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Sample records for psychological restraint stress

  1. Temporal changes of the adrenal endocrine system in a restraint stressed mouse and possibility of postmortem indicators of prolonged psychological stress.

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    Hayashi, Takahito; Ikematsu, Kazuya; Abe, Yuki; Ihama, Yoko; Ago, Kazutoshi; Ago, Mihoko; Miyazaki, Tetsuji; Ogata, Mamoru

    2014-07-01

    We investigated temporal changes of adrenal endocrine systems through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SA) axis in restraint stressed mice. Restraint stress for 1 day to 3 weeks caused a significant increase in serum levels of ACTH and glucocorticoids accompanied with an increase in adrenal weights, indicating activation of the HPA axis. Reflecting the overproduction of glucocorticoids, adrenal cholesterol content decreased. Moreover, adrenal gene expression involved in cholesterol supply, including scavenger receptor-class B type I, HMG-CoA reductase, and hormone-sensitive lipase, was increased over the same period. After 4 weeks stress, all of these changes returned to control levels. In contrast, adrenal gene expression of chromogranin A, which is cosecreted with catecholamine via the SA axis, was increased with 1 day to 2 weeks of stress, and decreased with 3-4 weeks of stress. Our results suggest that analyses of adrenal endocrine systems based on the combination of several markers examined here would be useful for not only proving prolonged psychological stress experience but also determining its duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cholinergic Modulation of Restraint Stress Induced Neurobehavioral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The involvement of the cholinergic system in restraint stress induced neurobehavioral alterations was investigated in rodents using the hole board, elevated plus maze, the open field and the light and dark box tests. Restraint stress (3h) reduced significantly (p<0.05) the number of entries and time spent in the open arm, ...

  3. Acute Cold / Restraint Stress in Castrated Rats

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    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to determine whether castration altered osmotically stimulated vasopressin (VP release and urinary volume and what is the role of endocrine-stress axis in this process.Materials and methods: Totally 108 mice were studied in two main groups of castrated (n=78 and control (n=30. Each group was extracted by acute cold stress (4◦C for 2h/day, restraint stress (by syringes 60cc 2h/day and cold/restraint stress. The castrated group was treated in sub groups of testosterone, control (sesame oil as vehicle of testosterone. Propranolol as blocker of sympathetic nervous system was given to both groups of castrated mice and main control.Results: Our results showed that, there is interactions between testosterone and sympathetic nervous system on vasopressin, because urine volume was decreased only in testoctomized mice with cold/restraint and cold stress (P<0.001; propranolol as the antagonist of sympathetic nervous system could block and increase urine volume in castrated mice. This increased volume of urine was due to acute cold stress, not restraint stress (p<0.001. The role of testosterone, noradrenalin (NA and Vasopressin (VP in the acute cold stress is confirmed, because testosterone could return the effect of decreased urine volume in control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Considering the effect of cold/restraint stress on urinary volume in castrated mice shows that there is interaction between sex hormone (testosterone, vasopressin and adrenergic systems.

  4. Restraint stress induces and exacerbates intestinal inflammation in interleukin-10 deficient mice

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    Koh, Seong-Joon; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Kim, Joo Sung

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of restraint stress on chronic colitis in interleukin (IL)-10 deficient (IL-10-/-) mice. METHODS: The first experiment compared the effect of restraint stress on the development of intestinal inflammation in wild-type and IL-10-/- mice. Both wild-type and IL-10-/- mice were physically restrained in a well-ventilated, 50 cm3 conical polypropylene tube for 2 h per day for three consecutive days. The second experiment was performed to assess the effect of restraint stress on exacerbation of colitis induced by piroxicam in IL-10-/- mice. The IL-10-/- mice were exposed to restraint stress for 2 h per day for 3 consecutive days, and then treated with piroxicam for 4 d at a dose of 200 ppm administered in the rodent chow. RESULTS: In the first experiment, none of the wild-type mice with or without restraint stress showed clinical and histopathological abnormality in the gut. However, IL-10-/- mice exposed to restraint stress exhibited histologically significant intestinal inflammation as compared to those without restraint stress. In the second experiment, restraint stress significantly reduced body weight and increased the severity of intestinal inflammation assessed by histopathologic grading in IL-10-/- mice. Colonic IL12p40 mRNA expression was strongly increased in mice exposed to restraint stress. CONCLUSION: This novel animal model could be useful in future study of psychological stress in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26229400

  5. Chronic restraint stress upregulates erythropoiesis through glucocorticoid stimulation.

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    Jeffrey L Voorhees

    Full Text Available In response to elevated glucocorticoid levels, erythroid progenitors rapidly expand to produce large numbers of young erythrocytes. Previous work demonstrates hematopoietic changes in rodents exposed to various physical and psychological stressors, however, the effects of chronic psychological stress on erythropoiesis has not be delineated. We employed laboratory, clinical and genomic analyses of a murine model of chronic restraint stress (RST to examine the influence of psychological stress on erythropoiesis. Mice exposed to RST demonstrated markers of early erythroid expansion involving the glucocorticoid receptor. In addition, these RST-exposed mice had increased numbers of circulating reticulocytes and increased erythropoiesis in primary and secondary erythroid tissues. Mice also showed increases in erythroid progenitor populations and elevated expression of the erythroid transcription factor KLF1 in these cells. Together this work reports some of the first evidence of psychological stress affecting erythroid homeostasis through glucocorticoid stimulation.

  6. Interactive effects of dietary restraint and adiposity on stress-induced eating and the food choice of children

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    The Individual Differences Model posits that individual differences in physiological and psychological factors explain eating behaviors in response to stress. The purpose was to determine the effects of individual differences in adiposity, dietary restraint and stress reactivity on children's energy...

  7. An unexpected increase in restraint duration alters the expression of stress response habituation

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    Kearns, Rachael R.; Spencer, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    While habituation develops to a repeated psychological stressor, manipulating certain parameters of the stress challenge experience may lead to dishabituation of the stress response. In this experiment, we investigated whether the behavioral, endocrine, and neural responses (c-fos mRNA immediate early gene expression) to a psychological stressor (restraint) differ when the duration of the stressor given on the test day violates expectations based on prior stress experience. Rats experienced 10 min of daily restraint on Days 1-4 followed by challenge with either the same duration (10 min) or a longer duration (30 min) of restraint on Day 5. Rats’ behavior was video recorded during the Day 5 restraint episode, and trunk blood and brain tissue were collected 30 min following restraint onset. Struggling behavior was manually scored as active attempts to escape the restraint device. Rats who experienced the same duration of repeated restraint showed a significant decrease of plasma corticosterone (CORT) compared to the 10 min acute restraint group (habituation). In addition, these rats showed decreased active struggling over repeated restraint trials. Conversely, the rats showed an increased CORT response (dishabituation) when they experienced a longer duration of restraint on Day 5 than they had previously. These rats showed a habituated behavioral response during the first 10 min of restraint, however struggling behavior increased once the duration of restraint exceeded the expected duration (with a peak at 12 min). This peak in struggling behavior did not occur during 30 min acute restraint, indicating that the effect was related to memory of previous restraint experience and not due to a longer duration of restraint. In contrast, these animals showed habituated c-fos mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), lateral septum (LS), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in response to the increased stressor duration. Thus, there was dissociation between c

  8. Interactive effects of dietary restraint and adiposity on stress-induced eating and the food choice of children.

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    Roemmich, James N; Lambiase, Maya J; Lobarinas, Christina L; Balantekin, Katherine N

    2011-12-01

    The Individual Differences Model posits that individual differences in physiological and psychological factors explain eating behaviors in response to stress. The purpose was to determine the effects of individual differences in adiposity, dietary restraint and stress reactivity on children's energy intake and food choices. A total of 40 boys and girls, age 8-12 years, with wide ranges of dietary restraint, adiposity, and stress reactivity were measured for total energy intake and choice of energy dense 'comfort' and lower density 'healthy' foods following reading and speech stressor manipulations. When exploring the interaction of dietary restraint and stress reactivity, lower restraint/lower reactivity and lower restraint/higher reactivity were associated with reductions in energy intake (37-62 kcal) and comfort food (33-89 kcal). Higher restraint/lower reactivity was associated with consuming 86 fewer total kcal and 45 fewer kcal of comfort food. Only higher restraint/higher reactivity predicted increased energy intake (104 kcal) and comfort food (131 kcal). The interaction of dietary restraint and percentage body fat revealed that lower restraint/lower adiposity was associated with consuming 123 fewer kcal after being stressed with the entire reduction due to a decrease in comfort food. Lower restraint/higher adiposity was associated with consuming 116 kcal more after being stressed with 70% (81 kcal) of the increase in the form of comfort foods. Higher restraint/lower adiposity and higher restraint/higher adiposity were associated with smaller changes in total energy intake of 22 kcal and 1 kcal; respectively. Both restraint and adiposity moderated the effect of stress on energy intake and food choice. Children with greater adiposity may be at risk for stress-induced eating to contribute to their obesity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Testosterone depletion increases the susceptibility of brain tissue to oxidative damage in a restraint stress mouse model.

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    Son, Seung-Wan; Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Kim, Dong-Woon; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2016-01-01

    Among sex hormones, estrogen is particularly well known to act as neuroprotective agent. Unlike estrogen, testosterone has not been well investigated in regard to its effects on the brain, especially under psychological stress. To investigate the role of testosterone in oxidative brain injuries under psychological stress, we adapted an orchiectomy and restraint stress model. BALB/c mice were subjected to either an orchiectomy or sham operation. After allowing 15 days for recovery, mice were re-divided into four groups according to exposure of restraint stress: sham, sham plus stress, orchiectomy, and orchiectomy plus stress. Serum testosterone was undetectable in orchiectomized groups and restraint-induced stress significantly reduced testosterone levels in sham plus stress group. The serum levels of corticosterone and adrenaline were notably elevated by restraint stress, and these elevated hormones were markedly augmented by orchiectomy. Two oxidative stressors and biomarkers for lipid and protein peroxidation were significantly increased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus by restraint stress, while the reverse pattern was observed in antioxidant enzymes. These results were supported by histopathological findings, with 4-hydroxynonenal staining for oxidative injury and Fluoro-Jade B staining showing the degenerating neurons. The aforementioned patterns of oxidative injury were accelerated by orchiectomy. These findings strongly suggest the conclusion that testosterone exerts a protective effect against oxidative brain damage, especially under stressed conditions. Unlike estrogen, the effects of testosterone on the brain have not been thoroughly investigated. In order to investigate the role of testosterone in oxidative brain injuries under psychological stress, we adapted an orchiectomy and restraint stress model. Orchiectomy markedly augmented the restraint stress-induced elevation of serum corticosterone and adrenaline levels as well as oxidative alterations

  10. Psychological Stress and Cancer

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    ... learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients learn to cope with psychological stress. Such support can reduce levels of depression, anxiety, and disease- and treatment-related symptoms among patients. Approaches can include the ...

  11. Restraint stress impairs glucose homeostasis through altered insulin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the potential alteration in the level of insulin and adiponectin, as well as the expression of insulin receptors (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 GLUT-4 in chronic restraint stress rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and stress group in which the rats were ...

  12. Administration of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, an endogenous ghrelin enhancer, improves the decrease in postprandial gastric motility in an acute restraint stress mouse model

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    Nahata, M; Saegusa, Y; Sadakane, C; Yamada, C; Nakagawa, K; Okubo, N; Ohnishi, S; Hattori, T; Sakamoto, N; Takeda, H

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical or psychological stress causes functional disorders in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This study aims to elucidate the ameliorating effect of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, a Kampo medicine which acts as a ghrelin enhancer, on gastric dysfunction during acute restraint stress in mice. Methods Fasted and postprandial motor function of the gastric antrum was wirelessly measured using a strain gauge force transducer and solid gastric emptying was detected in mice exposed to restraint stress. Plasma corticosterone and ghrelin levels were also measured. To clarify the role of ghrelin on gastrointestinal dysfunction in mice exposed to stress, exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito was administered, then the mice were subjected to restraint stress. Key Results Mice exposed to restraint stress for 60 min exhibited delayed gastric emptying and increased plasma corticosterone levels. Gastric motility was decreased in mice exposed to restraint stress in both fasting and postprandial states. Restraint stress did not cause any change in plasma acylated ghrelin levels, but it significantly increased the plasma des-acyl ghrelin levels. Administration of acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito improved the restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying and decreased antral motility. Ameliorating effects of rikkunshito on stress-induced gastric dysfunction were abolished by simultaneous administration of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. Conclusions & Inferences Plasma acylated/des-acyl ghrelin imbalance was observed in acute restraint stress. Supplementation of exogenous acylated ghrelin or enhancement of endogenous ghrelin signaling may be useful in the treatment of decreased gastric function caused by stress. PMID:24684160

  13. Restraint stress and social defeat: What they have in common.

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    Motta, Simone Cristina; Canteras, Newton Sabino

    2015-07-01

    Bob Blanchard was a great inspiration for our studies on the neural basis of social defense. In the present study, we compared the hypothalamic pattern of activation between social defeat and restraint stress. As important stress situations, both defeated and immobilized animals displayed a substantial increase in Fos in the parvicellular part of the paraventricular nucleus,mostly in the region that contains the CRH neurons. In addition, socially defeated animals, but not restrained animals, recruited elements of the medial hypothalamic conspecific-responsive circuit, a region also engaged in other forms of social behavior. Of particular interest, both defeated and immobilized animals presented a robust increase in Fos expression in specific regions of the lateral hypothalamic area (i.e., juxtaparaventricular and juxtadorsomedial regions) likely to convey septo-hippocampal information encoding the environmental boundary restriction observed in both forms of stress, and in the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus which seems to work as a key player for the expression of, at least, part of the behavioral responses during both restraint and social defeat. These results indicate interesting commonalities between social defeat and restraint stress, suggesting, for the first time, a septo-hippocampal–hypothalamic path likely to respond to the environmental boundary restriction that may act as common stressor component for both types of stress. Moreover, the comparison of the neural circuits mediating physical restraint and social defense revealed a possible path for encoding the entrapment component during social confrontation.

  14. Greater Physiological and Behavioral Effects of Interrupted Stress Pattern Compared to Daily Restraint Stress in Rats

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    Zhang, Wei; Hetzel, Andrea; Shah, Bijal; Atchley, Derek; Blume, Shannon R.; Padival, Mallika A.; Rosenkranz, J. Amiel

    2014-01-01

    Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated stress on

  15. Restraint stress alters immune parameters and induces oxidative stress in the mouse uterus during embryo implantation.

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    Liu, Guanhui; Dong, Yulan; Wang, Zixu; Cao, Jing; Chen, Yaoxing

    2014-12-01

    The influence of stress on embryo implantation is not well understood. Prior studies have focused on later gestational stages and the long-term impact of stress on immune function. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of restraint stress on the immune parameters and the oxidative states of the uterus during implantation. In this study, pregnant CD1 mice were subjected to restraint stress (4 h/d) on embryonic day 1 (E1) and sacrificed on E3, E5, and E7. Maternal plasma corticosterone (CORT) secretion and implantation sites in the uterus were examined. The uterine (excluding embryos) homogenate and uterine lymphocytes were collected to examine oxidative stress states and associated immune parameters. The results demonstrated that restraint stress increased maternal plasma CORT secretion and reduced the number of implantation sites by 15.3% on E5 and by 26.1% on E7. Moreover, restraint stress decreased the density of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in the endometrium by 22.1-47.9% and increased the density of mast cells in the myometrium by 55.6-76.9%. Restraint stress remarkably decreased the CD3(+)CD4(+) T/CD3(+)CD8(+) T cell ratio (by 26.2-28.9%) and attenuated uterine lymphocyte proliferation and secretion of cytokines. In addition, restraint stress threatened the intracellular equilibrium between oxidants and antioxidants, resulting in decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) (32.2% and 45.7%), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (15.5% and 26.1%), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) (18.4% and 18.2%) activities and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) (34.4% and 43.0%) contents on E5 and E7. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that restraint stress causes abnormal implantation and negatively impacts immune parameters in association with oxidative stress in mice.

  16. Effect of repeated restraint stress on memory in different tasks

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    G.D. Gamaro

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of repeated stress applied to female rats on memory evaluated by three behavioral tasks: two-way shuttle avoidance, inhibitory avoidance and habituation to an open field. Repeated stress had different effects on rat behavior when different tasks were considered. In the two-way active avoidance test the stressed animals presented memory of the task, but their memory scores were impaired when compared to all other groups. In the habituation to the open field, only the control group showed a significant difference in the number of rearings between training and testing sessions, which is interpreted as an adequate memory of the task. In the handled and chronically stressed animals, on the other hand, no memory was observed, suggesting that even a very mild repeated stress would be enough to alter habituation to this task. The performance in the inhibitory avoidance task presented no significant differences between groups. The findings suggest that repeated restraint stress might induce cognitive impairments that are dependent on the task and on stress intensity.

  17. Electroconvulsive Stimulation, but not Chronic Restraint Stress, Causes Structural Alterations in Adult Rat Hippocampus

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    Olesen, Mikkel V.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2015-01-01

    of newly formed neurons in the hippocampal subgranular zone. Also estimated were the total number of neurons and the volume of the granule cell layer in adult rats subjected to chronic restraint stress and electroconvulsive stimulation either alone or in combination. We found that chronic restraint stress...

  18. Restraint stress intensifies interstitial K+ accumulation during severe hypoxia

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    Christian eSchnell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress affects neuronal networks by inducing dendritic retraction, modifying neuronal excitability and plasticity, and modulating glial cells. To elucidate the functional consequences of chronic stress for the hippocampal network, we submitted adult rats to daily restraint stress for three weeks (6 h/day. In acute hippocampal tissue slices of stressed rats, basal synaptic function and short-term plasticity at Schaffer collateral/CA1 neuron synapses were unchanged while long-term potentiation was markedly impaired. The spatiotemporal propagation pattern of hypoxia-induced spreading depression episodes was indistinguishable among control and stress slices. However, the duration of the extracellular direct current (DC potential shift was shortened after stress. Moreover, K+ fluxes early during hypoxia were more intense, and the postsynaptic recoveries of interstitial K+ levels and synaptic function were slower. Morphometric analysis of immunohistochemically stained sections suggested hippocampal shrinkage in stressed rats, and the number of cells that are immunoreactive for GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in the CA1 subfield indicating activation of astrocytes. Western blots showed a marked downregulation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 in stressed rats. Yet, resting membrane potentials, input resistance and K+-induced inward currents in CA1 astrocytes were indistinguishable from controls. These data indicate an intensified interstitial K+ accumulation during hypoxia in the hippocampus of chronically stressed rats which seems to arise from a reduced interstitial volume fraction rather than impaired glial K+ buffering. One may speculate that chronic stress aggravates hypoxia-induced pathophysiological processes in the hippocampal network and that this has implications for the ischemic brain.

  19. Role of Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ and NOP Receptors in the Response to Acute and Repeated Restraint Stress in Rats

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    Delaney, G; Dawe, K L; Hogan, R; Hunjan, T; Roper, J; Hazell, G; Lolait, S J; Fulford, A J

    2012-01-01

    Central nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ)-expressing neurones are abundantly expressed in the hypothalamus and limbic system and are implicated in the regulation of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and stress responses. We investigated the role of the endogenous N/OFQ receptor (NOP) system using the nonpeptidic NOP antagonist, JTC-801 [N-(4-amino-2-methylquinolin-6-yl)-2-(4-ethylphenoxy-methyl)benzamide monohydrochloride], during the HPA axis response to acute physical/psychological stress (60 min of restraint). Although i.v. JTC-801 (0.05 mg/kg in 100 μl) had no significant effect on restraint-induced plasma corticosterone release at 30 or 60 min post-injection, i.v. JTC-801 (0.05 mg/kg in 100 μl) in quiescent rats significantly increased basal plasma corticosterone at the 30-min time-point compared to i.v. vehicle (1% dimethysulphoxide in sterile saline). Central injection of JTC-801 i.c.v. was associated with increased Fos expression in the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus 90 min after infusion compared to vehicle control. These findings contrast to the effects of i.c.v. UFP-101, a NOP antagonist that we have previously shown to have no effect on HPA activity in quiescent rats. To determine whether restraint stress was associated with compensatory changes in N/OFQ precursor (ppN/OFQ) or NOP receptor mRNAs, in a separate study, we undertook reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridisation analysis of ppN/OFQ and NOP transcripts in the brains of male Sprague–Dawley rats. In support of an endogenous role for central N/OFQ in psychological stress, we found that acute restraint significantly decreased preproN/OFQ transcript expression in the hippocampus 2 h after stress compared to unstressed controls. PpN/OFQ mRNA was also reduced in the mediodorsal forebrain 4 h after stress. NOP mRNA was reduced in the hypothalamus 2 h after restraint and at 4 h in mediodorsal forebrain and hippocampus. In situ hybridisation

  20. Chronic restraint or variable stresses differently affect the behavior, corticosterone secretion and body weight in rats.

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    Marin, Marcelo T; Cruz, Fabio C; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2007-01-30

    Organisms are constantly subjected to stressful stimuli that affect numerous physiological processes and activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, increasing the release of glucocorticoids. Exposure to chronic stress is known to alter basic mechanisms of the stress response. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of two different stress paradigms (chronic restraint or variable stress) on behavioral and corticosterone release to a subsequent exposure to stressors. Considering that the HPA axis might respond differently when it is challenged with a novel or a familiar stressor we investigated the changes in the corticosterone levels following the exposure to two stressors: restraint (familiar stress) or forced novelty (novel stress). The changes in the behavioral response were evaluated by measuring the locomotor response to a novel environment. In addition, we examined changes in body, adrenals, and thymus weights in response to the chronic paradigms. Our results showed that exposure to chronic variable stress increased basal plasma corticosterone levels and that both, chronic restraint and variable stresses, promote higher corticosterone levels in response to a novel environment, but not to a challenge restraint stress, as compared to the control (non-stressed) group. Exposure to chronic restraint leads to increased novelty-induced locomotor activity. Furthermore, only the exposure to variable stress reduced body weights. In conclusion, the present results provide additional evidence on how chronic stress affects the organism physiology and point to the importance of the chronic paradigm and challenge stress on the behavioral and hormonal adaptations induced by chronic stress.

  1. Modification of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity by memantine in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress: implications for memory and behavior.

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    Amin, Shaimaa Nasr; El-Aidi, Ahmed Amro; Ali, Mohamed Mostafa; Attia, Yasser Mahmoud; Rashed, Laila Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Stress is any condition that impairs the balance of the organism physiologically or psychologically. The response to stress involves several neurohormonal consequences. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and its release is increased by stress that predisposes to excitotoxicity in the brain. Memantine is an uncompetitive N-methyl D-aspartate glutamatergic receptors antagonist and has shown beneficial effect on cognitive function especially in Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the work was to investigate memantine effect on memory and behavior in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress with the evaluation of serum markers of stress and the expression of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity. Forty-two male rats were divided into seven groups (six rats/group): control, acute restraint stress, acute restraint stress with Memantine, repeated restraint stress, repeated restraint stress with Memantine and Memantine groups (two subgroups as positive control). Spatial working memory and behavior were assessed by performance in Y-maze. We evaluated serum cortisol, tumor necrotic factor, interleukin-6 and hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, synaptophysin and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Our results revealed that Memantine improved spatial working memory in repeated stress, decreased serum level of stress markers and modified the hippocampal synaptic plasticity markers in both patterns of stress exposure; in ARS, Memantine upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and downregulated the expression of calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and in repeated restraint stress, it upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and downregulated calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression.

  2. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

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    Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  3. Effects of chronic restraint stress on body weight, food intake, and hypothalamic gene expressions in mice.

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    Jeong, Joo Yeon; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Soo

    2013-12-01

    Stress affects body weight and food intake, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the changes in body weight and food intake of ICR male mice subjected to daily 2 hours restraint stress for 15 days. Hypothalamic gene expression profiling was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Daily body weight and food intake measurements revealed that both parameters decreased rapidly after initiating daily restraint stress. Body weights of stressed mice then remained significantly lower than the control body weights, even though food intake slowly recovered to 90% of the control intake at the end of the experiment. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that chronic restraint stress affects the expression of hypothalamic genes possibly related to body weight control. Since decreases of daily food intake and body weight were remarkable in days 1 to 4 of restraint, we examined the expression of food intake-related genes in the hypothalamus. During these periods, the expressions of ghrelin and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA were significantly changed in mice undergoing restraint stress. Moreover, daily serum corticosterone levels gradually increased, while leptin levels significantly decreased. The present study demonstrates that restraint stress affects body weight and food intake by initially modifying canonical food intake-related genes and then later modifying other genes involved in energy metabolism. These genetic changes appear to be mediated, at least in part, by corticosterone.

  4. Environmental stress, psychological stress and allostatic load.

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    Clark, Michael S; Bond, Malcolm J; Hecker, Jane R

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism by which chronic caregiving stress results in poor health is not well understood. The objective was to determine whether such a mechanism may be allostatic load, a novel concept specifying physiological systems that may suffer cumulative wear and tear following chronic stress, leading collectively to poor health. The study examines the association of allostatic load with environmental and psychological stress in the contexts of dementia caregiving and relinquishment of care, and is a 2-year longitudinal comparison of three groups: 80 new dementia spouse caregivers, 120 veteran caregivers, and 60 non-caregivers. Data comprised allostatic load markers and environmental and psychological stress measures. Cross-lagged analyses produced a statistically significant association between psychological stress and one allostatic load component (primary mediators). Psychological stress was a better predictor of primary mediators than environmental stress. Primary mediators rose with time for caregivers, but not for non-caregivers. A greater rise was evident for caregivers who had relinquished their role by the second year, although the level of psychological stress actually declined. Primary mediators are a key component of the relationship between allostatic load and prior stress. When allostatic load is treated as an outcome of stress, it is important to distinguish environmental and psychological stress.

  5. Response of restraint stress-selected lines of Japanese quail to heat stress and Escherichia coli challenge

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    Japanese quail selected for divergent corticosterone (Cort) response to restraint stress were evaluated for their susceptibility to heat stress and challenge with Escherichia coli. These quail lines are designated as the high stress (HS), low stress (LS), and the random-bred control (CS) lines. Hea...

  6. Chronic restraint stress in rats causes sustained increase in urinary corticosterone excretion without affecting cerebral or systemic oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Anders; Maigaard, Katrine; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2013-01-01

    Increased oxidatively generated damage to nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) may be a common mechanism underlying accelerated aging in psychological stress states and mental disorders. In the present study, we measured the urinary excretion of corticosterone and markers of systemic oxidative stress on nucleic...... of nucleic acid damage from oxidation were affected by stress. In contrast, cerebral DNA repair enzymes exhibited a general trend towards an induction, which was significant for hippocampal Nudt1. The results and their implications for stress sensitivity and resilience are discussed....... acids, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), respectively, in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress. To reliably collect 24h urine samples, the full 3-week restraint stress paradigm was performed in metabolism cages. We further determined frontal...

  7. The effects of sex and hormonal status on restraint-stress-induced working memory impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan Avis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restraint stress has been shown to elicit numerous effects on hippocampal function and neuronal morphology, as well as to induce dendritic remodeling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. However, the effects of acute restraint stress on PFC cognitive function have not been investigated, despite substantial evidence that the PFC malfunctions in many stress-related disorders. Methods The present study examined the effects of restraint stress on PFC function in both male rats and cycling female rats in either the proestrus (high estrogen or estrus (low estrogen phase of the estrus cycle. Animals were restrained for 60 or 120 minutes and then tested on spatial delayed alternation, a PFC-mediated task. Performance after stress was compared to performance on a different day under no-stress conditions, and analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results Sixty minutes of restraint impaired only females in proestrus, while 120 minutes of restraint produced significant impairments in all animals. Increases in task completion times did not affect performance. Conclusion These results demonstrate an interaction between hormonal status and cognitive response to stress in female rats, with high estrogen levels being associated with amplified sensitivity to stress. This effect has been previously observed after administration of a pharmacological stressor (the benzodiazepine inverse agonist FG7142, and results from both studies may be relevant to the increased prevalence of stress-related disorders, such as major depressive disorder, in cycling women. Overall, the results show that restraint stress has important effects on the cognitive functions of the PFC, and that hormonal influences in the PFC are an important area for future research.

  8. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on platelet aggregation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Fumikazu; Kitamura, Nobuo; Satoh, Eiki

    2014-03-01

    Although psychological stress has long been known to alter cardiovascular function, there have been few studies on the effect of psychological stress on platelets, which play a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on the aggregation of platelets and platelet cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Mice were subjected to both transportation stress (exposure to novel environment, psychological stress) and restraint stress (psychological stress) for 2 h (acute stress) or 3 weeks (2 h/day) (chronic stress). In addition, adrenalectomized mice were subjected to similar chronic stress (both transportation and restraint stress for 3 weeks). The aggregation of platelets from mice and [Ca(2+)]i was determined by light transmission assay and fura-2 fluorescence assay, respectively. Although acute stress had no effect on agonist-induced platelet aggregation, chronic stress enhanced the ability of the platelet agonists thrombin and ADP to stimulate platelet aggregation. However, chronic stress failed to enhance agonist-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Adrenalectomy blocked chronic stress-induced enhancement of platelet aggregation. These results suggest that chronic, but not acute, psychological stress enhances agonist-stimulated platelet aggregation independently of [Ca(2+)]i increase, and the enhancement may be mediated by stress hormones secreted from the adrenal glands.

  9. Biomarkers of hippocampal gene expression in a mouse restraint chronic stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaldi, Massimo; Ricciardelli, Eugenia; Pasqualini, Lorenza; Sannino, Giuseppina; Soverchia, Laura; Ruggeri, Barbara; Falcinelli, Silvia; Renzi, Alessandra; Ludka, Colleen; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Hardiman, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Acute stress provides many beneficial effects whereas chronic stress contributes to a variety of human health issues including anxiety, depression, gastrointestinal problems, cardiac disease, sleep disorders and obesity. The goal of this work was to identify, using a rodent model, hippocampal gene signatures associated with prolonged chronic stress representing candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets for early diagnosis and pharmacological intervention for stress induced disease. Mice underwent 'restraint stress' over 7 consecutive days and hippocampal gene-expression changes were analyzed at 3, 12 and 24 h following the final restraint treatment. Data indicated that mice exposed to chronic restraint stress exhibit a differential gene-expression profile compared with non-stressed controls. The greatest differences were observed 12 and 24 h following the final stress test. Our study indicated that Gpr88, Ttr, Gh and Tac1 mRNAs were modulated in mice exposed to chronic restraint stress. These transcripts represent a panel of biomarkers and druggable targets for further analysis in the context of chronic stress associated disease in humans.

  10. Effect of maternal restraint stress during gestation on temporal lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroendocrine and immune responses of progeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of gestational dam restraint stress on progeny immune and neuroendocrine temporal hormone responses to lipopoly-saccharide (LPS) challenge was assessed. Maternal stress (5-min snout snare restraint stress during days 84 to 112 of gestation) increased (P < 0.05) the magnitude of tumor necr...

  11. BIological Psychology, Exercise, and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews theory and methods used by the field of biological psychology to study stress that have potential for understanding how behavioral and biological adaptations to the stress of exercise are integrated. The overview focuses on anxiety, depression, and physiological responsiveness to nonexercise stressors from the perspective of biological…

  12. How Farm Animals React and Perceive Stressful Situations Such As Handling, Restraint, and Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temple Grandin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An animal that has been carefully acclimated to handling may willingly re-enter a restrainer. Another animal may have an intense agitated behavioral reaction or refuse to re-enter the handling facility. Physiological measures of stress such as cortisol may be very low in the animal that re-enters willingly and higher in animals that actively resist restraint. Carefully acclimating young animals to handling and restraint can help improve both productivity and welfare by reducing fear stress. Some of the topics covered in this review are: How an animal perceives handling and restraint, the detrimental effects of a sudden novel event, descriptions of temperament and aversion tests and the importance of good stockmanship.

  13. Effects of the chronic restraint stress induced depression on reward-related learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pan; Wang, Kezhu; Lu, Cong; Dong, Liming; Chen, Yixi; Wang, Qiong; Shi, Zhe; Yang, Yanyan; Chen, Shanguang; Liu, Xinmin

    2017-03-15

    Chronic mild or unpredictability stress produces a persistent depressive-like state. The main symptoms of depression include weight loss, despair, anhedonia, diminished motivation and mild cognition impairment, which could influence the ability of reward-related learning. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic restraint stress on the performance of reward-related learning of rats. We used the exposure of repeated restraint stress (6h/day, for 28days) to induce depression-like behavior in rats. Then designed tasks including Pavlovian conditioning (magazine head entries), acquisition and maintenance of instrumental conditioning (lever pressing) and goal directed learning (higher fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement) to study the effects of chronic restraint stress. The results indicated that chronic restraint stress influenced rats in those aspects including the acquisition of a Pavlovian stimulus-outcome (S-O) association, the formation and maintenance of action-outcome (A-O) causal relation and the ability of learning in higher fixed ratio schedule. In conclusion, depression could influence the performances in reward-related learning obviously and the series of instrumental learning tasks may have potential as a method to evaluate cognitive changes in depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis in vivo--role of the sympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stämpfli, Simon F; Camici, Giovanni G; Keller, Stephan; Rozenberg, Izabela; Arras, Margarete; Schuler, Beat; Gassmann, Max; Garcia, Irene; Lüscher, Thomas F; Tanner, Felix C

    2014-01-01

    Stress is known to correlate with the incidence of acute myocardial infarction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this correlation are not known. This study was designed to assess the effect of experimental stress on arterial thrombus formation, the key event in acute myocardial infarction. Mice exposed to 20 h of restraint stress displayed an increased arterial prothrombotic potential as assessed by photochemical injury-induced time to thrombotic occlusion. This increase was prevented by chemical sympathectomy performed through 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Blood-born tissue factor (TF) activity was enhanced by stress and this increase could be prevented by 6-OHDA treatment. Vessel wall TF, platelet count, platelet aggregation, coagulation times (PT, aPTT), fibrinolytic system (t-PA and PAI-1) and tail bleeding time remained unaltered. Telemetric analysis revealed only minor hemodynamic changes throughout the stress protocol. Plasma catecholamines remained unaffected after restraint stress. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plasma levels were unchanged and inhibition of TNF-α had no effect on stress-enhanced thrombosis. These results indicate that restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis via the sympathetic nervous system. Blood-borne TF contributes, at least in part, to the observed effect whereas vessel wall TF, platelets, circulating coagulation factors, fibrinolysis and inflammation do not appear to play a role. These findings shed new light on the understanding of stress-induced cardiovascular events.

  15. Agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running exercise effectively prevent anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and memory impairment in restraint stressed rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarawut Lapmanee; Jantarima Charoenphandhu; Jarinthorn Teerapornpuntakit; Nateetip Krishnamra; Narattaphol Charoenphandhu

    2017-01-01

    ...-like behaviors in stressed rats. But whether they are able to prevent deleterious consequences of restraint stress in rats, such as anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment that occur afterward, was not known...

  16. Restraint feeds stress: The relationship between eating disorder symptoms, stress generation, and the interpersonal theory of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Dorian; Smith, April; Bodell, Lindsay

    2014-12-01

    Integrating research on stress generation and the interpersonal theory of suicide we examined whether eating disorder symptoms are related to stress generation and whether negative life events (stressors) contribute to feelings of burdensomeness and low belongingness. At two time points (approximately 1month apart), participants (n=186; 75% female) completed questionnaires measuring eating disorder symptoms, negative life events, burdensomeness, and belongingness. Regression analyses indicated that while controlling for depression, anxiety, and baseline frequency of negative events, dietary restraint significantly predicted negative events at follow-up. Dietary restraint indirectly influenced higher levels of perceived burdensomeness and low belongingness through its influence on negative events. Thus, dietary restraint may contribute to stress generation, and in turn exacerbate feelings of burdensomeness and low belongingness, two important constructs of the interpersonal theory of suicide. Greater understanding of these factors could lead to more effective and targeted suicide interventions for individuals who restrict food intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Myricetin Attenuates Depressant-Like Behavior in Mice Subjected to Repeated Restraint Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zegang Ma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has shown that oxidative stress may be implicated in chronic stress-induced depression. Several flavonoids with anti-oxidative effects have been proved to be anti-depressive. Myricetin is a well-defined flavonoid with the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and neuroprotective properties. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible effects of chronic administration of myricetin on depressant-like behaviors in mice subjected to repeated restraint (4 h/day for 21 days. Our results showed that myricetin administration specifically reduced the immobility time in mice exposed to chronic stress, as tested in both forced swimming test and tail suspension test. Myricetin treatment improved activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX in the hippocampus of stressed mice. In addition, myricetin treatment decreased plasma corticosterone levels of those mice subjected to repeated restraint stress. The effects of myricetin on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in hippocampus were also investigated. The results revealed that myricetin normalized the decreased BDNF levels in mice subjected to repeated restraint stress. These findings provided more evidence that chronic administration of myricetin improves helpless behaviors. The protective effects of myricetin might be partially mediated by an influence on BDNF levels and might be attributed to myricetin-mediated anti-oxidative stress in the hippocampus.

  18. Repeated restraint stress increases basolateral amygdala neuronal activity in an age-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rosenkranz, J. Amiel

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress is a precipitating factor for affective disorders such as depression and anxiety. This is associated with the effects of chronic stress on the amygdala. Adolescents may be more vulnerable to the effects of chronic stress, which may be related to its impact on amygdala function. However, the stress-induced changes in amygdala neuronal activity, and the age-dependent impact of chronic stress on amygdala neuronal activity have not been studied in depth. In this study, we investigated how repeated restraint impacts basolateral amygdala (BLA) projection neuron activity in both adolescent and adult rats. Using in vivo extracellular recordings from anesthetized rats, we found that repeated restraint increased the number of spontaneously firing neurons in the BLA of adolescent rats, but did not significantly increase the firing rate. In contrast, repeated restraint increased the firing rate of BLA neurons in adult rats, but did not change the number of spontaneously firing neurons. This is the first direct evidence of how stress differently impacts amygdala physiology in adolescent and adult rats. These findings may shed light on the mechanism by which chronic stress may age-dependently precipitate psychiatric disorders. PMID:22986163

  19. Psychological stress and testicular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkap, Loa; Jensen, Tina Kold; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between self-reported psychological stress, semen quality, and serum reproductive hormones among young Danish men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital-based research center. PARTICIPANT(S): Danish men (median age 19 years) from...

  20. Restraint stress increases serotonin release in the central nucleus of the amygdala via activation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Bing; Feng, Na; Renner, Kenneth; Forster, Gina

    2008-07-30

    Decreases in serotonergic activity in the central nucleus of the amygdala reduce responses to stressors, suggesting an important role for serotonin in this region of the amygdala in stress reactivity. However, it is not known whether exposure to stressors actually increases serotonin release in the central nucleus of the amygdala. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that restraint stress increases extracellular serotonin within the central nucleus of the amygdala and adjacent medial amygdala using in vivo microdialysis in awake male rats during the dark phase of the light-dark cycle. Serotonin release in the central nucleus increased immediately in response to restraint stress. In contrast, there was no change in serotonin release within the adjacent medial amygdala during or following restraint. Since corticotropin-releasing factor is an important mediator of both responses to stressors and serotonergic activity, subsequent experiments tested the hypothesis that central nucleus serotonergic response to restraint stress is mediated by central corticotropin-releasing factor receptors. Administration of the corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 and 2 receptor antagonist d-Phe-CRF (icv, 10 microg/5 microl) prior to restraint stress suppressed restraint-induced serotonin release in the central nucleus. The results suggest that restraint stress rapidly and selectively increases serotonin release in the central nucleus of the amygdala by the activation of central corticotropin-releasing factor receptors. Furthermore, the results imply that corticotropin-releasing factor mediated serotonergic activity in central nucleus of the amygdala may be an important component of a stress response.

  1. Exposure to acute restraint stress reinstates nicotine-induced place preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Rodrigo M; Cruz, Fabio C; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2009-02-01

    Tobacco addiction is associated with high rates of relapse to drug use even after prolonged periods of abstinence. Relapse can occur upon reexposure to the drug of abuse, exposure to stress or to stimuli associated with drug consumption. The reinstatement of conditioning place preference (CPP) provides a simple and easy approach to investigate the mechanisms for drug relapse. We evaluated whether exposure to restraint stress could reinstate nicotine-induced CPP 1 or 15 days after its extinction. Nicotine produced place preference to the compartment paired with its injections during conditioning (0.16 mg/kg, subcutaneous; four drug sessions). Once established, nicotine CPP was extinguished by alternate exposure to each compartment after a saline injection (four exposures to each compartment). After this extinction phase, the reinstatement of place conditioning was investigated. For this purpose, rats were exposed to 30-min restraint stress 1 or 15 days after the extinction test, then immediately tested for reinstatement of CPP. Our results show that exposure to restraint stress reinstated CPP 1 and 15 days after extinction. Our study indicates for the first time that the vulnerability to stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine CPP is long-lasting, corroborating clinical studies showing that stress is positively associated with relapse to tobacco use even after a long period of nicotine withdrawal.

  2. Basal blood corticosterone level is correlated with susceptibility to chronic restraint stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Gon; Jung, Hye-Seung; Kim, Ki-Joon; Min, Sun-Seek; Yoon, Bong-June

    2013-10-25

    Corticosterone is released in response to stress and manifests as various bodily stress responses in rodents. While corticosterone reflects acute adaptive responses, how the basal steady-state corticosterone level relates to the subsequent stress response is largely unknown. Here, we investigated how basal corticosterone levels can affect the susceptibility to chronic restraint stress in mice. We designed a longitudinal experiment, enabling us to compare the basal corticosterone level and the subsequent response to repeated restraint stress within the same animal. We found that the mice had differential changes in plasma corticosterone levels, which either increased or decreased, with exposure to chronic stress. These differential changes reflected the differential stress susceptibility of the mice, as evaluated by changes in body weight. The extent of the changes in corticosterone level during chronic stress exposure was predicted by the basal corticosterone level. In addition, the behavioral consequence of chronic stress was also correlated with the basal corticosterone level prior to chronic stress experience. These data reveal that the basal steady-state corticosterone level is a predictor of stress susceptibility or resilience to subsequent stress exposures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental Enrichment Blunts Ethanol Consumption after Restraint Stress in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Marianno

    Full Text Available Elevated alcohol intake after abstinence is a key feature of the addiction process. Some studies have shown that environmental enrichment (EE affects ethanol intake and other reinforcing effects. However, different EE protocols may vary in their ability to influence alcohol consumption and stress-induced intake. The present study evaluated whether short (3 h or continuous (24 h EE protocols affect ethanol consumption after periods of withdrawal. Mice were challenged with stressful stimuli (24 h isolation and restraint stress to evaluate the effects of stress on drinking. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a two-bottle choice drinking-in-the-dark paradigm for 15 days (20% ethanol and water, 2 h/day, acquisition phase. Control mice were housed under standard conditions (SC. In the first experiment, one group of mice was housed under EE conditions 24 h/day (EE24h. In the second experiment, the exposure to EE was reduced to 3 h/day (EE3h. After the acquisition phase, the animals were deprived of ethanol for 6 days, followed by 2 h ethanol access once a week. Animals were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM during ethanol withdrawal. During the last 2 weeks, the mice were exposed to 24 h ethanol access. A 1-h restraint stress test was performed immediately before the last ethanol exposure. EE24h but not EE3h increased anxiety-like behavior during withdrawal compared to controls. Neither EE24h nor EE3h affected ethanol consumption during the 2 h weekly exposure periods. However, EE24h and EE3h mice that were exposed to acute restraint stress consumed less ethanol than controls during a 24 h ethanol access. These results showed that EE reduces alcohol intake after an acute restraint stress.

  4. Housing in Pyramid Counteracts Neuroendocrine and Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Restraint in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Surekha Bhat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The space within the great pyramid and its smaller replicas is believed to have an antistress effect. Research has shown that the energy field within the pyramid can protect the hippocampal neurons of mice from stress-induced atrophy and also reduce neuroendocrine stress, oxidative stress and increase antioxidant defence in rats. In this study, we have, for the first time, attempted to study the antistress effects of pyramid exposure on the status of cortisol level, oxidative damage and antioxidant status in rats during chronic restraint stress. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into four groups as follows: normal controls (NC housed in home cage and left in the laboratory; restrained rats (with three subgroups subject to chronic restraint stress by placing in a wire mesh restrainer for 6 h per day for 14 days, the restrained controls (RC having their restrainers kept in the laboratory; restrained pyramid rats (RP being kept in the pyramid; and restrained square box rats (RS in the square box during the period of restraint stress everyday. Erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA and plasma cortisol levels were significantly increased and erythrocyte-reduced glutathione (GSH levels, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were significantly decreased in RC and RS rats as compared to NC. However, these parameters were maintained to near normal levels in RP rats which showed significantly decreased erythrocyte MDA and plasma cortisol and significantly increased erythrocyte GSH levels, erythrocyte GSH-Px and SOD activities when compared with RS rats. The results showed that housing in pyramid counteracts neuroendocrine and oxidative stress caused by chronic restraint in rats.

  5. Cinnamon modulates biochemical alterations in rats loaded with acute restraint stress

    OpenAIRE

    Khataibeh, Moayad

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate pretreatment efficacy of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on blood glucose level as well as oxidative changes at the liver level. Following acute restraint stress, the experimental animals (n = 6) were randomly assigned into four groups, i.e., non-stressed control, stress control and treatment groups (cinnamon decoction 10%, 3 and 6 ml/kg, p.o, for 7 days). Anti-stress effect of cinnamon was studied by estimation of blood glucose level, liver...

  6. Protective effect of apple polyphenols against stress-provoked influenza viral infection in restraint mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rong-Rong; Wang, Min; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Chen, Bang-Tian; Lu, Chun-Ni; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Chen, Jian-Xin; Kurihara, Hiroshi

    2011-04-27

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of apple polyphenol extract (APE) against influenza virus in mice loaded with restraint stress. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint of APE was recorded, and the percentage composition of polyphenols was determined as 81.7%. Our results showed that restraint stress significantly promoted the mortality and duration of complications of mice infected with the H1N1 virus. However, oral administration of APE (100 and 200 mg/kg) improved the survival rates and prolonged living time of stressed mice infected with influenza virus in a dose-dependent manner. APE was further found to significantly improve the number of immunocytes, ratio of CD4 helper cells, secretion of IL-2, and capabilities of natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity (LU10/spleen) in spleens of restraint-stressed mice. In addition, APE also significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxidation and increased oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) in splenocytes. These results indicated that the protective effects of APE on mice infected with influenza virus were related to the alleviation of stress-induced impairment of immune functions and its antioxidant property might contribute to the immune recovery.

  7. The effect of chronic restraint stress on spatial learning and memory: relation to oxidant stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Ismail; Yargiçoglu, Piraye; Agar, Aysel; Gümüslü, Saadet; Aydin, Selcen; Oztürk, Oguz; Sahin, Emel

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic restraint stress (RS) on spatial learning and memory. Fifty healthy male Wistar rats, aged three months were used. They were equally divided into five groups--C: Control, W: Water Maze, CS-1: Restrained for 21 days (1 h/day) + water maze protocol following stress period, CS-2: Restrained for 28 days (1 h/day) + water maze protocol during last 7 days of stress period, CS-3: Restrained for 21 days and allowed to recovery for 7 days (1 h/day). Corticosterone levels were higher in all stress groups than in C and W groups. Nitrite levels of frontal cortex and hippocampus were found to be elevated in chronic stress groups with respect to C and W groups. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of both tissues were increased significantly in CS1 and CS2 groups compared with C, W, and CS3 groups. Escape latencies of CS1 and CS2 groups were longer than those of the W group on each day of acquisition. In transfer test, CS1 and CS2 groups stayed significantly shorter in target quadrant according to the W group. Significant correlations between corticosterone and either nitrite or TBARS of hippocampus and frontal cortex were found. Both acquisition and memory performances were negatively correlated with plasma corticosterone level, nitrite, and TBARS levels of hippocampus and frontal cortex. The results of this study suggest that stress-induced lipid peroxidation may affect the acquisition and memory performances.

  8. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Buechel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/ stress hormone/ allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation, and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 mo. and aged (21 mo. male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress groups (n = 9-12/ group. We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the three hour restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 hours after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  9. Behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of the exposure to chronic restraint or variable stress in early adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fábio C; Marin, Marcelo T; Leão, Rodrigo M; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2012-02-01

    Stress events during adolescence may contribute to the expression or exacerbation of physical and behavioral disorders. However, little attention has been given to the physiological and behavioral changes promoted by stress during this period of ontogeny. In the present study we investigated, in adolescent male rats, the effects of repeated exposure to restraint or variable stress on: (a) locomotor activity and corticosterone levels after exposure to a novel environment; (b) corticosterone levels in response to the exposure to restraint stress; and (c) changes in body, thymus and adrenal weights. The results demonstrated that repeated exposure to restraint or variable stress reduced the locomotor response, but did not affect corticosterone secretion, in response to a novel environment. Moreover, both chronic stress procedures did not change corticosterone secretion in response to acute restraint stress. Furthermore, our results showed that repeated restraint, but not variable stress, produced a decrease in body weight along the stress exposure. Finally, we observed that the exposure to variable stress reduced the thymus relative weight. Taken together our results suggest that behavioral and physiological changes induced by exposure to chronic stress during adolescence depend on the stress regimen. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cinnamon modulates biochemical alterations in rats loaded with acute restraint stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayad Khataibeh

    2016-09-01

    Following acute restraint stress, the experimental animals (n = 6 were randomly assigned into four groups, i.e., non-stressed control, stress control and treatment groups (cinnamon decoction 10%, 3 and 6 ml/kg, p.o, for 7 days. Anti-stress effect of cinnamon was studied by estimation of blood glucose level, liver marker enzymes; aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactate dehydrogenase, liver reduced glutathione (GSH and liver antioxidant enzymes; super oxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, catalase (CAT and glutathione reductase (GR. Acute restraint stress was evidenced by reduction of blood glucose level and liver GSH and elevation of liver marker enzymes in serum. In addition, antioxidant enzymes were drastically inhibited in liver homogenate of stress control rats. Pre-treatment with cinnamon decoction 10%, (3 ml/kg and 6 ml/kg, p.o, for 7 days avoided the changes observed in stress control rats. This study substantiates that cinnamon is effective in minimizing stress responses thereby beneficial in stress therapy.

  11. The Role of Alpha-1 and Alpha-2 Adrenoceptors in Restraint Stress-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimei; Jia, Li; Zhao, Zengming; Peng, Shuangqing; Lei, Linsheng

    2014-01-01

    Acute stress affects cellular integrity in many tissues including the liver, but its underlying mechanism is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential involvement of catecholamines and adrenoceptors in the regulation of acute restraint stress-induced liver injury. Restraint was achieved by placing mice in restraint tubes. Mice were treated with either an α-l antagonist, prazosin, an α-2 antagonist, yohimbine, a β-l antagonist, betaxolol, a β-2 antagonist, ICI 118551, or a central and peripheral catecholamine depleting agent, reserpine, and followed by restraint stress. Assessment of liver injury (serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) , hepatic total GSH, GSSG and GSH/GSSG ratio) , histopathology and of apoptosis, by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling) assay and western blotting, was performed. Three hours of restraint stress resulted in liver injury, as indexed by elevated serum transaminase levels, decreased hepatic total GSH levels and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased hepatic GSSG levels as well as enhanced hepatocytes apoptosis. Either reserpine or prazosin or yohimbine was found to attenuate liver injury. Furthermore, prazosin and yohimbine protected against restraint-induced hepatocytes apoptosis through attenuating the activation of caspases-9 and -3 and reducing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These results suggest that α-1 and α-2 adrenoceptors mediate restraint-induced liver oxidative injury through caspase-9 and Bcl-2 family of apoptotic regulatory proteins. PMID:24682087

  12. Acute Restraint Stress Alters Wheel-Running Behavior Immediately Following Stress and up to 20 Hours Later in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisch, Jessica L; deWolski, Karen; Meek, Thomas H; Acosta, Wendy; Middleton, Kevin M; Crino, Ondi L; Garland, Theodore

    In vertebrates, acute stressors-although short in duration-can influence physiology and behavior over a longer time course, which might have important ramifications under natural conditions. In laboratory rats, for example, acute stress has been shown to increase anxiogenic behaviors for days after a stressor. In this study, we quantified voluntary wheel-running behavior for 22 h following a restraint stress and glucocorticoid levels 24 h postrestraint. We utilized mice from four replicate lines that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running activity (HR mice) for 60 generations and their nonselected control (C) lines to examine potential interactions between exercise propensity and sensitivity to stress. Following 6 d of wheel access on a 12L∶12D photo cycle (0700-1900 hours, as during the routine selective breeding protocol), 80 mice were physically restrained for 40 min, beginning at 1400 hours, while another 80 were left undisturbed. Relative to unrestrained mice, wheel running increased for both HR and C mice during the first hour postrestraint (P Wheel running was also examined at four distinct phases of the photoperiod. Running in the period of 1600-1840 hours was unaffected by restraint stress and did not differ statistically between HR and C mice. During the period of peak wheel running (1920-0140 hours), restrained mice tended to run fewer revolutions (-11%; two-tailed P = 0.0733), while HR mice ran 473% more than C (P = 0.0008), with no restraint × line type interaction. Wheel running declined for all mice in the latter part of the scotophase (0140-0600 hours), restraint had no statistical effect on wheel running, but HR again ran more than C (+467%; P = 0.0122). Finally, during the start of the photophase (0720-1200 hours), restraint increased running by an average of 53% (P = 0.0443) in both line types, but HR and C mice did not differ statistically. Mice from HR lines had statistically higher plasma corticosterone concentrations

  13. Interaction between repeated restraint stress and concomitant midazolam administration on sweet food ingestion in rats

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    Silveira P.P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional changes can influence feeding behavior. Previous studies have shown that chronically stressed animals present increased ingestion of sweet food, an effect reversed by a single dose of diazepam administered before testing the animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the response of animals chronically treated with midazolam and/or submitted to repeated restraint stress upon the ingestion of sweet food. Male adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: controls and exposed to restraint 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 40 days. Both groups were subdivided into two other groups treated or not with midazolam (0.06 mg/ml in their drinking water during the 40-day treatment. The animals were placed in a lighted area in the presence of 10 pellets of sweet food (Froot loops®. The number of ingested pellets was measured during a period of 3 min, in the presence or absence of fasting. The group chronically treated with midazolam alone presented increased ingestion when compared to control animals (control group: 2.0 ± 0.44 pellets and midazolam group: 3.60 ± 0.57 pellets. The group submitted to restraint stress presented an increased ingestion compared to controls (control group: 2.0 ± 0.44 pellets and stressed group: 4.18 ± 0.58 pellets. Chronically administered midazolam reduced the ingestion in stressed animals (stressed/water group: 4.18 ± 0.58 pellets; stressed/midazolam group: 3.2 ± 0.49 pellets. Thus, repeated stress increases appetite for sweet food independently of hunger and chronic administration of midazolam can decrease this behavioral effect.

  14. Acute restraint stress induces hyperalgesia via non-adrenergic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the non-involvement of adrenergic mechanisms. The hyperalgesia may however result from a change in the affective state of the animal and not from a change in sensory processing of noxious stimulus. Keywords: stress, hyperalgesia, tail-flick test, sympathetic nervous system. African Journal of Biomedical Research Vol.

  15. Disaster psychology, stress, crisis, trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Miroslav Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophe or disaster entails material destruction - ecological and psychosocial - that transcends the coping capacities of the affected community. Undesirable consequences of disasters, which can be due to both human and natural causes, are reflected in the loss of life of millions in the last decades of the twentieth century, as well as in detrimental influence on the lives of several hundred million people and multi-billion dollar material and financial losses. For these reasons, the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed the 1990s as the decade of prevention and reduction of the incidence of disasters under resolution 42/169. In order to succeed in preventing and reducing the incidence of disasters, as well as help those affected by them, we have to enrich our theoretical knowledge (i.e., get to know the nature of disaster psychology, understand stress, crisis and trauma, as International Classification of Diseases ISC-10 determines and describes psychosocial psychological reactions and psychological disorders… and practical, experiential and research results. The research we have conducted shows that as far as the spectrum of psychosocial reactions and psychological disorders is concerned, individuals who experience disasters most often exhibit anxiety-, depression-, and anxiety-depression-related disorders, Among the anxiety-related reactions, the most common ones are elevated tension and uneasiness. In some individuals, we can also expect the appearance of fears that were formerly not present, such as fears of being hurt, of mutilation and death. Our experience from working with the refugee population warns us that psychosocial reactions and reactive psychological disorders can emerge even years after disasters such as war and refuge, as well as that individuals affected by such disasters always deserve special attention and psychotherapeutic treatment.

  16. Epigenetic programming of the stress response in male and female rats by prenatal restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnaudéry, Muriel; Maccari, Stefania

    2008-03-01

    Exposure to hostile conditions results in a series of coordinated responses aimed at enhancing the probability of survival. The activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis plays a pivotal role in the stress response. While the short-term activation of the HPA axis allows adaptive responses to the challenge, in the long run this can be devastating for the organism. In particular, life events occurring during the perinatal period have strong long-term effects on the behavioral and neuroendocrine response to stressors. In male and female rats exposed to prenatal restraint stress (PRS), these effects include a long-lasting hyperactivation of the HPA response associated with an altered circadian rhythm of corticosterone secretion. Furthermore, male animals exhibit sleep disturbances. In males, these HPA dysfunctions have been reported in infant, young, adult and aged animals, thus suggesting a permanent effect of early stress. Interestingly, after exposure to an intense inescapable footshock, female PRS rats durably exhibit a blunted corticosterone secretion response to stress. In male PRS rats exposed to an alcohol challenge, the HPA axis is similarly hyporesponsive. Rats exposed to PRS also show behavioral disturbances. Both male and female PRS rats show high anxiety levels and depression-like behavior during adulthood, although some studies suggest that female PRS rats present low anxiety levels. With ageing, male and female PRS rats exhibit memory impairments in hippocampus-dependent tasks, while female PRS rats improve their memory performance during adulthood. The gender effect on behavior seems to be related to a reduction in hippocampal plasticity in male PRS rats, and an increase in female PRS rats. Despite the permanent imprinting induced by early stress, the dysfunctions observed after PRS can be reversed by environmental or pharmacological strategies such as environmental enrichment or antidepressive and neurotrophic treatments

  17. St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) diminishes cognitive impairment caused by the chronic restraint stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimiuk, Emil; Walesiuk, Anna; Braszko, Jan J

    2005-03-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) may counteract stress-induced memory impairment. Object recognition test and Morris water maze were used to determine whether administration of H. perforatum (350 mg kg(-1) for 21 days), standardized to 0.3% hypericin content, protects against non-spatial and/or spatial memory impairments due to chronic restraint stress (2h daily for 21 days). A group of rats administered the exogenous corticosterone at the dose of 5 mg kg(-1) daily for 21 days, yielding its similar plasma levels as these observed in stress was run in parallel. In the first experiment all rats were tested for recognition memory in the object recognition test. On the following day, the animals were tested in open field and elevated "plus" maze to control for the contribution of respectively, motor and emotional effects of our treatments to the memory tests. In the second experiment, new group of stressed animals was tested for spatial memory in the water maze. We observed that H. perforatum prevented the deleterious effects of both chronic restraint stress and long-term corticosterone on learning and memory as measured in both, the object recognition and the water maze tests. The herb not only prevented stress- and corticosterone-induced memory impairments, but it significantly improved recognition memory (pstress memory disorders.

  18. Effect of Fluoxetine on the Hippocampus of Wistar Albino Rats in Cold Restraint Stress Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Saikarthik; Raghunath, Gunapriya; Ilango, Saraswathi; Vijayakumar, J; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2017-06-01

    Stress has been known to be a potential modulator of learning and memory. Long term stress can lead to depression. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor group of drug used in the treatment of depression. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of Fluoxetine on cold restraint induced stress in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. A total of 18 male wistar albino rats were divided randomly into three groups (n=6). Group 1 was the control group which were kept in normal laboratory conditions. Group 2 was the negative control group which were given cold restraint stress for period of four weeks. Group 3 was the experimental group, where the animals were pretreated with fluoxetine 10 mg/kg for a period of one week followed by cold restraint stress for 30 minutes and cotreated with fluoxetine 10 mg/kg for a period of four weeks. The whole study was done for a period of five weeks followed by behavioural studies and subsequently sacrificed with removal of brain for various histological, Immunohistochemical (IHC), neurochemical and antioxidant analysis. The values were expressed as Mean±SEM. One-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's multiple comparisons test was used for the comparison of means. A probability of 0.05 and less was taken as statistically significant using Prism Graphpad software version 6.01. The results show there was significant improvement in the Morris water maze test after treatment with fluoxetine in Group 2. Similar results were also noted in the levels of neurotransmitters and antioxidant levels in brain and also in the number of cells counted in IHC and histological studies by H&E when Group 3 was compared with Group 2. The treatment reversed the damage in Group 2 which was comparable with the control group. The results revealed that administration of fluoxetine 10 mg/kg given orally has a potential antistressor effect by improving the neurogenic and neuroprotective effect on the cold restraint stress induced

  19. Effects of acupuncture on behavioral, cardiovascular and hormonal responses in restraint-stressed Wistar rats

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    Guimarães C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a well-known entity and may be defined as a threat to the homeostasis of a being. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of acupuncture on the physiological responses induced by restraint stress. Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic technique which is used in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Its proposed mechanisms of action are based on the principle of homeostasis. Adult male Wistar EPM-1 rats were divided into four groups: group I (N = 12, unrestrained rats with cannulas previously implanted into their femoral arteries for blood pressure and heart rate measurements; group II (N = 12, rats that were also cannulated and were submitted to 60-min immobilization; group III (N = 12, same as group II but with acupuncture needles implanted at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 during the immobilization period; group IV (N = 14, same as group III but with needles implanted at points not related to acupuncture (non-acupoints. During the 60-min immobilization period animals were assessed for stress-related behaviors, heart rate, blood pressure and plasma corticosterone, noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Group III animals showed a significant reduction (60% on average, P<0.02 in restraint-induced behaviors when compared to groups II and IV. Data from cardiovascular and hormonal assessments indicated no differences between group III and group II and IV animals, but tended to be lower (50% reduction on average in group I animals. We hypothesize that acupuncture at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 has an anxiolytic effect on restraint-induced stress that is not due to a sedative action

  20. Restraint stress-induced morphological changes at the blood-brain barrier in adult rats

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    Petra eSántha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is well known to contribute to the development of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. While the role of the blood-brain barrier is increasingly recognised in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier has been linked to stress-related psychiatric diseases only recently. In the present study the effects of restraint stress with different duration (1, 3 and 21 days were investigated on the morphology of the blood-brain barrier in male adult Wistar rats. Frontal cortex and hippocampus sections were immunostained for markers of brain endothelial cells (claudin-5, occludin and glucose transporter-1 and astroglia (GFAP. Staining pattern and intensity were visualized by confocal microscopy and evaluated by several types of image analysis. The ultrastructure of brain capillaries was investigated by electron microscopy. Morphological changes and intensity alterations in brain endothelial tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin were induced by stress. Following restraint stress significant increases in the fluorescence intensity of glucose transporter-1 were detected in brain endothelial cells in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant reductions in GFAP fluorescence intensity were observed in the frontal cortex in all stress groups. As observed by electron microscopy, one-day acute stress induced morphological changes indicating damage in capillary endothelial cells in both brain regions. After 21 days of stress thicker and irregular capillary basal membranes in the hippocampus and edema in astrocytes in both regions were seen. These findings indicate that stress exerts time-dependent changes in the staining pattern of tight junction proteins occludin, claudin-5 and glucose transporter-1 at the level of brain capillaries and in the ultrastructure of brain endothelial cells and astroglial endfeet, which may contribute to neurodegenerative processes

  1. Differential effects of repeated restraint stress on pulsatile lutenizing hormone secretion in female Fischer, Lewis and Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X F; Edward, J; Mitchell, J C; Shao, B; Bowes, J E; Coen, C W; Lightman, S L; O'Byrne, K T

    2004-07-01

    Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and can suppress pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, resulting in reproductive dysfunction. The histocompatible inbred Fischer and Lewis rat strains exhibit marked phenotypic differences in the activity of the HPA axis, the former being more reactive. Using Fischer, Lewis and Wistar rats, we assessed effects of repeated restraint stress on pulsatile LH secretion. Adult rats were ovariectomized and fitted with cardiac catheters. Blood samples were collected at 5-min intervals for 3-5 h for detection of LH. Less frequent samples were collected for corticosterone measurement. After 2 h, rats were restrained for 60 min. The same regimen was repeated four times at 6-day intervals. The mean peak corticosterone levels achieved during the first restraint in Fischer rats were significantly higher than those in Lewis and Wistar rats. By the time of the fourth episode of restraint, there had been some adaptation of the corticosterone response in the Fischer, but not in the Lewis or Wistar rats. LH pulses were interrupted during the 1st restraint in all experimental groups, although only Fischer rats showed suppression of LH pulses during the subsequent 2-h postrestraint period. During the fourth restraint, LH pulse frequency was still reduced in Wistar, but not in Fischer and Lewis rats, both of which showed a complete habituation. These results suggest that differential control mechanisms underlie the response of the HPA and HPG axes to repeated restraint stress.

  2. Sleep in prenatally restraint stressed rats, a model of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Jérôme; Van Camp, Gilles; Gatta, Eleonora; Marrocco, Jordan; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Consolazione, Michol; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Maccari, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal restraint stress (PRS) can induce persisting changes in individual's development. PRS increases anxiety and depression-like behaviors and induces changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in adult PRS rats after exposure to stress. Since adaptive capabilities also depend on temporal organization and synchronization with the external environment, we studied the effects of PRS on circadian rhythms, including the sleep-wake cycle, that are parameters altered in depression. Using a restraint stress during gestation, we showed that PRS induced phase advances in hormonal/behavioral circadian rhythms in adult rats, and an increase in the amount of paradoxical sleep, positively correlated to plasma corticosterone levels. Plasma corticosterone levels were also correlated with immobility in the forced swimming test, indicating a depressive-like profile in the PRS rats. We observed comorbidity with anxiety-like profile on PRS rats that was correlated with a reduced release of glutamate in the ventral hippocampus. Pharmacological approaches aimed at modulating glutamate release may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to treat stress-related disorders. Finally, since depressed patients exhibit changes in HPA axis activity and in circadian rhythmicity as well as in the paradoxical sleep regulation, we suggest that PRS could represent an original animal model of depression.

  3. Repeated restraint stress enhances cue-elicited conditioned freezing and impairs acquisition of extinction in an age-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rosenkranz, J. Amiel

    2013-01-01

    Affective disorders are believed to involve dysfunction within the amygdala, a key structure for processing emotional information. Chronic stress may contribute to affective disorders such as depression and anxiety via its effects on the amygdala. Previous research has shown that chronic stress increases amygdala neuronal activity in an age-dependent manner. However, whether these distinct changes in amgydala neuronal activity are accompanied by age-dependent changes in amygdala-dependent affective behavior is unclear. In this study, we investigated how chronic stress impacts amgydala-dependent auditory fear conditioning in adolescent and adult rats in a repeated restraint model. We found that repeated restraint enhanced conditioned freezing in both adolescent and adult rats. But repeated restraint led to impaired acquisition of fear extinction only in adolescent rats. Along with previous findings, these results suggest that chronic stress may precipitate affective disorders via differential mechanisms, with different outcomes at different ages. PMID:23538069

  4. The effects of kratom on restraint-stress-induced analgesia and its mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez López, José Luis; Schild, Lorenz; Günther, Thomas; Schulz, Stefan; Neurath, Hartmud; Becker, Axel

    2017-06-09

    Mitragyna speciosa and its extracts are called kratom (dried leaves, extract). They contain several alkaloids with an affinity for different opioid receptors. They are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases, as a substitute by opiate addicts, and to mitigate opioid withdrawal symptoms. Apart from their medical properties, they are used to enhance physical endurance and as a means of overcoming stress. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the effects of kratom on restraint-stress-induced analgesia which occurs during or following exposure to a stressful or fearful stimulus. To gain further insights into the action of kratom on stress, we conducted experiments using restraint stress as a test system and stress-induced analgesia as a test parameter. Using transgenic mu opioid-receptor (MOR) deficient mice, we studied the involvement of this receptor type. We used nor-binaltorphimine (BNT), an antagonist at kappa opioid receptors (KOR), to study functions of this type of receptor. Membrane potential assay was also employed to measure the intrinsic activity of kratom in comparison to U50,488, a highly selective kappa agonist. Treatment with kratom diminished stress-induced analgesia in wildtype and MOR knockout animals. Pretreatment of MOR deficient mice with BNT resulted in similar effects. In comparison to U50,488, kratom exhibited negligible intrinsic activity at KOR alone. The results suggest that the use of kratom as a pharmacological tool to mitigate withdrawal symptoms is related to its action on KOR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The central effect of biological Amines on immunosuppressive effect of restraint stress in rat

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    Zeraati F

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of some histaminergic agents were evaluated on stress- induced immunosuppression in immunized nale rats. In rat immunized with sheep red blood cells ( SRBCs. Restraint stress (RS prevented the booster-induced rise in anti-SRBC antibody titre and cell immunity response. Intracerebroventicular (I.C>V injection of histamine (150 µg/rat induced a similar effect with RS. Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine (50 µg/rat reduced the inhibitory effect of Ras on immune function. Also histamine could inhibit the effect of RS on immune function. Also histamine could inhibitory the effect of chlorpheniramine when injected simultaneously. Pretreatment with ranidine (10 µg/rat had not a significant effect. Serotonin (3 µg/rat and dopamine (0.2 µg/rat could reverse the effects of chlorpheniromine when injected with chlorpheniramine (P<0.05. Epinephrine (0.2 µg/rat had not a significant effect. The results indicate that histamine mediates the immunosuppression of restraint stress by influencing the histamine H1 receptor in the brain and this effects of histamine may be modulated by serotoninergic and dopaminergic system.

  6. Effect of prolonged nicotine infusion on response of rat catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes to restraint and cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shu-Yuan; Glazkova, Dina; Serova, Lidia; Sabban, Esther L

    2005-11-01

    There is a paradoxical relationship between nicotine and stress. To help elucidate their relationship on catecholamine biosynthesis, rats were infused with nicotine for 7-14 days before exposure to cold or restraint stress. Nicotine (5 mg/kg/day, 14 days) did not alter basal plasma corticosterone or its elevation with 24 h cold stress, but prevented corticosterone elevation following 2 h restraint stress. In adrenal medulla (AM), response of dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), but not tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA, to both stressors was attenuated in nicotine-infused rats. In locus coeruleus (LC), restraint stress elevated TH and DBH mRNA in saline-, but not in nicotine-infused rats. Cold stress triggered a similar response of TH and DBH mRNAs in LC with and without nicotine infusion. With shorter nicotine infusion (8 mg/kg/day, 7 days), TH mRNA in AM was not induced by restraint stress on one (1x) or two (2x) consecutive days nor was DBH mRNA in AM or LC by 2x. The findings demonstrate that constant release of nicotine can modulate, or even prevent, some stress responses at the level of the HPA axis and gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in LC and AM.

  7. Restraint stress increases hemichannel activity in hippocampal glial cells and neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Juan A; Moraga-Amaro, Rodrigo; Díaz-Galarce, Raúl; Rojas, Sebastián; Maturana, Carola J; Stehberg, Jimmy; Sáez, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Stress affects brain areas involved in learning and emotional responses, which may contribute in the development of cognitive deficits associated with major depression. These effects have been linked to glial cell activation, glutamate release and changes in neuronal plasticity and survival including atrophy of hippocampal apical dendrites, loss of synapses and neuronal death. Under neuro-inflammatory conditions, we recently unveiled a sequential activation of glial cells that release ATP and glutamate via hemichannels inducing neuronal death due to activation of neuronal NMDA/P2X7 receptors and pannexin1 hemichannels. In the present work, we studied if stress-induced glia activation is associated to changes in hemichannel activity. To this end, we compared hemichannel activity of brain cells after acute or chronic restraint stress in mice. Dye uptake experiments in hippocampal slices revealed that acute stress induces opening of both Cx43 and Panx1 hemichannels in astrocytes, which were further increased by chronic stress; whereas enhanced Panx1 hemichannel activity was detected in microglia and neurons after acute/chronic and chronic stress, respectively. Moreover, inhibition of NMDA/P2X7 receptors reduced the chronic stress-induced hemichannel opening, whereas blockade of Cx43 and Panx1 hemichannels fully reduced ATP and glutamate release in hippocampal slices from stressed mice. Thus, we propose that gliotransmitter release through hemichannels may participate in the pathogenesis of stress-associated psychiatric disorders and possibly depression.

  8. Effects of acute restraint stress on set-shifting and reversal learning in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Chester A; Zhang, Ying; Howland, John G

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone.

  9. Restraint stress increases hemichannel activity in hippocampal glial cells and neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Juan A.; Moraga-Amaro, Rodrigo; Díaz-Galarce, Raúl; Rojas, Sebastián; Maturana, Carola J.; Stehberg, Jimmy; Sáez, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Stress affects brain areas involved in learning and emotional responses, which may contribute in the development of cognitive deficits associated with major depression. These effects have been linked to glial cell activation, glutamate release and changes in neuronal plasticity and survival including atrophy of hippocampal apical dendrites, loss of synapses and neuronal death. Under neuro-inflammatory conditions, we recently unveiled a sequential activation of glial cells that release ATP and glutamate via hemichannels inducing neuronal death due to activation of neuronal NMDA/P2X7 receptors and pannexin1 hemichannels. In the present work, we studied if stress-induced glia activation is associated to changes in hemichannel activity. To this end, we compared hemichannel activity of brain cells after acute or chronic restraint stress in mice. Dye uptake experiments in hippocampal slices revealed that acute stress induces opening of both Cx43 and Panx1 hemichannels in astrocytes, which were further increased by chronic stress; whereas enhanced Panx1 hemichannel activity was detected in microglia and neurons after acute/chronic and chronic stress, respectively. Moreover, inhibition of NMDA/P2X7 receptors reduced the chronic stress-induced hemichannel opening, whereas blockade of Cx43 and Panx1 hemichannels fully reduced ATP and glutamate release in hippocampal slices from stressed mice. Thus, we propose that gliotransmitter release through hemichannels may participate in the pathogenesis of stress-associated psychiatric disorders and possibly depression. PMID:25883550

  10. RU486 Reverses Emotional Disorders by Influencing Astrocytes and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Chronic Restraint Stress Challenged Rats

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    Liru Dong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To investigate the effect of RU486 (mifepristone on emotional disorders in chronic restraint stress-induced rats and to explore the mechanisms of that phenomenon. Methods: For this purpose, 80 healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: the normal group (Con group, The Con group members received no treatment, eating and drinking freely, the chronic restraint stress group (CRS group, normal Sprague Dawley rats treated with chronic restraint stress, 6 h/day for 21days, the propylene glycol group (CRS+propylene glycol and the RU486 group (CRS+RU486. RU486 or propylene glycol was administered 30 mins before each CRS procedure. Twenty-four hours after CRS exposure, we investigated the effects of CRS on the anxiety-like behavior using an elevated plus-maze (EPM. To explore the mechanisms of RU486 on anxiety, we measured the expression of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP and β-subunit of S100 (S100β via immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Apoptosis was demonstrated by flow cytometry. In addition, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress markers, glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP and Cysteine aspartic acid specific protease-12 (Caspase-12, were detected by western blot analysis. Results: Compared to the control group, rats in the CRS and propylene glycol group showed decreased exploratory behavior on the open arms during EPM testing, and these reductions were accompanied by significantly reduced GFAP and S100β expression, increased apoptosis and GRP78, CHOP, and caspase-12 expression in the amygdala. However, RU486 increases the exploratory behavior and reverses the changes of GFAP, S100β, GRP78, CHOP, and caspase-12 and protects cells against apoptosis. Conclusions: Taken together, these data suggest that exposure to chronic restraint stress decreases the number of astrocytes and induces apoptosis and ER stress in the amygdala, which are possible causes for psychiatric

  11. Restraint training for awake functional brain scanning of rodents can cause long-lasting changes in pain and stress responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lucie A.; Bauer, Lucy C.; Pitcher, Mark H.; Bushnell, M. Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With the increased interest in longitudinal brain imaging of awake rodents, it is important to understand both the short-term and long-term effects of restraint on sensory and emotional processing in the brain. To understand the effects of repeated restraint on pain behaviors and stress responses, we modeled a restraint protocol similar to those used to habituate rodents for magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and studied sensory sensitivity and stress hormone responses over 5 days. To uncover lasting effects of training, we also looked at responses to the formalin pain test 2 weeks later. We found that while restraint causes acute increases in the stress hormone corticosterone, it can also cause lasting reductions in nociceptive behavior in the formalin test, coupled with heightened corticosterone levels and increased activation of the “nociceptive” central nucleus of the amygdala, as seen by Fos protein expression. These results suggest that short-term repeated restraint, similar to that used to habituate rats for awake functional brain scanning, could potentially cause long-lasting changes in physiological and brain responses to pain stimuli that are stress-related, and therefore could potentially confound the functional activation patterns seen in awake rodents in response to pain stimuli. PMID:27058679

  12. Effect of chronic restraint stress on inhibitory gating in the auditory cortex of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lanlan; Li, Wai; Li, Sibin; Wang, Xuejiao; Qin, Ling

    2017-05-01

    A fundamental adaptive mechanism of auditory function is inhibitory gating (IG), which refers to the attenuation of neural responses to repeated sound stimuli. IG is drastically impaired in individuals with emotional and cognitive impairments (i.e. posttraumatic stress disorder). The objective of this study was to test whether chronic stress impairs the IG of the auditory cortex (AC). We used the standard two-tone stimulus paradigm and examined the parametric qualities of IG in the AC of rats by recording the electrophysiological signals of a single-unit and local field potential (LFP) simultaneously. The main results of this study were that most of the AC neurons showed a weaker response to the second tone than to the first tone, reflecting an IG of the repeated input. A fast negative wave of LFP showed consistent IG across the sampled AC sites, whereas a slow positive wave of LFP had less IG effect. IG was diminished following chronic restraint stress at both, the single-unit and LFP level, due to the increase in response to the second tone. This study provided new evidence that chronic stress disrupts the physiological function of the AC. Lay Summary The effects of chronic stress on IG were investigated by recording both, single-unit spike and LFP activities, in the AC of rats. In normal rats, most of the single-unit and N25 LFP activities in the AC showed an IG effect. IG was diminished following chronic restraint stress at both, the single-unit and LFP level.

  13. Effect of Hemin on Brain Alterations and Neuroglobin Expression in Water Immersion Restraint Stressed Rats

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    Merhan Ragy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, the heme oxygenase (HO system has been reported to be very active and its modulation seems to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Hemin as HO-1 inducer has been shown to attenuate neuronal injury so the goal of this study was to assess the effect of hemin therapy on the acute stress and how it would modulate neurological outcome. Thirty male albino rats were divided into three groups: control group and stressed group with six-hour water immersion restraint stress (WIRS and stressed group, treated with hemin, in which each rat received a single intraperitoneal injection of hemin at a dose level of 50 mg/kg body weight at 12 hours before exposure to WIRS. Stress hormones, oxidative stress markers, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC were measured and expressions of neuroglobin and S100B mRNA in brain tissue were assayed. Our results revealed that hemin significantly affects brain alterations induced by acute stress and this may be through increased expression of neuroglobin and through antioxidant effect. Hemin decreased blood-brain barrier damage as it significantly decreased the expression of S100B. These results suggest that hemin may be an effective therapy for being neuroprotective against acute stress.

  14. Tests of the Aversive Summation Hypothesis in Rats: Effects of Restraint Stress on Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast and Extinction in the Barnes Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Leonardo A.; Prado-Rivera, Mayerli A.; Cardenas-Poveda, D. Carolina; McLinden, Kristina A.; Glueck, Amanda C.; Gutierrez, German; Lamprea, Marisol R.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2013-01-01

    The present research explored the effects of restraint stress on two situations involving incentive downshift: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) and extinction of escape behavior in the Barnes maze. First, Experiment 1 confirmed that the restraint stress procedure used in these experiments increased levels of circulating…

  15. Dorsal and ventral hippocampus modulate autonomic responses but not behavioral consequences associated to acute restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    América A Scopinho

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has suggested that the dorsal (DH and the ventral (VH poles of the hippocampus are structurally, molecularly and functionally different regions. While the DH is preferentially involved in the modulation of spatial learning and memory, the VH modulates defensive behaviors related to anxiety. Acute restraint is an unavoidable stress situation that evokes marked and sustained autonomic changes, which are characterized by elevated blood pressure (BP, intense heart rate (HR increases, skeletal muscle vasodilatation and cutaneous vasoconstriction, which are accompanied by a rapid skin temperature drop followed by body temperature increases. In addition to those autonomic responses, animals submitted to restraint also present behavioral changes, such as reduced exploration of the open arms of an elevated plus-maze (EPM, an anxiogenic-like effect. In the present work, we report a comparison between the effects of pharmacological inhibition of DH and VH neurotransmission on autonomic and behavioral responses evoked by acute restraint stress in rats. Bilateral microinjection of the unspecific synaptic blocker cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 1mM into the DH or VH attenuated BP and HR responses, as well as the decrease in the skin temperature, elicited by restraint stress exposure. Moreover, DH or VH inhibition before restraint did not change the delayed increased anxiety behavior observed 24 h later in the EPM. The present results demonstrate for the first time that both DH and VH mediate stress-induced autonomic responses to restraint but they are not involved in the modulation of the delayed emotional consequences elicited by such stress.

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Liver Proteins in a Rat Model of Chronic Restraint Stress-Induced Depression

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    Cong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a global mental disorder disease and greatly threatened human health and stress is considered to be one of the important factors that lead to depression. In this study, we used newly developed iTRAQ labeling and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrum united analysis technology obtained the 2176 accurate proteins. Successively, we used the GO analysis and IPA software to analyze the 98 differentially expressed proteins of liver in depression rats due to chronic restraint stress, showing a map of proteomics analysis of liver proteins from the aspects of related functions, disease and function analysis, canonical pathway analysis, and associated network. This study provide important information for comprehensively understanding the mechanisms of dysfunction or injury in the liver in depression.

  17. The ethanol extract of Aquilariae Lignum ameliorates hippocampal oxidative stress in a repeated restraint stress mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Yong; Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Kim, Won-Yong; Lee, Seung-Bae; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Son, Chang-Gue

    2017-08-10

    Chronic stress contributes to the development of brain disorders, such as neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Oxidative damage is well known as a causative factor for pathogenic process in brain tissues. The aim of this study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of a 30% ethanol extract of Aquilariae Lignum (ALE) in repeated stress-induced hippocampal oxidative injury. Fifty BALB/c male mice (12 weeks old) were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10). For 11 consecutive days, each group was orally administered with distilled water, ALE (20 or 80 mg/kg) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 100 mg/kg), and then all mice (except unstressed group) were subjected to restraint stress for 6 h. On the final day, brain tissues and sera were isolated, and stress hormones and hippocampal oxidative alterations were examined. We also treated lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/mL)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells with ALE (1 and 5 μg/mL) or NAC (10 μM) to investigate the pharmacological mechanism. Restraint stress considerably increased the serum levels of corticosterone and adrenaline and the hippocampal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA). ALE administration significantly attenuated the above abnormalities. ALE also significantly normalized the stress-induced activation of astrocytes and microglial cells in the hippocampus as well as the elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). The in vitro assay outcome supplemented ALE could dramatically block NF-κB activation in microglia. The anti-oxidative stress effects of ALE were supported by the results of antioxidant components, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NFE2L2 (Nrf2) in the hippocampal tissues. We firstly demonstrated the neuroprotective potentials of A. Lignum against hippocampal oxidative injury in repeated restraint stress

  18. Psychological stress and multimorbidity in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Anders

    2017-01-01

    and poor prognosis of physical diseases, including increased mortality. However, little is known on the physical consequences of sub‐threshold psychological stress, which is more common than psychiatric disorders in the background population and is highly prevalent in persons with multimorbidity....... Additionally, stress is a common reason for contacting the general practitioner (GP), and yet no guidelines for management and treatment exist. Aims The aim of this thesis was to investigate the consequences of psychological stress on the health while taking into account mental‐physical multimorbidity, i...... with a long‐term mortality increase of 40%. In absolute terms, stress was associated with more adverse outcomes among those with multimorbidity, and the combination of stress and multimorbidity seemed to result in less timely chronic care. Conclusions and perspectives Psychological stress was consistently...

  19. Hormonal and molecular effects of restraint stress on formalin-induced pain-like behavior in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Caela C; Sadler, Katelyn E; Kolber, Benedict J

    2016-10-15

    The evolutionary advantages to the suppression of pain during a stressful event (stress-induced analgesia (SIA)) are obvious, yet the reasoning behind sex-differences in the expression of this pain reduction are not. The different ways in which males and females integrate physiological stress responses and descending pain inhibition are unclear. A potential supraspinal modulator of stress-induced analgesia is the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). This limbic brain region is involved in both the processing of stress and pain; the CeA is anatomically and molecularly linked to regions of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and descending pain network. The CeA exhibits sex-based differences in response to stress and pain that may differentially induce SIA in males and females. Here, sex-based differences in behavioral and molecular indices of SIA were examined following noxious stimulation. Acute restraint stress in male and female mice was performed prior to intraplantar injections of formalin, a noxious inflammatory agent. Spontaneous pain-like behaviors were measured for 60min following formalin injection and mechanical hypersensitivity was evaluated 120 and 180min post-injection. Restraint stress altered formalin-induced spontaneous behaviors in male and female mice and formalin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in male mice. To assess molecular indices of SIA, tissue samples from the CeA and blood samples were collected at the 180min time point. Restraint stress prevented formalin-induced increases in extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylation in the male CeA, but no changes associated with pERK2 were seen with formalin or restraint in females. Sex differences were also seen in plasma corticosterone concentrations 180min post injection. These results demonstrate sex-based differences in behavioral, molecular, and hormonal indices of acute stress in mice that extend for 180min after stress and noxious stimulation. Copyright

  20. Influence of the single or combined administration of cocaine and testosterone in autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to acute restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fábio C; Engi, Sheila A; Leão, Rodrigo M; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2012-10-01

    Abuse of cocaine and androgenic-anabolic steroids (AASs) has become a serious public health problem. Despite reports of an increase in the incidence of simultaneous abuse of these substances, potential toxic interactions between cocaine and AASs are poorly known. In the present study, we investigated the effects of either single or combined administration of testosterone and cocaine for one or 10 consecutive days on autonomic (arterial pressure, heart rate and tail cutaneous temperature) and neuroendocrine (plasma corticosterone) responses induced by acute restraint stress in rats. Combined administration of testosterone and cocaine for 10 days reduced the increase in heart rate and plasma corticosterone level, as well as the fall in tail skin temperature induced by restraint stress. Furthermore, repeated administration of cocaine inhibited the increase in arterial pressure observed during restraint, and this effect was not affected by coadministration of testosterone. Ten-day combined administration of testosterone and cocaine increased basal values of arterial pressure. Moreover, chronic administration of testosterone induced rest bradycardia and elevated basal level of plasma corticosterone. One-day single or combined administration of the drugs did not affect any parameter investigated. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that combined administration of testosterone and cocaine changed the autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to acute restraint stress. These findings suggest that interaction between AASs and cocaine may affect the ability to cope with stressful events.

  1. Agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running exercise effectively prevent anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and memory impairment in restraint stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapmanee, Sarawut; Charoenphandhu, Jantarima; Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2017-01-01

    Several severe stressful situations, e.g., natural disaster, infectious disease out break, and mass casualty, are known to cause anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment, and preventive intervention for these stress complications is worth exploring. We have previously reported that the serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, venlafaxine, as well as voluntary wheel running are effective in the treatment of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in stressed rats. But whether they are able to prevent deleterious consequences of restraint stress in rats, such as anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment that occur afterward, was not known. Herein, male Wistar rats were pre-treated for 4 weeks with anti-anxiety/anti-depressive drugs, agomelatine and venlafaxine, or voluntary wheel running, followed by 4 weeks of restraint-induced stress. During the stress period, rats received neither drug nor exercise intervention. Our results showed that restraint stress induced mixed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and memory impairment as determined by elevated plus-maze, elevated T-maze, open field test (OFT), forced swimming test (FST), and Morris water maze (MWM). Both pharmacological pre-treatments and running successfully prevented the anxiety-like behavior, especially learned fear, in stressed rats. MWM test suggested that agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running could prevent stress-induced memory impairment, but only pharmacological treatments led to better novel object recognition behavior and positive outcome in FST. Moreover, western blot analysis demonstrated that venlafaxine and running exercise upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. In conclusion, agomelatine, venlafaxine as well as voluntary wheel running had beneficial effects, i.e., preventing the restraint stress-induced anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment.

  2. Agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running exercise effectively prevent anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and memory impairment in restraint stressed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Lapmanee

    Full Text Available Several severe stressful situations, e.g., natural disaster, infectious disease out break, and mass casualty, are known to cause anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment, and preventive intervention for these stress complications is worth exploring. We have previously reported that the serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, venlafaxine, as well as voluntary wheel running are effective in the treatment of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in stressed rats. But whether they are able to prevent deleterious consequences of restraint stress in rats, such as anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment that occur afterward, was not known. Herein, male Wistar rats were pre-treated for 4 weeks with anti-anxiety/anti-depressive drugs, agomelatine and venlafaxine, or voluntary wheel running, followed by 4 weeks of restraint-induced stress. During the stress period, rats received neither drug nor exercise intervention. Our results showed that restraint stress induced mixed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and memory impairment as determined by elevated plus-maze, elevated T-maze, open field test (OFT, forced swimming test (FST, and Morris water maze (MWM. Both pharmacological pre-treatments and running successfully prevented the anxiety-like behavior, especially learned fear, in stressed rats. MWM test suggested that agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running could prevent stress-induced memory impairment, but only pharmacological treatments led to better novel object recognition behavior and positive outcome in FST. Moreover, western blot analysis demonstrated that venlafaxine and running exercise upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the hippocampus. In conclusion, agomelatine, venlafaxine as well as voluntary wheel running had beneficial effects, i.e., preventing the restraint stress-induced anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment.

  3. Longevity factor klotho and chronic psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, A A; Epel, E S; Arenander, J; Broestl, L; Garay, B I; Wang, D; Dubal, D B

    2015-06-16

    Chronic psychological stress is associated with accelerated aging and premature morbidity and mortality; however, the biology linking chronic psychological stress and its maladaptive effects remains largely unknown. Klotho is a pleiotropic hormone that regulates the aging process and promotes better brain and body health. Whether klotho is linked to psychosocial stress or its negative impact in humans has not been investigated. To address this gap, we recruited 178 healthy women who were either chronically high-stress maternal caregivers for a child with autism spectrum disorder (n = 90) or low-stress control mothers of a typically developing child (n = 88). We found that women under high chronic stress displayed significantly lower levels of the longevity hormone klotho compared with low-stress controls (t(176) = 2.92, P = 0.004; d = 0.44), and the decrease among those under high stress was age-dependent. In addition, high-stress caregivers who reported more depressive symptoms displayed even lower klotho levels compared with low-stress participants. These findings provide the first evidence that klotho levels are sensitive to psychosocial stressors and raise the possibility that klotho may serve as a novel biological link connecting stress, depression and risk for accelerated disease development. Furthermore, these findings have important implications for understanding the plasticity of the aging process and may represent a therapeutic target for mitigating the deleterious effects of chronic psychological stress on health and well-being.

  4. Prenatal restraint stress: an in vivo microdialysis study on catecholamine release in the rat prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, E; Barros, V G; Ibba, M; Silvagni, A; Mura, C; Antonelli, M C

    2010-06-16

    There is substantial evidence that prenatal exposure to adverse environmental conditions might lead to the psychiatric disorders that can appear in adolescence or in adulthood; vulnerability to drug addiction may increase as well. It is currently accepted that the alteration of catecholamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex plays a prominent role in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. We assessed basal and stimulated dopamine and noradrenaline extracellular concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex by means of microdialysis in awake male adolescent and young adult offspring of rats exposed to restraint stress in the last week of pregnancy. Catecholamine stimulation was obtained by amphetamine or nicotine. We observed that prenatal stress (PNS) did not change dopamine but decreased noradrenaline basal output in both adolescents and adults. Moreover, it decreased amphetamine stimulated dopamine output and increased amphetamine stimulated noradrenaline output. PNS decreased nicotine stimulated noradrenaline (but not dopamine output) in adults, though not in adolescents. These data show that PNS stress modifies prefrontal cortex catecholamine transmission in a complex and age dependent manner. Our results support the view that prenatal stress may be a contributing factor for the development of psychiatric disorders and that its effect may augment drug addiction vulnerability. 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Folic acid prevents depressive-like behavior and hippocampal antioxidant imbalance induced by restraint stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budni, Josiane; Zomkowski, Andréa Dias; Engel, Daiane; Santos, Danúbia Bonfanti; dos Santos, Alessandra Antunes; Moretti, Morgana; Valvassori, Samira S; Ornell, Felipe; Quevedo, João; Farina, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2013-02-01

    Experimental and epidemiological studies have shown the close relationship between stressful events, depression, and cognitive impairment. Folic acid has been reported to present antidepressant-like effects in both experimental and clinical approaches. However, the mechanisms mediating such effects are not understood. In the present study, we evaluated if folic acid administration to mice could protect against restraint stress-induced depressive-like behavior and cognitive deficit. Considering that oxidative stress has been pointed as a key event involved with depressive disorders, cerebrocortical and hippocampal oxidative stress-related parameters, such as the activities of antioxidant enzymes (mainly those related to the hydroperoxide-detoxifying system) and markers of lipid peroxidation, were also investigated. Restraint stress induced depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test and memory impairment in the object recognition test, without altering locomotor activity of mice. Folic acid (50 mg/kg, p.o.) was able to prevent the stress-induced increase on immobility time in the forced swimming test, but did not prevent memory impairment. Moreover, restraint stress increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels, and catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and superoxide dismutase activity in the hippocampus. Folic acid treatment restored the activity of the antioxidant enzymes and reduced lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus. Glutathione, a non-enzymatic antioxidant, was not altered by stress and/or folic acid administration. Together, the results of the present work reinforce the notion that folic acid displays a specific antidepressant profile in the restraint stress paradigm that may be at least partly due to its antioxidant role. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute stress enhances the expression of neuroprotection- and neurogenesis-associated genes in the hippocampus of a mouse restraint model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannino, Giuseppina; Pasqualini, Lorenza; Ricciardelli, Eugenia; Montilla, Patricia; Soverchia, Laura; Ruggeri, Barbara; Falcinelli, Silvia; Renzi, Alessandra; Ludka, Colleen; Kirchner, Thomas; Grünewald, Thomas G P; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Ubaldi, Massimo; Hardiman, Gary

    2016-02-23

    Stress arises from an external demand placed on an organism that triggers physiological, cognitive and behavioural responses in order to cope with that request. It is thus an adaptive response useful for the survival of an organism. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize global changes in gene expression in the hippocampus in response to acute stress stimuli, by employing a mouse model of short-term restraint stress. In our experimental design mice were subjected to a one time exposure of restraint stress and the regulation of gene expression in the hippocampus was examined 3, 12 and 24 hours thereafter. Microarray analysis revealed that mice which had undergone acute restraint stress differed from non-stressed controls in global hippocampal transcriptional responses. An up-regulation of transcripts contributing directly or indirectly to neurogenesis and neuronal protection including, Ttr, Rab6, Gh, Prl, Ndufb9 and Ndufa6, was observed. Systems level analyses revealed a significant enrichment for neurogenesis, neuron morphogenesis- and cognitive functions-related biological process terms and pathways. This work further supports the hypothesis that acute stress mediates a positive action on the hippocampus favouring the formation and the preservation of neurons, which will be discussed in the context of current data from the literature.

  7. Sex differences in stress reactivity of hippocampal BDNF in mice are associated with the female preponderance of decreased locomotor activity in response to restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Katsunori; Bi, Yuanyuan; Ishiwatari, Makiko; Oishi, Nobuo; Fukata, Hideki; Ueno, Koichi

    2013-12-01

    The incidence and prevalence of depression is higher in women than in men, but the cause of this sex discrepancy remains unknown. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key protein for maintaining neuronal integrity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the female preponderance in behavioral responsivity to restraint stress focusing on the stress reactivity of BDNF in the hippocampus. Male and female ICR mice were exposed to a 3-h session of restraint stress. Plasma corticosterone was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. BDNF mRNA expression in the whole hippocampus was measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Wheel-running activity was monitored during the dark period. In response to restraint stress, the increase in levels of serum corticosterone was higher in female than in male mice. Restraint stress resulted in decreased voluntary wheel-running behavior that was greater in female than male animals. In addition to these sex differences in stress reactivity, we found a significant sex difference in BDNF levels in the hippocampus of restraint-stressed mice; total BDNF levels significantly decreased in female mice, but not in male mice in response to the stress. Furthermore, BDNF exon I and IV mRNA expression also showed the same tendency. These data indicate that the reduction in levels of voluntary wheel-running activity in response to stress can be significantly influenced by sex. Moreover, our findings suggest a link between the sex differences in this behavioral response to stress and differential stress reactivity in the production of BDNF in the hippocampus.

  8. Acute restraint stress decreases c-fos immunoreactivity in hilar mossy cells of the adult dentate gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Jillian N.; Duffy, Áine M.

    2017-01-01

    Although a great deal of information is available about the circuitry of the mossy cells (MCs) of the dentate gyrus (DG) hilus, their activity in vivo is not clear. The immediate early gene c-fos can be used to gain insight into the activity of MCs in vivo, because c-fos protein expression reflects increased neuronal activity. In prior work, it was identified that control rats that were perfusion-fixed after removal from their home cage exhibited c-fos immunoreactivity (ir) in the DG in a spatially stereotyped pattern: ventral MCs and dorsal granule cells (GCs) expressed c-fos protein (Duffy et al., Hippocampus 23:649–655, 2013). In this study, we hypothesized that restraint stress would alter c-fos-ir, because MCs express glucocorticoid type 2 receptors and the DG is considered to be involved in behaviors related to stress or anxiety. We show that acute restraint using a transparent nose cone for just 10 min led to reduced c-fos-ir in ventral MCs compared to control rats. In these comparisons, c-fos-ir was evaluated 30 min after the 10 min-long period of restraint, and if evaluation was later than 30 min c-fos-ir was no longer suppressed. Granule cells (GCs) also showed suppressed c-fos-ir after acute restraint, but it was different than MCs, because the suppression persisted for over 30 min after the restraint. We conclude that c-fos protein expression is rapidly and transiently reduced in ventral hilar MCs after a brief period of restraint, and suppressed longer in dorsal GCs. PMID:28190104

  9. How Psychological Stress Affects Emotional Prosody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmann, Silke; Furnes, Desire; Bøkenes, Anne Ming; Cozzolino, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    We explored how experimentally induced psychological stress affects the production and recognition of vocal emotions. In Study 1a, we demonstrate that sentences spoken by stressed speakers are judged by naïve listeners as sounding more stressed than sentences uttered by non-stressed speakers. In Study 1b, negative emotions produced by stressed speakers are generally less well recognized than the same emotions produced by non-stressed speakers. Multiple mediation analyses suggest this poorer recognition of negative stimuli was due to a mismatch between the variation of volume voiced by speakers and the range of volume expected by listeners. Together, this suggests that the stress level of the speaker affects judgments made by the receiver. In Study 2, we demonstrate that participants who were induced with a feeling of stress before carrying out an emotional prosody recognition task performed worse than non-stressed participants. Overall, findings suggest detrimental effects of induced stress on interpersonal sensitivity. PMID:27802287

  10. How Psychological Stress Affects Emotional Prosody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Paulmann

    Full Text Available We explored how experimentally induced psychological stress affects the production and recognition of vocal emotions. In Study 1a, we demonstrate that sentences spoken by stressed speakers are judged by naïve listeners as sounding more stressed than sentences uttered by non-stressed speakers. In Study 1b, negative emotions produced by stressed speakers are generally less well recognized than the same emotions produced by non-stressed speakers. Multiple mediation analyses suggest this poorer recognition of negative stimuli was due to a mismatch between the variation of volume voiced by speakers and the range of volume expected by listeners. Together, this suggests that the stress level of the speaker affects judgments made by the receiver. In Study 2, we demonstrate that participants who were induced with a feeling of stress before carrying out an emotional prosody recognition task performed worse than non-stressed participants. Overall, findings suggest detrimental effects of induced stress on interpersonal sensitivity.

  11. Attenuation of the plasma prolactin response to restraint stress after acute and chronic administration of nicotine to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, B M; Beyer, H S; Levine, A S; Morley, J E; McAllen, K M

    1987-05-01

    We have previously shown that a single dose of nicotine elevates plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) levels in rats and has a biphasic effect on plasma prolactin (PRL). The stimulatory effect of nicotine on these stress responsive hormones desensitizes after a single injection of nicotine. Continuous exposure to nicotine also induces tolerance to its locomotor depressive and hypothermic effects, which have been associated with an increase of central [3H]nicotine binding. Thus, the acute and chronic administration of nicotine might induce changes in central nicotinic cholinergic circuits that affect the ACTH and PRL responses to stress. In the present study, a single dose of nicotine (0.75-3.0 mg/kg b.wt.) significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma PRL due to restraint stress initiated 60 min afterward. Five injections of nicotine during 1 day produced a similar attenuation of the PRL response to restraint stress but neither of these paradigms affected ACTH. In contrast, intermittent delivery of nicotine for 7 days failed to affect the PRL response to restraint stress; however, after withholding nicotine for 14 hr, high dose nicotine attenuated the PRL response to stress, whereas low dose nicotine remained ineffective. On the other hand, administration of the same schedule of low dose nicotine did significantly diminish the expected release of PRL in response to a final injection of nicotine (0.5-2.0 mg/kg b.wt.) in unstressed animals. In summary, a single dose or 5 doses of nicotine in 1 day attenuated the PRL response to restraint stress, whereas, after chronic administration, this effect was lost.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Stress and coping among psychology students

    OpenAIRE

    Cassaretto, Mónica; Chau, Cecilia; Oblitas, Haydeé; Valdéz, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The relations among stress, problems and coping styles among 123 psychology  students. in aprivate university in Lima, were analyzed. Four instruments were used: a) Demographic Sheet (Cassaretto, Oblitas & Valdez, 2000), b) Stress Response Questionnaire (Valdez, 1999), e) Co ping Inventory (Carver, Scheier & Weintraub, 1989), d) Problem Questionnaire (Seiffge­ Krenke, 1995). Variables as age, sex, job, stress responses, problems and coping styles were considered. The results showed that older...

  13. Anti-stress effects of carnosine on restraint-evoked immunocompromise in mice through spleen lymphocyte number maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fang Li

    Full Text Available Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine, a naturally occurring dipeptide, has been characterized as a putative neurotransmitter and serves as a reservoir for brain histamine, which could act on histaminergic neurons system to relieve stress-induced damages. However, understanding of the role of carnosine in stress-evoked immunocompromise is limited. In this study, results showed that when mice were subjected to restraint stress, spleen index and the number of spleen lymphocytes including Natural Killer (NK cells were obviously decreased. Results also demonstrated that restraint stress decreased the cytotoxic activity of NK cells per spleen (LU(10/spleen while the activity of a single NK cell (LU(10/10(6 cells was not changed. However, oral administration of carnosine (150 and 300 mg/kg increased spleen index and number of spleen lymphocytes (including NK cells, and elevated the cytotoxic activity of NK cells per spleen in restraint-stressed mice. These results indicated that carnosine ameliorated stress-evoked immunocompromise through spleen lymphocyte number maintenance. Carnosine was further found to reduce stress-induced elevation of plasma corticosterone level. On the other hand, results showed that carnosine and RU486 (a glucocorticoids receptor antagonist treatment prevented the reduction in mitochondrion membrane potential and the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm, increased Bcl-2/Bax mRNA ratio, as well as decreased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL-positive cells in spleen lymphocytes of stressed mice. The results above suggested that the maintenance of spleen lymphocyte number by carnosine was related with the inhibition of lymphocytes apoptosis caused by glucocorticoids overflow. The stimulation of lymphocyte proliferation by carnosine also contributed to the maintenance of spleen lymphocyte number in stressed mice. In view of the elevated histamine level, the anti-stress

  14. Activation of the HPA Axis and Depression of Feeding Behavior Induced by Restraint Stress Are Separately Regulated by PACAPergic Neurotransmission in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sunny Zhihong; Eiden, Lee E.

    2016-01-01

    We measured serum CORT elevation in wild-type and PACAP-deficient C57Bl/6N male mice after acute (1 hr) or prolonged (2–3 hr) daily restraint stress for seven days. The PACAP-dependence of CORT elevation was compared to that of stress-induced hypophagia. Daily restraint induced unhabituated peak CORT elevation, and hypophagia/weight loss, of similar magnitude for 1, 2 and 3 hr of daily restraint, in wild-type mice. Peak CORT elevation, and hypophagia, were both attenuated in PACAP-deficient mice for 2 and 3 hrs daily restraint. Hypophagia induced by 1-hr daily restraint was also greatly reduced in PACAP-deficient mice, however CORT elevation, both peak and during recovery from stress, was unaffected. Thus, hypothalamic PACAPergic neurotransmission appears to affect CRH gene transcription and peptide production, but not CRH release, in response to psychogenic stress. A single exposure to restraint sufficed to trigger hypophagia over the following 24 hours. PACAP deficiency attenuated HPA axis response (CORT elevation) to prolonged (3 hr) but not acute (1 hr) single-exposure restraint stress, while hypophagia induced by either a single 1 hr or a single 3 hr restraint were both abolished in PACAP-deficient mice. These results suggest that PACAP’s actions to promote suppression of food intake following an episode of psychogenic stress is unrelated to the release of CRH into the portal circulation to activate the pituitary-adrenal axis. Furthermore, demonstration of suppressed food intake after a single 1-hr restraint stress provides a convenient assay for investigating the location of the synapses and circuits mediating the effects of PACAP on the behavioral sequelae of psychogenic stress. PMID:27228140

  15. Induced dyadic stress and food intake: Examination of the moderating roles of body mass index and restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Marilou; Gagnon-Girouard, Marie-Pierre; Provencher, Véronique; Bégin, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    Restrained eaters and overweight and obese people are prone to increase their food intake during stressful situations. This study examines the impact of a stressful couple discussion on food intake in both spouses, while simultaneously taking into account the effect of BMI and restraint on this association. For 15min, 80 heterosexual couples discussed an aspect that they wanted their partner to change followed by an individual bogus taste test for the purpose of measuring his or her stress-induced food intake. Prior to and after the discussion, subjective mood state was assessed, as well as appetite perceptions, and the mood change before and after the discussion was calculated. Multiple regression analyses with a three-way interaction between mood change, BMI, and restraint were used to predict food intake for both men and women, while controlling for appetite perceptions. Only restrained women with a high BMI ate more when their mood worsened. For men, only appetite perceptions significantly predicted food intake. These results suggest that an induced negative mood in the form of a stressful couple discussion impacts food intake differently for men and women, and that particular attention should be given to the concomitant effect of both restraint and BMI when studying stress-induced eating among women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural and functional alterations to rat medial prefrontal cortex following chronic restraint stress and recovery.

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    Goldwater, D S; Pavlides, C; Hunter, R G; Bloss, E B; Hof, P R; McEwen, B S; Morrison, J H

    2009-12-01

    Chronic stress has been shown in animal models to result in altered dendritic morphology of pyramidal neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). It has been hypothesized that the stress-induced dendritic retractions and spine loss lead to disrupted connectivity that results in stress-induced functional impairment of mPFC. While these alterations were initially viewed as a neurodegenerative event, it has recently been established that stress induced dendritic alterations are reversible if animals are given time to recover from chronic stress. However, whether spine growth accompanies dendritic extension remains to be demonstrated. It is also not known if recovery-phase dendritic extension allows for re-establishment of functional capacity. The goal of this study, therefore, was to characterize the structural and functional effects of chronic stress and recovery on the infralimbic (IL) region of the rat mPFC. We compared neuronal morphology of IL layer V pyramidal neurons from male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to 21 days of chronic restraint stress (CRS) to those that experienced CRS followed by a 21 day recovery period. Layer V pyramidal cell functional capacity was assessed by intra-IL long-term potentiation (LTP) both in the absence and presence of SKF38393, a dopamine receptor partial agonist and a known PFC LTP modulator. We found that stress-induced IL apical dendritic retraction and spine loss co-occur with receptor-mediated impairments to catecholaminergic facilitation of synaptic plasticity. We also found that while post-stress recovery did not reverse distal dendritic retraction, it did result in over extension of proximal dendritic arbors and spine growth as well as a full reversal of CRS-induced impairments to catecholaminergic-mediated synaptic plasticity. Our results support the hypothesis that disease-related PFC dysfunction is a consequence of network disruption secondary to altered structural and functional plasticity and that circuitry

  17. The interaction of chronic restraint stress and voluntary alcohol intake: effects on spatial memory in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Juan L; Lewis, Michael J; Luine, Victoria N

    2012-08-01

    Alcohol consumption and exposure to stressful life events activate similar neural pathways and thus result in several comparable physiological and behavioral effects. Alcoholics in treatment claim that life stressors are the leading cause of continued drinking or relapse. However, few studies have investigated the interactive effects of stress and alcohol on cognitive behavior. The effects of restraint stress, alcohol, and stress in combination with alcohol were examined on a spatial memory test, the object placement (OP) task. In addition, intake levels were measured to determine if stress altered general consumption of alcohol. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of four conditions: no alcohol/no stress control (CON), stress alone (STR), alcohol alone (ALC), and STR+alcohol (STR+ALC). Following each restraint stress bout, the STR+ALC and the ALC groups were given access to 8% alcohol for 1h using the two-bottle choice limited access paradigm. As predicted, the STR+ALC group significantly increased alcohol consumption, while the ALC group had consistent drinking over the 10-day treatment. On the OP task, STR and ALC groups performed at chance levels, whereas the CON and STR+ALC groups significantly discriminated between objects in the new and old locations. These data show that stress increases alcohol intake and the intake of alcohol is associated with reduction of the stress-induced impairment of spatial memory. The data have important implications for the development of alcohol abuse and its treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal noise and restraint stress interact to alter exploratory behavior and balance in juvenile rats, and mixed stress reverses these effects.

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    Badache, Soumeya; Bouslama, Slim; Brahmia, Oualid; Baïri, Abdel Madjid; Tahraoui, Abdel Krim; Ladjama, Ali

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to investigate in adolescent rats the individual and combined effects of prenatal noise and restraint stress on balance control, exploration, locomotion and anxiety behavior. Three groups of pregnant rats were exposed to daily repeated stress from day 11 to day 19 of pregnancy: 3 min noise (Noise Stress, NS); 10 min restraint (restraint stress, RS); or 3 min noise followed by 10 min restraint (mixed stress, MS). On postnatal days (PND) 44, 45 and 46, four groups of male rats (Control, NS, RS:, MS; 16 rats each), were tested as follows: (1) beam walking (BW), (2) open field (OF) and (3) elevated plus maze (EPM). Our results show that the NS group had significantly impaired balance control, locomotion and both horizontal and vertical exploration (p stress, especially noise, which group had the largest adrenal glands. Overall, contrary to expectation, combined prenatal stressors can interact to increase anxiety level, but diminish alteration of exploration, locomotion and impaired balance control, which were strongly induced by noise stress. Lay summary: Experience of stress in pregnancy can have negative effects on the offspring that are long-lasting. Here, we used laboratory rats to see whether repeated episodes of exposure to loud noise or preventing free movement, alone or together, during pregnancy had different effects on behaviors of the adolescent offspring. Using standard tests, we found the prenatal stresses caused the offspring to be anxious, and not to balance when moving around as well as normal offspring; the degree of impairment depended on the type of stress - loud noise exposure had the greatest effects, but if the stresses were combined the effects were not worse. The results point to the need to aim to avoid stress in pregnant women.

  19. Effect of acute and repeated restraint stress on glucose oxidation to CO2 in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices

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    Torres I.L.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that glucocorticoids released during stress might impair neuronal function by decreasing glucose uptake by hippocampal neurons. Previous work has demonstrated that glucose uptake is reduced in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices 24 h after exposure to acute stress, while no effect was observed after repeated stress. Here, we report the effect of acute and repeated restraint stress on glucose oxidation to CO2 in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices and on plasma glucose and corticosterone levels. Male adult Wistar rats were exposed to restraint 1 h/day for 50 days in the chronic model. In the acute model there was a single exposure. Immediately or 24 h after stress, the animals were sacrificed and the hippocampus and cerebral cortex were dissected, sliced, and incubated with Krebs buffer, pH 7.4, containing 5 mM glucose and 0.2 µCi D-[U-14C] glucose. CO2 production from glucose was estimated. Trunk blood was also collected, and both corticosterone and glucose were measured. The results showed that corticosterone levels after exposure to acute restraint were increased, but the increase was smaller when the animals were submitted to repeated stress. Blood glucose levels increased after both acute and repeated stress. However, glucose utilization, measured as CO2 production in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices, was the same in stressed and control groups under conditions of both acute and chronic stress. We conclude that, although stress may induce a decrease in glucose uptake, this effect is not sufficient to affect the energy metabolism of these cells.

  20. Psychological stress and recurrent aphthous stomatitis

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    Camila de Barros Gallo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is the most common type of ulcerative disease of the oral mucosa. Despite its worldwide occurrence and the extensive amount of research that has been devoted to the subject, the etiology of RAS remains unclear. Nevertheless, several hereditary, nutritional, infectious and psychological factors have been associated with RAS. The aim of this case-control study was to assess the influence of psychological stress on the manifestation of RAS. METHOD: Fifty patients were enrolled in the trial. Twenty-five RAS patients constituted the study group and another 25 non-RAS patients who were similarly matched for sex, age and socioeconomic status constituted the control group. Each patient was evaluated in terms of the four domains of stress (emotional, physical, social and cognitive using an internationally validated questionnaire, which was comprised of 59 items and measured the frequency and intensity of stress symptoms. The RAS group was interviewed during an active RAS episode. Completed questionnaires were submitted to proper analytical software and interpreted by an expert psychologist. RESULTS: There was a higher level of psychological stress among RAS group patients when compared to the control group (P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Psychological stress may play a role in the manifestation of RAS; it may serve as a trigger or a modifying factor rather than being a cause of the disease.

  1. Protective effect of low dose caffeine on psychological stress and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Özgür Kasımay; Ellek, Nurfitnat; Salehin, Nabila; Hamamcı, Rabia; Keleş, Hülya; Kayalı, Damla Gökçeoğlu; Akakın, Dilek; Yüksel, Meral; Özbeyli, Dilek

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine is an adrenergic antagonist that enhances neuronal activity. Psychological stress depresses cognitive function. To investigate the effects of acute and chronic low dose caffeine on anxiety-like behavior and cognitive functions of acute or chronic psychological stressed rats. Acute or chronic caffeine (3mg/kg) was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats (200-250g, n=42) before acute (cat odor) and chronic variable psychological stress (restraint overcrowding stress, elevated plus maze, cat odor, forced swimming) induction. Anxiety and cognitive functions were evaluated by hole-board and object recognition tests. The brain glutathione and malondialdehyde assays, myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), luminol and lucigenin activity and histological examination were done. ANOVA and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. The depressed cognitive function with chronic stress exposure and the increased anxiety-like behavior with both stress inductions were improved via both caffeine applications (pcaffeine pretreatments in chronic stressed rats, and chronic caffeine in acute stressed ones reduced the elevated myeloperoxidase activities (pcaffeine (pcaffeine (pcaffeine decreased SOD activity (pcaffeine. The increased anxiety-like behavior and depleted cognitive functions under stress conditions were improved with both acute and predominantly chronic caffeine pretreatments by decreasing oxidative damage parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prenatal restraint stress generates two distinct behavioral and neurochemical profiles in male and female rats.

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    Zuena, Anna Rita; Mairesse, Jerome; Casolini, Paola; Cinque, Carlo; Alemà, Giovanni Sebastiano; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Chiodi, Valentina; Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto; Gradini, Roberto; Catalani, Assia; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Maccari, Stefania

    2008-05-14

    Prenatal Restraint Stress (PRS) in rats is a validated model of early stress resulting in permanent behavioral and neurobiological outcomes. Although sexual dimorphism in the effects of PRS has been hypothesized for more than 30 years, few studies in this long period have directly addressed the issue. Our group has uncovered a pronounced gender difference in the effects of PRS (stress delivered to the mothers 3 times per day during the last 10 days of pregnancy) on anxiety, spatial learning, and a series of neurobiological parameters classically associated with hippocampus-dependent behaviors. Adult male rats subjected to PRS ("PRS rats") showed increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM), a reduction in the survival of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus, a reduction in the activity of mGlu1/5 metabotropic glutamate receptors in the ventral hippocampus, and an increase in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and pro-BDNF in the hippocampus. In contrast, female PRS rats displayed reduced anxiety in the EPM, improved learning in the Morris water maze, an increase in the activity of mGlu1/5 receptors in the ventral and dorsal hippocampus, and no changes in hippocampal neurogenesis or BDNF levels. The direction of the changes in neurogenesis, BDNF levels and mGlu receptor function in PRS animals was not consistent with the behavioral changes, suggesting that PRS perturbs the interdependency of these particular parameters and their relation to hippocampus-dependent behavior. Our data suggest that the epigenetic changes in hippocampal neuroplasticity induced by early environmental challenges are critically sex-dependent and that the behavioral outcome may diverge in males and females.

  3. Prenatal restraint stress generates two distinct behavioral and neurochemical profiles in male and female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Zuena

    Full Text Available Prenatal Restraint Stress (PRS in rats is a validated model of early stress resulting in permanent behavioral and neurobiological outcomes. Although sexual dimorphism in the effects of PRS has been hypothesized for more than 30 years, few studies in this long period have directly addressed the issue. Our group has uncovered a pronounced gender difference in the effects of PRS (stress delivered to the mothers 3 times per day during the last 10 days of pregnancy on anxiety, spatial learning, and a series of neurobiological parameters classically associated with hippocampus-dependent behaviors. Adult male rats subjected to PRS ("PRS rats" showed increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM, a reduction in the survival of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus, a reduction in the activity of mGlu1/5 metabotropic glutamate receptors in the ventral hippocampus, and an increase in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and pro-BDNF in the hippocampus. In contrast, female PRS rats displayed reduced anxiety in the EPM, improved learning in the Morris water maze, an increase in the activity of mGlu1/5 receptors in the ventral and dorsal hippocampus, and no changes in hippocampal neurogenesis or BDNF levels. The direction of the changes in neurogenesis, BDNF levels and mGlu receptor function in PRS animals was not consistent with the behavioral changes, suggesting that PRS perturbs the interdependency of these particular parameters and their relation to hippocampus-dependent behavior. Our data suggest that the epigenetic changes in hippocampal neuroplasticity induced by early environmental challenges are critically sex-dependent and that the behavioral outcome may diverge in males and females.

  4. Nicotine-induced increase of dopaminergic mesoaccumbal neuron activity is prevented by acute restraint stress. In vivo electrophysiology in rats.

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    Panin, Francesca; Lintas, Alessandra; Diana, Marco

    2014-07-01

    Stress is well known to affect responsiveness to drugs of abuse and influencing approaching and drug-taking behaviour in both animals and humans. Consistently, in nicotine addicted subjects both negative events and perceived stress levels are reported to increase drug use and facilitate relapse to smoke even after long periods of abstinence. It has been suggested that stressful stimuli may influence the rewarding properties of abused drugs by acting on the dopaminergic mesolimbic system. In line with this hypothesis, a recent microdialysis study in rats has shown that acute restraint stress exposure prevents the nicotine-induced mesolimbic dopaminergic activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) shell via a corticosterone-mediated mechanism. In the present study we sought to evaluate the impact of acute restraint stress on nicotine-induced activation of the mesoaccumbal dopaminergic system by extracellular single unit recordings of antidromically-identified NAC shell projecting dopaminergic neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Nicotine intravenous administration dose-dependently (0.05-0.4mg/kg) stimulated the spontaneous firing and bursting of mesoaccumbal dopaminergic neurons in unstressed rats, as previously reported. By contrast, nicotine failed to increase mesoaccumbal dopaminergic neuron activity in rats previously exposed to 1-h immobilisation stress. Our observations show that acute restraint stress inhibits the response of the mesoaccumbal dopaminergic system to the stimulating properties of nicotine. These findings corroborate the notion that stress reduces the sensitivity to nicotine and suggest that the decreased dopaminergic release in the NAC shell is due to a reduced firing and bursting activity in the VTA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  5. A physical/psychological and biological stress combine to enhance endoplasmic reticulum stress.

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    Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Emeny, Rebecca T; Gao, Donghong; Ault, Jeffrey G; Kasten-Jolly, Jane; Lawrence, David A

    2015-12-01

    The generation of an immune response against infectious and other foreign agents is substantially modified by allostatic load, which is increased with chemical, physical and/or psychological stressors. The physical/psychological stress from cold-restraint (CR) inhibits host defense against Listeria monocytogenes (LM), due to early effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerves on β1-adrenoceptors (β1AR) of immune cells. Although CR activates innate immunity within 2h, host defenses against bacterial growth are suppressed 2-3 days after infection (Cao and Lawrence 2002). CR enhances inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production. The early innate activation leads to cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) changes of immune cells. Lymphocytes from CR-treated mice express fewer surface thiols. Splenic and hepatic immune cells also have fewer proteins with free thiols after CR and/or LM, and macrophages have less glutathione after the in vivo CR exposure or exposure to NE in vitro. The early induction of CR-induced oxidative stress elevates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which could interfere with keeping phagocytized LM within the phagosome or re-encapsuling LM by autophagy once they escape from the phagosome. ER stress-related proteins, such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), have elevated expression with CR and LM. The results indicate that CR enhances the unfolded protein response (UPR), which interferes with host defenses against LM. Thus, it is postulated that increased stress, as exists with living conditions at low socioeconomic conditions, can lower host defenses against pathogens because of oxidative and ER stress processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Protective effects of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract on restraint stress-induced liver damage in mice.

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    Bao, Li; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Yau, Chin-Chin; Tsi, Daniel; Chia, Chew-Sern; Nagai, Hajime; Kurihara, Hiroshi

    2008-09-10

    Our experiments showed that 18 h restraint stress could induce serious liver damage, with an increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (107.68 +/- 3.19 U/L vs 18.08 +/- 1.46 U/L). Meanwhile, we observed increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and lowered oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values in plasma and liver of restraint mice compared with starved mice. Bilberry extract (containing 42.04% anthocyanins) was oral administrated to mice at 50, 100, and 200 mg/(kg x day) for five days, which remarkably decreased plasma ALT level to 17.23 +/- 2.49 U/L at the dose of 200 mg/(kg x day) and thus alleviated stress-induced liver damage. In addition, bilberry extracts increased glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C levels and significantly decreased MDA and nitric oxide (NO) levels in the liver tissues. These results suggest that bilberry extract plays an important role in protecting against restraint stress-induced liver damage by both scavenging free radicals activity and lipid peroxidation inhibitory effect. This study showed the beneficial health effects of bilberry extract through its antioxidative action.

  7. Development and optimization of psychological stress model in mice using 2 level full factorial design.

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    Kala, Manika; Shaikh, Muhammad Vaseem; Nivsarkar, Manish

    Psychological stress has long been a silent killer, impairing normal physiological functions and leading to a variety of diseased conditions. However, the existing animal models for studying psychological stress have been marred by their inherent limitations warranting further research in their development and optimization. In this study 25 full factorial design was utilized for the development and optimization of psychological stress model in mice by applying different stressors viz., slanted cage(X1), restraint(X2), no bedding(X3), dirty bedding(X4) and isolation(X5) at two time duration levels of 30 and 60min. The development of behavioral changes like depression, anxiety and anhedonia was taken as criteria for development of stress. These responses were analyzed using Design Expert 7.1.6. (Stat-Ease, Inc., USA). The maximum effective responses obtained were taken as a criterion for optimization. The optimized model was applied to measure the change in serum cortisol level to confirm the stress development. The statistical data showed that a quadratic model was fitted to the data obtained. All the factors were found to have a significant role in the development of stress among which restraint, slanted cage and dirty bedding were found to be more causal (plevel was increased significantly in the stressed mice of optimized model (pstress development in mice. The study could lay a strong platform for the use of quality by design approach in the development of robust, efficient and resourceful animal models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Distinct Effects of Repeated Restraint Stress on Basolateral Amygdala Neuronal Membrane Properties in Resilient Adolescent and Adult Rats

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    Hetzel, Andrea; Rosenkranz, J Amiel

    2014-01-01

    Severe and repeated stress has damaging effects on health, including initiation of depression and anxiety. Stress that occurs during development has long-lasting and particularly damaging effects on emotion. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a key role in many affective behaviors, and repeated stress causes different forms of BLA hyperactivity in adolescent and adult rats. However, the mechanism is not known. Furthermore, not every individual is susceptible to the negative consequences of stress. Differences in the effects of stress on the BLA might contribute to determine whether an individual will be vulnerable or resilient to the effects of stress on emotion. The purpose of this study is to test the cellular underpinnings for age dependency of BLA hyperactivity after stress, and whether protective changes occur in resilient individuals. To test this, the effects of repeated stress on membrane excitability and other membrane properties of BLA principal neurons were compared between adult and adolescent rats, and between vulnerable and resilient rats, using in vitro whole-cell recordings. Vulnerability was defined by adrenal gland weight, and verified by body weight gain after repeated restraint stress, and fecal pellet production during repeated restraint sessions. We found that repeated stress increased the excitability of BLA neurons, but in a manner that depended on age and BLA subnucleus. Furthermore, stress resilience was associated with an opposite pattern of change, with increased slow afterhyperpolarization (AHP) potential, whereas vulnerability was associated with decreased medium AHP. The opposite outcomes in these two populations were further distinguished by differences of anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze that were correlated with BLA neuronal excitability and AHP. These results demonstrate a substrate for BLA hyperactivity after repeated stress, with distinct membrane properties to target, as well as age-dependent factors that

  9. Effects of escitalopram and paroxetine on mTORC1 signaling in the rat hippocampus under chronic restraint stress.

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    Seo, Mi Kyoung; Choi, Cheol Min; McIntyre, Roger S; Cho, Hye Yeon; Lee, Chan Hong; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Lee, Yena; Lee, Jae-Hon; Kim, Young Hoon; Park, Sung Woo; Lee, Jung Goo

    2017-04-26

    Recent studies have suggested that the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling may be related to antidepressant action. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether antidepressant drugs would exert differential effects on mTOR signaling in the rat hippocampus under conditions of chronic restraint stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to restraint stress for 6 h/days for 21 days with either escitalopram (10 mg/kg) or paroxetine (10 mg/kg) administered after the chronic stress procedure. Western blot analyses were used to assess changes in the levels of phospho-Ser2448-mTOR, phospho-Thr37/46-4E-BP-1, phospho-Thr389-p70S6 K, phospho-Ser422-eIF4B, phospho-Ser240/244-S6, phospho-Ser473-Akt, and phospho-Thr202/Tyr204-ERK in the hippocampus. Chronic restraint stress significantly decreased the levels of phospho-mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), phospho-4E-BP-1, phospho-p70S6 K, phospho-eIF4B, phospho-S6, phospho-Akt, and phospho-ERK (p stress reduced phospho-mTORC1 signaling activities in general, while escitalopram and paroxetine prevented these changes in phospho-mTORC1 signaling activities. These findings provide further data that contribute to understanding the possible relationships among mTOR activity, stress, and antidepressant drugs.

  10. Involvement of endocannabinoid neurotransmission in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis in cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress in rats

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    Gomes‐de‐Souza, Lucas; Oliveira, Leandro A; Benini, Ricardo; Rodella, Patrícia; Costa‐Ferreira, Willian

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Endocannabinoid signalling has been reported as an important neurochemical mechanism involved in responses to stress. Previous studies provided evidence of endocannabinoid release in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) during aversive stimuli. Nevertheless, a possible involvement of this neurochemical mechanism in stress responses has never been evaluated. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the involvement of BNST endocannabinoid neurotransmission, acting via local CB1 receptors, in the cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress in rats. Experimental Approach The selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (1, 30 and 100 pmol 100 nL−1) and/or the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme inhibitor URB597 (30 pmol 100 nL−1) or the monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) enzyme inhibitor JZL184 (30 pmol 100 nL−1) was microinjected into the BNST before the acute restraint stress. Key Results Microinjection of AM251 into the BNST enhanced the tachycardia caused by restraint stress, without affecting the increase in arterial pressure and the sympathetic‐mediated cutaneous vasoconstrictor response. Conversely, the increased endogenous levels of AEA in the BNST evoked by local treatment with the FAAH enzyme inhibitor URB597 decreased restraint‐evoked tachycardia. Inhibition of the hydrolysis of 2‐arachidonoylglycerol (2‐AG) in the BNST by local microinjection of the MAGL enzyme inhibitor JZL184 also decreased the HR response. These effects of URB597 and JZL184 were abolished by BNST pretreatment with AM251. Conclusions and Implications These findings indicate an involvement of BNST endocannabinoid neurotransmission, acting via CB1 receptors, in cardiovascular adjustments during emotional stress, which may be mediated by the local release of either AEA or 2‐AG. PMID:27441413

  11. Subjective stress, salivary cortisol and electrophysiological responses to psychological stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming eQi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the subjective stress, salivary cortisol, and electrophysiological responses to psychological stress induced by a modified version of a mental arithmetic task. Fifteen participants were asked to estimate whether the multiplication product of two-decimal numbers was above 10 or not either with a time limit (the stress condition or without a time limit (the control condition. The results showed that participants reported higher levels of stress, anxiety, and negative affect in the stress condition than they did in the control condition. Moreover, the salivary cortisol level continued to increase after the stress condition but exhibited a sharp decrease after the control condition. In addition, the electrophysiological data showed that the amplitude of the frontal-central N1 component was larger for the stress condition than it was for the control condition, while the amplitude of the frontal-central P2 component was larger for the control condition than it was for the stress condition. Our study suggests that the psychological stress characteristics of time pressure and social-evaluative threat caused dissociable effects on perception and on the subsequent attentional resource allocation of visual information.

  12. Dimensions of psychological stress in peacekeeping operations.

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    Bartone, P T; Adler, A B; Vaitkus, M A

    1998-09-01

    U.S. military forces are increasingly involved in a variety of multinational peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance missions. How well combat-trained units and soldiers adapt to these new roles will determine U.S. success in such operations, as well as the future health and readiness of the force. In preparing soldiers for such missions, it is critical that leaders and health care providers have a clear understanding of the nature of the stressors they are likely to encounter. This report summarizes findings from a longitudinal, descriptive case study of a U.S. Army medical unit performing a peacekeeping mission in the former Yugoslavia. The goal of the investigation was to identify key sources of stress and to delineate the effect of these stressors on the health, morale, and mental readiness of soldiers. Findings suggest a range of psychological stressors that varies somewhat across operational phases of a peacekeeping mission. Furthermore, the degree of stress experienced in various areas correlates significantly with depression, psychiatric symptoms, and low reported morale. The range of stressors is reduced and summarized in a conceptually derived model of five underlying dimensions of psychological stress salient to soldier adaptation in peacekeeping operations: isolation, ambiguity, powerlessness, boredom, and danger/threat. This model provides a useful heuristic for organizing thinking about stress in peacekeeping operations and leads to several recommendations for "countermeasures" that organizational leaders can take to maintain soldier psychological readiness during peacekeeping operations.

  13. A Sport and Exercise Psychology Perspective on Stress.

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    Gill, Diane L.

    1994-01-01

    Introduces psychological perspectives on stress, noting conceptual models that guide sport and exercise psychology. After presenting key aspects of Lazarus' stress model, the paper reviews major lines of research related to stress within sport and exercise psychology. Lazarus suggests more information can be gained by considering emotion along…

  14. Protective effect of Momordica charantia water extract against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice and the underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qin; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ruifen; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Momordica charantia is used in China for its jianghuo (heat-clearing and detoxifying) effects. The concept of shanghuo (the antonym of jianghuo, excessive internal heat) in traditional Chinese medicine is considered a type of stress response of the body. The stress process involves internal organs, especially the liver. Objective: We hypothesized that Momordica charantia water extract (MWE) has a hepatoprotective effect and can protect the body from stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of MWE against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice. Design: The mice were intragastrically administered with MWE (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg bw) daily for 7 days. The Normal Control (NC) and Model groups were administered distilled water. A positive control group was intragastrically administered vitamin C 250 mg/kg bw. After the last administration, mice were restrained for 20 h. Results: MWE reduced the serum AST and ALT, reduced the NO content and the protein expression level of iNOSin the liver; significantly reduced the mitochondrial ROS content, increased the mitochondrial membrane potential and the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and II in restraint-stressed mice. Conclusions: The results indicate that MWE has a protective effect against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice. Abbreviations: MWE: Momordica charantia water extract; M. charantia: Momordica charantia L.; ROS: reactive oxygen species; NO: nitric oxide; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; IL-1β: interleukin-1 beta; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha; IL-6: interleukin 6; IFN-γ: interferon gamma; VC: vitamin C; ALT: alanine transaminase; AST: aspartate aminotransferase; GSH: glutathione; GSH-PX: glutathione peroxidase; MDA: malondialdehyde; BCA: bicinchoninic acid; TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; Trolox: 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid; JC-B: Janus Green B; DW: dry weight; FC: Folin-Ciocalteu; GAE

  15. Depletion of norepinephrine of the central nervous system Down-regulates the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-05-04

    DSP-4[N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride] is a neurotoxin that depletes norepinephrine. The catecholaminergic system has been implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level. In the present study, the effect of DSP-4 administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) on blood glucose level was examined in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mice models. Mice were pretreated once i.c.v. or i.t. with DSP-4 (10-40μg) for 3days, and d-glucose (2g/kg) was fed orally. Blood glucose level was measured 0 (prior to glucose feeding or restraint stress), 30, 60, and 120min after d-glucose feeding or restraint stress. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated blood glucose level in the d-glucose-fed model. Plasma corticosterone level was downregulated in the d-glucose-fed model, whereas plasma insulin level increased in the d-glucose-fed group. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reversed the downregulation of plasma corticosterone induced by feeding d-glucose. In addition, the d-glucose-induced increase in plasma insulin was attenuated by the DSP-4 pretreatment. Furthermore, i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reduced restraint stress-induced increases in blood glucose levels. Restraint stress increased plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. The i.c.v. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated restraint stress-induced plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. Our results suggest that depleting norepinephrine at the supraspinal and spinal levels appears to be responsible for downregulating blood glucose levels in both d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the protective effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil on the dentate gyrus following chronic restraint stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Bhari Talip

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to chronic restraint stress has been shown to cause a number of morphological changes in the hippocampal formation of rats. Tocotrienol, an isoform of vitamin E, exhibits numerous health benefits, different from those of tocopherol. Recent studies have demonstrated that tocotrienol prevents stress-induced changes in the gastric mucosa, thus indicating that it may also protect other organs such as the brain from the damaging effects of stress. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF extracted from palm oil on the dentate gyrus of rats following exposure to chronic restraint stress. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, stress, tocotrienol and combination of stress and tocotrienol. Animals were stressed by restraining them for 5 hours every day for 21 consecutive days. TRF was administered via oral gavage at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. Our results showed that the plasma corticosterone level was significantly increased in response to stress, compared to the control. The results confirmed previous findings that chronic restraint stress suppresses cellular proliferation and reduces granule cell number in the dentate gyrus. However, TRF supplementation failed to prevent or minimize these stress-induced changes. Therefore, we conclude that TRF at the current dosage is not effective in preventing the morphological changes in the dentate gyrus induced by chronic restraint stress.

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome and psychological stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D Stuart

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold. The first aim was to clarify the relationship between psychological stress and lrritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS by establishing whether individuals suffering from IBS experience minor stress differently from healthy individuals in terms of its frequency or intensity. The second aim was more general and concerns theory building in a field filled with ambiguity and confusion. Two groups, one comprising IBS sufferers and the other healthy controls, completed the Daily Stress lnventory and the Occupational Stress lnventory - questionnaires designed to measure minor daily and occupational stress respectively. The findings indicate that IBS sufferers do not experience more stress than healthy individuals, but they experience the stressors with greater intensity.

    Opsomming
    Die doel van die studie was tweeledig. Eerstens is daar gepoog om duidelikheid te kry oor die verband tussen sielkundige stres en Prikkelbare Dermsindroom (PDS, deur te bepaal of individue wat aan PDS ly geringe stres anders ervaar as gesonde individue in terme van gereeldheid of intensiteit. Die tweede doelwit was meer algemeen en spreek die kwessie van teorie ontwikkeling aan in 'n veld gevul met dubbelsinningheid en verwarring. Twee groepe, een bestaande uit PDS lyers en die ander 'n gesonde kontrolegroep, het die "Daily Stress Inventory'' en die "Occupational Stress Inventory" voltooi. Die vraelyste is ontwerp om onderskeidelik daaglikse stres en werkstres te meet. Die resultate dui daarop dat PDS lyers nie meer stres ervaar as die gesonde individue nie, maar dat hulle wel die stressors ervaar met groter intensiteit.

  18. Stress and Cognition: A Cognitive Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Lyle E., Jr.; Yaroush, Rita A.

    2003-01-01

    Research in cognitive psychology has made a significant contribution to our understanding of how acute and chronic stress affect performance. It has done so by identifying some of the factors that contribute to operator error and by suggesting how operators might be trained to respond more effectively in a variety of circumstances. The major purpose of this paper was to review the literature of cognitive psychology as it relates to these questions and issues. Based on the existence of earlier reviews (e.g., Hamilton, & Warburton, 1979; Hockey, 1983) the following investigation was limited to the last 15 years (1988-2002) and restricted to a review of the primary peer-reviewed literature. The results of this examination revealed that while cognitive psychology has contributed in a substantive way to our understanding of stress impact on various cognitive processes, it has also left many questions unanswered. Concerns about how we define and use the term stress and the gaps that remain in our knowledge about the specific effects of stressors on cognitive processes are discussed in the text.

  19. Electroconvulsive stimulation, but not chronic restraint stress, causes structural alterations in adult rat hippocampus--a stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Mikkel V; Wörtwein, Gitta; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms underlying depression are not fully understood. Only a few previous studies have used validated stereological methods to test how stress and animal paradigms of depression affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and whether antidepressant therapy can counteract possible changes in an animal model. Thus, in this study we applied methods that are state of the art in regard to stereological cell counting methods. Using a validated rat model of depression in combination with a clinically relevant schedule of electroconvulsive stimulation, we estimated the total number of newly formed neurons in the hippocampal subgranular zone. Also estimated were the total number of neurons and the volume of the granule cell layer in adult rats subjected to chronic restraint stress and electroconvulsive stimulation either alone or in combination. We found that chronic restraint stress induces depression-like behavior, without significantly changing neurogenesis, the total number of neurons or the volume of the hippocampus. Further, electroconvulsive stimulation prevents stress-induced depression-like behavior and increases neurogenesis. The total number of neurons and the granule cell layer volume was not affected by electroconvulsive stimulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effects of chronic restraint stress on social behaviors and the number of hypothalamic oxytocin neurons in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Li, Han-Xia; Shou, Xiao-Jing; Xu, Xin-Jie; Song, Tian-Jia; Han, Song-Ping; Zhang, Rong; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) are considered to be related to mammalian social behavior and the regulation of stress responses. The present study investigated the effects of chronic homotypic restraint stress (CHRS) on social behaviors and anxiety, as well as its repercussions on OXT- and AVP-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) nuclei in rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving CHRS were exposed to repeated restraint stress of 30min per day for 10days. Changes in social approach behaviors were evaluated with the three-chambered social approach task. Changes in anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated in the light-dark box test. The number of neurons expressing oxytocin and/or vasopressin in PVN and SON were examined by immunohistochemistry techniques. The results demonstrated that social approach was increased and anxiety was decreased following 10-day exposure to CHRS. Furthermore, the number of OXT-immunoreactive cells in PVN was increased significantly, whereas no change in SON was seen. The number of AVP immunoreactive cells either in PVN or SON was unaffected. The results of this study suggest that certain types of stress could be effective in the treatment of social dysfunction in persons with mental disorders such as autism, social anxiety disorder. The therapeutic effects may be mediated by changes in the function of OXT neurons in PVN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Honokiol abrogates chronic restraint stress-induced cognitive impairment and depressive-like behaviour by blocking endoplasmic reticulum stress in the hippocampus of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangra, Ashok; Dwivedi, Shubham; Sriram, Chandra Shaker; Gurjar, Satendra Singh; Kwatra, Mohit; Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Baruah, Chandana C; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-01-05

    The primary objective of our study is to investigate the neuroprotective efficacy of honokiol and imipramine against restraint stress (RS)-induced cognitive impairment and depressive-like behaviour in mice. We examined whether the neuroprotective activity of honokiol and imipramine mediates through the inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Adult Swiss albino mice were restrained for 6h/day for 28 days. Honokiol (3 and 10mg/kg) and Imipramine (10 and 30mg/kg) were administered for last 7 days to the different groups. Cognitive function was assessed by Morris water maze and novel object recognition test. Forced swimming test and tail suspension test were performed to evaluate the restraint stress-induced depressive-like behaviour. Proinflammatory cytokines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and ER stress markers i.e. 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were quantified in the hippocampus. We observed cognitive impairment and depressive-like behaviour in RS-exposed animals. Honokiol (10mg/kg) treated group depicted marked reduction in cognitive impairment and depressive-like behaviour. However, imipramine (10 and 30mg/kg) prevented the depressive-like behaviour but failed to prevent RS-induced cognitive impairment. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokines, GRP78 and CHOP were elevated in the hippocampus of stressed mice as compared to unstressed mice. Honokiol (10mg/kg) significantly prevented the RS-induced elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers. Our results clearly suggest the beneficial potential of honokiol in restraint stress through inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Honokiol could be an intriguing therapeutic approach in endoplasmic reticulum stress related neuro-pathophysiological conditions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Restraint Stress Alters Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ and CRF Systems in the Rat Central Amygdala: Significance for Anxiety-Like Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guglielmo, Giordano; Hansson, Anita C.; Ubaldi, Massimo; Kallupi, Marsida; Cruz, Maureen T.; Oleata, Christopher S.; Heilig, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is the primary mediator of stress responses, and nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) plays an important role in the modulation of these stress responses. Thus, in this multidisciplinary study, we explored the relationship between the N/OFQ and the CRF systems in response to stress. Using in situ hybridization (ISH), we assessed the effect of body restraint stress on the gene expression of CRF and N/OFQ-related genes in various subdivisions of the amygdala, a critical brain structure involved in the modulation of stress response and anxiety-like behaviors. We found a selective upregulation of the NOP and downregulation of the CRF1 receptor transcripts in the CeA and in the BLA after body restraint. Thus, we performed intracellular electrophysiological recordings of GABAA-mediated IPSPs in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) to explore functional interactions between CRF and N/OFQ systems in this brain region. Acute application of CRF significantly increased IPSPs in the CeA, and this enhancement was blocked by N/OFQ. Importantly, in stress-restraint rats, baseline CeA GABAergic responses were elevated and N/OFQ exerted a larger inhibition of IPSPs compared with unrestraint rats. The NOP antagonist [Nphe1]-nociceptin(1–13)NH2 increased the IPSP amplitudes in restraint rats but not in unrestraint rats, suggesting a functional recruitment of the N/OFQ system after acute stress. Finally, we evaluated the anxiety-like response in rats subjected to restraint stress and nonrestraint rats after N/OFQ microinjection into the CeA. Intra-CeA injections of N/OFQ significantly and selectively reduced anxiety-like behavior in restraint rats in the elevated plus maze. These combined results demonstrate that acute stress increases N/OFQ systems in the CeA and that N/OFQ has antistress properties. PMID:24403138

  3. Loss of melanocortin-4 receptor function attenuates HPA responses to psychological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryan, Karen K; Mul, Joram D; Clemmensen, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    The melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), well-known for its role in the regulation of energy balance, is widely expressed in stress-regulatory brain regions, including the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the medial amygdala (MeA). In agreement with this, MC4R has been implicated...... in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA) regulation. The present work investigated the role of chronic Mc4r function to modulate basal HPA axis tone and to facilitate acute HPA responses to psychological stress, using a novel rat model with Mc4r loss-of-function. In this study, adult male rats were...... placed into 3 groups (n=15/group) according to genotype [wild-type (WT); heterozygous mutant (HET); and homozygous mutant (HOM)]. Basal (pre-stress) plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone were measured in the AM and PM, and the HPA axis response to restraint was assessed in the AM...

  4. Acute effects of nicotine on restraint stress-induced anxiety-like behavior, c-Fos expression, and corticosterone release in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Ru; Chen, Tsung-Yen; Chan, Ming-Huan; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2007-07-02

    Clinical evidence suggests that nicotine reduces anxiety in stressful situations. In the present study, we investigated the effect of nicotine on restraint-enhanced anxiety-like behavior, c-Fos expression, an index of neuronal activation in the brain, and plasma corticosterone. Two-hour restraint stress-enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and nicotine hydrogen tartrate (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated the stress-induced changes. Pretreatment with the centrally acting nicotinic antagonist, mecamylamine (2 mg/kg), blocked nicotine's effects. In addition, restraint led to significant increases of c-Fos expression in several brain regions related to stress or anxiety including paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), lateral hypothalamic area (LH), central amygdaloid nucleus (CeA), medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA) and cingulate and retrosplenial cortices (Cg/RS), paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT), and basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA). Nicotine attenuated the restraint-induced expression of c-Fos in the PVN, LH, CeA, MeA, and Cg/RS, while leaving the BLA and PVT unaffected. In contrast, nicotine did not reverse the increased levels of plasma corticosterone induced by restraint. These findings suggest that nicotine may modify the stress-induced behavioral changes via regulating the neuronal activation in selected brain regions rather than affecting hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis hormone responses.

  5. Preventive effects of enzyme-treated rice fiber in a restraint stress-induced irritable bowel syndrome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanauchi, Osamu; Mitsuyama, Keiichi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Yagi, Minoru; Andoh, Akira; Sata, Michio

    2010-04-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common health issue that is characterized by abdominal pain, abnormal bowel movements, altered visceral perception, and abnormal metabolism of 5-hydroxy triptamine (serotonin; 5HT). The use of prebiotics or probiotics treatment for IBS has become increasingly important as an adjunct to pharmaceutical options. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of enzyme-treated rice fiber (ERF) on an IBS model. We obtained a new prebiotic from defatted rice bran that was developed as an insoluble dietary fiber through amylase and hemicellulase treatment followed by removal of the soluble fraction. Containing approximately 70% hemicellulose, ERF is utilized by lactobacilli and subsequently converted to butyrate using Eubacterium limosum. We employed a restraint stress IBS model which involved the continuous application of stress for 4 h per day for 3 days. Polycarbophil Ca (PC) (500 mg/kg body weight) was used as a positive control and ERF was added to the diet at 4% in diet. During restraint stress, ERF significantly attenuated urgent fecal excretion, colonic mucosal 5HT secretion, and hyperalgesthesia compared with the control. ERF also significantly increased cecal butyrate production as well as total organic acid content. PC was only effective in regard to preventing increases in 5HT levels. Furthermore, there were no significant levels of pro-inflammatory markers CINC-1 and TNF-alpha among the groups. Although more detailed studies are needed, the ERF prebiotic demonstrated potency in attenuating major symptoms of IBS.

  6. Psychological Needs as the Predictor of Teachers' Perceived Stress Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Ahmet; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Kesici, Sahin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between teachers' psychological needs and perceived stress levels. First of all, the differentiation status of teachers' psychological needs and perceived stress levels in terms of gender, type of institution and type of the school variables was examined. Then, the psychological need's level…

  7. Both α1- and α2-adrenoceptors in the Insular Cortex Are Involved in the Cardiovascular Responses to Acute Restraint Stress in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Fernando H. F.; Crestani, Carlos C.; Resstel, Leonardo B. M.; Corrêa, Fernando M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The insular cortex (IC) is a limbic structure involved in cardiovascular responses observed during aversive threats. However, the specific neurotransmitter mediating IC control of cardiovascular adjustments to stress is yet unknown. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the role of local IC adrenoceptors in the cardiovascular responses elicited by acute restraint stress in rats. Bilateral microinjection of different doses (0.3, 5, 10 and 15 nmol/100 nl) of the selective α1-adrenoceptor antagonist WB4101 into the IC reduced both the arterial pressure and heart rate increases elicited by restraint stress. However, local IC treatment with different doses (0.3, 5, 10 and 15 nmol/100 nl) of the selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist RX821002 reduced restraint-evoked tachycardia without affecting the pressor response. The present findings are the first direct evidence showing the involvement of IC adrenoceptors in cardiovascular adjustments observed during aversive threats. Our findings indicate that IC noradrenergic neurotransmission acting through activation of both α1- and α2-adrenoceptors has a facilitatory influence on pressor response to acute restraint stress. Moreover, IC α1-adrenoceptors also play a facilitatory role on restraint-evoked tachycardiac response. PMID:24404141

  8. Theacrine, a purine alkaloid obtained from Camellia assamica var. kucha, attenuates restraint stress-provoked liver damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Xi; Li, Yi-Fang; Zhai, Yu-Jia; Chen, Wei-Min; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2013-07-03

    Theacrine (1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid), a purine alkaloid, has proven to be beneficial in maintaining several brain functions and is being studied for potential medicinal uses in recent years. In this study, we isolated theacrine from Camellia assamica var. kucha and investigated its protective effects on liver damage induced by restraint stress in mice. Results showed that 18 h of restraint stress could induce liver damage, with an obvious increase in levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). This finding was further confirmed by hepatic pathological examination, which showed inflammatory cell infiltration and focal necrosis of hepatocytes. However, oral administration of theacrine (10, 20, 30 mg/kg for 7 consecutive days) was found to decrease plasma ALT and AST levels, reduce hepatic mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ), and reverse the histologic damages in stressed mice. Simultaneously, theacrine also significantly decreased the content of malondialdehyde and increased oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) level in the plasma and liver of stressed mice. These results suggested that the protective effects of theacrine on stress-induced liver damage might be correlated with its antioxidative activity. The antioxidative capacity of theacrine was further evaluated by in vitro ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity assay. The results suggested that the antioxidative capacity of theacrine was not due to the direct action on free radical clearance. Moreover, the elevated activities and gene expressions of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, as well as the reduced activity of xanthine oxidase by theacrine treatment in stressed mice suggested that the antioxidative activity might be due to the strengthening of the antioxidant system in vivo. On the basis of the above results, theacrine is possibly a good candidate for protecting against or treating lifestyle

  9. Molecular consequences of psychological stress in human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Villanueva, M; Bürkle, A

    2015-08-01

    Psychological stress has often been described as a feeling of being overwhelmed by the necessity of constant adjustment to an individual's changing environment. Stress affects people of all ages, but the lives of the elderly may particularly be affected. Major changes can cause anxiety leading to feelings of insecurity and/or loss of self-esteem and depression. The cellular mechanisms underlying psychological stress are poorly understood. This review focuses on the physical and molecular consequences of psychological stress linked to aging processes and, in particular, how molecular changes induced by psychological stress can compromise healthy aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The antioxidant potential of alprazolam on the redox status of peripheral blood leukocytes in restraint-stressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, María J; Novío, Silvia; Amigo, Gonzalo; Freire-Garabal, Manuel

    2011-10-24

    Stress can cause adverse reactions in the body that induce a wide range of biochemical and behavioral changes. Oxidative damage is an established outcome of stress that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of mood and anxiety disorders. Anxiolytic drugs are widely prescribed to treat these conditions; however, no animal study has investigated the effect of benzodiazepines on the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the peripheral blood leukocytes of stressed mice. Mice were immobilized for a period of 6h. Alprazolam (0.1-0.8 mg/kg of body weight) was administered 30 min before subjecting the animals to acute stress. The level of intracellular ROS in lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes in the peripheral blood of stressed mice was investigated by using a 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) probe. Our results show that restraint stress significantly increases the generation of ROS in peripheral defense cells. Treatment with alprazolam partially reverses the adverse effects of stress. Our findings suggest that the therapeutic efficacy of alprazolam may be mediated, at least partially, by the reversal of oxidative damage as demonstrated by the protective enhancement of antioxidant status following a stress-induced decline. Because alprazolam is used for the treatment of anxiety in patients with cancer, neurodegenerative disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, and other diseases, these results may have important clinical implications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of prenatal restraint stress on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and related behavioural and neurobiological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Stefania; Morley-Fletcher, Sara

    2007-08-01

    Chronic hyper-activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis is associated with the suppression of reproductive, growth, thyroid and immune functions that may lead to various pathological states. Although many individuals experiencing stressful events do not develop pathologies, stress seems to be a provoking factor in those individuals with particular vulnerability, determined by genetic factors or earlier experience. Exposure of the developing brain to severe and/or prolonged stress may result in hyper-activity of the stress system, defective glucocorticoids-negative feedback, altered cognition, novelty seeking, increased vulnerability to addictive behaviour, and mood-related disorders. Therefore, stress-related events that occur in the perinatal period can permanently change brain and behaviour of the developing individual. Prenatal restraint stress (PRS) in rats is a well-documented model of early stress known to induce long-lasting neurobiological and behavioural alterations including impaired feedback mechanisms of the HPA axis, disruption of circadian rhythms and altered neuroplasticity. Chronic treatments with antidepressants at adulthood have proven high predictive validity of the PRS rat as animal model of depression and, reinforce the idea of the usefulness of the PRS rat as an interesting animal model for the design and testing of new pharmacologic strategies in the treatment of stress-related disorders.

  12. The role of the cytokine network in psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ku; Maes, Michael

    2003-06-01

    Although a considerable amount of evidence has shown that psychological stress alters peripheral and brain cytokines, the physiological significance of cytokine alteration in psychological stress remains to be elucidated. The aims of this review are to analyze the influence of acute and chronic psychological stresses on the cytokine network in animals and in humans, and to explore the pathophysiological implication of the cytokine changes in psychological stress. Acute psychological stress may increase proinflammatory cytokines both in animals and in humans, and increase T-helper-1 cell cytokines in humans. Investigations into the effect of chronic psychological stress on cytokine production in animals gives mixed results. However, in humans, academic exam stress or care-giver's stress appears to induce a shift in the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance toward a Th2 response and increase proinflammatory cytokines. Psychological stress-induced cytokines stimulate the activity of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) and could induce serotonin depletion-related disorders such as depression in susceptible individuals. Psychological stress-induced production of cytokines may increase the risk for human diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and exacerbation of autoimmune diseases. Proinflammatory cytokines may also play a regulatory role in glucocorticoid resistance and may be involved in wound healing and skin barrier function alterations. Finally, psychological stress-induced production of cytokines may play a role in neurodegenerative changes in the brain.

  13. Impact of PACAP and PAC1 Receptor Deficiency on the Neurochemical and Behavioral Effects of Acute and Chronic Restraint Stress in Male C57BL/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Tomris; Jiang, Sunny Zhihong; Eiden, Adrian M.; Weihe, Eberhard; Thistlethwaite, Ian; Eiden, Lee E.

    2016-01-01

    Acute restraint stress (ARS) for 3 hours causes CORT elevation in venous blood, which is accompanied by Fos up-regulation in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of male C57BL/6 mice. CORT elevation by ARS is attenuated in PACAP-deficient mice, but unaffected in PAC1-deficient mice. Correspondingly, Fos up-regulation by ARS is greatly attenuated in PACAP-deficient mice, but much less so in PAC1-deficient animals. We noted that both PACAP- and PAC1-deficiency greatly attenuate CORT elevation after ARS when CORT measurements are performed on trunk blood following euthanasia by abrupt cervical separation: this latter observation is of critical importance in assessing the role of PACAP neurotransmission in ARS, based on previous reports in which serum CORT was sampled from trunk blood. Seven days of chronic restraint stress (CRS) induces non-habituating CORT elevation, and weight loss consequent to hypophagia, in wild-type male C57BL/6 mice. Both CORT elevation and weight loss following seven day CRS are severely blunted in PACAP-deficient mice, but only slightly in PAC1 deficient mice. However, longer periods of daily restraint (14–21 days) resulted in sustained weight loss and elevated CORT in wild-type mice, and these effects of long-term chronic stress were attenuated or abolished in both PACAP- and PAC1-deficient mice. We conclude that while a PACAP receptor in addition to PAC1 may mediate some of the PACAP-dependent central effects of acute restraint stress and short-term (restraint stress on the HPA axis, the PAC1 receptor plays a prominent role in mediating PACAP-dependent HPA axis activation, and hypophagia, during long-term (>7 days) chronic restraint stress. PMID:25853791

  14. Activation of presynaptic oxytocin receptors enhances glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus of prenatally restraint stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Jérôme; Gatta, Eleonora; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Marrocco, Jordan; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Soichot, Marion; Deruyter, Lucie; Camp, Gilles Van; Bouwalerh, Hammou; Fagioli, Francesca; Pittaluga, Anna; Allorge, Delphine; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Maccari, Stefania

    2015-12-01

    Oxytocin receptors are known to modulate synaptic transmission and network activity in the hippocampus, but their precise function has been only partially elucidated. Here, we have found that activation of presynaptic oxytocin receptor with the potent agonist, carbetocin, enhanced depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus with no effect on GABA release. This evidence paved the way for examining the effect of carbetocin treatment in "prenatally restraint stressed" (PRS) rats, i.e., the offspring of dams exposed to repeated episodes of restraint stress during pregnancy. Adult PRS rats exhibit an anxious/depressive-like phenotype associated with an abnormal glucocorticoid feedback regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and, remarkably, with a reduced depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus. Chronic systemic treatment with carbetocin (1mg/kg, i.p., once a day for 2-3 weeks) in PRS rats corrected the defect in glutamate release, anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, and abnormalities in social behavior, in the HPA response to stress, and in the expression of stress-related genes in the hippocampus and amygdala. Of note, carbetocin treatment had no effect on these behavioral and neuroendocrine parameters in prenatally unstressed (control) rats, with the exception of a reduced expression of the oxytocin receptor gene in the amygdala. These findings disclose a novel function of oxytocin receptors in the hippocampus, and encourage the use of oxytocin receptor agonists in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders in adult life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dual Minority Stress and Asian American Gay Men's Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…

  16. The effects of oxytocin on cognitive defect caused by chronic restraint stress applied to adolescent rats and on hippocampal VEGF and BDNF levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayi, Ayfer; Cetin, Ferihan; Sisman, Ali Riza; Aksu, Ilkay; Tas, Aysegul; Gönenc, Sevil; Uysal, Nazan

    2015-01-06

    Because brain development continues during adolescence, the effects of chronic stress on hippocampal changes that occur during that period are permanent. Oxytocin, which is synthesized in the hypothalamus and has many receptors in brain regions, including the hippocampus, may affect learning-memory. This study aimed to investigate chronic restraint stress on hippocampal functions, and hippocampal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in adolescent male and female rats and the role of oxytocin in these effects. Experimental groups included control, stress+oxytocin, and stress+saline groups. Restraint stress was applied to all the stress groups for 1 h/day, for 7 days. Learning-memory tests were performed after the 7th day. In the stress+oxytocin groups, the process of finding the platform was shorter than in others groups. The stress+saline groups spent less time, whereas the stress+oxytocin groups spent more time, on the target quadrant in the probe trial. In the stress+oxytocin groups thigmotaxis time (indicating anxiety) decreased, but VEGF and BDNF levels increased. A positive correlation was found between VEGF and BDNF levels and the time spent within the target quadrant. The results indicate that impaired hippocampal learning and memory loss due to chronic restraint stress can be positively affected by intranasal oxytocin.

  17. Effects of short-term restraint stress on leukocyte counts, lymphocyte proliferation and lysis of erythrocytes in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozen, A W; Magnusson, U

    1996-10-01

    The effects of short-term restraint stress on leukocyte counts, lymphocyte proliferation and lysis of erythrocytes were studied in six gilts. A catheter was inserted into the jugular vein and two blood samples were collected before the onset of stress. Thereafter a hog snare was applied and blood samples were collected at 0.5, 2, and 3.5 min after the start of snaring. Neither the total WBC number, nor the total number of lymphocytes, or the total number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes changed significantly throughout the study. This was also true for the degree of intravasal lysis of erythrocytes. In whole blood cultures stimulated with pokeweed mitogen, an increase (P immunity but not the leukocyte count nor lysis of erythrocytes in pigs.

  18. Palatable Foods, Stress, and Energy Stores Sculpt Corticotropin-Releasing Factor, Adrenocorticotropin, and Corticosterone Concentrations after Restraint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foster, Michelle T; Warne, James P; Ginsberg, Abigail B; Horneman, Hart F; Pecoraro, Norman C; Akana, Susan F; Dallman, Mary F

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown reduced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal responses to both acute and chronic restraint stressors in rats allowed to ingest highly palatable foods (32% sucrose ± lard) prior to restraint...

  19. Lactation and Reactivity to Physical and Psychological Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, C

    1997-01-01

    .... Findings to date include lack of changes in attention and memory functions during pregnancy and lactation, lack of difference in hormonal and anxiety responses to psychological stress, enhanced...

  20. The Role of MAPK and Dopaminergic Synapse Signaling Pathways in Antidepressant Effect of Electroacupuncture Pretreatment in Chronic Restraint Stress Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjing Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has demonstrated the function in ameliorating depressive-like behaviors via modulating PKA/CREB signaling pathway. To further confirm the antidepressant mechanism of EA on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and dopaminergic synapse signaling pathways, 4 target proteins were detected based on our previous iTRAQ analysis. Rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, and electroacupuncture (EA group. Except for the control group, all rats were subjected to 28 days of chronic restraint stress (CRS protocols to induce depression. In the EA group, EA pretreatment at Baihui (GV20 and Yintang (GV29 was performed daily (1 mA, 2 Hz, discontinuous wave, 20 minutes prior to restraint. The antidepressant-like effect of EA was measured by body weight and open-field test. The protein levels of DAT, Th, Mapt, and Prkc in the hippocampus were examined by using Western blot. The results showed EA could ameliorate the depression-like behaviors and regulate the expression levels of Prkc and Mapt in CRS rats. The effect of EA on DAT and Th expression was minimal. These findings implied that EA pretreatment could alleviate depression through modulating MAPK signaling pathway. The role of EA on dopaminergic synapse signaling pathways needs to be further explored.

  1. Chronic restraint stress causes a delayed increase in responding for palatable food cues during forced abstinence via a dopamine D1-like receptor-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kevin T; Best, Olivia; Luo, Jonathan; Miller, Leah R

    2017-02-15

    Relapse to unhealthy eating habits in dieters is often triggered by stress. Animal models, moreover, have confirmed a causal role for acute stress in relapse. The role of chronic stress in relapse vulnerability, however, has received relatively little attention. Therefore, in the present study, we used an abstinence-based relapse model in rats to test the hypothesis that exposure to chronic stress increases subsequent relapse vulnerability. Rats were trained to press a lever for highly palatable food reinforcers in daily 3-h sessions and then tested for food seeking (i.e., responding for food associated cues) both before and after an acute or chronic restraint stress procedure (3h/day×1day or 10days, respectively) or control procedure (unstressed). The second food seeking test was conducted either 1day or 7days after the last restraint. Because chronic stress causes dopamine D1-like receptor-mediated alterations in prefrontal cortex (a relapse node), we also assessed dopaminergic involvement by administering either SCH-23390 (10.0μg/kg; i.p.), a dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist, or vehicle prior to daily treatments. Results showed that chronically, but not acutely, stressed rats displayed increased food seeking 7days, but not 1day, after the last restraint. Importantly, SCH-23390 combined with chronic stress reversed this effect. These results suggest that drugs targeting D1-like receptors during chronic stress may help to prevent future relapse in dieters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of chronic restraint stress on the global DNA methylation profile of rat lung cells: Modulation by physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoli, L V; Volpini, V L; Nascimento, L M; Silva, W R; Verissimo, L F; Estrada, V B; Pelosi, G G; Gomes, M V

    2017-07-28

    The potential of behavioral stress to affect epigenetic mechanisms of non-encephalic tissues is still underestimated. In the present study we evaluated the effects of chronic behavioral stress on the DNA methylation profile of rat lung cells. Furthermore, we evaluated the potential of physical exercise to modulate the changes evoked by behavioral stress in lung cells. Male Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups: (1) animals submitted to chronic restraint stress (CRS) (ST group) during the period of the 67th-80th postnatal day (PND); (2) animals submitted to physical exercise (EX group) during the 53rd-79th PND; (3) animals submitted to swimming during the 53rd-79th PND and to CRS during the 67th-80th PND (EX-ST group); and (4) animals not submitted to stress or swimming protocols (CTL). Global DNA methylation was quantified using an ELISA-based approach and gene expression was evaluated by real time PCR. A decreased global DNA methylation profile was observed in the ST group, however physical exercise demonstrated protection of lung cells from this stress-related hypomethylation. Increased expression of the Dnmt1 gene was evidenced in the ST group, whereas physical exercise was shown to protect lung cells from this stress-related effect in the EX-ST group. Comparative analysis of the ST and EX groups revealed opposite effects on the expression of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b; however, a stress-related increase in expression of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b was not seen in the EX-ST group. Our data showed that behavioral stress induced significant changes in the DNA methylation profile of rat lung cells and that this could be modulated by physical exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth: prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisborg, K; Barklin, A; Hedegaard, M; Henriksen, T B

    2008-06-01

    To study the association between psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth. Prospective follow-up study. Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark,1989-98. A total of 19 282 singleton pregnancies in women with valid information about psychological stress during pregnancy. Information about psychological stress during pregnancy was obtained from questionnaires and measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaires (GHQ). A score was generated by the sum of all the answers, each contributing a value between 0 (low psychological stress) and 3 (high psychological stress). Women with an intermediate level of psychological stress (scores of 7-11) were considered the reference group. Scores of 0-6 were defined as a low level of psychological stress and scores of 12-36 as the highest level. The association between psychological stress and stillbirth was presented as relative risks with 95% CIs. Adjustment for potential confounding factors was carried out by logistic regression analyses. Stillbirth (delivery of a dead fetus at >28 weeks of gestation). There were 66 stillbirths (3.4 per thousand) in the population studied. Compared with women with an intermediate level of psychological stress during pregnancy, women with a high level of stress had 80% increased risk of stillbirth (relative risk = 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.2). Adjustment for maternal age, parity, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking habits, alcohol and caffeine intake during pregnancy, education and cohabitation failed to change the result. The results remained essentially unchanged after exclusion of preterm deliveries. Exclusion of women with complications during pregnancy such as diabetes, hypertension, vaginal bleeding, immunisation and imminent preterm delivery failed to change the results. Likewise, restriction to women's first pregnancy in the cohort did not change the results. Psychological stress during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth.

  4. Stress, Positive Psychology and the National Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to explore the predictive ability of sources of stress and a range of dispositional and coping behaviours on student satisfaction and motivation. Most research exploring sources of stress and coping in students construes stress as psychological distress, with little attempt to consider positive experiences of stress. A questionnaire…

  5. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on chronic restraint stress induced learning and memory impairments in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuchan; Kan, Hongwei; Yin, Yanyan; Wu, Wangyang; Hu, Wen; Wang, Mingming; Li, Weiping; Li, Weizu

    2014-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the major neurological diseases of the elderly. Chronic stress, which can induce atrophy and functional impairments in several key brain areas such as the frontal cortex and hippocampus, plays an important role in the generation and progression of AD. Currently, there are no effective drug treatment options for preventing chronic stress induced learning and memory impairments and neuronal damage. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is a steroidal saponin abundantly contained in ginseng. This study explored the neuroprotective effects of Rg1 on chronic restraint stress (CRS) induced learning and memory impairments in a mouse model. Our results showed that Rg1 (5mg/kg) significantly protected against learning and memory impairments induced by CRS in a Morris water maze. Besides, Rg1 (2, 5mg/kg) was able to decrease ROS generation and attenuate the neuronal oxidative damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus CA1 in mice. Additionally, the inhibition of NOX2, p47phox and RAC1 expression is also involved in the action mechanisms of Rg1 in this experimental model. This study provided an experimental basis for the clinical application of Rg1 in chronic stress induced neuronal oxidative damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth: prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisborg, K.; Barklin, A.; Hedegaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    habits, alcohol and caffeine intake during pregnancy, education and cohabitation failed to change the result. The results remained essentially unchanged after exclusion of preterm deliveries. Exclusion of women with complications during pregnancy such as diabetes, hypertension, vaginal bleeding......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark,1989-98. POPULATION: A total of 19 282 singleton pregnancies in women with valid information about...... stress) and 3 (high psychological stress). Women with an intermediate level of psychological stress (scores of 7-11) were considered the reference group. Scores of 0-6 were defined as a low level of psychological stress and scores of 12-36 as the highest level. The association between psychological...

  7. Chronic Restraint Stress Induces an Isoform-Specific Regulation on the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule in the Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touyarot, K.; Sandi, C.

    2002-01-01

    Existing evidence indicates that 21-days exposure of rats to restraint stress induces dendritic atrophy in pyramidal cells of the hippocampus. This phenomenon has been related to altered performance in hippocampal-dependent learning tasks. Prior studies have shown that hippocampal expression of cell adhesion molecules is modified by such stress treatment, with the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) decreasing and L1 increasing, their expression, at both the mRNA and protein levels. Given that NCAM comprises several isoforms, we investigated here whether chronic stress might differentially affect the expression of the three major isoforms (NCAM-120, NCAM-140, NCAM-180) in the hippocampus. In addition, as glucocorticoids have been implicated in the deleterious effects induced by chronic stress, we also evaluated plasma corticosterone levels and the hippocampal expression of the corticosteroid mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The results showed that the protein concentration of the NCAM-140 isoform decreased in the hippoampus of stressed rats. This effect was isoform-specific, because NCAM-120 and NCAM-180 levels were not significantly modified. In addition, whereas basal levels of plasma corticosterone tended to be increased, MR and GR concentrations were not significantly altered. Although possible changes in NCAM-120, NCAM-180 and corticosteroid receptors at earlier time points of the stress period cannot be ignored; this study suggests that a down-regulation of NCAM-140 might be implicated in the structural alterations consistently shown to be induced in the hippocampus by chronic stress exposure. As NCAM-140 is involved in cell-cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth, these findings suggest that this molecule might be one of the molecular mechanisms involved in the complex interactions among neurodegeneration-related events. PMID:12757368

  8. Physical exercise and acute restraint stress differentially modulate hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcripts and epigenetic mechanisms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieraci, Alessandro; Mallei, Alessandra; Musazzi, Laura; Popoli, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    Physical exercise and stressful experiences have been shown to exert opposite effects on behavioral functions and brain plasticity, partly by involving the action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Although epigenetic modifications are known to play a pivotal role in the regulation of the different BDNF transcripts, it is poorly understood whether epigenetic mechanisms are also implied in the BDNF modulation induced by physical exercise and stress. Here, we show that total BDNF mRNA levels and BDNF transcripts 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 were reduced immediately after acute restraint stress (RS) in the hippocampus of mice, and returned to control levels 24 h after the stress session. On the contrary, exercise increased BDNF mRNA expression and counteracted the stress-induced decrease of BDNF transcripts. Physical exercise-induced up-regulation of BDNF transcripts was accounted for by increase in histone H3 acetylated levels at specific BDNF promoters, whereas the histone H3 trimethylated lysine 27 and dimethylated lysine 9 levels were unaffected. Acute RS did not change the levels of acetylated and methylated histone H3 at the BDNF promoters. Furthermore, we found that physical exercise and RS were able to differentially modulate the histone deacetylases mRNA levels. Finally, we report that a single treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors, prior to acute stress exposure, prevented the down-regulation of total BDNF and BDNF transcripts 1, 2, 3, and 6, partially reproducing the effect of physical exercise. Overall, these results suggest that physical exercise and stress are able to differentially modulate the expression of BDNF transcripts by possible different epigenetic mechanisms. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Rumination modulates stress and other psychological processes in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey Owen

    2015-12-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread pain and high levels of sleep disturbance, fatigue, and altered cognition. Psychological stress can modulate these features. In this study, we examined the thinking style of rumination in women with FM to assess the effect of rumination on stress levels and other psychological variables in FM. Ninety-eight women with FM completed questionnaires to assess levels of rumination, stress, anxiety, depression, optimism, control, and coping. T-tests and bivariate (Pearson) analysis was performed to assess relationships between rumination and other psychological factors. We found that those with higher levels of rumination had increased the use of negative coping techniques (panxiety (prumination correlated with lower optimism (prumination correlated strongest with stress (pRumination predicted 26% of variance for perceived stress. Rumination influenced several psychological processes deemed important in FM and was an important contributor to stress in FM. Specific interventions targeting rumination in FM may improve FM symptoms and outcomes.

  10. Interreality in the Management of Psychological Stress: a Clinical Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Riva, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The term “psychological stress” describes a situation in which a subject perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. According to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the best validated approach covering both stress management and stress treatment is the Cognitive Behavioral (CBT) approach. We aim to design, develop and test an advanced ICT based solution for the assessment and treatment of psychological stress that is able to improve the actual CB...

  11. Protective effect of eugenol against restraint stress-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction: Potential use in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabadu, Debapriya; Shah, Ankit; Singh, Sanjay; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2015-07-01

    Eugenol, an essential constituent found in plants such as Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. (Myrtaceae) is reported to possess neuroprotective and anti-stress activities. These activities can potentially be useful in the treatment of stress-induced irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The protective effect of eugenol was assessed against restraint stress (RS)-induced IBS-like gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats. Further, its centrally mediated effect was evaluated in this model. Eugenol (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg), ondansetron (4.0 mg/kg, p.o.), and vehicle were administered to rats for 7 consecutive days before exposure to 1 h RS. One control group was not exposed to RS-induction. The effect of eugenol (50 mg/kg) with and without RS exposure was evaluated for mechanism of action and per se effect, respectively. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex (HPA)-axis function was evaluated by estimating the plasma corticosterone level. The levels of brain monoamines, namely serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and their metabolites were estimated in stress-responsive regions such as hippocampus, hypothalamus, pre-frontal cortex (PFC), and amygdala. Oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses were also assessed in brain regions. Eugenol (50 mg/kg) reduced 80% of RS-induced increase in fecal pellets similar to that of ondansetron. Eugenol attenuated 80% of stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone and modulated the serotonergic system in the PFC and amygdala. Eugenol attenuated stress-induced changes in norepinephrine and potentiated the antioxidant defense system in all brain regions. Eugenol protected against RS-induced development of IBS-like gastrointestinal dysfunction through modulation of HPA-axis and brain monoaminergic pathways apart from its antioxidant effect.

  12. Children’s coping after psychological stress: choices among food, physical activity, and television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s stress-coping behaviors and their determinants have not been widely studied. Some children eat more after stress and dietary restraint moderates stress eating in youth, but eating has been studied in isolation of other coping behaviors. Children may not choose to eat when stressed if othe...

  13. Sodium Phenylbutyrate and Edaravone Abrogate Chronic Restraint Stress-Induced Behavioral Deficits: Implication of Oxido-Nitrosative, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Cascade, and Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangra, Ashok; Sriram, Chandra Shaker; Dwivedi, Shubham; Gurjar, Satendra Singh; Hussain, Md Iftikar; Borah, Probodh; Lahkar, Mangala

    2017-01-01

    Chronic stress exposure can produce deleterious effects on the hippocampus (HC) which eventually leads to cognitive impairment and depression. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been reported as one of the major culprits in the development of stress-induced cognitive impairment and depression. We investigated the neuroprotective efficacy of sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB), an ER stress inhibitor, and edaravone, a free radical scavenger, against chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced cognitive deficits and anxiety- and depressive-like behavior in mice. Adult male Swiss albino mice were restrained for 6 h/day for 28 days and injected (i.p.) with SPB (40 and 120 mg/kg) or edaravone (3 and 10 mg/kg) for the last seven days. After stress cessation, the anxiety- and depressive-like behavior along with spatial learning and memory were examined. Furthermore, oxido-nitrosative stress, proinflammatory cytokines, and gene expression level of ER stress-related genes were assessed in HC and prefrontal cortex (PFC). CRS-exposed mice showed anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, which was significantly improved by SPB and edaravone treatment. In addition, SPB and edaravone treatment significantly alleviated CRS-induced spatial learning and memory impairment. Furthermore, CRS-evoked oxido-nitrosative stress, neuroinflammation, and depletion of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor were significantly ameliorated by SPB and edaravone treatment. We found significant up-regulation of ER stress-related genes in both HC and PFC regions, which were suppressed by SPB and edaravone treatment in CRS mice. Our study provides evidence that SPB and edaravone exerted neuroprotective effects on CRS-induced cognitive deficits and anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, which is possibly coupled with inhibition of oxido-nitrosative stress, neuroinflammation, and ER stress cascade.

  14. The influence of psychological stress on upper respiratory infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Zachariae, Robert; Bovberg, Dana

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the available evidence for the hypothesis that reduced resistance caused by psychological stress may influence the development of clinical disease in those exposed to an infectious agent. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 27 prospective studies...... examining the association between psychological stress and subsequent upper respiratory infection (URI). RESULTS: The results revealed a significant overall main effect of psychological stress on the risk of developing URI (effect size correlation coefficient, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.......15-0.27). Further analyses showed that effect sizes for the association did not vary according to type of stress, how URI was assessed, or whether the studies had controlled for preexposure. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analytical findings confirmed the hypothesis that psychological stress is associated with increased...

  15. The role of psychological stress in skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimyai-Asadi, A; Usman, A

    2001-01-01

    Numerous case reports and studies have suggested that psychological stress may have a role in the onset or exacerbation of a variety of skin diseases. We review the literature pertaining to the role of psychological stress in the exacerbation of psoriasis, urticaria, eczematous dermatitis, herpesvirus infections, and other skin diseases; discuss potential mechanisms of stress-induced skin disease; and review studies and case reports of psychotherapeutic interventions that have been found helpful in the therapy of skin diseases. There is evidence linking psychological stress to exacerbation of certain skin diseases. Both the clinical and the basic science evidence, however, can be hard to interpret in light of the difficulty of defining and quantifying psychological stress as well as the questions regarding the etiologic significance of neuroimmunologic findings in skin diseases.

  16. Palm vitamin E reduces catecholamines, xanthine oxidase activity and gastric lesions in rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fahami Nur Azlina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the effects of Palm vitamin E (PVE and α-tocopherol (α-TF supplementations on adrenalin, noradrenalin, xanthine oxidase plus dehydrogenase (XO + XD activities and gastric lesions in rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS. Methods Sixty male Sprague–Dawley rats (200-250 g were randomly divided into three equal sized groups. The control group was given a normal diet, while the treated groups received the same diet with oral supplementation of PVE or α-TF at 60 mg/kg body weight. After the treatment period of 28 days, each group was further subdivided into two groups with 10 rats without exposing them to stress and the other 10 rats were subjected to WIRS for 3.5 hours. Blood samples were taken to measure the adrenalin and noradrenalin levels. The rats were then sacrificed following which the stomach was excised and opened along the greater curvature and examined for lesions and XO + XD activities. Results The rats exposed to WIRS had lesions in their stomach mucosa. Our findings showed that dietary supplementations of PVE and α-TF were able to reduce gastric lesions significantly in comparison to the stressed control group. WIRS increased plasma adrenalin and noradrenalin significantly. PVE and α-TF treatments reduced these parameters significantly compared to the stressed control. Conclusions Supplementations with either PVE or α-TF reduce the formation of gastric lesions. Their protective effect was related to their abilities to inhibit stress induced elevation of adrenalin and noradrenalin levels as well as through reduction in xanthine oxidase and dehydrogenase activities.

  17. Dynamic regulation of cerebral DNA repair genes by psychological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Kristin; Aalling, Nadia; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2015-01-01

    was seen in HC, but with overall smaller effects and without the induction after acute stress. Nuclear DNA damage from oxidation as measured by the comet assay was unaffected by stress in both regions. We conclude that psychological stress have a dynamic influence on brain DNA repair gene expression...

  18. Racism-Related Stress, General Life Stress, and Psychological Functioning among Black American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…

  19. Effect of water-immersion restraint stress on tryptophan catabolism through the kynurenine pathway in rat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yoshiji; Kubo, Hisako; Yashiro, Koji; Ohashi, Koji; Tsuzuki, Yuji; Wada, Naoya; Yamamoto, Yasuko; Saito, Kuniaki

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS) on tryptophan (Trp) catabolism through the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway in rat tissues. The tissues of rats subjected to 6 h of WIRS (+WIRS) had increased tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activities and increased TDO and IDO1 (one of two IDO isozymes in mammals) mRNA expression levels, with decreased Trp and increased Kyn contents in the liver. +WIRS rats had unchanged TDO and IDO activities in the kidney, decreased TDO activity and unchanged IDO activity in the brain, and unchanged IDO activity in the lung and spleen, with increased Kyn content in all of these tissues. Pretreatment of stressed rats with RU486, a glucocorticoid antagonist, attenuated the increased TOD activity, but not the increased IDO activity, with partial recoveries of the decreased Trp and increased Kyn contents in the liver. These results indicate that WIRS enhances hepatic Trp catabolism by inducing both IDO1 and TDO in rats.

  20. Oxidative stress and psychological functioning among medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rani; Batra, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress has gained attention recently in behavioral medicine and has been reported to be associated with various psychological disturbances and their prognoses. Objectives: Study aims to evaluate the oxidative stress (malonylaldehyde (MDA) levels) and its relation with psychological factors (dimensions of personality, levels of anxiety, stress, and depression) among medical/paramedical students of 1st and 3rd year). Materials and Methods: A total of 150 students; 75 from 1st year (2010–2011) and75 from 3rd year (2009–2010); of medical and paramedical background were assessed on level of MDA (oxidative stress) and personality variables, that is, level of anxiety, stress, and depression. These psychological variables were correlated with the level of their oxidative stress. Results: Findings revealed that both groups are influenced by oxidative stress and their psychological variables are also compatible in order to confirm their vulnerabilities to stress. Conclusions: Stress in 3rd year students was significantly higher and it was noted that it adversely affects the psychological parameters. Hence, special attention on mental health aspect in these students may be given. PMID:25788802

  1. Oxidative stress and psychological functioning among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress has gained attention recently in behavioral medicine and has been reported to be associated with various psychological disturbances and their prognoses. Objectives: Study aims to evaluate the oxidative stress (malonylaldehyde (MDA levels and its relation with psychological factors (dimensions of personality, levels of anxiety, stress, and depression among medical/paramedical students of 1 st and 3 rd year. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 students; 75 from 1 st year (2010-2011 and75 from 3 rd year (2009-2010; of medical and paramedical background were assessed on level of MDA (oxidative stress and personality variables, that is, level of anxiety, stress, and depression. These psychological variables were correlated with the level of their oxidative stress. Results: Findings revealed that both groups are influenced by oxidative stress and their psychological variables are also compatible in order to confirm their vulnerabilities to stress. Conclusions: Stress in 3 rd year students was significantly higher and it was noted that it adversely affects the psychological parameters. Hence, special attention on mental health aspect in these students may be given.

  2. Oxidative stress and psychological functioning among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rani; Batra, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress has gained attention recently in behavioral medicine and has been reported to be associated with various psychological disturbances and their prognoses. Study aims to evaluate the oxidative stress (malonylaldehyde (MDA) levels) and its relation with psychological factors (dimensions of personality, levels of anxiety, stress, and depression) among medical/paramedical students of 1(st) and 3(rd) year). A total of 150 students; 75 from 1(st) year (2010-2011) and75 from 3(rd) year (2009-2010); of medical and paramedical background were assessed on level of MDA (oxidative stress) and personality variables, that is, level of anxiety, stress, and depression. These psychological variables were correlated with the level of their oxidative stress. Findings revealed that both groups are influenced by oxidative stress and their psychological variables are also compatible in order to confirm their vulnerabilities to stress. Stress in 3(rd) year students was significantly higher and it was noted that it adversely affects the psychological parameters. Hence, special attention on mental health aspect in these students may be given.

  3. Sources of stress and psychological morbidity among undergraduate physiotherapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J M; Feeney, C; Hussey, J; Donnellan, C

    2010-09-01

    Professional education can be a stressful experience for some individuals, and may impact negatively on emotional well-being and academic performance. Psychological morbidity and associated sources of stress have not been investigated extensively in physiotherapy students. This study explored sources of stress, psychological morbidity and possible associations between these variables in undergraduate physiotherapy students. A questionnaire-based survey. The Undergraduate Sources of Stress Questionnaire was used to identify sources of stress, and the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) was used to rate the prevalence of psychological morbidity, using a conservative GHQ threshold of 3 to 4 to determine probable 'cases'. Uni- and multivariate tests of correlation were used to analyse the data. An Irish educational institution. One hundred and twenty-five physiotherapy undergraduate students. More than one-quarter of all students (27%) scored above the GHQ threshold, indicating probable psychological morbidity. This is higher than the level of psychological morbidity reported by the general population. Regression analysis showed that academic (beta=0.31, Phours spent studying. Individual significant items from these subscales were stressful events (beta=0.24, P=0.004), mood (beta=0.43, Pacademic and personal issues being the greatest concern. While personal causes of stress such as stressful events and mood are more difficult to control, manipulation of curricular factors may have positive effects on academic sources of stress. Copyright 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of restraints in psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Y H Moosa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Restraints are usually used for the protection of patients and others when medication and verbal therapies are insufficient to control potentially violent patients. Many fear the abuse of restraints as well as their psychological, physical and emotional consequences. In South Africa, according to the Mental Health Care Act No. 17 of 2002, the use of restraints is permissible but subject to certain regulations. Restraint may not be used any longer than is necessary to prevent serious bodily harm to the patient or others. When restraint has the desired effect of settling the patient’s behaviour to the point where control is regained, its further imposition is illegal. Restraints may be classified into three main categories: ( i environmental restraints; ( ii physical restraints; and ( iii chemical restraints. There is much debate over what types of restraint are superior. There may be differences in cost, risk of serious staff injury, requirements of staff time for monitoring and implementation, and impacts on staff and patient attitudes. It is hoped that the use of environmental and physical restraint will be rendered obsolete by advances in the field of psychiatry such psychopharmacology and the therapeutic milieu. In order to reach this goal more research needs to be done on restraint practices across a wide range of psychiatric treatment settings.

  5. Angiotensin II AT1 receptor blocker candesartan prevents the fast up-regulation of cerebrocortical benzodiazepine-1 receptors induced by acute inflammatory and restraint stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lemus, Enrique; Honda, Masaru; Saavedra, Juan M.

    2012-01-01

    Centrally acting Angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) protect from stress-induced disorders and decrease anxiety in a model of inflammatory stress, the systemic injection of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In order to better understand the anxiolytic effect of ARBs, we treated rats with LPS (50 µg/kg) with or without three days of pretreatment with the ARB candesartan (1 mg/kg/day), and studied cortical benzodiazepine (BZ) and corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors. We compared the cortical BZ and CRF receptors expression pattern induced by LPS with that produced in restraint stress. Inflammation stress produced a generalized increase in cortical BZ1 receptors and reduced mRNA expression of the GABAA receptor γ2 subunit in cingulate cortex; changes were prevented by candesartan pretreatment. Moreover, restraint stress produced similar increases in cortical BZ1 receptor binding, and candesartan prevented these changes. Treatment with candesartan alone increased cortical BZ1 binding, and decreased γ2 subunit mRNA expression in the cingulate cortex. Conversely, we did not find changes in CRF1 receptor expression in any of the cortical areas studied, either after inflammation or restraint stress. Cortical CRF2 receptor binding was undetectable, but CRF2 mRNA expression was decreased by inflammation stress, a change prevented by candesartan. We conclude that stress promotes rapid and widespread changes in cortical BZ1 receptor expression; and that the stress-induced BZ1 receptor expression is under the control of AT1 receptor activity. The results suggest that the anti-anxiety effect of ARBs may be associated with their capacity to regulate stress-induced alterations in cortical BZ1 receptors. PMID:22503782

  6. Physical exercise affects the epigenetic programming of rat brain and modulates the adaptive response evoked by repeated restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimoto, R K; Toffoli, L V; Manfredo, M H F; Volpini, V L; Martins-Pinge, M C; Pelosi, G G; Gomes, M V

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics has recently been linked to molecular adaptive responses evoked by physical exercise and stress. Herein we evaluated the effects of physical exercise on global DNA methylation and expression of the Dnmt1 gene in the rat brain and also verified its potential to modulate responses evoked by repeated restraint stress (RRS). Wistar rats were classified into the following experimental groups: (1) physically active (EX): animals submitted to swimming during postnatal days 53-78 (PND); (2) stress (ST): animals submitted to RRS during 75-79PND; (3) exercise-stress (EX-ST): animals submitted to swimming during 53-78PND and to RRS during 75-79PND, and (4) control (CTL): animals that were not submitted to intervention. Samples from the hippocampus, cortex and hypothalamus were obtained at 79PND. The global DNA methylation profile was assessed using an ELISA-based method and the expression of Dnmt1 was evaluated by real-time PCR. Significantly increased methylation was observed in the hypothalamus of animals from the EX group in comparison to CTL. Comparative analysis involving the EX-ST and ST groups revealed increased global DNA methylation in the hippocampus, cortex, and hypothalamus of EX-ST, indicating the potential of physical exercise in modulating the responses evoked by RRS. Furthermore, decreased expression of the Dnmt1 gene was observed in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of animals from the EX-ST group. In summary, our data indicate that physical exercise affects DNA methylation of the hypothalamus and might modulate epigenetic responses evoked by RRS in the hippocampus, cortex, and hypothalamus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A New Mechanism of Vitamin C Effects on A/FM/1/47(H1N1 Virus-Induced Pneumonia in Restraint-Stressed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that vitamin C could protect against influenza infection, but little is known about the mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the influence and possible mechanisms of vitamin C on pneumonia induced by influenza virus in stressed mice. Results showed that restraint stress significantly increased the mortality and the severity of pneumonia in mice caused by A/FM/1/47(H1N1 virus infection, which was attenuated by oral administration of vitamin C (125 and 250 mg/kg. Moreover, vitamin C administration significantly decreased expression of susceptibility genes, including mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3, and increased expression of NF-κB. These work in conjunction to induce type I interferons (IFNs and elicit innate antiviral response as key factors in RIG-I-mediated signal transduction pathway. The above effects of vitamin C were further found to relate with inhibition of excess CORT synthesis by regulating steroid hydroxylating enzymes in adrenal gland. In conclusion, the protective effects of vitamin C on influenza virus-caused pneumonia might be related to its inhibition of CORT synthesis, which reduces the susceptibility to influenza viral infection in restraint-stressed mice. These findings provide a new mechanism for the effects of vitamin C on influenza virus-induced pneumonia in restraint-stressed mice.

  8. Psychological Stress Can Be Decreased by Traditional Thai Massage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripongngam, Thanarat; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Sirivongs, Dhavee; Kanpittaya, Jaturat; Tangvoraphonkchai, Kamonwan; Chanaboon, Sutin

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of traditional Thai massage (TTM) on psychological stress and heart rate variability (HRV). Thirty healthy participants were randomly allocated in two groups, a TTM group (n = 15) who received a 1-hour session with moderate pressure of whole body TTM or a control group (n=15) who rested on the bedfor 1 hour All ofthem were given a 10-minute mental arithmetic test to induce psychological stress after which they received a 1-hour session of TTM or bed rest. Psychological stress and HR V were measured at baseline and immediately after mental arithmetic test, and immediately after TTM or bed rest. The studyfound that psychological stress was signficantly increased (p<0.05) after mental arithmetic test in both groups. Comparison on these measures between immediately after mental arithmetic test and after TTM or bed rest revealed that psychological stress was significantly decreased (p<0.05) and HR Vwas significantly increased (p<0.05) in both groups. Root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) and low frequency were significantly increased (p<0.05) only in the TTM group. However; all of these measures were found without significant difference when groups were compared. TTM and bed rest could decrease psychological stress and HRV

  9. Oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage in psychological stress states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    age-related somatic disorders. The overall aim of the PhD project was to investigate the relation between psychopathology, psychological stress, stress hormone secretion and oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage, as measured by the urinary excretion of markers of whole-body DNA/RNA oxidation (8......-oxodG and 8-oxoGuo, respectively). The main hypothesis was that psychological stress states are associated with increased DNA/RNA damage from oxidation. In a study of 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 healthy controls matched for age and gender, we found that 8-oxodG/8-oxoGuo excretion was increased...... between the 24 h urinary cortisol excretion and the excretion of 8-oxodG/8-oxoGuo, determined in the same samples. Collectively, the studies could not confirm an association between psychological stress and oxidative stress on nucleic acids. Systemic oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage was increased...

  10. The CRH-R₁ receptor mediates luteinizing hormone, prolactin, corticosterone and progesterone secretion induced by restraint stress in estrogen-primed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traslaviña, Guillermo A Ariza; Franci, Celso Rodrigues

    2011-11-03

    Acute stress has been shown to modify hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis activity. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), the principal regulator of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has been implicated as a mediator of stress-induced effects on the reproductive axis. The role of the specific CRH receptor subtypes in this response is not completely understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of the CRH-R(1) receptor on luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P) and corticosterone (CT) secretion in stress-induced responses under the influence of estrogen (E(2)). Estrogen-primed ovariectomized rats (estradiol cypionate, 10 μg sc) received an i.v. administration of antalarmin (0.1 or 1mg/kg), a selective CRH-R(1) antagonist, or vehicle before restraint stress for 40 min. Seven blood samples were collected from two experimental groups (one from 10:00 h to 14:00 h and the other from 10:00 h to 18:00 h). An increase of plasma LH induced by restraint acute-stress was followed by alteration of the secretion pattern in the estrogen-induced afternoon surge. In a similar manner, we observed a suppression of the afternoon surge in plasma FSH, a delay of E(2)-induced PRL secretion, and an increase in plasma P and CT. Antalarmin attenuated stress-induce LH increase, decreased CT and P secretion and blocked the stress effects on PRL secretion. These findings suggest that CRH-R(1) mediates, at least in part, the restraint stress effects on the HPA, PRL, and reproductive axes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Alterations of IL-1Beta, IL-6, and TGF-Beta Levels in Hippocampal CA3 Region of Chronic Restraint Stress Rats after Electroacupuncture (EA Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianwei Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunological reactions induced by proinflammatory cytokines have been involved in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders. Recent studies showed that Electroacupuncture (EA was able to reduce depressive symptoms; however, the underlying mechanism and its potential targets remain unknown. In the present study, we used a 21-day chronic restraint stress rats as a model to investigate how EA could alleviate depression. Open field test was carried out to evaluate the depressive symptoms at selected time points. At the end of study, immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed to detect the expressions of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta in hippocampal CA3 region. We found that chronic restraint stress significantly decreased behavioral activities, whereas EA stimulation at points Baihui (GV 20 and Yintang (GV 29 showed protective effect during the test period. In addition, the IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta increased in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress, while EA downregulated the levels of IL-1beta and IL-6. These findings implied that EA pretreatment could alleviate depression through modulating IL-1beta and IL-6 expression levels in hippocampal CA3 region.

  12. Restraint stress differentially regulates inflammation and glutamate receptor gene expression in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanesan, Monica; Haiar, Jacob M; Watt, Michael J; Newton, Samuel S

    2017-03-01

    The inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c have been used widely in preclinical psychiatric research. The differences in stress susceptibility of available strains has provided a useful platform to test pharmacological agents and behavioral responses. Previous brain gene profiling efforts have indicated that the inflammation and immune response gene pathway is the predominant gene network in the differential stress response of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. The implication is that a composite stress paradigm that includes a sequence of extended, varied and unpredictable stressors induces inflammation-related genes in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that the regulation of inflammation genes in the brain could constitute a primary stress response and tested this by employing a simple stress protocol, repeated exposure to the same stressor for 10 days, 2 h of restraint per day. We examined stress-induced regulation of 13 proinflammatory cytokine genes in male BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice using quantitative PCR. Elevated cytokine genes included tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL6), interleukin 10 (IL10), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) super family members and interleukin 1 receptor 1 (IL1R1). In addition, we examined restraint stress-induced regulation of 12 glutamate receptor genes in both strains. Our results show that restraint stress is sufficient to elevate the expression of inflammation-related genes in the hippocampus of both BABLB/c and C57BL/6 mice, but they differ in the genes that are induced and the magnitude of change. Cell types that are involved in this response include endothelial cells and astrocytes. Lay summary Repeated exposure to a simple restraint stress altered the activities of genes involved in inflammation and the functions of the excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate. These changes in the hippocampus of the mouse brain showed differences that were dependent on the strain of mice and the length of the stress exposure. The effects

  13. Chronic restraint stress promotes learning and memory impairment due to enhanced neuronal endoplasmic reticulum stress in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong-Rong; Hu, Wen; Yin, Yan-Yan; Wang, Yu-Chan; Li, Wei-Ping; Li, Wei-Zu

    2015-02-01

    Chronic stress has been implicated in many types of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In our previous study, we demonstrated that chronic restraint stress (CRS) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and oxidative damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in mice. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CRS (over a period of 8 weeks) on learning and memory impairment and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in male mice. The Morris water maze was used to investigate the effects of CRS on learning and memory impairment. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis were also used to determine the expression levels of protein kinase C α (PKCα), 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF). The results revealed that CRS significantly accelerated learning and memory impairment, and induced neuronal damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus CA1 region. Moreover, CRS significantly increased the expression of PKCα, CHOP and MANF, and decreased that of GRP78 in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Our data suggest that exposure to CRS (for 8 weeks) significantly accelerates learning and memory impairment, and the mechanisms involved may be related to ER stress in the frontal cortex and hippocampus.

  14. Manual Acupuncture at PC6 Ameliorates Acute Restraint Stress-Induced Anxiety in Rats by Normalizing Amygdaloid Noradrenergic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, ZhengLin; Kim, Sang Chan; Liu, HongFeng; Zhang, Jie; Wang, YuHua; Cho, Il Je; Lee, Bong Hyo; Song, Chang Hyun; Lee, Chul Won; Yang, Chae Ha; Zhao, RongJie; Wu, YiYan

    2017-01-01

    Acupuncture improves ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety in rats in an acupoint-dependent manner. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of acupuncture on acute restraint stress- (ARS-) induced anxiety. Male rats were exposed to ARS for 3 h followed by acupuncture at either PC6 (Neiguan), HT7 (Shenmen), or a nonacupoint (tail) once a day for three consecutive days. Five minutes after the third acupuncture treatment, anxiety-like behavior was evaluated in an elevated plus maze (EPM). Additionally, plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and the concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol (MHPG) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Acupuncture at PC6, but not HT7 or a nonacupoint, attenuated anxiety-like behavior, but this attenuation was abolished by a postacupunctural intra-CeA infusion of NE. Acupuncture at PC6 also reduced the oversecretion of plasma CORT and inhibited increases in amygdaloid NE and MHPG induced by ARS. Further, Western blot analyses and real-time polymerase chain reaction assays revealed that acupuncture at PC6 prevented ARS-induced enhancements in the protein and mRNA expressions of tyrosine hydroxylase in the CeA. These results suggest that acupuncture performed specifically at acupoint PC6 reduces ARS-induced anxiety-like behavior by dampening amygdaloid noradrenergic responses.

  15. Manual Acupuncture at PC6 Ameliorates Acute Restraint Stress-Induced Anxiety in Rats by Normalizing Amygdaloid Noradrenergic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhengLin Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture improves ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety in rats in an acupoint-dependent manner. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of acupuncture on acute restraint stress- (ARS- induced anxiety. Male rats were exposed to ARS for 3 h followed by acupuncture at either PC6 (Neiguan, HT7 (Shenmen, or a nonacupoint (tail once a day for three consecutive days. Five minutes after the third acupuncture treatment, anxiety-like behavior was evaluated in an elevated plus maze (EPM. Additionally, plasma corticosterone (CORT levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and the concentrations of norepinephrine (NE and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol (MHPG in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Acupuncture at PC6, but not HT7 or a nonacupoint, attenuated anxiety-like behavior, but this attenuation was abolished by a postacupunctural intra-CeA infusion of NE. Acupuncture at PC6 also reduced the oversecretion of plasma CORT and inhibited increases in amygdaloid NE and MHPG induced by ARS. Further, Western blot analyses and real-time polymerase chain reaction assays revealed that acupuncture at PC6 prevented ARS-induced enhancements in the protein and mRNA expressions of tyrosine hydroxylase in the CeA. These results suggest that acupuncture performed specifically at acupoint PC6 reduces ARS-induced anxiety-like behavior by dampening amygdaloid noradrenergic responses.

  16. Presurgical stress: Nursing and psychological interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Antigoni Fountouki; Dimitrios Theofanidis

    2014-01-01

    Feelings of ambivalence, melancholy, despair and fear are usual psychological reactions prior to a surgical intervention. Αim: the main aim of this review is a comprehensive presentation of pre-operative anxiety as well as the analysis of the effectiveness of relevant nursing and psychological interventions. A secondary aim was to highlight the role of the nurse in treating pre-operative anxiety. Method: A search in Greek and international databases (IATROTEK, PubMed, CINAHL) was conducted. T...

  17. Assessment of job satisfaction, job stress and psychological health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Background: The relationship that exists between job stress and job satisfaction has been investigated across several professional groups. Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological morbidity among journalists in a state in the Southern part of Nigeria. Methods: ...

  18. Does acute psychological stress increase perception of oesophageal acid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmink, G. J. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.; Weusten, B. L. A. M.; Timmer, R.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2009-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) patients often report an increase in their reflux symptoms during stressful situations. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of acute psychological stress on oesophageal acid perception. In 15 healthy volunteers and 10 GORD patients with a

  19. Does acute psychological stress increase perception of oesophageal acid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmink, G. J. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.; Weusten, B. L. A. M.; Timmer, R.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2009-01-01

    P>Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) patients often report an increase in their reflux symptoms during stressful situations. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of acute psychological stress on oesophageal acid perception. In 15 healthy volunteers and 10 GORD patients with a

  20. Assessment of job satisfaction, job stress and psychological health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The relationship that exists between job stress and job satisfaction has been investigated across several professional groups. Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological morbidity among journalists in a state in the Southern part of Nigeria. Methods: The ...

  1. Stress, Coping, Social Support, and Psychological Distress among MSW Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addonizio, Frank Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship among sources and levels of stress, coping patterns, sources and levels of social support, and psychological distress for MSW students. Stress is a common feeling experienced by people throughout life and it is important to understand the way they cope with their stressors. Most of the…

  2. Psychological Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avant, Elizabeth M.; Swopes, Rachel M.; Davis, Joanne L.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that among college students, physical and sexual abuse in intimate relationships are associated with posttraumatic stress. Psychological abuse occurs in intimate relationships among college students, and though there is evidence that such abuse has a negative emotional impact, posttraumatic stress has not been extensively…

  3. Psychological stress among dental students at the University of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghazaleh, Suha B; Rajab, Lamis D; Sonbol, Hawazen N

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of psychological stress as well as the perceived sources of stress among undergraduate dental students at the University of Jordan. The top perceived stressors were compared with those of a previous study that examined the perceived sources of stress among undergraduate dental students at the University of Jordan in the year 2000. Psychological stress was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Perceived sources of stress were evaluated using the Dental Environment Stress questionnaire. In the study, 520 students completed the questionnaires, for a response rate of 74 percent. These students showed a high level of psychological stress, with 70 percent at the cutoff point of a score of more than 3 for the GHQ-12. Women had a higher level of stress than men: 73 percent scored more than 3 on the GHQ-12 vs. 63 percent for men, which was statistically significant at p=0.05. The top perceived sources of stress from the year 2000 were mostly unaltered in our study, despite a substantial increase in the number of students as well as changes in the curriculum. Further research is needed into methods to minimize stress on dental students.

  4. Effect of prenatal restraint stress and morphine co-administration on plasma vasopressin concentration and anxiety behaviors in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhjiri, Elnaz; Saboory, Ehsan; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Rasmi, Yousef; Khalafkhani, Davod

    2017-03-01

    Stressful events and exposure to opiates during gestation have important effects on the later mental health of the offspring. Anxiety is among the most common mental disorders. The present study aimed to identify effects of prenatal restraint stress and morphine co-administration on plasma vasopressin concentration (PVC) and anxiety behaviors in rats. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n = 6, each): saline, morphine, stress + saline and stress + morphine treatment. The stress procedure consisted of restraint twice per day, two hours per session, for three consecutive days starting on day 15 of pregnancy. Rats in the saline and morphine groups received either 0.9% saline or morphine intraperitoneally on the same days. In the morphine/saline + stress groups, rats were exposed to restraint stress and received either morphine or saline intraperitoneally. All offspring were tested in an elevated plus maze (EPM) on postnatal day 90 (n = 6, each sex), and anxiety behaviors of each rat were recorded. Finally, blood samples were collected to determine PVC. Prenatal morphine exposure reduced anxiety-like behaviors. Co-administration of prenatal stress and morphine increased locomotor activity (LA) and PVC. PVC was significantly lower in female offspring of the morphine and morphine + stress groups compared with males in the same group, but the opposite was seen in the saline + stress group. These data emphasize the impact of prenatal stress and morphine on fetal neuroendocrine development, with long-term changes in anxiety-like behaviors and vasopressin secretion. These changes are sex specific, indicating differential impact of prenatal stress and morphine on fetal neuroendocrine system development. Lay Summary Pregnant women are sometimes exposed to stressful and painful conditions which may lead to poor outcomes for offspring. Opiates may provide pain and stress relief to these mothers. In this study, we used an experimental model of

  5. Immune alterations induced by chronic noise exposure: comparison with restraint stress in BALB/c and C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuan, Cecilia G; Uran, Soledad L; Gonzalez-Murano, María R; Wald, Miriam R; Guelman, Laura R; Genaro, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to loud noise levels represents a problem in all regions of the world. Noise exposure is known to affect auditory structures in living organisms. However, it should not be ignored that many of the effects of noise are extra-auditory. In particular, it has been proposed that noise could affect immune system similarly to other stressors. Nevertheless, only a few studies so far have investigated the effects of noise on the immune function. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of chronic (2 weeks) noise (95-97 dBA) exposure on immune responses in BALB/c and C57 mice. To ascertain if the effect of noise is similar to other psychological stressors, the effect of chronic restraint--applied for the same time--on immune response was also analyzed. It was found that chronic noise impaired immune-related end-points in vivo and ex vivo depending on the strain used. Noise, but not restraint, affected C57Bl/6 mouse T-cell-dependent antibody production and ex vivo stimulated T-cell proliferation, but had no effect on these parameters in BALB/c mice or their cells. In fact, none of the stressors altered T-cell responses associated with the BALB/c mice. Further, noise exposure induced a decrease in corticosterone and catecholamines levels in BALB/c mice. In contrast, no differences were seen in these parameters for those BALB/c mice under restraint or for that matter C57Bl/6 mice exposed to restraint or noise. The results of these studies indicate that noise could seriously affect immune responses in susceptible individuals. In addition, it may also be concluded that noise possibility should not be considered a classic stressor.

  6. Stress, psychological symptoms, social support and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated stress events, perceived stress and social support in relation to various common health behaviours among black South African students. The sample included 624 students: 314 Grade 12 Secondary school students and 310 third year social science university students in South Africa. The study found ...

  7. Children's coping after psychological stress. Choices among food, physical activity, and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balantekin, Katherine N; Roemmich, James N

    2012-10-01

    Children's stress-coping behaviors and their determinants have not been widely studied. Some children eat more after stress and dietary restraint moderates stress eating in youth, but eating has been studied in isolation of other coping behaviors. Children may not choose to eat when stressed if other behavioral alternatives are available. The purpose was to determine individual difference factors that moderate the duration of stress coping choices and to determine if stress-induced eating in youth persists when other stress coping behaviors are available. Thirty children (8-12 years) completed a speech stressor on one day and read magazines on another day. They completed a free-choice period with access to food, TV, and physical activity on both days. Dietary restraint moderated changes in time spent eating and energy consumed from the control to stress day. Children high in restraint increased their energy intake on the stress day. Changes in the time spent watching TV were moderated by usual TV time, as children higher in usual TV increased their TV time after stress. Thus, dietary restrained children eat more when stressed when other common stress coping behaviors are freely available. These results extend the external validity of laboratory studies of stress-induced eating. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Integrative Medicine Patients Have High Stress, Pain, and Psychological Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Ruth Q; Goel, Nikita S; Roberts, Rhonda S; Caldwell, Karen; Kligler, Benjamin; Dusek, Jeffery A; Perlman, Adam; Dolor, Rowena; Abrams, Donald I

    2015-01-01

    Integrative medicine (IM) is a rapidly growing field whose providers report clinical success in treating significant stress, chronic pain, and depressive and anxiety symptoms. While IM therapies have demonstrated efficacy for numerous medical conditions, IM for psychological symptoms has been slower to gain recognition in the medical community. This large, cross-sectional study is the first of its kind to document the psychosocial profiles of 4182 patients at 9 IM clinics that form the BraveNet Practice-Based Research Network (PBRN). IM patients reported higher levels of perceived stress, pain, and depressive symptoms, and lower levels of quality of life compared with national norms. Per provider reports, 60% of patients had at least one of the following: stress (9.3%), fatigue (10.2%), anxiety (7.7%), depression (7.2%), and/or sleep disorders (4.8%). Pain, having both physiological and psychological components, was also included and is the most common condition treated at IM clinics. Those with high stress, psychological conditions, and pain were most frequently treated with acupuncture, IM physician consultation, exercise, chiropractic services, diet/nutrition counseling, and massage. With baseline information on clinical presentation and service utilization, future PBRN studies can examine promising interventions delivered at the clinic to treat stress and psychological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Possible Involvement of µ Opioid Receptor in the Antidepressant-Like Effect of Shuyu Formula in Restraint Stress-Induced Depression-Like Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-rong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently μ opioid receptor (MOR has been shown to be closely associated with depression. Here we investigated the action of Shuyu, a Chinese herbal prescription, on repeated restraint stress induced depression-like rats, with specific attention to the role of MOR and the related signal cascade. Our results showed that repeated restraint stress caused significant depressive-like behaviors, as evidenced by reduced body weight gain, prolonged duration of immobility in forced swimming test, and decreased number of square-crossings and rearings in open field test. The stress-induced depression-like behaviors were relieved by Shuyu, which was accompanied by decreased expression of MOR in hippocampus. Furthermore, Shuyu upregulated BDNF protein expression, restored the activity of CREB, and stimulated MEK and ERK phosphorylation in hippocampus of stressed rats. More importantly, MOR is involved in the effects of Shuyu on these depression-related signals, as they can be strengthened by MOR antagonist CTAP. Collectively, these data indicated that the antidepressant-like properties of Shuyu are associated with MOR and the corresponding CREB, BDNF, MEK, and ERK signal pathway. Our study supports clinical use of Shuyu as an effective treatment of depression and also suggests that MOR might be a target for treatment of depression and developing novel antidepressants.

  10. The effects of stress on body weight: biological and psychological predictors of change in BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Cliff; Troop, Nicholas; Connan, Frances; Treasure, Janet; Campbell, Iain C

    2007-12-01

    To investigate individual differences in the effects of stress on BMI. Participants were 71 healthy women volunteers enrolled in a university-based nurse practitioner program. Predictors of change in BMI were hypothesized to be cortisol secretion, dietary restraint, binging, mastery, mood, and eating attitudes. Measures were made at the beginning of the academic semester and 12 weeks later during the participants' examination period. The women were of normal weight (BMI 25.2 +/- 4.3) for their age [43; standard deviation (SD), 7]. By the examination period, 40 had gained weight (mean, 5.5 pounds; SD, 2.2), 19 lost weight (mean, 2.5 pounds; SD, 1.5), and 12 had stable weight. BMI, salivary cortisol secretion, binging behavior, depression, and anxiety increased significantly, whereas scores on dietary restraint, weight, shape, and eating concerns, and mastery decreased significantly. Regression analysis showed that change in daily cortisol secretion significantly predicted change in BMI and that mastery significantly moderated this relationship. However, a reduction in dietary restraint was a perfect mediator of this relationship. Change in cortisol secretion also significantly predicted change in dietary restraint, and this was moderated by dietary restraint at the beginning of the academic semester. Reduction in dietary restraint was also predicted by a reduction in mastery and weight concern. We identified individual differences that confer vulnerability to weight gain during stressful life events (dietary restraint and mastery). Given that women are exposed to daily stressors and use cognitive strategies to restrain their dietary intake, increasing awareness of the role of stress on eating behavior and weight is an important goal.

  11. Use of restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restraint devices ... Restraints may be used to keep a person in proper position and prevent movement or falling during surgery or while on a stretcher. Restraints can also be used to control or prevent ...

  12. 5-HT1A receptors are involved in the cannabidiol-induced attenuation of behavioural and cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resstel, Leonardo BM; Tavares, Rodrigo F; Lisboa, Sabrina FS; Joca, Sâmia RL; Corrêa, Fernando MA; Guimarães, Francisco S

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa which induces anxiolytic- and antipsychotic-like effects in rodents. These effects could be mediated by facilitation of the endocannabinoid system or by the activation of 5-HT1A receptors. As either of these mechanisms could promote adaptation to inescapable stress, the aim of the present work was to test the hypothesis that CBD would attenuate the autonomic and behavioural consequences of restraint stress (RS). We also investigated if the responses to CBD depended on activation of 5-HT1A receptors. Experimental approach Male Wistar rats received i.p. injections of vehicle or CBD (1, 10 or 20 mg kg−1) and 30 min later were submitted to 60 min of restraint where their cardiovascular responses were recorded. The protocol of the second experiment was similar to the first one except that animals received i.p. injections of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (0.1 mg kg−1) before CBD treatment and exposure to restraint. 24 h later they were also tested in the elevated plus-maze (EPM), an animal model of anxiety. Key results Exposure to RS increased blood pressure and heart rate and induced an anxiogenic response in the EPM 24 h later. These effects were attenuated by CBD. WAY100635 by itself did not change the cardiovascular and anxiogenic response to RS, but blocked the effects of CBD. Conclusion and implications The results suggest that CBD can attenuate acute autonomic responses to stress and its delayed emotional consequences by facilitating 5-HT1A receptor-mediated neurotransmission. PMID:19133999

  13. Adolescent chronic restraint stress (aCRS) elicits robust depressive-like behavior in freely cycling, adult female rats without increasing anxiety-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibicke, Meghan; Graham, Martha A; Hayslett, Renée L

    2017-04-01

    Stress during times of rapid development is a risk factor for Major Depressive Disorder, a mood disorder that disproportionately affects women. We developed an adolescent chronic restraint stress (aCRS) protocol using female rats to address the impact of adolescent stress on female adult depressive-like behavior. Animals were divided into 4 treatment groups: not restrained:saline (NRSAL), not restrained:desipramine (NRDES), restrained:saline (RSAL), and restrained:desipramine (RDES). NRSAL and NRDES rats were housed in a separate colony room from RSAL and RDES rats. All animals were weighed and handled daily. Beginning postnatal day (PND) 34(±1), RSAL and RDES rats were restrained for 1 hour daily for 14 consecutive days. Beginning PND 55(±1), NRDES and RDES rats were given subcutaneous desipramine (5 mg/kg), which served as a positive control, daily for 14 consecutive days. During that same time period, NRSAL and RSAL rats were given subcutaneous saline daily. aCRS (RSAL and RDES) rats showed significantly attenuated weight gain compared with nonrestrained (NRSAL and NRDES) rats during the restraint period. Weight gain normalized after the final restraint session. Behavioral testing took place PND 68-69(±1), and included open field testing, the elevated plus maze, locomotor activity, and the forced swim test (FST). RSAL rats showed significantly more immobility in the FST versus all other groups, indicating depressive-like behavior. No differences between groups were observed in the other behavioral measures. These results indicate that aCRS elicits depressive-like behavioral characteristics in adult female rats without increasing anxiety-like behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytoprotection, and Healing Actions of the Leaf Aqueous Extract of Ocimum suave in Rats Subjected to Chronic and Cold-Restraint Stress Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul V. Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the qualitative chemical composition and tested the antiulcer actions on cold/restraint stress ulcers, the healing effect on chronic acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers, and the in vivo and in vitro antioxidant capacity of Ocimum suave extract. Triterpenes, flavonoids, sugars, phenols, sterols, and multiple bonds were among the phytochemicals detected. The extract (250–500 mg/kg dose-dependently inhibited the formation of gastric ulcers induced by cold/restraint stress (52.30%–83.10%. The prophylactic actions were associated with significant increases in gastric mucus production. There was significant histological healing of chronic ulcers following 14-day treatment with O. suave extract (250–500 mg/kg. We also evaluated the efficacy of O. suave extract in cold/restraint-induced oxidative stress in rat stomach tissue. O. suave (500 mg/kg ameliorated the decreased levels of reduced glutathione from 0.85 (control group to 2.08 nmol/g tissue. The levels of SOD and catalase were also improved in rats treated with O. suave extract. The extract had a high phenol content (899.87 mg phenol/g catechin equivalent, in vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity (89.29%, and FRAP (antioxidant capacity (212.64 mg/g catechin equivalent. The cytoprotective and ulcer healing effects of the extract are attributed to enhanced mucus production and the antioxidant properties which may likely be associated with the high presence of flavonoids and polyphenols.

  15. Irritable bowel syndrome and psychological stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S Bayne

    1999-10-01

    Die doel van die studie was tweeledig. Eerstens is daar gepoog om duidelikheid te kry oor die verband tussen sielkundige stres en Prikkelbare Dermsindroom (PDS, deur te bepaal of individue wat aan PDS ly geringe stres anders ervaar as gesonde individue in terme van gereeldheid of intensiteit. Die tweede doelwit was meer algemeen en spreek die kwessie van teorie ontwikkeling aan in 'n veld gevul met dubbelsinningheid en verwarring. Twee groepe, een bestaande uit PDS lyers en die ander 'n gesonde kontrolegroep, het die "Daily Stress Inventory'' en die "Occupational Stress Inventory" voltooi. Die vraelyste is ontwerp om onderskeidelik daaglikse stres en werkstres te meet. Die resultate dui daarop dat PDS lyers nie meer stres ervaar as die gesonde individue nie, maar dat hulle wel die stressors ervaar met groter intensiteit.

  16. Personal determinants of positive states and stress in psychology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Kozhukhar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report study results of personality characteristics as predictors of positive states (active, optimistic, emotional, subjective comfort and stress experience in adults with one higher education and ongoing training in Psychology. The respondents were 107 people aged 23 to 52 years. Diagnostic methods we used were: "SMIL" (L. Sobchik, Optimism and Activity Scale (adapted by E. Vodopyanova, C. Izard Differential Emotions Scale (adapted by A. Leonova, Subjective Comfort Scale (adapted by A. Leonova, PSM-25 Scale by Lemyr-Tessier-Fillion. The regression analysis revealed that in subjects ongoing training in Psychology, basic predictor of positive emotions and stress experience is anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed three types of subjects by their positive states experiences, which differ primarily by the level of baseline anxiety and related personality characteristics. The group of risk comprised Psychology students with a tendency to depression and negative emotions and specific personality profile.

  17. Tinnitus and the prevalence of co-morbid psychological stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tinnitus is a symptom of unknown pathophysiology with few therapeutic measures and may present with co-morbid psychological stresses necessitating psychiatric treatment. This study aims at determining the prevalence of depression and anxiety in tinnitus sufferers in our environment. Method: This is a one ...

  18. Chronic restraint stress during early Theiler’s virus infection exacerbates the subsequent demyelinating disease in SJL mice: II. CNS disease severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Erin E.; Sieve, Amy N.; Vichaya, Elisabeth G.; Carcoba, Luis M.; Young, Colin R.; Ambrus, Andrew; Storts, Ralph; Welsh, C. Jane R.; Meagher, Mary W.

    2010-01-01

    Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection is a well-characterized model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous research has shown that chronic restraint stress (RS) during early TMEV infection exacerbates behavioral signs of disease. The present data suggest RS-induced increases in CNS inflammation, demyelination, and axonal degeneration may underlie this exacerbation. In addition, we report that males exhibit greater CNS inflammation and higher numbers of demyelinating lesions while females show greater susceptibility to RS-induced exacerbation. These findings indicate RS during early TMEV infection increases CNS lesion formation during the late phase and suggest the effects of RS are sex-dependent. PMID:20167380

  19. Psychological stress and coeliac disease in childhood: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårild Karl

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress has previously been associated with several immunological diseases, e.g. inflammatory bowel disease. Through questionnaire data from the ABIS study (All Babies In southeast Sweden we examined the association between psychological stress in the family and biopsy-proven coeliac disease (CD in the child. Methods We used serious life event, parenting stress, and parental worries as measures of psychological stress. Data were collected when the child was 1 and 2.5 years old in some 11,000 and 8,800 children, respectively. CD was confirmed through small intestinal biopsy (with villous atrophy, and the diagnosis was validated through patient chart data. Results Serious life event in the family in the child's first 1 or 2.5 years after childbirth was not associated with future CD in the child (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.45; 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 0.01-2.65; P = 0.72; and OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 0.43-3.05; P = 0.64, respectively. Neither did we see any association between CD and parenting stress at age 1 year and at 2.5 years (OR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.01-2.38; P = 0.73 and OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.01-4.56; P = 1.00, respectively. Among children exposed to parental worries at 2.5 years, no child had a diagnosis of CD before end of follow-up, compared to 25/8082 (0.3% among non-exposed children (OR = 0.00; 95% CI = 0.00-2.34; P = 0.64. There was no association between the combined measures of stress and CD. Conclusion This study found no association between psychological stress and later development of CD in Swedish children. However, we cannot rule out that the lack of such an association is due to limited statistical power.

  20. Psychological Stress in the Ordnance Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    fielder in a baseball game or a passenger A in a bus." 21 Hence, the focal point for analysis in the group process is the role and through the role...however, is that the employees have, as a group, a supervisor who they can 1596 ( depend upon for leadership . Adequate leadership assures that the...that in an attempt to escape the stress of "uncertain" leadership , they tended to pair off in the manner described by Wilfred Bion earlier in this

  1. Psychological stress and susceptibility to the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S; Tyrrell, D A; Smith, A P

    1991-08-29

    It is not known whether psychological stress suppresses host resistance to infection. To investigate this issue, we prospectively studied the relation between psychological stress and the frequency of documented clinical colds among subjects intentionally exposed to respiratory viruses. After completing questionnaires assessing degrees of psychological stress, 394 healthy subjects were given nasal drops containing one of five respiratory viruses (rhinovirus type 2, 9, or 14, respiratory syncytial virus, or coronavirus type 229E), and an additional 26 were given saline nasal drops. The subjects were then quarantined and monitored for the development of evidence of infection and symptoms. Clinical colds were defined as clinical symptoms in the presence of an infection verified by the isolation of virus or by an increase in the virus-specific antibody titer. The rates of both respiratory infection (P less than 0.005) and clinical colds (P less than 0.02) increased in a dose-response manner with increases in the degree of psychological stress. Infection rates ranged from approximately 74 percent to approximately 90 percent, according to levels of psychological stress, and the incidence of clinical colds ranged from approximately 27 percent to 47 percent. These effects were not altered when we controlled for age, sex, education, allergic status, weight, the season, the number of subjects housed together, the infectious status of subjects sharing the same housing, and virus-specific antibody status at base line (before challenge). Moreover, the associations observed were similar for all five challenge viruses. Several potential stress-illness mediators, including smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, diet, quality of sleep, white-cell counts, and total immunoglobulin levels, did not explain the association between stress and illness. Similarly, controls for personality variables (self-esteem, personal control, and introversion-extraversion) failed to alter our findings

  2. Psychological debriefing for preventing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, S; Bisson, J; Churchill, R; Wessely, S

    2002-01-01

    Over approximately the last last fifteen years early psychological interventions such as psychological 'debriefing' have been increasingly used to treat psychological trauma. While these intervention have become popular and their use spread to several settings - efficacy had largely not been tested empirically. In 1997 a systematic review of single session psychological "debriefing" was undertaken and this subsequently became a protocol and Cochrane Review published in 1998 (Issue2). This update forms the first substantive update of the original review. To assess the effectiveness of brief psychological debriefing for the management of psychological distress after trauma, and the prevention of post traumatic stress disorder. Electronic searching of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychLit, PILOTS, Biosis, Pascal, Occ. Safety and Health,SOCIOFILE, CINAHL, PSYCINFO, PSYNDEX, SIGLE, LILACS, CCTR, CINAHL, NRR, Hand search of Journal of Traumatic Stress. Contact with leading researchers. The inclusion criteria for all randomized studies was that they should focus on persons recently (one month or less) exposed to a traumatic event, should consist of a single session only, and that the intervention involve some form of emotional processing/ventilation by encouraging recollection/reworking of the traumatic event accompanied by normalisation of emotional reaction to the event. 11 trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Quality was generally poor. Data from two trials could not be synthesised. Two trials involved the use of the intervention in an obstetric setting. Single session individual debriefing did not reduce psychological distress nor prevent the onset of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Those who received the intervention showed no significant short term (3-5 months) in the risk of PTSD (odds ratio 1.22 (95% ci 0.60 to 2.46 )). At one year one trial reported that there was a significantly increased risk of PTSD in those receiving debriefing (odds ratio 2.88 (1.11 to 7

  3. Psychological resources and strategies to cope with stress at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Rabenu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the choice of strategies to cope with stress has differential effects on individual and organizational outcomes (e.g. well-being and performance at work. This study examined to what extent individuals differing in their positive psychological resources (optimism, hope, self-efficacy and resilience implement different strategies to cope with stress in terms of change, acceptance, or withdrawal from a source of stress in an organizational setting. Method: A questionnaire was filled out by 554 employees from different organizations representing a wide range of jobs and positions. Results: Structural Equation Modeling (SEM; χ 2 (7 = 27.64, p < .01, GFI = .99, NFI = .91, CFI = .93, RMSEA = .07 Conclusion: the results indicated that psychological resources (optimism, hope, self-efficacy and resilience were positively related to coping by change and by acceptance and negatively related to withdrawal. The theoretical implications are discussed.

  4. Physical and psychological stress have similar effects on gastric acid and pepsin secretions in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Salimi; Soheila Adeli; Hedayat Sahraei; Mohammad Vahedian; Nabavizadeh Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    Stress is one of the most important health and social problems. Previous studies have demonstrated stress influence on the clinical course of a number of gastrointestinal diseases, but its physical and psychological effects on gastric acid and pepsin secretions are largely unknown. 48 male wistar rats weighing 200-250 gr were used in this study. Animals were divided into 6 groups (n=8); Control, Physical stress, Psychological stress, L-NAME+ Physical stress and L-NAME+ Psychological stress gr...

  5. Psychological Symptoms and Stress Coping Styles in College Students with Somatization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jee Young Lee

    2014-01-01

    ...The purpose of this study was to identify stress coping styles and psychological symptoms and to examine the influences of stress coping styles and psychological symptoms on somatization in college students...

  6. Psychologic stress related to injury and impact on sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippert, Angela H; Smith, Aynsley M

    2008-05-01

    Injury rates are high among children and adolescent athletes. Psychosocial stressors, such as personality, history of stressors, and life event stress can influence injury occurrence. After injury, those same factors plus athletic identity, self-esteem, and significant others-such as parents, coaches, and teammates-can affect injury response, recovery and subsequent sport performance. Goal setting, positive self-talk, attribution theory, and relaxation or mental imagery are psychologic interventions that can help injured athletes cope with psychosocial stressors. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential influence that psychosocial stressors and psychologic interventions can have on injury occurrence, injury recovery, and sport performance.

  7. Stressing Memory: Long-Term Relations among Children's Stress, Recall and Psychological Outcome following Hurricane Andrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica McDermott; Fivush, Robyn; Parker, Janat; Bahrick, Lorraine

    2005-01-01

    We examined relations among stress, children's recall, and psychological functioning following Hurricane Andrew. Thirty-five children from mixed socioeconomic backgrounds were divided into low-, moderate-, and high-stress groups and were interviewed about the hurricane immediately after the storm and 6 years later. Our primary interest, stemming…

  8. Mitochondrial impairment, apoptosis and autophagy in a rat brain as immediate and long-term effects of perinatal phencyclidine treatment - influence of restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevtić, Gordana; Nikolić, Tatjana; Mirčić, Aleksandar; Stojković, Tihomir; Velimirović, Milica; Trajković, Vladimir; Marković, Ivanka; Trbovich, Alexander M; Radonjić, Nevena V; Petronijević, Nataša D

    2016-04-03

    Phencyclidine (PCP) acts as a non-competitive antagonist of glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. Its perinatal administration to rats causes pathophysiological changes that mimick some pathological features of schizophrenia (SCH). Numerous data indicate that abnormalities in mitochondrial structure and function could be associated with the development of SCH. Mitochondrial dysfunction could result in the activation of apoptosis and/or autophagy. The aim of this study was to assess immediate and long-term effects of perinatal PCP administration and acute restraint stress on the activity of respiratory chain enzymes, expression of apoptosis and autophagy markers and ultrastructural changes in the cortex and hippocampus of the rat brain. Six groups of rats were subcutaneously treated on 2nd, 6th, 9th and 12th postnatal days (P), with either PCP (10mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl). One NaCl and one PCP group were sacrificed on P13, while other two NaCl and PCP groups were sacrificed on P70. The remaining two NaCl and PCP groups were subjected to 1h restraint stress prior sacrifice on P70. Activities of respiratory chain enzymes were assessed spectrophotometrically. Expression of caspase 3 and AIF as markers of apoptosis and Beclin 1, p62 and LC3, as autophagy markers, was assessed by Western blot. Morphological changes of cortical and hippocampal ultrastructure were determined by transmission electron microscopy. Immediate effects of perinatal PCP administration at P13 were increased activities of complex I in the hippocampus and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in the cortex and hippocampus implying mitochondrial dysfunction. These changes were followed by increased expression of apoptotic markers. However the measurement of autophagy markers at this time point has revealed decrease of this process in cortex and the absence of changes in hippocampus. At P70 the activity of complex I was unchanged while COX activity was significantly decreased in cortex and increased in

  9. Military psychology and police psychology: mutual contributions to crisis intervention and stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Like siblings separated at birth, military psychology and police psychology have each independently addressed the cognitive, perceptual, emotional, and behavioral aspects of men and women performing extreme service in defense of their neighborhood or their country. This article reviews the major areas of commonality in the work of military and police psychologists in the areas of crisis intervention and stress management, and provides practical strategies for handling these operational and clinical challenges. The article makes specific recommendations for how police and military psychologists can cross-contribute to each other's fields for the overall enhanced provision of services to the men and women who wear uniforms of all kinds.

  10. Growth Following Adversity: Positive Psychological Perspectives on Posttraumatic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Joseph

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of traumatic events is well documented within the clinical psychology literature where it is recognized that people who experience traumatic events may go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. At first glance one might ask what the relevance of positive psychology is to the study of trauma. But a number of literatures and philosophies throughout human history have conveyed the idea that there is personal gain to be found in suffering. The observation that stressful and traumatic events can provoke positive psychological changes is also contained in the major religions of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism. Within existential philosophy and humanistic psychology it has also been recognized that positive changes can come about as a result of suffering. But it is only within the last decade that the topic of growth following adversity has become a focus for empirical work. In this paper I will provide an overview of the subject and the research we have conducted at the Centre for Trauma, Resilience, and Growth (CTRG.

  11. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Segato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  12. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Segato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  13. Estimation of psychological stress in humans: a combination of theory and practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Sood

    Full Text Available Stress has long been known to increase susceptibility to health disorders. In 2009, American Psychological Association further established association of stress to serious health problems. However, a quantitative and accurate way to evaluate and estimate stress status of individuals is still a big challenge. It has been shown, in large animal models using cattle, that psychological stress can be quantified as well as disease susceptibility could be predicted through biomarker discovery. Taking cue from those studies, we have evaluated and estimated psychological stress level of individuals theoretically and validated experimentally. Various biomarkers have also been identified which can be associated to psychological stress to predict stress status of unknown individuals.

  14. Estimation of psychological stress in humans: a combination of theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Parul; Priyadarshini, Sushri; Aich, Palok

    2013-01-01

    Stress has long been known to increase susceptibility to health disorders. In 2009, American Psychological Association further established association of stress to serious health problems. However, a quantitative and accurate way to evaluate and estimate stress status of individuals is still a big challenge. It has been shown, in large animal models using cattle, that psychological stress can be quantified as well as disease susceptibility could be predicted through biomarker discovery. Taking cue from those studies, we have evaluated and estimated psychological stress level of individuals theoretically and validated experimentally. Various biomarkers have also been identified which can be associated to psychological stress to predict stress status of unknown individuals.

  15. Erythropoietin prevents the effect of chronic restraint stress on the number of hippocampal CA3c dendritic terminals-relation to expression of genes involved in synaptic plasticity, angiogenesis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalling, Nadia; Hageman, Ida; Miskowiak, Kamilla

    2018-01-01

    Stress-induced allostatic load affects a variety of biological processes including synaptic plasticity, angiogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the brain, especially in the hippocampus. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has shown promising neuroprotective effects....... Recombinant human EPO is currently highlighted as a new candidate treatment for cognitive impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Because EPO enhances synaptic plasticity, attenuates oxidative stress, and inhibits generation of proinflammatory cytokines, EPO may be able to modulate the effects of stress...... in synaptic plasticity, angiogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammation; and (iii) remodeling of the dendritic structure of the CA3c area of the hippocampus in male rats. As expected, chronic restraint stress lowered the number of CA3c apical dendritic terminals, and EPO treatment reversed this effect...

  16. The effects of water immersion and restraint stress on the expressions of apelin, apelin receptor (APJR) and apoptosis rate in the rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustunel, Ismail; Acar, Nuray; Gemici, Burcu; Ozbey, Ozlem; Edizer, Imren; Soylu, Hakan; Tepekoy, Filiz; Izgut-Uysal, Vecihe Nimet

    2014-06-01

    Apelin has been identified as an endogenous ligand of the orphan G-protein-coupled apelin receptor (APJR). These receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system and periphery and play a role in the regulation of fluid and glucose homeostasis, feeding behavior, vessel formation, cell proliferation and immunity. We aimed to investigate whether water immersion and restraint stress have effects on apelin and APJR expression and apoptosis in heart tissue of male Wistar rats. The cardiac tissues were obtained from control, water immersion and restraint stress (WIRS) and apelin antagonist (F13A)+WIRS groups of rats and embedded in paraffin wax. Immunohistochemical staining methods were used to localize apelin, APJR and TUNEL immunopositive cells. H-SCORE was used for semi-quantitative determinations. Apelin protein levels were determined by Western blot in the cardiac tissues and plasma corticosteroid levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Apelin immunolocalization was found especially in endothelial cells and mast cells and faintly in cardiomyocytes, APJR immunostaining was shown in endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes, and TUNEL reaction was observed in endothelial cells and in some fibroblasts. Apelin expression was significantly increased in the WIRS and F13A+WIRS groups compared to the control group. The APJR reaction was similar in all groups. The number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly higher in the F13A+WIRS group than that of the control group. Our study showed that WIRS for 6h increased plasma corticosterone levels and cardiac apelin expression in rats. The increased levels of apelin inhibited stress-induced apoptosis in heart. These results may be important for the therapeutic approach to a variety of stress-related heart disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. [Association between occupational psychological stress and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Herong; Song, Hui; Tian, Rulong; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Qiang, Yan

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the association between occupational psychological stress and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Hui and Han populations in Ningxia, China. A 1:1 matched case-control study was performed. A total of 600 unrelated patients aged from 20 to 60 years who were clearly diagnosed with MS in General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University and Wuzhong People's Hospital from October 2011 to October 2012 were collected as the case group (MS group). A total of 600 healthy people who underwent a regular health examination in the same hospital during the same period were selected as the control group with matched gender, nationality, and age (≤ ± 3 years). The self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the general situations and do the physical examination, and the fasting venous blood samples were collected for laboratory biochemical blood tests. The Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) was used to investigate the subjects' occupational stress factors and stress levels. With the increase in stress levels, the levels of WC, FPG, TG, AST, and UA were increased, WHR, SBP, and DBP first increased and then decreased, and the level of HDL-C increased. There were statistically significant differences in these parameters between the two groups (P stress test results showed that the total score of stress factors (t = 6.676, P work balance (t = 2.028, P differences in the scores of management role, work responsibilities, and organizational climate between the MS group and the control group (P>0.05). There were no significant differences in the total score of stress factors and the score of each factor between Hui and Han groups (P>0.05). The relative risks of MS in the people with moderate stress exposure were 2.325 and 2.331 times those in the people with mild stress exposure before and after adjustment for age, gender, education level, marriage status, smoking, and drinking, and the relative risks for MS in the people with severe stress exposure were 3.000 and 3

  18. Personality, psychological stress, and self-reported influenza symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croon Marcel A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress and negative mood have been related to increased vulnerability to influenza-like illness (ILI. This prospective study re-evaluated the predictive value of perceived stress for self-reported ILI. We additionally explored the role of the negative affectivity and social inhibition traits. Methods In this study, 5,404 respondents from the general population were assessed in terms of perceived stress, personality, and control variables (vaccination, vitamin use, exercise, etc.. ILI were registered weekly using self-report measures during a follow-up period of four weeks. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis on ILI was performed to test the predictive power of stress and personality. In this model, negative affectivity (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009, social inhibition (OR = 0.97, p = 0.011, and perceived stress (OR = 1.03, p = 0.048 predicted ILI reporting. Having a history of asthma (OR = 2.33, p = Conclusion Elderly and socially inhibited persons tend to report less ILI as compared to their younger and less socially inhibited counterparts. In contrast, asthma, trait negative affectivity, and perceived stress were associated with higher self-report of ILI. Our results demonstrate the importance of including trait markers in future studies examining the relation between stress and self-report symptom measures.

  19. Psychological assessment for adults and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychological factors play a significant role in many nutritional abnormalities. These factors include mood (e.g., depression, anger, and anxiety), emotional eating, distorted body image, low self-esteem, poor self-efficacy and quality of life, dietary restraint, stress, susceptibility to external c...

  20. Acute psychological stress reduces working memory-related activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, S.; Hermans, E.J.; Marle, H.J.F. van; Luo, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute psychological stress impairs higher-order cognitive function such as working memory (WM). Similar impairments are seen in various psychiatric disorders that are associated with higher susceptibility to stress and with prefrontal cortical dysfunctions, suggesting that acute stress

  1. The Effects of Job Event Stressors and Social Support on Psychological Stress Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    種市, 康太郎; 大塚, 泰正; 小杉, 正太郎

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effects of job event stressors and social support on psychological stress reactions. A total of 2,873 male employees in an industrial research institute completed a Job Events Check List (including job event stressors) and a Job Stress Scale (including social support and psychological stress reactions). Results showed that work support had buffering effects on 5 of the 14 relationships between job event stressors and psychological stress reactions. Non-work support had...

  2. Mechanical restraint in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jesper; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Sestoft, Dorte Maria

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine how potential mechanical restraint preventive factors in hospitals are associated with the frequency of mechanical restraint episodes. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study employed a retrospective association design, and linear regression was used to assess the associations. FINDING...

  3. Dietary iron supplements may affect stress adaptation and aggravate stress hyperglycemia in a rat model of psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Qi, Rui; Xu, Manni; Shen, Zhilei; Li, Min

    2012-06-01

    Iron supplementation is believed to decrease the risk of iron-deficiency anemia or low birth weight. In modern society, a majority of people are in a continual state of stress. Stress-induced hyperglycemia, known as transient hyperglycemia, may be a risk factor causing diabetes. To understand the role of iron in people under stress, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of iron supplementation on glucose or stress hyperglycemia. The effect of a diet containing non-heme iron (80 or 320 mg/kg) on Sprague-Dawley rats and those under psychological stress was evaluated. Compared with control rats, a high-iron diet (320 mg/kg) increased blood glucose transiently in normal rats but induced hyperglycemia persistently in stressed rats throughout the experiment. Iron supplements further aggravated iron deposition and oxidative stress injury to the liver induced by the stress exposure. Glucose-related stress hormones were also affected by iron supplementation in stressed rats. Oxidative stress may be one of the main reasons for insulin resistance. Moreover, changes in stress hormones indicate that high-iron supplements may affect stress adaptation. Both are primary reasons for the hyperglycemia induced by iron supplementation in stressed rats. Gaining an insight into the mechanisms and correlations of these changes may be beneficial to human health and is important for the prevention of pathologic glycemia-related diseases. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. AT1 and AT2 Receptors in the Prelimbic Cortex Modulate the Cardiovascular Response Evoked by Acute Exposure to Restraint Stress in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Taíz F S; Fassini, Aline; Corrêa, Fernando M

    2017-07-10

    The prelimbic cortex (PL) is an important structure in the neural pathway integrating stress responses. Brain angiotensin is involved in cardiovascular control and modulation of stress responses. Blockade of angiotensin receptors has been reported to reduce stress responses. Acute restraint stress (ARS) is a stress model, which evokes sustained blood pressure increase, tachycardia, and reduction in tail temperature. We therefore hypothesized that PL locally generated angiotensin and angiotensin receptors modulate stress autonomic responses. To test this hypothesis, we microinjected an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin antagonists into the PL, prior to ARS. Male Wistar rats were used; guide cannulas were bilaterally implanted in the PL for microinjection of vehicle or drugs. A polyethylene catheter was introduced into the femoral artery to record cardiovascular parameters. Tail temperature was measured using a thermal camera. ARS was started 10 min after PL treatment with drugs. Pretreatment with ACE inhibitor lisinopril (0.5 nmol/100 nL) reduced the pressor response, but did not affect ARS-evoked tachycardia. At a dose of 1 nmol/100 nL, it reduced both ARS pressor and tachycardic responses. Pretreatment with candesartan, AT1 receptor antagonist reduced ARS-evoked pressor response, but not tachycardia. Pretreatment with PD123177, AT2 receptor antagonist, reduced tachycardia, but did not affect ARS pressor response. No treatment affected ARS fall in tail temperature. Results suggest involvement of PL angiotensin in the mediation of ARS cardiovascular responses, with participation of both AT1 and AT2 receptors. In conclusion, results indicate that PL AT1-receptors modulate the ARS-evoked pressor response, while AT2-receptors modulate the tachycardic component of the autonomic response.

  5. The ROCK Inhibitor Fasudil Prevents Chronic Restraint Stress-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors and Dendritic Spine Loss in Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rojo, Gonzalo; Fresno, Cristóbal; Vilches, Natalia; Díaz-Véliz, Gabriela; Mora, Sergio; Aguayo, Felipe; Pacheco, Aníbal; Parra-Fiedler, Nicolás; Parra, Claudio S; Rojas, Paulina S; Tejos, Macarena; Aliaga, Esteban; Fiedler, Jenny L

    2017-04-01

    Dendritic arbor simplification and dendritic spine loss in the hippocampus, a limbic structure implicated in mood disorders, are assumed to contribute to symptoms of depression. These morphological changes imply modifications in dendritic cytoskeleton. Rho GTPases are regulators of actin dynamics through their effector Rho kinase. We have reported that chronic stress promotes depressive-like behaviors in rats along with dendritic spine loss in apical dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, changes associated with Rho kinase activation. The present study proposes that the Rho kinase inhibitor Fasudil may prevent the stress-induced behavior and dendritic spine loss. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with saline or Fasudil (i.p., 10 mg/kg) starting 4 days prior to and maintained during the restraint stress procedure (2.5 h/d for 14 days). Nonstressed control animals were injected with saline or Fasudil for 18 days. At 24 hours after treatment, forced swimming test, Golgi-staining, and immuno-western blot were performed. Fasudil prevented stress-induced immobility observed in the forced swimming test. On the other hand, Fasudil-treated control animals showed behavioral patterns similar to those of saline-treated controls. Furthermore, we observed that stress induced an increase in the phosphorylation of MYPT1 in the hippocampus, an exclusive target of Rho kinase. This change was accompanied by dendritic spine loss of apical dendrites of pyramidal hippocampal neurons. Interestingly, increased pMYPT1 levels and spine loss were both prevented by Fasudil administration. Our findings suggest that Fasudil may prevent the development of abnormal behavior and spine loss induced by chronic stress by blocking Rho kinase activity.

  6. Gender Specific Effect of Psychological Stress and Cortisol Reactivity on Adolescent Risk Taking

    OpenAIRE

    Daughters, Stacey B.; Gorka, Stephanie M.; Matusiewicz, Alexis; Anderson, Katelyn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how psychological stress, gender and cortisol response to stress relate to risk behavior among 132 14–18 year old adolescents. Participants completed a laboratory based risk task prior to and immediately after a computerized psychological stress task, and salivary cortisol was collected from pre-stress to 60 minutes following initial stress exposure. Results indicate that adolescent boys (n = 59) and girls (n = 73) demonstrate different patterns of ri...

  7. Biological mechanisms of premature ovarian failure caused by psychological stress based on support vector regression

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiu-feng; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Qing-hua; Min, Jian-Xin; Ma, Na; Luo, Lai-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Psychological stress has become a common and important cause of premature ovarian failure (POF). Therefore, it is very important to explore the mechanisms of POF resulting from psychological stress. Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into control and model groups. Biomolecules associated with POF (β-EP, IL-1, NOS, NO, GnRH, CRH, FSH, LH, E2, P, ACTH, and CORT) were measured in the control and psychologically stressed rats. The regulation relationships of the biomolecules were explored in the...

  8. Chronic electroconvulsive stimulation but not chronic restraint stress modulates mRNA expression of voltage-dependent potassium channels Kv7.2 and Kv11.1 in the rat piriform cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjæresen, Marie-Louise; Hageman, Ida; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which stress and electroconvulsive therapy exert opposite effects on the course of major depression are not known. Potential candidates might include the voltage-dependent potassium channels. Potassium channels play an important role in maintaining the resting membrane potential...... and controlling neuronal excitability. To explore this hypothesis, we examined the effects of one or several electroconvulsive stimulations and chronic restraint stress (6 h/day for 21 days) on the expression of voltage-dependent potassium channel Kv7.2, Kv11.1, and Kv11.3 mRNA in the rat brain using in situ...... voltage-dependent potassium channels are not modulated by restraint stress at the level of mRNA expression. However, our findings suggest that repeated electroconvulsive stimulation alter Kv7.2 and Kv11.1 function in the piriform cortex, a finding with potential relevance for the chain of neurobiological...

  9. Psychological stress in geriatric patients with genito-urinary cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dräger, Désirée Louise; Protzel, Chris; Hakenberg, Oliver W

    2017-05-01

    Two-thirds of all cancer cases affect patients who are older than 65years, yet the specific conditions of the treatment and supportive care in this age group are poorly studied. There are limited data on the specific psycho-oncological problems in elderly patients with genito-urinary cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychosocial needs of elderly patients with genito-urinary tumors using screening questionnaires and to use such screening questionnaires for an in-patient psychosocial treatment program. Patients (≥65years, n=319) who underwent surgical (n=295) or medical treatment (n=24) for genito-urinary malignancies between 06/2014 and 11/2015 in our institution were included for prospective stress assessment. This was done with standardized questionnaires for stress screening and for the identification of need for care (NCCN Distress Thermometer and Hornheider Screening Instrument, HSI). The patients scored an average of 4.4 on the Distress Thermometer. According to the survey evaluation, 28% of patients had need for psychosocial care. However, only a minority of patients (4%) did actually communicate any need for psychosocial care. We also assessed the actual utilization of inpatient psychosocial support which is offered to all patients. There is a significant number of elderly patients with genito-urinary cancer with increased psychological stress and a consecutive need of psychosocial care. This is underreported and underused by the patients. Therefore, an easy low-threshold access system with an interdisciplinary and inter-professional collaborative support system would be desirable. Measuring psychological distress systematically can be helpful in treating older patients with malignant diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of physical restraint on the onset of experimentally induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of intermittent repeated physical restraint on the onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) was in-vestigated in this study. The study compared the onset of DM in mice dosed with streptozotocin (STZ), a DM-inducing drug, with immediate subsequent exposure to either physical restraint stress or non- exposure to the stress.

  11. Mindfulness training for stress management: a randomised controlled study of medical and psychology students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Vibe, Michael; Solhaug, Ida; Tyssen, Reidar; Friborg, Oddgeir; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Sørlie, Tore; Bjørndal, Arild

    2013-01-01

    .... This study examines the effect of a seven-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) programme on mental distress, study stress, burnout, subjective well-being, and mindfulness of medical and psychology students...

  12. What are the effects of psychological stress and physical work on blood lipid profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Seyedeh Negar

    2017-05-01

    Blood lipids disorders are prevalent in the world. Some of their risk factors are modifiable such as mental and physical stress which existed in some places such as work environment.Objective of this study was to determine the effects of psychological and physical stress on the lipid profiles. It was a historical cohort study. The people who were employed as general worker were participated. The study was conducted with flexible interview for getting history, lipid profile examination, and a checklist including occupational and nonoccupational risk factors and using the health issues. According to the type of stress exposures, the study population was divided into 5 groups. Groups were followed for lipid profiles. These groups were exposed to psychological stress, physical stress or both of them; mild psychological stress (group 1), mild physical work without psychological stress (group 2), mild psychological stress and mild physical work (group 3), moderate physical work without psychological stress (group 4), and heavy physical work without psychological stress (group 5). Data were analyzed with SPSS 16. ANOVA, χ, and exact test were calculated with considering P stress was a risk factor for lipid disorders, and suitable physical activity was protective in this situation.

  13. Does Early Psychological Intervention Promote Recovery From Posttraumatic Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J; Bryant, Richard A; Ehlers, Anke

    2003-11-01

    In the wake of the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center, more than 9,000 counselors went to New York City to offer aid to rescue workers, families, and direct victims of the violence of September 11, 2001. These mental health professionals assumed that many New Yorkers were at high risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and they hoped that their interventions would mitigate psychological distress and prevent the emergence of this syndrome. Typically developing in response to horrific, life-threatening events, such as combat, rape, and earthquakes, PTSD is characterized by reexperiencing symptoms (e.g., intrusive recollections of the trauma, nightmares), emotional numbing and avoidance of reminders of the trauma, and hyperarousal (e.g., exaggerated startle, difficulty sleeping). People vary widely in their vulnerability for developing PTSD in the wake of trauma. For example, higher cognitive ability and strong social support buffer people against PTSD, whereas a family or personal history of emotional disorder heightens risk, as does negative appraisal of one's stress reactions (e.g., as a sign of personal weakness) and dissociation during the trauma (e.g., feeling unreal or experiencing time slowing down). However, the vast majority of trauma survivors recover from initial posttrauma reactions without professional help. Accordingly, the efficacy of interventions designed to mitigate acute distress and prevent long-term psychopathology, such as PTSD, needs to be evaluated against the effects of natural recovery. The need for controlled evaluations of early interventions has only recently been widely acknowledged. Psychological debriefing-the most widely used method-has undergone increasing empirical scrutiny, and the results have been disappointing. Although the majority of debriefed survivors describe the experience as helpful, there is no convincing evidence that debriefing reduces the incidence of PTSD, and some controlled studies

  14. Acculturative Stress, Psychological Distress, and Religious Coping Among Latina Young Adult Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Nicole; Dillon, Frank R; Rose Verdejo, Toni; Sanchez, Mariana; De La Rosa, Mario

    2017-02-01

    Religion is a source of strength in Latina/o culture during challenging life transitions, such as the immigration process. Guided by a sociological stress-process model, this study examines relations between dimensions of religious coping, acculturative stress, and psychological distress among 530 young Latina women (ages 18-23 years) who recently immigrated to the United States (i.e., approximately 12 months prior to assessment). Higher levels of acculturative stress were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Negative religious coping (i.e., the tendency to struggle with faith) moderated the relation between acculturative stress and psychological distress. Participants experiencing higher levels of acculturative stress reported greater psychological distress when they indicated more negative religious coping. Positive religious coping (i.e., the tendency to relate to faith with comfort and certainty) was not linked with acculturative stress or psychological distress. Implications for culturally tailored counseling interventions for this underserved and understudied population are discussed.

  15. Preliminary evidence that acute and chronic daily psychological stress affect sexual arousal in sexually functional women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Kuile, Moniek M.; Vigeveno, Daan; Laan, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    It is assumed that psychological stress may inhibit sexual arousal in women. Research on the effect of (acute and chronic) psychological stressors on genital and subjective sexual arousal, however, is scarce. To investigate whether psychological stressors indeed inhibit sexual responding, sexually

  16. Acute physical and psychological stress effects on visceral hypersensitivity in male rat: role of central nucleus of the amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Afzali,Hamideh; Nabavizadeh, Fatemeh; Karimian,Seyed Morteza; Sohanaki, Hamid; Vahedian, Jalal; Mohamadi, Seyed Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute physical and psychological stress and temporary central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) block on stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. Methods: Forty two male Wistar rats were used in this study. Animals were divided into 7 groups (n = 6); 1 - Control, 2 - physical stress, 3 - psychological stress, 4 - sham, 5 - lidocaine, 6 - lidocaine + physical stress and 7 - lidocaine + psychological stress. Stress induc...

  17. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, JHB; de Bruijn-Kofman, AT; de Bruijn, HP; van de Wiel, HBM; Dijkstra, PU

    Objective: To determine to what extent stressful life events and psychological dysfunction play a role in the pathogenesis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS). Design: A comparative study between a CRPS group and a control group. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction

  18. Combined Effects of Microgravity, Radiation and Psychological Stress on Immune System Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Villanueva, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this project was to investigate the combined effects of microgravity, radiation and psychological stress on DNA damage response. In order to mimic the combined conditions of space environment and psychological stress, cells were stimulated with isoproterenol (an epinephrine analogue compound) and exposed to radiation in a bioreactor that simulates microgravity conditions on the ground.

  19. [Relationship of personality with job burnout and psychological stress risk in clinicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Zhou, Dinglun; Yao, Yongcheng; Lan, Yajia

    2015-02-01

    To analyze the job burnout and mental health status of clinicians and the relationship of personality with job burnout and psychological stress, and to investigate the direct or indirect effects of personality on psychological stress. Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Scale (EPQ-RSC), and Kessler 10 Scale were administered to 775 clinicians. Of all clinicians, 29.5% had mild burnout, with a score of 22.7 ± 8.18 for psychological stress risk. The effect of personality on emotional exhaustion and cynicism was greater than that on personal accomplishment. Clinicians with a personality of introversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism suffered a higher risk of psychological stress. Personality had both direct and indirect effects on psychological stress. Neuroticism had the strongest effect on psychological stress, with an effect size of 0.55. Clinicians have a high level of both job burnout and mental psychological stress risk. Personality is significantly correlated with job burnout and psychological stress risk. Measures depending on personality should be taken for effective intervention.

  20. College Stress and Psychological Well-Being: Self-Transcendence Meaning of Life as a Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Li

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this study is to examine the moderating effects of self-transcendence meaning on psychological well-being in respective of college students. The theoretical background of self-transcendence meaning is mainly oriental Buddhism and Taoism philosophy. Measures of stress and psychological well-being are College Stress Scale (CSS)…

  1. Putting the Stress on Conspiracy Theories: Examining Associations between Psychological Stress, Anxiety, and Belief in Conspiracy Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Furnham, Adrian; Smyth, Nina; Weis, Laura; Lay, Alixe; Clow, Angela; Swami, Viren

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress and anxiety may be antecedents of belief in conspiracy theories, but tests of this hypothesis are piecemeal. Here, we examined the relationships between stress, anxiety, and belief in conspiracy theories in a sample of 420 U.S. adults. Participants completed measures of belief in conspiracy theories, perceived stress, stressful life events, trait and state anxiety, episodic tension, and demographic information. Regression analysis indicated that more stressful life events...

  2. Attenuation by a sigma1 (sigma1) receptor agonist of the learning and memory deficits induced by a prenatal restraint stress in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Johann; Gué, Michèle; Récasens, Max; Maurice, Tangui

    2004-06-01

    1. Stress during pregnancy results in complex neurochemical and behavioral alterations throughout the offspring lifetime. We here examined the impact of prenatal stress (PS) on memory functions in male and female offspring and report the efficacy of a selective sigma(1) (sigma(1)) receptor agonist, igmesine, in alleviating the observed deficits. 2. Dams received an unpredictable 90-min duration restraint stress from gestational day E17 to E20. Learning was examined in offspring between day P24 and P36 using spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze, delayed alternation in the T-maze, water-maze learning and passive avoidance. 3. Both male and female PS rats showed impairments of spontaneous and delayed alternation performances. Acquisition of a fixed platform position in the water-maze was unchanged in PS rats, but the probe test revealed a diminution of time spent in the training quadrant. Acquisition of a daily changing platform position demonstrated impaired working memory for male and female PS rats. Finally, passive avoidance deficits were observed. 4. Pretreatment with the selective sigma(1) agonist igmesine (1-10 mg x kg(-1) i.p.) reversed the PS-induced learning deficits in offspring rats for each test. The sigma(1) antagonist BD1063 failed to affect performances alone but blocked the igmesine effect, confirming the involvement of the sigma(1) receptor. 5. PS thus induces delayed memory deficits, affecting spatial and nonspatial, short- and long-term memories in juvenile male and female offspring rats. Activation of the sigma(1) neuromodulatory receptor allows a significant recovery of the memory functions in PS rats.

  3. Attenuation by a sigma1 (σ1) receptor agonist of the learning and memory deficits induced by a prenatal restraint stress in juvenile rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Johann; Gué, Michèle; Récasens, Max; Maurice, Tangui

    2004-01-01

    Stress during pregnancy results in complex neurochemical and behavioral alterations throughout the offspring lifetime. We here examined the impact of prenatal stress (PS) on memory functions in male and female offspring and report the efficacy of a selective sigma1 (σ1) receptor agonist, igmesine, in alleviating the observed deficits. Dams received an unpredictable 90-min duration restraint stress from gestational day E17 to E20. Learning was examined in offspring between day P24 and P36 using spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze, delayed alternation in the T-maze, water-maze learning and passive avoidance. Both male and female PS rats showed impairments of spontaneous and delayed alternation performances. Acquisition of a fixed platform position in the water-maze was unchanged in PS rats, but the probe test revealed a diminution of time spent in the training quadrant. Acquisition of a daily changing platform position demonstrated impaired working memory for male and female PS rats. Finally, passive avoidance deficits were observed. Pretreatment with the selective σ1 agonist igmesine (1–10 mg kg−1 i.p.) reversed the PS-induced learning deficits in offspring rats for each test. The σ1 antagonist BD1063 failed to affect performances alone but blocked the igmesine effect, confirming the involvement of the σ1 receptor. PS thus induces delayed memory deficits, affecting spatial and nonspatial, short- and long-term memories in juvenile male and female offspring rats. Activation of the σ1 neuromodulatory receptor allows a significant recovery of the memory functions in PS rats. PMID:15205309

  4. Coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress at work: comparison of hospital nursing staff and salespeople

    OpenAIRE

    Kato T

    2014-01-01

    Tsukasa Kato Department of Social Psychology, Toyo University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Hospital nurses frequently experience relationships with patients as stressors in the workplace. Nurses’ coping behavior is one potential buffering factor that can reduce the effects of job stress on their psychological functioning and well-being. In this study, the association between nurses' strategies for coping with interpersonal stress from patients and their psychological distress wa...

  5. [Measurement of unemployment-related psychological stress: Validation of the Unemployment Stress (USS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabóné Kapuvári, Virág; Martos, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays the theme of unemployment and the given answers of it are up to date questions in psychology. In spite of this fact, the psychological methods measuring this phenomenon are often missing. That is why the Unemployment Stress Scale (USS) is presented in this article. The aim of our study is to develop a scale called USS and test it's validity and reliability. There were 287 adult unemployed persons asked in this study. Besides the USS we used the Beck Depression Scale, the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT), the Sense of Coherence Scale (Hungarian version) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. According to our results, USS has showed an excellent criterion and construct validity. A useful scale has been formed according to test-retest results. (Cronbach-alfa: 0.88 and 0.86 according to the samples). Moreover our scale has a strong correlation with the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT) and the Beck Depression Scale. These chracteristics of the new scale proved that we fond a factor, independent from the self esteem and the sense of coherence, which represents the stress level in the situation of unemployment. This scale is a professional construction to measure stress contributed to unemployment. The USS can be a useful scale in clinical practice because after measuring with this scale we can protect the personality of the unemployed by representing the actual unemployment stress level. That is why professionals can help earlier in a crisis like this.

  6. The effect of occupational stress, psychological stress and burnout on employee performance: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Hashemnia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation on the effects of occupational stress, psychological stress as well as job burnout on women’s employee performance in city of Karaj, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among all female employees who worked for Bank Maskan in this city. In our survey, employee performance consists of three parts of interpersonal performance, job performance as well as organizational performance. Cronbach alpha has been used to verify the overall questionnaire, all components were within acceptable levels, and the implementation of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has indicated that the data were not normally distributed. Using Spearman correlation ratio as well as regression techniques, the study has determined that while psychological stress influenced significantly on all three components of employee performance including interpersonal performance, job performance as well as organizational performance, the effect on job performance was greater than the other components. In addition, occupational stress only influences on organizational as well as interpersonal performance. Finally, employee burnout has no impact on any components of employee performance.

  7. The Role of Psychological Stress Reactions in the Longitudinal Relation Between Workplace Bullying and Turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Conway, Paul Maurice

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between workplace bullying and change of job/unemployment, and to investigate whether psychological stress reactions constitute a potential pathway linking workplace bullying and change of job/unemployment. METHODS: We used questionnaire data on workplace...... bullying and psychological stress reactions and register data on change of job/unemployment. We applied a multiple pathway approach to estimate the proportion of the association between workplace bullying and subsequent change of job/unemployment that was potentially mediated by psychological stress...... reactions. RESULTS: Workplace bullying was associated with risk of change of job (odds ratio [OR] = 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.72; 24% potentially mediated by psychological stress reactions) and unemployment (OR = 4.90; 95% CI: 3.18-7.55; 19% potentially mediated by psychological stress...

  8. The reciprocal relations between experiential avoidance, school stressor, and psychological stress response among Japanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizu, Kenichiro; Shimoda, Yoshiyuki; Ohtsuki, Tomu

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the reciprocal relations between experiential avoidance, stressor, and psychological stress response (which consist of anger, depression, anxiety, helplessness, and physical complaints). In this study, 688 Japanese junior high school students (353 boys, 334 girls, 1 unidentified; mean age 13.28 years) completed three waves of questionnaires on experiential avoidance, stressor, and psychological stress response, with one-week intervals between measurement waves. Results from cross-lagged panel analyses showed that experiential avoidance predicted subsequent stressor and psychological stress response. Furthermore, the stressor and psychological stress response influenced by prior experiential avoidance affected subsequent occurrence of experiential avoidance. The findings suggest that reciprocal relations exist among the variables, and that the interaction between experiential avoidance and psychological stress was possible in adolescents.

  9. Effects of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Learning and Memory in a Reward-directed Instrumental Conditioning Task in Chronic Restraint Stressed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezhu, Wang; Pan, Xu; Cong, Lu; Liming, Dong; Beiyue, Zhang; Jingwei, Lu; Yanyan, Yang; Xinmin, Liu

    2017-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the major active ingredients of Panax ginseng and has showed notable improving learning and memory effects in several behavioral tasks, such as water maze, shuttle-box, and step-through, based on avoidance. However, there was no report about the role of Rg1 on the performance of reward-directed instrumental conditioning, which could reflect the adaptive capacity to ever-changing environments. Thus, in this study, the reward devaluation test and conditional visual discrimination task were conducted to study the ameliorating effects of Rg1 on cognitive deficits, especially the loss of adaptation capacity in chronic restraint stress (CRS) rat model. Our results showed that rat subjected to CRS became insensitive to the changes in outcome value, and it significantly harmed the rat's performance in conditional visual discrimination task. Moreover, the levels of BDNF, TrkB, and Erk phosphorylation were decreased in the prefrontal cortex of CRS rats. However, these changes were effectively reversed by Rg1 (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.). Therefore, it demonstrated that Rg1 has a good ability to improve learning and memory and also ameliorate impaired adaptive capacity induced by CRS. This amelioration effect of Rg1 might be mediated partially by BDNF/TrkB/Erk pathway in prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Differential Effects of Psychological and Physical Stress on the Sleep Pattern in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Suemaru, Katsuya; Li, Bingjin; Cui,Ranji; Araki, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the acute effects of 2 different kinds of stress, namely physical stress (foot shock) and psychological stress (non-foot shock) induced by the communication box method, on the sleep patterns of rats. The sleep patterns were recorded for 6 h immediately after 1 h of stress. Physical and psychological stress had almost opposite effects on the sleep patterns: In the physical stress group, hourly total rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and total non-REM sleep we...

  11. A longitudinal study of stress and psychological distress in nurses and nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Roger; Gardiner, Eric; Hogston, Richard; Gibson, Helen; Stimpson, Anne; Wrate, Robert; Deary, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how differences in life events and stress contribute to psychological distress in nurses and nursing students. Stress is an issue for nursing students and qualified nurses leading to psychological distress and attrition. A longitudinal study using four time waves was conducted between 1994-1997. Measures were taken of stress, life events and psychological distress in addition to a range of demographic data. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, linear modelling and mixed-effects modelling. The study was set in Scotland, UK and used newly qualified nurses and nursing students from four university departments of nursing over four years. The study was initiated with 359 participants (147 nurses and 212 nursing students) and complete data were obtained for 192 participants. Stress levels, psychological distress and life events are all associated within time and across time. At baseline, life events and stress contributed significantly to psychological distress. The pattern of psychological distress differed between the nursing students and the newly qualified nurses with a high level in the nurses after qualifying and starting their career. Stress, individual traits, adverse life events and psychological distress are all interrelated. Future lines of enquiry should focus on the transition between being a nursing student and becoming a nurse. Stress and psychological distress may have negative outcomes for the retention of nursing students in programmes of study and newly qualified nurses in the nursing workforce.

  12. Cultural, Sociofamilial, and Psychological Resources that Inhibit Psychological Distress in African Americans Exposed to Stressful Life Events and Race-Related Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Giesbrecht, Norman; Hook, Joshua; Stanard, Pia M.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested a sociocultural model of stress and coping in a sample of 215 African Americans. Psychological resources (optimism, ego resilience) were modeled as a "nested self" (S. E. Hobfoll, 2001), supported by social resources (family adaptability and cohesion) and cultural resources (racial pride, religiosity). Race-related stress was a…

  13. Psychological stress in hydro workers of the 1998 ice storm : a longitudinal investigation (Quebec)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzimra, Y.

    2003-07-01

    This thesis examined occupational stress in terms of the stressful transactions that take place between workers and their workplace. In particular, it documented some of the experiences of hydro workers during the ice storm of 1998 which hit eastern Canada. In addition to identifying stressors, this study assessed the worker's levels of psychological stress and distress 5 and 10 months following the storm. It also examined differences in psychological stress and distress levels between workers with different levels of exposure to the storm. The added contribution of appraised extra-organization stressors to the prediction of psychological stress was also assessed along with the added contribution of extra-organizational sources of support to the prediction of psychological stress. The objective was to test an integrative model of workplace stress and overall distress to better understand the relationship between psychological stress and distress levels over time. Two phases of data, 5 months apart, were collected from full-time employees of Hydro-Quebec, including both men and women who filled out questionnaires about perceived social support and other indicators of overall stress. The results revealed different experiences of the recovery effort workers during and after the ice storm. The experiences of different groups of workers varied depending on the type and degree of involvement in the recovery efforts from the storm. The results emphasized the importance of considering appraised organization stressors when predicting psychological stress. The study revealed that psychological stress 5 months following the ice storm did not add significantly to the prediction of psychological distress 5 months later, once the contribution of psychological distress at the first phase was accounted for.

  14. Betaine attenuates memory impairment after water-immersion restraint stress and is regulated by the GABAergic neuronal system in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisawa, Kazuo; Kido, Kiwamu; Nakashima, Natsuki; Matsukura, Takuya; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Hiramatsu, Masayuki

    2017-02-05

    GABA mediated neuronal system regulates hippocampus-dependent memory and stress responses by controlling plasticity and neuronal excitability. Here, we demonstrate that betaine ameliorates water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS)-induced memory impairments. This improvement was inhibited by a betaine/GABA transporter-1 (GABA transporter-2: GAT2) inhibitor, NNC 05-2090. In this study, we investigated whether memory amelioration by betaine was mediated by the GABAergic neuronal system. Adult male mice were co-administered betaine and GABA receptor antagonists after WIRS. We also examined whether memory impairment after WIRS was attenuated by GABA receptor agonists. The memory functions were evaluated using a novel object recognition test 3-6 days after WIRS and/or the step-down type passive avoidance test at 7-8 days. The co-administration of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (1mg/kg) or the GABAB receptor antagonist phaclofen (10mg/kg) 1h after WIRS suppressed the memory-improving effects induced by betaine. Additionally, the administration of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol (1mg/kg) or the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (10mg/kg) 1h after WIRS attenuated memory impairments. These results were similar to the data observed with betaine. The treatment with betaine after WIRS significantly decreased the expression of GABA transaminase, and this effect was partially blocked by NNC 05-2090 in the hippocampus. WIRS caused a transient increase in hippocampal GABA levels and the changes after WIRS were not affected by betaine treatment in an in vivo microdialysis study. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of betaine may be mediated in part by changing the GABAergic neuronal system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Covariance between psychological and endocrine responses to pharmacological challenge and psychosocial stress: a question of timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlotz, Wolff; Kumsta, Robert; Layes, Irmgard; Entringer, Sonja; Jones, Alexander; Wüst, Stefan

    2008-09-01

    To test if the covariance of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and subjective-psychological responses to stress is dependent on different dynamics of these systems. Although stress theories typically assume substantial correlations of psychological and endocrine stress responses, studies have produced inconsistent results. One reason for this might be imperfect coupling of the different stress response systems. However, inconsistent correlations might also be a result of different on-/offsets of these stress responses, i.e., specific dynamics of the systems. HPA axis indicators and subjective-psychological states were repeatedly and synchronously measured in a pharmacological challenge test (injection of corticotropin-releasing hormone and infusion of arginine vasopressin; Study 1; n = 42) and a psychosocial stress situation (Trier Social Stress Test; Study 2; n = 219). Cross-correlation analysis was used to test for lag effects in HPA axis reactivity and psychoendocrine responses. Analyses revealed high cross-correlations of adrenocorticotropic hormone with cortisol responses (up to r = .80 in Study 1 and r = .56 in Study 2) and positive associations of psychological with endocrine stress responses (up to r = .48 in Study 1 and r = .54 in Study 2) at nonzero lags. Subjective-psychological responses preceded HPA axis responses. Moreover, high levels of cortisol were associated with lower later levels of anxiety and activation. The findings suggest that psychoendocrine stress responses are more closely coupled than previous studies suggested. Due to different dynamics of the systems, endocrine responses lag behind psychological responses.

  16. An Integrated Review of Psychological Stress in Parkinson's Disease: Biological Mechanisms and Symptom and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by complex symptoms and medication-induced motor complications that fluctuate in onset, severity, responsiveness to treatment, and disability. The unpredictable and debilitating nature of PD and the inability to halt or slow disease progression may result in psychological stress. Psychological stress may exacerbate biological mechanisms believed to contribute to neuronal loss in PD and lead to poorer symptom and health outcomes. The purpose of this integrated review is to summarize and appraise animal and human research studies focused on biological mechanisms, symptom, and health outcomes of psychological stress in PD. A search of the electronic databases PubMed/Medline and CINAHL from 1980 to the present using the key words Parkinson's disease and stress, psychological stress, mental stress, and chronic stress resulted in 11 articles that met inclusion criteria. The results revealed significant associations between psychological stress and increased motor symptom severity and loss of dopamine-producing neurons in animal models of PD and between psychological stress and increased symptom severity and poorer health outcomes in human subjects with PD. Further research is needed to fully elucidate the underlying biological mechanisms responsible for these relationships, for the ultimate purpose of designing targeted interventions that may modify the disease trajectory. PMID:28058129

  17. Full body restraint system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Susan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A body restraint system (30) allows the user's body (10) to be in the zero gravity neutral posture. The system (30) includes a waist restraint (32) in the form of a curved, padded unit (34) containing a retractable belt (36) coiled on a spring loaded capstan (38) with a buckle (40) extending from front (42) of the unit (34). A second belt (44) is fastened around the user's waist (16). A clasp (46) is configured to engage the buckle (40). The waist restraint (32) is positioned near foot restraints (52). The foot restraints (52) have foot platforms (59) with pads (60) of a suitable two part attaching material, such as the fasteners available from Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company under the trademark Scotchmate Duallock. A mating pad (62) of the material is provided on soles (64) of cotton net shoes (66).

  18. Psychological stress exposure to aged mice causes abnormal feeding patterns with changes in the bout number

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Chihiro; Mogami, Sachiko; Hattori, Tomohisa

    2017-01-01

    Stress responses are affected by aging. However, studies on stress-related changes in feeding patterns with aging subject are minimal. We investigated feeding patterns induced by two psychological stress models, revealing characteristics of stress-induced feeding patterns as “meal” and “bout” (defined as the minimum feeding behavior parameters) in aged mice. Feeding behaviors of C57BL/6J mice were monitored for 24 h by an automatic monitoring device. Novelty stress reduced the meal amount ove...

  19. Work Stress and Psychological Consequences in The Workplace: Study on Elementary School Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arismunandar Arismunandar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There are very limited studies examining the relationships between work stress and psychological consequences of the teachers, especially elementary school teachers. Therefore, the primary purpose of conducting this research is to understand the correlation between teachers work stress, and burnout and job satisfaction. It also aims to understand sources and levels of teachers work stress. The findings of the study showed that there was no correlation between teachers work stress and burnout, and between teachers work stress and job satisfaction

  20. Effects of an Integrated Stress Management Program (ISMP) for Psychologically Distressed Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunah; Lee, Hyangkyu; Kim, Hyunlye; Noh, Dabok; Lee, Hyunhwa

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an integrated stress management program (ISMP) on college life stress, stress coping, psychological distress, and cortisol among male college students. Out of 137 initially enrolled students, 99 participants were identified as distressed subjects and randomly assigned to either the ISMP or control group. Ultimately, 84 participants (43: experimental, 41: control) completed pretest-posttest. The experimental group received eight 2-hr sessions over 4 weeks. Stress and psychological distress decreased significantly, whereas stress coping and cortisol did not improve significantly. Further studies with longer follow-up periods and physiological interventions are required. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and psychological stress - a modifiable risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Ruth A; Steptoe, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Psychological stress is common in many physical illnesses and is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for disease onset and progression. An emerging body of literature suggests that stress has a role in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) both as a predictor of new onset T2DM and as a prognostic factor in people with existing T2DM. Here, we review the evidence linking T2DM and psychological stress. We highlight the physiological responses to stress that are probably related to T2DM, drawing on evidence from animal work, large epidemiological studies and human laboratory trials. We discuss population and clinical studies linking psychological and social stress factors with T2DM, and give an overview of intervention studies that have attempted to modify psychological or social factors to improve outcomes in people with T2DM.

  2. Psychological and physical stress induce differential effects on human colonic motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S S; Hatfield, R A; Suls, J M; Chamberlain, M J

    1998-06-01

    Stress modulates gut function, but whether the type of stressor influences colonic motor activity is unclear. The motor patterns and regional variations are also poorly understood. Our aim was to determine the effects of psychological and physical stress on colonic motility. Ambulatory colonic manometry was performed by placing a six-sensor probe up to the mid-transverse colon, without sedation, in 12 healthy subjects. Five hours later, a dichotomous listening test (psychological stress) was performed, which was preceded by listening to a narrative passage (control); recovery entailed listening to relaxing music (1 h each). Subsequently, intermittent hand immersion in cold (4 degrees C) water (physical stress) was performed, preceded by hand immersion in warm (37 degrees C) water (1/2-h each). Colonic pressure activity and cardiovascular responses were measured throughout the study. When compared with the control period, both stressors induced a greater number of pressure waves (p physical stress increased (p rate and blood pressure. There were no regional differences in colonic motility. During recovery, the motor activity returned to baseline after physical stress, but remained high after psychological stress. Psychological stress induced more (p physical stress induced more (p activity, but psychological stress induced a prolonged response with propagated activity and without appreciable autonomic response. Thus, colonic motor responses may vary depending on the stressor.

  3. Reduced NK cell IFN-γ secretion and psychological stress are independently associated with herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choon Kwan; Choi, Youn Mi; Bae, Eunsin; Jue, Mihn Sook; So, Hyung Seok; Hwang, Eung-Soo

    2018-01-01

    The pathogenesis of herpes zoster is closely linked to reduced varicella-zoster virus-specific cell-mediated immunity. However, little is known about the interplay between natural killer cells and psychological stress in the pathogenesis of herpes zoster. This study aimed to investigate possible associations among natural killer cells, T cells and psychological stress in herpes zoster. Interferon-gamma secretion from natural killer cell, psychological stress events, stress cognition scale scores and cytomegalovirus-specific cell-mediated immunity were compared between 44 patients with herpes zoster and 44 age- and gender-matched control subjects. A significantly lower median level of interferon-gamma secreted by natural killer cells was observed in patients with a recent diagnosis of herpes zoster than in control subjects (582.7 pg/ml vs. 1783 pg/ml; P = 0.004), whereas cytomegalovirus-specific cell-mediated immunity was not associated with herpes zoster. Psychological stress events and high stress cognition scale scores were significantly associated in patients with herpes zoster (Pherpes zoster display reduced interferon-gamma secretion from natural killer cells and frequent previous psychological stress events compared with controls. However, reduced natural killer cell activity is not an immunological mediator between psychological stress and herpes zoster.

  4. Coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress at work: comparison of hospital nursing staff and salespeople

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsukasa Kato Department of Social Psychology, Toyo University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Hospital nurses frequently experience relationships with patients as stressors in the workplace. Nurses’ coping behavior is one potential buffering factor that can reduce the effects of job stress on their psychological functioning and well-being. In this study, the association between nurses' strategies for coping with interpersonal stress from patients and their psychological distress was examined. Participants included 204 hospital nurses and 142 salespeople, who were used as a comparison group. Participants completed measures of coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress. Hospital nurses reported more psychological distress than did salespeople. Moreover, distancing coping was correlated with high psychological distress in both nurses and salespeople, and reassessing coping was correlated with low psychological distress in nurses. For nurses only, constructive coping appeared to be an effective strategy for reducing psychological distress. It is important for nurses to understand the role of constructive coping in nurse–patient communication and interaction. Keywords: nurse, relationships with patients, interpersonal stress, coping behavior, job stress

  5. Stress-related psychological factors for back pain among athletes: Important topic with scarce evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Jahan; Hasenbring, Monika; Kleinert, Jens; Kellmann, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Health issues represent a frequent problem for athletes, as this particular demographic is repeatedly confronted with physically and psychologically stressful situations. Back pain (BP) materialises as comparatively common health problem being regarded as functionally limiting and psychologically straining burden for athletes. According to research conducted on athletes with BP, biomechanical and physiological mechanisms emerge as influential, whereas stress-related psychological factors appear to be neglected. For athletic injuries, the essential impact of psychological processes on injury occurrence and return from injury has already been corroborated. Hence, the aim of this literature review is to: (1) introduce a conceptual differentiation between injuries and BP; (2) summarise the results obtained regarding stress-related psychological aspects for injuries; and (3) connect the injury research to the state-of-the-art evidence regarding stress-related factors for BP among athletes. A distinction between injuries and BP could be established based on previous definitions, despite the fact that a considerable overlap between both concepts prevails. Injuries can be attributed to a physical origin, whereas BP frequently lacks this physical criterion. For BP, our enquiry yielded four studies including psychological measures of stress - with two studies specifically examining the association between BP and psychological stress among athletes longitudinally. Abundant findings from the general population support the importance of considering psychological and specifically stress-related factors in BP prevention and rehabilitation, but evidence related to the athletic field remains elusive. Further scientific investigations with a wider methodological approach are needed to deepen the knowledge about the crucial relationship between psychological stress, BP, and athletes.

  6. Strength through adversity: Moderate lifetime stress exposure is associated with psychological resilience in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Larissa N; Slavich, George M; Moreno, Patricia I; Bower, Julienne E

    2017-12-01

    Stress research typically emphasizes the toxic effects of stress, but recent evidence has suggested that stress exposure, in moderation, can facilitate resilience. To test whether moderate stress exposure promotes psychological resilience to cancer, we examined the relationship between lifetime stress exposure prior to cancer diagnosis and postdiagnosis psychological functioning among 122 breast cancer survivors. Lifetime acute and chronic stress was assessed using an interview-based measure, and psychological functioning was assessed using measures of cancer-related intrusive thoughts and positive and negative affect. Results indicated that acute stress exposure was associated with cancer-related intrusive thoughts in a quadratic fashion (p = .016), such that participants with moderate acute stress reported fewer intrusive thoughts compared to those with low or high acute stress. Similarly, a quadratic relationship emerged between acute stress exposure and positive affect (p = .009), such that individuals with moderate acute stress reported the highest levels of positive affect. In contrast, acute and chronic stress were related to negative affect in a positive, linear fashion (ps resilience among breast cancer survivors, supporting stress exposure as a key factor influencing adjustment to breast cancer and providing evidence for stress-induced resilience in a novel population. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Chronic agomelatine treatment corrects the abnormalities in the circadian rhythm of motor activity and sleep/wake cycle induced by prenatal restraint stress in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Jerome; Silletti, Viviana; Laloux, Charlotte; Zuena, Anna Rita; Giovine, Angela; Consolazione, Michol; van Camp, Gilles; Malagodi, Marithe; Gaetani, Silvana; Cianci, Silvia; Catalani, Assia; Mennuni, Gioacchino; Mazzetta, Alessandro; van Reeth, Olivier; Gabriel, Cecilia; Mocaër, Elisabeth; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Maccari, Stefania

    2013-03-01

    Agomelatine is a novel antidepressant acting as an MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor agonist/5-HT2C serotonin receptor antagonist. Because of its peculiar pharmacological profile, this drug caters the potential to correct the abnormalities of circadian rhythms associated with mood disorders, including abnormalities of the sleep/wake cycle. Here, we examined the effect of chronic agomelatine treatment on sleep architecture and circadian rhythms of motor activity using the rat model of prenatal restraint stress (PRS) as a putative 'aetiological' model of depression. PRS was delivered to the mothers during the last 10 d of pregnancy. The adult progeny ('PRS rats') showed a reduced duration of slow wave sleep, an increased duration of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, an increased number of REM sleep events and an increase in motor activity before the beginning of the dark phase of the light/dark cycle. In addition, adult PRS rats showed an increased expression of the transcript of the primary response gene, c-Fos, in the hippocampus just prior to the beginning of the dark phase. All these changes were reversed by a chronic oral treatment with agomelatine (2000 ppm in the diet). The effect of agomelatine on sleep was largely attenuated by treatment with the MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor antagonist, S22153, which caused PRS-like sleep disturbances on its own. These data provide the first evidence that agomelatine corrects sleep architecture and restores circadian homeostasis in a preclinical model of depression and supports the value of agomelatine as a novel antidepressant that resynchronizes circadian rhythms under pathological conditions.

  8. Potential association between male infertility and occupational psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheiner, Einat K; Sheiner, Eyal; Carel, Refael; Potashnik, Gad; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of working conditions, occupational exposures to potential reproductive toxic agents, and psychological stress on male fertility. The study population consisted of 202 consecutive male patients attending a fertility clinic. Of those, 106 patients had attended the clinic because of a male infertility problem (case group), 66 patients had attended the clinic because of a female infertility problem (control group), and 30 patients had a combined infertility problem (male and female). Male infertility was associated with working in industry and construction as compared with other occupations (78.6% vs 58.3%, P = 0.044). Industry and construction workers were of lower educational level than the other workers (mean: 12.1 vs 13.4 years, P = 0.021). These patients also tended to smoke more than the other workers (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.08 to 5.98), more often worked in shifts (OR = 3.12, 95% CI = 1.19 to 8.13), reported physical exertion in work (OR = 3.35, 95% CI = 1.44 to 7.80), and were more exposed to noise and welding (OR = 3.84, 95% CI = 1.63 to 9.14, OR = 4.40, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.76, respectively). Male infertility (case group) was found to be statistically related to higher marks in all four measures of burnout as compared with the controls. The largest difference was obtained in the measure of cognitive weariness (mean: 2.9 vs 2.1, P construction jobs (adjusted OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.7) and cognitive weariness (adjusted OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.03 to 4.6) were found to be independent risk factors for male infertility problems. Male infertility was independently associated with industry and construction jobs as well as job burnout.

  9. [Post-traumatic stress disorder and psychological debriefing: a controversial topic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debabèche, C; Ansseau, M; Pitchot, W

    2012-01-01

    The last decades have demonstrated the value of early interventions after a traumatic event. The purpose of these interventions is to prevent the development of psychological consequences such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychological debriefing is clearly the most popular intervention. However, in the literature, it is subject to a real controversy. The objective of the present paper is to define the interest of psychological debriefing, but also alternative therapeutical strategies for people exposed to traumatic events.

  10. Parenting stress and psychological functioning among mothers of preschool children with autism and developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeffrey; Dawson, Geraldine; Koehler, Elizabeth; Zhou, Xiao-Hua; Abbott, Robert

    2009-07-01

    Parents of children with developmental disabilities, particularly autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), are at risk for high levels of distress. The factors contributing to this are unclear. This study investigated how child characteristics influence maternal parenting stress and psychological distress. Participants consisted of mothers and developmental-age matched preschool-aged children with ASD (N = 51) and developmental delay without autism (DD) ( N = 22). Evidence for higher levels of parenting stress and psychological distress was found in mothers in the ASD group compared to the DD group. Children's problem behavior was associated with increased parenting stress and psychological distress in mothers in the ASD and DD groups. This relationship was stronger in the DD group. Daily living skills were not related to parenting stress or psychological distress. Results suggest clinical services aiming to support parents should include a focus on reducing problem behaviors in children with developmental disabilities.

  11. Psychological distress and work stress in correctional officers: a literature review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bezerra, Cláudia de Magalhães; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Constantino, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a review of literature based on a survey of national and international journals on psychological distress and stress in the work of correctional officers between 2000 and 2014...

  12. [An epidemiological survey on the psychological stress status for students in 13 Chinese colleges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Che, Wen-bo; Li, Bing; Zhang, Xu-dong

    2006-05-01

    To explore the main sources causing stress among Chinese college students and its distribution. A clustered random sampling method was conducted to perform the questionnaire on psychological stress among 2007 students selected from 13 universities. The main sources of psychological stress on college students regarding learning task, college environment, job-seeking, interpersonal relationship and emotional disorders. 49.3% of the population experienced mild level of psychological stress, 8.4% belonged to critical groups who experienced higher levels of stress,while 0.3% experienced severe level of stress. Sophomores and juniors were under more stressful situation than freshmen and senior students, while female students felt more stressful on learning and job-seeking than males. Male students felt more stressful caused by their families, health status, love affairs, social adaptation and frustration than females. Students from countryside were under more stress than those coming from urbans. Students from ordinary universities felt more stressed than those from famous universities and students from western areas were under more stress than those from the coastal areas. Stress had become a severe problem influencing the mental health development among college students. The problem needs to be addressed accordingly.

  13. Have University Sport Students Higher Scores Depression, Anxiety and Psychological Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Havva

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have now shown that people who maintain appropriate body fitness, using judicious regimens of exercise and weight control, have the additional benefit of prolonged life. In fact, sport or exercise may be also expected to be helpful for psychological health. In the present study, depression, anxiety and psychological stress points…

  14. Positive Psychology Course and Its Relationship to Well-Being, Depression, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodmon, Leilani B.; Middleditch, Ashlea M.; Childs, Bethany; Pietrasiuk, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a positive psychology course on student well-being, depressive symptoms, and stress in a repeated measure, nonequivalent control design. As hypothesized, the positive psychology students reported higher overall happiness, life satisfaction, routes to happiness, and lower depressive…

  15. Managing Psychological Stress in the MS Medical Visit: Patient Perspectives and Unmet Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senders, Angela; Sando, Kelsi; Wahbeh, Helané; Peterson, Amie; Shinto, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Psychological stress can negatively impact multiple sclerosis (MS). To further understand how stress is addressed in the MS medical visit, 34 people with MS participated in focus groups. Transcripts were analyzed by inductive thematic analysis. The majority of participants did not discuss stress with their provider, citing barriers to communication such as lack of time, poor coordination between specialties, physician reliance on pharmaceutical prescription, and patient lack of self-advocacy. Participants recommended several ways to better manage psychological wellbeing in the clinical setting. These findings provide a foundation for future studies aimed at minimizing the detrimental effect of stress in MS. PMID:25527612

  16. Managing psychological stress in the multiple sclerosis medical visit: Patient perspectives and unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senders, Angela; Sando, Kelsi; Wahbeh, Helané; Peterson Hiller, Amie; Shinto, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    Psychological stress can negatively impact multiple sclerosis. To further understand how stress is addressed in the multiple sclerosis medical visit, 34 people with multiple sclerosis participated in focus groups. Transcripts were analyzed by inductive thematic analysis. The majority of participants did not discuss stress with their provider, citing barriers to communication such as lack of time, poor coordination between specialties, physician reliance on pharmaceutical prescription, and patient lack of self-advocacy. Participants recommended several ways to better manage psychological well-being in the clinical setting. These findings provide a foundation for future studies aimed at minimizing the detrimental effect of stress in multiple sclerosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. The impact of the 2008 financial crisis on psychological work stress among financial workers and lawyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Feng-Jen; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the financial crisis on psychological work stress among financial workers and lawyers. The Chinese versions of Karasek's job content questionnaire (C-JCQ) and Siegrist's ERI questionnaire (C-ERI) were used to measure work stress, and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (C-CBI) questionnaire was used to measure personal and work-related burnout for 38 financial workers and 97 lawyers before and after the financial crisis in 2008. A paired t test was used to compare changes in work stress and burnout. A logistic regression was performed to determine the association between psychosocial work stress and burnout. After the financial crisis, financial workers reported significantly higher stress from fear of layoffs, increased experiences of undesirable changes and more fear of making mistakes during work. On the contrary, lawyers reported significantly higher scores of reward, fewer psychological demands and less exhaustion. In addition to high psychological demand and a high effort-reward ratio, high effort, over-commitment and stress of layoffs also contributed to personal and work-related burnout after the financial crisis. After the financial crisis, lawyers' personal burnout decreased with the increase of reward, and their work-related burnout decreased with the decrease in psychological demand. The financial crisis has an unequal psychological impact on financial workers and lawyers. Financial workers' psychosocial work stress and burnout were aggravated, while lawyers' psychosocial work stress and burnout were alleviated.

  18. The psychological role of music listening in emotion regulation for stress coping amongst university students

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhiwen

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the psychological influence of music listening among university students to assist them to cope with stress. University students often suffer high levels of stress. Music is an important accompaniment for the lives of university students, and it plays a significant role in their stress coping strategies and emotion regulation. The aim of the current research is to examine how university students use music to manage their stress. The researcher was keen to understand u...

  19. Work Stress and Psychological Consequences in The Workplace: Study on Elementary School Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Arismunandar Arismunandar; Nuri Emmiyati

    2016-01-01

    There are very limited studies examining the relationships between work stress and psychological consequences of the teachers, especially elementary school teachers. Therefore, the primary purpose of conducting this research is to understand the correlation between teachers work stress, and burnout and job satisfaction. It also aims to understand sources and levels of teachers work stress. The findings of the study showed that there was no correlation between teachers work stress and burnout,...

  20. Associations between APOE variants and metabolic traits and the impact of psychological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Barefoot, John; Brummett, Berverly H.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all m...... metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress....

  1. Forbearance coping, identification with heritage culture, acculturative stress, and psychological distress among Chinese international students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Heppner, Puncky Paul; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Ku, Tsun-Yao

    2012-01-01

    Based on Berry's (1997) theoretical framework for acculturation, our goal in this study was to examine whether the use of a culturally relevant coping strategy (i.e., forbearance coping, a predictor) would be associated with a lower level of psychological distress (a psychological outcome), for whom (i.e., those with weaker vs. stronger identification with heritage culture, a moderator), and under what situations (i.e., lower vs. higher acculturative stress, a moderator). A total of 188 Chinese international students completed an online survey. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated a significant 3-way interaction of forbearance coping, identification with heritage culture, and acculturative stress on psychological distress. For those with a weaker identification with their heritage culture, when acculturative stress was higher, the use of forbearance coping was positively associated with psychological distress. However, this was not the case when acculturative stress was lower. In other words, the use of forbearance coping was not significantly associated with psychological distress when acculturative stress was lower. Moreover, for those with a stronger cultural heritage identification, the use of forbearance coping was not significantly associated with psychological distress regardless of whether acculturative stress was high or low. Future research and implications are discussed. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Contingent self-worth moderates the relationship between school stressors and psychological stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizu, Kenichiro

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the moderating role of contingent self-worth on the relationships between school stressors and psychological stress responses among Japanese adolescents. A total of 371 Japanese junior high school students (184 boys and 187 girls, Mage = 12.79 years, SD = 0.71) completed the Japanese version of the Self-Worth Contingency Questionnaire and a mental health checklist at two points separated by a two-month interval. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were then used to determine whether contingent self-worth moderated the relationship between school stressors and psychological stress responses. The results indicated that, when psychological stress responses were controlled for at Time 1, contingent self-worth did not predict the psychological stress responses at Time 2. However, a two-way interaction between contingent self-worth and stressors was found to significantly influence psychological stress responses, thus indicating that stressors had a stronger impact on psychological stress responses among those with high contingent self-worth compared to those with low contingent self-worth. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 'Post-deployment appraisal' and the relationship with stress and psychological health in Australian veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Breanna; Forbes, Andrew; Kelsall, Helen; Clarke, David; Ikin, Jill; Sim, Malcolm

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how veterans appraise their post-deployment experiences could provide insight into better assisting their deployment transitions. We aimed to assess the factor structure of positive and negative post-deployment appraisals in Australian veterans and to examine the resultant factors in their relationship with military stress and psychological health. Questions capturing post-deployment attitudes were developed by the researchers in collaboration with veterans. The questions were administered to 1938 veterans and the results factor analysed. The relationships between post-deployment appraisal, military stress and psychological health were examined using Structural Equation Modelling. A three-factor solution was found for the post-deployment appraisal questions; representing personal development, lack of recognition, and appreciation of life and country. Military stress was associated with the three factors and psychological health. The three factors were weakly to moderately associated with psychological health. Mediation between military stress and psychological health by any post-deployment appraisal factor was minimal. Post-deployment appraisal measures three important attitudes and concerns of veterans after deployment. Military stress is associated with the post-deployment appraisal factors. However, the factors did not mediate the relationship between military stress and psychological health. These factors provide insight into how veterans appraise their complex array of post-deployment experiences, and may provide useful in regard to transitions and integration into civilian life.

  4. Prehensile Foot Restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed prehensile foot restraint enables such workers as astronauts and divers to maintain fixed positions in zero gravity or in buoyancy with minimal effort. With foot restraint worker devotes attention fully to task at hand, with little concern about holding on to supporting structure. Claw near toe of shoe grips rail. Wearer uses flexible shaft, first to lock claw tightly on bar; then, when work is done, to open claw. Underwater or in space, device boosts productivity.

  5. Life stress versus traumatic stress: The impact of life events on psychological functioning in children with and without serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Victoria W; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2016-01-01

    To determine the differential impact of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and other stressful life events on psychological functioning in 2 groups of children: those with cancer and those without history of serious illness. Children with cancer age 8-17 (n = 254) and age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-matched controls (n = 142) completed self-report measures of stressful life events and psychological functioning. Stressful life events included those that may meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) A1 criteria (PTEs; 9 events) and others that would likely not (other events; 21 events). Children with cancer endorsed significantly more PTEs than control children. There were no differences between groups in number of other events experienced. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that number of other events accounted for significant variance in psychological functioning, above and beyond group status, demographic factors (age and socioeconomic status), and number of PTEs. The number of cumulative other events experienced is a significant predictor of psychological functioning in both youth with serious illness and controls. In contrast, cumulative PTEs appear to have a minor (albeit significant) impact on children's psychological functioning. Assessment of psychological functioning would benefit from a thorough history of stressful life events, regardless of their potential traumatic impact. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Life stress vs. traumatic stress: The impact of life events on psychological functioning in children with and without serious illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Victoria W.; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the differential impact of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and other stressful life events on psychological functioning in two groups of children: those with cancer, and those without history of serious illness. Methods Children with cancer aged 8–17 (n=254) and age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-matched controls (n=142) completed self-report measures of stressful life events, and psychological functioning. Stressful life events included those that may meet DSM-IV A1 criteria (PTEs; 9 events) and others that would likely not (other events; 21 events). Results Children with cancer endorsed significantly more PTEs than control children. There were no differences between groups in number of other events experienced. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that number of other events accounted for significant variance in psychological functioning, above and beyond group status, demographic factors (age and SES) and number of PTEs. Discussion The number of cumulative other events experienced is a significant predictor of psychological functioning in both youth with serious illness and controls. In contrast, cumulative PTEs appear to have a minor (albeit significant) impact on children’s psychological functioning. Assessment of psychological functioning would benefit from a thorough history of stressful life events, regardless of their potential traumatic impact. PMID:26766295

  7. Effects of psychological stress on innate immunity and metabolism in humans: a systematic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushri Priyadarshini

    Full Text Available Stress is perhaps easiest to conceptualize as a process which allows an organism to accommodate for the demands of its environment such that it can adapt to the prevailing set of conditions. Psychological stress is an important component with the potential to affect physiology adversely as has become evident from various studies in the area. Although these studies have established numerous effects of psychological stress on physiology, a global strategy for the correlation of these effects has yet to begin. Our comparative and systematic analysis of the published literature has unraveled certain interesting molecular mechanisms as clues to account for some of the observed effects of psychological stress on human physiology. In this study, we attempt to understand initial phase of the physiological response to psychological stress by analyzing interactions between innate immunity and metabolism at systems level by analyzing the data available in the literature. In light of our gene association-networks and enrichment analysis we have identified candidate genes and molecular systems which might have some associative role in affecting psychological stress response system or even producing some of the observed terminal effects (such as the associated physiological disorders. In addition to the already accepted role of psychological stress as a perturbation that can disrupt physiological homeostasis, we speculate that it is potentially capable of causing deviation of certain biological processes from their basal level activity after which they can return back to their basal tones once the effects of stress diminish. Based on the derived inferences of our comparative analysis, we have proposed a probabilistic mechanism for how psychological stress could affect physiology such that these adaptive deviations are sometimes not able to bounce back to their original basal tones, and thus increase physiological susceptibility to metabolic and immune

  8. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni Jaiswal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. Aim: To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Results: Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.

  9. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Roshni; Shenoy, Nina; Thomas, Biju

    2016-01-01

    Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05). Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.

  10. Beneficial effect of fluoxetine treatment aganist psychological stress is mediated by increasing BDNF expression in selected brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gongying; Jing, Ping; Liu, Zhidong; Li, Zhiruo; Ma, Hongxia; Tu, Wenzhen; Zhang, Wei; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2017-09-19

    SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine is widely used to treat psychological stress related disorders, however the underlying working mechanisms is not fully understood, as SSRIs can rapidly increase the extracellular serotonin levels but it normally takes weeks to reveal their therapeutic effect in the stress-related psychological disorders. Our previous study demonstrated that purely psychological stress without any physic stimuli induces a biphasic change in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which immediately decrease and then gradually increase after the stress; and that the latter BDNF increase in response to the psychological stress involves the activation of serotonin system. To investigate the role of BDNF in the fluoxetine treatment for stress-related psychological disorders, we examined the mRNA and protein levels of BDNF in the brain of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, which were pretreated with fluoxetine at 10 mg/kg or vehicle solution for 14 days, over 24 hour after an acute psychological stress exposure. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the expression of BDNF at different time points in various brain regions after the psychological stress. We found that fluoxetine treatment completely blocked the BDNF decrease induced by the psychological stress, and also enhanced the gradual increase in the expression of BDNF in most of the brain regions except VTA after the psychological stress. The results suggest that the enhancement in BDNF levels induced by chronic fluoxetine treatment mediates the therapeutic effect against psychological stress.

  11. Lung function, sociodemographic characteristics, and psychological reaction to transplant associated with chronic stress among lung recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzmann, Lutz; Irani, Sarosh; Schwegler, Kyrill; Stamm, Martina; Spindler, Anja; Bricman, Rosemarie; Buddeberg, Claus; Schmid, Christoph; Boehler, Annette; Klaghofer, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Chronic stress is a well-known consequence of somatic diseases. In this study, we investigated whether physical, sociodemographic, or transplant-related psychological factors were associated with the patient's chronic stress level. A cross-sectional study enrolling 76 patients measured chronic stress (Screening Scale, Screening Subscale of Chronic Stress of the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress) and the emotional effects of the transplant (Transplant Effects Questionnaire), as well as physical and sociodemographic conditions (lung function, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, working status, and parenting). Chronic stress after a lung transplant was significantly lower than in a normal community sample. In the multiple regression analysis, worries concerning the transplant were significantly associated with the patient's chronic stress, but not with physical or sociodemographic parameters, nor with interactions between physical and psychological parameters. These results underscore the importance of transplant-related worries, regardless of the patient's current state of health.

  12. Comparison of Different Algorithms for Sentiment Analysis: Psychological Stress Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sunmoo; Parsons, Faith; Sundquist, Kevin; Julian, Jacob; Schwartz, Joseph E; Burg, Matthew M; Davidson, Karina W; Diaz, Keith M

    2017-01-01

    To visualize and compare three text analysis algorithms of sentiment (AFINN, Bing, Syuzhet), applied to 1549 ecologically assessed self-report stress notes obtained by smartphone, in order to gain insights about stress measurement and management.

  13. Counseling psychology trainees' experiences with debt stress: a mixed methods examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson-Garriott, Amber N; Garriott, Patton O; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2015-04-01

    Financial debt accrued by graduate psychology students has increased in recent years and is a chief concern among psychology trainees (El-Ghoroury, Galper, Sawaqdeh, & Bufka, 2012). This study examined debt stress among counseling psychology trainees using a complementary mixed methods research design. Qualitative analyses (N = 11) using the consensual qualitative research method (CQR; Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997; Hill et al., 2005) revealed six domains, 15 categories, and 34 subcategories. Domains included social class contributions, institutional contributions, long-term effects, coping mechanisms, personal relationships, and effect on well-being. The transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) and social class worldview model (Liu, Soleck, Hopps, Dunston, & Pickett, 2004) guided quantitative analyses. Results of a path analysis (N = 285) indicated total debt and subjective social class were significant predictors of debt stress and that the relationship between debt stress and psychological distress was mediated by avoidant coping. Avoidant coping also moderated the association between debt stress and psychological distress. Results are discussed in relation to professional training and the career development of counseling psychology trainees. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Burnout, psychological morbidity, job stress, and job satisfaction in Chinese neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyu; Pu, Juncai; Zhong, Xiaoni; Zhu, Dan; Yin, Dinghong; Yang, Lining; Zhang, Yuqing; Fu, Yuying; Wang, Haiyang; Xie, Peng

    2017-05-02

    To investigate the prevalence of and personal and professional characteristics associated with burnout, psychological morbidity, job stress, and job satisfaction in Chinese neurologists. The China Neurologist Association conducted a national cross-sectional study from September 2014 to March 2015. A questionnaire including the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, the Consultants' Mental Health Questionnaire, and questions assessing personal and professional characteristics, career satisfaction, and current doctor-patient relationships was administered. A total of 693 directors of neurology departments and 6,111 neurologists in 30 Chinese provinces returned surveys. Overall, 53.2% of responding neurologists experienced burnout, 37.8% had psychological morbidity, 50.7% had high levels of job stress, 25.7% had low levels of job satisfaction, 76.9% had poor doctor-patient relationships, and 58.1% regretted becoming a doctor. Factors independently associated with burnout were lower income, more hours worked per week, more nights on call per month, working in public hospitals, psychological morbidity, high levels of job stress, low levels of job satisfaction, and poor doctor-patient relationships. Factors independently associated with psychological morbidity included lower income, more nights on call per month, working in enterprise-owned hospitals, burnout, high levels of job stress, and low levels of job satisfaction. Burnout and psychological morbidity are common in Chinese neurologists. Burnout is the single greatest predictor of neurologists' psychological morbidity, high job stress, and low job satisfaction. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Path analysis of relationship among personality, perceived stress, coping, social support, and psychological outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Feizi, Awat; Afshar, Hamid; Mazaheri, Mina; Behnamfar, Omid; Hassanzadeh-Keshteli, Ammar; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provide a structural model of the relationship between personality traits, perceived stress, coping strategies, social support, and psychological outcomes in the general population. METHODS: This is a cross sectional study in which the study group was selected using multistage cluster and convenience sampling among a population of 4 million. For data collection, a total of 4763 individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire on demographics, personality traits, life events, coping with stress, social support, and psychological outcomes such as anxiety and depression. To evaluate the comprehensive relationship between the variables, a path model was fitted. RESULTS: The standard electronic modules showed that personality traits and perceived stress are important determinants of psychological outcomes. Social support and coping strategies were demonstrated to reduce the increasing cumulative positive effects of neuroticism and perceived stress on the psychological outcomes and enhance the protective effect of extraversion through decreasing the positive effect of perceived stress on the psychological outcomes. CONCLUSION: Personal resources play an important role in reduction and prevention of anxiety and depression. In order to improve the psychological health, it is necessary to train and reinforce the adaptive coping strategies and social support, and thus, to moderate negative personality traits. PMID:27354968

  16. [Efficiency of psychological debriefing in preventing post-traumatic stress disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulagnier, M; Verger, P; Rouillon, F

    2004-02-01

    Traumatic events are frequently followed by an acute stress reaction that may develop into a post-traumatic stress disorder. An intervention called psychological debriefing has been proposed to prevent these disorders. Although this method is widely used at present, its preventive effect is controversial. This article consist in a review of the studies which evaluated psychological debriefing efficiency in the prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder and associated disorders in adults. We carried out a bibliographical search on MEDLINE (1966-2001), PASCAL (1987-2001), EMBASE (1988-2001), FRANCIS (1984-2001) and SCIENCEDIRECT (1967-2001). The key words were posttraumatic stress disorder, debriefing, treatment, psychological follow up, and prevention. We selected the studies with the following criteria: adults, one psychological debriefing session in the Month following the event, inclusion of a control group, more than 20 persons per group and evaluation of psychological disorders with standardized instruments more than one Month after the trauma. Twenty nine studies were identified and 8 selected. Four studies did not show any intervention effect, 3 suggested a negative intervention effect, and 1 suggested a positive effect on anxiety, depressive symptoms and alcohol dependence. Psychological debriefing implies re-exposure through memory processes to the trauma, which can interfere with the natural course of adjustment and recovery. Several Authors have suggested that psychological debriefing may delay the diagnosis and thus the early treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychological debriefing may not be appropriate to all victims of every type of incident or trauma. We discuss the intervention and its design. This review did not show evidence for psychological debriefing efficiency, as a unique session, in the prevention of posttraumatic reactions. The design and the objectives may be re-examined. Further evaluations following rigorous methods are

  17. Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress are attenuated in smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginty, Annie T; Jones, Alexander; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; Painter, Rebecca; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have now examined the association between smoking and the magnitude of physiological reactions to acute psychological stress. However, no large-scale study has demonstrated this association incorporating neuroendocrine in addition to cardiovascular reactions to stress. The

  18. Providing Psychological Intervention Following Traumatic Events: Understanding and Managing Psychologists' Own Stress Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ben; Frederickson, Norah

    2008-01-01

    The role of the educational psychology service in crisis support is well established. This paper examines a key aspect of this role, the impact on psychologists themselves, and reviews literature on secondary stress, considering the term "stress" itself as part of the discussion. It examines recommendations for professional practice and self care…

  19. Previous stress and acute psychological defence as predictors of perinatal grief - An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M. Hunfeld (Joke); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); F. Verhage; J. Passchier (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe evaluated whether the emotional reactions of women at 2–6 weeks after the prenatal diagnosis of a lethal anomaly and at 3 months after perinatal loss might be predicted by previous stress and acute psychological defence reactions to the diagnosis. Previous stress was defined

  20. Catechol-o-methyltransferase polymorphism and susceptibility to major depressive disorder modulates psychological stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Kema, Ido R.; van der Pompe, Gieta; Meerman, Gerard J. te; Ormel, Johan; den Boer, Johan A.

    Objectives The stress response is related to both physiological and psychological factors and is strongly marked by a neuroendocrine component. Genetic factors are believed to underlie individual differences in the degree of stress resilience and thereby contribute in determining susceptibility to

  1. Stress among School-Going Adolescents in Relation to Psychological Hardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raminder

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the stress among school-going adolescents in relation to psychological hardiness and also to study the gender and locale-wise differences in various dimensions and components of stress. The study was conducted over a sample of 200 (100 rural and 100 urban) adolescents studying in 10+1 and 10+2 classes…

  2. Role of Virtues and Perceived Life Stress in Affecting Psychological Symptoms among Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Siu, Bowie P. Y.; Li, Tingting; Zhang, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship among virtues, self-perceived life stress, and psychological symptoms. Participants: A total of 235 undergraduates participated in the study in March 2013. Methods: The participants were recruited to complete the Life Stress Rating Scale for College Students, the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire that…

  3. Physical and psychological stressors linked with stress fractures in recruit training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, D S; Evans, R; Arbel, Y; Luria, O; Hadid, A; Yanovich, R; Milgrom, C; Finestone, A S

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to measure ambulation in infantry army basic training, and to evaluate if covering more distance can explain stress fractures in a stressor-stress model. Forty-four male combat recruits (18.7 ± 0.7 years) participated in a 6-month rigorous high intensity combat training program. Baseline data included anthropometric measurements, VO(2)max, and psychological questionnaires. Actual distance covered was measured using a pedometer over an 11-week training period. Psychological questionnaires were repeated after 2 months. Sixteen recruits were diagnosed with stress fractures by imaging (SFi = 36.4%). Statistical analysis included comparing measured variables between SFi and those without stress fractures (NSF). The recruits covered 796 ± 157 km, twofold the distance planned of 378 km (P psychological stress. These data reveal the importance of adherence to or enforcement of military training programs. In the light of these data, the Israeli Defense Forces program needs reappraisal. A stressor-stress response might explain the susceptibility of certain recruits for injury. Using advanced technology, monitoring ambulation may prevent stress fracture development by limiting subjects exceeding a certain level. Psychological profile may also play a role in predicting stress fracture development. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Stressful work, psychological job strain, and turnover: A 2-year prospective cohort study of truck drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Croon, Einar M.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Blonk, Roland W. B.; Broersen, Jake P. J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a model that combines existing organizational stress theory and job transition theory, this 2-year longitudinal study examined antecedents and consequences of turnover among Dutch truck drivers. For this purpose, self-reported data on stressful work (job demands and control), psychological

  5. Psychological Abuse Perpetration in College Dating Relationships: Contributions of Gender, Stress, and Adult Attachment Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether gender, stressful problems common among college students, and adult attachment orientations (anxiety and avoidance) contributed to self-reported perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships among 127 college students. College men's stress levels were the strongest predictor of perpetration of…

  6. Brief mindfulness meditation training alters psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social evaluative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Lindsay, Emily K; Brown, Kirk Warren

    2014-06-01

    To test whether a brief mindfulness meditation training intervention buffers self-reported psychological and neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in young adult volunteers. A second objective evaluates whether pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness moderate the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on stress reactivity. Sixty-six (N=66) participants were randomly assigned to either a brief 3-day (25-min per day) mindfulness meditation training or an analytic cognitive training control program. All participants completed a standardized laboratory social-evaluative stress challenge task (the TSST) following the third mindfulness meditation or cognitive training session. Measures of psychological (stress perceptions) and biological (salivary cortisol, blood pressure) stress reactivity were collected during the social evaluative stress-challenge session. Brief mindfulness meditation training reduced self-reported psychological stress reactivity but increased salivary cortisol reactivity to the TSST, relative to the cognitive training comparison program. Participants who were low in pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness and then received mindfulness meditation training had the greatest cortisol reactivity to the TSST. No significant main or interactive effects were observed for systolic or diastolic blood pressure reactivity to the TSST. The present study provides an initial indication that brief mindfulness meditation training buffers self-reported psychological stress reactivity, but also increases cortisol reactivity to social evaluative stress. This pattern may indicate that initially brief mindfulness meditation training fosters greater active coping efforts, resulting in reduced psychological stress appraisals and greater cortisol reactivity during social evaluative stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stress from daily hassles in couples: its effects on intradyadic stress, relationship satisfaction, and physical and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconier, Mariana K; Nussbeck, Fridtjof; Bodenmann, Guy; Schneider, Hulka; Bradbury, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    According to the systemic-transactional stress model (STM; G. Bodenmann, European Review of Applied Psychology, 1997; 47: 137), extradyadic stress from daily hassles can have a negative impact on the individual psychological and physical health and the couple's relationship. This study is the first one to test the STM propositions in a model that includes both partners' individual and relational outcomes simultaneously. The model also includes actor and partner effects as well as the interdependence between partners' processes. Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from 110 community couples in Switzerland. Consistent with STM predictions, results from the path model analysis indicate that for actor effects extradyadic stress from daily hassles relates directly to lower psychological (increase in anxiety symptoms) and physical well-being and only indirectly to lower relationship satisfaction through increased intradyadic stress from relationship problems and also through more depressive symptomatology in men. The female extradyadic stress and intradyadic stress had partner effects on the male intradyadic stress and the male relationship satisfaction, respectively. Limitations as well as research and clinical implications for marriage and family therapists are discussed. © 2014 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  8. Food Consumption, Restraint, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-05

    Chamberlain, K. (1973). Emotional arousal, eating patterns, and body image as differential factors associated with varying success in maintaining a weight...consumption could lead to more efficacious treatment of obesity and other eating-related health problems such as anorexia nervosa and 2 bulimia . For...instance, Keck and Fiebert {1986), in their comparison of inpatients and outpatients having bulimia or anorexia with normal dieters, reported that the

  9. Aberrations in lymphocyte subpopulations and function during psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorian, B; Garfinkel, P; Brown, G; Shore, A; Gladman, D; Keystone, E

    1982-10-01

    Eight trainees in psychiatry taking their final oral fellowship examinations were compared with 16 controls to determine the effect of stress on their immune system. Two measures of stress were utilized to distinguish the highly stressed subjects from those minimally stressed. T cell subpopulations, B cell numbers, mitogen reactivity, natural killer cell activity, plaque forming cell responsiveness, antigen specific T suppressor cell activity, and hormone levels were studied 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after the exam. The results demonstrated transiently elevated numbers of T and B lymphocytes but impaired plaque forming cell and mitogen responsiveness in the highly stressed group prior to their exam which normalized later. The results support the concept that stress may significantly alter the immune response in man.

  10. Study of Association of Psychological Stress and Depression among Undergraduate Medical Students in Pondicherry

    OpenAIRE

    Devi Kittu, Rohan Patil

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medical education across the globe is perceived as being inherently stressful. Studies on psychological problems such as stress, depression and anxiety among medical students have found that these disorders are under diagnosed and under treated. In this background the present study was undertaken with the objectives to assess the magni-tude of depression and its association with stress among medical students. Methods: A Cross sectional study was undertaken among 235 medical st...

  11. Effect of psychological stress on the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway and semen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eskiocak

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that mental stress causes abnormality of spermiogram parameters. We investigated the effect of psychological stress on the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO pathway. Semen samples were collected from 29 healthy fourth semester medical students just before (stress and 3 months after (non-stress the final examinations. Psychological stress was measured by the State Anxiety Inventory questionnaire. After standard semen analysis, arginase activity and NO concentration were measured spectrophotometrically in the seminal plasma. Measurements were made in duplicate. During the stress period, sperm concentration (41.28 ± 3.70 vs 77.62 ± 7.13 x 10(6/mL, rapid progressive motility of spermatozoa (8.79 ± 1.66 vs 20.86 ± 1.63% and seminal plasma arginase activity (0.12 ± 0.01 vs 0.22 ± 0.01 U/mL were significantly lower than in the non-stress situation, whereas seminal plasma NO (17.28 ± 0.56 vs 10.02 ± 0.49 µmol/L was higher compared to the non-stress period (P < 0.001 for all. During stress there was a negative correlation between NO concentration and sperm concentration, the percentage of rapid progressive motility and arginase activity (r = -0.622, P < 0.01; r = -0.425, P < 0.05 and r = -0.445, P < 0.05, respectively. These results indicate that psychological stress causes an increase of NO level and a decrease of arginase activity in the L-arginine-NO pathway. Furthermore, poor sperm quality may be due to excessive production of NO under psychological stress. In the light of these results, we suggest that the arginine-NO pathway, together with arginase and NO synthase, are involved in semen quality under stress conditions.

  12. FILLING IN THE GAPS OF CHRONIC PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS DISEASE MODELS: WHAT'S METABOLIC PROFILING HAVE TO DO WITH IT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic psychological stress has profound effects on human health and well being, and it is generally accepted that psychological stress is a burgeoning public health problem in modern day life. However, models used to describe or predict stress-related disease are generally plagued by the paucity o...

  13. Effects of psychological stress on hypertension in middle-aged Chinese: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    Full Text Available We examined the effect and relative contributions of different types of stress on the risk of hypertension. Using cluster sampling, 5,976 community-dwelling individuals aged 40-60 were selected. Hypertension was defined according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee, and general psychological stress was defined as experiencing stress at work or home. Information on known risk factors of hypertension (e.g., physical activity levels, food intake, smoking behavior was collected from participants. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associations between psychological stress and hypertension, calculating population-attributable risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. General stress was significantly related to hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 1.247, 95% CI [1.076, 1.446]. Additionally, after adjustment for all other risk factors, women showed a greater risk of hypertension if they had either stress at work or at home: OR = 1.285, 95% CI (1.027, 1.609 and OR = 1.231, 95% CI (1.001, 1.514, respectively. However, this increased risk for hypertension by stress was not found in men. General stress contributed approximately 9.1% (95% CI [3.1, 15.0] to the risk for hypertension. Thus, psychological stress was associated with an increased risk for hypertension, although this increased risk was not consistent across gender.

  14. Impact of acute psychological stress on cardiovascular risk factors in face of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristian T; Shelton, Richard C; Wan, Jun; Li, Li

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with insulin resistance (IR) are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Psychological stress may contribute to develop CVD in IR, although mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that individuals with IR have enhanced emotional and physiological responses to acute psychological stress, leading to increased CVD risk. Sixty participants were enrolled into the study, and classified into IR group (n = 31) and insulin sensitive group (n = 29) according to the Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, which was calculated based on an oral glucose tolerance test. The Trier social stress test, a standardized experimental stress paradigm, was performed on each participant, and emotional and physiological responses were examined. Blood was collected from each subject for insulin, cytokines, and cortisol measurements. Compared with the insulin-sensitive group, individuals with IR had significantly lower ratings of energy and calm, but higher fatigue levels in response to acute stressors. Individuals with IR also showed blunted heart rate reactivity following stress. In addition, the IR status was worsened by acute psychological stress as demonstrated by further increased insulin secretion. Furthermore, individuals with IR showed significantly increased levels of leptin and interleukin-6, but decreased levels of adiponectin, at baseline, stress test, and post-stress period. Our findings in individuals with IR under acute stress would allow a better understanding of the risks for developing CVD and to tailor the interventions for better outcomes.

  15. To Be or Not to Be (Stressed): The Critical Role of a Psychologically Healthy Workplace in Effective Stress Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawitch, Matthew J; Ballard, David W; Erb, Kaitlyn R

    2015-10-01

    This article explains how key practices pertaining to the psychologically healthy workplace can be used to develop a comprehensive approach to stress management in contemporary organizations. Specifically, we demonstrate the ways in which employee involvement, recognition, work-life balance, health and safety, and growth and development practices can be used to assist in the reduction of work stress and the proactive management of strain. Although many organizations strive to establish a positive environment conducive to work and well-being, identifying where to begin can often seem like a daunting task. Currently, many stress management efforts emphasize individual-level interventions that are simply implemented alongside existing organizational practices. We propose that a broader perspective allows for a better understanding of the stress process, resulting in the ability to consider a wider range of changes to organizational processes. Combining knowledge regarding psychologically healthy workplace practices, stress management intervention levels and the personal resource allocation framework, we present a comprehensive framework for approaching workplace stress management, which can be tailored to the unique needs of various organizations, departments and employees. By adopting this broader perspective, we believe organizations can more strategically address employee stress, resulting in more effective stress management and a profound impact on stress-related outcomes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The psychological and physiological stress relief effect of the green roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.; Koshimizu, H. [Meiji Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Agriculture

    2007-07-01

    The visual sense influences human psychology and physiology. As such, green gardens in urban environments are touted as being healing gardens that lead to stress relief and improved work efficiency. This paper focused on the visual aspects of such rehabilitation sites. Psychological and physiological experiments were conducted on human response to green roofs in order to quantify the stress relief effect of the green roof scenery. In addition, different green roof designs were tested to determine whether they change the stress relief effect. A 360 degrees panorama photograph of green roofs was shown to 3 male and 3 female students in Meiji University. The experiment was followed by a questionnaire survey based on the semantic differential (SD) method as a psychological evaluation. The SD method is a representative psychological measurement to quantify an image of people for a scene. The changes in heart rate were studied along with blood pressure, and stress degree as a physiological evaluation. The relation between the results of the SD method-based psychological evaluation and the physiological experiment was determined using multiple regression analysis. It was concluded that the stress relief effect can be improved by changing linear scenery to a more curvy one. 15 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  17. The interplay between neuroendocrine activity and psychological stress-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Tomomitsu; Dobashi-Okuyama, Kaori; Takahashi, Tomoko; Takayanagi, Motoaki; Ohno, Isao

    2018-01-01

    Psychological stress is recognized as a key factor in the exacerbation of allergic asthma, whereby brain responses to stress act as immunomodulators for asthma. In particular, stress-induced enhanced type 2 T-helper (Th2)-type lung inflammation is strongly associated with asthma pathogenesis. Psychological stress leads to eosinophilic airway inflammation through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway and autonomic nervous system. This is followed by the secretion of stress hormones into the blood, including glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which enhance Th2 and type 17 T-helper (Th17)-type asthma profiles in humans and rodents. Recent evidence has shown that a defect of the μ-opioid receptor in the brain along with a defect of the peripheral glucocorticoid receptor signaling completely disrupted stress-induced airway inflammation in mice. This suggests that the stress response facilitates events in the central nervous and endocrine systems, thus exacerbating asthma. In this review, we outline the recent findings on the interplay between stress and neuroendocrine activities followed by stress-induced enhanced Th2 and Th17 immune responses and attenuated regulatory T (Treg) cell responses that are closely linked with asthma exacerbation. We will place a special focus on our own data that has emphasized the continuity from central sensing of psychological stress to enhanced eosinophilic airway inflammation. The mechanism that modulates psychological stress-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma through neuroendocrine activities is thought to involve a series of consecutive pathological events from the brain to the lung, which implies there to be a "neuropsychiatry phenotype" in asthma. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-perceived psychological stress and ischemic stroke: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomstrand Christian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of evidence suggests that psychological stress contributes to coronary artery disease. However, associations between stress and stroke are less clear. In this study, we investigated the possible association between ischemic stroke and self-perceived psychological stress, as measured by a single-item questionnaire, previously reported to be associated with myocardial infarction. Methods In the Sahlgrenska Academy Study on Ischemic Stroke (SAHLSIS, 600 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke (aged 18 to 69 years and 600 age-matched and sex-matched population controls were recruited. Ischemic stroke subtype was determined according to Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST criteria. Self-perceived psychological stress preceding stroke was assessed retrospectively using a single-item questionnaire. Results Permanent self-perceived psychological stress during the last year or longer was independently associated with overall ischemic stroke (multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR 3.49, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.06 to 5.93. Analyses by stroke subtype showed that this association was present for large vessel disease (OR 3.91, 95% CI 1.58 to 9.67, small vessel disease (OR 3.20, 95% CI 1.64 to 6.24, and cryptogenic stroke (OR 4.03, 95% CI 2.34 to 6.95, but not for cardioembolic stroke (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.64 to 3.39. Conclusion In this case-control study, we found an independent association between self-perceived psychological stress and ischemic stroke. A novel finding was that this association differed by ischemic stroke subtype. Our results emphasize the need for further prospective studies addressing the potential role for psychological stress as a risk factor for ischemic stroke. In such studies ischemic stroke subtypes should be taken into consideration.

  19. Stress resiliency, psychological empowerment and conflict management styles among baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Eula W; Rauschhuber, Maureen L; Norgan, Gary H; Cook, Jennifer D; Canchola, Leticia; Richardson, Cynthia; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2012-07-01

    This article is a report of a Neuman Systems Model-guided correlational study of the relations of stress resiliency, psychological empowerment, selected demographic characteristics (age, ethnicity, semester in school) and conflict management styles. Emerging evidence suggests that stress resiliency and psychological empowerment can strengthen student nurses in academic achievement and coping with stress. Little is known about conflict management styles of students and the relationship to empowerment, resiliency and the implications for managing workplace conflict. A correlational study was conducted in Spring 2010 with 166 baccalaureate students. Most participants were female, single, Hispanic and 25 years old. The data collection instruments included the Stress Resiliency Profile, the Psychological Empowerment Instrument, the Conflict Mode Instrument and a demographic inventory. Descriptive and inferential correlational statistics were used to analyse the data. Students scored in the high range for focusing on their deficiencies in conflict situations; they scored above the 60th percentile for avoiding and accommodating behaviours and were less likely to use competing or collaborating strategies to manage conflict. Empowerment scores were significantly correlated with stress resiliency scores. Students with high scores on empowerment had high scores on the skill recognition subscale of the Stress Resiliency Profile suggesting more resilience; high scores on empowerment were related to high necessitating subscale scores of the Stress Resiliency Profile suggesting a predisposition to stress. Neuman Systems Model may provide guidance for educators to strengthen student nurses' management of stressors in the workplace. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Physiological and psychological stress limits for astronautics Observations during the Skylab I-III missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    The physiological and psychological factors of manned space flight had a particular significance in the Skylab missions during which astronauts were subjected to a life in a space environment for longer periods of time than on previous space missions. The Skylab missions demonstrated again the great adaptability of human physiology to the environment of man. The results of Skylab have indicated also approaches for enhancing the capability of man to tolerate the physiological and psychological stresses of space flight.

  1. Does a community-based stress management intervention affect psychological adaptation among underserved black breast cancer survivors?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lechner, Suzanne C; Whitehead, Nicole E; Vargas, Sara; Annane, Debra W; Robertson, Belinda R; Carver, Charles S; Kobetz, Erin; Antoni, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    In this randomized trial, Project CARE, we examined whether participation in a cognitive-behavioral stress management and breast cancer wellness and education program improved psychological outcomes...

  2. Psychological Aspects of Geographical Moves. Homesickness and Acculturation Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Tilburg, van, T.G.; Vingerhoets, Ad

    2005-01-01

    Mobility of mankind has increased enormously in the past few decades. People leave their homes and native countries for business and study, for vacation or to flee from unsafe conditions like wars and natural disasters. In all cases the sojourner faces a dual challenge of breaking with the familiar home environment and adjusting to new surroundings. This book deals with the psychological and health consequences of leaving the familiar home and the process of creating a new one. The focus is m...

  3. Physical versus psychological social stress in male rats reveals distinct cardiovascular, inflammatory and behavioral consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnell, Julie E; Lombard, Calliandra M; Padi, Akhila R; Moffitt, Casey M; Wilson, L Britt; Wood, Christopher S; Wood, Susan K

    2017-01-01

    Repeated exposure to social stress can precipitate the development of psychosocial disorders including depression and comorbid cardiovascular disease. While a major component of social stress often encompasses physical interactions, purely psychological stressors (i.e. witnessing a traumatic event) also fall under the scope of social stress. The current study determined whether the acute stress response and susceptibility to stress-related consequences differed based on whether the stressor consisted of physical versus purely psychological social stress. Using a modified resident-intruder paradigm, male rats were either directly exposed to repeated social defeat stress (intruder) or witnessed a male rat being defeated. Cardiovascular parameters, behavioral anhedonia, and inflammatory cytokines in plasma and the stress-sensitive locus coeruleus were compared between intruder, witness, and control rats. Surprisingly intruders and witnesses exhibited nearly identical increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate during acute and repeated stress exposures, yet only intruders exhibited stress-induced arrhythmias. Furthermore, re-exposure to the stress environment in the absence of the resident produced robust pressor and tachycardic responses in both stress conditions indicating the robust and enduring nature of social stress. In contrast, the long-term consequences of these stressors were distinct. Intruders were characterized by enhanced inflammatory sensitivity in plasma, while witnesses were characterized by the emergence of depressive-like anhedonia, transient increases in systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. The current study highlights that while the acute cardiovascular responses to stress were identical between intruders and witnesses, these stressors produced distinct differences in the enduring consequences to stress, suggesting that witness stress may be more likely to produce long-term cardiovascular

  4. Psychological and Neuroendocrine Determinants of Stress Regulation in Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Aleknavičiūtė (Jūratė)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractPsychosocial stress is a reaction to a real or interpreted threat to the integrity of an individual that manifests itself by biochemical, physiological, cognitive and behavioral changes. We assessed cognitive appraisal and psychophysiological responses during a standardized

  5. The effect of surgical and psychological stress on learning and memory function in aged C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Li, C; Xu, Z; Zhao, S; Li, P; Cao, J; Mi, W

    2016-04-21

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is an important complication following major surgery and general anesthesia in older patients. However, the etiology of POCD remains largely to be determined. It is unknown how surgical stress and psychological stress affect the postoperative learning and memory function in geriatric patients. We therefore established a pre-clinical model in aged C57BL/6 mice and aimed to investigate the effects of surgical stress and psychological stress on learning and memory function and the possible roles of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) pathway. The surgical stress was induced by abdominal surgery under local anesthesia, and the psychological stress was induced by a communication box. Cognitive functions and markers of the AKT/mTOR pathway were assessed at 1, 3 and 7 days following the stress. The impairments of learning and memory function existed for up to 7 days following surgical stress and surgical stress plus psychological stress, whereas the psychological stress did not affect the cognitive function alone or combined with surgical stress. Analysis of brain tissue revealed a significant involvement of the AKT/mTOR pathway in the impairment of cognition. These data suggested that surgical stress could induce cognitive impairment in aged mice and perioperative psychological stress is not a constitutive factor of POCD. The AKT/mTOR pathway is likely involved as one of the underlying mechanisms of the development of POCD. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri

    2014-09-02

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that "women should devote themselves to their household duties" those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that "married life without children is favorable" and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.

  7. Maternal stress and psychological status and sleep in minority preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Barbara A; Redeker, Nancy S

    2015-01-01

    Minority women living in inner city environments may be at more risk for psychological distress. Maternal stress, anxiety, depression, and psychological trauma can influence the preschool child's behavior and may have a negative impact on the preschool child's sleep patterns. The purpose of the study was to: (a) examine objective and subjective preschool children sleep patterns and (b) explore the relationship between objective and subjective sleep patterns in preschool children and maternal psychological status. A cross-sectional observational design was used. Descriptive analyses and correlations were conducted to examine the data. Twenty-one minority women were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Program. Preschool children wore wrist actigraphs, and their sleep efficiency, time in bed, and sleep periods were analyzed. Mothers completed measures on depression, anxiety, stress, and psychological trauma. Mothers' self-report of their children's sleep habits indicated at risk scores for sleep problems. Life stress in the mothers was statistically significant and negatively related to preschool child's sleep duration. Mild to severe symptoms of depression and mild anxiety were reported and criteria for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder were found in 12 of the 21 mothers. The results of the study indicate that parent education on sleep and the minority preschool child should be part of community interventions and screening preschool parents for psychological distress should be considered with referrals for support services. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Component restraint system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, John C.

    1983-05-24

    An object restraint system is provided with a collar for gripping the object and a plurality of struts attached to the collar and to anchor means by universal-type joints, the struts being arranged in tangential relation about the collar.

  9. Psychological adjustment and psychosocial stress among Japanese couples with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagami, M; Maruyama, T; Koizumi, T

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the effects of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) on the psychological adjustment of couples. The aim of this study was to elucidate psychological adjustment and RPL-associated psychosocial stress affecting Japanese couples with a history of RPL, focusing on gender...... differences and quality of the marital relationship. METHODS The study included 76 RPL couples who visited the outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital. They completed self-administered questionnaires that assessed RPL-associated stress, quality of their marital relationship (Quality Marriage Index, QMI...

  10. Psychological and Physical Stress in Surgeons Operating in a Standard or Modern Operating Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, M.; Andersen, L.P.H.; Alamili, M.

    2010-01-01

    psychological and physiological stress in experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Methods: This was a prospective case-controlled study including 10 experienced surgeons. Surgery was performed in 2 different ORs: a standard room and a modern room (OR1-suite, Karl Storz). The surgeons filled out questionnaires......Purpose: There have been no studies examining the effect of optimized ergonomic and technical environment on the psychological and physiological stress of the surgeon. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimized ergonomics and technical aids within a modern operating room (OR) affect...... OR compared with a standard room...

  11. Blunted Electrodermal and Psychological Response to Acute Stress in Family Caregivers of People with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-05-10

    Caring for an offspring with an eating disorder (ED) is associated with high levels of distress, and health problems. Indeed, ED caregivers have to cope with a range of challenges related to their caring role, which represents a chronic stress situation. This tends to alter body homeostasis and caregivers' health status. This study aimed to analyse the electrodermal reactivity and psychological response to acute stress in ED caregivers compared to non-caregivers. As expected, caregivers showed lower electrodermal (p stress than non-caregivers. The findings suggest the existence of physiological adaptation to chronic stress in family caregivers of people with EDs.

  12. A longitudinal study of psychological stress among undergraduate dental students at the University of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghazaleh, Suha B; Sonbol, Hawazen N; Rajab, Lamis D

    2016-03-12

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether psychological stress increased as undergraduate dental students progressed through their studies from first to fifth year. Another objective was to determine if the perceived sources of stress have changed along the years. To achieve these aims, a cohort of students at the University of Jordan were followed from first to fifth year of dental school. Fifth year students completed both the General Health Questionnaire 'GHQ-12' which was used to assess psychological stress and the Dental Environment Stress questionnaire 'DES' which was used to examine the perceived sources of stress. The same cohort of students had completed similar questionnaires during their first year of study. Chi-square analysis and independent t-test analysis were performed to compare GHQ-12 and DES scores between first and fifth year. Results showed that psychological stress increased from first to fifth year of study. Eighty- nine percent of fifth year students scored over the cut-off point of three in the GHQ-12 compared to 58 % in the first year. The difference between the years was statistically significant at p = 0.05. Mean score for DES also increased between first and fifth year of study and the difference was statistically significant at p = 0.05. Results of this study demonstrated that stress in dental students at the University of Jordan increased along the years. Fifth year students showed a high level of psychological stress and methods to reduce that stress should be further investigated and utilized.

  13. Parenting stress among mothers of children with different physical, mental, and psychological problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Awat; Najmi, Badroddin; Salesi, Aseih; Chorami, Maryam; Hoveidafar, Rezvan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with developmental problems are always bearing a load of stress. The aim of this study is to compare the stress in mothers of children with different disabilities to each other, considering their demographic background. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran during 2012 on 285 mothers of 6-12 years old children with chronic physical disease, psychological disorder, and sensory-motor and mental problems. Abedin's parenting stress questionnaire was used and obtained data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance or covariance as appropriate. Results: Mothers of children with sensory-motor mental and chronic physical problems experience more stress than mothers of children with psychological disorders (P < 0.05). The stress score of mothers of children with psychological disorders was lower than the other two groups. Also there was a significant difference between the score of mothers of children with chronic physical problems and mothers of children with psychological disorders regarding parent-child dysfunctional interaction (P < 0.01). A significant difference was observed in terms of stress among mothers of children with sensory-motor mental problems with different number of children (P < 0.05); also mothers of children with chronic physical problems in different levels of education have experienced different levels of parenting stress (P < 0.05) Conclusion: Due to high level of parenting stress among our studied samples, special education and early intervention are needed for parents in our study population in order to deepening their diagnostic knowledge and professional consultation on stress management PMID:24778669

  14. Parenting stress among mothers of children with different physical, mental, and psychological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awat Feizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children with developmental problems are always bearing a load of stress. The aim of this study is to compare the stress in mothers of children with different disabilities to each other, considering their demographic background. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran during 2012 on 285 mothers of 6-12 years old children with chronic physical disease, psychological disorder, and sensory-motor and mental problems. Abedin′s parenting stress questionnaire was used and obtained data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance or covariance as appropriate. Results: Mothers of children with sensory-motor mental and chronic physical problems experience more stress than mothers of children with psychological disorders (P < 0.05. The stress score of mothers of children with psychological disorders was lower than the other two groups. Also there was a significant difference between the score of mothers of children with chronic physical problems and mothers of children with psychological disorders regarding parent-child dysfunctional interaction (P < 0.01. A significant difference was observed in terms of stress among mothers of children with sensory-motor mental problems with different number of children (P < 0.05; also mothers of children with chronic physical problems in different levels of education have experienced different levels of parenting stress (P < 0.05 Conclusion: Due to high level of parenting stress among our studied samples, special education and early intervention are needed for parents in our study population in order to deepening their diagnostic knowledge and professional consultation on stress management

  15. Comfort eating, psychological stress, and depressive symptoms in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Laura E; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about whether comfort eating actually functions to reduce psychological stress. In addition, the effectiveness of comfort eating may be particularly relevant in the context of depression, but no study has tested whether comfort eating processes might depend on severity of depressive symptomology. This study tested 1) whether greater comfort eating statistically buffers the relationship between adverse life events and perceived psychological stress at age 18-19, and 2) whether potential stress-buffering effects may differ by level of depressive symptoms. These relationships were examined in the NHLBI Growth and Health Study, comprising 2379 young adult women. Participants self-reported experiences with adverse life events, their perceived psychological stress, and whether they tended to eat more while experiencing certain negative emotions. As hypothesized, the relationship between adverse life events and perceived stress depended on comfort eating status (p = .033). The effect of adverse events on perceived stress was attenuated among comfort eaters compared to non-comfort eaters (p = .004), but this buffering effect was not shown in participants with an elevated level of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, among young adult women without high depressive symptoms, comfort eaters may experience reduced perceived stress compared to those who do not engage in this behavior. Intervention researchers should also consider the possible benefits of comfort eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical and psychological stress for nurses in intensive care

    OpenAIRE

    Hroudová, Šárka

    2011-01-01

    A profession as a nurse is one of the most responsible and the most hazardous jobs. According to the statistic data a discipline of health care has the great number of "occupational diseases" cases and they are caused by overdone physical load and mental stress. The thesis targets are the assessments of the load related to the type of work, the awareness of nurses about the prevention against the undue physical load and the mental stress, the motivation and the satisfaction for the nurses at ...

  17. Psychological stress and body temperature changes in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, D; Di Muro, A; Castrogiovanni, P

    1992-08-01

    We investigated the possible changes in body temperature, heart frequency, and blood pressure in 22 residents sitting for the yearly exam at the Specialty School of Psychiatry at Pisa University. All subjects were then evaluated 2 or 3 weeks later, in calm situations. In a subgroup, a specific plasmatic diazepam binding inhibitor (BBIA), previously described, was also measured. The results showed that all subjects underwent significant stress-related changes in the parameters studied, which suggest the involvement of different mechanisms in preexam stress.

  18. Psychological stress in sports coaches: a review of concepts, research, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, David; Scott, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Sports coaches operate within a complex, ever-changing environment that imposes many pressures on them. Here, we address the psychological impact of these demands via a critical review of the literature pertaining to stress in sport coaches. The narrative is divided into three main sections: (1) conceptual and definitional issues, (2) theoretical and empirical issues, and (3) implications for applied practice. The review focuses on the environmental stressors that coaches encounter, their appraisals of and responses to these demands, and the impact this has on their personal well-being and job performance. The influence of various personal and situational characteristics is also discussed. A key message to emerge from this review is that the potential health and performance costs of psychological stress to sports coaches are significant. The rapid rate of change in contemporary sport and the dynamic nature of stress mean that stress in coaches is an ongoing problem that needs to be monitored and addressed.

  19. Money Matters: Recommendations for Financial Stress Research in Occupational Health Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Robert R; Cheung, Janelle H

    2016-08-01

    Money is arguably the most important resource derived from work and the most important source of stress for contemporary employees. A substantial body of research supports the relationship between access to financial resources and health and well-being, both at individual and aggregated (e.g. national) levels of analysis. Yet, surprisingly little occupational health psychology research has paid attention to financial issues experienced specifically by those in the labour force. With these issues in mind, the overarching goal of the present paper was to address conceptual and measurement issues in the study of objective and subjective aspects of financial stress and review several assessment options available to occupational health psychology researchers for both aspects of financial stress. Where appropriate, we offer guidance to researchers about choices among various financial stress measures and identify issues that require further research attention. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Effects of psychological training on the serum protein expression in soldiers under mental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong ZHANG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the changes of serum protein expression in soldiers under mental stress,who have undergone different psychological trainings,and to evaluate the effect of the psychological training.Methods Ninety-six male commando soldiers were randomly assigned into the common psychological training group,the circulation psychological training group,and the control group(each group comprising 32 soldiers.After four weeks of training,the soldiers in the three groups attended a high-intensity simulated anti-riot exercise.The changes in their serum protein expression were then determined using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry(SELDI-TOF-MS combined with ProteinChip technology.Results The variance analysis showed that significant differences existed among the three groups(P < 0.05 in the relative contents of proteins,with M/Z values of 6417.8,9134.2,15171.9,and 14972.7 Da.The expression of proteins with M/Z values 9134.2 and 15171.9 Da increased in the common psychological training group compared with the control group(P < 0.05.The expression of all four proteins increased in the circulation psychological training group compared with the control group(P < 0.05.The expression of proteins with M/Z values 6417.8 and 14972.7 Da increased in the circulation psychological training group compared with the common psychological training group(P < 0.05.The classification tree formed by proteins with M/Z values 6417.8 and 14972.7 Da classified the 96 soldiers correctly,both in the learning mode and in the test mode.Conclusion Psychological training may upregulate the expression of proteins that are downregulated after stress and may improve the adaptability of soldiers to psychological stress.The effect of circulation psychological training is better than that of common psychological training.

  1. Discrimination, Acculturation, Acculturative Stress, and Latino Psychological Distress: A Moderated Mediational Model

    OpenAIRE

    TORRES, Lucas; Driscoll, Mark W.; Voell, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has found that perceived discrimination is associated with adverse mental health outcomes among Latinos. However, the process by which this relationship occurs remains an understudied area. The present study investigated the role of acculturative stress in underlying the relationship between perceived discrimination and Latino psychological distress. Also examined was the ability of acculturation to serve as a moderator between perceived discrimination and acculturative stress....

  2. Stress-related Psychological Disorders Among Surgical Care Nurses in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Kristaps Circenis; Kristaps Circenis; Liana Deklava

    2011-01-01

    Background: The subject of stress related psychological disorders is considered to be one of the mostcritical problems in the 21st century. Latvia’s social-economic situation is stressful and a lot of nurses stillneed to work more than one shift. There are no complete studies about surgical care nurses and operatingroom nurses burnout, depression, anxiety and compassion fatigue situation in Latvia.Aim and Objectives: Research aim was to find out burnout, depression, compassion fatigue and anx...

  3. Parenting stress among mothers of children with different physical, mental, and psychological problems

    OpenAIRE

    Awat Feizi; Badroddin Najmi; Aseih Salesi; Maryam Chorami; Rezvan Hoveidafar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with developmental problems are always bearing a load of stress. The aim of this study is to compare the stress in mothers of children with different disabilities to each other, considering their demographic background. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran during 2012 on 285 mothers of 6-12 years old children with chronic physical disease, psychological disorder, and sensory-motor and mental problems. Abedin′s paren...

  4. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay Chiranjoy; Binu VS; Shankar Pathiyil R; Sreeramareddy Chandrashekhar T; Ray Biswabina; Menezes Ritesh G

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical cur...

  5. Effects of Participation in a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program on College Students' Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Michelle Judith

    2009-01-01

    The present study utilized a pre-test, post-test comparison group design to examine effects of participation in a twelve-week Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) course on college students' psychological well-being (Ryff Psychological Well-Being Scale, Medium Form; Ryff, 1989, 1995, 1996), psychological distress (Hopkins Symptom…

  6. Healing by Gentle Touch Ameliorates Stress and Other Symptoms in People Suffering with Mental Health Disorders or Psychological Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Weze

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on healing by gentle touch in clients with various illnesses indicated substantial improvements in psychological well-being, suggesting that this form of treatment might be helpful for people with impaired quality of mental health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of healing by gentle touch in subjects with self-reported impairments in their psychological well-being or mental health. One hundred and forty-seven clients who identified themselves as having psychological problems received four treatment sessions. Pre- to post-treatment changes in psychological and physical functioning were assessed by self-completed questionnaires which included visual analogue scales (VAS and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D. Participants recorded reductions in stress, anxiety and depression scores and increases in relaxation and ability to cope scores (all P < 0.0004. Improvements were greatest in those with the most severe symptoms initially. This open study provides strong circumstantial evidence that healing by gentle touch is safe and effective in improving psychological well-being in participants with self-reported psychological problems, and also that it safely complements standard medical treatment. Controlled trials are warranted.

  7. Interreality for the management and training of psychological stress: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological stress occurs when an individual perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. Its association with severe health and emotional diseases, points out the necessity to find new efficient strategies to treat it. Moreover, psychological stress is a very personal problem and requires training focused on the specific needs of individuals. To overcome the above limitations, the INTERSTRESS project suggests the adoption of a new paradigm for e-health - Interreality - that integrates contextualized assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, bridging the physical and the virtual worlds. According to this premise, the aim of this study is to investigate the advantages of using advanced technologies, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), based on a protocol for reducing psychological stress. Methods/Design The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial. It includes three groups of approximately 50 subjects each who suffer from psychological stress: (1) the experimental group, (2) the control group, (3) the waiting list group. Participants included in the experimental group will receive a treatment based on cognitive behavioral techniques combined with virtual reality, biofeedback and mobile phone, while the control group will receive traditional stress management CBT-based training, without the use of new technologies. The wait-list group will be reassessed and compared with the two other groups five weeks after the initial evaluation. After the reassessment, the wait-list patients will randomly receive one of the two other treatments. Psychometric and physiological outcomes will serve as quantitative dependent variables, while subjective reports of participants will be used as the qualitative dependent variable. Discussion What we would like to show with the present trial is that bridging virtual experiences, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation, with real

  8. Interreality for the management and training of psychological stress: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavicini, Federica; Gaggioli, Andrea; Raspelli, Simona; Cipresso, Pietro; Serino, Silvia; Vigna, Cinzia; Grassi, Alessandra; Morganti, Luca; Baruffi, Margherita; Wiederhold, Brenda; Riva, Giuseppe

    2013-06-28

    Psychological stress occurs when an individual perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. Its association with severe health and emotional diseases, points out the necessity to find new efficient strategies to treat it. Moreover, psychological stress is a very personal problem and requires training focused on the specific needs of individuals. To overcome the above limitations, the INTERSTRESS project suggests the adoption of a new paradigm for e-health--Interreality--that integrates contextualized assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, bridging the physical and the virtual worlds. According to this premise, the aim of this study is to investigate the advantages of using advanced technologies, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), based on a protocol for reducing psychological stress. The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial. It includes three groups of approximately 50 subjects each who suffer from psychological stress: (1) the experimental group, (2) the control group, (3) the waiting list group. Participants included in the experimental group will receive a treatment based on cognitive behavioral techniques combined with virtual reality, biofeedback and mobile phone, while the control group will receive traditional stress management CBT-based training, without the use of new technologies. The wait-list group will be reassessed and compared with the two other groups five weeks after the initial evaluation. After the reassessment, the wait-list patients will randomly receive one of the two other treatments. Psychometric and physiological outcomes will serve as quantitative dependent variables, while subjective reports of participants will be used as the qualitative dependent variable. What we would like to show with the present trial is that bridging virtual experiences, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation, with real experiences using advanced technologies

  9. Psychological well-being, health, and stress sources in Turkish dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraz, Ahu; Tocak, Yasemin Sezgin; Yozgatligil, Ceylan; Cetiner, Sedat; Bal, Belgin

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the psychological well-being and overall health of a group of Turkish dental students and their sources of stress. Two hundred and seventy-seven students (57 percent female) from Gazi University Dental Faculty completed the Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaire, the Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB) index, and the SF-36 Health Survey. The results showed that the DES scores increased over the five-year period. Pressure to perform, faculty and administration, workload, and students' perceptions of their self-efficacy were the most stress-provoking factors. Students whose first choice was dentistry experienced less stress and fewer health problems (pstudents whose first choice had not been dentistry. Psychological well-being and overall health were significantly associated with year of study. Statistically significant gender differences were observed on depressed mood and anxiety dimension scores of PGWB. Female students experienced greater stress than males, while male students had better overall health than females (pStudents who lived with their parents had lower PGWB scores (pstress among these Turkish dental students was influenced by gender, year of study, social background, and lifestyle. Based on the results of this study, recommendations can be made for changes in the dental education system in order to reduce stress among dental students especially during the last two years of study.

  10. Chronic idiopathic urticaria, psychological co-morbidity and posttraumatic stress: the impact of alexithymia and repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunkin, Victoria; Chung, Man Cheung

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the interrelationship between chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU), psychological co-morbidity, posttraumatic stress, repression and alexithymia. 89 participants with CIU and 105 without CIU responded to an online questionnaire. Both groups completed the general health questionnaire-12, the perceived stress scale, the posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale and the Toronto alexithymia scale-20 and were categorised into four defence mechanism groups (repressive, defensive, high-anxious, low-anxious). CIU participants also completed the Skindex-17 and a self-report severity measure. CIU participants reported higher levels of alexithymia than the control group and their defence mechanism was most likely to be categorised as defensive, with conscious self-image management reported alongside high manifest anxiety. Partial least squares analysis revealed significant paths between posttraumatic stress and CIU severity and psychological co-morbidity. Posttraumatic stress was associated with alexithymia and type of defence mechanism. Only being in the high-anxious group partially mediated the relationship between posttraumatic stress and CIU severity. In conclusion, there is evidence for a relationship between CIU and trauma. The severity of posttraumatic symptoms varies depending upon alexithymic traits and defence mechanisms used. Disease severity and psychological co-morbidity are differentially influenced by the relationships between trauma, alexithymic traits and defence mechanisms.

  11. Perfusion functional MRI reveals cerebral blood flow pattern under psychological stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiongjiong; Rao, Hengyi; Wetmore, Gabriel S.; Furlan, Patricia M.; Korczykowski, Marc; Dinges, David F.; Detre, John A.

    2005-12-01

    Despite the prevalence of stress in everyday life and its impact on happiness, health, and cognition, little is known about the neural substrate of the experience of everyday stress in humans. We use a quantitative and noninvasive neuroimaging technique, arterial spin-labeling perfusion MRI, to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes associated with mild to moderate stress induced by a mental arithmetic task with performance monitoring. Elicitation of stress was verified by self-report of stress and emotional state and measures of heart rate and salivary-cortisol level. The change in CBF induced by the stress task was positively correlated with subjective stress rating in the ventral right prefrontal cortex (RPFC) and left insula/putamen area. The ventral RPFC along with right insula/putamen and anterior cingulate showed sustained activation after task completion in subjects reporting a high stress level during arithmetic tasks. Additionally, variations of baseline CBF in the ventral RPFC and right orbitofrontal cortex were found to correlate with changes in salivary-cortisol level and heart rate caused by undergoing stress tasks. We further demonstrated that the observed right prefrontal activation could not be attributed to increased cognitive demand accompanying stress tasks and extended beyond neural pathways associated with negative emotions. Our results provide neuroimaging evidence that psychological stress induces negative emotion and vigilance and that the ventral RPFC plays a key role in the central stress response. anterior cingulate cortex | arterial spin labeling | right prefrontal cortex

  12. Impact of Psychological Stress on Pain Perception in an Animal Model of Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Siomara; Cruz, Myrella L; Seguinot, Inevy I; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; Appleyard, Caroline B

    2017-10-01

    Pain in patients with endometriosis is considered a significant source of stress but does not always correlate with severity of the condition. We have demonstrated that stress can worsen endometriosis in an animal model. Here, we tested the impact of a psychological stress protocol on pain thresholds and pain receptors. Endometriosis was induced in female rats by suturing uterine horn tissue next to the intestinal mesentery. Sham rats had sutures only. Rats were exposed to water avoidance stress for 7 consecutive days or handled for 5 minutes (no stress). Fecal pellets and serum corticosterone (CORT) levels were measured as an index of anxiety. Pain perception was assessed using hot plate and Von Frey tests. Substance P, enkephalin, endomorphin-2, Mu opioid receptor (MOR), and neurokinin-1 receptor expression in the spinal cord were measured by immunohistochemistry. Fecal pellets and CORT were significantly higher in the endo-stress (ES) group than endo-no stress (ENS; P stress groups (SNS; P stress reversed the allodynic effect caused by endo ( P stress develop more severe symptoms but interestingly stress seems to have beneficial effects on abdominal allodynia, which could be a consequence of the stress-induced analgesia phenomenon.

  13. Psychological and Physical Stress in Surgeons Operating in a Standard or Modern Operating Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, M.; Andersen, L.P.H.; Alamili, M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: There have been no studies examining the effect of optimized ergonomic and technical environment on the psychological and physiological stress of the surgeon. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimized ergonomics and technical aids within a modern operating room (OR) affect...... psychological and physiological stress in experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Methods: This was a prospective case-controlled study including 10 experienced surgeons. Surgery was performed in 2 different ORs: a standard room and a modern room (OR1-suite, Karl Storz). The surgeons filled out questionnaires...... concerning physical and psychological wellbeing before and after surgery and had their heart rate variability registered during surgery. Results: Preoperative to postoperative physical strain and pain measurements revealed a systematical difference with 14 of 15 parameters favoring the modern OR. Two...

  14. Modulation of immune response to rDNA hepatitis B vaccination by psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Jabaaij (Lea); J. van Hattum (Jan); A.J.J.M. Vingerhoets (Ad); F.G. Oostveen (Frank); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); R.E. Ballieux (Rudy)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn a previous study it was shown that antibody formation after vaccination with a low-dose recombinant DNA (rDNA) hepatitis B vaccine was negatively influenced by psychological stress. The present study was designed to assess whether the same inverse relation between HBs-antibody levels

  15. Predicting Adjustment during the Transition to College: Alexithymia, Perceived Stress, and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Sandra; Johnson, Vanessa K.; Gans, Susan E.; Krumrine, Jodi

    2004-01-01

    Fifty-six incoming college students were assessed in a study of the contribution of alexithymia, stress, and psychological symptoms to college adjustment. Alexithymia predicted fall semester adjustment, suggesting that interventions aimed at encouraging awareness and discussion of emotions may improve academic and emotional well-being for students…

  16. Stress, Appraisal, and Coping in Spouses of Demented Elderly: Predictors of Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, William

    While an increasing number of clinical reports and descriptive studies have documented stress-related dysfunction in family caregivers of older adults with chronic dementia, little is known about specific factors that place members at risk for negative outcomes. This study examined the relative effects of psychological and social characteristics…

  17. Stress, Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Psychological Distress among Prospective Chinese Teachers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Examines teacher stress, self-efficacy, social support, and psychological distress in a sample of Chinese prospective teachers (n=83) in Hong Kong. Reports that the teachers experienced higher levels of symptoms in somatic problems followed by anxiety and dysphoria. Discusses self-efficacy and social support as protective factors for teacher…

  18. Effects of Occupational Stress on Psychological Well-being of Police ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    well-being, work-stress and social networks of their employers. Key word: ... health, daily living and psychological well-being of workers. Work is an essential part of our lives and there are people who find real satisfaction in their work, however, there are .... prevailing working conditions in Nigeria and to elevate occupational.

  19. The Psychology of the Affirmed Learner: Spontaneous Self-Affirmation in the Face of Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Shannon T.; Reeves, Stephanie L.; Garcia, Julio; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Cook, Jonathan E.; Taborsky-Barba, Suzanne; Tomasetti, Sarah; Davis, Eden M.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    A key question about achievement motivation is how to maintain it over time and in the face of stress and adversity. The present research examines how a motivational process triggered by a social-psychological intervention propagates benefits over a long period of time and creates an enduring shift in the way people interpret subsequent adversity.…

  20. Psychological treatments for concurrent posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, D.; Vedel, E.; Ehring, T.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of research into psychological treatments for concurrent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance used disorder (SUD), with a special focus on the effectiveness of treatments addressing both disorders compared to treatments addressing one of the disorders

  1. Psychological factors mediate key symptoms of fibromyalgia through their influence on stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey Owen

    2016-09-01

    The clinical features of fibromyalgia are associated with various psychological factors, including stress. We examined the hypothesis that the path that psychological factors follow in influencing fibromyalgia symptoms is through their direct effect on stress. Ninety-eight females with ACR 1990 classified fibromyalgia completed the following questionnaires: The Big 5 Personality Inventory, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Profile of Mood States, Mastery Scale, and Perceived Control of Internal States Scale. SPSS (PASW version 22) was used to perform basic t tests, means, and standard deviations to show difference between symptom characteristics. Pathway analysis using structural equation modelling (Laavan) examined the effect of stress on the relationships between psychological factors and the elements that define the fibromyalgia phenotype. The preferred model showed that the identified path clearly linked the psychological variables of anxiety, neuroticism and mastery, but not internal control, to the three key elements of fibromyalgia, namely pain, fatigue and sleep (p fibromyalgia symptoms. This has implications for the understanding of contributing mechanisms and the clinical care of patients with fibromyalgia.

  2. Systolic blood pressure reactivity during submaximal exercise and acute psychological stress in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Studies in youth show an association between systolic blood-pressure (SBP) reactivity to acute psychological stress and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). However, it has not yet been determined whether SBP reactivity during submaximal exercise is also associated with CIMT i...

  3. Metabolic and cardiovascular adjustments during psychological stress and carotid artery intima-media thickness in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Cardiovascular reactivity is associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness as early as childhood. Excess cardiovascular responses relative to the metabolic demand during psychological stress have been proposed as a mechanism for this association. It is not known whether measure...

  4. Parents of Children with ASD Experience More Psychological Distress, Parenting Stress, and Attachment-Related Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Belinda M.; Newman, Louise K.; Gray, Kylie M.; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2016-01-01

    There has been limited study of the relationship between child attachment and caregiver wellbeing amongst children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined self-reported child attachment quality alongside caregivers' report of their own psychological distress, parenting stress and attachment style, amongst 24 children with…

  5. Psychological stress-relieving effects of chewing - Relationship between masticatory function-related factors and stress-relieving effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaka, Akinori; Kikuchi, Manaki; Nakanishi, Kousuke; Ueda, Takayuki; Yamashita, Shuichiro; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between masticatory function-related factors (masticatory performance, occlusal contact area, maximum bite force, number of chewing strokes, and muscle activity) and the stress-relieving effects of chewing. A total of 28 healthy male subjects were instructed to rest or chew for 10min after 30min of stress loading with arithmetic calculations. Their stress state was assessed by measuring salivary cortisol levels. Saliva was collected at three time points: before stress loading, immediately after stress loading, and 10min after stress loading. Compared to resting, chewing produced a significantly greater reduction in the rate of change in salivary cortisol levels 10min after stress loading. A negative correlation was observed between the rate of decrease in salivary cortisol levels and the number of chewing strokes. No significant correlation was observed between the rate of decrease in salivary cortisol levels and other measurement items. In healthy dentulous people, the number of chewing strokes has been shown to be a masticatory function-related factor that affects stress relief from chewing, suggesting the possibility that more appropriate chewing would produce a greater effect psychological stress relief. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Medical Students' Stress, Psychological Morbidity, and Coping Strategies: a Cross-Sectional Study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Nazish; Tariq, Khaula Fatima; Pervez, Muhammad Ijaz; Jawaid, Masood; Haider, Imran Ijaz

    2016-02-01

    The authors studied the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stresses, as well as coping strategies in Pakistani medical students. Medical students in Lahore, Pakistan, completed a cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire in 2013 on the sources and severity of various stressors. The General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and Brief COPE assessed the psychological morbidity and coping strategies. Out of 1500 students, 527 responded to the survey. The prevalence of psychological morbidity was 23.3%; 52.3% respondents showed evidence of distress. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-12 caseness was associated with being male and occurrence of health-related stressors. The most common stressors were related to academic concerns. Coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness. The significant psychological morbidity and distress warrants establishing support systems to support students and bringing about evidence-based changes to teaching and evaluation systems. Adequate counseling facilities should be made available and students encouraged to seek help.

  7. Minority stress, psychosocial resources, and psychological distress among sexual minority breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Jabson, Jennifer M; Mustian, Karen M; Boehmer, Ulrike

    2017-06-01

    Few studies have examined unique factors predicting psychological distress among sexual minority (i.e., lesbian and bisexual) women postbreast cancer diagnosis. The present study assessed the association of minority stress and psychosocial resource factors with depression and anxiety symptoms among sexual minority breast cancer survivors. Two hundred one sexual minority women who had ductal carcinoma in situ or Stage I-IV breast cancer participated in this study through the Love/Avon Army of Women. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess demographic and clinical factors, minority stress factors (discrimination, minority identity development, outness), psychosocial resources (resilience, social support), and psychological distress (anxiety and depression). These factors were included in a structural equation model, testing psychosocial resources as mediators between minority stress and psychological distress. There were no significant differences noted between lesbian and bisexual women. The final structural equation model demonstrated acceptable fit across all sexual minority women, χ2 = 27.83, p > .05; confirmatory fit index = 0.97, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.04, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.93. The model accounted for significant variance in psychological distress (56%). Examination of indirect effects confirmed that exposure to discrimination was associated with distress via association with resilience. Factors unique to sexual minority populations, such as minority stress, may be associated with higher rates of psychological distress among sexual minority breast cancer survivors. However, presence of psychosocial resources may mediate relationships with distress in this population; enhancement of resilience, in particular, could be an aim of psychological intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. What determines psychological well-being among Iranian female adolescents? Perceived stress may overshadow all determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleh Heizomi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health problems, as one of the most neglected issues among adolescents,are common during adolescence and emerging adulthood. The aim of present study was to investigate the determinants of psychological well being among female adolescents in Tabriz,Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to recruit 289 female high school students to participate in the study during 2013–2014. A 3-section questionnaire was applied to collect data. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was applied to illustrate the variations in psychological wellbeing score on the basis of socio-demographic and psychological variables.Results: Self-efficacy, hopefulness, happiness and life satisfaction were positively correlated (r> 0.400 and perceived stress was negatively associated with psychological well-being (r =-0.689. In the first model, satisfaction with family lifestyle (β = 0.168, P < 0.001 and perceived stress (β = -0.470, P < 0.001 were the most significant positive and negative predictors for psychological wellbeing, respectively (R2 = 0.595, P < 0.001. In the second model (step 6,physical activity (β = -0.109, P < 0.019, have/had boyfriend (β = 0.237, P < 0.001, hopefulness(β = -0.130, P < 0.05 and happiness (-β = 0.387, P < 0.001 were significant predictors for perceived stress (R2 = 0.453, P < 0.001.Conclusion: Considering the various behavioral, mental and social predictors of psychological wellbeing, it seems that perceived stress has overshadowed the influence of a majority of the other factors. Such influence may be due to the specific cultural and context-based rules enforced for female adolescents in the Iranian community.

  9. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertzen, J H; de Bruijn-Kofman, A T; de Bruijn, H P; van de Wiel, H B; Dijkstra, P U

    1998-06-01

    To determine to what extent stressful life events and psychological dysfunction play a role in the pathogenesis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS). A comparative study between a CRPS group and a control group. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction evaluation was performed with a life event rating list and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90). A university hospital. The CRPS group consisted of 24 patients with a history of upper extremity CRPS of less than 3 months. The control group consisted of 42 hand pathology patients waiting for elective hand surgery within the next 24 hours. Stressful life event rating was measured using the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Psychological dysfunction was measured using the SCL-90. Stressful life events were experienced by 19 patients (79.2%) in the CRPS group and by 9 patients (21.4%) in the control group. This difference was significant. Testing of psychological dysfunction (SCL-90) in CRPS patients and the control group demonstrated some significant differences: male patients were more anxious than male controls; female patients were statistically more depressed, had feelings of inadequacy, and were emotionally less stable than female controls. In multivariate analysis, no significant differences were found across gender, age, or gender x group interactions. Of the SCL-90 dimensions, only insomnia correlated with the experienced stressful life events. Stressful life events are more common in the CRPS group, which indicates that there may be a multiconditional model of CRPS. The experience of stressful life events besides trauma or surgery are risk factors, not causes, in such a model.

  10. Maternal stress and psychological distress preconception: association with offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, S R; Healy, E; Robinson, S M; Harvey, N C; Cooper, C; Inskip, H M; Baird, J; Godfrey, K M

    2017-06-01

    Perinatal maternal stress and low mood have been linked to offspring atopic eczema. To examine the relation of maternal stress/mood with atopic eczema in the offspring, focusing particularly on stress/psychological distress preconception. At recruitment in the UK Southampton Women's Survey, preconception maternal reports of perceived stress in daily living and the effect of stress on health were recorded; in a subsample, psychological distress was assessed (12-item General Health Questionnaire). Infants were followed up at ages 6 (n = 2956) and 12 (n = 2872) months and atopic eczema ascertained (based on UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). At 6 months post-partum, mothers were asked if they had experienced symptoms of low mood since childbirth and completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Preconception perceived stress affecting health [OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.08-1.35), P = 0.001] and stress in daily living [OR 1.16 (1.03-1.30), P = 0.014] were associated with an increased risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months but not at 6 months, robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Findings were similar for maternal psychological distress preconception. Low maternal mood between delivery and 6 months post-partum was associated with an increased risk of infantile atopic eczema at age 12 months, but no significant association between post-natal mood and atopic eczema was seen after taking account of preconception stress. Our data provide novel evidence linking maternal stress at preconception to atopic eczema risk, supporting a developmental contribution to the aetiology of atopic eczema and pointing to potentially modifiable influences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A psychological study of stress, personality and coping in police personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ravneet; Chodagiri, Vamsi K; Reddi, Narasimha K

    2013-04-01

    There have been few studies focusing on occupational/organizational causes of stress in police. Hardly any studies exist on personality traits and coping methods in this group of individuals. To study the association of personality traits and coping methods to psychological stress in police personnel. This cross-sectional study was conducted among the constables and head constables working in the Police Department, Vizianagram town, Andhra Pradesh. The study sample consisted of 150 police persons. The socio-demographic data was individually collected from them. General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used for assessing psychological stress, Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) for personality traits, and Coping Checklist-1 (CCL-1) for eliciting coping methods. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS v 10 software. On screening by GHQ-28, 35.33% of the police were found to be having psychological distress. The socio-demographic variables showed no significant association to psychological stress. Personality traits such as neuroticism, psychoticism, and extroversion and coping methods like negative distraction and denial/blame showed statistically significant association (Pstress. The most commonly used coping methods across the sample were social support (72.55%), acceptance/redefinition (64.72%), and problem solving (60.46%). As measured by Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), there was evidence of linear association between certain personality traits and coping methods as well. The personality traits and coping methods have significant independent and interactive role in the development of high psychological stress in police persons, thus placing them at a high risk of developing psychiatric disorders.

  12. Association of CD4+ T cell subpopulations and psychological stress measures in women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Kristina E; Konkle-Parker, Deborah

    2017-09-01

    Psychological stress is a known immunomodulator. In individuals with HIV, depression, the most common manifestation of increased psychological stress, can affect immune function with lower CD4+ T cell counts correlating with higher levels of depression. It is unknown how other forms of psychological stress can impact immune markers in people living with HIV. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine how CD4+ T cell subpopulations correlated with different forms of psychological stress. We recruited 50 HIV-positive women as part of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. We assessed perceived stress, worry, acute anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression through self-report questionnaires and CD4+ T cell subpopulations using flow cytometry. Our sample was 96% African-American with a mean ± SD age and body mass index of 42 ± 8.8 years and 36.6 ± 11.5 kg/m2, respectively. The mean ± SD scores on the psychological measures were as follows: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), 16.5 ± 6.4; Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), 47.7 ± 13.8; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - State (STAIS), 39.1 ± 12.3; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait (STAIT), 40.2 ± 11.4; Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), 15.6 ± 11.4. The mean + SD values for the immune parameters were as follows: regulatory T cells (Treg), 1.25% ± 0.7; T helper 1 (Th1), 14.9% ± 6.1; T helper 2 (Th2), 3.8% ± 2; Th1/Th2 ratio, 4.6 ± 3; and CD4+ T cell count (cells/mm3), 493 ± 251. Treg levels positively correlated with PSS, STAIS, and STAIT. CD4+ T cell count negatively correlated with PSS, PSWQ, STAIS, STAIT, and CES-D. These data suggest that immune function may be impacted by various forms of psychological stress in HIV-positive women. Interventions that target stress reduction may be useful in improving immune parameters and quality of life.

  13. 42 CFR 460.114 - Restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restraints. 460.114 Section 460.114 Public Health...) Participant Rights § 460.114 Restraints. (a) The PACE organization must limit use of restraints to the least restrictive and most effective method available. The term restraint includes either a physical restraint or a...

  14. Probiotics reduce psychological stress in patients before laryngeal cancer surgery.

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    Yang, Hui; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Tang, Shan; Huang, Hua; Zhao, Xiulan; Ning, Zhuohui; Fu, Xiurong; Zhang, Caihong

    2016-03-01

    Laryngeal cancer is a common malignancy; surgery is the preferred treatment. Psychosocial stress is one of the negative impacts on patient recovery. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of probiotics on ameliorating anxiety, and on serum corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in laryngeal cancer patients before surgery. A total 30 patients with laryngeal cancer and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited. During the 2 weeks before surgery, 20 patients were randomly allocated to receive probiotics or placebo twice a day. Heart rate was recorded daily. The degree of anxiety was assessed by the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA). Serum CRF levels in laryngeal cancer patients increased significantly in approaching surgery. After ingestion of probiotics, serum levels of CRF and heart rate did not increase before surgery. In addition, taking probiotics relieved the degree of anxiety of the patients from HAMA 19.8 to 10.2. Probiotics can ameliorate the clinical anxiety and biochemical features of stress in patients scheduled for laryngectomy. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Associations between APOE variants and metabolic traits and the impact of psychological stress.

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    Sofia I Iqbal Kring

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress.Obese young men (n = 475, BMI ≥ 31.0 kg/m(2 and a randomly selected control group (n = 709 identified from a population of 141,800 men were re-examined in two surveys (S-46: mean age 46, S-49: mean age 49 years where anthropometric and biochemical measures were available. Psychological stress factors were assessed by a self-administered 7-item questionnaire. Each item had the possible response categories "yes" and "no" and assessed familial problems and conflicts. Summing positive responses constituted a stress item score, which was then dichotomized into stressed and non-stressed. Logistic regression analysis, applying a recessive genetic model, was used to assess odds ratios (OR of the associations between APOE rs439401 genotypes and adverse levels of metabolic traits.The APOE rs439401 TT-genotype associated positively with BMI (OR = 1.09 [1.01; 1.17], waist circumference (OR = 1.09 [1.02; 1.17] in stressed men at S-46. Positive associations were observed for fasting plasma glucose (OR = 1.42 [1.07; 1.87], serum triglycerides (OR = 1.41 [1.05; 1.91] and with fasting plasma insulin (OR = 1.48 [1.05; 2.08] in stressed men at S-49. Rs439401 TT-genotype also associated positively with surrogate measures of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; OR = 1.21 [1.03; 1.41] and inversely with insulin sensitivity (Stumvoll index; OR = 0.90 [0.82; 0.99], BIGTT-S(I; OR = 0.60 [0.43; 0.85] in stressed men. No significant associations were observed in non-stressed men, albeit the estimates showed similar but weaker trends as in stressed men.The present results suggest that the APOE rs439401

  16. [Psychological and physiological evaluations of music listening for mental stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hiroki; Uozumi, Takashi; Ono, Koichi

    2004-05-01

    Music elicits emotional and physiological responses in humans, providing excitement, mood elevation, relaxation, sedation and so on. Previous studies have been conducted on the effects of music, while little is known about the effects for the cognitive information processing. In this study we introduced various types of physiological indices, and explored the effects of music on participants' subjective and physiological responses to stress. First, eight participants (mean age; 25.6) were requested to perform a mental calculation task for 30 minutes. After that, they were exposed to music ("Bolero" by M. Ravel) for 13 minutes, while others were exposed to noise or just stayed in silence as controls. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), salivary Immunoglobulin A (sigA), auditory event-related potentials (ERPs), heart rate (HR) and spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) were assessed through the experiment. 1) After the calculation task: P300 amplitude of auditory ERPs significantly diminished (p = 0.027). Saliva secretion rate decreased (p = 0.028) and salivary IgA levels rose (p = 0.017) significantly. LF/HF ratio significantly increased (p = 0.042). 2) After music ("Bolero"): P300 amplitude significantly expanded (p = 0.048). State anxiety levels significantly lowered (p = 0.007). No significant physiological effect was found in those exposed to noise or silence. Our results of salivary IgA and LF/HF ratio suggest that the calculation task activates immune and sympathetic nervous system, while these systems are not affected by music. On the other hand, the result of P300 amplitude suggests that the central nervous system for the cognitive information processing is inactivated by the calculation task, and it can be recovered by music. The results of this study indicated that relaxing music is useful for the stress management, which invite further empirical investigation.

  17. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Shankar, Pathiyil R; Binu, VS; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjoy; Ray, Biswabina; Menezes, Ritesh G

    2007-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. Results The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students). The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. Conclusion The higher level of psychological morbidity

  18. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal

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    Mukhopadhyay Chiranjoy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. Results The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students. The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. Conclusion The higher

  19. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Shankar, Pathiyil R; Binu, V S; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjoy; Ray, Biswabina; Menezes, Ritesh G

    2007-08-02

    In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students). The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. The higher level of psychological morbidity warrants need for interventions like

  20. What are sleep-related experiences? Associations with transliminality, psychological distress, and life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Shahar, Golan

    2009-12-01

    Sleep-related experiences [Watson, D. (2001). Dissociations of the night: Individual differences in sleep-related experiences and their relation to dissociation and schizotypy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 526-535] refer to a host of nocturnal altered-consciousness phenomena, including narcoleptic tendencies, nightmares, problem-solving dreams, waking dreams, and lucid dreams. In an attempt to clarify the meaning of this construct, we examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of sleep-related experiences (SREs), altered-consciousness tendencies (i.e., dissociation and transliminality), psychological distress, childhood maltreatment (i.e., abuse and neglect), and life stress in young adults. Both types of SREs (general SREs and lucid dreaming) were found to be distinguishable from altered-consciousness tendencies. Transliminality emerged as a longitudinal predictor of both general SREs and lucid dreams. Psychological distress and an increase in life stress predicted an increase in general SREs over a 3-month interval. We conclude that transliminality is a general altered-consciousness trait that accounts for some of the individual differences in sleep-related experiences, and that general sleep experiences are an outcome of psychological distress and life stress.

  1. Relationship of sleep parameters, child psychological functioning, and parenting stress to obesity status among preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Rosen, Carol; Johnson, Nathan L; Redline, Susan

    2008-08-01

    Insufficient sleep may be a significant contributing factor to the increase in pediatric obesity and thus may also contribute to adult obesity and chronic illness. Previous research has been based on large survey studies with consideration of demographics and lifestyle factors (e.g., snacking and TV watching) but not of child psychological/behavioral functioning and parenting factors. This study investigated the relationship of sleep duration to obesity status in 819 children ages 8 to 11 years old, with consideration of demographics, clinical elevations in child psychological/behavioral functioning, and parenting stress. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, parent-reported child sleep duration was significantly associated with the odds of obesity with an increase of 41% for each 1-hour reduction in sleep duration. In addition to sleep duration, only median neighborhood income was significantly related to obesity status. Indices of child psychological/behavioral functioning and parenting stress were associated with sleep duration but not with obesity, and adjusting for these behavioral and parenting characteristics did not appreciably alter the relationship between sleep duration and obesity status. Exploratory gender-specific analyses found that mean sleep duration was significantly associated with the odds of obesity for boys but not for girls. These results show that the relationship of shorter sleep duration to a greater likelihood of being obese persists even after adjusting for potential confounders of child psychological/behavioral functioning and parenting stress. Gender-specific associations are similar to findings reported in samples that include adolescents.

  2. Acculturative stress, social support, and coping: relations to psychological adjustment among Mexican American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Lisa J; Iturbide, Maria I; Torres Stone, Rosalie A; McGinley, Meredith; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the relations between acculturative stress and psychological functioning, as well as the protective role of social support and coping style, in a sample of 148 Mexican American college students (67% female, 33% male; mean age = 23.05 years, SD = 3.33). In bivariate analyses, acculturative stress was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Moreover, active coping was associated with better adjustment (lower depression), whereas avoidant coping predicted poorer adjustment (higher levels of depression and anxiety). Tests of interaction effects indicated that parental support and active coping buffered the effects of high acculturative stress on anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms. In addition, peer support moderated the relation between acculturative stress and anxiety symptoms. Implications for reducing the effects of acculturative stress among Mexican American college students are discussed. 2007 APA

  3. Family-Related Opinions and Stressful Situations Associated with Psychological Distress in Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Takaki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540 at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%. The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6. The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05 and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that “women should devote themselves to their household duties” those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that “married life without children is favorable” and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.

  4. Psychological adjustment and psychosocial stress among Japanese couples with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, M; Maruyama, T; Koizumi, T; Miyazaki, K; Nishikawa-Uchida, S; Oda, H; Uchida, H; Fujisawa, D; Ozawa, N; Schmidt, L; Yoshimura, Y

    2012-03-01

    Little is known about the effects of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) on the psychological adjustment of couples. The aim of this study was to elucidate psychological adjustment and RPL-associated psychosocial stress affecting Japanese couples with a history of RPL, focusing on gender differences and quality of the marital relationship. The study included 76 RPL couples who visited the outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital. They completed self-administered questionnaires that assessed RPL-associated stress, quality of their marital relationship (Quality Marriage Index, QMI), depression (Beck Depression Index) and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). Women showed significantly higher levels of depression, anxiety and RPL-associated personal and social stress compared with men. Although there were no differences in QMI scores and RPL-associated marital stress between men and women, women with a low perception of marital relationship quality (low QMI) had significantly higher levels of depression and anxiety compared with women with a moderate or high QMI. In contrast, depression and anxiety scores did not differ according to the quality of the marital relationship among men. Of 76 couples, 26 men (34%) and 45 women (59%) who had considered professional mental health consultations regarding their RPL status but had not yet initiated the process were more depressed and anxious than 48 men and 24 women, respectively, who had never considered such consultation. Women were significantly more distressed than men. Poor quality of the marital relationship was significantly associated with impaired psychological adjustment among women, but not among men. These gender discrepancies may foster a mutual worsening of psychological adjustment and marital relationships in RPL couples. The need to seek help not only in women but also in a substantial portion of men suggests the importance of couple-based psychological care in the management of RPL.

  5. Effects of repeated psychological stress training on the spectrum of serum protein expression in special troops

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    Li ZHANG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of repeated psychological stress training on the serum protein expression in soldiers under mental stress.Methods Ninety-six male commando soldiers were randomly assigned into the common psychological training group,the circulation psychological training group and the control group(32 each.After a 4-week training,all the soldiers were instructed to attend an one-day high-intensity simulated anti-riot exercise,and 3 days later attended another unannounced high-intensity simulated anti-riot exercise.Blood samples were collected from all the soldiers within 4 hours after each exercise,and the changes in serum protein expression were determined and statistically analyzed by using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry(SELDI-TOF-MS combined with ProteinChip technology.Results The variance analysis showed that significant differences existed among the three groups(P < 0.05 in the relative contents of proteins with M/Z values of 6417.8,9134.2,15171.9 and 14972.7D after the first anti-riot exercise,and the relative contents of all the above mentioned proteins increased in the circulatory psychological training group;meanwhile,markedly increasing trends of the relative contents of all the proteins were observed in the three groups after the second anti-riot exercise(P < 0.05,and in control group the relative contents of the 4 above mentioned proteins were significantly higher than those after the first anti-riot exercise.Conclusion Psychological training may up-regulate the expression of serum proteins that are down-regulated after stress,and the repeated high-intensity mental training can rapidly improve the soldiers’ ability to counteract stress.

  6. Rank, job stress, psychological distress and physical activity among military personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical fitness is one of the most important qualities in armed forces personnel. However, little is known about the association between the military environment and the occupational and leisure-time dimensions of the physical activity practiced there. This study assessed the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity levels (overall and by dimensions). Methods This a cross-sectional study among 506 military service personnel of the Brazilian Army examined the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity through multiple linear regression using a generalized linear model. Results The adjusted models showed that the rank of lieutenant was associated with most occupational physical activity (β = 0.324; CI 95% 0.167; 0.481); “high effort and low reward” was associated with more occupational physical activity (β = 0.224; CI 95% 0.098; 0.351) and with less physical activity in sports/physical exercise in leisure (β = −0.198; CI 95% −0.384; −0.011); and psychological distress was associated with less physical activity in sports/exercise in leisure (β = −0.184; CI 95% −0.321; −0.046). Conclusions The results of this study show that job stress and rank were associated with higher levels of occupational physical activity. Moreover job stress and psychological distress were associated with lower levels of physical activity in sports/exercises. In the military context, given the importance of physical activity and the psychosocial environment, both of which are related to health, these findings may offer input to institutional policies directed to identifying psychological distress early and improving work relationships, and to creating an environment more favorable to increasing the practice of leisure-time physical activity. PMID:23914802

  7. Loneliness, dysphoria, dietary restraint, and eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, K J; Flood, D

    1999-01-01

    The study was designed to examine Herman and Polivy's restrained eating theory (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 666-672, 1975) using two different methods: situational-experimental and dispositional-correlational. Fifty-eight female college students were administered the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory (Short Form), and the Restraint scale. Subsequently, the students were subjected to either a neutral, sad, or loneliness mood induction and then ate cookies under the pretext of participating in a taste test. Consistent with expectation, dieters tended to consume more food in the loneliness than neutral mood condition, whereas nondieters displayed the opposite pattern. A comparable pattern was found in the relation between the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and food consumption with respect to Restraint; the amount of food consumed increased as a function of loneliness for high restrained eaters, whereas the amount of food consumed decreased as a function of loneliness for low restrained eaters. There were no appreciable effects of the sad mood induction, nor prediction by dispositional depression, regarding the amount of food consumed as a function of dietary restraint. The findings were discussed with respect to the motivational role that loneliness may play in inhibiting and disinhibiting food consumption.

  8. [Evaluation of psychological methods for determining the degree of psychological stress in children in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenin, V V; Ostreĭkov, I F; Vasil'ev, Ia I

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with results of comparative evaluation of system of assessment of children's fear and anxiety in dentistry (SDS test) and other objective and subjective methods for assessing anxiety in pediatric patients. We studied 381 pediatric patients aged from 3 to 7 years. The aim of the study was to prove validity mathematical derived FCD test as a technique of anxiety detection in dentistry. During the study following subjective test were used: MAS, DAS, mYPAS, VAS, STAI, STAIC, EASI, PHBQ, and some history data and stress factors were also considered. Objective data used were vital signs (hemodynamics and respiratory rate). Test SDS has strong correlation with YALE, MAS, DAS, STAIlich, VAS and other parameters such as age, sex, person which is responsible for bringing up a child and so on.

  9. Resilient Warrior: A Stress Management Group to Improve Psychological Health in Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvia, Louisa G; Bui, Eric; Baier, Allison L; Mehta, Darshan H; Denninger, John W; Fricchione, Gregory L; Casey, Aggie; Kagan, Leslee; Park, Elyse R; Simon, Naomi M

    2015-11-01

    Many veterans deployed after 9/11/2001 are impacted by subthreshold levels of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, or other psychological health problems that may interfere with successful reintegration. Conventional treatments, including medication and trauma-focused individual psychotherapies, may not be optimally adapted, accepted, or effective to treat these subsyndromal symptoms. We developed "Resilient Warrior," a 4-session, group-based, mind-body stress-management and resilience program targeted to build skills and assessed whether its format was accessible and acceptable, and potentially efficacious, to support resilience among service members. From April 2014 to October 2014, 15 participants (53.3% women; mean age=36.6 y; SD=6.2) were surveyed for program acceptability and feasibility and completed self-reported psychological health outcomes before and after program participation. The majority (71.4%) of participants reported that the program included the right number of sessions, and all of them reported that it was helpful and relevant and that they would recommend it to others. While changes in self-reported resilience were only marginal, participation was associated with improvements in depressive symptoms, perceived stress, anxiety, and general sense of self efficacy. These pilot data provide preliminary support that "Resilient Warrior," a group-based, stress reduction and resilience program, may improve psychological health in service members even when delivered in community settings. Randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to establish efficacy and effectiveness for this program.

  10. Psychological stress as a measure for treatment response prediction in idiopathic sudden hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Daeyoung; Chao, Janet Ren; Kim, Do Hoon; Yoon, Kyung Hee; Jung, Jae Hoon; Lee, Chang Hyun; Shin, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Min Jae; Park, Chan Hum; Lee, Jun Ho

    2017-11-01

    Early prediction of therapeutic outcomes could reduce exposure to ineffective treatments and optimize clinical outcomes. However, none of the known otologic predictors is amenable to therapeutic intervention for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). The aims of this study were to investigate psychological stress as a potential predictor to discriminate outcomes in ISSNHL. Various psychological measures were conducted including structured interview assessment tools in patients with recently diagnosed ISSNHL before initiating treatment. Using logistic regression analysis, we identified the predictors of treatment response and estimated the probability of treatment response in 50 ISSNHL patients who participated in a clinical trial. Treatment non-responders were significantly differentiated from responders by various psychological problems. The depression subscore of Modified form of Stress Response Inventory (SRI-MF) (p=0.007) and duration of hearing loss (p=0.045) significantly predicted treatment response after controlling other clinical correlates. The same predictors were identified from different treatment response measured using Siegel's criteria. The most discriminative measure for treatment response was SRI-MF depression score with an overall classification accuracy of 73%. We found depressive stress response to be the strong predictor of treatment response in patients with ISSNHL. Our results highlight the potential use of the psychiatric approach as a tool for enhancing therapeutic outcomes. Future stress intervention studies with larger number of ISSNHL patients are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychological benefits for cancer patients and their partners participating in mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Kathryn; Garland, Sheila N; Carlson, Linda E

    2010-09-01

    Cancer patients experience many negative psychological symptoms including stress, anxiety, and depression. This distress is not limited to the patient, as their partners also experience many psychological challenges. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) programs have demonstrated clinical benefit for a variety of chronic illnesses, including cancer. This is the first study to report MBSR participation with partners of cancer patients. This study examined the impact of an 8-week MBSR program for 21 couples who attended the program together on outcomes of mood disturbance, symptoms of stress, and mindfulness. Significant reductions for both patients and partners in mood disturbance (pMBSR participation couple's scores on the Profile of Mood States and C-SOSI were more highly correlated with one-another. Post-intervention, partners' mood disturbance scores were significantly positively correlated with patients' symptoms of stress and negatively correlated with patients' levels of mindfulness. Overall, the MBSR program was helpful for improving psychological functioning and mindfulness for both members of the couple. Several avenues of future research are suggested to further explore potential benefits of joint couple attendance in the MBSR program. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Perceived Stress, Alexithymia, and Psychological Health as Predictors of Sedative Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilan, Nader Rajabi; Zakiei, Ali; Reshadat, Sohyla; Komasi, Saeid; Ghasemi, Seyed Ramin

    2015-09-01

    The harmful effects of sedative medications and substances in conjunction with limited research regarding predictive psychological constructs of drug abuse necessitate further investigation of associated factors. Therefore, the present study aimed to elucidate the roles of perceived stress, alexithymia, and psychological health as predictors of sedative abuse in medical students. In this cross-sectional study, 548 students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran, were selected using stratified random sampling. The data were obtained using the Perceived Stress Scale, an alexithymia scale (Farsi version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20), and a General Health Questionnaire to assess psychological health. Data were analyzed using discriminant analyses. The results demonstrated that the user and non-user of sedative substances groups had significantly different predictive variables (except for social function disorder) (P>0.05). Physical complaints, alexithymia, and perceived stress, which had standard coefficients of 0.80, 0.60, and -0.27, respectively, predicted sedative drug use. The results of the present study indicate that perceived stress, alexithymia, physical complaints, anxiety, and depression are associated with sedative drug abuse.

  13. Psychological distress and work stress in correctional officers: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Cláudia de Magalhães; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Constantino, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    This article presents a review of literature based on a survey of national and international journals on psychological distress and stress in the work of correctional officers between 2000 and 2014. The databases used were the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Web of Science, and Scopus, and the descriptors were psychological distress, stress and correctional officers. We analyzed 40 articles, mainly about stress. The concept of burnout appeared in several works. The United States is the country that most publishes on the subject. There is little interest about the subject in the journals of Public Health. In Latin America we found only four studies, all Brazilian. The number of publications has gradually intensified over the years, and there was methodological improvement in the development and assessment scales, mainly regarding stress and burnout. Work overload, lack of material and human resources, level of contact with the inmates, overcrowding, perceptions of fear or danger, and the paradox of punish / reeducate were some of the risk factors encountered, among others. The protective factors refer to social support within the prison environment, and the coping strategies are related to the improvement of officer training, stimulating social support, and offering psychological care.

  14. Periodic and chaotic psychological stress variations as predicted by a social support buffered response model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Richard J.; Gallas, Jason A. C.; Schuldberg, David

    2017-08-01

    Recent work has introduced social dynamic models of people's stress-related processes, some including amelioration of stress symptoms by support from others. The effects of support may be ;direct;, depending only on the level of support, or ;buffering;, depending on the product of the level of support and level of stress. We focus here on the nonlinear buffering term and use a model involving three variables (and 12 control parameters), including stress as perceived by the individual, physical and psychological symptoms, and currently active social support. This model is quantified by a set of three nonlinear differential equations governing its stationary-state stability, temporal evolution (sometimes oscillatory), and how each variable affects the others. Chaos may appear with periodic forcing of an environmental stress parameter. Here we explore this model carefully as the strength and amplitude of this forcing, and an important psychological parameter relating to self-kindling in the stress response, are varied. Three significant observations are made: 1. There exist many complex but orderly regions of periodicity and chaos, 2. there are nested regions of increasing number of peaks per cycle that may cascade to chaos, and 3. there are areas where more than one state, e.g., a period-2 oscillation and chaos, coexist for the same parameters; which one is reached depends on initial conditions.

  15. Psychological Stress Delays Periodontitis Healing in Rats: The Involvement of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Juan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effects of psychological stress on periodontitis healing in rats and the contribution of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF expression to the healing process. Methods. Ninety-six rats were randomly distributed into control group, periodontitis group, and periodontitis plus stress group. Then, the rats were sacrificed at baseline and week(s 1, 2, and 4. The periodontitis healing condition was assessed, and the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and bFGF were tested by immunohistochemistry. Results. The stressed rats showed reduced body weight gain, behavioral changes, and increased serum corticosterone and ACTH levels (. The surface of inflammatory infiltrate, alveolar bone loss, attachment loss, and expression of IL-1β and TNF-α in the stress group were higher than those in the periodontitis group at weeks 2 and 4 (. Rats with experimental periodontitis showed decreased bFGF expression (, and the recovery of bFGF expression in the stress group was slower than that in the periodontitis group (. Negative correlations between inflammatory cytokines and bFGF were detected. Conclusion. Psychological stress could delay periodontitis healing in rats, which may be partly mediated by downregulation of the expression of bFGF in the periodontal ligament.

  16. [Relationships between workers' interpersonal helping behavior, social supports, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor in manufacturing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Yuji; Otsuka, Yasumasa

    2014-01-01

    In the NIOSH Generic Job Stress Model, social support is assumed to moderate the relationship between job stressors and stress responses. However, few studies have investigated how to enhance social support in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between interpersonal helping behavior, social support, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor among Japanese workers. A total of 240 workers in manufacturing companies returned a questionnaire regarding their interpersonal helping behavior, social support, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor (response rate = 96.0%). After excluding 40 participants due to missing responses, data from a total of 200 participants (163 male and 37 female, mean age = 40.3 yr) were used in the final analyses. Interpersonal helping behavior was assessed by the Japanese version of the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale. The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire was used to measure job stressors, psychological stress responses, social support, and vigor. Structured equation modeling was performed to examine the relationships between interpersonal helping behavior, social support, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor. Interpersonal helping behavior had a statistically significant negative effect on psychological stress response through increasing social support. However, interpersonal helping behavior had a statistically significant positive effect on psychological stress response through increasing the quantitative workload. Of these two effects, the former was stronger than the latter. In addition, interpersonal helping behavior had a statistically significant positive effect on vigor through increasing social support. Although interpersonal helping behavior, which helps other workers may increase quantitative workload, leading to high levels of psychological stress responses, that same behavior strengthens trust and team spirit among workers and may

  17. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  18. Chronic restraint stress causes anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, downregulates glucocorticoid receptor expression, and attenuates glutamate release induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Shuichi; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Ninomiya, Midori; Richards, Misty C; Wakabayashi, Chisato; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    Stress and the resulting increase in glucocorticoid levels have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. We investigated the effects of chronic restraint stress (CRS: 6 hours × 28 days) on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats and on the possible changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent neural function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We observed significant reductions in body weight gain, food intake and sucrose preference from 1 week after the onset of CRS. In the 5th week of CRS, we conducted open-field (OFT), elevated plus-maze (EPM) and forced swim tests (FST). We observed a decrease in the number of entries into open arms during the EPM (anxiety-like behavior) and increased immobility during the FST (depression-like behavior). When the PFC was removed after CRS and subject to western blot analysis, the GR expression reduced compared with control, while the levels of BDNF and its receptors remained unchanged. Basal glutamate concentrations in PFC acute slice which were measured by high performance liquid chromatography were not influenced by CRS. However, BDNF-induced glutamate release was attenuated after CRS. These results suggest that reduced GR expression and altered BDNF function may be involved in chronic stress-induced anxiety--and depression-like behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between financial strain, perceived stress, psychological symptoms, and academic and social integration in undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Danielle R; Meyers, Steven A; Beidas, Rinad S

    2016-07-01

    Financial strain may directly or indirectly (i.e., through perceived stress) impact students' psychological symptoms and academic and social integration, yet few studies have tested these relationships. The authors explored the mediating effect of perceived stress on the relationship between financial strain and 2 important outcomes: psychological symptomology and academic and social integration. Participants were 157 undergraduate students. Data were collected from December 2013 to March 2014. Cross-sectional data collection conducted using online survey software. It was found that perceived stress mediated the relationship between financial strain and (a) psychological symptomology and (b) academic and social integration. Both models included first-generation status as a covariate. Results suggest that perceived stress is an important intervention target for reducing psychological symptoms and improving academic and social integration for undergraduate students. Implications for university health centers and mental health professionals include incorporating a public health model to minimize stress risk.

  20. The effects of yoga on stress and psychological health among employees: an 8- and 16-week intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Rachel E; Daukantaité, Daiva; Tellhed, Una

    2017-11-23

    The stresses of modern work life necessitate effective coping strategies that are accessible and affordable to the general public. Yoga has been found to reduce stress in clinical samples, but studies are needed to examine standard gym yoga classes among functional individuals. This study investigated the effects of 8- and 16-week gym yoga on stress and psychological health. Ninety individuals reporting moderate-to-high stress were randomly assigned to 16 consecutive weeks of yoga, or to a waitlist crossover group who did not practice yoga for 8 weeks then practiced yoga for 8 weeks. Stress and psychological health variables were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks. Significant reductions in stress and all psychological health measures were found within the Yoga group over 16 weeks. When compared to the control group, yoga practitioners showed significant decreases in stress, anxiety, and general psychological health, and significant increases in well-being. The group who did not practice yoga showed significant decreases in stress, anxiety, depression, and insomnia after they crossed over and practiced yoga for 8 weeks. Gym yoga appears to be effective for stress amelioration and promotion of psychological health among workers experiencing stress.

  1. The Relationship Between Post-Migration Stress and Psychological Disorders in Refugees and Asylum Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Susan S Y; Liddell, Belinda J; Nickerson, Angela

    2016-09-01

    Refugees demonstrate high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychological disorders. The recent increase in forcible displacement internationally necessitates the understanding of factors associated with refugee mental health. While pre-migration trauma is recognized as a key predictor of mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers, research has increasingly focused on the psychological effects of post-migration stressors in the settlement environment. This article reviews the research evidence linking post-migration factors and mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers. Findings indicate that socioeconomic, social, and interpersonal factors, as well as factors relating to the asylum process and immigration policy affect the psychological functioning of refugees. Limitations of the existing literature and future directions for research are discussed, along with implications for treatment and policy.

  2. Use of Portable Digital Devices to Analyze Autonomic Stress Response in Psychology Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Velasco, Ana Isabel; Bellido-Esteban, Alberto; Ruisoto-Palomera, Pablo; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier

    2018-01-12

    The aim of the present study was to explore changes in the autonomic stress response of Psychology students in a Psychology Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and their relationship with OSCE performance. Variables of autonomic modulation by the analysis of heart rate variability in temporal, frequency and non-linear domains, subjective perception of distress strait and academic performance were measured before and after the two different evaluations that composed the OSCE. A psychology objective structured clinical examination composed by two different evaluation scenarios produced a large anxiety anticipatory response, a habituation response in the first of the evaluation scenarios and a in the entire evaluation, and a no habituation response in the second evaluation scenario. Autonomic modulation parameters do not correlate with academic performance of students.

  3. Dietary restraint and telomere length in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Amy; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Epel, Elissa

    2008-10-01

    Leukocyte telomere shortening can serve as a biomarker of aging, as telomere length (TL) can decline with age and shortening is positively associated with morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important to identify psychological and behavioral factors linked to accelerated telomere shortening. Stress and poorer metabolic health (greater adiposity, insulin resistance, and cortisol) correlate with shorter telomeres. Self-reported dietary restraint (DR), defined as chronic preoccupation with weight and attempts at restricting food intake, is linked to greater perceived stress, cortisol, and weight gain, when assessed in community studies (versus in weight loss programs). To test for an association between DR and TL in healthy women across a range of ages. We examined whether DR is linked to TL in two samples, one of premenopausal women (aged 20-50 years;N = 36) and one of postmenopausal women (aged 53-69 years; N = 20). In both samples, higher levels of DR were associated with shorter leukocyte TL, independent of body mass index, smoking, and age. Chronic DR, as assessed by self-report (i.e. not caloric restriction), may be a risk factor for premature telomere shortening. Potential mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Effect of stress inoculation training on coping styles and psychological well-being status of mothers with mental retard children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanshir Tavakolizadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental retardation is one of the most significant problems of human society among children and adolescents. It puts families, especially mothers, under a lot of stress and threatens their mental health. The initial purpose of this study was to determine the effect of stress inoculation training on coping styles and psychological well-being status in women who have children with mental retardation. In this quasi-experimental study, 30 participants were randomly were selected by simple sampling method that were assigned into the experimental and control groups. The statistical population comprised the mothers who have children with mental retardation at the training center. Ryff scales of psychological well-being and coping inventory for stressful situations and psychological well-being scale were implemented before and after the stress inoculation training (presented only for the experimental group in eight sessions. The results of the statistical analysis showed that the training increased the problem-oriented coping style and decreased the avoidant and emotional coping styles. Thus, the results demonstrated that stress inoculation training was effective in stress coping and improving psychological well-being in mothers. According to the obtained finding, psychological well-being scores in the experimental group were remarkably different from those in the control group. Based on these results, it is recommended for the experts in the field to use stress inoculation training to decrease stress and enhance psychological well-being of mothers.

  5. Exploring the effect of stress on mood, self-esteem, and daily habits with psychology graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinzie, Charla; Altamura, Vivian; Burgoon, Erica; Bishop, Christopher

    2006-10-01

    There are few empirical studies on the issues of psychology graduate students beyond dissertation research. Data from a sample of 65 psychology graduate students were analyzed to explore how stress relates to self-esteem, mood, and daily habits (eating, sleeping, smoking, exercise, and alcohol consumption). The results suggest that sleep patterns, exercise habits, and negative mood were significant correlates and predictors of stress. Findings prompt further investigation of the effects of the stress on psychology graduate students, which might aid in developing interventions leading to increased productivity, satisfaction, and global well-being for both graduate students and faculty.

  6. Psychological stress and quality of life in patients with persistent asthma in Manzanillo, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Psychological stress is part of people's lives and can sometimes contribute to exacerbation of allergic diseases such as asthma. Asthma is prevalent in all age groups. Acute asthma attacks can be triggered by stress, thus impacting control of the disease and overall quality of life in these patients. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to evaluate the presence of psychological stress as a trigger in poorly controlled asthma patients and its implications in their quality of life. METHODS A descriptive study was conducted in the city of Manzanillo, Cuba, in the course of one year, from January to December, 2010, which included 33 patients with persistent asthma. They were grouped according to severity as suffering from moderate or severe asthma, and all of them met the criteria for poorly controlled disease. They were surveyed to gather data about family and personal history of atopy, age of first asthma crisis, and environmental as well as other factors. Two surveys were used: a list of indicators of vulnerability to stress and the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ. RESULTS Most patients with poorly controlled asthma were in their forties. Female patients were more frequently affected than men were (28 females or 84.8%, and 5 males or 15.1%, and most patients had a family history of atopic disease. Almost all patients had high vulnerability to stress as well as low overall quality of life in all the areas surveyed. CONCLUSION Psychological counseling is advised for asthma patients in order to reduce their stress levels.

  7. [Work-related stress and psychological distress assessment in urban and suburban public transportation companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, L; Lazzarini, G; Farisè, E; Quintarelli, E; Riolfi, A; Perbellini, L

    2012-01-01

    The risk of work-related stress has been determined in bus drivers and workers employed in the service department of two urban and suburban public transportation companies. The INAIL evaluation method (Check list and HSE indicator tool) was used. The GHQ-12 questionnaire, which is widely used to assess the level of psychological distress, was also employed. 81.9% of workers involved in the survey answered both the HSE indicator tool and the GHQ-12 questionnaire. The Check list evaluation showed an increase in quantifiable company stress indicators while close examination using the HSE indicator tool demonstrated critical situations for all the subscales, with the control subscales more problematic in bus drivers. The demand, manager's support, relationships and change subscales were most associated with psychological distress in bus drivers, while relationships, role, change and demand subscales were negatively related in workers of the service department.

  8. Finding the Most Uniform Changes in Vowel Polygon Caused by Psychological Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stanek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using vowel polygons, exactly their parameters, is chosen as the criterion for achievement of differences between normal state of speaker and relevant speech under real psychological stress. All results were experimentally obtained by created software for vowel polygon analysis applied on ExamStress database. Selected 6 methods based on cross-correlation of different features were classified by the coefficient of variation and for each individual vowel polygon, the efficiency coefficient marking the most significant and uniform differences between stressed and normal speech were calculated. As the best method for observing generated differences resulted method considered mean of cross correlation values received for difference area value with vector length and angle parameter couples. Generally, best results for stress detection are achieved by vowel triangles created by /i/-/o/-/u/ and /a/-/i/-/o/ vowel triangles in formant planes containing the fifth formant F5 combined with other formants.

  9. Relationship of workplace incivility, stress, and burnout on nurses' turnover intentions and psychological empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeleye, Olubunmi; Hanson, Patricia; O'Connor, Nancy; Dunn, Deborah

    2013-10-01

    This study explored the relationships among perceived workplace incivility, stress, burnout, perceived turnover intentions, and perceived level of psychological empowerment among acute care nurses (medical-surgical and critical care) in community and tertiary hospitals through the lens of complexity science. An exploratory study was conducted, and findings demonstrate significant relationships among workplace incivility, stress, burnout, turnover intentions, total years of nursing experience, and RN education levels. Creating targeted retention strategies and policies that will be sensitive to the needs and interests of nurses at high risk for leaving their organizations is imperative for nurse executives.

  10. A Psychological Study of Relationship between Life-Style and Stress in University Students

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 恵子

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of psychological factors in influencing life-style. We examined the relationships among emotion, stress-coping, and life-style. A survey of the health consciousness of university students reveals that most of the students feel that their life-style is undesirable and suffer much stress. However they are not conscious of their life-style. Students who have negative emotions (depression, anxiety, anger and languor) report that they do not sleep v...

  11. Stress and psychological trauma in workplace and the right to compensation for non-material damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Milanko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many countries today are making efforts through legal measures, security enhancements and health protection to improve living and working conditions and to neutralise especially growing risks of mental health impairment in the workplace. In this paper, we are focused on the problem of traumatic stress in the working environment, giving special attention to the legislation and problems of compensation of non-material damage in court. Based on practical experience and analysis of legal provisions in our country, the questions whether the traumatic stress reaction, which occurred at work can be treated as an injury in the workplace and whether the effects of chronic stress and psychological trauma in the workplace, can fit into the concept of “work-related illnesses“ are raised. According to recent findings about traumatic stress, there is a reasonable basis for the belief that extreme stress and psychological trauma in the workplace could be considered as non-material damage, which should be compensated in accordance with the basic regulations of the Law of Compensation.

  12. Correlation research on psychological health impact on nursing students against stress, coping way and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Wang, Honghong

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors affecting nurse students' psychological status, and the interactions between mental symptoms and stressful factors, coping style and social support in their early clinical experiences. We assessed clinically 288 college nurse students during their first period by adopting College Seniors Stress Scale (CSSS), Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ), Support Questionnaire and Symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90). The result of this study was that (1) positive correlations were found between stressful events, negative coping style and the total scores of SCL-90 (r=0.487, 0.462, pcoping style, social support and the total scores of SCL-90 (r=-0.192, -00.135, pstressful factors, negative coping style and social support all have main effects on mental symptoms (F=34.062, 16.090, 20.898, Pcoping style has no main effect on mental symptoms (F=1.853, P>0.05), but interactions relate to stressful factors and positive coping style (F=14.579, Pcoping style and social support. In order to improve the psychological condition of nursing students, aside from reducing the stress incidents and avoiding negative coping, it is very necessary to enhance the social support systems and to encourage them to adopt the positive coping styles.

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychological sequelae among world trade center clean up and recovery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Raz; Neria, Yuval; Tao, Xuguang Grant; Massa, Jennifer; Ashwell, Leslie; Davis, Kathleen; Geyh, Alison

    2006-07-01

    We assessed the health of workers exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) site and of a comparison group of unexposed workers, by means of a mail survey. Exposed workers reported higher frequency of symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and other psychological problems, approximately 20 months after the disaster. PTSD was positively associated with traumatic on-site experiences and with respiratory problems. These findings may have important clinical and public health implications.

  14. SELF - EFFICACY, PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS, FAMILY SUPPORT, AND EATING BEHAVIOR ON TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma Wijaya Ridi Putra; Chanandchidadussadee Toonsiri; Suwanna Junprasert

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the leading causes of death and it is caused by genetics, nutrition, and unhealthy behaviors. Therefore, changes in lifestyle associated with eating behaviors in diabetes mellitus patients greatly impact on their quality of life. There are many factors related with changes in lifestyle of diabetes mellitus patients, especially eating behaviors. Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationships between self-efficacy, psychological stress, fa...

  15. Family-Related Opinions and Stressful Situations Associated with Psychological Distress in Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jiro Takaki; Yuri Hibino

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related ...

  16. Psychological distress and stressful life events in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Wager; Hannah Brehmer; Gerrit Hirschfeld; Boris Zernikow

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is little knowledge regarding the association between psychological factors and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in children. Specifically, it is not known which factors precipitate CRPS and which result from the ongoing painful disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as the experience of stressful life events in children with CRPS compared with children with chronic primary headaches and functional abdominal pain. METHODS: A retrospec...

  17. Psychological stress and rheumatoid arthritis in parents after death of a child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, J; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Olsen, J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in parents after the death of a child. METHODS: All 21,062 parents whose child had died (younger than 18 years) between 1980 and 1996 in Denmark were included in the bereaved (exposed) cohort, and 293 745 parents matched on family.......63-1.24]. The RR was close to 1 throughout the 18 years of follow-up. CONCLUSION: Our findings do not support an association between severe psychological stress and RA....

  18. SELF - EFFICACY, PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS, FAMILY SUPPORT, AND EATING BEHAVIOR ON TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Wijaya Ridi Putra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the leading causes of death and it is caused by genetics, nutrition, and unhealthy behaviors. Therefore, changes in lifestyle associated with eating behaviors in diabetes mellitus patients greatly impact on their quality of life. There are many factors related with changes in lifestyle of diabetes mellitus patients, especially eating behaviors. Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationships between self-efficacy, psychological stress, family support, and eating behaviors among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in Sidoarjo, Indonesia. Method: A total of 117 T2DM patients from the Sidoarjo Community Health Center were included in the analysis. Using SPSS IBM 21.0 program, Pearson product moment correlation was performed to analyze data. Results: The findings showed that self-efficacy and family support had positive relationship with eating behaviors (r = .692, p < .001; r = .683, p < .001, respectively. Psychological stress had negative relationship with eating behaviors (r = -.327, p < .001. Conclusion: Self-efficacy, family support, and psychological stress had relationship with eating behaviors. Nurses should pay attention to the factors to make T2DM patients into a long-term commitment toward healthy eating behaviors.

  19. Fear of failure, psychological stress, and burnout among adolescent athletes competing in high level sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, H; Sagar, S S; Stenling, A

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fear of failure in highly competitive junior athletes and the association with psychological stress and burnout. In total 258 athletes (152 males and 108 females) ranged in age from 15 to 19 years (M = 17.4 years, SD = 1.08) participated. Athletes competed in variety of sports including both team and individual sports. Results showed in a variable-oriented approach using regression analyses that one dimension, fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment had a statistically significant effect on perceived psychological stress and one dimension of burnout, reduced sense of accomplishment. However, adopting a person-oriented approach using latent class analysis, we found that athletes with high levels of fear failure on all dimensions scored high on burnout. We also found another class with high scores on burnout. These athletes had high scores on the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure and low scores on the other oriented fear of failure dimensions. The findings indicate that fear of failure is related to burnout and psychological stress in athletes and that this association is mainly associated with the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effects of Stress and Social Enrichment on Alcohol Intake, Biological and Psychological Stress Responses in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    stress was operationalized as the exposure of an animal to a non- painful , aversive environment (Piazza and LeMoal, 1998). Neurochemical and...Psychiatry 35:769-781. Kant GJ, Mougey EH, Meyerhoff JL (1986) Diurnal variation in neuroendocrine response to stress in rats: plasma ACTH, beta- endorphin

  1. Oxidative stress associated with exercise, psychological stress and life-style factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Wallin, H; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1996-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a cellular or physiological condition of elevated concentrations of reactive oxygen species that cause molecular damage to vital structures and functions. Several factors influence the susceptibility to oxidative stress by affecting the antioxidant status or free oxygen radica...

  2. The relationship of hardiness, sense of coherence, sports participation, and gender to perceived stress and psychological symptoms among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirka, N

    2000-03-01

    This study addresses the issue of why under conditions of stress some people stay physically and psychologically healthy while others become ill. Being able to deal with stress, to cope with the pressures of daily life, and yet stay healthy, is seen as a function of such factors as physical health, psychological health, constitutional predisposition, social support, exercise habits, and personality. This study examined the moderating effects of the personality constructs of hardiness and sense of coherence, sports participation (college varsity athletes and college nonathletes), and gender on the relationship between perceived stress and psychological symptoms. College varsity athletes (n = 135) and college nonathletes (n = 135), all undergraduates at New York University, completed four questionnaires: Hardiness Scale, Sense of Coherence Scale, Daily Hassles Scale, and Profile of Mood States. Participants also completed a background questionnaire providing basic demographic data. Psychological symptoms and perceived stress were the criterion variables: hardiness, sense of coherence, sports participation, and gender were the predictor variables. Correlational analyses were applied to the resulting data and used to answer and to test the research hypotheses. There was a significant positive correlation between perceived stress and psychological symptoms among college varsity athletes and college nonathletes. There was a significant positive correlation between the personality scales of Hardiness and Sense of Coherence for both college varsity athletes and college nonathletes. When controlling for gender, college varsity athletes scored significantly higher on hardiness, scored slightly higher on sense of coherence, and reported significantly less perceived stress and significantly fewer psychological symptoms than the college nonathletes. Comparing by gender, no statistically significant mean differences were found on the four main variables. A significant negative

  3. Smoking, dietary restraint, gender, and the relative reinforcing value of snack food in a large university sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Lumb, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the independent and interactive association between smoking, gender, dietary restraint and the relative reinforcing value of snack food in a university sample. Four hundred and three introductory psychology students completed questionnaires assessing age, gender, BMI, hunger, smoking status, nicotine dependence, dietary restraint, hedonic ratings and the relative reinforcing value of snack food and fruits and vegetables. The relative reinforcing value of snack food was determined by the number of button presses subjects would be willing to do to obtain (100g) of snack food versus 100g of fruits and vegetables. Multiple regression analyses yielded a significant three-way interaction of gender, restraint, and smoking in predicting the relative reinforcing value of snack food indicating that in female smokers, dietary restraint was inversely associated with the relative reinforcing value of snack food, whereas in male smokers, restraint was not significantly related with the reinforcing value of snacks. These findings remained significant after controlling for BMI, hunger, and hedonics, suggesting that there are gender differences in relationship between smoking, dietary restraint, and snack food reinforcement. Among female university students, smoking moderates the relationship between dietary restraint and food reinforcement whereby high-restraint female smokers appear to be at lower risk of over-consuming energy dense snack food compared to low-restraint female smokers, while high-restraint male smokers may not be at higher risk than low-restraint male smokers.

  4. An application of single-issue focused stress management education to junior high school students ― Dealing with psychological stress of facing high school entrance examination ―

    OpenAIRE

    宮城, 政也; 石垣, 愛一郎; Miyagi, Masaya; Ishigaki, Aiichirou

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not the stress management education was effective to junior high school students facing the psychological stress prior to high school entrance examination. In this study, the single-issue focused approach of stress management education was applied as opposed to comprehensive approach. A total of 65 males and 44 females were randomly selected from 6 classes in this study, and the subjects were lectured what stress theories are, and to int...

  5. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Margot C. W.; Brouwers, Evelien P. M.; van Beurden, Karlijn M.; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Weeghel, Jaap

    Background We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. Methods To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National

  6. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, M.C.W.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; van Beurden-Berkers, K.M.; Terluin, B.; Ruotsalainen, J.H.; Woo, J.; Choi, K.S.; Eguchi, H.; Moriguchi, J.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; van Weeghel, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. Methods To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National

  7. The Psychological Outcome of Religious Coping with Stressful Life Events in a Swiss Sample of Church Attendees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winter, Urs; Hauri, Dimitri; Huber, Stefan; Jenewein, Josef; Schnyder, Ulrich; Kraemer, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    .../S), is an important modulating factor in the process of dealing with adversity. In contrast to the United States, the effect of R/S on psychological adjustment to stress is a widely unexplored area in Europe. Methods...

  8. Psychological stress exposure to aged mice causes abnormal feeding patterns with changes in the bout number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chihiro; Mogami, Sachiko; Hattori, Tomohisa

    2017-11-09

    Stress responses are affected by aging. However, studies on stress-related changes in feeding patterns with aging subject are minimal. We investigated feeding patterns induced by two psychological stress models, revealing characteristics of stress-induced feeding patterns as "meal" and "bout" (defined as the minimum feeding behavior parameters) in aged mice. Feeding behaviors of C57BL/6J mice were monitored for 24 h by an automatic monitoring device. Novelty stress reduced the meal amount over the 24 h in both young and aged mice, but as a result of a time course study it was persistent in aged mice. In addition, the decreased bout number was more pronounced in aged mice than in young mice. The 24-h meal and bout parameters did not change in either the young or aged mice following water avoidance stress (WAS). However, the meal amount and bout number increased in aged mice for 0-6 h after WAS exposure but remained unchanged in young mice. Our findings suggest that changes in bout number may lead to abnormal stress-related feeding patterns and may be one tool for evaluating eating abnormality in aged mice.

  9. Blunted cardiac reactivity to psychological stress associated with higher trait anxiety: a study in peacekeepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal; Mendonça-de-Souza, Ana Carolina Ferraz; Duarte, Antônio Fernando Araújo; Fischer, Nastassja Lopes; Souza, Wanderson Fernandes; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Volchan, Eliane

    2015-11-23

    Both exaggerated and diminished reactivity to stress can be maladaptive. Previous studies have shown that performing increasingly difficult tasks leads first to increased reactivity and then to a blunted response when success is impossible. Our aim was to investigate the influence of trait anxiety on cardiac and cortisol response to and recovery from a standardized psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Task) in a homogeneous sample of healthy peacekeepers. We hypothesized that participants with higher trait anxiety would show blunted reactivity during the performance of an overwhelmingly difficult and stressful task. Participants (N = 50) delivered a speech and performed an arithmetic task in the presence of critical evaluators. Cortisol samples and electrocardiogram data were collected. Participants completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait version, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the Military Peace Force Stressor Inventory. For heart rate, the findings showed that peacekeepers with higher trait anxiety reacted less to the speech task (p = 0.03) and to the arithmetic task (p = 0.008) than those with lower trait anxiety. Trait anxiety did not modulate cortisol responses to the task. Despite the high trait anxiety group having higher PCL-C scores than the low trait anxiety group (p anxiety had less tachycardia in response to acute psychological stress than those with lower trait anxiety. The present results point to a higher risk for more anxious individuals of a maladaptive reaction to stressful events.

  10. A structural equation modeling approach to the study of stress and psychological adjustment in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Kia K; Bowers, Clint; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2008-12-01

    Today's society puts constant demands on the time and resources of all individuals, with the resulting stress promoting a decline in psychological adjustment. Emerging adults are not exempt from this experience, with an alarming number reporting excessive levels of stress and stress-related problems. As a result, the present study addresses the need for a comprehensive model of emerging adult adjustment in the context of stress and coping variables and highlights the importance of accounting for differences between males and females in research concerning stress, social support, coping, and adjustment. Participants for this study are 239 college students (122 males and 117 females), the majority of whom are Caucasian. Results of structural equation modeling suggest that stress, social support, coping, and adjustment show unique patterns of relationships for males versus females. For both males and females, stress and social support show similar relationships to adjustment. In contrast, social support is related only to coping behaviors in females. Finally, social support appears to be a more important variable for female adjustment, whereas other coping behaviors appear to be more pertinent to male adjustment. Limitations and suggestions for future research will be discussed.

  11. Prevalence of psychological stress, depression and anxiety among medical students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Mohamed; Hamed, Sherifa A

    2017-09-01

    Poor psychological health in medical students has been reported nationwide. This study estimated the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among medical students who were enrolled in a public university in Upper Egypt and determine the association of these morbidities with the students' basic socio-demographic variables. This cross-sectional study included 700 students. A self-administered, questionnaire for the socio-demographic characteristics, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 21) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire were used for assessment. High frequencies of depression (65%), anxiety (73%) and stress (59.9%) were reported. Stress scores were significantly higher than depression and anxiety (P=0.001). 55.7% were poor sleepers. In univarate analysis, females, those living in the University campus/students' residence facility, in the preclinical years and with lower academic achievement had higher scores of DASS and PSQI compared to their comparative partners. Significant correlations were reported between stress with depression, anxiety and PQSI scores (P=0.0001). In multivariate analysis, stress scores were significantly associated with female sex, depression and anxiety scores. We conclude that depression, anxiety and stress symptoms are common in medical students of Assiut University relative to other schools and female gender was significantly correlated with these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Burnout and Stress Among US Surgery Residents: Psychological Distress and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebares, Carter C; Guvva, Ekaterina V; Ascher, Nancy L; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Harris, Hobart W; Epel, Elissa S

    2017-10-26

    Burnout among physicians affects mental health, performance, and patient outcomes. Surgery residency is a high-risk time for burnout. We examined burnout and the psychological characteristics that can contribute to burnout vulnerability and resilience in a group of surgical trainees. An online survey was distributed in September 2016 to all ACGME-accredited general surgery programs. Burnout was assessed with an abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory. Stress, anxiety, depression, resilience, mindfulness, and alcohol use were assessed and analyzed for prevalence. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to determine the magnitude of presumed risk and resilience factors. Among 566 surgical residents who participated in the survey, prevalence of burnout was 69%, equally driven by emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Perceived stress and distress symptoms (depression, suicidal ideation, and anxiety) were notably high across training levels, but improved during lab years. Higher burnout was associated with high stress (OR 7.8; p burnout (OR 0.24; p stress (OR 0.15; p burnout, severe stress, and distress symptoms are experienced throughout general surgery training, with some improvement during lab years. In this cross-sectional study, trainees with burnout and high stress were at increased risk for depression and suicidal ideation. Higher dispositional mindfulness was associated with lower risk of burnout, severe stress, and distress symptoms, supporting the potential of mindfulness training to promote resilience during surgery residency. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Psychological stress, knowledge and treatment expectation of parents with a child managed by cochlear implant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B; Spahn, C; Zschocke, I; Leuchter, M; Laszig, R; Löhle, E

    2000-09-01

    ESTABLISHED KNOWLEDGE: It is known that parents of hard-of-hearing children suffer from an increase in psychosocial stress. How does the psychosocial situation of parents with children who have cochlear implants change during rehabilitation? It was the aim of this study to demonstrate how parents evaluate retrospectively their own psychological well-being during the process of rehabilitation. We interviewed 87 parents by questionnaires which were mailed to them. Fifty-seven mothers and 46 fathers responded (59% return rate). Parents reported a significant increase in stress, as perceived by themselves, after the time of diagnosis. Of the parents, 25% continued to suffer from psychic stress during rehabilitation as could be demonstrated by the SCL-90-R questionnaire criteria. The expectations by parents were realistic prior to implantation but thereafter increased significantly with time. The psychological state of parents during the critical phase, after a diagnosis of deafness has been made for their child, has to be considered. Even after an initial phase of shock, parents seemed to be stressed to an extent that required therapeutic intervention.

  14. Levels of salivary immunoglobulin A under psychological stress and its relationship with rumination and five personality traits in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Afrishama; Mohammad Aberomand; Omid SoliemaniFar; Wesam Kooti; Damoon Ashtary-Larky; Fatima Alamiri; Sedigheh Najjar-Asl; Ali Khaneh-Keshi; Sahar Sadegh-Nejadi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The measurement of salivary immunoglobulin A is a useful and non-invasive method for measuring stress. Personality traits and rumination act as possible mediators in the relationship between psychological stressors and the immune system. This study was aimed to evaluate the levels of salivary IgA under psychological stress and its relationship with rumination and five personality traits in medical students. Methods: In this cross- sectional study, 45 medical student...

  15. Association between psychological stress and menstrual cycle characteristics in perimenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsom, Susannah Heyer; Mansfield, Phyllis Kernoff; Koch, Patricia Bartholow; Gierach, Gretchen; West, Sheila G

    2004-01-01

    In previous studies of the relationship between stress and menstrual cycles, stress has been found to be associated with longer cycles, to be associated with shorter cycles, and to have no association with cycle length. Some of the menstrual cycle changes that have been attributed to stress are similar to those experienced by women during perimenopause. In an effort to see whether an association between psychological stress and menstrual cycle characteristics can be detected in women approaching menopause, this study examines this relationship in perimenopausal women who are participants in the Tremin Research Program on Women's Health. The analyses used prospectively recorded bleeding data and retrospectively captured life-event data. A single-year cross-sectional analysis of data from 206 women shows no correlation between stress level, as measured by total number and severity of stressful life events, and cycle characteristics, including interval length, duration of bleed, and variability in both of these factors, nor are there significant differences in cycle characteristics between subgroups of women with different overall levels of stress. In analyzing stress levels and cycle characteristics across 2 years, however, women with marked increases in their level of stress (n = 30) are shown to have decreased length (-0.2 days/cycle) of menstrual cycle intervals and decreased duration of bleed (-0.1 day/cycle) compared with increases in these measures (+2.9 days/cycle for cycle interval; +0.3 days/cycle for duration of bleed) among women with no marked change in stress level (n = 103); t-tests indicate that these differences are significant (p < .05).

  16. Meditation Programs for Psychological Stress and Well-being: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Madhav; Singh, Sonal; Sibinga, Erica M. S.; Gould, Neda F.; Rowland-Seymour, Anastasia; Sharma, Ritu; Berger, Zackary; Sleicher, Dana; Maron, David D.; Shihab, Hasan M.; Ranasinghe, Padmini D; Linn, Shauna; Saha, Shonali; Bass, Eric B.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Many people meditate to reduce psychological stress and stress-related health problems. To counsel people appropriately, clinicians need to know what the evidence says about the health benefits of meditation. Objective To determine the efficacy of meditation programs in improving stress-related outcomes (anxiety, depression, stress/distress, positive mood, mental health quality of life, attention, substance use, eating, sleep, pain, and weight) in diverse adult clinical populations. Evidence Review We included randomized trials with active controls that controlled for placebo effects, identified through November 2012 from MEDLINE®, PsycINFO, EMBASE®, PsycArticles, SCOPUS, CINAHL, AMED, Cochrane Library, and hand searches. Independent reviewers screened citations and extracted data. We graded the strength of evidence using four domains (risk of bias, precision, directness, and consistency) and determined the magnitude and direction of effect by calculating the relative difference between groups in change from baseline. When possible, we conducted meta-analyses using standardized mean differences to obtain aggregate estimates of effect size (ES) with 95 percent confidence intervals (CI). Findings After reviewing 17,801 citations, we included 47 trials with 3,320 participants. Mindfulness meditation programs had moderate evidence to improve anxiety [ ES 0.38 (CI 0.12 to 0.64) at 8 weeks; ES 0.22 (0.02 to 0.43) at 3–6 months], depression [ES 0.30 (0.00 to 0.59) at 8 weeks; ES 0.23 (0.05 to 0.42) at 3–6 months] and pain [ES 0.33 (0.03 to 0.62)], and low evidence to improve stress/distress and mental health-related quality of life. We found either low evidence of no effect or insufficient evidence of any effect of meditation programs on positive mood, attention, substance use, eating, sleep, and weight. We found no evidence that meditation programs were better than any active treatment (drugs, exercise, other behavioral therapies). Conclusions and

  17. Meditation programs for psychological stress and well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Madhav; Singh, Sonal; Sibinga, Erica M S; Gould, Neda F; Rowland-Seymour, Anastasia; Sharma, Ritu; Berger, Zackary; Sleicher, Dana; Maron, David D; Shihab, Hasan M; Ranasinghe, Padmini D; Linn, Shauna; Saha, Shonali; Bass, Eric B; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2014-03-01

    Many people meditate to reduce psychological stress and stress-related health problems. To counsel people appropriately, clinicians need to know what the evidence says about the health benefits of meditation. To determine the efficacy of meditation programs in improving stress-related outcomes (anxiety, depression, stress/distress, positive mood, mental health-related quality of life, attention, substance use, eating habits, sleep, pain, and weight) in diverse adult clinical populations. We identified randomized clinical trials with active controls for placebo effects through November 2012 from MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, PsycArticles, Scopus, CINAHL, AMED, the Cochrane Library, and hand searches. Two independent reviewers screened citations and extracted data. We graded the strength of evidence using 4 domains (risk of bias, precision, directness, and consistency) and determined the magnitude and direction of effect by calculating the relative difference between groups in change from baseline. When possible, we conducted meta-analyses using standardized mean differences to obtain aggregate estimates of effect size with 95% confidence intervals. After reviewing 18 753 citations, we included 47 trials with 3515 participants. Mindfulness meditation programs had moderate evidence of improved anxiety (effect size, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.12-0.64] at 8 weeks and 0.22 [0.02-0.43] at 3-6 months), depression (0.30 [0.00-0.59] at 8 weeks and 0.23 [0.05-0.42] at 3-6 months), and pain (0.33 [0.03- 0.62]) and low evidence of improved stress/distress and mental health-related quality of life. We found low evidence of no effect or insufficient evidence of any effect of meditation programs on positive mood, attention, substance use, eating habits, sleep, and weight. We found no evidence that meditation programs were better than any active treatment (ie, drugs, exercise, and other behavioral therapies). Clinicians should be aware that meditation programs can result in small to moderate

  18. 32 CFR 636.34 - Restraint systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Restraint systems. 636.34 Section 636.34 National... Restraint systems. (a) Restraint systems (seat belts) will be worn by all operators and passengers of U.S. Government vehicles on or off the installations. (b) Restraint systems will be worn by all civilian personnel...

  19. Optimized ventricular restraint therapy: adjustable restraint is superior to standard restraint in an ovine model of ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lawrence S; Ghanta, Ravi K; Mokashi, Suyog A; Coelho-Filho, Otavio; Kwong, Raymond Y; Kwon, Michael; Guan, Jian; Liao, Ronglih; Chen, Frederick Y

    2013-03-01

    The effects of ventricular restraint level on left ventricular reverse remodeling are not known. We hypothesized that restraint level affects the degree of reverse remodeling and that restraint applied in an adjustable manner is superior to standard, nonadjustable restraint. This study was performed in 2 parts using a model of chronic heart failure in the sheep. In part I, restraint was applied at control (0 mm Hg, n = 3), low (1.5 mm Hg, n = 3), and high (3.0 mm Hg, n = 3) levels with an adjustable and measurable ventricular restraint (AMVR) device. Restraint level was not altered throughout the 2-month treatment period. Serial restraint level measurements and transthoracic echocardiography were performed. In part II, restraint was applied with the AMVR device set at 3.0 mm Hg (n = 6) and adjusted periodically to maintain that level. This was compared with restraint applied in a standard, nonadjustable manner using a mesh wrap (n = 6). All subjects were followed up for 2 months with serial magnetic resonance imaging. In part I, there was greater and earlier reverse remodeling in the high restraint group. In both groups, the rate of reverse remodeling peaked and then declined as the measured restraint level decreased with progression of reverse remodeling. In part II, adjustable restraint resulted in greater reverse remodeling than standard restraint. Left ventricular end diastolic volume decreased by 12.7% (P = .005) with adjustable restraint and by 5.7% (P = .032) with standard restraint. Left ventricular ejection fraction increased by 18.9% (P = .014) and 14.4% (P standard restraint, respectively. Restraint level affects the rate and degree of reverse remodeling and is an important determinant of therapy efficacy. Adjustable restraint is more effective than nonadjustable restraint in promoting reverse remodeling. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Air bag restraint device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  1. Air bag restraint device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  2. Psychological Stress and Changes of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Patients with "De Novo" Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimagic, Omer C; Jakubovic, Amra Cickusic; Smajlovic, Dzevdet; Dostovic, Zikrija; Kunic, Suljo; Iljazovic, Amra

    2016-12-01

    Psychological stress and changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in period after diagnosis of "de novo" Parkinson disease (PD) could be a big problem for patients. We measured psychological stress and changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) in thirty patients (15:15) with "de novo" Parkinson's disease, average age 64.17 ± 13.19 (28-82) years (Department of Neurology, University Clinical Center Tuzla). We used Impact of events scale (with 15 questions) to evaluate psychological stress. Normal level of morning cortisol was 201-681 nmol/l, and morning adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) up to 50 pg/ml. Almost 55% patients suffered from mild or serious psychological stress according to IES testing (Horowitz et al.). Non-iatrogenic changes in HPA axis were noticed at 30% patients. The differences between female and male patients regarding to the age (p=0.561), value of cortisol (p=0.745), value of ACTH (p=0.886) and IES testing (p=0.318) were not noticed. The value of cortisol was the predictor of value of ACTH (r=0.427). Psychological stress and changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are present in patients with "de novo" PD. There is significant relation between values of cortisol and ACTH. Psychological stress is frequent problem for "de novo" PD patients.

  3. Effectiveness of Stress Management Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Psychological and Physiological Indexes of Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Montazeri-Khadem

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of stress management cognitive-behavioral therapy on psychological indexes anxiety and depression of patients volunteer to surgery. Materials and Methods: The design of research was Quasi-experimental with pre-post test type, and control group. 26 subjects were selected on the list of elective surgery in March 2009 had been assigned randomly to experimental (N=13 and control group (N=13. Stress management intervention was conducted in experimental group and were under no intervention in control group. Test anxiety by Spilberger, depression by Beck depression were measured.Results: Destabilizing Middle data using covariance analysis was used. Results showed that test scores of anxiety, depression compared to the experimental group had a significant reduction (p< 0.05.Conclusion: Stress management cognitive-behavior intervention can be a elective psychotherapy.

  4. Resilient Warrior: A Stress Management Group to Improve Psychological Health in Service Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Eric; Baier, Allison L.; Mehta, Darshan H.; Denninger, John W.; Fricchione, Gregory L.; Casey, Aggie; Kagan, Leslee; Park, Elyse R.; Simon, Naomi M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many veterans deployed after 9/11/2001 are impacted by subthreshold levels of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, or other psychological health problems that may interfere with successful reintegration. Conventional treatments, including medication and trauma-focused individual psychotherapies, may not be optimally adapted, accepted, or effective to treat these subsyndromal symptoms. Methods: We developed “Resilient Warrior,” a 4-session, group-based, mind-body stress-management and resilience program targeted to build skills and assessed whether its format was accessible and acceptable, and potentially efficacious, to support resilience among service members. Results: From April 2014 to October 2014, 15 participants (53.3% women; mean age=36.6 y; SD=6.2) were surveyed for program acceptability and feasibility and completed self-reported psychological health outcomes before and after program participation. The majority (71.4%) of participants reported that the program included the right number of sessions, and all of them reported that it was helpful and relevant and that they would recommend it to others. While changes in self-reported resilience were only marginal, participation was associated with improvements in depressive symptoms, perceived stress, anxiety, and general sense of self efficacy. Conclusion: These pilot data provide preliminary support that “Resilient Warrior,” a group-based, stress reduction and resilience program, may improve psychological health in service members even when delivered in community settings. Randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to establish efficacy and effectiveness for this program. PMID:26665021

  5. Inter-reality in the evaluation and treatment of psychological stress disorders: the INTERSTRESS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipresso, Pietro; Gaggioli, Andrea; Serino, Silvia; Raspelli, Simona; Vigna, Cinzia; Pallavicini, Federica; Riva, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    "Psychological stress" occurs when an individual perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. According to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the best validated approach covering both stress management and stress treatment is the Cognitive Behavioral (CBT) approach. CBT has undergone a very large number of trials in research contexts. However, it has been less efficacious in clinical contexts and it has become obvious that CBT has some failings when applied in general practice. INTERSTRESS is a EU-funded project that aims to design, develop and test an advanced ICT-based solution for the assessment and treatment of psychological stress that is able to address three critical limitations of CBT: a) the therapist is less relevant than the specific protocol used. b) the protocol is not customized to the specific characteristics of the patient; c) the focus of the therapy is more on the top-down model of change (from cognitions to emotions) than on the bottom-up (from emotions to cognitions). To reach this goal the INTERSTRESS project applies an innovative paradigm for e-health - Interreality - that integrates assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, bridging physical and virtual worlds. On one side, the patient is continuously assessed in the virtual and real worlds by tracking the behavioral and emotional status in the context of challenging tasks (customization of the therapy according to the characteristics of the patient). On the other side, feedback is continuously provided to improve both the appraisal and the coping skills of the patient through a conditioned association between effective performance state and task execution behaviors (improvement of self efficacy). Within this conceptual framework, it is possible to set up and test psychological treatments that could be extended also beyond the traditional research and clinical setting by using more and more emerging mobile technology to deliver real

  6. Psychological impact of chronic hepatitis C: comparison with other stressful life events and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castera, Laurent; Constant, Aymery; Bernard, Pierre-Henri; de Ledinghen, Victor; Couzigou, Patrice

    2006-03-14

    To examine the psychological impact of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) diagnosis in a large cohort of CHC patients as compared with other stressful life events and chronic diseases carrying a risk of life-threatening complications. One hundred and eighty-five outpatients with compensated CHC were asked to self-grade, using a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS), the degree of stress caused by the learning of CHC diagnosis and the perceived severity of their disease. Diagnosis-related stress was compared to four other stressful life events and perceived CHC severity was compared to four other common chronic diseases. Learning of CHC diagnosis was considered a major stressful event (mean+/-SD scores: 72+/-25), significantly less than death of a loved-one (89+/-13, Pdivorce (78+/-23, P<0.007), but more than job dismissal (68+/-30, P<0.04) and home removal (26+/-24, P<0.0001). CHC was considered a severe disease (74+/-19), after AIDS (94+/-08, P<0.001) and cancer (91+/-11, P<0.001), but before diabetes (66+/-23, P<0.001) and hypertension (62+/-20, P<0.001). Perceived CHC severity was not related to the actual severity of liver disease, assessed according to Metavir fibrosis score. In multivariate analysis, diagnosis-related stress was related to perceived disease severity (P<0.001), trait anxiety (P<0.001) and infection through blood transfusion (P<0.001). Our results show the considerable psychological and emotional burden that a diagnosis of CHC represents, even in the absence of significant liver disease. They should be taken into account when announcing a diagnosis of CHC in order to reduce its negative effects.

  7. Effects of far infrared rays irradiated from ceramic material (BIOCERAMIC) on psychological stress-conditioned elevated heart rate, blood pressure, and oxidative stress-suppressed cardiac contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ting-Kai; Chen, Chien-Ho; Tsai, Shih-Ying; Hsiao, George; Lee, Chi-Ming

    2012-10-31

    The present study examined the effects of BIOCERAMIC on psychological stress-conditioned elevated heart rate, blood pressure and oxidative stress-suppressed cardiac contractility using in vivo and in vitro animal models. We investigated the effects of BIOCERAMIC on the in vivo cardiovascular hemodynamic parameters of rats by monitoring their heart rates, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Thereafter, we assayed its effects on the heart rate in an isolated frog heart with and without adrenaline stimulation, and on cardiac contractility under oxidative stress. BIOCERAMIC caused significant decreases in heart rates and systolic and mean blood pressure in the stress-conditioned heart rate rat models (P frog heart with and without adrenaline stimulation (P < 0.05), and normalized cardiac contractility under oxidative stress (P < 0.05). BIOCERAMIC may, therefore, normalize the effects of psychological stress and oxidative stress conditions.

  8. Gastroprotective and Ulcer Healing Effects of Camel Milk and Urine in HCl/EtOH, Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (Indomethacin), and Water-Restraint Stress-induced Ulcer in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zijuan; Chang, Xiaoman; Pan, Qing; Gu, Kebin; Okechukwu, Patrick Nwabueze

    2017-01-01

    Camel milk has been reportedly used to treat dropsy, jaundice, tuberculosis, and diabetes while camel urine is used to treat diarrhea and cancer. However, there is no scientific evidence on the antiulcer activity of camel milk and urine. Thus, the present is designed to investigate the gastroprotective and ulcer healing effect of camel milk and urine on experimentally induced gastric ulcer models in rats. The gastroprotective effect was investigated in HCl/EtOH, water-restraint stress (WRS) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (indomethacin)-induced ulcer models while ulcer healing activity was investigated in indomethacin-induced ulcer model. Cimetidine (100 mg/kg) was used as a standard antiulcer drug. Acute toxicity study done up to a dosage of 10 ml/kg of camel milk and urine showed no signs of toxicity and mortality among the rats, indicating the present dosage of 5 ml/kg is safe to be administered to the rats. In the HCl/EtOH model, oral administration of cimetidine (100 mg/kg), camel urine (5 ml/kg), and camel milk (5 ml/kg) significantly (P ulcer inhibition of 100% while camel milk showed an inhibition of 50%. Similarly, in the indomethacin-induced ulcer model, cimetidine, camel milk, and urine showed an ulcer inhibition of 100, 33.3, and 66.7%, respectively. In addition, camel milk and urine also showed a significant (P ulcer healing effect of 100% in indomethacin-induced ulcer model, with no ulcers observed as compared to that of cimetidine, which offers a healing effect of 60.5%. The antiulcer activity of camel milk and urine may be attributed to its cytoprotective mechanism and antioxidant properties. Acute toxicity findings revealed the dosage of 10 ml/kg of camel milk and urine seems no toxic and indicating the dosage of 5 ml/kg is safe to be administered to the ratsOral administration of cimetidine (100 mg/kg), camel urine (5 ml/kg), and camel milk (5 ml/kg) significantly inhibited gastric lesions by 83.7, 60.5 and 100% in the HCl

  9. Posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress and psychological adjustment in the aftermath of the 2011 Oslo bombing attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Experiencing potentially traumatic events is associated with psychological distress. However, some survivors also experience positive personal and psychological changes in the aftermath of trauma. Methods The present study investigated perceived posttraumatic growth in 197 ministerial employees who were present at work during the 2011 Oslo bombing attack. The relationships between trauma-exposure, peritraumatic reactions and posttraumatic growth were studied. Moreover, the adaptive significance of posttraumatic growth was addressed. Results The results showed that higher levels of trauma-exposure and immediate reactions were significantly related to perceived posttraumatic growth. No support for an adaptive significance of posttraumatic growth was found. On the contrary, posttraumatic growth was associated with higher symptom levels of posttraumatic stress. After adjusting for posttraumatic stress symptoms no association was found between perceived growth and work and social adjustment. However, perceived growth was associated with higher levels of life satisfaction. Conclusion The present results are in line with previous findings indicating that perceived growth may be unrelated to psychological adjustment, and suggest that the concept and significance of posttraumatic growth should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24088369

  10. The effects of multitasking on psychological stress reactivity in recreational users of cannabis and MDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Mark A; Atherton, Katie; Grainger, Jessica; Brosnan, Robert; Scholey, Andrew B

    2012-03-01

    Cannabis and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use is associated with psychobiological and neurocognitive deficits. Assessments of the latter typically include tests of memory and everyday cognitive functioning. However, to date, little attention has been paid to effects of drug use on psychological stress reactivity. We report three studies examining the effects of recreational use of cannabis and MDMA on mood and psychological responses to multitasking using a cognitively demanding laboratory stressor that provides an analogue for everyday situations involving responses to multiple stimuli. The effects of the multitasking framework on mood and perceived workload were assessed in cannabis (N=25), younger (N=18) and older (N=20) MDMA users and compared with non-target drug controls. Compared with respective control groups, cannabis users became less alert and content, and both MDMA groups became less calm following acute stress. Unexpectedly, the stressor increased ratings of calm in cannabis users. Users also scored higher than their controls with respect to ratings of resources needed to complete the multitasking framework. These findings show, for the first time, that recreational use of cannabis and MDMA, beyond the period of intoxication, can negatively influence psychological responses to a multitasking stressor, and this may have implications for real-life situations which place high demands on cognitive resources. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Psychological stress is related to a decrease of serum anti-müllerian hormone level in infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue-Zhi; Zhou, Fei-Jing; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2017-07-11

    Stress exposure has been proved to be linked to reproductive failure. The reproductive potential of women depends on the ovarian reserve. Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) has been proved a reliable clinical marker of ovarian reserve. However, the correlation between psychological stress and AMH level is not clear. A cross-sectional study including 576 women was conducted. AMH concentration was tested to reflect the ovarian reserve. Salivary alpha-amylase (SAA) level was measured to assess the stress of patients objectively. The SAA level was significantly, and negatively correlated with AMH levels in infertile women (r = -0.315, P = 0.000; adjusted for age, r = -0.336, P = 0.000). Higher psychological stress was related to a decreased AMH level in infertile women and psychological stress may affect ovarian reserve.

  12. The family model stress and maternal psychological symptoms: mediated pathways from economic hardship to parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P; Crnic, Keith A; Cox, Martha J; Mills-Koonce, W Roger

    2013-02-01

    Although much of the extant research on low-income families has targeted parental depression as the predominant psychological response to economic hardship, the current study examined a range of maternal psychological symptoms that may mediate the relations between early economic pressure and later parenting behaviors. A family stress model was examined using data from 1,142 mothers living in 2 areas of high rural poverty, focusing on the infancy through toddlerhood period. Maternal questionnaires and observations of mother-child interactions were collected across 4 time points (6, 15, 24, and 36 months). Results from structural equation analyses indicated that early economic pressure was significantly related to a variety of symptoms (depression, hostility, anxiety, and somatization), but only depression and somatization were significantly related to decreased levels of sensitive, supportive parenting behaviors. In contrast, anxiety was positively associated with sensitive parenting. Depression and anxiety were both found to mediate the relations between economic pressure and sensitive parenting behaviors. Results further suggest that mothers did not experience change in objective economic hardship over time but did experience a small decrease in economic pressure. Discussion centers on the apparent indirect influence of early economic hardship on later psychological symptoms and parenting behaviors, as well as detailing the need for broader and more complex perspectives on maternal psychological responses that arise as a result of economic disadvantage. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Psychological Flexibility Among Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: Relating Patterns of Acceptance, Adherence, and Stress to Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamody, Rebecca C; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Rybak, Tiffany M; Klages, Kimberly L; Banks, Gabrielle G; Ali, Jeanelle S; Alemzadeh, Ramin; Ferry, Robert J; Diaz Thomas, Alicia M

    2017-05-19

    Psychological flexibility, a complex concept encompassing both acceptance and action related factors, has been identified as a target for intervention for diabetes management. Research suggests acceptance, self-management, and stress, all factors that influence psychological flexibility, have an impact on adaptation to type 1 diabetes (T1D) by youth independently. However, yet to be explored is individually varying patterns of these variables and how they may relate to diabetes adaptation outcomes. The present study aimed to establish individual variations of patterns of these factors to derive profiles of psychological flexibility, and examine their relations to the adaptation outcomes of glycemic control and health-related quality of life. Youth (N = 162, aged 12-17 years) with T1D completed the Acceptance and Action Diabetes Questionnaire, Diabetes Stress Questionnaire, Self-Care Inventory, and Pediatric Quality of Life-Diabetes Module. Hemoglobin A1c values were abstracted from medical records. Latent profile analysis yielded three profiles: High Acceptance & Adherence/Low Stress, Low Acceptance/Moderate Adherence & Stress, and Low Acceptance & Adherence/High Stress. The High Acceptance & Adherence/Low Stress group displayed significantly higher health-related quality of life and lower HbA1c compared to other groups. Fluid psychological variables, such as acceptance and diabetes stress, and adherence behaviors may be salient targets to increase psychological flexibility for individual psychosocial interventions aimed at improving adaptation to type 1 diabetes in youth.

  14. Gender differences and the relationships of perceived background stress and psychological distress with cardiovascular responses to laboratory stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael T; Bocek, Christine M; Burch, Ashley E

    2011-09-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of perceived background stress and self-reported psychological distress on cardiovascular reactivity during acute laboratory stressors. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used as the measure of perceived background stress, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used as the measure of psychological distress. A secondary aim was to examine whether background stress and psychological distress affected the susceptibility to induction of a negative mood using music. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured in 149 female and male college students at rest and during a stressful mental arithmetic (MA) task and a mood induction procedure. Higher scores on the GHQ were associated with lower systolic BP reactivity during the MA task by all participants. Higher scores on the PSS and GHQ were also associated with lower diastolic BP and HR reactivity, but only in females. Thus, higher self-reports of background stress and psychological distress tended to result in blunted reactivity to an acute laboratory challenge. Higher levels of background stress and psychological distress were not associated with greater susceptibility to a negative mood induction. This study adds to the growing literature indicating that potentially negative health outcomes may be associated with diminished cardiovascular reactivity under certain conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mindfulness training for stress management: a randomised controlled study of medical and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vibe, Michael; Solhaug, Ida; Tyssen, Reidar; Friborg, Oddgeir; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Sørlie, Tore; Bjørndal, Arild

    2013-08-13

    Distress and burnout among medical and psychology professionals are commonly reported and have implications for the quality of patient care delivered. Already in the course of university studies, medicine and psychology students report mental distress and low life satisfaction. There is a need for interventions that promote better coping skills in students in order to prevent distress and future burnout. This study examines the effect of a seven-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) programme on mental distress, study stress, burnout, subjective well-being, and mindfulness of medical and psychology students. A total of 288 students (mean age = 23 years, 76% female) from the University of Oslo and the University of Tromsø were randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. The control group continued with their standard university courses and received no intervention. Participants were evaluated using self-reported measures both before and after the intervention. These were: the 'General Health Questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory Student version, Perceived Medical School Stress, Subjective Well-being, and Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire' and additional indices of compliance. Following the intervention, a moderate effect on mental distress (Hedges'g 0.65, CI = .41, .88), and a small effect on both subjective well-being (Hedges'g 0.40, CI = .27, .63) and the mindfulness facet 'non-reacting' (Hedges'g 0.33, CI = .10, .56) were found in the intervention group compared with the control group. A higher level of programme attendance and reported mindfulness exercises predicted these changes. Significant effects were only found for female students who additionally reported reduced study stress and an increase in the mindfulness facet 'non-judging'. Gender specific effects of participation in the MBSR programme have not previously been reported, and gender differences in the present study are discussed. Female medical and psychology

  16. Mindfulness training for stress management: a randomised controlled study of medical and psychology students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Distress and burnout among medical and psychology professionals are commonly reported and have implications for the quality of patient care delivered. Already in the course of university studies, medicine and psychology students report mental distress and low life satisfaction. There is a need for interventions that promote better coping skills in students in order to prevent distress and future burnout. This study examines the effect of a seven-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) programme on mental distress, study stress, burnout, subjective well-being, and mindfulness of medical and psychology students. Methods A total of 288 students (mean age = 23 years, 76% female) from the University of Oslo and the University of Tromsø were randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. The control group continued with their standard university courses and received no intervention. Participants were evaluated using self-reported measures both before and after the intervention. These were: the ‘General Health Questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory Student version, Perceived Medical School Stress, Subjective Well-being, and Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire’ and additional indices of compliance. Results Following the intervention, a moderate effect on mental distress (Hedges’g 0.65, CI = .41, .88), and a small effect on both subjective well-being (Hedges’g 0.40, CI = .27, .63) and the mindfulness facet ‘non-reacting’ (Hedges’g 0.33, CI = .10, .56) were found in the intervention group compared with the control group. A higher level of programme attendance and reported mindfulness exercises predicted these changes. Significant effects were only found for female students who additionally reported reduced study stress and an increase in the mindfulness facet ‘non-judging’. Gender specific effects of participation in the MBSR programme have not previously been reported, and gender differences in the present study are

  17. Optimized ventricular restraint therapy: Adjustable restraint is superior to standard restraint in an ovine model of ischemic cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lawrence S.; Ghanta, Ravi K.; Mokashi, Suyog A.; Coelho-Filho, Otavio; Kwong, Raymond Y.; Kwon, Michael; Guan, Jian; Liao, Ronglih; Chen, Frederick Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The effects of ventricular restraint level on left ventricular reverse remodeling are not known. We hypothesized that restraint level affects the degree of reverse remodeling and that restraint applied in an adjustable manner is superior to standard, nonadjustable restraint. Methods This study was performed in 2 parts using a model of chronic heart failure in the sheep. In part I, restraint was applied at control (0 mm Hg, n = 3), low (1.5 mm Hg, n = 3), and high (3.0 mm Hg, n = 3) levels with an adjustable and measurable ventricular restraint (AMVR) device. Restraint level was not altered throughout the 2-month treatment period. Serial restraint level measurements and transthoracic echocardiography were performed. In part II, restraint was applied with the AMVR device set at 3.0 mm Hg (n = 6) and adjusted periodically to maintain that level. This was compared with restraint applied in a standard, nonadjustable manner using a mesh wrap (n = 6). All subjects were followed up for 2 months with serial magnetic resonance imaging. Results In part I, there was greater and earlier reverse remodeling in the high restraint group. In both groups, the rate of reverse remodeling peaked and then declined as the measured restraint level decreased with progression of reverse remodeling. In part II, adjustable restraint resulted in greater reverse remodeling than standard restraint. Left ventricular end diastolic volume decreased by 12.7% (P = .005) with adjustable restraint and by 5.7% (P = .032) with standard restraint. Left ventricular ejection fraction increased by 18.9% (P = .014) and 14.4% (Prestraint, respectively. Conclusions Restraint level affects the rate and degree of reverse remodeling and is an important determinant of therapy efficacy. Adjustable restraint is more effective than nonadjustable restraint in promoting reverse remodeling. PMID:22698557

  18. Exploring resilience and mindfulness as preventative factors for psychological distress burnout and secondary traumatic stress among human service professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Rachel; Pidgeon, Aileen M; Klaassen, Frances; King, Steven

    2016-06-08

    Human service professionals are concerned with the intervention and empowerment of vulnerable social populations. The human service industry is laden with employment-related stressors and emotionally demanding interactions, which can lead to deleterious effects, such as burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Little attention has been given to developing knowledge of what might enable human service workers to persist and thrive. Cultivating and sustaining resilience can buffer the impact of occupational stressors on human service professionals. One of the psychological factors associated with cultivating resilience is mindfulness. The aim of this current research is to improve our understanding of the relationship between resilience, mindfulness, burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and psychological distress among human service professionals. The current study surveyed 133 human service professionals working in the fields of psychology, social work, counseling, youth and foster care work to explore the predictive relationship between resilience, mindfulness, and psychological distress. The results showed that higher levels of resilience were a significant predictor of lower levels of psychological distress, burnout and secondary traumatic stress. In addition, higher levels of mindfulness were a significant predictor of lower levels of psychological distress and burnout. The findings suggest that cultivating resilience and mindfulness in human service professionals may assist in preventing psychological distress burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Limitations of this study are discussed together with implications for future research.

  19. Psychological homelessness and enculturative stress among US-deported Salvadorans: a preliminary study with a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negy, Charles; Reig-Ferrer, Abilio; Gaborit, Mauricio; Ferguson, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the construct psychological homelessness-feelings of not belonging in one's home country-within the context of deported Salvadorans' enculturation to El Salvador. Participants (n = 66) who had been deported from the United States completed a set of questionnaires related to their deportation experience. Results indicated that deportees, in various degrees, experienced the phenomenon of psychological homelessness and enculturative stress related to living in El Salvador. As hypothesized, enculturative stress related to re-adapting to life in El Salvador significantly correlated with psychological homelessness after controlling for time spent in the United States, acculturation, and enculturation. Additional analyses revealed that maladaptive cognitions related to the deportation experience also predicted psychological homelessness. Our findings suggest psychological homelessness appears to be a valid construct and is experienced by many undocumented immigrants.

  20. The effects of psychological stress on humans: increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a Th1-like response in stress-induced anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; Song, C; Lin, A; De Jongh, R; Van Gastel, A; Kenis, G; Bosmans, E; De Meester, I; Benoy, I; Neels, H; Demedts, P; Janca, A; Scharpé, S; Smith, R S

    1998-04-01

    There is some evidence that, in humans and experimental animals, psychological stress may suppress or enhance immune functions, depending on the nature of the stressor and the immune variables under consideration. The possibility that psychological stress may affect the production of pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines was investigated in 38 medical students, who had blood samplings a few weeks before and after as well as one day before an academic examination. Psychological stress significantly increased the stimulated production of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-10. Students with high stress perception during the stressful condition had a significantly higher production of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1Ra and IFN-gamma than students with a low-stress perception. Students with a high anxiety response had a significantly higher production of IFN-gamma and a lower production of the negative immunoregulatory cytokines, IL-10 and IL-4, than students without anxiety. These findings suggest that, in humans, changes in the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IFN-gamma, and negative immunoregulatory cytokines, IL-10 and IL-4, take part in the homeostatic responses to psychological stress and that stress-induced anxiety is related to a T-helper-1-like response.

  1. Stress and psychological factors before a migraine attack: A time-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makino Mariko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to examine the stress and mood changes of Japanese subjects over the 1–3 days before a migraine headache. Methods The study participants were 16 patients with migraines who consented to participate in this study. Each subject kept a headache diary four times a day for two weeks. They evaluated the number of stressful events, daily hassles, domestic and non-domestic stress, anxiety, depressive tendency and irritability by visual analog scales. The days were classified into migraine days, pre-migraine days, buffer days and control days based on the intensity of the headaches and accompanying symptoms, and a comparative study was conducted for each factor on the migraine days, pre-migraine days and control days. Results The stressful event value of pre-migraine days showed no significant difference compared to other days. The daily hassle value of pre-migraine days was the highest and was significantly higher than that of buffer days. In non-domestic stress, values on migraine days were significantly higher than on other days, and there was no significant difference between pre-migraine days and buffer days or between pre-migraine days and control days. There was no significant difference in the values of domestic stress between the categories. In non-domestic stress, values on migraine days were significantly higher than other days, and there was no significant difference between pre-migraine days and buffer days or between pre-migraine days and control days. There was little difference in sleep quality on migraine and pre-migraine days, but other psychological factors were higher on migraine days than on pre-migraine days. Conclusion Psychosocial stress preceding the onset of migraines by several days was suggested to play an important role in the occurrence of migraines. However, stress 2–3 days before a migraine attack was not so high as it has been reported to be in the United States and

  2. Restraint and seclusion in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir K Khandelwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric management in India often includes the practice of restraint and seclusion of violent and difficult to control patients, both in inpatient medical facilities and in places of traditional healing. However, without any informed guidelines and regulation, these practices have flourished from necessary last resort to accepted ways of control. The upcoming draft mental health bill have now provided with a set of basic guidelines for preventing restraint. The scientific literature is also sparse on the subject from India, despite a robust body of evidence being available from the Western literature. This review, summarizes the evidence from India, looks into the causes and outcomes of restraint and seclusion and also discusses methods and stratagems that might be beneficial for reducing restraint and seclusion in the country.

  3. Child restraint device loaner programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    The child restraint device (CRD) loaner programs in Tennessee were evaluated. In-Lerviews were conducted with loaner program clients in Memphis, Chattanooga, and Knoxville. Administrators of programs in all three sites also were interviewed. The prog...

  4. Some psychological effects associated with positive and negative thinking about stressful event outcomes: was Pollyanna right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhart, D E

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated psychological effects associated with tendencies to focus one's thinking on positive versus negative outcomes of concluded stressful events, called respectively, positive and negative thinking. Four questions were addressed: (a) whether positive and negative thinking benefit or reduce psychological well-being, (b) whether these effects are transitory or enduring, (c) whether they are limited to thoughts about an event's impact on oneself or generalize to thoughts about an event's external consequences, and (d) whether tendencies to think positively or negatively about prior stressors influence psychological vulnerability to the impact of future ones. College students completed an event-outcome appraisal questionnaire designed to make salient positive and negative thoughts about the outcomes of recent stressful events. Subjects' well-being was then assessed both immediately after the salience manipulation and again 8 weeks later. Positive thinking increased the well-being that subjects reported immediately after their thoughts were assessed, but was unrelated to the well-being they reported after an 8-week delay. This suggests that although thinking positively about past event outcomes may temporarily lead to perceptions of increased well-being while the thoughts are salient, it has no enduring influence. In contrast, negative thinking was associated with lower reported well-being not only when the thoughts were salient but after a delay as well. Psychological effects associated with both types of thinking were due mostly to self-relevant thoughts rather than to externally relevant ones. Negative thinking about prior stressor outcomes appeared to increase vulnerability to the impact of later ones on several aspects of well-being. Overall, results for negative thinking are consistent with evidence reported after an 8-week delay. This suggests that although thinking positively effects that persist over time. However, positive thinking does not

  5. Event-exposure stress, coping, and psychological distress among New York students at six months after 9/11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Janna C; Brennan, Mark; Colarossi, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study examines if event-exposure stress has a significant effect on the latent mediating factors of problem-based coping, emotion-based coping, and intrinsic religious motivation, as well as on psychological distress. The study used a single-group correlational design. Data were collected from graduate social work students (N=642) in the New York metropolitan area six months after September 11, 2001. In a structural equation model, event-exposure stress was found to be positively related to problem-focused coping. The model also supported that event-exposure stress had a positive direct effect on psychological distress. While both forms of coping were positively related to levels of distress, higher levels of intrinsic religious motivation were related to lower levels of psychological distress. Professionals should p