two foot screeners to determine reliability. The sensitivity of the screening tool was 0.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.58), and the specificity was 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.81), with a positive predictive value of 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.79-0.85). Overall, the reliability of the tool was poor (kappa=0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.53). The validity and reliability of the Basic Foot Screening Checklist was poor despite the finding that generalist foot screeners performed individual tests with good sensitivity and specificity. This inconsistency was likely attributable to the inability of screeners to adequately interpret the test findings and form accurate risk classification outcomes.

  9. Is the Epworth Sleepiness Scale a useful tool for screening excessive daytime sleepiness in commercial drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiardi, Simone; La Morgia, Chiara; Sciamanna, Lucia; Gerosa, Alberto; Cirignotta, Fabio; Mondini, Susanna

    2018-01-01

    The significant social and economic impact of excessive daytime sleepiness makes sleep evaluation a primary medical need in commercial drivers. However, the best screening tool is still matter of debate. In our cohort of 221 commercial drivers, only ten (4.5%) had Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores indicative of excessive daytime sleepiness. These findings and the lack of concordance in estimating excessive daytime sleepiness among commercial drivers in previous studies using the same psychometric measure indicate that the Epworth Sleepiness Scale is not a reliable tool. This may be due to the low internal consistency of the scale in non-clinical samples and the possible intentional underscoring of sleepiness due to a perceived threat of driver's license suspension. Moreover, the reliability of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale results may be strongly influenced by the administration setting. The clinical application of inexpensive less time-consuming new tools like performance tests should be considered for the objective evaluation of excessive daytime sleepiness in commercial drivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological testing as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in the treatment of traumatized Latin American and African refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Grafals, S

    1995-01-01

    The use of psychological assessment, an underutilized tool, in connection with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is presented. Identification of PTSD in refugees from Latin America and Africa is usually difficult because it is compounded by the trauma of migration. Issues regarding diagnosis and treatment are discussed, and case examples are provided to illustrate specific clinical concerns. Disclosure of historical information to the clinician and validation of a history of trauma are addressed through the testing process and projective data patterns.

  11. A first approach to a neuropsychological screening tool using eye-tracking for bedside cognitive testing based on the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jürgen; Krimly, Amon; Bauer, Lisa; Schulenburg, Sarah; Böhm, Sarah; Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Uttner, Ingo; Gorges, Martin; Kassubek, Jan; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Abrahams, Sharon; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2017-08-01

    Reliable assessment of cognitive functions is a challenging task in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients unable to speak and write. We therefore present an eye-tracking based neuropsychological screening tool based on the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS), a standard screening tool for cognitive deficits in ALS. In total, 46 ALS patients and 50 healthy controls matched for age, gender and education were tested with an oculomotor based and a standard paper-and-pencil version of the ECAS. Significant correlation between both versions was observed for ALS patients and healthy controls in the ECAS total score and in all of its ALS-specific domains (all r > 0.3; all p approach for assessing cognitive deficits in ALS patients who are unable to speak or write.

  12. Finding a needle in a haystack: toward a psychologically informed method for aviation security screening

    OpenAIRE

    Ormerod, Thomas C.; Dando, Coral J.

    2014-01-01

    Current aviation security systems identify behavioral indicators of deception to assess risks to flights, but they lack a strong psychological basis or empirical validation. We present a new method that tests the veracity of passenger accounts. In an in vivo double-blind randomized-control trial conducted in international airports, security agents detected 66% of deceptive passengers using the veracity test method compared with less than 5% using behavioral indicator recognition. As well as r...

  13. Screening and early psychological intervention for depression in schools: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Straten, van A.; Smits, N.; Smit, H.F.E.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Depression in children and adolescents is considerably undertreated, and the school may be a good setting for identifying and treating depression. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies in which students were screened for depression, and those with depressive symptoms were treated with a

  14. Obesity and Insulin Resistance Screening Tools in American Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joey A; Laurson, Kelly R

    2016-08-01

    To identify which feasible obesity and insulin resistance (IR) screening tools are most strongly associated in adolescents by using a nationally representative sample. Adolescents aged 12.0 to 18.9 years who were participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n=3584) and who were measured for height, weight, waist circumference (WC), triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, glycated hemoglobin, fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) level were included. Adolescents were split by gender and grouped by body mass index (BMI) percentile. Age- and gender-specific classifications were constructed for each obesity screening tool measure to account for growth and maturation. General linear models were used to establish groups objectively for analysis based on when IR began to increase. Additional general linear models were used to identify when IR significantly increased for each IR measure as obesity group increased and to identify the variance accounted for among each obesity-IR screening tool relationship. As the obesity group increased, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and FI significantly increased, while FG increased only (above the referent) in groups with BMI percentiles ≥95.0, and glycated hemoglobin level did not vary across obesity groups. The most strongly associated screening tools were WC and FI in boys (R(2)=0.253) and girls (R(2)=0.257). FI had the strongest association with all of the obesity measures. BMI associations were slightly weaker than WC in each in relation to IR. Our findings show that WC and FI are the most strongly associated obesity and IR screening tool measures in adolescents. These feasible screening tools should be utilized in screening practices for at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Translation and usability of autism screening and diagnostic tools for autism spectrum conditions in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudra, Alokananda; Banerjee, Saoni; Singhal, Nidhi; Barua, Merry; Mukerji, Shaneel; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev

    2014-10-01

    There is a critical need for screening and diagnostic tools (SDT) for autism spectrum conditions (ASC) in regional languages in South Asia. To address this, we translated four widely used SDT (Social Communication Disorder Checklist, Autism Spectrum Quotient, Social Communication Questionnaire, and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) into Bengali and Hindi, two main regional languages (~ 360 million speakers), and tested their usability in children with and without ASC. We found a significant difference in scores between children with ASC (n = 45 in Bengali, n = 40 in Hindi) and typically developing children (n = 43 in Bengali, n = 42 in Hindi) on all SDTs. These results demonstrate that these SDTs are usable in South Asia, and constitute an important resource for epidemiology research and clinical diagnosis in the region. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Tissue microarray analysis as a screening tool for neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Julie Benedicte; Talman, Maj-Lis Møller; Wielenga, Vera Timmermans

    2014-01-01

    by investigating the usefulness of tissue microarray (TMA) analysis as a screening tool. We present our findings with regard to sensitivity and specificity compared with whole-mount sections. The material consists of 240 cases of breast cancer divided into 20 TMA blocks that were all immunohistochemically stained...... for the neuroendocrine markers chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Cases positive in more than 50% of the tumor cells were accepted in accordance with WHO (2003) standards of NCB. Sensitivity and specificity for TMA sections vs whole-mount sections were found to be 100% and 97.8%, respectively, suggesting that TMA......Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast (NCB) is a fairly recent diagnostic entity added by WHO in 2003. Since then, studies have indicated that NCB potentially displays a worse prognosis than invasive ductal carcinoma. However, due to a lack of standard use of immunohistochemical staining...

  17. The Older Men's Health Program and Screening Inventory: a tool for assessing health practices and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Susan J

    2003-01-01

    Men experience greater health risks, poorer health, and shorter life expectancy than women.(1) However, a systematic literature review revealed no measure to assess the health practices and beliefs of elderly men. In response, the Older Men's Health Program and Screening Inventory (OMHPSI) was developed. Nursing practice experience and a review of literature informed instrument development. Subsequent to an expert panel survey and pilot-testing, the OMHPSI was completed by 135 community-dwelling older men and found to be an informative baseline assessment tool congruent with the Healthy People 2010 goal of increasing elders' participation in organized health promotion activities.(2) Furthermore, several statistically significant correlations were found between items on the OMHPSI and demographic variables. Of particular note, the younger participants in this study experienced more barriers to health-promoting behaviors (P healthy lifestyles (P older counterparts.

  18. Quantum theory as a tool for the description of simple psychological phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Vol, E D

    2011-01-01

    We propose the consistent statistical approach for the quantitative description of simple psychological phenomena using the methods of quantum theory of open systems (QTOS). Taking as the starting point the K. Lewin's psychological field theory we show that basic concepts of this theory can be naturally represented in the language of QTOS. In particular provided that all stimuli acting on psychological system (that is individual or group of interest) are known one can associate with these stimuli corresponding operators and after that to write down the equation for evolution of density matrix of the relevant open system which allows one to find probabilities of all possible behavior alternatives. Using the method proposed we consider in detail simple model describing such interesting psychological phenomena as cognitive dissonance and the impact of competition among group members on its unity.

  19. Are Twitter and Blogs Important Tools for the Modern Psychological Scientist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Sumeracki, Megan A

    2017-11-01

    Psychological scientists have many roles, one of which is, arguably, to communicate their research findings to a broader audience. Twitter and blogging offer relatively inexpensive options for this type of outreach. Engagement in these outreach efforts can lead to career enhancement, but also comes at a cost. We examined a sample of 327 psychological scientists to determine the prevalence of this type of outreach; while the use of Twitter appears to be on the rise, blogging remains very rare. In this piece, we explore the costs and benefits for psychological scientists of blogging and engaging with the general public on Twitter, and how tweeting and blogging might relate to academic merit and varieties of fame in psychology.

  20. Immunoassays: biological tools for high throughput screening and characterisation of combinatorial libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipa, M Angela

    2008-05-01

    In the demanding field of proteomics, there is an urgent need for affinity-catcher molecules to implement effective and high throughput methods for analysing the human proteome or parts of it. Antibodies have an essential role in this endeavour, and selection, isolation and characterisation of specific antibodies represent a key issue to meet success. Alternatively, it is expected that new, well-characterised affinity reagents generated in rapid and cost-effective manners will also be used to facilitate the deciphering of the function, location and interactions of the high number of encoded protein products. Combinatorial approaches combined with high throughput screening (HTS) technologies have become essential for the generation and identification of robust affinity reagents from biological combinatorial libraries and the lead discovery of active/mimic molecules in large chemical libraries. Phage and yeast display provide the means for engineering a multitude of antibody-like molecules against any desired antigen. The construction of peptide libraries is commonly used for the identification and characterisation of ligand-receptor specific interactions, and the search for novel ligands for protein purification. Further improvement of chemical and biological resistance of affinity ligands encouraged the "intelligent" design and synthesis of chemical libraries of low-molecular-weight bio-inspired mimic compounds. No matter what the ligand source, selection and characterisation of leads is a most relevant task. Immunological assays, in microtiter plates, biosensors or microarrays, are a biological tool of inestimable value for the iterative screening of combinatorial ligand libraries for tailored specificities, and improved affinities. Particularly, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are frequently the method of choice in a large number of screening strategies, for both biological and chemical libraries.

  1. Teaching child psychiatric assessment skills: Using pediatric mental health screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, T M; Arthur, M E

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the workshop "Teaching Child Psychiatric Assessment Skills: Using Mental Health Screening Instruments," presented at the 35th Forum for Behavioral Sciences in Family Medicine on 20 September 2014. The goals of the presentation were (1) to teach family medicine behavioral health educators to use both general and problem-specific mental health screening tools (MHSTs) in their work with trainees to help satisfy the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandate for behavioral and mental health experience during family medicine residency, (2) to reflect on how MHSTs might be integrated into the flow of family medicine teaching practices, and (3) to exemplify how evidence-based methods of adult education might be used in teaching such content. One general MHST, the Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17 and one problem-specific MHST for each of the four commonest pediatric mental health issues: for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the Vanderbilt; for Anxiety, the Screen for Childhood Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders; for Depression, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for teens; and for Aggression, the Retrospective-Modified Overt Aggression Scale, were practiced at least twice in the context of a clinical vignette. All of the selected MHSTs are free in the public domain and available for download from the website: www.CAPPCNY.org. Participants were asked to reflect on their own office practice characteristics and consider how MHSTs might be integrated into their systems of care. This workshop could be replicated by others wishing to teach the use of MHSTs in primary care settings or teaching programs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Stereo tests as a screening tool for strabismus: which is the best choice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancona C

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chiara Ancona, Monica Stoppani, Veronica Odazio, Carlo La Spina, Giulia Corradetti, Francesco Bandello Department of Ophthalmology, University Vita-Salute, Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milano, Italy Purpose: To compare four stereo tests (Lang I, Lang II, Titmus, and TNO and assess their effectiveness. The main focus of this study is to identify the most useful stereo test as a challenging tool in the screening of strabismus. Patients and methods: A total of 143 Caucasian subjects, 74 males (52% and 69 females (48%, aged between 4 years and 78 years (mean age 19.09±15.12 years were examined at our Strabismus Service (Scientific Institute San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy and included in this observational cross-sectional study. Subjects recruited in this study were either affected by strabismus, including microstrabismic patients, or healthy volunteers. Subjects affected by ophthalmological diseases, other than strabismus, were excluded. All patients underwent both ophthalmological and orthoptic examination, including stereo tests, Hirschberg Corneal Light Reflex Test, Worth Four-Dot Test, the 4 Prism Diopter Base-Out Test, Cover Testing, ­Bruckner Test, visual acuity, automated refraction under 1% tropicamide cycloplegia and thereafter, posterior pole evaluation. Results: All data were processed using the IBM SPSS Statistics, Version 2.0, to perform all statistical calculations. The main finding of this study is that Lang I stereo test achieved the highest sensitivity (89.8% and specificity (95.2% in detecting strabismus, including microstrabismus as well, compared to all the other stereoacuity tests. Furthermore, Lang I is the stereo test with the highest positive predictive value and negative predictive value, both greater than 90%. Conclusion: The stereo test with the highest sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value is Lang I. These results suggest its applicability as a screening test

  3. Evaluation of a novel portable x-ray fluorescence screening tool for detection of arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, David J; VanLeeuwen, John A; Knafla, Anthony L; Campbell, Jillian A; Alexander, Kevin M; Gherase, Mihai R; Guernsey, Judith R; Fleming, David E B

    2015-12-01

    A new portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) screening tool was evaluated for its effectiveness in arsenic (As) quantification in human finger and toe nails ([Formula: see text]). Nail samples were measured for total As concentration by XRF and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Using concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), kappa, diagnostic sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp), and linear regression analyses, the concentration of As measured by XRF was compared to ICP-MS. The CCC peaked for scaled values of fingernail samples, at 0.424 (95% CI: 0.065-0.784). The largest kappa value, 0.400 (95% CI:  -0.282-1.000), was found at a 1.3 μg g(-1) cut-off concentration, for fingernails only, and the largest kappa at a clinically relevant cut-off concentration of 1.0 μg g(-1) was 0.237 (95% CI:  -0.068-0.543), again in fingernails. Analyses generally showed excellent XRF Sn (up to 100%, 95% CI: 48-100%), but low Sp (up to 30% for the same analysis, 95% CI: 14-50%). Portable XRF shows some potential for use as a screening tool with fingernail samples. The difference between XRF and ICP-MS measurements decreased as sample mass increased to 30 mg. While this novel method of As detection in nails has shown relatively high agreement in some scenarios, this portable XRF is not currently considered suitable as a substitute for ICP-MS.

  4. Implementation of a penicillin allergy screening tool to optimize aztreonam use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staicu, Mary L; Brundige, Mary Lourdes; Ramsey, Allison; Brown, Jack; Yamshchikov, Alexandra; Peterson, Derick R; Baran, Andrea; Laguio-Vila, Maryrose

    2016-03-01

    The implementation of a penicillin allergy screening tool to optimize the use of aztreonam is described. This study was conducted at a 528-bed tertiary referral community teaching facility and compared the use of aztreonam in patients before and after the implementation of a multipronged intervention consisting of a penicillin allergy screening tool (PAST), education, order set decision support, and prospective review of aztreonam orders by the antimicrobial stewardship team and clinical pharmacists. Patients for whom aztreonam was prescribed at any time during their presentation to the hospital January 1-June 30, 2013 (preintervention period), and September 1, 2013-February 28, 2014 (postintervention period) were eligible for inclusion. Primary outcomes included total and inappropriate aztreonam usage. Secondary outcomes included cost avoidance and safety. A total of 496 aztreonam orders were reviewed. The total number of days of therapy (DOT) with aztreonam significantly decreased from 9.5 per 1,000 patient-days in the preintervention group to 4.4 per 1,000 patient-days in the postintervention group (p < 0.0001). The number of inappropriate aztreonam DOT decreased from 4.0 per 1,000 patient days to 0.8 per 1,000 patient-days (p < 0.0001). The median number of inappropriate aztreonam doses decreased significantly in the postintervention period, as did inappropriate aztreonam DOT (p < 0.0001 for both comparisons). An estimated cost avoidance of $60,000-$100,000 was realized, depending on the alternative antibiotic selected. Implementation of the PAST and provider and pharmacist education reduced the use of aztreonam by promoting the first-line use of β-lactam alternatives. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Terrestrial Eco-Toxicological Tests as Screening Tool to Assess Soil Contamination in Krompachy Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'ga, Šestinová; Findoráková, Lenka; Hančuľák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Tomislav, Špaldon

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present screening tool of heavy metal inputs to agricultural and permanent grass vegetation of the soils in Krompachy. This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis Alba) and chronic tests of Earthworm (Dendrobaena veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes) as practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of heavy metals in Krompachy soils. The total Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Hg concentrations and eco-toxicological tests of soils from the Krompachy area were determined of 4 sampling sites in 2015. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the copper smeltery on the absolutely concentrations of metals were recorded for copper, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. The highest concentrations of these metals were detected on the sampling sites up to 3 km from the copper smeltery. The samples of soil were used to assess of phytotoxic effect. Total mortality was established at earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 exposure days. The results of our study confirmed that no mortality was observed in any of the study soils. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated soils from the samples 3KR (7-9) S.alba seeds was observed.

  6. A national survey on the use of screening tools to detect physical child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Kristin Garton; Cooper, Jennifer N; Minneci, Peter C; Groner, Jonathan I; Thackeray, Jonathan D; Deans, Katherine J

    2016-08-01

    Recognition of physical child abuse is imperative for ensuring children's safety. Screening tools (ST) may increase identification of physical abuse; however, the extent of their use is unknown. This study assessed use of STs for physical abuse in children's hospitals and determined attitudes regarding STs. A web-based survey was sent to child abuse program contacts at 103 children's hospitals. The survey assessed institutional use of a ST for physical abuse and characteristics of the ST used. Respondents were asked to identify benefits and liabilities of STs used or barriers to ST use. Seventy-two respondents (70 %) completed the survey; most (64 %) were child abuse pediatricians. Nine (13 %) respondents reported using a ST for physical abuse; STs varied in length, population, administration, and outcomes of a positive screen. Most respondents (86 %) using a ST felt that it increased detection of abuse. Barriers noted included lack of time for development and provider completion of a ST. While few respondents endorsed use of a ST for physical abuse, most believed that it increased detection of abuse. Future research should focus on development of a brief, uniform ST for physical abuse which may increase detection in at-risk children.

  7. Quantitative methylene blue decolourisation assays as rapid screening tools for assessing the efficiency of catalytic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruid, Jan; Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice Leigh

    2017-05-01

    Identifying the most efficient oxidation process to achieve maximum removal of a target pollutant compound forms the subject of much research. There exists a need to develop rapid screening tools to support research in this area. In this work we report on the development of a quantitative assay as a means for identifying catalysts capable of decolourising methylene blue through the generation of oxidising species from hydrogen peroxide. Here, a previously described methylene blue test strip method was repurposed as a quantitative, aqueous-based spectrophotometric assay. From amongst a selection of metal salts and metallophthalocyanine complexes, monitoring of the decolourisation of the cationic dye methylene blue (via Fenton-like and non-Fenton oxidation reactions) by the assay identified the following to be suitable oxidation catalysts: CuSO 4 (a Fenton-like catalyst), iron(II)phthalocyanine (a non-Fenton oxidation catalyst), as well as manganese(II) phthalocyanine. The applicability of the method was examined for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA), as measured by HPLC, during parallel oxidation experiments. The order of catalytic activity was identified as FePc > MnPc > CuSO 4 for both BPA and MB. The quantitative MB decolourisation assay may offer a rapid method for screening a wide range of potential catalysts for oxidation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pap smear, an important screening tool to detect precancerous stage of carcinoma of cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Gulfareen; Parveen, Zahida; Anjum, Farhana; Munir, Aftab

    2013-01-01

    Many women can be saved from carcinoma of cervix by detecting and treating its precancerous stage. Pap smear is cheap and easily available in majority of institutes. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of abnormal Pap smear and role of Pap smear in detecting precancerous stage of cancer cervix in women. This is retrospective descriptive study was conducted in gynaecology outpatient department of Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad, Sind from Nov 2006 to Oct 2009. All women who presented in OPD with gynaecological complaints were included in the study. Pregnant women were excluded from the study. Smear was collected with an Aryes spatula and relevant information was obtained from the patient's record and recorded on pre-designed Performa. Slides were then sent to pathology department. Data were analysed through SPSS-15 and presented as frequency and percentage. Total 981 women underwent Pap smear screening. Majority (63.3%) of the patients belonged to age group of 31-40 years. One hundred and eighty (18.34%) smears were normal and 792 (80.7%) were abnormal. Among these abnormal smears, 739 (75.33%) smears were inflammatory while 4 (0.40%) women had Ca in situ and 4 (0.40%) had squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION. Pap smear is an important screening tool to detect precancerous stage of carcinoma of cervix. It should be done periodically in all married and high risk women for early detection of a precancerous stage.

  9. The ELPAT living organ donor Psychosocial Assessment Tool (EPAT): from 'what' to 'how' of psychosocial screening - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Emma K; Timmerman, Lotte; Ismail, Sohal Y; Duerinckx, Nathalie; Lopes, Alice; Maple, Hannah; Mega, Inês; Papachristou, Christina; Dobbels, Fabienne

    2017-08-29

    Thorough psychosocial screening of donor candidates is required in order to minimize potential negative consequences and to strive for optimal safety within living donation programmes. We aimed to develop an evidence-based tool to standardize the psychosocial screening process. Key concepts of psychosocial screening were used to structure our tool: motivation and decision-making, personal resources, psychopathology, social resources, ethical and legal factors and information and risk processing. We (i) discussed how each item per concept could be measured, (ii) reviewed and rated available validated tools, (iii) where necessary developed new items, (iv) assessed content validity and (v) pilot-tested the new items. The resulting ELPAT living organ donor Psychosocial Assessment Tool (EPAT) consists of a selection of validated questionnaires (28 items in total), a semi-structured interview (43 questions) and a Red Flag Checklist. We outline optimal procedures and conditions for implementing this tool. The EPAT and user manual are available from the authors. Use of this tool will standardize the psychosocial screening procedure ensuring that no psychosocial issues are overlooked and ensure that comparable selection criteria are used and facilitate generation of comparable psychosocial data on living donor candidates. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  10. Screening of Gas-Cooled Reactor Thermal-Hydraulic and Safety Analysis Tools and Experimental Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Min Hwan; Lee, Seung Wook (and others)

    2007-08-15

    This report is a final report of I-NERI Project, 'Screening of Gas-cooled Reactor Thermal Hydraulic and Safety Analysis Tools and Experimental Database 'jointly carried out by KAERI, ANL and INL. In this study, we developed the basic technologies required to develop and validate the VHTR TH/safety analysis tools and evaluated the TH/safety database information. The research tasks consist of; 1) code qualification methodology (INL), 2) high-level PIRTs for major nucleus set of events (KAERI, ANL, INL), 3) initial scaling and scoping analysis (ANL, KAERI, INL), 4) filtering of TH/safety tools (KAERI, INL), 5) evaluation of TH/safety database information (KAERI, INL, ANL) and 6) key scoping analysis (KAERI). The code qualification methodology identifies the role of PIRTs in the R and D process and the bottom-up and top-down code validation methods. Since the design of VHTR is still evolving, we generated the high-level PIRTs referencing 600MWth block-type GT-MHR and 400MWth pebble-type PBMR. Nucleus set of events that represents the VHTR safety and operational transients consists of the enveloping scenarios of HPCC (high pressure conduction cooling: loss of primary flow), LPCC/Air-Ingress (low pressure conduction cooling: loss of coolant), LC (load changes: power maneuvering), ATWS (anticipated transients without scram: reactivity insertion), WS (water ingress: water-interfacing system break) and HU (hydrogen-side upset: loss of heat sink). The initial scaling analysis defines dimensionless parameters that need to be reflected in mixed convection modeling and the initial scoping analysis provided the reference system transients used in the PIRTs generation. For the PIRTs phenomena, we evaluated the modeling capability of the candidate TH/safety tools and derived a model improvement need. By surveying and evaluating the TH/safety database information, a tools V and V matrix has been developed. Through the key scoping analysis using available database, the

  11. Finding a needle in a haystack: toward a psychologically informed method for aviation security screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Thomas C; Dando, Coral J

    2015-02-01

    Current aviation security systems identify behavioral indicators of deception to assess risks to flights, but they lack a strong psychological basis or empirical validation. We present a new method that tests the veracity of passenger accounts. In an in vivo double-blind randomized-control trial conducted in international airports, security agents detected 66% of deceptive passengers using the veracity test method compared with less than 5% using behavioral indicator recognition. As well as revealing advantages of veracity testing over behavioral indicator identification, the study provides the highest levels to date of deception detection in a realistic setting where the known base rate of deceptive individuals is low.

  12. Development of a screening tool predicting the transition from acute to chronic low back pain for patients in a GP setting: protocol of a multinational prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloh, Markus; Aebli, Nikolaus; Elfering, Achim; Röder, Christoph; Zweig, Thomas; Barz, Thomas; Herbison, Peter; Hendrick, Paul; Bajracharya, Suraj; Stout, Kirsten; Theis, Jean-Claude

    2008-12-19

    Low back pain (LBP) is by far the most prevalent and costly musculoskeletal problem in our society today. Following the recommendations of the Multinational Musculoskeletal Inception Cohort Study (MMICS) Statement, our study aims to define outcome assessment tools for patients with acute LBP and the time point at which chronic LBP becomes manifest and to identify patient characteristics which increase the risk of chronicity. Patients with acute LBP will be recruited from clinics of general practitioners (GPs) in New Zealand (NZ) and Switzerland (CH). They will be assessed by postal survey at baseline and at 3, 6, 12 weeks and 6 months follow-up. Primary outcome will be disability as measured by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI); key secondary endpoints will be general health as measured by the acute SF-12 and pain as measured on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A subgroup analysis of different assessment instruments and baseline characteristics will be performed using multiple linear regression models. This study aims to examine: 1. Which biomedical, psychological, social, and occupational outcome assessment tools are identifiers for the transition from acute to chronic LBP and at which time point this transition becomes manifest. 2. Which psychosocial and occupational baseline characteristics like work status and period of work absenteeism influence the course from acute to chronic LBP. 3. Differences in outcome assessment tools and baseline characteristics of patients in NZ compared with CH. This study will develop a screening tool for patients with acute LBP to be used in GP clinics to access the risk of developing chronic LBP. In addition, biomedical, psychological, social, and occupational patient characteristics which influence the course from acute to chronic LBP will be identified. Furthermore, an appropriate time point for follow-ups will be given to detect this transition. The generalizability of our findings will be enhanced by the international

  13. Development of a screening tool predicting the transition from acute to chronic low back pain for patients in a GP setting: Protocol of a multinational prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajracharya Suraj

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is by far the most prevalent and costly musculoskeletal problem in our society today. Following the recommendations of the Multinational Musculoskeletal Inception Cohort Study (MMICS Statement, our study aims to define outcome assessment tools for patients with acute LBP and the time point at which chronic LBP becomes manifest and to identify patient characteristics which increase the risk of chronicity. Methods Patients with acute LBP will be recruited from clinics of general practitioners (GPs in New Zealand (NZ and Switzerland (CH. They will be assessed by postal survey at baseline and at 3, 6, 12 weeks and 6 months follow-up. Primary outcome will be disability as measured by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI; key secondary endpoints will be general health as measured by the acute SF-12 and pain as measured on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. A subgroup analysis of different assessment instruments and baseline characteristics will be performed using multiple linear regression models. This study aims to examine 1. Which biomedical, psychological, social, and occupational outcome assessment tools are identifiers for the transition from acute to chronic LBP and at which time point this transition becomes manifest 2. Which psychosocial and occupational baseline characteristics like work status and period of work absenteeism influence the course from acute to chronic LBP 3. Differences in outcome assessment tools and baseline characteristics of patients in NZ compared with CH. Discussion This study will develop a screening tool for patients with acute LBP to be used in GP clinics to access the risk of developing chronic LBP. In addition, biomedical, psychological, social, and occupational patient characteristics which influence the course from acute to chronic LBP will be identified. Furthermore, an appropriate time point for follow-ups will be given to detect this transition. The generalizability of our

  14. Comparison of screening tools for the detection of neurocognitive impairment in HAART-treated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Lorenzini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurocognitive impairment (NCI and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND remain prevalent despite HAART. We examined sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV, and correct classification rate (CCR of screening tools for the detection of NCI and HAND in HAART treated patients. Methods: We examined 101 unselected HAART-treated patients. Patients were administered the self-reported three questions (EACS Guidelines, the International HIV-Dementia Scale (IHDS, the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE, and a comprehensive 6-domain (17-test neuropsychological (NP battery (120 minutes that included, among others, the Digit Symbol (DS, the Trail Making Modalities (TM, and the Grooved Pegboard (GP tests. NCI was defined according to the AAN criteria. HAND was diagnosed after exclusion of confounding conditions. Results: Our cohort was relatively healthy (mean CD4 count: 575 cells/mm3, undetectable plasma HIV RNA 85%. Prevalence of NCI and HAND were 39.6% (40 of 101 and 30.7% (31 of 101, respectively. Mean scores of IHDS (9.9 vs 10.8; p<0.001 and MMSE (26.8 vs 28.2; p=0.004 differed significantly between impaired and unimpaired patients, while mean three-questions scores (8.0 vs 7.0; p=0.23 did not. The three questions showed also poor sensitivity for the detection of both NCI (20% and HAND (22%. The IHDS showed fairly good sensitivity (55% and NPV (73.5%. Adding to the IHDS some easy to administer NP tests, i.e. TM, DS, and GP, resulted in an increase in sensitivity and NPV for the detection of NCI (table. Similar results were obtained regarding the detection of HAND (not shown in table. Conclusions: Both NCI and HAND are still very prevalent in HAART-treated patients. Among screening tools the self-reported three question show poor sensitivity. The IHDS performed better in terms of sensitivity, PPV, and NPV. Combinations of easy-to-administer NP tests with the IHDS resulted in increased

  15. siMacro: A Fast and Easy Data Processing Tool for Cell-Based Genomewide siRNA Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing numbers of studies employ cell line-based systematic short interfering RNA (siRNA screens to study gene functions and to identify drug targets. As multiple sources of variations that are unique to siRNA screens exist, there is a growing demand for a computational tool that generates normalized values and standardized scores. However, only a few tools have been available so far with limited usability. Here, we present siMacro, a fast and easy-to-use Microsoft Office Excel-based tool with a graphic user interface, designed to process single-condition or two-condition synthetic screen datasets. siMacro normalizes position and batch effects, censors outlier samples, and calculates Z-scores and robust Z-scores, with a spreadsheet output of >120,000 samples in under 1 minute.

  16. Validation Analysis of a Geriatric Dehydration Screening Tool in Community-Dwelling and Institutionalized Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dehydration is common among elderly people. The aim of this study was to perform validation analysis of a geriatric dehydration-screening tool (DST in the assessment of hydration status in elderly people. This tool was based on the DST proposed by Vivanti et al., which is composed by 11 items (four physical signs of dehydration and seven questions about thirst sensation, pain and mobility, with four questions extra about drinking habits. The resulting questionnaire was evaluated in a convenience sample comprising institutionalized (n = 29 and community-dwelling (n = 74 elderly people. Urinary parameters were assessed (24-h urine osmolality and volume and free water reserve (FWR was calculated. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate the scale’s dimensionality and Cronbach’s alpha was used to measure the reliability of each subscale. Construct’s validity was tested using linear regression to estimate the association between scores in each dimension and urinary parameters. Two factors emerged from factor analysis, which were named “Hydration Score” and “Pain Score”, and both subscales showed acceptable reliabilities. The “Hydration Score” was negatively associated with 24-h urine osmolality in community-dwelling; and the “Pain Score” was negatively associated with 24-h urine osmolality, and positively associated with 24-h urine volume and FWR in institutionalized elderly people.

  17. Screening for psychosocial risk at pediatric cancer diagnosis: the psychosocial assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E; Barakat, Lamia P; Ditaranto, Susan; Biros, Daniel; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Beele, David; Kersun, Leslie; Alderfer, Melissa A; Mougianis, Ifigenia; Hocking, Matthew C; Reilly, Anne

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the feasibility of integrating an evidence-based screening tool of psychosocial risk in pediatric cancer care at diagnosis. Parents of children newly diagnosed with cancer received either the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT; n=52) or psychosocial care as usual (n=47; PAU), based on their date of diagnosis and an alternating monthly schedule. Time to completion of the PAT, time to communication of PAT results to clinical care teams, distribution of PAT risk scores, and identification of psychosocial risks in the medical record were examined. Of families receiving the PAT, 88% completed it within 48 hours. PAT was scored and results communicated within 48 hours in 98% of cases. Most families (72%) were classified as Universal risk based on the underlying Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model, 24% were classified as Targeted risk, and 4% scored in the Clinical range. Significantly more psychosocial risks were recorded in the medical record during PAT intervals than during PAU. An evidence-based psychosocial screener is feasible in pediatric oncology care and is associated with documentation of psychosocial risks in the medical record. Although the majority of families report low levels of psychosocial risk, about one-quarter report problems.

  18. Validation Analysis of a Geriatric Dehydration Screening Tool in Community-Dwelling and Institutionalized Elderly People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Susana; Silva, Joana; Severo, Milton; Inácio, Cátia; Padrão, Patrícia; Lopes, Carla; Carvalho, Joana; do Carmo, Isabel; Moreira, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration is common among elderly people. The aim of this study was to perform validation analysis of a geriatric dehydration-screening tool (DST) in the assessment of hydration status in elderly people. This tool was based on the DST proposed by Vivanti et al., which is composed by 11 items (four physical signs of dehydration and seven questions about thirst sensation, pain and mobility), with four questions extra about drinking habits. The resulting questionnaire was evaluated in a convenience sample comprising institutionalized (n = 29) and community-dwelling (n = 74) elderly people. Urinary parameters were assessed (24-h urine osmolality and volume) and free water reserve (FWR) was calculated. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate the scale’s dimensionality and Cronbach’s alpha was used to measure the reliability of each subscale. Construct’s validity was tested using linear regression to estimate the association between scores in each dimension and urinary parameters. Two factors emerged from factor analysis, which were named “Hydration Score” and “Pain Score”, and both subscales showed acceptable reliabilities. The “Hydration Score” was negatively associated with 24-h urine osmolality in community-dwelling; and the “Pain Score” was negatively associated with 24-h urine osmolality, and positively associated with 24-h urine volume and FWR in institutionalized elderly people. PMID:25739005

  19. ABCD(2) as a screening tool for cerebral infarction on stroke MRI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotter, Benjamin A; Lechner, Jan M; Nolte, Christian H; Audebert, Heinrich J; Malzahn, Uwe; Heuschmann, Peter U; Fiebach, Jochen B; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J

    2012-01-01

    The newly proposed transient ischemic attack (TIA) definition demands for MRI exclusion of infarction. Due to limited resources other tools than MRI predicting tissue infarction would be valuable. We hypothesized that ABCD(2) risk score is a valid screening tool for diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesions. TIA patients were prospectively enrolled in an observational MRI study to receive acute and follow-up stroke MRI. ABCD(2) scores were calculated, and sociodemographics and risk factors were recorded. One hundred and thirty-two TIA patients were enrolled over nine months. Five patients were excluded due to different diagnosis. Forty-five of the 127 remaining patients showed acute ischemic lesions on DWI. Median ABCD(2) scores for DWI-negative and -positive patients were 4 and 5, respectively. Ordinal, trichotomized and dichotomized ABCD(2) were significantly associated to DWI. Univariate analysis of single score items and other risk factors demonstrated unilateral weakness, duration of symptoms and smoking as predictive for DWI restrictions. In multivariate analysis unilateral weakness remained significant. High-risk ABCD(2) score due to the impact of hemiparesis is associated with the occurrence of DWI lesions but is still not accurate enough for a reliable differentiation of cerebrovascular events with and without MRI lesions. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Validation of a nutrition risk screening tool for children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis ages 2-20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine M

    2008-04-01

    According to the 2002 Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Foundation nutrition consensus report, children with CF should grow normally. Cross-sectional data from the foundation's patient registry concluded that a body mass index at or greater than the 50th percentile is associated with better lung function. A consistent, evidence-based screening process can identify those individuals with CF having nutrition risk factors associated with a decrease in pulmonary function, target early intervention, and prevent further decline. A tool for screening nutrition risk is described to identify those children with CF who would benefit from more extensive nutrition intervention. The proposed screening tool is a risk-based classification system with 3 categories: weight gain, height velocity, and body mass index. The CF Foundation recommendations regarding these parameters are incorporated, with risk points assigned when minimum body mass index, weight gain, and/or height gain standards are unmet. An interrater measure of agreement determined a satisfactory level of reliability (kappa = 0.85). Patient records (n = 85) were reviewed to determine nutrition status category (no risk or at risk) of this tool compared with the CF Foundation 2002 Nutrition Consensus, yielding sensitivity and specificity at 84% and 75%, respectively. A second comparison was made with combined, independent nutrition risk factors not included in the screening tool. The sensitivity and specificity of the screening tool compared with the combined risk factors were 86% and 78%, respectively. This tool for screening nutrition risk for CF is reliable and valid, with consistent, reproducible results, free from subject or observer bias.

  1. Changes in physical activity and screen time related to psychological well-being in early adolescence: findings from longitudinal study ELANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane S. Straatmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological well-being influences health behaviours differently in adolescent boys and girls. We evaluated the role of psychological well-being in early adolescence in the onset and persistence of insufficient physical activity and exceeding recommended screen time, depending on gender. Methods This work derives from a cohort study called Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Nutritional Assessment conducted among elementary school students from two public and four private schools in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from 2010–2013. We analysed data from 2010 and 2012 from 526 adolescents. Physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Those who performed less than 60 min per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA were classified as insufficiently active. Screen time was evaluated based on daily time spent in front of television, video games, and computers. Those who had 4 h or more screen time per day were classified as exceeding the recommended time. Psychological well-being was assessed using the psychological domain of the KIDSCREEN 27 questionnaire. Linear regression was used to estimate coefficient (β and r2 values for continuous variables. Relative risks (RR and confidence intervals (95 % CI for onset and persistence of insufficient activity and exceeding recommended screen time were estimated with Poisson regression models. Results Among girls, linear regression analyses showed a significant inverse association between psychological well-being and screen minutes per day at T2 (r2 = 0.049/β = −3.81 (95 % CI −7.0, −0.9, as well as an association between poor psychological well-being and onset of exceeding recommended screen time in categorical analyses (RR crude: 1.3; CI 95 % 1.1, 1.7; RR adjusted: 1.3; CI 95 % 1.0, 1.6. For boys, an association was found between psychological well-being and onset of insufficient activity 2 years later (RR crude: 1.3; CI 95

  2. Ability of different screening tools to predict positive effect on nutritional intervention among the elderly in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Beermann, Tina; Kjær, Stine; Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard

    2013-01-01

    Routine identification of nutritional risk screening is paramount as the first stage in nutritional treatment of the elderly. The major focus of former validation studies of screening tools has been on the ability to predict undernutrition. The aim of this study was to validate Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002), Body Mass Index (BMI) nutritional intervention among old people in primary health care, in order to evaluate whether they were capable of distinguishing those with a positive benefit from those that showed no benefit of nutritional intervention. The methods used were a literature search; classification of participants with respect to nutritional risk according to the different nutritional screening tools; and validation (i.e., evaluation of whether the different tools were capable of distinguishing those with a positive benefit from those that showed no benefit of nutritional intervention by assessing the positive [PPV] and negative [NPV] predictive values). MNA-SF, NRS-2002, BMI nutritional intervention. The findings should be confirmed in further validation and intervention studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of the efficacy of nutritional screening tools to predict malnutrition in the elderly at a geriatric care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Myoung-Ha; Heo, Young-Ran

    2015-12-01

    Malnutrition in the elderly is a serious problem, prevalent in both hospitals and care homes. Due to the absence of a gold standard for malnutrition, herein we evaluate the efficacy of five nutritional screening tools developed or used for the elderly. Elected medical records of 141 elderly patients (86 men and 55 women, aged 73.5 ± 5.2 years) hospitalized at a geriatric care hospital were analyzed. Nutritional screening was performed using the following tools: Mini Nutrition Assessment (MNA), Mini Nutrition Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002). A combined index for malnutrition was also calculated as a reference tool. Each patient evaluated as malnourished to any degree or at risk of malnutrition according to at least four out of five of the aforementioned tools was categorized as malnourished in the combined index classification. According to the combined index, 44.0% of the patients were at risk of malnutrition to some degree. While the nutritional risk and/or malnutrition varied greatly depending on the tool applied, ranging from 36.2% (MUST) to 72.3% (MNA-SF). MUST showed good validity (sensitivity 80.6%, specificity 98.7%) and almost perfect agreement (k = 0.81) with the combined index. In contrast, MNA-SF showed poor validity (sensitivity 100%, specificity 49.4%) and only moderate agreement (k = 0.46) with the combined index. MNA-SF was found to overestimate the nutritional risk in the elderly. MUST appeared to be the most valid and useful screening tool to predict malnutrition in the elderly at a geriatric care hospital.

  4. Evaluation of the efficacy of nutritional screening tools to predict malnutrition in the elderly at a geriatric care hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Myoung-Ha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Malnutrition in the elderly is a serious problem, prevalent in both hospitals and care homes. Due to the absence of a gold standard for malnutrition, herein we evaluate the efficacy of five nutritional screening tools developed or used for the elderly. SUBJECTS/METHODS Elected medical records of 141 elderly patients (86 men and 55 women, aged 73.5 ± 5.2 years) hospitalized at a geriatric care hospital were analyzed. Nutritional screening was performed using the following tools: Mini Nutrition Assessment (MNA), Mini Nutrition Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002). A combined index for malnutrition was also calculated as a reference tool. Each patient evaluated as malnourished to any degree or at risk of malnutrition according to at least four out of five of the aforementioned tools was categorized as malnourished in the combined index classification. RESULTS According to the combined index, 44.0% of the patients were at risk of malnutrition to some degree. While the nutritional risk and/or malnutrition varied greatly depending on the tool applied, ranging from 36.2% (MUST) to 72.3% (MNA-SF). MUST showed good validity (sensitivity 80.6%, specificity 98.7%) and almost perfect agreement (k = 0.81) with the combined index. In contrast, MNA-SF showed poor validity (sensitivity 100%, specificity 49.4%) and only moderate agreement (k = 0.46) with the combined index. CONCLUSIONS MNA-SF was found to overestimate the nutritional risk in the elderly. MUST appeared to be the most valid and useful screening tool to predict malnutrition in the elderly at a geriatric care hospital. PMID:26634053

  5. Development of a brief screening tool for women's mental health assessment in refugee settings: A psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sue Anne; Lori, Jody; Redman, Richard; Seng, Julia

    2015-07-01

    The detection of common mental disorders in humanitarian crisis settings requires a screening tool that is feasible to use as well as sensitive and specific. The Self-Report Questionnaire, developed by the World Health Organization in 1994 to detect presence or absence of common mental health disorders, has frequently been used among conflict-affected and refugee populations. Our goal was to identify a highly predictive and reliable subset of items to serve as a screening tool that can be used in busy, over-crowded, and low-resource primary health care settings to identify women who need mental health attention. We analyzed the responses on a version of the Self-Report Questionnaire expanded to include two suicidality items from 810 displaced women living in refugee camps in Rwanda. Screening items were selected and evaluated for predictive ability using logistic regression in a cross-validation process, sensitivity and specificity using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and internal consistency analysis. A five-item screening tool resulted. Those items are "Do you feel unhappy?", Do you feel easily nervous, tense, or worried?", "Have you lost interest in things?", "Do you have trouble thinking clearly?" and "Has the thought of ending your life been on your mind?". The Self-Report Questionnaire-5 may be an important tool for identifying common mental disorders as well as suicide ideation and behaviors when assessing mental health among women in crisis situations. Further evaluation of this tool is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability of Patient-Led Screening with the Malnutrition Screening Tool: Agreement between Patient and Health Care Professional Scores in the Cancer Care Ambulatory Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Alexandra; Blake, Claire; Young, Adrienne; Pelecanos, Anita; Brown, Teresa

    2018-02-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition in patients with cancer is reported as high as 60% to 80%, and malnutrition is associated with lower survival, reduced response to treatment, and poorer functional status. The Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) is a validated tool when administered by health care professionals; however, it has not been evaluated for patient-led screening. This study aims to assess the reliability of patient-led MST screening through assessment of inter-rater reliability between patient-led and dietitian-researcher-led screening and intra-rater reliability between an initial and a repeat patient screening. This cross-sectional study included 208 adults attending ambulatory cancer care services in a metropolitan teaching hospital in Queensland, Australia, in October 2016 (n=160 inter-rater reliability; n=48 intra-rater reliability measured in a separate sample). Primary outcome measures were MST risk categories (MST 0-1: not at risk, MST ≥2: at risk) as determined by screening completed by patients and a dietitian-researcher, patient test-retest screening, and patient acceptability. Percent and chance-corrected agreement (Cohen's kappa coefficient, κ) were used to determine agreement between patient-MST and dietitian-MST (inter-rater reliability) and MST completed by patient on admission to unit (patient-MSTA) and MST completed by patient 1 to 3 hours after completion of initial MST (patient-MSTB) (intra-rater reliability). High inter-rater reliability and intra-rater reliability were observed. Agreement between patient-MST and dietitian-MST was 96%, with "almost perfect" chance-adjusted agreement (κ=0.92, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97). Agreement between repeated patient-MSTA and patient-MSTB was 94%, with "almost perfect" chance-adjusted agreement (κ=0.88, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.00). Based on dietitian-MST, 33% (n=53) of patients were identified as being at risk for malnutrition, and 40% of these reported not seeing a dietitian. Of 156 patients who provided

  7. Mental health screening in armed forces before the Iraq war and prevention of subsequent psychological morbidity: follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rona, Roberto J; Hooper, Richard; Jones, Margaret; Hull, Lisa; Browne, Tess; Horn, Oded; Murphy, Dominic; Hotopf, Matthew; Wessely, Simon

    2006-11-11

    To assess whether screening for mental disorder before the start of the 2003 Iraq war would have predicted subsequent mental disorders. Longitudinal cohort study of the United Kingdom armed forces. 2820 of 2873 personnel of the three services who completed an initial questionnaire in 2002 were asked to complete a second questionnaire between June 2004 and 2 March 2006. Regiments, air stations, bases, ships, and homes for those who had left the services. Positive and negative likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive value of first assessment compared with assessment two to three years later of post-traumatic stress disorder, general health questionnaire, physical symptoms, self perception of health, and alcohol misuse for the entire group and for those deployed to the Iraq war. The response rate to the follow-up questionnaire was 69%, adjusted for return to senders. The positive likelihood ratio of post-traumatic stress disorder was high (13.1, 95% confidence interval 7.2 to 23.8), but the negative likelihood ratio was close to 1 (0.78, 0.67 to 0.91). The positive predictive values were low because of the low prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in the period before the Iraq war. The positive likelihood ratios for the other psychological assessments varied between 2.7 and 5.6, and the negative likelihood ratios were slightly lower than for post-traumatic stress disorder, indicating that these were not good candidates for screening. Results were the same for the analyses restricted to those who were deployed. Screening for common mental disorders before deployment in this cohort would not have reduced subsequent morbidity or predicted post-traumatic stress disorder, but this may change if there is a considerable increase in the prevalence of the disorder.

  8. Psychological distress, cardiovascular complications and mortality among people with screen-detected type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Else-Marie; Vestergaard, Mogens; Skriver, Mette V

    2014-01-01

    Dette studie undersøger, om psykisk belastning øger risikoen for kardiovaskulær sygdom og død blandt personer med type 2-diabetes. Forfatterne ser også nærmere på, om forskelle i metabolisk kontrol og indtag af ordineret medicin kan forklare dele af en eventuel sammenhæng. Studiet fandt, at 18% af...... personer fundet med type 2-diabetes ved screening led af psykisk belastning. Studiet viser, at psykisk belastede personer har 70% højere risiko for at få CVD-event i 8.7 års follow-up og 80% højere dødelighed i 10.9 års follow-up sammenlignet med personer med type 2-diabetes uden psykisk belastning....... Psykisk belastning synes derimod ikke generelt at påvirke evnen til at opnå de opsatte mål for HbA1c, kolesterol og blodtryk. Studiet, bygger på data fra 1533 personer i alderen 40-69 år, som fik konstateret type 2-diabetes ved screening i almen praksis, 2001-2006. Undersøgelsen udgør en del af ADDITION...

  9. Psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents: Changes between 2001 and 2009 and associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleppang, Annette Løvheim; Thurston, Miranda; Hartz, Ingeborg; Hagquist, Curt

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to examine psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents in relation to changes over time and the associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour. This cross-sectional study was based on data retrieved from the Norwegian Youth Health Surveys in 2001 and 2009 in Hedmark County. Adolescents aged 15-16 years old completed a questionnaire regarding physical activity, sedentary behaviour, psychological distress and other health and lifestyle variables. The self-report Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 was used to assess psychological distress. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyse the associations between psychological distress, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Self-reported psychological distress increased significantly from 2001 to 2009 (from 19.4 to 28.2%), with the proportion of girls reporting psychological distress being twice as large as the proportion of boys. The proportion of adolescents who were physically active for ⩾11 hours per week increased significantly over the same period (from 6.0 to 10.4%). Sedentary behaviour ⩾6 hours per school day increased significantly among both sexes between 2001 and 2009. Physical activity (⩾11 hours) and sedentary behaviour (⩾6 hours) were both significantly associated with psychological distress. The association between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and psychological distress was weak; only high amounts of physical activity and high amounts of screen-based sedentary behaviour were associated with psychological distress. Longitudinal studies are needed to provide further insights into these associations and to understand the extent to which these variables might be causally related.

  10. BiliCheck transcutaneous bilirubinometer: a screening tool for neonatal jaundice in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, E Y W; Lee, S Y R; Chow, C B; Chung, J W Y

    2006-04-01

    To verify the usefulness of the BiliCheck transcutaneous bilirubin meter as a screening device for neonatal jaundice in a Chinese population compared with the Minolta bilirubin meter. A prospective correlation study that compared transcutaneous bilirubin measurements with serum bilirubin levels. Obstetric ward and a neonatal unit of a regional hospital in Hong Kong. Neonates with gestation above 32 weeks with neonatal jaundice who were admitted between April 2001 and February 2002. Transcutaneous measurements of serum bilirubin obtained from the forehead and the sternum with two instruments: BiliCheck and Minolta Airshields JM 102. A total of 77 term and six near-term babies (gestation, 32-37 weeks) were recruited. The mean age at the time of data collection was 3.96 days (range, 2-9 days). The correlations between serum bilirubin and transcutaneous bilirubin measurements of the two devices at the two sites were high, with a coefficient of 0.718 (95% confidence interval, 0.610-0.800; n=100) for forehead measurements, and 0.814 (95% confidence interval, 0.740-0.870; n=99) for sternum using the Minolta Airshields JM 102; and a coefficient of 0.757 (95% confidence interval, 0.657-0.827; n=98) for forehead measurements, and 0.794 (95% confidence interval, 0.700-0.862; n=92) for sternum using the BiliCheck. For BiliCheck, a cut-off point of 250 micromol/L at the forehead and 260 micromol/L at the sternum had a specificity of 61.9% and 70.0%, respectively with a sensitivity of 100% for the detection of serum bilirubin concentrations of 250 micromol/L or higher. This level is commonly used as the level for initiation of treatment such as phototherapy. BiliCheck is a useful screening tool for neonatal jaundice in the Chinese population and is comparable with the Minolta Airshields JM 102.

  11. Yeast Estrogen Screen Assay as a Tool for Detecting Estrogenic Activity in Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Bistan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds in wastewater, surface water, groundwater and even drinking water has become a major concern worldwide, since they negatively affect wildlife and humans. Therefore, these substances should be effectively removed from effluents before they are discharged into surface water to prevent pollution of groundwater, which can be a source of drinking water. Furthermore, an efficient control of endocrine-disrupting compounds in wastewater based on biological and analytical techniques is required. In this study, a yeast estrogen screen (YES bioassay has been introduced and optimized with the aim to assess potential estrogenic activity of waters. First, assay duration, concentration of added substrate to the assay medium and wavelength used to measure the absorbance of the substrate were estimated. Several compounds, such as 17-β-estradiol, 17-α-ethinylestradiol, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, genisteine, hydrocortisone, dieldrin, atrazine, methoxychlor, testosterone and progesterone were used to verify its specificity and sensitivity. The optimized YES assay was sensitive and responded specifically to the selected estrogenic and nonestrogenic compounds in aqueous samples. Potential estrogenicity of influent and effluent samples of two wastewater treatment plants was assessed after the samples had been concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE procedure using Oasis® HLB cartridges and methanol as eluting solvent. Up to 90 % of relative estrogenic activity was detected in concentrated samples of influents to wastewater treatment plants and estrogenic activity was still present in the concentrated effluent samples. We found that the introduced YES assay is a suitable screening tool for monitoring the potential estrogenicity of effluents that are discharged into surface water.

  12. The INECO Frontal Screening tool differentiates behavioral variant - frontotemporal dementia (bv-FTD from major depression

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    Natalia Fiorentino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Executive dysfunction may result from prefrontal circuitry involvement occurring in both neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. Moreover, multiple neuropsychiatric conditions, may present with overlapping behavioral and cognitive symptoms, making differential diagnosis challenging, especially during earlier stages. In this sense, cognitive assessment may contribute to the differential diagnosis by providing an objective and quantifiable set of measures that has the potential to distinguish clinical conditions otherwise perceived in everyday clinical settings as quite similar. Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the utility of the INECO Frontal Screening (IFS for differentiating bv-FTD patients from patients with Major Depression. Methods: We studied 49 patients with bv-FTD diagnosis and 30 patients diagnosed with unipolar depression compared to a control group of 26 healthy controls using the INECO Frontal Screening (IFS, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R. Results: Patient groups differed significantly on the motor inhibitory control (U=437.0, p<0.01, verbal working memory (U=298.0, p<0.001, spatial working memory (U=300.5, p<0.001, proverbs (U=341.5, p<0.001 and verbal inhibitory control (U=316.0, p<0.001 subtests, with bv-FTD patients scoring significantly lower than patients with depression. Conclusion: Our results suggest the IFS can be considered a useful tool for detecting executive dysfunction in both depression and bv-FTD patients and, perhaps more importantly, that it has the potential to help differentiate these two conditions.

  13. ECG is an inefficient screening-tool for left ventricular hypertrophy in normotensive African children population

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    Giuseppe Di Gioia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH is a marker of pediatric hypertension and predicts development of cardiovascular events. Electrocardiography (ECG screening is used in pediatrics to detect LVH thanks to major accessibility, reproducibility and easy to use compared to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE, that remains the standard technique. Several diseases were previously investigated, but no data exists regarding our study population. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between electrocardiographic and echocardiographic criteria of LVH in normotensive African children. Methods We studied 313 children (mean age 7,8 ± 3 yo, in north-Madagascar. They underwent ECG and TTE. Sokolow-Lyon index was calculated to identify ECG-LVH (>35 mm. Left ventricle mass (LVM with TTE was calculated and indexed by height2.7 (LVMI2.7 and weight (LVMIw. We report the prevalence of TTE-LVH using three methods: (1 calculating percentiles age- and sex- specific with values >95th percentile identifying LVH; (2 LVMI2.7 >51 g/m2.7; (3 LVMIw >3.4 g/weight. Results 40 (13% children showed LVMI values >95th percentile, 24 children (8% an LVMI2.7 >51 g/m2.7 while 19 children (6% an LVMIw >3.4 g/kg. LVH-ECG by Sokolow-Lyon index was present in five, three and three children respectively, with poor values of sensitivity (ranging from 13 to 16%, positive predictive value (from 11 to 18% and high values of specificity (up to 92%. The effects of anthropometrics parameters on Sokolow-Lyon were analyzed and showed poor correlation. Conclusion ECG is a poor screening test for detecting LVH in children. In clinical practice, TTE remains the only tool to be used to exclude LVH.

  14. Ethics Case-Study Simulation: A Generic Tool for Psychology Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMinn, Mark R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a case-study simulation program designed to assist instructors in teaching ethics in psychology. Concludes that the program is useful for teaching ethics as it reveals the difficulty of ethical decision-making and generates, through student work, discussions on the moral bases for different ethical decisions. (Author/GEA)

  15. Psychology Student Opinion of Virtual Reality as a Tool to Educate about Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichon, Jennifer; Loh, Jennifer; King, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) techniques are increasingly being used in e-health education, training and in trial clinical programs in the treatment of certain types of mental illness. Undergraduate psychology student opinion of the use of Virtual Reality (VR) to teach them about schizophrenia at the University of Queensland, was determined with reference…

  16. Virtual Screening of Phytochemicals to Novel Target (HAT) Rtt109 in Pneumocystis Jirovecii using Bioinformatics Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumar, Ramya; Adithavarman, Abhinand Ponneri; Dakshinamoorthi, Anusha; David, Darling Chellathai; Ragunath, Padmavathi Kannan

    2016-03-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is a fungus that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV and other immunosuppressed patients. Treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia with the currently available antifungals is challenging and associated with considerable adverse effects. There is a need to develop drugs against novel targets with minimal human toxicities. Histone Acetyl Transferase (HAT) Rtt109 is a potential therapeutic target in Pneumocystis jirovecii species. HAT is linked to transcription and is required to acetylate conserved lysine residues on histone proteins by transferring an acetyl group from acetyl CoA to form e-N-acetyl lysine. Therefore, inhibitors of HAT can be useful therapeutic options in Pneumocystis pneumonia. To screen phytochemicals against (HAT) Rtt109 using bioinformatics tool. The tertiary structure of Pneumocystis jirovecii (HAT) Rtt109 was modeled by Homology Modeling. The ideal template for modeling was obtained by performing Psi BLAST of the protein sequence. Rtt109-AcCoA/Vps75 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (PDB structure 3Q35) was chosen as the template. The target protein was modeled using Swiss Modeler and validated using Ramachandran plot and Errat 2. Comprehensive text mining was performed to identify phytochemical compounds with antipneumonia and fungicidal properties and these compounds were filtered based on Lipinski's Rule of 5. The chosen compounds were subjected to virtual screening against the target protein (HAT) Rtt109 using Molegro Virtual Docker 4.5. Osiris Property Explorer and Open Tox Server were used to predict ADME-T properties of the chosen phytochemicals. Tertiary structure model of HAT Rtt 109 had a ProSA score of -6.57 and Errat 2 score of 87.34. Structure validation analysis by Ramachandran plot for the model revealed 97% of amino acids were in the favoured region. Of all the phytochemicals subjected to virtual screening against the target protein (HAT) Rtt109, baicalin exhibited highest binding affinity towards the

  17. Breast examination as a cost-effective screening tool in a clinical practice setting in Ibadan, Nigeria

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    Adetola M. Ogunbode

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is a disease of public health importance. It results in high morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. The high morbidity and mortality from breast cancer can be decreased by measures targeted at early detection such as screening. Breast examination as a screening tool for breast cancer in developing countries is advocated in view of its costeffectiveness. Method: The article selection method was obtained from primary and secondary literature sources which included original research articles, case control studies, review articles, proceedings, transactions and textbooks. The authors cited a clinical audit and articles published between 1988 and 2011. The search strategy included the use of internet search engines. This review was part of a larger research and the study protocol was approved by the University of Ibadan/University College Hospital, Ibadan Institutional Review Board (UI/UCH IRB. Clinical trial registration number-NHREC/05/01/2008a.Results: Breast self-examination (BSE and clinical breast examination (CBE as screening tools for breast cancer were analysed in detail.Conclusion: Breast examination is a screening tool that is cost-effective and reliable and should be encouraged in resource-constrained countries. Given the high cost and expertise requiredfor mammography, current efforts at screening for breast cancer in developing countries should rely more on a combination of BSE and CBE.

  18. Breast examination as a cost-effective screening tool in a clinical practice setting in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetola M. Ogunbode

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is a disease of public health importance. It results in high morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. The high morbidity and mortality from breast cancer can be decreased by measures targeted at early detection such as screening. Breast examination as a screening tool for breast cancer in developing countries is advocated in view of its costeffectiveness.Method: The article selection method was obtained from primary and secondary literature sources which included original research articles, case control studies, review articles, proceedings, transactions and textbooks. The authors cited a clinical audit and articles published between 1988 and 2011. The search strategy included the use of internet search engines. This review was part of a larger research and the study protocol was approved by the University of Ibadan/University College Hospital, Ibadan Institutional Review Board (UI/UCH IRB. Clinical trial registration number-NHREC/05/01/2008a.Results: Breast self-examination (BSE and clinical breast examination (CBE as screening tools for breast cancer were analysed in detail.Conclusion: Breast examination is a screening tool that is cost-effective and reliable and should be encouraged in resource-constrained countries. Given the high cost and expertise required for mammography, current efforts at screening for breast cancer in developing countries should rely more on a combination of BSE and CBE.

  19. Validity, efficacy and reliability of 3 nutritional screening tools regarding the nutritional assessment in different social and health areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Vega, Iciar; Veses Martín, Silvia; Cantero Llorca, Juana; Barrios Marta, Cristina; Bañuls, Celia; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

    2017-09-22

    Nutritional screening allows for the detection of nutritional risk. Validated tools should be implemented, and their usefulness should be contrasted with a gold standard. The aim of this study is to discover the validity, efficacy and reliability of 3 nutritional screening tools in relation to complete nutritional assessment. A sub-analysis of a cross-sectional and descriptive study on the prevalence of disease-related malnutrition. The sample was selected from outpatients, hospitalized and institutionalized patients. MUST, MNAsf and MST screening were employed. A nutritional assessment of all the patients was undertaken. The SENPE-SEDOM consensus was used for the diagnosis. In the outpatients, both MUST and MNAsf have a similar validity in relation to the nutritional assessment (AUC 0.871 and 0.883, respectively). In the institutionalized patients, the MUST screening method is the one that shows the greatest validity (AUC 0.815), whereas in the hospitalized patients, the most valid methods are both MUST and MST (AUC 0.868 and 0.853, respectively). It is essential to use nutritional screening to invest the available resources wisely. Based on our results, MUST is the most suitable screening method in hospitalized and institutionalized patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Screening tool for oropharyngeal dysphagia in stroke - Part I: evidence of validity based on the content and response processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Tatiana Magalhães de; Cola, Paula Cristina; Pernambuco, Leandro de Araújo; Magalhães, Hipólito Virgílio; Magnoni, Carlos Daniel; Silva, Roberta Gonçalves da

    2017-08-17

    The aim of the present study was to identify the evidence of validity based on the content and response process of the Rastreamento de Disfagia Orofaríngea no Acidente Vascular Encefálico (RADAVE; "Screening Tool for Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Stroke"). The criteria used to elaborate the questions were based on a literature review. A group of judges consisting of 19 different health professionals evaluated the relevance and representativeness of the questions, and the results were analyzed using the Content Validity Index. In order to evidence validity based on the response processes, 23 health professionals administered the screening tool and analyzed the questions using a structured scale and cognitive interview. The RADAVE structured to be applied in two stages. The first version consisted of 18 questions in stage I and 11 questions in stage II. Eight questions in stage I and four in stage II did not reach the minimum Content Validity Index, requiring reformulation by the authors. The cognitive interview demonstrated some misconceptions. New adjustments were made and the final version was produced with 12 questions in stage I and six questions in stage II. It was possible to develop a screening tool for dysphagia in stroke with adequate evidence of validity based on content and response processes. Both validity evidences obtained so far allowed to adjust the screening tool in relation to its construct. The next studies will analyze the other evidences of validity and the measures of accuracy.

  1. The Dimensionality of Language Ability in Four-Year-Olds: Construct Validation of a Language Screening Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, Marianne; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric; Hagtvet, Bente

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian government recommends a systematic language assessment of all four-year-olds as part of the general health surveillance program for the purpose of identifying children at risk of language delay. This study aimed to investigate the construct validity of the recommended language screening tool called LANGUAGE4 [SPRÅK4] by first…

  2. Facilitating high resolution mass spectrometry data processing for screening of environmental water samples: An evaluation of two deconvolution tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bade, R.; Causanilles, A.; Emke, E.; Bijlsma, L.; Sancho, J.V.; Hernandez, F.; de Voogt, P.

    2016-01-01

    A screening approach was applied to influent and effluent wastewater samples. After injection in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap, data analysis was performed using two deconvolution tools, MsXelerator (modules MPeaks and MS Compare) and Sieve 2.1. The outputs were searched incorporating an in-house database of >

  3. The role of noninvasive prenatal testing as a diagnostic versus a screening tool--a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Mika; Caughey, Aaron

    2013-07-01

    As the sensitivity and specificity of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) that uses cell-free fetal DNA in maternal serum to identify Down syndrome (DS) in utero improves, NIPT could be considered a diagnostic test, thus avoiding the complications of chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. This study investigates the cost-effectiveness of NIPT as a diagnostic versus a screening tool. A decision-analytic model compared NIPT as a diagnostic tool (NIPT Dx) that did not require a confirmatory amniocentesis versus NIPT used for screening (NIPT Scr) that allowed a confirmatory amniocentesis for screen positive results. Baseline case, univariate, and multivariate sensitivity analyses were performed. For a high-risk population, NIPT Dx would result in three more DS babies born and 2432 more elective terminations compared with NIPT Scr. Furthermore, there would be many more terminations of fetuses without DS with NIPT Dx (2424) than procedure-related losses associated with NIPT Scr (29). NIPT Scr is more expensive but cost-effective at $7687 per quality-associated life year (QALY), less than the standard cost-effectiveness limit of $100 000/QALY. Noninvasive prenatal testing as a screening tool that requires a confirmatory amniocentesis is cost-effective compared with its use as a diagnostic tool and leads to far fewer losses of normal pregnancies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Semantic validation of the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools (ICAST in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ligia da Silva Silveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools (ICAST is a battery of questionnaires created by the World Health Organization, the United Nations and ISPCAN for researching maltreatment in childhood. This study aims to translate, to adapt and to validate the semantic equivalence of all items on the three questionnaires: ICAST-C (ICAST version for Children, ICAST-R (Retrospective Interview and ICAST-P (ICAST version for Parents. Methods: The process of translation and semantic validation comprised five methodological steps: 1 translation; 2 back-translation; 3 correction and semantic adaptation; 4 validation of content by professional experts in the area of abuse in childhood; and 5 a study of their acceptability to a sample of the target population, using a verbal rating scale. Results: In the evaluation of the expert committee, there was need to adapt several words for the Brazilian population while maintaining semantic and conceptual equivalence. In the ICAST-C acceptability study, children exhibited some difficulty understanding 7 of the items (out of 69 questions. For ICAST-P, parents reported a lack of clarity in 5 items (out of 57 questions. These issues were resolved and the Brazilian version of ICAST 3.0 was concluded. Conclusion: The ICAST battery is an internationally recognized tool and the process of translation into Portuguese and semantic adaptation was performed successfully. The final version proved to be easily understandable and semantic validation results were adequate. This battery has proved useful in investigation of childhood maltreatment.

  5. Subjective Global Nutritional Assessment: A Reliable Screening Tool for Nutritional Assessment in Cerebral Palsy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Priyanka; Sitaraman, Sadasivan; Choudhary, Anita; Yadav, Rajiv

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of undernutrition in children with cerebral palsy and to compare subjective and objective methods of nutritional assessment. This was a hospital based analytical observational study in which 180 children of cerebral palsy, aged 1-12 y, attending tertiary level hospital, Jaipur from March, 2012 through March, 2013 were included. Subjective assessment was done by questionnaire (Subjective Global Nutritional Assessment; SGNA) in which questions related to nutrition history and physical examination, signs of fat, muscle wasting and edema was done while objective assessment was done by weight, height and triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT) measurements. In this study prevalence of undernutrition by subjective method (SGNA) was 76.67% while by objective measurement (weight, height, TSFT) was 48.89%, 77.78% 35.18% respectively. There was fair to moderate agreement between the SGNA and objective assessments including weight and height (k = 0.341, p = 0.000; k = 0.337, p = 0.000 respectively) while for TSFT agreement between both methods was poor (k = 0.092, p = 0.190). In the index study, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of SGNA was for weight was 95%, 37%, 56%, 90%; for height 84%, 50%, 85%, 47%; for TSFT 81%, 30%, 38%, 75% respectively. The prevalence of undernutrition is high in cerebral palsy children. SGNA can be a reliable tool for assessing nutritional status in children with cerebral palsy and is a simple, comprehensive, noninvasive, and cost-effective tool for screening undernutrition in children of cerebral palsy.

  6. Parent-completed developmental screening in premature children: a valid tool for follow-up programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Flamant

    Full Text Available Our goals were to (1 validate the parental Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ as a screening tool for psychomotor development among a cohort of ex-premature infants reaching 2 years, and (2 analyse the influence of parental socio-economic status and maternal education on the efficacy of the questionnaire. A regional population of 703 very preterm infants (<35 weeks gestational age born between 2003 and 2006 were evaluated at 2 years by their parents who completed the ASQ, by a pediatric clinical examination, and by the revised Brunet Lezine psychometric test with establishment of a DQ score. Detailed information regarding parental socio-economic status was available for 419 infants. At 2 years corrected age, 630 infants (89.6% had an optimal neuromotor examination. Overall ASQ scores for predicting a DQ score ≤85 produced an area under the receiver operator curve value of 0.85 (95% Confidence Interval:0.82-0.87. An ASQ cut-off score of ≤220 had optimal discriminatory power for identifying a DQ score ≤85 with a sensitivity of 0.85 (95%CI:0.75-0.91, a specificity of 0.72 (95%CI:0.69-0.75, a positive likelihood ratio of 3, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.21. The median value for ASQ was not significantly associated with socio-economic level or maternal education. ASQ is an easy and reliable tool regardless of the socio-economic status of the family to predict normal neurologic outcome in ex-premature infants at 2 years of age. ASQ may be beneficial with a low-cost impact to some follow-up programs, and helps to establish a genuine sense of parental involvement.

  7. Parent-completed developmental screening in premature children: a valid tool for follow-up programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamant, Cyril; Branger, Bernard; Nguyen The Tich, Sylvie; de la Rochebrochard, Elise; Savagner, Christophe; Berlie, Isabelle; Rozé, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Our goals were to (1) validate the parental Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) as a screening tool for psychomotor development among a cohort of ex-premature infants reaching 2 years, and (2) analyse the influence of parental socio-economic status and maternal education on the efficacy of the questionnaire. A regional population of 703 very preterm infants (Lezine psychometric test with establishment of a DQ score. Detailed information regarding parental socio-economic status was available for 419 infants. At 2 years corrected age, 630 infants (89.6%) had an optimal neuromotor examination. Overall ASQ scores for predicting a DQ score ≤85 produced an area under the receiver operator curve value of 0.85 (95% Confidence Interval:0.82-0.87). An ASQ cut-off score of ≤220 had optimal discriminatory power for identifying a DQ score ≤85 with a sensitivity of 0.85 (95%CI:0.75-0.91), a specificity of 0.72 (95%CI:0.69-0.75), a positive likelihood ratio of 3, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.21. The median value for ASQ was not significantly associated with socio-economic level or maternal education. ASQ is an easy and reliable tool regardless of the socio-economic status of the family to predict normal neurologic outcome in ex-premature infants at 2 years of age. ASQ may be beneficial with a low-cost impact to some follow-up programs, and helps to establish a genuine sense of parental involvement.

  8. Cervical screening program and the psychological impact of an abnormal Pap smear: a self-assessment questionnaire study of 590 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangarajah, Fabinshy; Einzmann, Thomas; Bergauer, Florian; Patzke, Jan; Schmidt-Petruschkat, Silke; Theune, Monika; Engel, Katja; Puppe, Julian; Richters, Lisa; Mallmann, Peter; Kirn, Verena

    2016-02-01

    Invasive cervical cancer is today the fourth most common cancer of women in western civilization. Screening programs have led to a continuously decrease. Nevertheless, both screening and a positive test result are known to be associated with a negative psychological impact. Screening programs in European countries differ and thus psychological impact might as well. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological impact of women with an abnormal Pap smear in a German cohort. Between July 2013 and May 2014, a self-assessment questionnaire was distributed to 595 patients that were referred to a special clinic for cervical dysplasia for further evaluation of an abnormal Pap smear. Patients were recruited in five different centers. Most patients (45.9 %) were informed about the test result via phone call by their doctor. 68.8 % of the patients felt anxious and 26.3 % even felt panic. After having talked to their physician, 51.4 % of our cohort still felt worried and only 24.4 % felt reassured. Concerning disease management, 48.4 % underwent a control Pap smear in 6 months. The preferred information source was the physician (63.9 %). Compared to the results in other European countries, our study cohort showed differences concerning age distribution, patients living in a partnership, number of children and especially disease management. Cancer screening itself and abnormal test results have an impact on patient's feelings. To reduce the psychological impact, patients need to be better informed about the risks and benefits of cancer screening programs and in case of cervical cancer screening about the meaning of an abnormal test result. Our results underline the importance of a trustful physician-patient relationship in that matter.

  9. Development of a screening tool for sleep disordered breathing in children using the phone Oximeter™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Ainara; Dehkordi, Parastoo; Karlen, Walter; Wensley, David; Ansermino, J Mark; Dumont, Guy A

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) can lead to daytime sleepiness, growth failure and developmental delay in children. Polysomnography (PSG), the gold standard to diagnose SDB, is a highly resource-intensive test, confined to the sleep laboratory. To combine the blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) characterization and cardiac modulation, quantified by pulse rate variability (PRV), to identify children with SDB using the Phone Oximeter, a device integrating a pulse oximeter with a smartphone. Following ethics approval and informed consent, 160 children referred to British Columbia Children's Hospital for overnight PSG were recruited. A second pulse oximeter sensor applied to the finger adjacent to the one used for standard PSG was attached to the Phone Oximeter to record overnight pulse oximetry (SpO2 and photoplethysmogram (PPG)) alongside the PSG. We studied 146 children through the analysis of the SpO2 pattern, and PRV as an estimate of heart rate variability calculated from the PPG. SpO2 variability and SpO2 spectral power at low frequency, was significantly higher in children with SDB due to the modulation provoked by airway obstruction during sleep (p-value Phone Oximeter will provide an improved portable, at-home screening tool, with the capability of monitoring patients over multiple nights.

  10. Vitamin D: a poor screening tool for biochemical and radiological rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Giles T; Yates, Edward W; Wadia, Farokh; Paton, Robin W

    2012-10-01

    This retrospective study aims to determine if a relationship exists between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and the diagnosis of biochemical or radiological rickets in children with bone and joint pain, muscle fatigue or varus/valgus knees. A retrospective biochemistry database and case note study was undertaken on 115 new patients referred to the senior authors' elective Paediatric Orthopaedic Clinic in 2010. Their mean age was 10.95 years (95% CI 10.24-11.68). Mean serum vitamin D was 18.27 mcg/l (95% CI 16.13-20.41), while 30 mcg/l is the normal threshold. One hundred and three children (88%) had vitamin D levels below normal. Winter/springtime blood samples were more likely to be deficient and this was statistically significant. Three Asian females (2.61%) were diagnosed with radiological rickets. Vitamin D levels below normal are common in children presenting with vague limb or back pain, but this rarely presents with biochemical or radiological rickets. Serum vitamin D level is not a suitable screening tool for biochemical or radiological rickets. Vitamin D requirement in children is unclear and requires further study.

  11. Tissue microarray analysis as a screening tool for neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brask, Julie Benedicte; Talman, Maj-Lis Møller; Wielenga, Vera Timmermans

    2014-07-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast (NCB) is a fairly recent diagnostic entity added by WHO in 2003. Since then, studies have indicated that NCB potentially displays a worse prognosis than invasive ductal carcinoma. However, due to a lack of standard use of immunohistochemical staining for neuroendocrine markers and the fact that NCB may only show slight neuroendocrine morphology that can easily be overlooked, NCB is often underdiagnosed. Consequently, there is a need for fast and reliable detection method for NCB. Here, we take a first step toward finding an easy way of identifying NCB by investigating the usefulness of tissue microarray (TMA) analysis as a screening tool. We present our findings with regard to sensitivity and specificity compared with whole-mount sections. The material consists of 240 cases of breast cancer divided into 20 TMA blocks that were all immunohistochemically stained for the neuroendocrine markers chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Cases positive in more than 50% of the tumor cells were accepted in accordance with WHO (2003) standards of NCB. Sensitivity and specificity for TMA sections vs whole-mount sections were found to be 100% and 97.8%, respectively, suggesting that TMA analysis is a reliable method for NCB detection. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Landscape Diversity as a Screening Tool to Assess Agroecosystems Sustainability; Preliminary Study in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Visicchio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of agricultural activities has strongly modified agricultural landscapes. Intensive agriculture, with the increased use of inorganic fertiliser and density of livestock, affects water quality discharging nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in water bodies. Nutrients in rivers, subsequently, are excellent indicators to assess sustainability/ land-use intensity in agroecosystems. Landscape, however, is a dynamic system and is the product of interaction amongst the natural environment and human activities, including farming which is a main driving force. At present not much has been investigated on the predictive role of landscape on land-use intensity. Aim of this study is to determine if, in Italian agroecosystem, landscape complexity can be related to land-use intensity. Indexes of landscape complexity (i.e. edge density, number of patches, Shannon’s diversity index, Interspersion-Juxtaposition index derived by processing Corine Land Cover data (level IV, 1:25.000 of Lazio Region, were related with landuse intensity (values of compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus and other parameters found in rivers monitored in accordance to European Directives on Waste Water. Results demonstrate that some landscape indexes were related to some environment parameters. Consequently landscape complexity, with further investigation, could be an efficient screening tool, at large scale, to assess water quality and ultimately agroecosystems sustainability in the absence of monitoring stations.

  13. Chemical assessment state of the science: Evaluation of 32 decision-support tools used to screen and prioritize chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Alison M; Fung, Mai; Panko, Julie; Kingsbury, Tony; Perez, Angela L; Hitchcock, Kristen; Ferracini, Tyler; Sahmel, Jennifer; Banducci, Amber; Jacobsen, Megan; Abelmann, Anders; Shay, Erin

    2015-04-01

    The last decade has seen an increased focus on evaluating the safety and sustainability of chemicals in consumer and industrial products. In order to effectively and accurately evaluate safety and sustainability, tools are needed to characterize hazard, exposure, and risk pertaining to products and processes. Because many of these tools will be used to identify problematic chemistries, and because many have potential applications in various steps of an alternatives analysis, the limitations and capabilities of available tools should be understood by users so that, ultimately, potential chemical risk is accurately reflected. In our study, we examined 32 chemical characterization tools from government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The tools we studied were diverse, and varied widely in their scope and assessment. As such, they were separated into five categories for comparison: 1) Screening and Prioritization; 2) Database Utilization; 3) Hazard Assessment; 4) Exposure and Risk Assessment; and 5) Certification and Labeling. Each tool was scored based on our weighted set of criteria, and then compared to other tools in the same category. Ten tools received a high score in one or more categories; 24 tools received a medium score in one or more categories, and five tools received a low score in one or more categories. Although some tools were placed into more than one category, no tool encompassed all five of the assessment categories. Though many of the tools evaluated may be useful for providing guidance for hazards - and, in some cases, exposure - few tools characterize risk. To our knowledge, this study is the first to critically evaluate a large set of chemical assessment tools and provide an understanding of their strengths and limitations. © 2015 SETAC.

  14. Differences in Psychosocial and Behavioral Variables by Dietary Screening Tool Risk Category in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Geoffrey W; Lofgren, Ingrid; Paulin, Chelsea; Greaney, Mary L; Clark, Phillip G

    2018-01-01

    The Dietary Screening Tool (DST) has been validated as a dietary screening instrument for older adults defining three categories of potential nutritional risk based on DST score cutoffs. Previous research has found that older adults classified as being "at risk" differed from those categorized as being "not at risk" for a limited number of health-related variables. The relationship between risk categories and a wide variety of variables has not yet been explored. This research will contribute to an increased understanding of clustering of multiple health concerns in this population. The aim of this study was to determine whether DST risk categories differed by demographic, anthropometric, cognitive, functional, psychosocial, or behavioral variables in older adults. This study utilized a cross-sectional design with data collected from September 15, 2009 to July 31, 2012. Participants completed an interviewer-administered survey including the DST and other measures. Community-dwelling older adults (n=255) participating in the Study of Exercise and Nutrition in Older Rhode Islanders Project were included if they met study inclusion criteria (complete DST data with depression and cognitive status scores above cutoffs). DST scores were used to classify participants' dietary risk (at risk, possible risk, and not at risk). Multiple analysis of variance and χ2 analyses examined whether DST risk categories differed by variables. Significant predictors were entered into a logistic regression equation predicting at-risk compared to other risk categories combined. Participants' mean age was 82.5±4.9 years. Nearly half (49%, n=125) were classified as being at possible risk, with the remainder 26% (n=66) not at risk and at risk 25% (n=64). At-risk participants were less likely to be in the Action/Maintenance Stages of Change (P<0.01). There was a multivariate effect of risk category (P<0.01). At-risk participants had a lower intake of fruits and vegetables, fruit and vegetable

  15. The DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure as a Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaens, Leo; Galus, James

    2017-05-19

    The DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure was developed to aid clinicians with a dimensional assessment of psychopathology; however, this measure resembles a screening tool for several symptomatic domains. The objective of the current study was to examine the basic parameters of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive power of the measure as a screening tool. One hundred and fifty patients in a correctional community center filled out the measure prior to a psychiatric evaluation, including the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview screen. The above parameters were calculated for the domains of depression, mania, anxiety, and psychosis. The results showed that the sensitivity and positive predictive power of the studied domains was poor because of a high rate of false positive answers on the measure. However, when the lowest threshold on the Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure was used, the sensitivity of the anxiety and psychosis domains and the negative predictive values for mania, anxiety and psychosis were good. In conclusion, while it is foreseeable that some clinicians may use the DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure as a screening tool, it should not be relied on to identify positive findings. It functioned well in the negative prediction of mania, anxiety and psychosis symptoms.

  16. Including values in evidence-based policy making for breast screening: An empirically grounded tool to assist expert decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Values are an important part of evidence-based decision making for health policy: they guide the type of evidence that is collected, how it is interpreted, and how important the conclusions are considered to be. Experts in breast screening (including clinicians, researchers, consumer advocates and senior administrators) hold differing values in relation to what is important in breast screening policy and practice, and committees may find it difficult to incorporate the complexity and variety of values into policy decisions. The decision making tool provided here is intended to assist with this process. The tool is modified from more general frameworks that are intended to assist with ethical decision making in public health, and informed by data drawn from previous empirical studies on values amongst Australian breast screening experts. It provides a structured format for breast screening committees to consider and discuss the values of themselves and others, suggests relevant topics for further inquiry and highlights areas of need for future research into the values of the public. It enables committees to publicly explain and justify their decisions with reference to values, improving transparency and accountability. It is intended to act alongside practices that seek to accommodate the values of individual women in the informed decision making process for personal decision making about participation in breast screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Validation of the Arab Youth Mental Health scale as a screening tool for depression/anxiety in Lebanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakkash Rima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection of common mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, among children and adolescents requires the use of validated, culturally sensitive, and developmentally appropriate screening instruments. The Arab region has a high proportion of youth, yet Arabic-language screening instruments for mental disorders among this age group are virtually absent. Methods We carried out construct and clinical validation on the recently-developed Arab Youth Mental Health (AYMH scale as a screening tool for depression/anxiety. The scale was administered with 10-14 year old children attending a social service center in Beirut, Lebanon (N = 153. The clinical assessment was conducted by a child and adolescent clinical psychiatrist employing the DSM IV criteria. We tested the scale's sensitivity, specificity, and internal consistency. Results Scale scores were generally significantly associated with how participants responded to standard questions on health, mental health, and happiness, indicating good construct validity. The results revealed that the scale exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86 and specificity (79%. However, it exhibited moderate sensitivity for girls (71% and poor sensitivity for boys (50%. Conclusions The AYMH scale is useful as a screening tool for general mental health states and a valid screening instrument for common mental disorders among girls. It is not a valid instrument for detecting depression and anxiety among boys in an Arab culture.

  18. The suitability of the South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA) as a screening tool: IRT-based evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesi, Francesca; Donati, Maria Anna; Galli, Silvia; Primi, Caterina

    2013-03-01

    The South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA) is one of the most widely used measures of adolescent gambling. We aimed to provide evidence of its suitability as a screening tool applying item response theory (IRT). The scale was administered to 981 adolescents (64% males; mean age = 16.57 years, SD = 1.63 years) attending high school. Analyses were carried out with a sample of 871 respondents, that is, adolescents who have gambled at least once during the previous year. Once the prerequisite of unidimensionality was confirmed through confirmatory factor analysis, unidimensional IRT analyses were performed. The 2-parameter logistic model was used in order to estimate item parameters (severity and discrimination) and the test information function. Results showed that item severity ranged from medium to high, and most of the items showed large discrimination parameters, indicating that the scale accurately measures medium to high levels of problem gambling. These regions of the trait were associated with the greatest amount of information, indicating that the SOGS-RA provides a reliable measure for identifying both problem gamblers and adolescents at risk of developing maladaptive behaviors deriving from gambling. The IRT-based evidence supports the suitability of the SOGS-RA as a screening tool in adolescent populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. GAPscreener: An automatic tool for screening human genetic association literature in PubMed using the support vector machine technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoury Muin J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthesis of data from published human genetic association studies is a critical step in the translation of human genome discoveries into health applications. Although genetic association studies account for a substantial proportion of the abstracts in PubMed, identifying them with standard queries is not always accurate or efficient. Further automating the literature-screening process can reduce the burden of a labor-intensive and time-consuming traditional literature search. The Support Vector Machine (SVM, a well-established machine learning technique, has been successful in classifying text, including biomedical literature. The GAPscreener, a free SVM-based software tool, can be used to assist in screening PubMed abstracts for human genetic association studies. Results The data source for this research was the HuGE Navigator, formerly known as the HuGE Pub Lit database. Weighted SVM feature selection based on a keyword list obtained by the two-way z score method demonstrated the best screening performance, achieving 97.5% recall, 98.3% specificity and 31.9% precision in performance testing. Compared with the traditional screening process based on a complex PubMed query, the SVM tool reduced by about 90% the number of abstracts requiring individual review by the database curator. The tool also ascertained 47 articles that were missed by the traditional literature screening process during the 4-week test period. We examined the literature on genetic associations with preterm birth as an example. Compared with the traditional, manual process, the GAPscreener both reduced effort and improved accuracy. Conclusion GAPscreener is the first free SVM-based application available for screening the human genetic association literature in PubMed with high recall and specificity. The user-friendly graphical user interface makes this a practical, stand-alone application. The software can be downloaded at no charge.

  20. The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme: its role as an assessment and stratification tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, J. M. H.; van Doorne-Nagtegaal, H. J.; Zonderland, H. M.; van Tinteren, H.; Visser, O.; Verbeek, A. L. M.; den Heeten, G. J.; Broeders, M. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the suitability of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) as a quality assessment tool in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme. The data of 93,793 screened women in the Amsterdam screening region (November 2005-July 2006) were reviewed. BI-RADS categories, work-up,

  1. PHIT for Duty, a Personal Health Intervention Tool for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    to the programmers on usability, spelling errors , grammatical errors , screen layout problems, and form navigation issues  The PI executed all of...periodically uploaded to a secure server, and made available for quality review and analysis via a password-protected website. Exhibit 1. PHIT...Any identified errors in spelling, syntax, or calculation were corrected in the PHIT XML code, and the testing process repeated to check that the

  2. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Strongkids tool for screening of malnutrition risk in hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Fernanda Christina; Lopes, Célia Regina; Vilela, Laurieny da Costa; Vieira, Marina Araújo; Rinaldi, Ana Elisa M; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida

    2013-06-01

    To translate into Portuguese and to culturally adapt the malnutrition screening tool for hospitalized children, Strongkids. This study documents the translation of the tool from the original version (English) into Portuguese. The translation and cultural adaptation of the content of this tool consisted of six stages, according to the methodology proposed by Beaton et al (initial translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, verification of the cultural equivalence process, pre-test, and evaluation of the cultural adaptation process). In the first stage, translation was performed by two independent translators, followed by their synthesis and reconciliation; in the third one, the reconciled version was back translated and, then, a pre-final one that retained all linguistic equivalence was developed. In the fifth step, a pre-test of the pre-final version was performed in order to verify the understanding of the items and a final version of the tool was developed. The pre-final version of the tool was applied to 30 parents/guardians and to 20 healthcare professionals in order to verify its understanding by both. The main alterations were the adaptation of technical terms in order to meet the recommendations of health professionals, and the adjustment of terms for parents/guardians understanding. The Portuguese translation of the tool was easily understood by parents/guardians and health professionals, and it should be useful to screen the risk of malnutrition in hospitalized children.

  3. Predicting risk and outcomes for frail older adults: an umbrella review of frailty screening tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apóstolo, João; Cooke, Richard; Bobrowicz-Campos, Elzbieta; Santana, Silvina; Marcucci, Maura; Cano, Antonio; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam; Germini, Federico; Holland, Carol

    2017-01-01

    indicators were analyzed, most of which were applied to community-dwelling older people. The Frailty Index was examined in almost all these dimensions, with the exception of reliability, and its diagnostic and predictive characteristics were shown to be satisfactory. Gait speed showed high sensitivity, but only moderate specificity, and excellent predictive ability for future disability in activities of daily living. The Tilburg Frailty Indicator was shown to be a reliable and valid measure for frailty screening, but its diagnostic accuracy was not evaluated. Screening Letter, Timed-up-and-go test and PRISMA 7 (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) demonstrated high sensitivity and moderate specificity for identifying frailty. In general, low physical activity, variously measured, was one of the most powerful predictors of future decline in activities of daily living. Conclusion Only a few frailty measures seem to be demonstrably valid, reliable and diagnostically accurate, and have good predictive ability. Among them, the Frailty Index and gait speed emerged as the most useful in routine care and community settings. However, none of the included systematic reviews provided responses that met all of our research questions on their own and there is a need for studies that could fill this gap, covering all these issues within the same study. Nevertheless, it was clear that no suitable tool for assessing frailty appropriately in emergency departments was identified. PMID:28398987

  4. Risk assessment of cattle handling on pasture using work environment screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qiuqing; Field, William E; Salomon, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Working with beef cattle in an open area or while on pasture has been shown to expose workers to a high risk of work-related injury. Prior research on this problem has been conducted using mail surveys, interviews, self-reporting of work practices and injury experiences, and summaries of published injury data, including media reports. Prior research on injury prevention has largely focused on worker education in a specific cultural or geographical setting. A pilot study was conducted to test the cross-cultural usability of the Working Environment Screening Tool in Agriculture (WEST-AG), a modification of the WEST, developed for Swedish industrial applications, to assess risk factors associated with farmers working with cattle being raised largely on pasture as compared with cattle raised in confined feeding operations. Swedish and English language versions of WEST-AG were developed and pilot-tested on a convenient sample of eight Swedish and eight Indiana farms that raise beef cattle primarily on pasture. On-site observations were conducted independently by Swedish and US agricultural safety professionals and documented using photography and a 15-risk-of-injury component on an 11-degree linear scale. Comparisons were made between independent observations documented from the Swedish and Indiana application of the WEST, including collective assessment of photographic record, and the results reported. Key findings included (a) a higher level of observed risks on Indiana farms studied as compared with their Swedish counterparts; (b) high levels of worker exposure to cattle, especially mature breeding bulls, on both sets of farms; (c) a higher frequency of self-reported farm-related injuries than anticipated on both Swedish and Indiana farms; (d) substantially different economic, social, cultural, and regulatory forces that influence small-operation Swedish and Indiana beef producers' decisions regarding adoption of safer work practices, including use of new and safer

  5. Screening and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from ophthalmology clinic surfaces: a proposed surveillance tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reem, Rachel E.; Van Balen, Joany; Hoet, Armando E.; Cebulla, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To screen environmental surfaces of an outpatient ophthalmic clinic for methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA); to identify the most commonly contaminated surfaces; and to phenotype and genotype all collected isolates Design A single institution, one-year prospective environmental study Methods Commonly touched surfaces from examination rooms and common areas were targeted and sampled on a quarterly basis for one year. Samples were collected using electrostatic cloths and swabs. S. aureus was isolated using non-selective and selective media. Morphological characteristics and standard biological testing were used to confirm staphylococcal species. S. aureus isolates were phenotypically (Kirby-Bauer method) and genotypically characterized (mecA confirmation, SCCmec typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis). Dendrogram analysis was used to establish genetic relatedness between the isolates. Results Of 112 total samples, 27 (24%) and 5 (4%) were MSSA- and MRSA-positive, respectively. Both community-associated (SCCmec IV, USA300) and hospital-associated (SCCmec II, USA100) MRSA isolates were found. No single surface remained consistently positive with the same isolate over time and molecular analysis demonstrated high levels of diversity among isolates. Doorknobs, slit-lamp head/chinrests, and computer keyboards were frequently contaminated. Conclusions The proposed surveillance protocol successfully allowed the detection of both MSSA and MRSA contaminating important high-touch surfaces in a representative ophthalmology clinic. Frequently contaminated surfaces must be targeted for routine cleaning and disinfection as a there is a constant introduction of clones over time. Hence, other clinics may consider implementing and adapting surveillance tools, as the one here described, to help them control these important nosocomial pathogens. PMID:24412125

  6. Uric acid, an important screening tool to detect inborn errors of metabolism: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinge, Eresha; Kularatnam, Grace Angeline Malarnangai; Dilanthi, Hewa Warawitage; Vidanapathirana, Dinesha Maduri; Jayasena, Kandana Liyanage Subhashinie Priyadarshika Kapilani Menike; Chandrasiri, Nambage Dona Priyani Dhammika; Indika, Neluwa Liyanage Ruwan; Ratnayake, Pyara Dilani; Gunasekara, Vindya Nandani; Fairbanks, Lynette Dianne; Stiburkova, Blanka

    2017-09-06

    Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism in humans. Altered serum and urine uric acid level (both above and below the reference ranges) is an indispensable marker in detecting rare inborn errors of metabolism. We describe different case scenarios of 4 Sri Lankan patients related to abnormal uric acid levels in blood and urine. CASE 1: A one-and-half-year-old boy was investigated for haematuria and a calculus in the bladder. Xanthine crystals were seen in microscopic examination of urine sediment. Low uric acid concentrations in serum and low urinary fractional excretion of uric acid associated with high urinary excretion of xanthine and hypoxanthine were compatible with xanthine oxidase deficiency. CASE 2: An 8-month-old boy presented with intractable seizures, feeding difficulties, screaming episodes, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism and severe neuro developmental delay. Low uric acid level in serum, low fractional excretion of uric acid and radiological findings were consistent with possible molybdenum cofactor deficiency. Diagnosis was confirmed by elevated levels of xanthine, hypoxanthine and sulfocysteine levels in urine. CASE 3: A 3-year-10-month-old boy presented with global developmental delay, failure to thrive, dystonia and self-destructive behaviour. High uric acid levels in serum, increased fractional excretion of uric acid and absent hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase enzyme level confirmed the diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. CASE 4: A 9-year-old boy was investigated for lower abdominal pain, gross haematuria and right renal calculus. Low uric acid level in serum and increased fractional excretion of uric acid pointed towards hereditary renal hypouricaemia which was confirmed by genetic studies. Abnormal uric acid level in blood and urine is a valuable tool in screening for clinical conditions related to derangement of the nucleic acid metabolic pathway.

  7. The RT-18: a new screening tool to assess young adult risk-taking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Haan L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lydia de Haan1, Esther Kuipers1, Yvanca Kuerten1, Margriet van Laar2, Berend Olivier1, Joris Cornelis Verster11Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University; 2Trimbos Institute, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, The NetherlandsAbstract: Risk-taking behavior is a major determinant of health and plays a central role in various diseases. Therefore, a brief questionnaire was developed to assess risk taking among young adults with known different levels of risk-taking behavior (social drinkers and recreational drug users. In Study 1, N = 522 university students completed the RT-18 risk taking questionnaire. N = 100 students were retested after 2 to 4 weeks and performed the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT. Mean RT-18 score was 7.69 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.886. The test-retest reliability was r = 0.94. Significant correlation was found between the RT-18 score and CGT scores of risk taking, bet proportion, and risk adjustment. In Study 2, N = 7834 young adult social drinkers, and recreational drug users, mean RT-18 score was 9.34 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.80. Factor analysis showed that the RT-18 comprises two factors assessing level of risk-taking behavior and risk assessment. Men scored significantly higher than women on the RT-18. Recreational drug users had significantly higher scores when compared to social drinkers. In Study 3 of N = 1000 students, construct validity was confirmed by showing that the RT-18 outcome correlates significantly with scores on the Stimulating-Instrumental Risk Inventory. In conclusion, the RT-18 is a valid and reliable screening tool to differentiate levels of risk-taking behavior. This short scale is quick and practical to administer, imposing minimal demands on participants. The RT-18 is able to differentiate risk taking and risk assessment which can help target appropriate intervention strategies.Keywords: risk taking, impulsivity, sensation

  8. Does the STOP-Bang, an obstructive sleep apnea screening tool, predict difficult intubation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, H V; Yarkan Uysal, H; Kaya, A; Ceyhan, A; Dikmen, B

    2014-07-01

    A close relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and difficult intubation has been suggested. We hypothesized that the STOP-Bang questionnaire, a screening tool for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), can predict difficult intubation. In this prospective cohort study, 200 adult surgical patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia were studied to evaluate the usefulness of the STOP-Bang questionnaire for predicting difficult intubation. STOP-Bang questionnaire results, Mallampati score and tonsil size, as well as demographic data, were recorded preoperatively. Cormack & Lehane grading and difficulty of intubation (Cormack & Lehane grade III or IV, need of an intubation aid, or need of three or more intubation attempts) were also evaluated. Eighty-three out of 200 patients had a high risk of OSA based on the STOP-Bang questionnaire. The occurrence of difficult intubation was higher in the patients at a high risk of OSA (i.e., a STOP-Bang score of ≥ 3) than in the patients at a low risk (13.3% vs. 2.6%) (p = 0.004). Higher age, greater weight, higher body mass index, greater neck circumference, male gender, presence of comorbidities, lower preoperative SpO2, longer extubation times, higher Mallampati score, higher Cormack & Lehane grading, tonsil size and difficult intubation were significantly correlated with a high risk of OSA (p < 0.001). Fourteen out of 200 patients had difficulty in intubation. A STOP-Bang score of ≥ 3 was seen more frequently in the difficult intubation patients (78.6% vs. 38.7%) (p = 0.009). Greater weight, greater neck circumference, greater Mallampati score, a STOP-Bang score ≥ 3 and male gender were significantly correlated with difficult intubation (p < 0.05). A STOP-Bang score of ≥ 3 was a predictor for difficult intubation.

  9. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with chemometrics as a powerful predictive tool for ß-thalassemia screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risoluti, Roberta; Materazzi, Stefano; Sorrentino, Francesco; Maffei, Laura; Caprari, Patrizia

    2016-10-01

    β-Thalassemia is a hemoglobin genetic disorder characterized by the absence or reduced β-globin chain synthesis, one of the constituents of the adult hemoglobin tetramer. In this study the possibility of using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) followed by chemometrics as a new approach for β-thalassemia detection is proposed. Blood samples from patients with β-thalassemia were analyzed by the TG7 thermobalance and the resulting curves were compared to those typical of healthy individuals. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the correlation between the hematological parameters and the thermogravimetric results. The thermogravimetric profiles of blood samples from β-thalassemia patients were clearly distinct from those of healthy individuals as result of the different quantities of water content and corpuscular fraction. The hematological overview showed significant decreases in the values of red blood cell indices and an increase in red cell distribution width value in thalassemia subjects when compared with those of healthy subjects. The implementation of a predictive model based on Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) for β-thalassemia diagnosis, was performed and validated. This model permitted the discrimination of anemic patients and healthy individuals and was able to detect thalassemia in clinically heterogeneous patients as in the presence of δβ-thalassemia and β-thalassemia combined with Hb Lepore. TGA and Chemometrics are capable of predicting ß-thalassemia syndromes using only a few microliters of blood without any pretreatment and with an hour of analysis time. A fast, rapid and cost-effective diagnostic tool for the β-thalassemia screening is proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation of the nutrition screening tool 'Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition, version II' among octogenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wham, C A; Redwood, K M; Kerse, N

    2014-01-01

    To determine the validity of the nutrition screening tool 'Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition, version II' (SCREEN II) among a purposive sample of octogenarians. Cross-sectional validation study. Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. Forty-five community-living residents aged 85-86 years. Equal proportions of participants were recruited at low, medium and high nutrition risk based on their SCREEN II score 12 months prior. Nutrition risk was assessed using SCREEN II. Demographic and health data were established. Using established criterion a dietitian's nutrition risk rating assessment ranked participants from low risk (score of 1) to high risk (score of 10). The assessment included a medical history, anthropometric measures and dietary intake. Dietary intake was established from three 24 hour multiple pass recalls (MPR). A Spearman's correlation determined the association between the SCREEN II score and the dietitian's risk score. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were completed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the cut-off point for high nutrition risk. The SCREEN II score was significantly correlated with the dietitian's risk rating (rs = -0.76 (pnutrition risk derived from ROC curves and AUC (0.87, p nutrition risk people aged 85-86 years.

  11. SPATIALLY-EXPLICIT BAT IMPACT SCREENING TOOL FOR WIND TURBINE SITING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versar, Inc.; Exponent, Inc.

    2013-10-28

    As the U.S. seeks to increase energy production from renewable energy sources, development of wind power resources continues to grow. One of the most important ecological issues restricting wind energy development, especially the siting of wind turbines, is the potential adverse effect on bats. High levels of bat fatality have been recorded at a number of wind energy facilities, especially in the eastern United States. The U.S. Department of Energy contracted with Versar, Inc., and Exponent to develop a spatially-explicit site screening tool to evaluate the mortality of bats resulting from interactions (collisions or barotrauma) with wind turbines. The resulting Bat Vulnerability Assessment Tool (BVAT) presented in this report integrates spatial information about turbine locations, bat habitat features, and bat behavior as it relates to possible interactions with turbines. A model demonstration was conducted that focuses on two bat species, the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) and the Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis). The eastern red bat is a relatively common tree-roosting species that ranges broadly during migration in the Eastern U.S., whereas the Indiana bat is regional species that migrates between a summer range and cave hibernacula. Moreover, Indiana bats are listed as endangered, and so the impacts to this species are of particular interest. The model demonstration used conditions at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center (MWEC), which consists of 44 wind turbines arranged in a linear array near Thomas, West Virginia (Tucker County), to illustrate model functions and not to represent actual or potential impacts of the facility. The turbines at MWEC are erected on the ridge of Backbone Mountain with a nacelle height of 70 meters and a collision area of 72 meters (blade height) or 4,071 meters square. The habitat surrounding the turbines is an Appalachian mixed mesophytic forest. Model sensitivity runs showed that bat mortality in the model was most sensitive to

  12. Assessment tools in obesity- psychological measures, diet, activity, and body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity has led to an increased need for measurement tools for research, management and treatment of the obese person. The physical size limitations imposed by obesity, variations in body composition from that of normal weight, and a complex psychopathology a...

  13. A Blended Learning Experience in Statistics for Psychology Students Using the Evaluation as a Learning Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto VALENTÍN CENTENO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching statistics course Applied Psychology, was based on different teaching models that incorporate active teaching methodologies. In this experience have combined approaches that prioritize the use of ICT with other where evaluation becomes an element of learning. This has involved the use of virtual platforms to support teaching that facilitate learning and activities where no face-to-face are combined. The design of the components of the course is inspired by the dimensions proposed by Carless (2003 model. This model uses evaluation as a learning element. The development of this experience has shown how the didactic proposal has been positively interpreted by students. Students recognized that they had to learn and deeply understand the basic concepts of the subject, so that they can teach and assess their peers.

  14. Evaluation of a two-question screening tool in the detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Saimen

    The Women Abuse Screening Tool–short was used to screen patients for intimate partner ... Domestic Violence Act focuses on addressing IPV, and the Act includes ... The WAST–long was used as the correlation measure (gold standard) in ... Women who were identified as victims of IPV received assistance immediately ...

  15. Population Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: assessment of diagnostic tools and cancers detected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.W. Rietbergen (John)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOver the past decade, considerable debate has occurred over the question whether or not to screen asymptomatic men for prostate cancer. It is unknown whether early detection and treatment of the disease will decrease the disease specific mortality. On theoretical grounds screening may

  16. Broad target chemical screening approach used as tool for rapid assessment of groundwater quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laak, T.L.; Puijker, L.M.; van Leerdam, J.A.; Raat, K.J.; Kolkman, A.; de Voogt, P.; van Wezel, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The chemical water quality is often assessed by screening for a limited set of target chemicals. This ‘conventional’ target analysis approach inevitably misses chemicals present in the samples. In this study a ‘broad’ target screening approach for water quality assessment using high resolution and

  17. XRF core scanners as a quick and good screening tool for detecting pollution in sediment cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Rubio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The capabilities of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF core scanners, to acquire high-resolution geochemical data sets in relatively short time, have made them an increasingly popular geochemical screening tool to study sediment cores for palaeoclimatologic and palaeoceanographic purposes (Peck et al., 2007; Rebolledo et al., 2008. These scanners are able to obtain optical images, X-ray radiographs, and continuous geochemical data with a maximum resolution of 200 µm directly from sediment cores (Croudace et al., 2006. Geochemical results are obtained as peak areas of counts per second that are proportional to element concentrations in the sediment, and thus the assumed semi-quantitative nature of these analyses have hampered the use of this type of instruments to monitor and detect pollution at large; where the availability of a fast screening tool that could substantially cut analytical and time costs will certainly be an advantage. This study explores the sensitivity of a ITRAX core scanner (Cox Analytical Systems on sedimentary records from estuarine-like environments in NW (Rías Baixas Galicia and SW Spain (Ría de Huelva. The Galician Rías Baixas sediments are characterized by high contents of organic matter, but in general terms, are not heavily polluted. We have selected one core in the Marín harbour (Ría de Pontevedra and another in the intertidal area of San Simón Bay (inner Ría de Vigo, close to a ceramic factory, which is relatively highly polluted by lead. By the contrary, the Ría de Huelva is one of the most polluted areas in western Europe because of the high acid mining activity together with the chemical industries located in its margins. We have selected a core in the Padre Santo Channel in the confluence of the Odiel and Tinto rivers. ITRAX sensitivity was obtained by establishing equivalences between peak areas and concentrations obtained by traditional analytical techniques such as ICP-MS, ICP-OES and/or conventional XRF of

  18. Discovery, screening and evaluation of a plasma biomarker panel for subjects with psychological suboptimal health state using 1H-NMR-based metabolomics profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-sheng Tian; Xiao-tao Xia; Yan-fei Wu; Lei Zhao; Huan Xiang; Guan-hua Du; Xiang Zhang; Xue-mei Qin

    2016-01-01

    Individuals in the state of psychological suboptimal health keep increasing, only scales and questionnaires were used to diagnose in clinic under current conditions, and symptoms of high reliability and accuracy are destitute. Therefore, the noninvasive and precise laboratory diagnostic methods are needed. This study aimed to develop an objective method through screen potential biomarkers or a biomarker panel to facilitate the diagnosis in clinic using plasma metabolomics. Profiles were based...

  19. Clinical significance of nutritional risk screening tool for hospitalised children with acute burn injuries: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Y K; Park, M K; Ju, Y S; Cho, K Y

    2017-09-26

    We assessed the nutritional risks among children hospitalised with acute burn injuries and their associated clinical outcomes using three nutritional risk screening (NRS) tools: Screening Tool for Risk of Impaired Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGKIDS ), Pediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS) and Screening Tool for the Assessment for Malnutrition in Pediatrics (STAMP). This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2015 to November 2016, in a regional burn centre. Patients were screened by two independent observers, using the three NRS tools. A total of 100 children aged 3 months to 16.5 years were included. STRONGKIDS identified 16% of patients as having high risk, with being identified 45% by PYMS and 44% by STAMP. After adjustment for confounding factors in multivariate regression analysis, patients in the high-risk group had significantly longer median (SD) lengths of stay [medium versus high risk: STRONGKIDS , 9.5 (6.6) versus 15.0 (24.2) days; PYMS, 8.5 (4.4) versus 13.0 (16.1) days; STAMP, 9.0 (5.7) versus 11.0 (17.4) days] and greater median (SD) weight loss [medium versus high risk: STRONGKIDS, 0.15 (0.8) versus -0.35 (0.8) kg; STAMP, 0.5 (0.7) versus 0 (0.1) kg] than patients in the medium-risk group (P nutritional risk classification between the two observers were good (κ for STRONGKIDS = 0.61; PYMS = 0.79; STAMP = 0.75) (P nutritional intervention. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. Direct Push Optical Screening Tool for High Resolution, Real-Time Mapping of Chlorinated Solvent DNAPL Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    is historically used in subsurface environmental assessments it i the natural fluorescence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in the...sites impacted by petroleum hydrocarbon fuels, creosotes, and MGP tars. The rapid, high-resolution, real-time nature of LIF technologies described...ER-201121) Direct Push Optical Screening Tool for High- Resolution, Real-Time Mapping of Chlorinated Solvent DNAPL Architecture July 2016 This

  1. The Malnutrition Screening Tool in Geriatric Rehabilitation: A Comparison of Validity When Completed by Health Professionals With and Without Malnutrition Screening Training Has Implications for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Skye; Young, Adrienne; Isenring, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    The validity of the Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) in geriatric rehabilitation has been evaluated in a research environment but not in professional practice. In older adults admitted to rehabilitation, this study was undertaken to compare the MST scoring agreement (inter-rater reliability) between health professionals with and without malnutrition risk and screening training; to evaluate the concurrent validity of the MST completed by the trained and untrained health professionals compared to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Australian Modification using different MST score cutoffs; and to determine whether patient characteristics were associated with MST scoring accuracy when completed by health professionals without malnutrition risk and screening training. This was an observational, cross-sectional study. Fifty-seven older adults (mean age=79.1±7.3 years) were recruited from August 2013 to February 2014 from two rural rehabilitation units in New South Wales, Australia. MST, International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Australian Modification, classification of malnutrition, and patient characteristics were used to measure outcomes. Measures of diagnostic accuracy generated from a contingency table, receiver operating characteristic curve, and Spearman's correlation were used. The MST scores completed by health professionals with and without malnutrition risk and screening training showed moderate correlation and fair agreement (rs=0.465; P=0.001; κ=0.297; P=0.028). When compared to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Australian Modification, the untrained MST administration showed moderate diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 56.5%, specificity 83.3%), but increasing the MST score to ≥3 caused the sensitivity of both the trained and untrained MST administration to decrease (56.5% and 22.9%, respectively). The application of the MST by health professionals without malnutrition risk and

  2. Impact of acute geriatric care in elderly patients according to the Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment criteria in northern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frély, Anne; Chazard, Emmanuel; Pansu, Aymeric; Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Puisieux, François

    2016-02-01

    In France, over 20% of hospitalizations of elderly people are a result of adverse drug events, of which 50% are considered preventable. Tools have been developed to detect inappropriate prescriptions. The Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (STOPP/START) criteria are innovative and adapted to French prescriptions. This is one of the first French prospective studies to evaluate the impact of acute geriatric care on prescriptions at discharge in elderly patients using the STOPP/START criteria. The evaluation of prescriptions according to STOPP/START was carried out on admission and at discharge of patients in acute geriatric units at three hospitals in the Nord-Pas de Calais region, France. A total of 202 elderly hospitalized patients were included during the 4.5 months of the study (1.5 months per center). The mean number of drugs was seven on admission and at discharge. Over half of the prescriptions at admission contained at least one potentially inappropriate medication or one potential prescription omission. The prescriptions at discharge contained significantly fewer potentially inappropriate medications than prescriptions on admission (P France improves prescriptions in terms of potentially inappropriate medication, but has no impact on potential prescription omissions. Further studies must be carried out to see if STOPP/START could be used as a tool in French prescription. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. The HEADS-ED: a rapid mental health screening tool for pediatric patients in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Mario; Gray, Clare; Zemek, Roger; Cloutier, Paula; Kennedy, Allison; Glennie, Elizabeth; Doucet, Guy; Lyons, John S

    2012-08-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics called for action for improved screening of mental health issues in the emergency department (ED). We developed the rapid screening tool home, education, activities/peers, drugs/alcohol, suicidality, emotions/behavior, discharge resources (HEADS-ED), which is a modification of "HEADS," a mnemonic widely used to obtain a psychosocial history in adolescents. The reliability and validity of the tool and its potential for use as a screening measure are presented. ED patients presenting with mental health concerns from March 1 to May 30, 2011 were included. Crisis intervention workers completed the HEADS-ED and the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths-Mental Health tool (CANS MH) and patients completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Interrater reliability was assessed by using a second HEADS-ED rater for 20% of the sample. A total of 313 patients were included, mean age was 14.3 (SD 2.63), and there were 182 females (58.1%). Interrater reliability was 0.785 (P mental health concerns.

  4. New Joiners Routine (NJR) - a novel screening tool in military primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, D; Rainey, O; Evans, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and audits a novel method of health care screening in a military setting and questions the validity of the current PULHHEEMS system. The system involves screening patients at entry into an establishment with the aim of making them fit for task. A retrospective DMICP case note review was conducted over 3 months following the introduction of the NewJoiners Routine (NJR), to assess the level of positive screening findings, and the number of medical interventions that resulted from this screening. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) were also assessed during the time frame of the audit. 131/194 (67.5%) had an unmet health need/ positive screening finding. This led to 66 medical interventions in 54 (25.7%) patients. KPIs during this period were markedly improved. Although not conclusive, this audit strongly suggests an improvement in culture in making personnel fit for task, and reflects the medical evidence of moving away from asymptomatic periodic health screening to targeted health screening.

  5. Development of a screening tool for sleep disordered breathing in children using the phone Oximeter™.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainara Garde

    -home screening tool, with the capability of monitoring patients over multiple nights.

  6. Sentence Repetition as a Tool for Screening Morphosyntactic Abilities of Bilectal Children with SLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Theodorou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The clinical significance of sentence repetition tasks (SRTs for assessing children's language ability is well-recognized. SRT has been identified as a good clinical marker for children with (specific language impairment as it shows high diagnostic accuracy levels. Furthermore, qualitative analysis of repetition samples can provide information to be used for intervention protocols. Despite the fact that SRT is a familiar task in assessment batteries across several languages, it has not yet been measured and validated in bilectal settings, such as Cypriot Greek, where the need for an accurate screening tool is urgent. The aims of the current study are three-fold. First, the performance of a group of (Cypriot Greek-speaking children identified with SLI is evaluated using a SRT that elicits complex morphosyntactic structures. Second, the accuracy level of the SRT for the identification of SLI is explored. Third, a broad error analysis is carried out to examine and compare the morphosyntactic abilities of the participating children. A total of 38 children aged 5–9 years participated in this study: a clinical group of children with SLI (n = 16 and a chronological age-matched control group (n = 22. The ability of the children to repeat complex morphosyntactic structures was assessed using a SRT consisting of 24 sentences. The results showed that the SRT yielded significant differences in terms of poorer performance of children with SLI compared to typically developing peers. The diagnostic accuracy of the task was validated, since regression analysis showed that the task is sensitive and specific enough to identify children with SLI. Finally, qualitative differences between children with SLI and those with TLD regarding morphosyntactic abilities were detected. This study showed that a SRT that elicits morphosyntactically complex structures could be a potential clinical indicator for SLI in Cypriot Greek. The task has the potential to be used as a

  7. Refining Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer Disease Screening: A Tool for Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, Natalia; Cesari, Matteo; Canevelli, Marco; Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Lilamand, Matthieu; Kelaiditi, Eirini; Soto, Maria E; Ousset, Pierre-Jean; Weiner, Michael W; Andrieu, Sandrine; Vellas, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that a substantial minority of people clinically diagnosed with probable Alzheimer disease (AD) in fact do not fulfill the neuropathological criteria for the disease. A clinical hallmark of these phenocopies of AD is that these individuals tend to remain cognitively stable for extended periods of time, in contrast to their peers with confirmed AD who show a progressive decline. We aimed to examine the prevalence of patients clinically diagnosed with mild-to-moderate AD who do not experience the expected clinically significant cognitive decline and identify markers easily available in routine medical practice predictive of a stable cognitive prognosis in this population. Data were obtained from two independent, longitudinal, observational multicenter studies in patients with mild-to-moderate AD. The two studies were the European "Impact of Cholinergic Treatment Use" (ICTUS) and the French "REseau sur la maladie d'Alzheimer FRançais" (REAL.FR). We used prospective data of 756 patients enrolled in ICTUS and 340 enrolled in REAL.FR. A prediction rule of cognitive decline was derived on ICTUS using classification and regression tree analysis and then cross-validated on REAL.FR. A range of demographic, clinical and cognitive variables were tested as predictor variables. Overall, 27.9% of patients in ICTUS and 20.9% in REAL.FR did not decline over 2 years. We identified optimized cut-points on the verbal memory items of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale capable of classifying patients at baseline into those who went on to decline and those who remained stable or improved over the duration of the trial. The application of this simple rule would allow the identification of dementia cases where a more detailed differential diagnostic examination (eg, with biomarkers) is warranted. These findings are promising toward the refinement of AD screening in the clinic. For a further optimization of our classification rule, we

  8. Psychological consequences of screening for cardiovascular risk factors in an un-selected general population: results from the Inter99 randomised intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; Andersen, John S; Jacobsen, Rikke K; Badsberg, Jens H; Jørgensen, Torben; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2015-02-01

    Concerns that general health checks, including screening for risk factors to ischemic heart disease (IHD), have negative psychological consequences seem widely unfounded; however, previous studies are only based on self-reports from participants. To investigate if risk factor screening in healthy adults leads to mental distress in the study population, independent of participation. The Inter99 study (1999 - 2006) was a randomised intervention in the general population, aiming to prevent IHD by a healthier lifestyle. We included the whole study population, independent of participation (n = 60,915). We merged data with information on the use of psychotropic medication and/or hospitalisation due to psychiatric diagnoses, as retrieved from national registers in Denmark, 4 years before and 5 years after the study began. We conducted analyses using generalised estimating equations. There was no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in their use of antipsychotics, hypnotics/sedatives, antidepressants or anxiolytics. As regards admission to the hospital with mental disorders, no significant difference was seen. These findings were true based on a yearly basis, and when investigating both short-term and a long-term effects of the intervention. There was no interaction with socioeconomic status. Of the 918 persons with a psychiatric diagnosis before the study start, 303 (33%) were re-admitted in the intervention period. Pre-screening of psychological status did not influence the psychological impact of screening. This large, randomised intervention study supports that screening for risk factors to IHD does not increase mental distress, not even in the mentally or socioeconomically most vulnerable persons. This study included the whole Inter99 study population not only study participants. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  9. Testing tubewell platform color as a rapid screening tool for arsenic and manganese in drinking water wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Ashis; Nath, Bibhash; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Halder, Dipti; Kundu, Amit K; Mandal, Ujjal; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar

    2012-01-03

    A low-cost rapid screening tool for arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in groundwater is urgently needed to formulate mitigation policies for sustainable drinking water supply. This study attempts to make statistical comparison between tubewell (TW) platform color and the level of As and Mn concentration in groundwater extracted from the respective TW (n = 423), to validate platform color as a screening tool for As and Mn in groundwater. The result shows that a black colored platform with 73% certainty indicates that well water is safe from As, while with 84% certainty a red colored platform indicates that well water is enriched with As, compared to WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 79%, 77%, and 81%, respectively. However, the certainty values become 93% and 38%, respectively, for black and red colored platforms at 50 μg/L, the drinking water standards for India and Bangladesh. The respective efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity are 65%, 85%, and 59%. Similarly for Mn, black and red colored platform with 78% and 64% certainty, respectively, indicates that well water is either enriched or free from Mn at the Indian national drinking water standard of 300 μg/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 71%, 67%, and 76%, respectively. Thus, this study demonstrates that TW platform color can be potentially used as an initial screening tool for identifying TWs with elevated dissolved As and Mn, to make further rigorous groundwater testing more intensive and implement mitigation options for safe drinking water supplies.

  10. Task: Observing the Older Adult. A Pedagogical Tool for Changing Ageist Attitudes in Psychology Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Serrani Azcurra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ageist attitudes of students represent an obstacle to the development of the knowledge and empathy required for assisting the elderly. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in explicit/implicit attitudes and knowledge regarding older people, in a sample of psychology students before and after they carried out a practical task called "Observing the Older Adult" (TOAM. To this end, we evaluated the changes in explicit knowledge with Palmore's Facts on Aging Quizzes 1 and 2 (FAQs1-2; the changes in explicit attitudes with Kogan's Scale for Attitudes Toward Old People (SATOP; and the Age Group Evaluation and Description (AGED Inventory. The subsequent changes in implicit attitudes were evaluated with the Implicit Association Test (IAT. The changes were measured one week, three months, one year and two years after completing the TOAM with ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. After the TOAM was carried out, positive changes were observed in knowledge and explicit attitudes toward seniors, but implicit attitudes remained negative in the first assessment, and were modified only after a year.

  11. Artificial organisms as tools for the development of psychological theory: Tolman's lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglino, Orazio; Gigliotta, Onofrio; Cardaci, Maurizio; Ponticorvo, Michela

    2007-12-01

    In the 1930s and 1940s, Edward Tolman developed a psychological theory of spatial orientation in rats and humans. He expressed his theory as an automaton (the "schematic sowbug") or what today we would call an "artificial organism." With the technology of the day, he could not implement his model. Nonetheless, he used it to develop empirical predictions which tested with animals in the laboratory. This way of proceeding was in line with scientific practice dating back to Galileo. The way psychologists use artificial organisms in their work today breaks with this tradition. Modern "artificial organisms" are constructed a posteriori, working from experimental or ethological observations. As a result, researchers can use them to confirm a theoretical model or to simulate its operation. But they make no contribution to the actual building of models. In this paper, we try to return to Tolman's original strategy: implementing his theory of "vicarious trial and error" in a simulated robot, forecasting the robot's behavior and conducting experiments that verify or falsify these predictions.

  12. Effective gender-based violence screening tools for use in primary health care settings in Afghanistan and Pakistan: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J

    2013-03-01

    Health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention and response to violence against women. However, the existing tools for screening for gender-based violence have been mostly formulated in the context of developed countries. This paper assesses which violence screening tools designed for use as the primary health care level would be feasible for use in Afghanistan and Pakistan, countries characterized by limited resources, unsupportive institutional frameworks and gender and social norms that reinforce domestic violence. A systematic review was made of the literature to evaluate the different screening instruments. The Women's Experience with Battering Scale (short version) and the Ongoing Violence Assessment Tool were judged to be the most useful tools for screening for violence against women in Afghanistan and Pakistan because they are short, S easy to administer and to score and respond to health care provider identified barriers of time and knowledge constraints for conducting screening for intimate partner violence.

  13. Pulse Oximetry During the First 24 Hours as a Screening Tool For Congenital Heart Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patriciu Mihaela

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although screening for congenital heart defects (CHD relies mainly on antenatal ultrasonography and clinical examination after birth, life-threatening cardiac malformations are often not diagnosed before the patient is discharged.

  14. Modification of infant hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria screening program using electronic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Behjat; Haddadpoor, Asefeh; Mirkhalafzadeh, Mahmood; Mazroei, Fariba; Aghdak, Pezhman; Nasri, Mehran; Bahrami, Gholamreza

    2017-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria (PKU) are the most common cause for preventable mental retardation in infants worldwide. Timely diagnosis and treatment of these disorders can have lasting effects on the mental development of newborns. However, there are several problems at different stages of screening programs that along with imposing heavy costs can reduce the precision of the screening, increasing the chance of undiagnosed cases which in turn can have damaging consequences for the society. Therefore, given these problems and the importance of information systems in facilitating the management and improving the quality of health care the aim of this study was to improve the screening process of hypothyroidism and PKU in infants with the help of electronic resources. The current study is a qualitative, action research designed to improve the quality of screening, services, performance, implementation effectiveness, and management of hypothyroidism and PKU screening program in Isfahan province. To this end, web-based software was designed. Programming was carried out using Delphi.net software and used SQL Server 2008 for database management. Given the weaknesses, problems, and limitations of hypothyroidism and PKU screening program, and the importance of these diseases in a national scale, this study resulted in design of hypothyroidism and PKU screening software for infants in Isfahan province. The inputs and outputs of the software were designed in three levels including Health Care Centers in charge of the screening program, provincial reference lab, and health and treatment network of Isfahan province. Immediate registration of sample data at the time and location of sampling, providing the provincial reference Laboratory and Health Centers of different eparchies with the ability to instantly observe, monitor, and follow-up on the samples at any moment, online verification of samples by reference lab, creating a daily schedule for reference lab

  15. A short tool to screen HIV-infected patients for mild neurocognitive disorders ? a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Fasel, Dominique; Kunze, Ursula; Elzi, Luigia; Werder, Vreni; Niepmann, Susanne; Monsch, Andreas U.; Schumacher, Rahel; Battegay, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the accuracy and acceptability of a short screening test battery for mild neurocognitive deficits. Methods HIV-infected individuals with a suppressed viral load were examined at the University Hospital Basel with a screening test consisting of a questionnaire and selected cognitive tests, administered by trained nurses, followed by an in-depth neuropsychological examination. Test acceptance was evaluated with a questionnaire. Results 30 patients were included i...

  16. Navy Fuel Composition and Screening Tool (FCAST) v2.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-10

    3851. 37. ASTM Standard D86. Standard Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure; ASTM International: West...selected compound classes 3) Compound class list as check boxes to add or remove from bar chart. 18. FCAST Distillation Curve screen, showing 1) List...of data files; 2) Predicted distillation curve shown in black, along with jet and diesel reference curves. 19. FCAST Label Peaks screen, showing 1

  17. Validation of screening tools for depression and anxiety disorders in a primary care population with high HIV prevalence in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibanda, Dixon; Verhey, Ruth; Gibson, Lorna J; Munetsi, Epiphania; Machando, Debra; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Munjoma, Ronald; Araya, Ricardo; Weiss, Helen A; Abas, Melanie

    2016-07-01

    In low income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa there are few validated tools to screen for common disabling mental disorders such as depression and general anxiety disorder (GAD). We validated three screening tools: the Shona Symptom Questionnaire for common mental disorders (SSQ-14), the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ-9), and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire (GAD-7). The study participants were attendees at a primary health care clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe. Consecutive adults aged 18 and above attending the clinic were enrolled over a two-week period in September 2013. Trained research assistants administered the screening tools to eligible participants after obtaining written consent. Participants were then interviewed by one of four psychiatrists using the Structured Clinical Interview of the DSM-IV (SCID). Performance characteristics were calculated for each tool, against the SCID as the gold standard. A total of 264 participants were enrolled, of whom 52 (20%) met the SCID criteria for depression alone, 97 (37%) for mixed depression and anxiety and 9 (3%) for anxiety alone. Of the 237 where HIV status was known, 165 (70%) were HIV positive. With the optimal cutoff of ≥9, the sensitivity and specificity for the SSQ-14 against a diagnosis of either depression and/or general anxiety were 84% (95%CI:78-89%) and 73% (95%CI:63-81%) respectively. Internal reliability was high (Cronbach α=0.74). The optimal cutoff for PHQ-9 was ≥11, which provided a sensitivity of 85% (95%CI:78-90%) and specificity of 69% (95%CI:59-77%) against a SCID diagnosis of depression (Cronbach α=0.86). The GAD-7 (optimal cutoff ≥10) had sensitivity and specificity of 89% (95%CI:81-94%) and 73% (95%CI:65-80%) respectively against a SCID diagnosis of GAD (Cronbach α=0.87). Screening tools for depression and GAD had good performance characteristics in a primary health care population in Zimbabwe with a high prevalence of HIV. These can be used for research

  18. Characteristics of men classified at high-risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus using the AUSDRISK screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Elroy J; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Callister, Robin

    2015-04-01

    The primary aim was to describe characteristics of men identified at high-risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using the Australian diabetes risk assessment (AUSDRISK) tool. Secondary aims were to determine the prevalence of pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome in these men. Men (n=209) completed the AUSDRISK tool, with 165 identified as high-risk for T2DM (score ≥ 12, maximum 38). Demographic, anthropometric, physiological and behavioural outcomes were assessed for 101 men. Comparisons (one-way ANOVA) among three AUSDRISK score groups (12-15, 16-19, ≥ 20) were performed (significance level, P90 cm; 93%), age (>44 years; 79%), physical activity level (diabetes (39%) and previously high blood glucose levels (32%). Men with AUSDRISK scores ≥ 20 had higher (mean ± SD) HbA1C (6.0 ± 0.4% [42 ± 4.4 mmol.mol(-1)], Pdiabetes prevalence was 70% and metabolic syndrome prevalence was 62%. The AUSDRISK tool identified men who were mostly older than 44, and had large waist circumferences and elevated HbA1C. These findings provide evidence supporting the usefulness of the AUSDRISK screening tool for T2DM screening in clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of screening tools to detect risk of hospital readmission in elderly patients in Valencian Healthcare System (VHS) (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doñate-Martínez, Ascensión; Garcés Ferrer, Jorge; Ródenas Rigla, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The Sustainable Social and Healthcare Model (SSHM) is aimed to establish new care pathways in primary care systems contributing to the decrease of health services use and costs and improve the integration and efficiency of social and health care for elderly people with long-term care (LTC) needs. One of these strategies is the segmentation of population in risk groups through standardized tools. This paper is a retrospective study aimed to determine the viability of the implementation of the screening tools Probability of Repeated Admission - Pra - and The Community Assessment Risk Screen - CARS - to detect patients at risk of hospital readmission in a sample of 500 elderly people (65+) from the VHS in Spain. Patients were recruited from three Health Departments. Data from selected tools and predictive variables were collected through the healthcare database from the VHS. The most important results indicate that both instruments predict with high efficacy the proportion of patients not readmitted (negative predictive value between 91% and 92%). Moreover, the tools performed with a moderate efficiency being the Pra less sensitive (54%) and more specific (81%) than CARS (with a sensitivity and specificity of 64%). Results from this study suggest that the application of instruments as Pra and CARS are of interest to the Valencian Health Administration as they can be a good strategy to improve the management of elderly patients at risk with comorbidities and guiding clinical decision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Positive emotions: A psychological tool for promoting resilience process in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Greco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this theoretical work is to assess the relation between the capacity to experiment positive emotions and the process of resilience throughout childhood. Our interest arises from two research works being carried out in the province of Mendoza, in Argentina (INCIHUSA-CRICYT-CONICET, directed by Dr Mirta Ison. One the so called “Assessment of resilience in childhood maltreatment”, and the other “ Positive emotions as psycological tools for fostering mental health throughout childhood within vulnerable social contexts”. Resilience is always associated to risky or vulnerable social situations. Positive emotions constitute a resource favorable to the development of resilience. This working hypothesis is based on previous studies which hold that positive emotions favor creative thinking for the solution of interpersonal problems, promote cognitive flexibility, reduce risks at decision making, promote replies to generosity and altruism, increase intelectual resources and counteract depressive tendencies among others. Other authors support the fact that the features a resilient child holds are closely connected to cognitive flexibility, to creative capacity, to the capacity for solving interpersonal problems, to self esteem and attachment links among others. Thus, positive emotions are believed to be one of the psycological resources and tools needed for the development of resilience throughout childhood. 

  1. Evaluation of clinical features scoring system as screening tool for influenza A (H1N1 in epidemic situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza A (H1N1 hit the headlines in recent times and created mass hysteria and general panic. The high cost and non-availability of diagnostic laboratory tests for swine flu, especially in the developing countries underlines the need of having a cheaper, easily available, yet reasonably accurate screening test. Aims: This study was carried out to develop a clinical feature-based scoring system (CFSS for influenza A (H1N1 and to evaluate its suitability as a screening tool when large numbers of influenza-like illness cases are suspect. Settings and Design: Clinical-record based study, carried out retrospectively in post-pandemic period on subject′s case-sheets who had been quarantined at IG International Airport′s quarantine center at Delhi. Materials and Methods: Clinical scoring of each suspected case was done by studying their case record sheet and compared with the results of RT-PCR. RT-PCR was used to confirm the diagnosis (Gold Standard. Statistical Analysis: We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the clinical feature-based scoring system (the proposed new screening tool at different cut-off values. The most discriminant cut-off value was determined by plotting the ROC curve. Results: Of the 638 suspected cases, 127 (20% were confirmed to have H1N1 by RT-PCR examination. On the basis of ROC, the most discriminant clinical feature score for diagnosing Influenza A was found to be 7, which yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of 86%, 88%, 64%, and 96%, respectively. Conclusion: The clinical features scoring system (CFSS can be used as a valid and cost-effective tool for screening swine flu (influenza A (H1N1 cases from large number of influenza-like illness suspects.

  2. Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment Short Form (PG-SGA SF) is a valid screening tool in chemotherapy outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jessica; Teleni, L; McKavanagh, D; Watson, J; McCarthy, A L; Isenring, E

    2016-09-01

    In the oncology population where malnutrition prevalence is high, more descriptive screening tools can provide further information to assist triaging and capture acute change. The Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment Short Form (PG-SGA SF) is a component of a nutritional assessment tool which could be used for descriptive nutrition screening. The purpose of this study was to conduct a secondary analysis of nutrition screening and assessment data to identify the most relevant information contributing to the PG-SGA SF to identify malnutrition risk with high sensitivity and specificity. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of 300 consecutive adult patients receiving ambulatory anti-cancer treatment at an Australian tertiary hospital. Anthropometric and patient descriptive data were collected. The scored PG-SGA generated a score for nutritional risk (PG-SGA SF) and a global rating for nutrition status. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were generated to determine optimal cut-off scores for combinations of the PG-SGA SF boxes with the greatest sensitivity and specificity for predicting malnutrition according to scored PG-SGA global rating. The additive scores of boxes 1-3 had the highest sensitivity (90.2 %) while maintaining satisfactory specificity (67.5 %) and demonstrating high diagnostic value (AUC = 0.85, 95 % CI = 0.81-0.89). The inclusion of box 4 (PG-SGA SF) did not add further value as a screening tool (AUC = 0.85, 95 % CI = 0.80-0.89; sensitivity 80.4 %; specificity 72.3 %). The validity of the PG-SGA SF in chemotherapy outpatients was confirmed. The present study however demonstrated that the functional capacity question (box 4) does not improve the overall discriminatory value of the PG-SGA SF.

  3. Tools to assess psychological trauma & its correlates in child sexual abuse: A review & current needs in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapathy, Sujata; Choudhary, Vandana; Sagar, Rajesh

    2017-02-01

    Absence of visible physical symptoms and limited capacity to express trauma directly, pose significant challenges in assessment of its exact nature of trauma and its correlates in child sexual abuse. There are numerous assessment tools however, deciding upon the appropriateness is often challenging in Asian socio-cultural and health care set up. A review would provide a ready reference to the practioner regarding the exact clinically utility of the tools and also would guide them in the direction of culture specific modifications. Computerized databases namely Medline, PsycINFO, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, and Social Sciences Citation Index were used. 52 scales were obtained and analysed in terms of scale characteristics, reference to theory and DSM, and cultural competency. Despite of a wide variety of methods, and newer instruments, many of the traditionally used techniques of child's internal thinking and emotional assessment appear outdated while reviewing the recent theories of CSA related psychological trauma. An integrated format, incroporating child-parent-clinicain rating, with multiple domain speciafic items and verbal and non-verbal tasks, is the current need in the Asian region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Screening tool to evaluate the vulnerability of down-gradient receptors to groundwater contaminants from uncapped landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Lopez, Anthony R.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Wengrowski, Edward W

    2015-01-01

    A screening tool for quantifying levels of concern for contaminants detected in monitoring wells on or near landfills to down-gradient receptors (streams, wetlands and residential lots) was developed and evaluated. The tool uses Quick Domenico Multi-scenario (QDM), a spreadsheet implementation of Domenico-based solute transport, to estimate concentrations of contaminants reaching receptors under steady-state conditions from a constant-strength source. Unlike most other available Domenico-based model applications, QDM calculates the time for down-gradient contaminant concentrations to approach steady state and appropriate dispersivity values, and allows for up to fifty simulations on a single spreadsheet. Sensitivity of QDM solutions to critical model parameters was quantified. The screening tool uses QDM results to categorize landfills as having high, moderate and low levels of concern, based on contaminant concentrations reaching receptors relative to regulatory concentrations. The application of this tool was demonstrated by assessing levels of concern (as defined by the New Jersey Pinelands Commission) for thirty closed, uncapped landfills in the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve, using historic water-quality data from monitoring wells on and near landfills and hydraulic parameters from regional flow models. Twelve of these landfills are categorized as having high levels of concern, indicating a need for further assessment. This tool is not a replacement for conventional numerically-based transport model or other available Domenico-based applications, but is suitable for quickly assessing the level of concern posed by a landfill or other contaminant point source before expensive and lengthy monitoring or remediation measures are taken. In addition to quantifying the level of concern using historic groundwater-monitoring data, the tool allows for archiving model scenarios and adding refinements as new data become available.

  5. Non-Invasive Screening Tools for Down’s Syndrome: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. Avent

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Down’s syndrome (DS is the most common genetic cause of developmental delay with an incidence of 1 in 800 live births, and is the predominant reason why women choose to undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis. However, as invasive tests are associated with around a 1% risk of miscarriage new non-invasive tests have been long sought after. Recently, the most promising approach for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD has been provided by the introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS technologies. The clinical application of NIPD for DS detection is not yet applicable, as large scale validation studies in low-risk pregnancies need to be completed. Currently, prenatal screening is still the first line test for the detection of fetal aneuploidy. Screening cannot diagnose DS, but developing a more advanced screening program can help to improve detection rates, and therefore reduce the number of women offered invasive tests. This article describes how the prenatal screening program has developed since the introduction of maternal age as the original “screening” test, and subsequently discusses recent advances in detecting new screening markers with reference to both proteomic and bioinformatic techniques.

  6. Non-Invasive Screening Tools for Down’s Syndrome: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillence, Kelly A.; Madgett, Tracey E.; Roberts, Llinos A.; Overton, Timothy G.; Avent, Neil D.

    2013-01-01

    Down’s syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of developmental delay with an incidence of 1 in 800 live births, and is the predominant reason why women choose to undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis. However, as invasive tests are associated with around a 1% risk of miscarriage new non-invasive tests have been long sought after. Recently, the most promising approach for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) has been provided by the introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. The clinical application of NIPD for DS detection is not yet applicable, as large scale validation studies in low-risk pregnancies need to be completed. Currently, prenatal screening is still the first line test for the detection of fetal aneuploidy. Screening cannot diagnose DS, but developing a more advanced screening program can help to improve detection rates, and therefore reduce the number of women offered invasive tests. This article describes how the prenatal screening program has developed since the introduction of maternal age as the original “screening” test, and subsequently discusses recent advances in detecting new screening markers with reference to both proteomic and bioinformatic techniques. PMID:26835682

  7. A Comparison of the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 Tool With the Subjective Global Assessment Tool to Detect Nutritional Status in Chinese Patients Undergoing Surgery With Gastrointestinal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Juntao; Yin, Shaohua; Zhu, Yongjian; Gao, Fengli; Song, Xinna; Song, Zhenlan; Lv, Junying; Li, Miaomiao

    The objectives of this study were to describe the nutritional status of Chinese patients with gastrointestinal cancer undergoing surgery and to compare the ease of use, diversity, and concordance of the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 with the Subjective Global Assessment in the same patients. A total of 280 gastrointestinal cancer patients admitted for elective surgery were evaluated by the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) tools within 48 hours of admission from April to October 2012. Related opinions about ease of using the tools were obtained from 10 nurses. The prevalence of patients at nutritional risk with the SGA and NRS 2002 was 33.9% and 53.2% on admission. In the total group, ≤70 age group, and >70 age group, respectively, consistency was observed in 214 (76.4%), 175 (91.1%), and 39 (44.3%); and kappa values were 0.54 (p 70 age group (p nutritional status of patients with gastrointestinal cancer undergoing surgery, but it appeared to detect more patients at nutritional risk in the >70 age group.

  8. High-throughput migration modelling for estimating exposure to chemicals in food packaging in screening and prioritization tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi S; Fantke, Peter; Huang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Specialty software and simplified models are often used to estimate migration of potentially toxic chemicals from packaging into food. Current models, however, are not suitable for emerging applications in decision-support tools, e.g. in Life Cycle Assessment and risk-based screening and prioriti...... to uncertainty and dramatically decreased model performance (R2 = 0.4, Se = 1). In all, this study provides a rapid migration modelling approach to estimate exposure to chemicals in food packaging for emerging screening and prioritization approaches.......Specialty software and simplified models are often used to estimate migration of potentially toxic chemicals from packaging into food. Current models, however, are not suitable for emerging applications in decision-support tools, e.g. in Life Cycle Assessment and risk-based screening...... and prioritization, which require rapid computation of accurate estimates for diverse scenarios. To fulfil this need, we develop an accurate and rapid (high-throughput) model that estimates the fraction of organic chemicals migrating from polymeric packaging materials into foods. Several hundred step...

  9. A downscaled practical measure of mood lability as a screening tool for bipolar II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Franco; Akiskal, Hagop S

    2005-02-01

    -II. Sensitivity and specificity of mood swings for predicting BPII were 62.9% and 62.7%, respectively. The low specificity of trait mood lability for BPII diagnosis is probably due to the fact that we used a downscaled simplified measure of this trait. On the other hand, the relatively high sensitivity of our downscaled measure of mood lability for predicting BPII supports its usefulness as a screening tool for this diagnosis. The lack of association between self-reported mood lability and number of major mood episodes indicates that such lability does not reflect the perception of history of frequent episodes, and that it has some validity as a trait indicator. Given that our sample excluded patients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for BPD, contradicts the opinion of the latter manual that such mood lability represents its pathognomonic characteristic that distinguishes it from BPII. The bipolar nature of mood lability is further supported by significant associations with external validating criteria for bipolarity. Overall, these data indicate that in the differential diagnosis between MDD and BPII, trait mood lability favors the latter at a significant statistical level.

  10. DemTect, PANDA, EASY, and MUSIC: cognitive screening tools with age correction and weighting of subtests according to their sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbe, Elke; Calabrese, Pasquale; Fengler, Sophie; Kessler, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Many cognitive screening instruments have been developed during the last decades to detect mild cognitive dysfunction and dementia, and there is an ongoing discussion as to which tool should be used in which setting and which challenges have to be considered. Among other aspects, dependence on age is a recognized problem in screening tools which still has not found its way into common scoring procedures. Another aspect which has been handled very heterogeneously is which domain is represented in which proportion in the total score. Furthermore, screening ethnic minority patients has been identified as an important but so far widely unresolved matter. In this review, four cognitive screening tools that all follow a common, stringent concept and pay regard to some critical aspects are described: the DemTect, a "generic" tool; the PANDA for Parkinson's disease patients; the EASY, a non-verbal, culture-fair screening test for patients with migration background; and the MUSIC for patients with multiple sclerosis. All of these screening instruments have an age-correction, provide a total score in which the different subtests are weighted according to their individual sensitivity and specificity, and include tasks that are specifically aligned to the cognitive profile of the target group, including the EASY with non-verbal, culture-fair tasks to overcome language and cultural barriers. The development, main characteristics, data, and limitations of these tools are presented and discussed against the background of the current landscape of cognitive screening tools.

  11. Informed choice about Down syndrome screening - effect of an eHealth tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Mette M; Draborg, Eva; Lamont, Ronald F

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an eHealth intervention (interactive website) on pregnant women's ability to make an informed choice about Down syndrome screening. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial with allocation...... screening. Exclusion criteria were: high risk of abortion, psycho-socially vulnerable women, late referral, inability to speak Danish and women declining to participate. The primary outcome was informed choice about Down syndrome screening. The Multidimensional Measure of Informed Choice was used to assess...... whether the choice was informed or uninformed. RESULTS: A total of 1150 participants were included in the study, of which 910 (79%) completed the questionnaire. Only a minority (30% of the women in the intervention group) actually used the website. There was no significant difference in the groups...

  12. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: not just a barium enema{exclamation_point} Radiographic manifestations and screening tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, L.; Jeon, P. [Health Sciences Center, Diagnostic Imaging, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)]. E-mail: u43dlb@mun.ca; Green, J. [Health Sciences Center, Discipline of Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)

    2007-10-15

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant trait characterized by presentation of colorectal cancer (CRC) at an early age and by an increased risk of other primary malignancies, including those of the endometrium. ovaries, stomach, small bowel, upper biliary tract, skin, and brain, as well as by transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) that especially involves the renal pelvis and ureter. Because specific genetic mutations causing HNPCC have been recently discovered, genetic screening options have been developed for some families. Subsequently, radiology has an increasing role in surveillance for and management of these HNPCC-associated tumours. Although colonoscopy is the mainstay of a screening regimen for colon cancer, the barium enema has been a standard radiologic investigation. Further, computed tomography (CT) colonography (now practised in various centres) will, with further refinement, prove to be of increasing value. Ultrasonography is a standard investigation for endometrial and ovarian cancer, with CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging often playing a central role. As for TCC, intravenous urography (IVU) had been a standard investigation tool. However, with continued evolution of multidetector row CT with postprocessing manipulation (CT urography [CTU]), the role of IVU is diminishing in most centres. Newfoundland has a high prevalence of HNPCC exhibiting a broad range of manifestations. In this article, radiologic images of various tumours from individuals with HNPCC demonstrate a radiologic spectrum of this fascinating hereditary disease. Screening implications and specific screening methods are reviewed. (author)

  13. A GIS-assisted regional screening tool to evaluate the leaching potential of volatile and non-volatile pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Seo Jin; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2015-03-01

    A regional screening tool-which is useful in cases where few site-specific parameters are available for complex vadose zone models-assesses the leaching potential of pollutants to groundwater over large areas. In this study, the previous pesticide leaching tool used in Hawaii was revised to account for the release of new volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the soil surface. The tool was modified to introduce expanded terms in the traditional pesticide ranking indices (i.e., retardation and attenuation factors), allowing the estimation of the leaching fraction of volatile chemicals based on recharge, soil, and chemical properties to be updated. Results showed that the previous tool significantly overestimated the mass fraction of VOCs leached through soils as the recharge rates increased above 0.001801 m/d. In contrast, the revised tool successfully delineated vulnerable areas to the selected VOCs based on two reference chemicals, a known leacher and non-leacher, which were determined in local conditions. The sensitivity analysis with the Latin-Hypercube-One-factor-At-a-Time method revealed that the new leaching tool was most sensitive to changes in the soil organic carbon sorption coefficient, fractional organic carbon content, and Henry's law constant; and least sensitive to parameters such as the bulk density, water content at field capacity, and particle density in soils. When the revised tool was compared to the analytical (STANMOD) and numerical (HYDRUS-1D) models as a susceptibility measure, it ranked particular VOCs well (e.g., benzene, carbofuran, and toluene) that were consistent with other two models under the given conditions. Therefore, the new leaching tool can be widely used to address intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to contamination of pesticides and VOCs, along with the DRASTIC method or similar Tier 1 models such as SCI-GROW and WIN-PST.

  14. Screening for Psychosocial Risk in Dutch Families of a Child With Cancer: Reliability, Validity, and Usability of the Psychosocial Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sint Nicolaas, Simone M; Schepers, Sasja A; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M; Caron, Huib N; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Verhaak, Chris M

    2016-08-01

    The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) was developed to screen for psychosocial risk in families of a child diagnosed with cancer. The current study is the first describing the cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, validity, and usability of the PAT in an European country (Dutch translation). A total of 117 families (response rate 59%) of newly diagnosed children with cancer completed the PAT2.0 and validation measures. Acceptable reliability was obtained for the PAT total score (α = .72) and majority of subscales (0.50-0.82). Two subscales showed inadequate internal consistency (Social Support α = .19; Family Beliefs α = .20). Validity and usability were adequate. Of the families, 66% scored low (Universal), 29% medium (Targeted), and 5% high (Clinical) risk. This study confirms the cross-cultural applicability, reliability, and validity of the PAT total score. Reliability left room for improvement on subscale level. Future research should indicate whether the PAT can be used to provide cost-effective care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A Comparison of Screening Tools for the Early Detection of Peripheral Neuropathy in Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Brown

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Examine the effectiveness of the 128 Hz tuning fork, two monofilaments, and Norfolk Quality of Life Diabetic Neuropathy (QOL-DN questionnaire as tools for the early detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN in overweight, obese, and inactive (OOI adults or those who have prediabetes (PD or type 2 diabetes (T2D. Research Design and Methods. Thirty-four adults (mean age 58.4 years ± 12.1 were divided by glycemia (10 OOI normoglycemic, 13 PD, and 11 T2D. Sural nerves were tested bilaterally with the NC-stat DPNCheck to determine sural nerve amplitude potential (SNAP and sural nerve conduction velocity (SNCV. All other testing results were compared to SNAP and SNCV. Results. Total 1 g monofilament scores significantly correlated with SNAP values and yielded the highest sensitivity and specificity combinations of tested measures. Total QOL-DN scores negatively correlated with SNAP values, as did QOL-DN symptoms. QOL-DN activities of daily living correlated with the right SNAP, and the QOL-DN small fiber subscore correlated with SNCV. Conclusions. The 1 g monofilament and total QOL-DN are effective, low-cost tools for the early detection of DPN in OOI, PD, and T2D adults. The 128 Hz tuning fork and 10 g monofilament may assist DPN screening as a tandem, but not primary, early DPN detection screening tools.

  16. Making and Executing Decisions for Safe and Independent Living (MED-SAIL): development and validation of a brief screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Whitney L; Regev, Tziona; Kunik, Mark E; Wilson, Nancy L; Moye, Jennifer; McCullough, Laurence B; Naik, Aanand D

    2014-03-01

    Older adults prefer to remain in their own homes for as long as possible. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and preliminary validation of Making and Executing Decisions for Safe and Independent Living (MED-SAIL), a brief screening tool for capacity to live safely and independently in the community. Prospective preliminary validation study. Outpatient geriatrics clinic located in a community-based hospital. Forty-nine community-dwelling older adults referred to the clinic for a comprehensive capacity assessment. We examined internal consistency, criterion-based validity, concurrent validity, and accuracy of classification for MED-SAIL. The items included in MED-SAIL demonstrated internal consistency (5 items; α = 0.85). MED-SAIL was significantly correlated with the Independent Living Scales (r = 0.573, p ≤0.001) and instrumental activities of daily living (r = 0.440, p ≤0.01). The Mann-Whitney U test revealed significant differences between the no capacity and partial/full capacity classifications on MED-SAIL (U(48) = 60.5, Z = -0.38, p MED-SAIL as a brief screening tool to identify older adults with impaired capacity for remaining safe and independent in their current living environment. MED-SAIL is useful tool for health and social service providers in the community for the purpose of referral for definitive capacity evaluation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL SCREENING AND RANKING APPROACHES: THE WASTE MINIMIZATION PRIORITIZATION TOOL VERSUS TOXIC EQUIVALENCY POTENTIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical screening in the United States is often conducted using scoring and ranking methodologies. Linked models accounting for chemical fate, exposure, and toxicological effects are generally preferred in Europe and in product Life Cycle Assessment. For the first time, a compar...

  18. MNA® Mini Nutritional Assessment as a nutritional screening tool for hospitalized older adults; rationales and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, I; Olivar, J; Martínez, E; Rico, A; Díaz, J; Gimena, M

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence of malnutrition in the growing population of older adults makes malnutrition screening critical, especially in hospitalized elderly patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of the MNA® Mini Nutritional Assessment in hospitalized older adults for rapid evaluation of nutritional risk. A prospective cohort study was made of 106 patients 65 years old or older admitted to an internal medicine ward of a tertiary-care teaching hospital to evaluate the use of the short form, or screening phase, of the MNA-SF. In the first 48 hours of admission, the full MNA questionnaire was administered and laboratory tests and a dermatologic evaluation were made. The MNA score showed that 77% of the patients were at risk of malnutrition or were frankly malnourished. Low blood levels of albumin, cholesterol and vitamins A and D showed a statistically significant association with malnutrition or risk of malnutrition. Separate evaluation of the MNA-SF showed that it was accurate, sensitive and had predictive value for the screening process. Routine use of the MNA-SF questionnaire by admission nurses to screen patients is recommended. Patients with MNA-SF scores of 11 or lower should be specifically assessed by the nutritional intervention team.

  19. Microfluidic platform for bilayer experimentation: from a research tool towards drug screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulze Greiving-Stimberg, Verena Carolin

    2014-01-01

    Ion channels, which are located in the membranes of cells, are responsible for a number of physiological processes. Mutations in genes encoding ion channels resulting in alteration of their function can be associated with diseases, which makes them attractive targets for drug screening. In this

  20. Pap screening as preventive tool against cervical cancer: a report of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of cervical cancer in the developed countries has significantly reduced as a result of well-organized and coordinated Pap screening program, which is aimed at detection of pre-invasive lesions that are then promptly treated. We report a 45-year old woman whose immediate elder sister had breast carcinoma, ...

  1. Psychiatric screening and interventions for minor refugees in Europe: an overview of approaches and tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, Annerieke; Hein, Irma

    2018-01-01

    Currently hundreds of thousands of minor refugees entered Europe. This group has been exposed to traumatic events pre-, during, and post-migration and is at increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders. In this article, we describe the results of our literature search on screening and

  2. Tree Coring as an initial screening tool for typical pollutants in the subsurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Trapp, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Previous guidelines report that tree coring is more or less useful for a variety of VOCs, such as BTEX, MTBE, trimethyl benzene, and chlorinated solvents (PCE, TCE, DCE, VC). This new guideline goes beyond the previous guidelines by including the use of a technique to screen for heavy metals, plus...

  3. Use of Compact Digital Cervicography: An Adjuvant Screening Tool for Precancerous Cervical Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zip-Pon Chen

    2008-06-01

    Conclusion: The use of compact digital cervicography with the RCI scoring system is a significant device for screening abnormal Pap cases. It helps to improve patient care. Further research is required to understand the discrepancies among diagnostic results of Pap smears (the Bethesda system, cervicography with RCI, and histopathology. [Taiwan J Obstet Cynecol 2008;47(2:187-191

  4. Computer Vision Tool and Technician as First Reader of Lung Cancer Screening CT Scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritchie, A.J.; Sanghera, C.; Jacobs, C.; Zhang, W.; Mayo, J.; Schmidt, H.; Gingras, M.; Pasian, S.; Stewart, L.; Tsai, S.; Manos, D.; Seely, J.M.; Burrowes, P.; Bhatia, R.; Atkar-Khattra, S.; Ginneken, B. van; Tammemagi, M.; Tsao, M.S.; Lam, S.

    2016-01-01

    To implement a cost-effective low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening program at the population level, accurate and efficient interpretation of a large volume of LDCT scans is needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate a workflow strategy to identify abnormal LDCT scans in

  5. The Identification of Seniors at Risk screening tool is useful for predicting acute readmissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosted, Elizabeth; Schultz, Martin; Dynesen, Helle

    2014-01-01

    . Patients ≥ 65 years treated during a 14-day period were included. Their mean age was 78 years. Screening with the Identification of Seniors at Risk (ISAR) was performed (n = 198) by the Mobile Geriatric Team (MGT). The patients' medical journals were assessed retrospectively by the SG to determine any need...

  6. The computerized adaptive diagnostic test for major depressive disorder (CAD-MDD): a screening tool for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Robert D; Hooker, Giles; Finkelman, Matthew D; Weiss, David J; Pilkonis, Paul A; Frank, Ellen; Moore, Tara; Kupfer, David J

    2013-07-01

    To develop a computerized adaptive diagnostic screening tool for depression that decreases patient and clinician burden and increases sensitivity and specificity for clinician-based DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD). 656 individuals with and without minor and major depression were recruited from a psychiatric clinic and a community mental health center and through public announcements (controls without depression). The focus of the study was the development of the Computerized Adaptive Diagnostic Test for Major Depressive Disorder (CAD-MDD) diagnostic screening tool based on a decision-theoretical approach (random forests and decision trees). The item bank consisted of 88 depression scale items drawn from 73 depression measures. Sensitivity and specificity for predicting clinician-based Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders diagnoses of MDD were the primary outcomes. Diagnostic screening accuracy was then compared to that of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). An average of 4 items per participant was required (maximum of 6 items). Overall sensitivity and specificity were 0.95 and 0.87, respectively. For the PHQ-9, sensitivity was 0.70 and specificity was 0.91. High sensitivity and reasonable specificity for a clinician-based DSM-IV diagnosis of depression can be obtained using an average of 4 adaptively administered self-report items in less than 1 minute. Relative to the currently used PHQ-9, the CAD-MDD dramatically increased sensitivity while maintaining similar specificity. As such, the CAD-MDD will identify more true positives (lower false-negative rate) than the PHQ-9 using half the number of items. Inexpensive (relative to clinical assessment), efficient, and accurate screening of depression in the settings of primary care, psychiatric epidemiology, molecular genetics, and global health are all direct applications of the current system. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  7. Assessment of risk factors and test performance on malnutrition prevalence at admission using four different screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Josefina; Ayala, Luis; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Muñiz, Ma José; Gamundí, Antoni; Martínez-Indart, Lorea; Masmiquel L, Lluis

    2014-03-01

    Malnutrition is very common in patients when admitted to the hospital. The aim of the present study was: a) to determine the prevalence of malnutrition at admission in a tertiary care hospital and identify risk factors for malnutrition, and b) to test the sensitivity and specificity of different screening tests for malnutrition compared to subjective global assessment (SGA). We conducted a prospective study at 24h of admission in order to assess malnutrition in 537 adult subjects (56.4% males, mean age of 61.3±17.7 years) using 4 different screening tools: mininutritional assessment short form (MNA-SF), nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS2002), malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST), and SGA. Anthropometrics and co-morbidities were registered. The overall rate of undernutrition was 47.3%. Specific rates were 54.2% in patients > 65y vs. 40.7% malnutrition at admission were: the presence of heart disease (OR 1.74 CI 95% 1.16-2.60 p = 0.007) for MNASF (AUC 0.62); liver disease (OR 4.45 CI 95% 1.9410.22 p 65y (OR 2.10 CI 95% 1.19-3.93 p = 0.011), medicine department (OR 3.58 CI 95% 1.93-6.62 p < 0.001) for SGA (AUC 0.96); lung disease (OR 3.34 CI 95% 1.45-7.73 p = 0.005), medicine department (OR 2.55 CI 95%1.09-5.98 p = 0.032) for NRS 2002 (AUC 0.97). Recent unintentional weight loss was a common factor. Undernourishment at hospital admission is frequent. Comorbidities may contribute to the presence of undernutrition at admission. Nonetheless, SGA, NRS2002, MNA-SF or MUST can be used in our setting. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Facilitating high resolution mass spectrometry data processing for screening of environmental water samples: An evaluation of two deconvolution tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bade, Richard [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellón (Spain); Causanilles, Ana; Emke, Erik [KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Chemical Water Quality and Health, P.O. Box 1072, 3430 BB Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V.; Hernandez, Felix [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellón (Spain); Voogt, Pim de, E-mail: w.p.devoogt@uva.nl [KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Chemical Water Quality and Health, P.O. Box 1072, 3430 BB Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94248, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-11-01

    A screening approach was applied to influent and effluent wastewater samples. After injection in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap, data analysis was performed using two deconvolution tools, MsXelerator (modules MPeaks and MS Compare) and Sieve 2.1. The outputs were searched incorporating an in-house database of > 200 pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs or ChemSpider. This hidden target screening approach led to the detection of numerous compounds including the illicit drug cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine and the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, gemfibrozil and losartan. The compounds found using both approaches were combined, and isotopic pattern and retention time prediction were used to filter out false positives. The remaining potential positives were reanalysed in MS/MS mode and their product ions were compared with literature and/or mass spectral libraries. The inclusion of the chemical database ChemSpider led to the tentative identification of several metabolites, including paraxanthine, theobromine, theophylline and carboxylosartan, as well as the pharmaceutical phenazone. The first three of these compounds are isomers and they were subsequently distinguished based on their product ions and predicted retention times. This work has shown that the use deconvolution tools facilitates non-target screening and enables the identification of a higher number of compounds. - Highlights: • A hidden target non-target screening method is utilised using two databases • Two software (MsXelerator and Sieve 2.1) used for both methods • 22 compounds tentatively identified following MS/MS reinjection • More information gleaned from this combined approach than individually.

  9. Molecular Markers of Diabetic Retinopathy: Potential Screening Tool of the Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyia ePusparajah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is among the leading causes of new onset blindness in adults. Effective treatment may delay the onset and progression of this disease provided it is diagnosed early. At present retinopathy can only be diagnosed via formal examination of the eye by a trained specialist, which limits the population that can be effectively screened. An easily accessible, reliable screening biomarker of diabetic retinopathy would be of tremendous benefit in detecting the population in need of further assessment and treatment. This review highlights specific biomarkers that show promise as screening markers to detect early diabetic retinopathy or even to detect patients at increased risk of DR at the time of diagnosis of diabetes. The pathobiology of DR is complex and multifactorial giving rise to a wide array of potential biomarkers. This review provides an overview of these pathways and looks at older markers such as advanced glycation end products(AGEs, inflammatory markers, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF as well as other newer proteins with a role in the pathogenesis of DR including neuroprotective factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor (PEDF; SA100A12, pentraxin 3, brain natriuretic peptide, apelin 3 and chemerin as well as various metabolites such as lipoprotein A, folate and homocysteine. We also consider the possible role of proteins identified through proteomics work whose levels are altered in the sera of patients with DR as screening markers though their role in pathophysiology remains to be characterized. The role of microRNA as a promising new screening marker is also discussed.

  10. US EPA Office of Research and Development Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) Air web mapping service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays all air-related layers used in the USEPA Community/Tribal-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C/T-FERST) mapping application...

  11. US EPA Office of Research and Development Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) Air Pollutants 2011 web mapping service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays all air-related layers used in the USEPA Community/Tribal-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C/T-FERST) mapping application...

  12. A Quality Improvement Project: Using the STOP-BANG Tool in a Military Population to Improve Equity in Preoperative Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Samuel E; Haas, Shelia A; Klopp, Audrey; Carlson, Judy

    2016-10-01

    The lack of a preoperative screening tool to detect obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may lead to an increase in postoperative complications. The aim of the study was to implement a prescreening tool to identify diagnosed or undiagnosed OSA before a surgical procedure. The study was conducted in the surgical admission center and postanesthesia care unit at a military treatment facility in Hawaii. Participants of the study included military personnel, military family members, veterans, and veteran beneficiaries. The STOP-BANG (snore/tired/obstruction/pressure-body mass index/age/neck/gender) tool was used between April and June 2013 to identify and stratify 1,625 patients into low-risk, intermediate-risk, high-risk, and known OSA categories. The STOP-BANG tool confirmed the diagnosed OSA rate to be 13.48%, and increased at-risk OSA detection by 24.69%. Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were more frequently found to be at risk with known OSA, likely to have complications, and be transferred to PACU 23-hour extended stay compared to other races and intermediate-risk and high-risk categories. The STOP-BANG tool identified and stratified surgical patients at risk for OSA and standardized OSA assessments. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Experience and psychological impact of anal cancer screening in gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, S; Mccaffery, K; Ellard, J; Poynten, M; Prestage, G; Templeton, D J; Hillman, R; Law, C; Grulich, A E

    2018-01-01

    Human papillomavirus-related anal cancer rates are increasing and are particularly high in gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM/MSM), especially HIV-positive individuals. Although screening programs for high-risk populations have been advocated, concerns about possible adverse psychological consequences exist. This study aimed to investigate GBM/MSM's experience, understanding and emotional response to screening techniques for anal cancer to determine how best to minimise psychological distress in future programs. In-depth qualitative face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 GBM/MSM participating in the "Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer" in Sydney, Australia, between June 2013 and June 2014. Nonrandom, purposive sampling was used to ensure heterogeneity with respect to HIV status and screening test results. Framework analysis method was used to organise the data and identify emerging themes. Knowledge about anal cancer, human papillomavirus and the link between them was limited. Abnormal screening results affected participants' sense of well-being and were associated with anxiety and concern about developing anal cancer. HIV-negative men receiving abnormal results showed higher levels of distress compared to their HIV-positive counterparts. Consultations with general practitioners about abnormal results had an important role in increasing participants' understanding and in moderating their anxiety. Anal cancer screening should be accompanied by health education around anal cancer, its aetiology and the meaning of associated test results. Simple and effective communication strategies should be encouraged. Collaboration with general practitioners could assist the process of education and reporting test results. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  15. Computational challenges and human factors influencing the design and use of clinical research participant eligibility pre-screening tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pressler Taylor R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials are the primary mechanism for advancing clinical care and evidenced-based practice, yet challenges with the recruitment of participants for such trials are widely recognized as a major barrier to these types of studies. Data warehouses (DW store large amounts of heterogenous clinical data that can be used to enhance recruitment practices, but multiple challenges exist when using a data warehouse for such activities, due to the manner of collection, management, integration, analysis, and dissemination of the data. A critical step in leveraging the DW for recruitment purposes is being able to match trial eligibility criteria to discrete and semi-structured data types in the data warehouse, though trial eligibility criteria tend to be written without concern for their computability. We present the multi-modal evaluation of a web-based tool that can be used for pre-screening patients for clinical trial eligibility and assess the ability of this tool to be practically used for clinical research pre-screening and recruitment. Methods The study used a validation study, usability testing, and a heuristic evaluation to evaluate and characterize the operational characteristics of the software as well as human factors affecting its use. Results Clinical trials from the Division of Cardiology and the Department of Family Medicine were used for this multi-modal evaluation, which included a validation study, usability study, and a heuristic evaluation. From the results of the validation study, the software demonstrated a positive predictive value (PPV of 54.12% and 0.7%, respectively, and a negative predictive value (NPV of 73.3% and 87.5%, respectively, for two types of clinical trials. Heuristic principles concerning error prevention and documentation were characterized as the major usability issues during the heuristic evaluation. Conclusions This software is intended to provide an initial list of eligible patients to a

  16. Computational challenges and human factors influencing the design and use of clinical research participant eligibility pre-screening tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical trials are the primary mechanism for advancing clinical care and evidenced-based practice, yet challenges with the recruitment of participants for such trials are widely recognized as a major barrier to these types of studies. Data warehouses (DW) store large amounts of heterogenous clinical data that can be used to enhance recruitment practices, but multiple challenges exist when using a data warehouse for such activities, due to the manner of collection, management, integration, analysis, and dissemination of the data. A critical step in leveraging the DW for recruitment purposes is being able to match trial eligibility criteria to discrete and semi-structured data types in the data warehouse, though trial eligibility criteria tend to be written without concern for their computability. We present the multi-modal evaluation of a web-based tool that can be used for pre-screening patients for clinical trial eligibility and assess the ability of this tool to be practically used for clinical research pre-screening and recruitment. Methods The study used a validation study, usability testing, and a heuristic evaluation to evaluate and characterize the operational characteristics of the software as well as human factors affecting its use. Results Clinical trials from the Division of Cardiology and the Department of Family Medicine were used for this multi-modal evaluation, which included a validation study, usability study, and a heuristic evaluation. From the results of the validation study, the software demonstrated a positive predictive value (PPV) of 54.12% and 0.7%, respectively, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 73.3% and 87.5%, respectively, for two types of clinical trials. Heuristic principles concerning error prevention and documentation were characterized as the major usability issues during the heuristic evaluation. Conclusions This software is intended to provide an initial list of eligible patients to a clinical study

  17. Risk stratification for surgical outcomes in older colorectal cancer patients using ISAR-HP and G8 screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souwer, Esteban T D; Verweij, Norbert M; van den Bos, Frederiek; Bastiaannet, Esther; Slangen, Rob M E; Steup, Willem H; Hamaker, Marije E; Portielje, Johanna E A

    2017-11-09

    Older patients are at risk for adverse outcomes after surgical treatment of cancer. Identifying patients at risk could affect treatment decisions and prevent functional decline. Screening tools are available to select patients for Geriatric Assessment. Until now their predictive value for adverse outcomes in older colorectal cancer patients has not been investigated. To study the predictive value of the Geriatric 8 (G8) and Identification of Seniors at Risk for Hospitalized Patients (ISAR-HP) screening tools for adverse outcomes after elective colorectal surgery in patients older than 70years. Primary outcomes were 30-day complication rates, secondary outcomes were the length of hospital stay and six-month mortality. Multicentre cohort study from two hospitals in the Netherlands. Frail was defined as a G8 ≤14 and/or ISAR-HP ≥2. Odds ratio (OR) is given with 95% CI. Overall, 139 patients (52%) out of 268 patients were included; 32 patients (23%) were ISAR-HP-frail, 68 (50%) were G8-frail, 20 were frail on both screening tools. Median age was 77.7years. ISAR-HP frail patients were at risk for 30-day complications OR 2.4 (CI 1.1-5.4, p=0.03), readmission OR 3.4 (1.1-11.0), cardiopulmonary complications OR 5.9 (1.6-22.6), longer hospital stay (10.3 versus 8.9day) and six-months mortality OR 4.9 (1.1-23.4). When ISAR-HP and G8 were combined OR increased for readmission, 30-day and six-months mortality. G8 alone had no predictive value. ISAR-HP-frail patients are at risk for adverse outcomes after colorectal surgery. ISAR-HP combined with G8 has the strongest predictive value for complications and mortality. Patients screening frail on ISAR-HP are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality. Screening results of G8 alone was not predictive for postoperative outcomes. Predictive value increased when G8 and ISAR-HP were combined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a Brief Pre-Implementation Screening Tool to Identify Teachers Who Are at Risk for Not Implementing Intervention Curriculum and High-Implementing Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Lunn, Sonja; Patel, Pooja; Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette

    2017-01-01

    Few questionnaires have been developed to screen for potentially poor implementers of school-based interventions. This study combines teacher characteristics, perceptions, and teaching/training experiences to develop a short screening tool that can identify potential "low-performing" or "high-performing" teachers…

  19. The utility of screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED) as a tool for identifying children at high risk for prevalent anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, P.; Merckelbach, H.; Kindt, M.; Bögels, S.; Dreessen, L.; van Dorp, C.; Habets, A.; Rosmuller, S.; Snieder, N.

    2001-01-01

    The current study examined the utility of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) as a screening tool for the identification of children at high risk for prevalent childhood anxiety disorders. The child version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (KSCID) was used

  20. Polypharmacy Reduction Strategies: Tips on Incorporating American Geriatrics Society Beers and Screening Tool of Older People's Prescriptions Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Hedva Barenholtz

    2017-05-01

    There is no single definition of polypharmacy. Use of 5 or more medications commonly is used. An alternative, quantitative definition, such as use of more medications than clinically indicated or use of unnecessary or harmful prescribing, has been proposed. Protocols or algorithms to improve polypharmacy and prescribing in older adults have been developed. The American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Beers Criteria and Screening Tool of Older People's Prescriptions (STOPP) explicit criteria reflect elements that are common across protocols and algorithms. Concepts in AGS Beers and STOPP can be incorporated into polypharmacy reduction strategies to improve outcomes of care for older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensitivity and specificity of a two-question screening tool for depression in a specialist palliative care unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Payne, Ann

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective in this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a two-item screening interview for depression versus the formal psychiatric interview, in the setting of a specialist palliative in-patient unit so that we may identify those individuals suffering from depressive disorder and therefore optimise their management in this often-complex population. METHODS: A prospective sample of consecutive admissions (n = 167) consented to partake in the study, and the screening interview was asked separately to the formal psychiatric interview. RESULTS: The two-item questionnaire, achieved a sensitivity of 90.7% (95% CI 76.9-97.0) but a lower specificity of 67.7% (95% CI 58.7-75.7). The false positive rate was 32.3% (95% CI 24.3-41.3), but the false negative rate was found to be a low 9.3% (95% CI 3.0-23.1). A subgroup analysis of individuals with a past experience of depressive illness, (n = 95), revealed that a significant number screened positive for depression by the screening test, 55.2% (16\\/29) compared to those with no background history of depression, 33.3% (22\\/66) (P = 0.045). CONCLUSION: The high sensitivity and low false negative rate of the two-question screening tool will aid health professionals in identifying depression in the in-patient specialist palliative care unit. Individuals, who admit to a previous experience of depressive illness, are more likely to respond positively to the two-item questionnaire than those who report no prior history of depressive illness (P = 0.045).

  2. Psychological Morbidity in Students of Medical College and Science and Art College Students - A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Mahawar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of quality of life in medical students we have conducted a cross sectional & descriptive study on screening of mental illness of 60 medical students of prefinal year and comparing it with 60 students of third year of Science and Art College. Students were selected via random sampling. GHQ-12 was used as a screening tool and after obtaining scores students were graded in 3 categories - individuals screened positive for psychological morbidity were of Grades 2 and 3 and individuals screened negative for psychological morbidity were of Grade 1 and they were compared according to college, gender & residence. Students screened positive for psychological morbidity as per GHQ-12 were found higher in medical college (87% as compared to Science and Art College (45% and a statistically significant association was found between psychological morbidity and medical students. Psychological morbidity was not significantly associated with residence and gender.

  3. Malnutrition in hospital outpatients and inpatients: prevalence, concurrent validity and ease of use of the 'malnutrition universal screening tool' ('MUST') for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Rebecca J; Hackston, Annemarie; Longmore, David; Dixon, Rod; Price, Sarah; Stroud, Mike; King, Claire; Elia, Marinos

    2004-11-01

    The 'malnutrition universal screening tool' ('MUST') for adults has been developed for all health care settings and patient groups, but ease of use and agreement with other published tools when screening to identify malnutrition requires investigation. The present study assessed the agreement and the prevalence of malnutrition risk between 'MUST' and a variety of other tools in the same patients and compared the ease of using these tools. Groups of patients were consecutively screened using 'MUST' and: (1) MEREC Bulletin (MEREC) and Hickson and Hill (HH) tools (fifty gastroenterology outpatients); (2) nutrition risk score (NRS) and malnutrition screening tool (MST; seventy-five medical inpatients); (3) short-form mini nutritional assessment (MNA-tool; eighty-six elderly and eighty-five surgical inpatients); (4) subjective global assessment (SGA; fifty medical inpatients); (5) Doyle undernutrition risk score (URS; fifty-two surgical inpatients). Using 'MUST', the prevalence of malnutrition risk ranged from 19-60% in inpatients and 30% in outpatients. 'MUST' had 'excellent' agreement (kappa 0.775-0.893) with MEREC, NRS and SGA tools, 'fair-good' agreement (kappa 0.551-0.711) with HH, MST and MNA-tool tools and 'poor' agreement with the URS tool (kappa 0.255). When categorisation of malnutrition risk differed between tools, it did not do so systematically, except between 'MUST' and MNA-tool (P=0.0005) and URS (P=0.039). 'MUST' and MST were the easiest, quickest tools to complete (3-5 min). The present investigation suggested a high prevalence of malnutrition in hospital inpatients and outpatients (19-60% with 'MUST') and 'fair-good' to 'excellent' agreement beyond chance between 'MUST' and most other tools studied. 'MUST' was quick and easy to use in these patient groups.

  4. The development of a screening tool for the early identification of risk for suicidal behavior among students in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vawda, Naseema B M; Milburn, Norweeta G; Steyn, Renier; Zhang, Muyu

    2017-05-01

    Adolescent suicidal behavior is a public health concern in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to report on the development of a screening tool for teachers to identify South African students who are most at risk for suicidal behavior. This need is addressed within the context of the limited number of mental health professionals available to provide screening and care services in South Africa. Grade 8 students participated by completing sociodemographic questionnaires and self-report psychometric instruments. A screening tool for suicidal behavior was developed using a 4-phase approach. Twelve factors for high-risk suicidal behavior were identified and included in the screening tool. While further research is needed to validate the screening tool, the findings provide a useful preliminary starting point for teachers to refer students at high risk for suicidal behavior to mental health services for treatment. This screening tool is based on factors that were identified as being associated with suicidal behavior from local research on South African adolescents. The tool contributes to research on adolescent mental health, particularly suicidal behavior, in developing low and middle income countries like South Africa, with the aim of creating African prevention and intervention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Ferramentas para uma psicologia social Herramientas para una psicología social Tools for a type of social psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Diehl

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este texto se propõe apresentar e discutir ferramentas de intervenção para o trabalho do psicólogo social engendradas em um espaço de intervenção e supervisão em estágio acadêmico de Psicologia Social. Para isso, busca problematizar a política e a ética das ações dessa psicologia, considerando sua constituição dentro de um contexto histórico e político, além de relacioná-las com as ferramentas elaboradas na prática e no espaço de supervisão. O escrever, o olhar e o percorrer são as ferramentas discutidas neste artigo, as quais se apresentam como constitutivas de uma posição autoral perante os desafios encontrados na experiência do estágio, através da assunção das condições políticas e éticas que possibilitam tal lugar.Este texto propone presentar y discutir herramientas de intervención para el trabajo del psicólogo social engendradas en un espacio de intervención y supervisión en práctica académica de Psicología Social. Para eso, busca problematizar la política y la ética de las acciones de esa psicología, considerando su constitución dentro de un contexto histórico y político, además de relacionarlas a las herramientas elaboradas en la práctica y en el espacio de supervisión. El escribir, el mirar y el recorrer son las herramientas discutidas en este artículo, las cuales se presentan como constitutivas de una posición relativa al autor ante los desafíos encontrados en la práctica, a través de la premisa que las condiciones políticas y éticas hacen eso posible.This paper presents and discusses intervention tools for working as a social psychologist, which are engendered in a space of intervention and supervision, in Social Psychology training or internships. Bearing that in mind, it raises questions on the policies and ethics of the actions concerning such psychology, considering its constitution within a historical and political context, besides relating them with the tools elaborated in

  6. Nanotechnology: A Tool for Improved Performance on Electrochemical Screen-Printed (BioSensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Jubete

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Screen-printing technology is a low-cost process, widely used in electronics production, especially in the fabrication of disposable electrodes for (biosensor applications. The pastes used for deposition of the successive layers are based on a polymeric binder with metallic dispersions or graphite, and can also contain functional materials such as cofactors, stabilizers and mediators. More recently metal nanoparticles, nanowires and carbon nanotubes have also been included either in these pastes or as a later stage on the working electrode. This review will summarize the use of nanomaterials to improve the electrochemical sensing capability of screen-printed sensors. It will cover mainly disposable sensors and biosensors for biomedical interest and toxicity monitoring, compiling recent examples where several types of metallic and carbon-based nanostructures are responsible for enhancing the performance of these devices.

  7. Fluorescence-based assay as a new screening tool for toxic chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczko, Ewa; Mirkes, Evgeny M.; Cáceres, César; Gorban, Alexander N.; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    Our study involves development of fluorescent cell-based diagnostic assay as a new approach in high-throughput screening method. This highly sensitive optical assay operates similarly to e-noses and e-tongues which combine semi-specific sensors and multivariate data analysis for monitoring biochemical processes. The optical assay consists of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Using chemometric techniques the optical signal is processed providing qualitative information about analytical characteristics of the samples. This integrated approach has been successfully applied (with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%) in assessing whether particular chemical agents are irritating or not for human skin. It has several advantages compared with traditional biochemical or biological assays and can impact the new way of high-throughput screening and understanding cell activity. It also can provide reliable and reproducible method for assessing a risk of exposing people to different harmful substances, identification active compounds in toxicity screening and safety assessment of drugs, cosmetic or their specific ingredients.

  8. A Query Tool for Investigator Access to the Data and Images of the National Lung Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commean, Paul K; Rathmell, Joshua M; Clark, Ken W; Maffitt, Dave R; Prior, Fred W

    2015-08-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), in conjunction with blinded university, provides a mechanism to enable public access to the study data, CT radiology images, and pathology images from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). Access to the data and images is through the NCI-sponsored, blinded university-hosted The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA), a repository of more than 40 study collections of cancer images. Once access to the NLST data has been granted by NCI, a Query Tool within TCIA is used to access the NLST data and images. The Query Tool is a simple-to-use menu-driven database application designed to quickly pose queries and retrieve/save results (from 53,452 NLST participants), download CT images (~20 million available), and view pathology images (~1200 available). NLST study data are contained in 17 Query Tool tables with ~370 variables to query. This paper describes Query Tool design, functionality, and usefulness for researchers, clinicians, and software developers to query data, save query results, and download/view images.

  9. Pubertal development and screen time among South Korean adolescents: testing body mass index and psychological well-being as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Young; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    This study tested links between pubertal development and screen time among South Korean adolescent boys and girls. Secondary analysis was conducted on data from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Study (KCYPS) involving 2071 adolescents (age M = 13.14 years). Body mass index (BMI) at Grade 8 (baseline), self-esteem and depression at Grade 9 were examined as mediators of the relationship between pubertal development and screen time after adjusting for household income and academic performance. Structural equation modeling was used to assess direct and indirect pathways between pubertal development at Grade 8 and screen time at Grade 9. No direct effect of pubertal development on screen time was found. But, an indirect effect existed for boys from pubertal development to screen time through BMI. Earlier pubertal development predicted higher BMI, and in turn, higher BMI predicted more time spent in screen time. Among girls, pubertal development negatively predicted BMI; however, no mediation effect of BMI between pubertal development and screen time was observed. No mediation effect of self-esteem or depression was found among boys or girls. Pubertal development appears to have an indirect influence on screen time through BMI for South Korean boys. More studies examining potential pathways between pubertal development and sedentary behavior are needed to build on these findings.

  10. Utility of platelet function analyzer as a screening tool for the diagnosis of von Willebrand disease in adolescents with menorrhagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Swati; Teruya, Jun; Dietrich, Jennifer E; Jariwala, Purvi; Soundar, Esther; Venkateswaran, Lakshmi

    2013-07-01

    Von Willebrand disease (VWD), and in particular, VWD type 1 and low VW factor (defined as Von Willebrand Ristocetin cofactor activity (RCoF) menorrhagia and both groups benefit from similar management. Platelet function analyzer (PFA-100®) is often used as a screening test to detect VWD. We analyzed the utility of PFA-100® as a screening tool in the detection of VWD type 1 and low VW factor (VWF) in an exclusive adolescent population with menorrhagia. The study population consisted of adolescents with menorrhagia who had simultaneously drawn blood samples for VWD and PFA-100®. Abnormal PFA-100® was defined as values >183 seconds for collagen/epinephrine and/or >126 seconds for collagen/ADP. Of a total of 235 patients tested, 23 patients had RCoF menorrhagia. We conclude that in the setting of adolescent menorrhagia, PFA-100® does not have utility as an initial screening test for the diagnosis of VWD and in particular, low VWF and that clinicians need to be aware of this limitation of PFA-100® while evaluating adolescents with menorrhagia. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Evaluation of the Pediatric Symptom Checklist as a screening tool for the identification of emotional and psychosocial problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzolon, Sandra Regina B.; Cat, Mônica Nunes L.; dos Santos, Lúcia Helena C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the Brazilian version of Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) as a screening tool to identify psychosocial and emotional problems in schoolchildren from six to 12 years old. METHODS Diagnostic test conducted in a public school of Curitiba, Paraná (Southern Brazil), to evaluate the PSC accuracy and consistency, considering the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) as the gold standard. Among 415 parents invited for the study, 145 responded to both PSC and CBCL. The results of the two instruments were compared. PSC and CBCL were considered positive if scores ≥28 and >70 respectively. RESULTS Among the 145 cases, 49 (33.8%) were positive for both PSC and CBCL. The ROC curve showed the PSC score of 21 as the best cutoff point for screening psychosocial and emotional problems, with a sensitivity of 96.8% and a specificity of 86.7%. Regarding the reference cutoff (score ≥28 points), the sensitivity was 64.5% and the specificity, 100.0%, similar to those found in the original version of the tool. CONCLUSIONS The Portuguese version of PSC was effective for early identification of emotional and/or psychosocial problems in a schoolchildren group and may be useful for pediatricians. PMID:24142319

  12. Evaluation of the King-Devick test as a concussion screening tool in high school football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Daniel H; Burlingame, Jennifer; Yousif, Lina R; Donahue, Xinh P; Krier, Joshua; Rayes, Lydia J; Young, Rachel; Lilla, Muareen; Mazurek, Rochelle; Hittle, Kristie; McCloskey, Charles; Misra, Saroj; Shaw, Michael K

    2015-09-15

    Concussion is the most common type of traumatic brain injury, and results from impact or impulsive forces to the head, neck or face. Due to the variability and subtlety of symptoms, concussions may go unrecognized or be ignored, especially with the pressure placed on athletes to return to competition. The King-Devick (KD) test, an oculomotor test originally designed for reading evaluation, was recently validated as a concussion screening tool in collegiate athletes. A prospective study was performed using high school football players in an attempt to study the KD as a concussion screening tool in this younger population. 343 athletes from four local high school football teams were recruited to participate. These athletes were given baseline KD tests prior to competition. Individual demographic information was collected on the subjects. Standard team protocol was employed to determine if a concussion had occurred during competition. Immediately after diagnosis, the KD test was re-administered to the concussed athlete for comparison to baseline. Post-season testing was also performed in non-concussed individuals. Of the 343 athletes, nine were diagnosed with concussions. In all concussed players, cumulative read times for the KD test were significantly increased (pfootball players. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity screening tool and cardiovascular disease risk factors in 10-year old children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Kimbo Edward

    Purpose. To examine the association of the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) screening tool, a behaviorally based screening tool designed to assess the obesogenic family environment and behaviors, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in 10-year old children. Methods. One hundred nineteen children were assessed for body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and resting blood pressure. A continuous CVD risk score was created using total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and WC. The FNPA survey was completed by parents. The associations between the FNPA score and individual CVD risk factors and the continuous CVD risk score were examined using correlation analyses. Results. Approximately 35% of the sample were overweight (19%) or obese (16%). The mean FNPA score was 24.6 +/- 2.5 (range 18 to 29). Significant correlations were found between the FNPA score and WC (r = -.35, prisk score (r = -.22, p = .02). No significant association was found between the FNPA score and TC:HDL (r=0.10, p=0.88) or MAP (r=-0.12, p=0.20). Conclusion. Children from a high-risk, obesogenic family environment as indicated with a lower FNPA score have a higher CVD risk factor profile than children from a low-risk family environment.

  14. Score reliability and construct validity of the Flinn Performance Screening Tool for adults with symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Sharon R; Pease, William S; Freimer, Miriam L

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the psychometric properties of the Flinn Performance Screening Tool (FPST) for people referred with symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). An occupational therapist collected data from 46 participants who completed the Functional Status Scale (FSS) and FPST after the participants' nerve conduction velocity study to test convergent and contrasted-group validity. Seventy-four percent of the participants had abnormal nerve conduction studies. Cronbach's α coefficients for subscale and total scores of the FPST ranged from .96 to .98. Intrarater reliability for six shared items of the FSS and the FPST was supported by high agreement (71%) and a fair κ statistic (.36). Strong to moderate positive relationships were found between the FSS and FPST scores. Functional status differed significantly among severe, mild, and negative CTS severity groups. The FPST shows adequate psychometric properties as a client-centered screening tool for occupational performance of people referred for symptoms of CTS. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  15. Computer Vision Tool and Technician as First Reader of Lung Cancer Screening CT Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Alexander J; Sanghera, Calvin; Jacobs, Colin; Zhang, Wei; Mayo, John; Schmidt, Heidi; Gingras, Michel; Pasian, Sergio; Stewart, Lori; Tsai, Scott; Manos, Daria; Seely, Jean M; Burrowes, Paul; Bhatia, Rick; Atkar-Khattra, Sukhinder; van Ginneken, Bram; Tammemagi, Martin; Tsao, Ming Sound; Lam, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    To implement a cost-effective low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening program at the population level, accurate and efficient interpretation of a large volume of LDCT scans is needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate a workflow strategy to identify abnormal LDCT scans in which a technician assisted by computer vision (CV) software acts as a first reader with the aim to improve speed, consistency, and quality of scan interpretation. Without knowledge of the diagnosis, a technician reviewed 828 randomly batched scans (136 with lung cancers, 556 with benign nodules, and 136 without nodules) from the baseline Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study that had been annotated by the CV software CIRRUS Lung Screening (Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Nijmegen, The Netherlands). The scans were classified as either normal (no nodules ≥1 mm or benign nodules) or abnormal (nodules or other abnormality). The results were compared with the diagnostic interpretation by Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study radiologists. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the technician in identifying an abnormal scan were 97.8% (95% confidence interval: 96.4-98.8) and 98.0% (95% confidence interval: 89.5-99.7), respectively. Of the 112 prevalent nodules that were found to be malignant in follow-up, 92.9% were correctly identified by the technician plus CV compared with 84.8% by the study radiologists. The average time taken by the technician to review a scan after CV processing was 208 ± 120 seconds. Prescreening CV software and a technician as first reader is a promising strategy for improving the consistency and quality of screening interpretation of LDCT scans. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Feasibility and acceptability of a mental health screening tool and training programme in the youth alcohol and other drug (AOD) sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Leanne; Lubman, Dan I; Elkins, Kathryn; Catania, Lisa S; Rogers, Nich

    2007-09-01

    The high prevalence of co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders in young people is well established. Despite this, there are low rates of detection of co-occurring disorders across alcohol and other drug (AOD) services within Australia. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of a mental health screening tool and training programme within the youth AOD sector. Thirty youth AOD workers received training in mental health screening, and the screening tool was subsequently piloted on 84 young people accessing two youth AOD services. Training was evaluated using measures of the trainee's mental health knowledge, attitudes, skills and confidence in mental health screening at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Feedback from young people supported the feasibility, acceptability and relevance of the screening tool. Evaluation of the associated training programme indicated improvements in AOD workers' mental health knowledge, skills and confidence in mental health screening. These findings provide preliminary evidence of the feasibility and acceptability of the mental health screening tool to young people and the effectiveness of the training package within the youth AOD sector.

  17. Autism detection in early childhood (ADEC): reliability and validity data for a Level 2 screening tool for autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Berlingeri, Genna

    2014-03-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, 2007) was developed as a Level 2 clinician-administered autistic disorder (AD) screening tool that was time-efficient, suitable for children under 3 years, easy to administer, and suitable for persons with minimal training and experience with AD. A best estimate clinical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of AD was made for 70 children using all available information and assessment results, except for the ADEC data. A screening study compared these children on the ADEC with 57 children with other developmental disorders and 64 typically developing children. Results indicated high internal consistency (α = .91). Interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the ADEC were also adequate. ADEC scores reliably discriminated different diagnostic groups after controlling for nonverbal IQ and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite scores. Construct validity (using exploratory factor analysis) and concurrent validity using performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Le Couteur, Lord, & Rutter, 2003), and DSM-IV-TR criteria were also demonstrated. Signal detection analysis identified the optimal ADEC cutoff score, with the ADEC identifying all children who had an AD (N = 70, sensitivity = 1.0) but overincluding children with other disabilities (N = 13, specificity ranging from .74 to .90). Together, the reliability and validity data indicate that the ADEC has potential to be established as a suitable and efficient screening tool for infants with AD. 2014 APA

  18. Screening tools used for measuring depression among people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, T; Lloyd, C E; Pouwer, F

    2012-01-01

    of these tools in diabetes populations. Literature searches for the period January 1970 to October 2010 were conducted using MEDLINE, PSYCH-INFO, ASSIA, SCOPUS, ACADEMIC SEARCH COMPLETE, CINAHL and SCIENCE DIRECT. RESULTS: Data are presented for the 234 published studies that were examined. The Beck Depression...

  19. Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST): Introduction and Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Need: Communities and decision makers are concerned about where they live, work, and play. C-FERST is a user-friendly tool that helps: Identify environmental issues in communities; Learn about these issues; Explore exposure and risk reduction options.

  20. Use of PCR for detection of faecal HAV as a screening tool in an outbreak of hepatitis A in daycare centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rump, B O; Visser, O; Te Wierik, M J M; Vennema, H; Fanoy, E B

    2013-03-01

    Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect faecal hepatitis A virus (HAV) can be a useful tool for investigating HAV outbreaks, especially in low-endemic countries. We describe the use of faecal HAV PCR as a non-invasive tool for screening. Two Dutch children visiting different daycare centres were diagnosed with hepatitis A in 2011. A systematic contact investigation was started in the daycare centres and relevant contacts were screened. The faecal HAV PCR test was used to screen the children. The employees were screened with a serum IgM. The faecal HAV PCR test proved to be an appropriate tool for screening. The screening of a total of 135 children and employees in the daycare centres resulted in evidence of eight asymptomatic infections and transmission to three related daycare centres. Control measures were taken including immunization. Compared to an epidemiological investigation without screening, 144 extra contacts were vaccinated based on the screening results. This most likely led to improved prevention of expansion of the outbreak.

  1. Development of a Brief Pre-Implementation Screening Tool to Identify Teachers Who Are at Risk for Not Implementing Intervention Curriculum and High-Implementing Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Lunn, Sonja; Patel, Pooja; Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette

    2017-02-01

    Few questionnaires have been developed to screen for potentially poor implementers of school-based interventions. This study combines teacher characteristics, perceptions, and teaching/training experiences to develop a short screening tool that can identify potential "low-performing" or "high-performing" teachers pre-implementation. Data were gathered from 208 teachers and 4,411 students who participated in the national implementation of an evidence-based HIV intervention in The Bahamas. Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated for the detection of "low-performing" and "high-performing" teachers. The validity of the screening tool was assessed using receiver operating characteristics analysis. The School Pre-implementation Screening Tool consists of seven predictive factors: duration as teacher, working site, attendance at training workshops, training in interactive teaching, perceived importance of the intervention, comfort in teaching the curriculum, and program priority. The sensitivity and specificity were 74% and 57% in identifying "low-performing" teachers and 81% and 65% with "high-performing" teachers. The screening tool demonstrated an acceptable/good validity (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.68 for "low-performing teachers" and 0.78 for "high-performing" teachers). Our brief screening tool can facilitate teacher training and recruitment of engaged teachers in implementation of school-based interventions.

  2. A Digital Tool to Promote Alcohol and Drug Use Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment Skill Translation: A Mobile App Development and Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satre, Derek D; Ly, Khanh; Wamsley, Maria; Curtis, Alexa; Satterfield, Jason

    2017-04-18

    Translation of knowledge and skills from classroom settings to clinical practice is a major challenge in healthcare training, especially for behavioral interventions. For example, screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a highly-promoted approach to identifying and treating individuals at risk for alcohol or drug problems, yet effective, routine use of SBIRT has lagged. The objective of this paper is to describe the development, pilot testing, and trial protocol of a mobile app based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to promote SBIRT skill translation and application. Intended for use after classroom training occurs, the mobile app has three primary functions designed to increase behavioral intent to deliver SBIRT: (1) review skills (ie, address knowledge and beliefs about SBIRT), (2) apply skills with patients (ie, build confidence and perceived behavioral control), and (3) report performance data (ie, increase accountability and social norms and/or influence). The app includes depression and anxiety screening tools due to high comorbidity with substance use. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is in progress among health and social service learners (N=200) recruited from 3 universities and 6 different training programs in nursing, social work, internal medicine, psychiatry, and psychology. Participants are randomized to SBIRT classroom instruction alone or classroom instruction plus app access prior to beginning their field placement rotations. TPB-based data are collected via Qualtrics or via the mobile app pre-post and SBIRT utilization, weekly for 10 weeks. Key outcomes include the frequency of and self-reported confidence in delivery of SBIRT. Beta testing with advanced practice nursing students (N=22) indicated that the app and its associated assessment tools were acceptable and useful. The system usability scale (SUS) mean was 65.8 (n=19), which indicated that the SBIRT app was acceptable but could benefit from improvement

  3. Using Collaborative Simulation Modeling to Develop a Web-Based Tool to Support Policy-Level Decision Making About Breast Cancer Screening Initiation Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S. Burnside MD, MPH, MS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no publicly available tools designed specifically to assist policy makers to make informed decisions about the optimal ages of breast cancer screening initiation for different populations of US women. Objective: To use three established simulation models to develop a web-based tool called Mammo OUTPuT. Methods: The simulation models use the 1970 US birth cohort and common parameters for incidence, digital screening performance, and treatment effects. Outcomes include breast cancers diagnosed, breast cancer deaths averted, breast cancer mortality reduction, false-positive mammograms, benign biopsies, and overdiagnosis. The Mammo OUTPuT tool displays these outcomes for combinations of age at screening initiation (every year from 40 to 49, annual versus biennial interval, lifetime versus 10-year horizon, and breast density, compared to waiting to start biennial screening at age 50 and continuing to 74. The tool was piloted by decision makers (n = 16 who completed surveys. Results: The tool demonstrates that benefits in the 40s increase linearly with earlier initiation age, without a specific threshold age. Likewise, the harms of screening increase monotonically with earlier ages of initiation in the 40s. The tool also shows users how the balance of benefits and harms varies with breast density. Surveys revealed that 100% of users (16/16 liked the appearance of the site; 94% (15/16 found the tool helpful; and 94% (15/16 would recommend the tool to a colleague. Conclusions: This tool synthesizes a representative subset of the most current CISNET (Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network simulation model outcomes to provide policy makers with quantitative data on the benefits and harms of screening women in the 40s. Ultimate decisions will depend on program goals, the population served, and informed judgments about the weight of benefits and harms.

  4. Validation of a new mass screening tool for cognitive impairment: Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoda K

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Keiichi Onoda,1 Tsuyoshi Hamano,2 Yoko Nabika,1 Atsuo Aoyama,1 Hiroyuki Takayoshi,1 Tomonori Nakagawa,1 Masaki Ishihara,1 Shingo Mitaki,1 Takuya Yamaguchi,1 Hiroaki Oguro,1 Kuninori Shiwaku,3 Shuhei Yamaguchi1 1Department of Neurology, 2Center for Community-Based Health Research and Education, Shimane University, Izumo, 3Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane, Japan Background: We have developed a new screening test for dementia that runs on an iPad and can be used for mass screening, known as the Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version (CADi. The CADi consists of items involving immediate recognition memory for three words, semantic memory, categorization of six objects, subtraction, backward repetition of digits, cube rotation, pyramid rotation, trail making A, trail making B, and delayed recognition memory for three words. The present study examined the reliability and validity of the CADi. Methods: CADi evaluations were conducted for patients with dementia, healthy subjects selected from a brain checkup system, and community-dwelling elderly people participating in health checkups. Results: CADi scores were lower for dementia patients than for healthy elderly individuals and correlated significantly with Mini-Mental State Examination scores. Cronbach’s alpha values for the CADi were acceptable (over 0.7, and test–retest reliability was confirmed via a significant correlation between scores separated by a one-year interval. Conclusion: These results suggest that the CADi is a useful tool for mass screening of dementia in Japanese populations. Keywords: dementia, mass screening, early detection, iPad

  5. Use screening tools, partnerships to improve identification, care of victims of IPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    While accrediting organizations require hospitals to put protocols in place to deal with intimate partner violence (IPV), research shows that the problem is often left uncovered in women who present for care in busy EDs. One study suggests that as much as 72% of women with a history of IPV are not identified when they visit the ED for medical issues. Experts are hopeful that recent publicity about IPV will heighten awareness and improve screening for the problem. Experts say providers are often reluctant to ask questions about IPV, either because they are unsure of how to respond or they lack ready access to resources for referral. When screening for IPV, it is important to ask behavior-specific questions so that there is no room for misinterpretation. To bolster the emergency response to incidents of IPV, hospitals need to seek out and nurture relationships with community organizations that can serve as referral sources to victims. Experts say providers need to consider the possibility of traumatic brain injury in women who present with head and/or facial injuries.

  6. Non-animal photosafety screening for complex cosmetic ingredients with photochemical and photobiochemical assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Hayato; Hirota, Morihiko; Seto, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Gen; Kato, Masashi; Kitagaki, Masato; Sugiyama, Mariko; Kouzuki, Hirokazu; Onoue, Satomi

    2015-08-01

    Previously, a non-animal screening approach was proposed for evaluating photosafety of cosmetic ingredients by means of in vitro photochemical and photobiochemical assays; however, complex cosmetic ingredients, such as plant extracts and polymers, could not be evaluated because their molecular weight is often poorly defined and so their molar concentration cannot be calculated. The aim of the present investigation was to establish a photosafety screen for complex cosmetic ingredients by using appropriately modified in vitro photosafety assays. Twenty plant extracts were selected as model materials on the basis of photosafety information, and their phototoxic potentials were assessed by means of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light (VIS) spectral analysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS)/micellar ROS (mROS) assays, and 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity testing (3T3 NRU PT). The maximum UV/VIS absorption value was employed as a judgment factor for evaluating photoexcitability of samples, and the value of 1.0 was adopted as a tentative criterion for photosafety identification. The ROS/mROS assays were conducted at 50 μg/mL, and no false negative prediction was obtained. Furthermore, the ROS/mROS assays at 50 μg/mL had a similar predictive capacity to the ROS/mROS assays in the previous study. A systematic tiered approach for simple and rapid non-animal photosafety evaluation of complex cosmetic ingredients can be constructed using these modified in vitro photochemical assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating the influence of different modes of administration of a pre-exercise screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickwood, Katie-Jane; Williams, Andrew D; Ahuja, Kiran D K; Fell, James W

    2013-03-01

    Exercise participation is important in overall health, but is not without risk, particularly when exercising at vigorous intensities. Pre-exercise screening procedures such as the Sports Medicine Australia Pre-Exercise Screening System (SMA PESS) aim to minimise risks while maximising benefits from physical activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the SMA PESS as it might be used within commercial fitness centres and to determine the effect of point of care blood analysis on risk identification. Convenience sample of participants attending fitness centres for exercise classes. Participants were recruited from commercial fitness centres and completed the PESS via self-administration and interview with an Exercise & Sports Science Australia Accredited Exercise Physiologist. Blood related risk factors obtained from the CardioChek(®) point of care blood analyser were compared to those obtained from laboratory analysis. Findings indicated that approximately 54% of participants would be required to seek medical clearance with a further 17% restricted to moderate intensity exercise. The identification of risk in Stage 2 of the SMA PESS improved with increasing rigour of application, with the number of participants classified as moderate risk increasing non-significantly from 37% to 50% (p=0.40). Increasing the rigour of administration of the SMA PESS influences risk identification and results in a higher number of clients being excluded from participation in vigorous intensity exercise. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognitive screening tools for primary care settings: examining the 'Test Your Memory' and 'General Practitioner assessment of Cognition' tools in a rural aging population in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatraki, Eliza; Simos, Panagiotis G; Bertsias, Antonios; Duijker, George; Zaganas, Ioannis; Tziraki, Chariklia; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Lionis, Christos

    2017-12-01

    Under conditions of high demand for primary care services in a setting of low financial resources, there is need for brief, easily administered cognitive screening tools for use in the primary care setting, especially in rural areas. However, interpretation of these cognitive tests' results requires knowledge on their susceptibility to cultural, educational and demographic patient characteristics. To assess the clinical validity of the 'Test Your Memory' (TYM) and 'General Practitioner assessment of Cognition' (GPCog) which was specifically designed for primary care practice, in a rural primary care setting in Greece, utilizing the 'Mini Mental State Examination' (MMSE) as a reference standard. The MMSE, TYM, and GPCog were administered to a random sample of 319 community dwelling Greek adults aged 60 to 89 years in 11 rural Primary Healthcare Centres of the Prefecture of Heraklion on the island of Crete, Greece. Analyses examined (a) The association of each instrument with demographic factors and MMSE and (b) optimal cut-off scores, sensitivity and specificity against MMSE-based cognitive impairment risk using ROC analyses with the MMSE 23/24 point cut-off as a reference standard. We found a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 77% for TYM (35/36 or 38/39 cut-off, depending on education). Corresponding values were 89% and 61% for GPCog (7/8 cut-off), respectively. The TYM and GPCog instruments appear to be suitable for routine use in the primary care setting as tools for cognitive impairment risk detection in elderly rural populations.

  9. Role of nutrition impact symptoms in predicting nutritional status and clinical outcome in hemodialysis patients: a potential screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Katrina L; Bauer, Judith D; Ikehiro, Aya; Johnson, David W

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to establish the utility of the Nutrition Impact Symptoms (NIS), a part of the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) as a nutritional screening tool in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). This was a prospective observational study. The study took place in a single public tertiary in-center dialysis facility in Australia. Patients included 213 individuals receiving maintenance HD for at least 3 months who were older than 18 years of age (mean age, 58.9 ± 16.3 years; 55.4% [n = 118] male patients). Malnutrition, which was classified by the Subjective Global Assessment rating (SGA, B or C) and the nutrition-related clinical outcome (decline in weight [>5%], SGA, reduction in serum albumin [>5 g/L]), or 12-month mortality. Patients assessed as malnourished totaled 23.5% (n = 50). Total PG-SGA and NIS scores showed a comparable ability to predict malnutrition (area under the curve, 0.93 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.90-0.97] and 0.86 [95% CI, 0.80-0.93], respectively). NIS (score ≥2) was independently related to poor nutrition-related clinical outcome (odds ratio [OR], 3.03; 95% CI, 1.47-6.20) and mortality (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.20) adjusted for age, dialysis vintage, serum albumin level, and comorbidities. NIS score is a promising nutritional screening tool for the identification of patients receiving hemodialysis who are at risk of malnutrition and poor clinical outcome. Further research is required to investigate the reliability and utility of this tool in a larger population group. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Validity of the Beck Depression Inventory as a screening tool for a clinical mood disorder in bariatric surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Melissa J; Brown, Wendy A; Brennan, Leah; O'Brien, Paul E

    2012-11-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is one of the most commonly used instruments to assess depression in persons with obesity. While it has been validated in normal and psychiatric populations, in obese populations, its validity remains uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of the BDI-IA and BDI-II in severely obese bariatric surgery candidates. Consecutive new candidates at a bariatric surgery clinic were invited to participate in the study by their consulting surgeon. All candidates were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID-I); 118 completed the BDI-IA and 83 completed the BDI-II. Two hundred one patients (response rate, 88 %) participated in the study. The current sample (82 % female) had an average body mass index of 42.83 ± 6.34 and an average age of 45 ± 12 years. Based on the SCID-I, 54 candidates (26.9 %) met the criteria for a mood disorder, with 37 meeting the criteria for current major depressive disorder. Individuals diagnosed with a clinical mood disorder had significantly higher scores on the BDI (BDI-IA, 23.59 ± 9.69 vs. 12.76 ± 8.29; BDI-II, 22.93 ± 5.22 vs. 11.25 ± 8.44). Our results indicated that, as a screening tool for a clinical mood disorder, the BDI-II had an optimal cutoff of 13, with a sensitivity of 100 and specificity of 67.75. Results indicated that the BDI-IA should not be used as a tool to measure depressive symptomatology in obese bariatric surgery candidates. No cutoff was identified with adequate sensitivity and specificity, and over 20 % of patients were misclassified. As a screening tool for a clinical mood disorder, the BDI-II was adequate; however, prevalence rates were significantly overestimated.

  11. Criterion Validity of the “HRQOLISP-E”: A New Context-Specific Screening Tool for Poststroke Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin Ojagbemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The optimal tool for identifying postsroke depression (PSD is yet to be identified. In the present study, we rely on the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D as a meaningful criterion to investigate the psychometric properties of the HRQOLISP-E, a new context-specific screening tool for PSD developed from a large cross-cultural sample. Methods. We assessed baseline data being collected as part of an intervention to improve one-year blood pressure control among recent (≤one month stroke survivors. Depression was measured using the HADS-D and the HRQOLISP-E. We determined sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and posttest probability. The area under a receiver operator curve (AUC and the most appropriate HRQOLISP-E cut-off were also determined using standard procedures. Results. Using data derived from 387 recent stroke survivors, the HRQOLISP-E showed high agreement with the HADS-D, sensitivity = 73.7%, specificity = 79.3%, and posterior test probability = 88% (95% CI = 84%–91%. The AUC was 0.81 (95% CI = 0.76–0.86. The HRQOLISP-E cut-off, corresponding to HADS-D score ≥ 8, was 20/21 (out of a total score of 30. Conclusions. Within limitations of using the HADS-D as a referent criterion, the present results provide justification for further development of the HRQOLISP-E as the first stroke-specific screening tool for depression.

  12. The Palm-Heart Diameter: A Prospective Simple Screening Tool for Identifying Heart Enlargement

    OpenAIRE

    Adegbenro Omotuyi John Fakoya; David Adeiza Otohinoyi; Terrence Marcelle; Joshua Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several speculations have linked the size of the fist to be equal to the size of the heart. However, the substantial scientific report still lacks to support this theory. AIM: This study aims to provide the validity of the fist-heart assumption by correlating the palm and heart diameters while benchmarking it as a reference tool for determining the normal heart size. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Volunteers from the public were recruited during a health fair organised by the schoo...

  13. Optimising screening for cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder: Validation and evaluation of objective and subjective tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johan Høy; Støttrup, Mette Marie; Nayberg, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    and socio-occupational capacity. Methods Patients with bipolar disorder in partial or full remission (n=84) and healthy controls (n=68) were assessed with the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP), Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Scale (COBRA), and established...... neuropsychological tests and subjective rating scales. Socio-occupational function and affective symptoms were evaluated with the Functional Assessment Short Test, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-items and Young Mania Rating Scale, respectively. Concurrent validity of the SCIP and COBRA were assessed......, and socio-occupational difficulties. Results The SCIP and COBRA correlated strongly with established objective and subjective cognitive measures, respectively. The SCIP yielded higher sensitivity and specificity for detection of cognitive dysfunction than the COBRA or a combined SCIP-COBRA measure...

  14. Gingival crevicular blood: As a non-invasive screening tool for diabetes mellitus in dental clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Neema; Shankarapillai, Rajesh; Mathur, Lalit Kumar; Manohar, Balaji; Mathur, Aditi; Jain, Meetu

    2013-07-01

    A high number of patients with periodontitis may have undiagnosed diabetes. Self-monitoring devices provide a simple method for rapid monitoring of the glucose level in the blood by utilizing a blood sample from the finger, but this method requires a needle puncture to obtain blood. It is possible that gingival crevicular blood (GCB) from routine periodontal probing may be a source of blood for glucose measurements. To establish whether GCB can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic aid in screening for diabetes mellitus during routine periodontal examination. The study involved 50 diabetics and 50 non-diabetics, with an age range of 26-66 years. Both diabetic and non-diabetic patients had moderate to severe gingivitis with at least one tooth in the maxillary anterior region showing bleeding upon probing. The Gingival Index and Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified were recorded. Blood oozing from the gingival sulcus/pocket following periodontal pocket probing was collected using a capillary tube and transferred to the test stick of a glucose self-monitoring device (Accu-Chek, Roche Diagnostic, Germany) in patients with comparable gingival and oral hygiene status. This value was compared with the peripheral fingerstick blood glucose (PFBG) value, which was obtained by pricking the finger tip at the same visit. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. There was no statistically significant difference between the gingival crevicular blood glucose (GCBG) values and the PFBG values in both the diabetic (P = 0.129, NS) and the non-diabetic (P = 0.503, NS) groups. Karl Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated, which showed a positive correlation between the two measurements in the diabetic (r = 0.943) as well as the non-diabetic (r = 0.926) groups. The results suggest that GCB can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic aid in screening for diabetes mellitus during routine periodontal examination.

  15. Application of Short Screening Tools for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Korean Elderly Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yu Jin; Chung, Hae Gyung; Choi, Jin Hee; Kim, Tae Yong; So, Hyung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often missed or incorrectly diagnosed in primary care settings. Although brief screening instruments may be useful in detecting PTSD, an adequate validation study has not been conducted with older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the primary care PTSD screen (PC-PTSD) and single-item PTSD screener (SIPS) in elderly veterans. Methods The PC-PTSD and SIPS assessments were translated into Korean, with a back-translation to the original language to verify accuracy. Vietnamese war veterans [separated into a PTSD group (n=41) and a non-PTSD group (n=99)] participated in several psychometric assessments, including the Korean versions of the PC-PTSD (PC-PTSD-K), SIPS (SIPS-K), a structured clinical interview from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV(SCID), and PTSD checklist(PCL). Results The PC-PTSD-K showed high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.76), and the test-retest reliability of the PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K were also high (r=0.97 and r=0.91, respectively). A total score of 3 from the PC-PTSD-K yielded the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. The 'bothered a lot' response level from the SIPS-K showed the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that both PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K have good psychometric properties with high validity and reliability for detecting PTSD symptoms in elderly Korean veterans. However, further research will be necessary to increase our understanding of PTSD characteristics in diverse groups with different types of trauma. PMID:27482241

  16. The THINC-Integrated Tool (THINC-it) Screening Assessment for Cognitive Dysfunction: Validation in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Roger S; Best, Michael W; Bowie, Christopher R; Carmona, Nicole E; Cha, Danielle S; Lee, Yena; Subramaniapillai, Mehala; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Barry, Harry; Baune, Bernhard T; Culpepper, Larry; Fossati, Philippe; Greer, Tracy L; Harmer, Catherine; Klag, Esther; Lam, Raymond W; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Harrison, John

    2017-07-01

    To validate the THINC-integrated tool (THINC-it)-a freely available, patient-administered, computerized screening tool integrating subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). Subjects aged 18 to 65 years (n = 100) with recurrent MDD experiencing a major depressive episode of at least moderate severity were evaluated and compared to age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls (n = 100). Between January and June 2016, subjects completed the THINC-it, which includes variants of the Choice Reaction Time Identification Task (IDN), One-Back Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Trail Making Test-Part B, and the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire for Depression-5-item (PDQ-5-D). The THINC-it required approximately 10 to 15 minutes for administration and was capable of detecting cognitive deficits in adults with MDD. A total of 44.4% of adults with MDD exhibited cognitive performance at ≥ 1.0 SD below that of healthy controls on standardized mean scores of the THINC-it. Concurrent validity of the overall tool, based on a calculated composite score, was acceptable (r = 0.539, P cognitive dysfunction in adults with MDD that is free, easy to use, and rapidly administered. The THINC-it should be incorporated into the assessment and measurement of all patients with MDD, particularly among those with enduring functional impairment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02508493.

  17. Psychological Reactions to Israeli Occupation: Findings from the National Study of School-Based Screening in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeen, Ziad; Qasrawi, Radwan; Nabil, Shibli; Shaheen, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Children exposed to violent war-like and repeated political violence often experience a continued threat to life and their sense of safety, as well as a disruption of daily functioning. The purpose of the study was to examine the psychological impact of exposure to Israeli occupation on Palestinian school children in the West Bank and Gaza,…

  18. The two most popular malnutrition screening tools in the light of the new ESPEN consensus definition of the diagnostic criteria for malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulia, Kalliopi-Anna; Klek, Stanislaw; Doundoulakis, Ioannis; Bouras, Emmanouil; Karayiannis, Dimitrios; Baschali, Aristea; Passakiotou, Marili; Chourdakis, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The new definition of malnutrition in adults proposed recently by The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) changed the view on the issue and raised the question of the reliability of available diagnostic tools. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the accuracy of the two most commonly used screening tools by comparing their findings with the new ESPEN criteria. Nutritional screening was performed in 1146 (median age 60 years, interquartile range: 44-73 years, 617 males, 529 females) patients on admission to hospitals with two nutritional screening tools: Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS2002) and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). The screening results were then compared to the ESPEN new diagnostic criteria for malnutrition. According to the NRS2002 13.5% and 27.9% of the outpatients and hospitalized patients respectively were found to be at moderate/high risk of malnutrition. With the use of MUST 9.1% and 14.9% of the outpatients and hospitalized patients respectively were found to be at moderate/high risk of malnutrition. According to the ESPEN diagnostic criteria 6.4% and 11.3% of outpatients and hospitalized patients respectively were classified as malnourished. MUST was found to be better correlated to the latter for both outpatients (K = 0.777, p first to analyze the clinical value of a malnutrition screening tool in the light of the new ESPEN definition for malnutrition. According to our results, MUST was better correlated with ESPEN criteria for the definition of malnutrition, leading us to the conclusion that it can more efficiently identify the malnourished patients, during the screening process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Gingival crevicular blood: As a non-invasive screening tool for diabetes mellitus in dental clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neema Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high number of patients with periodontitis may have undiagnosed diabetes. Self-monitoring devices provide a simple method for rapid monitoring of the glucose level in the blood by utilizing a blood sample from the finger, but this method requires a needle puncture to obtain blood. It is possible that gingival crevicular blood (GCB from routine periodontal probing may be a source of blood for glucose measurements. Aim: To establish whether GCB can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic aid in screening for diabetes mellitus during routine periodontal examination. Materials and Methods: The study involved 50 diabetics and 50 non-diabetics, with an age range of 26-66 years. Both diabetic and non-diabetic patients had moderate to severe gingivitis with at least one tooth in the maxillary anterior region showing bleeding upon probing. The Gingival Index and Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified were recorded. Blood oozing from the gingival sulcus/pocket following periodontal pocket probing was collected using a capillary tube and transferred to the test stick of a glucose self-monitoring device (Accu-Chek, Roche Diagnostic, Germany in patients with comparable gingival and oral hygiene status. This value was compared with the peripheral fingerstick blood glucose (PFBG value, which was obtained by pricking the finger tip at the same visit. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson′s correlation coefficient. Result: There was no statistically significant difference between the gingival crevicular blood glucose (GCBG values and the PFBG values in both the diabetic (P = 0.129, NS and the non-diabetic (P = 0.503, NS groups. Karl Pearson′s product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated, which showed a positive correlation between the two measurements in the diabetic (r = 0.943 as well as the non-diabetic (r = 0.926 groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that GCB can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic aid in screening for diabetes

  20. Comparison of different screening tools (FRAX®, OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE and age alone) to identify women with increased risk of fracture. A population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Abrahamsen, Bo; Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Bech, Mickael; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Barkmann, Reinhard; Glüer, Claus C; Brixen, Kim

    2013-09-01

    To compare the power of FRAX® without bone mineral density (BMD) and simpler screening tools (OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE and age alone) in predicting fractures. This study was a prospective, population-based study performed in Denmark comprising 3614 women aged 40-90 years, who returned a questionnaire concerning items on risk factors for osteoporosis. Fracture risk was calculated using the different screening tools (FRAX®, OST, ORAI, OSIRIS and SCORE) for each woman. The women were followed using the Danish National Register registering new major osteoporotic fractures during 3 years, counting only the first fracture per person. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and statistics and Harrell's index were calculated. Agreement between the tools was calculated by kappa statistics. A total of 4% of the women experienced a new major osteoporotic fracture during the follow-up period. There were no differences in the area under the curve (AUC) values between FRAX® and the simpler tools; AUC values between 0.703 and 0.722 (p = 0.86). Also, Harrell's C values were very similar between the tools. Agreement between the tools was modest. During 3 years follow-up FRAX® did not perform better in the fracture risk prediction compared with simpler tools such as OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE or age alone in a screening scenario where BMD was not measured. These findings suggest that simpler models based on fewer risk factors, which would be easier to use in clinical practice by the GP or the patient herself, could just as well as FRAX® be used to identify women with increased risk of fracture. Comparison of FRAX® and simpler screening tools (OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE) in predicting fractures indicate that FRAX® did not perform better in fracture risk prediction compared with the simpler tools or even age alone in a screening scenario without bone mineral density assessment. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comprehensive development and testing of the ASIST-GBV, a screening tool for responding to gender-based violence among women in humanitarian settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, A L; Glass, N; Pham, K; Perrin, N; Rubenstein, L S; Singh, S; Vu, A

    2016-01-01

    Conflict affected refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are at increased vulnerability to gender-based violence (GBV). Health, psychosocial, and protection services have been implemented in humanitarian settings, but GBV remains under-reported and available services under-utilized. To improve access to existing GBV services and facilitate reporting, the ASIST-GBV screening tool was developed and tested for use in humanitarian settings. This process was completed in four phases: 1) systematic literature review, 2) qualitative research that included individual interviews and focus groups with GBV survivors and service providers, respectively, 3) pilot testing of the developed screening tool, and 4) 3-month implementation testing of the screening tool. Research was conducted among female refugees, aged ≥15 years in Ethiopia, and female IDPs, aged ≥18 years in Colombia. The systematic review and meta-analysis identified a range of GBV experiences and estimated a 21.4 % prevalence of sexual violence (95 % CI:14.9-28.7) among conflict-affected populations. No existing screening tools for GBV in humanitarian settings were identified. Qualitative research with GBV survivors in Ethiopia and Colombia found multiple forms of GBV experienced by refugees and IDPs that occurred during conflict, in transit, and in displaced settings. Identified forms of violence were combined into seven key items on the screening tool: threats of violence, physical violence, forced sex, sexual exploitation, forced pregnancy, forced abortion, and early or forced marriage. Cognitive testing further refined the tool. Pilot testing in both sites demonstrated preliminary feasibility where 64.8 % of participants in Ethiopia and 44.9 % of participants in Colombia were identified with recent (last 12 months) cases of GBV. Implementation testing of the screening tool, conducted as a routine service in camp/district hospitals, allowed for identification of GBV cases and referrals to

  2. PIGE as a screening tool for Per- and polyfluorinated substances in papers and textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Evelyn E.; Dickinson, Margaret E.; Harron, John P.; Lunderberg, David M.; DeYoung, Paul A.; Robel, Alix E.; Field, Jennifer A.; Peaslee, Graham F.

    2017-09-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) comprise a large array of man-made fluorinated chemicals. It is an emerging chemical class of concern because many PFASs are environmentally persistent and some have known ecological and human toxicity. Consumer products treated with PFASs result in human exposure to PFASs through inhalation, ingestion, and environmental exposure to emissions from wastewater or from landfills. A rapid screening method based on total fluorine was developed and applied to quantify PFASs on consumer papers and textiles. Particle-Induced Gamma Ray Emission (PIGE) spectroscopy provides a non-destructive and quantitative measurement of total fluorine on papers and textiles. This technique is both rapid and sensitive, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 13 nmol F/cm2 for papers and 24-45 nmol F/cm2 for textiles, with reproducibility of ±12% RSD for both. PIGE is a high throughput (>20 samples/hr typically) method that was applied to 50 papers and 50 textiles in commerce to demonstrate the method.

  3. Validation of the Short Gambling Harm Screen (SGHS): A Tool for Assessment of Harms from Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Matthew; Goodwin, Belinda C; Rockloff, Matthew J

    2017-06-03

    It is common for jurisdictions tasked with minimising gambling-related harm to conduct problem gambling prevalence studies for the purpose of monitoring the impact of gambling on the community. However, given that both public health theory and empirical findings suggest that harms can occur without individuals satisfying clinical criteria of addiction, there is a recognized conceptual disconnect between the prevalence of clinical problem gamblers, and aggregate harm to the community. Starting with an initial item pool of 72 specific harms caused by problematic gambling, our aim was to develop a short gambling harms scale (SGHS) to screen for the presence and degree of harm caused by gambling. An Internet panel of 1524 individuals who had gambled in the last year completed a 72-item checklist, along with the Personal Wellbeing Index, the PGSI, and other measures. We selected 10 items for the SGHS, with the goals of maximising sensitivity and construct coverage. Psychometric analysis suggests very strong reliability, homogeneity and unidimensionality. Non-zero responses on the SGHS were associated with a large decrease in personal wellbeing, with wellbeing decreasing linearly with the number of harms indicated. We conclude that weighted SGHS scores can be aggregated at the population level to yield a sensitive and valid measure of gambling harm.

  4. Preliminary Study of a Caregiver-based Infant and Child Feeding and Swallowing Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie M; Linn, Chris; Thompson, Heather L; Byrd, Robert S; Steinfeld, Mary B; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Silverman, Alan H

    2017-06-01

    The Infant and Child Feeding Questionnaire (ICFQ) was created to facilitate early detection of feeding and swallowing problems. This is achieved by promoting effective communication between caregivers and health care providers resulting in referral for evaluation and treatment of feeding and swallowing problems by specialists. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether items from the ICFQ could be used to screen for differences between children with known feeding problems (FP) and without known feeding problems (NFP). Caregivers of children ages 36 months or younger with FP and NFP were recruited to complete the ICFQ and demographic questions. T tests were completed to compare demographic characteristics of the research groups. Responses to ICFQ items were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic analysis and odds ratios to determine whether questionnaire items distinguished between study groups. Sixty-four caregivers of children with FP and 57 caregivers of NFP children were recruited. Three participants in the NFP group did not meet inclusion criteria and were excluded from analysis. A combination of 4 ICFQ questions distinguished between groups (receiver operating characteristic = 0.974). Significant odds ratios were also found for 9 feeding behaviors that distinguished between groups. A subset of items from the ICFQ showed promise for distinguishing FP from NFP groups. Future work will expand the regional representation of the participant samples and obtain equal representation of participants across all age-adjusted questionnaires to determine whether the same combination of ICFQ items continues to distinguish between FP and NFP groups.

  5. Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis of Screening Tools for Bipolar Disorder Comorbid With ADHD in Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Mara L; Farias, Antonio C; Whybrow, Peter C; Felden, Erico P G; Cunha, Alexandre; da Veiga, Vilmar; Benko, Cássia R; McCracken, James T

    2015-12-29

    We compared Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)-AAA (Attention Problems, Aggressive Behavior, and Anxious/Depressed) and Parent-Young Mania Rating Scale (P-YMRS) profiles in Brazilian children with ADHD, pediatric-onset bipolar disorder (PBD), and PBD + ADHD. Following analyses of variance or Kruskal-Wallis tests with multiple-comparison Least Significant Difference (LSD) or Dunn's Tests, thresholds were determined by Mann-Whitney U Tests and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plots. Relative to ADHD, PBD and PBD + ADHD groups scored higher on the Anxious/Depressed, Thought Problems, Rule-Breaking, and Aggressive Behavior subscales and Conduct/Delinquency Diagnostic Scale of the CBCL; all three had similar attention problems. The PBD and PBD + ADHD groups scored higher than the ADHD and healthy control (HC) groups on all CBCL problem scales. The AAA-profile ROC had good diagnostic prediction of PBD + ADHD. PBD and PBD-ADHD were associated with (similarly) elevated P-YMRS scores. The CBCL-PBD and P-YMRS can be used to screen for manic behavior and assist in differential diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Zebrafish obesogenic test: a tool for screening molecules that target adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Ouadah, Nafia; Babin, Patrick J

    2011-09-01

    Dietary and xenobiotic compounds may alter endocrine signaling and lipid homeostasis, thus inducing obesity. We describe a short-term assay method, the zebrafish obesogenic (ZO) test, for examining the effects of diet, drugs, and environmental contaminants, singly or in combination, on white adipose tissue (WAT) dynamics in live larvae. The ZO test is an intermediate step in obesity research, between in vitro and rodent assays, and may be also used to study the effect of environmental toxicants on the adiposity of aquatic species. The procedure, using Nile Red (NR) fluorescent probe to reveal adipocyte lipid droplets, is suitable for pharmaceutical or toxicological screening. Larvae treated at an environmentally-relevant concentration of tributyltin chloride (TBT), an environmental obesogen, exhibited a remarkable increase in adiposity, irrespective of the lipid composition of the background diet. Exogenous compounds, e.g., rosiglitazone or TBT, known to increase adiposity in the fasting state, were classified as obesogenic. Anti-obesogenic compounds favored a decrease in adiposity in the fasting state. The ZO test, using adipocyte lipid droplet size and adiposity as its endpoints, is a whole-organism alternative testing assay for obesogenic and anti-obesogenic compounds and mixtures and provides relevant information for environmental and human risk assessments.

  7. Rapid, single-phase extraction of glucosylsphingosine from plasma: A universal screening and monitoring tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Maria; Szer, Jeff; Stark, Samantha; Fletcher, Janice M

    2015-10-23

    Glucosylsphingosine (GluSph) has emerged as a biomarker for the inherited metabolic disorder, Gaucher disease (GD). We developed a simple laboratory test to measure plasma GluSph and show that elevated GluSph is diagnostic for GD as well as informing on disease burden for monitoring patients on treatment. GluSph was measured from a single-phase total lipid extraction of 0.01 mL of plasma by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry and concentrations extrapolated from a seven point standard curve (0.04 to 20 pmoL). A total of 1464 samples were tested and longitudinal assessment of an additional 20 GD patients. All patients with GD had elevated GluSph compared to unaffected controls and 16 other metabolic disorders. GluSph was also slightly elevated in three patients with Krabbe disease but not at concentrations to confuse a GD diagnosis. GluSph correlated with chitotriosidase in the majority of GD patients on treatment who were informative for this marker. GluSph can be easily measured from 0.01 mL of plasma and is useful as a diagnostic marker for GD with the current platform suited to high-throughput screening. It outperforms other GD biomarkers for biochemical monitoring of patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy for all individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. New Tools for Embryo Selection: Comprehensive Chromosome Screening by Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Ana Cristina; Milán, Miguel; Al-Asmar, Nasser; García-Herrero, Sandra; Mir, Pere; Simón, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). The study included 1420 CCS cycles for recurrent miscarriage (n = 203); repetitive implantation failure (n = 188); severe male factor (n = 116); previous trisomic pregnancy (n = 33); and advanced maternal age (n = 880). CCS was performed in cycles with fresh oocytes and embryos (n = 774); mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified oocytes (n = 320); mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified day-2 embryos (n = 235); and mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified day-3 embryos (n = 91). Day-3 embryo biopsy was performed and analyzed by aCGH followed by day-5 embryo transfer. Consistent implantation (range: 40.5–54.2%) and pregnancy rates per transfer (range: 46.0–62.9%) were obtained for all the indications and independently of the origin of the oocytes or embryos. However, a lower delivery rate per cycle was achieved in women aged over 40 years (18.1%) due to the higher percentage of aneuploid embryos (85.3%) and lower number of cycles with at least one euploid embryo available per transfer (40.3%). We concluded that aneuploidy is one of the major factors which affect embryo implantation. PMID:24877108

  9. New Tools for Embryo Selection: Comprehensive Chromosome Screening by Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH. The study included 1420 CCS cycles for recurrent miscarriage (n=203; repetitive implantation failure (n=188; severe male factor (n=116; previous trisomic pregnancy (n=33; and advanced maternal age (n=880. CCS was performed in cycles with fresh oocytes and embryos (n=774; mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified oocytes (n=320; mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified day-2 embryos (n=235; and mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified day-3 embryos (n=91. Day-3 embryo biopsy was performed and analyzed by aCGH followed by day-5 embryo transfer. Consistent implantation (range: 40.5–54.2% and pregnancy rates per transfer (range: 46.0–62.9% were obtained for all the indications and independently of the origin of the oocytes or embryos. However, a lower delivery rate per cycle was achieved in women aged over 40 years (18.1% due to the higher percentage of aneuploid embryos (85.3% and lower number of cycles with at least one euploid embryo available per transfer (40.3%. We concluded that aneuploidy is one of the major factors which affect embryo implantation.

  10. Development of a screening tool for staging of diabetic retinopathy in fundus images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Ashis Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Bency, Mayur Joseph; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.; Bansal, Reema; Gupta, Amod

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a condition of the eye of diabetic patients where the retina is damaged because of long-term diabetes. The condition deteriorates towards irreversible blindness in extreme cases of diabetic retinopathy. Hence, early detection of diabetic retinopathy is important to prevent blindness. Regular screening of fundus images of diabetic patients could be helpful in preventing blindness caused by diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we propose techniques for staging of diabetic retinopathy in fundus images using several shape and texture features computed from detected microaneurysms, exudates, and hemorrhages. The classification accuracy is reported in terms of the area (Az) under the receiver operating characteristic curve using 200 fundus images from the MESSIDOR database. The value of Az for classifying normal images versus mild, moderate, and severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) is 0:9106. The value of Az for classification of mild NPDR versus moderate and severe NPDR is 0:8372. The Az value for classification of moderate NPDR and severe NPDR is 0:9750.

  11. Detecting cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease using a brief cognitive screening tool: Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Chade

    Full Text Available Abstract Detecting cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease is crucial for good clinical practice given the new therapeutic possibilities available. When full neuropsychological evaluations are not available, screening tools capable of detecting cognitive difficulties become crucial. Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate whether the Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE is capable of detecting cognitive difficulties in patients with Parkinson's disease and discriminating their cognitive profile from patients with dementia. Methods: 77 early dementia patients (53 with Alzheimer's Disease and 24 with Frontotemporal Dementia, 22 patients with Parkinson's disease, and 53 healthy controls were evaluated with the ACE. Results: Parkinson's disease patients significantly differed from both healthy controls and dementia patients on ACE total score. Conclusions: This study shows that the Spanish version of the ACE is capable of detecting patients with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease and is able to differentiate them from patients with dementia based on their general cognitive status.

  12. Reliability of a Simple Physical Therapist Screening Tool to Assess Errors during Resistance Exercises for Musculoskeletal Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Jay; Sundstrup, E.; Andersen, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective was to investigate the intra- and intertester reliability of a simple screening tool assessing errors in exercise execution by visual observation. 38 participants with no previous resistance exercise experience practiced for two weeks four typical upper limb exercises using...... elastic tubing. At 2-week follow-up, the participants were invited for a test-retest assessment on errors in technical execution. The assessment was based on ordinal deviation of joint position from neutral of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist in a single plane by visual observation. Moderate intratester...... and intertester reliability, which is congruent with previously published studies. Hence the simplicity of defining a neutral joint position for each of the involved joints in the exercise and categorizing the deviation in "some deviation" and "substantial deviation" to either side in a single plane is a viable...

  13. A tool for mass-screening of paragonimiasis: an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xu Guang; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Nawa, Yukifumi; Itoh, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is one of the foodborn trematodiases and number of the patients was estimated to be about 23 million around the world. To obtain good compliance of people for the surveillance of paragonimiasis, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the diagnosis of paragonimiasis with unconcentrated urine samples was developed. Paragonimus westermani antigen specific IgG and IgG4 were detected in urine samples from paragonimiasis patients and the levels correlated well with those detected in the paired serum samples. Cross-reactions observed among other trematodiasis and a tuberculosis patient with the antigen specific IgG were much reduced by detecting the antigen specific IgG4; 9.2 % to 2.3 %. The ELISA with urine samples, which are collected safely and easily, will be a useful tool for a mass-screening of paragonimiasis.

  14. The Brazilian version of STarT Back Screening Tool - translation, cross-cultural adaptation and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Bruna; Vasconcelos, Rodrigo A; Marcondes, Freddy B; Lodovichi, Samuel S; Mello, Wilson; Grossi, Débora B

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial factors are not routinely identified in physical therapy assessments, although they can influence the prognosis of patients with low back pain. The "STarT Back Screening Tool" (SBST) questionnaire aids in screening such patients for poor prognosis in the primary care setting and classifies them as high, medium, or low risk based on physical and psychosocial factors. This study sought to translate and cross-culturally adapt the SBST to the Brazilian Portuguese language and test the reliability of the Brazilian version. The first stage of the study consisted of the translation, synthesis, and back-translation of the original version of the STSB, including revision by the Translation Group, pretest of the translated version, and assessment by an expert panel. The pre-final Brazilian version was applied to 2 samples comprising 52 patients with low back pain; these patients were of both genders and older than 18 years of age. To assess the instrument's reliability, an additional sample comprising 50 patients was subjected to 2 interviews, and the results were assessed using the quadratic weighted kappa value. The instrument's internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (n=105), and the standard error of measurement was also calculated (n=50). Translation and back-translation attained consensus, and only item 6 required changes; the reformulated version was applied to an additional sample comprising 52 individuals who did not report any doubts related to this item. The reliability of the SBST-Brazil was 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.63-0.95), the internal consistency was 0.74 for the total score and 0.72 for the psychosocial subscale, and the standard error of measurement was 1.9%. The translated and cross-culturally adapted SBST-Brazil proved to be reliable for screening patients according to their risk of poor prognosis and the presence of psychosocial factors.

  15. The patient health questionnaire-15 and its abbreviated version as screening tools for depression in Korean college and graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyoo, Younghyun C; Ju, Sejin; Kim, Eunjung; Kim, Jieun E; Lee, Junghyun H

    2014-04-01

    Over half of all suicides worldwide occur in Asia. Given the close association between suicide and depression, it is quite unexpected that depression is least frequently diagnosed in Asia. This is, in part, due to the fact that Asians somatize depression. Young adults including college and graduate students are no exceptions. Therefore, a somatic symptom-focused screening tool would be useful in detecting depression in Asian college and graduate students. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) in screening for depression among Korean college and graduate students. In addition, we developed an abbreviated version of the PHQ-15 (aPHQ-15) and studied validity measures. Three-hundred and fifty Korean college and graduate students were screened with the PHQ-15. Of all participants, 176 were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to diagnose major depressive episode, while the other 174 were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (IDS-SR). Reliability and validity measures including the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and criterion, convergent, and divergent validity were tested. Principal component analysis was used in developing the abbreviated version of the PHQ-15. The PHQ-15 showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.82, intra-class correlation coefficient 0.87). The optimal cut-off point for detecting depression was estimated to be 8. There were strong correlations between the PHQ-15 total scores and self-report measures of depressive symptom severity (BDI-II: r=0.69 and pdepression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcultural adaption and psychometric properties of the STarT Back Screening Tool among Finnish low back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piironen, Susanna; Paananen, Markus; Haapea, Marianne; Hupli, Markku; Zitting, Paavo; Ryynänen, Katja; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Korniloff, Katariina; Hill, Jonathan C; Häkkinen, Arja; Karppinen, Jaro

    2016-01-01

    The STarT Back Screening Tool (SBST) is a 9-item questionnaire designed for screening low back pain (LBP) patients into three prognostic groups for stratified care. The stratified care approach has proven to be clinically more beneficial and cost-effective than the current best physiotherapy practice. The objective of this study was to translate, culturally adapt and study psychometric properties of the SBST among Finnish LBP patients. The SBST was translated into Finnish using appropriate translation guidelines. A total of 116 patients were recruited from outpatient clinics. They were asked to fill out two questionnaires within 1-7 days. The first questionnaire set included the SBST, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ) and intensities of back and leg pain (10-cm Visual Analogue Scale). The second questionnaire form included the SBST and a question about persistence of symptoms. Some linguistic and cultural differences emerged during the translation process with item 1 ("spread down my legs"), item 2 ("neck and shoulder pain"), item 6 ("worrying thoughts") and item 9 ("bothersome"). The test-retest reliability of the SBST total score was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.78) and of the psychosocial subscale good (0.68). Cronbach's alpha for the psychosocial subscale was 0.55. Spearman's correlation coefficient between SBST total score and BDI was 0.38, ODI 0.39, ÖMPSQ 0.45, intensity of leg pain 0.45 and LBP 0.31. Based on analysis of variance, the SBST discriminated low- and medium-risk groups better than medium- and high-risk groups. The Finnish translation of the SBST is linguistically accurate and has been adapted to the Finnish-speaking population. It showed to be a valid and reliable instrument and comparable with the original English version. Therefore, it may be used in clinical work with Finnish LBP patients.

  17. In silico screening based on predictive algorithms as a design tool for exon skipping oligonucleotides in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echigoya, Yusuke; Mouly, Vincent; Garcia, Luis; Yokota, Toshifumi; Duddy, William

    2015-01-01

    The use of antisense 'splice-switching' oligonucleotides to induce exon skipping represents a potential therapeutic approach to various human genetic diseases. It has achieved greatest maturity in exon skipping of the dystrophin transcript in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), for which several clinical trials are completed or ongoing, and a large body of data exists describing tested oligonucleotides and their efficacy. The rational design of an exon skipping oligonucleotide involves the choice of an antisense sequence, usually between 15 and 32 nucleotides, targeting the exon that is to be skipped. Although parameters describing the target site can be computationally estimated and several have been identified to correlate with efficacy, methods to predict efficacy are limited. Here, an in silico pre-screening approach is proposed, based on predictive statistical modelling. Previous DMD data were compiled together and, for each oligonucleotide, some 60 descriptors were considered. Statistical modelling approaches were applied to derive algorithms that predict exon skipping for a given target site. We confirmed (1) the binding energetics of the oligonucleotide to the RNA, and (2) the distance in bases of the target site from the splice acceptor site, as the two most predictive parameters, and we included these and several other parameters (while discounting many) into an in silico screening process, based on their capacity to predict high or low efficacy in either phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (89% correctly predicted) and/or 2'O Methyl RNA oligonucleotides (76% correctly predicted). Predictions correlated strongly with in vitro testing for sixteen de novo PMO sequences targeting various positions on DMD exons 44 (R² 0.89) and 53 (R² 0.89), one of which represents a potential novel candidate for clinical trials. We provide these algorithms together with a computational tool that facilitates screening to predict exon skipping efficacy at each position of

  18. Prevalence of anxiety and depression in osteoarthritis: use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as a screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axford, John; Butt, Alexander; Heron, Christine; Hammond, John; Morgan, John; Alavi, Azita; Bolton, Jim; Bland, Martin

    2010-11-01

    The aims of this study are to ascertain the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in an outpatient population with osteoarthritis (OA), examine the interrelationships between severity of OA, pain, disability, and depression, and evaluate the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) as a screening tool for this population. Patients with lower limb OA were evaluated with the Short Form McGill Pain and Present Pain Index Questionnaires, and a visual analogue scale, WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index-section C, and the HADS. Participants underwent a structured clinical interview by a liaison psychiatrist (AB). X-rays of affected joints were rated for disease severity. Fifty-four patients (42 females; mean age 63.3) were investigated. The prevalence of clinically significant anxiety and/or depression was 40.7% (95% confidence interval (CI), 27.6-55.0%). HADS was a good predictor of anxiety and depression with a sensitivity and specificity of 88% (95%CI, 64% to 99%) and 81% (95%CI, 65% to 92%), respectively. Pain correlated with HADS anxiety and depression scores (e.g. Rank correlation coefficients (Kendall's tau-b) between total HADS scores and Pain VAS scores 0.29; p=0.003). Disability was greater in patients with depression and/or anxiety (e.g. total HADS score; Kendall's rank correlation coefficient tau-b=0.26, p=0.007) OA severity as determined by radiological score was not a good predictor for anxiety nor depression and only weakly associated with disability. Anxiety and depression are very common in OA patients. HADS anxiety was a better predictor of diagnosed anxiety than HADS depression was of diagnosed depression. HADS is a valid and reliable screening instrument for detecting mood disorder, but not a diagnostic tool or a substitute for asking about symptoms of depression. The interrelationship between mental health, pain and disability is strong. We should therefore adopt a multidisciplinary approach to the management of OA.

  19. HbA1c as a Screening tool for Ketosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bing; Bu, Le; Zhang, Manna; Gusdon, Aaron M.; Zheng, Liang; Rampersad, Sharvan; Li, Jue; Qu, Shen

    2016-01-01

    Ketosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is overlooked due to atypical symptoms. The objective of this study is to evaluate the value of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as a screening tool for ketosis in T2DM patients. This retrospective study consisted of 253 T2DM patients with ketosis at Shanghai 10th People’s Hospital during a period from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2015. A control group consisted of 221 T2DM patients without ketosis randomly selected from inpatients during the same period. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to examine the sensitivity and specificity of HbA1c as an indicator for ketosis. Higher HbA1c levels were correlated with ketosis. In patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.832, with 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.754–0.911. The optimal threshold was 10.1% (87 mmol/mol). In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the AUC was 0.811 (95% CI: 0.767–0.856), with an optimal threshold of 8.6% (70 mmol/mol). HbA1c is a potential screening tool for ketosis in patients with T2DM. Ketosis is much more likely with HbA1c values at ≥10.1% in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM and HbA1c values at ≥8.6% in patients with previously diagnosed T2DM. PMID:28009017

  20. Assessing the impact of a web-based comprehensive somatic and mental health screening tool in pediatric primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fothergill, Kate E; Gadomski, Anne; Solomon, Barry S; Olson, Ardis L; Gaffney, Cecelia A; Dosreis, Susan; Wissow, Lawrence S

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate how parents and physicians perceive the utility of a comprehensive, electronic previsit screener, and to assess its impact on the visit. A mixed methods design was used. English-speaking parents were recruited from 3 primary care systems (urban MD and rural NY and VT) when they presented for a well-child visit with a child 4 to 10 years of age. Parents completed an electronic previsit screen, which included somatic concerns, health risks, and 4 mental health tools (SCARED5, PHQ-2, SDQ Impact, and PSC-17). Parents completed an exit survey, and a subset were interviewed. All primary care providers (PCPs) were interviewed. A total of 120 parents and 16 PCPs participated. The exit surveys showed that nearly 90% of parents agreed or strongly agreed that the screener was easy to use and maintained confidentiality. During interviews, parents noted that the screener helped with recall, validated concerns, reframed issues they thought might not be appropriate for primary care, and raised new questions. PCPs thought that the screener enabled them to normalize sensitive issues, and it permitted them to simultaneously focus and be comprehensive during the visit. Parents and PCPs agreed that the screener helped guide discussion, promoted in-depth exchange, and increased efficiency. Findings were consistent across quantitative and qualitative methods and between parents and PCPs. A comprehensive electronic previsit screening tool is an acceptable and practical strategy to facilitate well-child visits. It may help with problem identification as well as with setting agendas, engaging the family, and balancing attention between somatic and psychosocial concerns. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Family psychosocial risk screening guided by the Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) using the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E; Schneider, Stephanie; Didonato, Stephen; Pai, Ahna L H

    2015-05-01

    Although families of children with cancer and other serious medical conditions have documented psychosocial needs, the systematic identification of needs and delivery of evidence-based care remain challenges. Screening for multifaceted family psychosocial risk is a means by which psychosocial treatment needs for pediatric patients and their families can be identified in an effective and inclusive manner. The Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) is a model that can guide systematic assessment of family psychosocial risk. The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) is a brief parent report screener of psychosocial risk based on the PPPHM that can be used for families of infants through adolescents. The PPPHM and the PAT are described in this paper, along with a summary of data supporting systematic risk assessment. The PPPHM outlines three tiers of family psychosocial risk - Universal (low), Targeted (medium), and Clinical (high). The PAT is a validated measure of psychosocial risk. Scores on the PAT, derived from multiple sites and disease conditions, map on to the PPPHM with indications that one-half to two-thirds of families score at the Universal level of risk based on the PAT. The PAT is a unique screener of psychosocial risk, both in terms of its breadth and underlying model (PPPHM), and its length and format. As an example of a means by which families can be screened early in the treatment process, PAT scores and corresponding PPPHM levels can provide direction for the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial care.

  2. Evaluation of a novel high throughput screening tool for relative emissions of industrial chemicals used in chemical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undeman, Emma; Fischer, Stellan; McLachlan, Michael S

    2011-02-01

    Tens of thousands of chemicals are currently marketed worldwide, but only a small number of these compounds has been measured in effluents or the environment to date. The need for screening methodologies to select candidates for environmental monitoring is therefore significant. To meet this need, the Swedish Chemicals Agency developed the Exposure Index (EI), a model for ranking emissions to a number of environmental matrices based on chemical quantity used and use pattern. Here we evaluate the EI. Data on measured concentrations of organic chemicals in sewage treatment plants, one of the recipients considered in the EI model, were compiled from the literature, and the correlation between predicted emission levels and observed concentrations was assessed by linear regression analysis. The adequacy of the parameters employed in the EI was further explored by calibration of the model to measured concentrations. The EI was found to be of limited use for ranking contaminant levels in STPs; the r² values for the regressions between predicted and observed values ranged from 0.02 (p = 0.243) to 0.14 (p = 0.007) depending on the dataset. The calibrated version of the model produced only slightly better predictions although it was fitted to the experimental data. However, the model is a valuable first step in developing a high throughput screening tool for organic contaminants, and there is potential for improving the EI algorithm. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-08-16

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial.

  4. Can school health check-ups serve as screening tool for growth anomalies and obesity in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupa, Athanasia; Goischke, Alexandra; Garcin, Camille; Elie, Caroline; Viaud, Magali; Théry, Anne; Richard, Geneviève; Polak, Michel

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of growth disorders and obesity in schoolchildren and determine whether school health check-ups are effective in their screening. Subjects-methods: Analysis of anonymized growth and body mass index (BMI) data from 2887 children attending the 3rd grade from 2008 to 2009 after selection of 75 elementary schools in Paris. Linear growth velocity was abnormal in 198 children. Height and weight were above the French reference values (+ 0.9 ± 1.2 SD and + 1 ± 1.7 SD, respectively). BMI was higher, compared to reference values (+ 0.4 ± 1.4 SD). At their last check-up, 20.9% of children had a BMI > + 2 SD. School health check-ups constitute a good screening tool for growth and obesity. However, further work is needed to determine the most effective modality. The reference values currently used in France are no longer suitable and new reference charts need to be established. The high prevalence of obesity in schoolchildren remains a public health challenge.

  5. Tools for building a comprehensive modeling system for virtual screening under real biological conditions: The Computational Titration algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Glen E; Fornabaio, Micaela; Chen, Deliang L; Abraham, Donald J; Spyrakis, Francesca; Cozzini, Pietro; Mozzarelli, Andrea

    2006-05-01

    Computational tools utilizing a unique empirical modeling system based on the hydrophobic effect and the measurement of logP(o/w) (the partition coefficient for solvent transfer between 1-octanol and water) are described. The associated force field, Hydropathic INTeractions (HINT), contains much rich information about non-covalent interactions in the biological environment because of its basis in an experiment that measures interactions in solution. HINT is shown to be the core of an evolving virtual screening system that is capable of taking into account a number of factors often ignored such as entropy, effects of solvent molecules at the active site, and the ionization states of acidic and basic residues and ligand functional groups. The outline of a comprehensive modeling system for virtual screening that incorporates these features is described. In addition, a detailed description of the Computational Titration algorithm is provided. As an example, three complexes of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are analyzed with our system and these results are compared with the experimental free energies of binding.

  6. Integrated One-Against-One Classifiers as Tools for Virtual Screening of Compound Databases: A Case Study with CNS Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi; Mani-Varnosfaderani, Ahmad; Valadkhani, Abolfazl

    2013-08-01

    A total of 21 833 inhibitors of the central nervous system (CNS) were collected from Binding-database and analyzed using discriminant analysis (DA) techniques. A combination of genetic algorithm and quadratic discriminant analysis (GA-QDA) was proposed as a tool for the classification of molecules based on their therapeutic targets and activities. The results indicated that the one-against-one (OAO) QDA classifiers correctly separate the molecules based on their therapeutic targets and are comparable with support vector machines. These classifiers help in charting the chemical space of the CNS inhibitors and finding specific subspaces occupied by particular classes of molecules. As a next step, the classification models were used as virtual filters for screening of random subsets of PUBCHEM and ZINC databases. The calculated enrichment factors together with the area under curve values of receiver operating characteristic curves showed that these classifiers are good candidates to speed up the early stages of drug discovery projects. The "relative distances" of the center of active classes of biosimilar molecules calculated by OAO classifiers were used as indices for sorting the compound databases. The results revealed that, the multiclass classification models in this work circumvent the definition inactive sets for virtual screening and are useful for compound retrieval analysis in Chemoinformatics. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Ultrasound as a first line screening tool for the detection of renal artery stenosis: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridopoulos, Themistoklis N; Kaziani, Katerina; Balanika, Alexia P; Kalokairinou-Motogna, Mariana; Bizimi, Vasiliki; Paianidi, Iovana; Baltas, Christos S

    2010-09-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is the most common underlying medical condition in secondary hypertension among adults, representing about 5% of all cases of hypertension. Early diagnosis of RAS is an important clinical objective since interventional therapy may improve or cure hypertension and preserve renal function. Contrast angiography is the currently reference standard for the diagnosis of RAS; however, its invasive nature renders it unsuitable for screening purposes. Among screening tests used for the detection of RAS (computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, radionuclide scanning), multiple studies have shown that color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS), although highly operator-dependent, can be an effective tool in the diagnosis of RAS. CDUS imaging is a simple, safe (noninvasive) and widely available technique; in addition, the procedure is painless and well tolerated by patients. In this concrete review we will underline the established color Doppler ultrasound criteria used for the detection of RAS, highlight their limitations and see how their combination may improve the diagnostic accuracy of this method.

  8. Analytical protein a chromatography as a quantitative tool for the screening of methionine oxidation in monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Caroline; Knoblich, Constanze; Fichtl, Jürgen; Alt, Nadja; Diepold, Katharina; Bulau, Patrick; Goldbach, Pierre; Adler, Michael; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Grauschopf, Ulla

    2012-11-01

    The presence of oxidized