Gosling, Samuel D; Mason, Winter
Today the Internet plays a role in the lives of nearly 40% of the world's population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges, but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society.
Full Text Available Abstract:Qualitative research is a research method studying subjective meaning of participant’s world about an object researched. Steps of qualitative research in psychology are: researchers select research topic, researchers formulate research questions, researchers design the study, researchers collect data, researchers analyses data, researchers generate findings, researchers validate findings, and researchers write research report. Some of the qualitative research designs are grounded research, phenomenology research, case study research, and ethnography research. In some situations, researchers often meet questions that reach beyond the prescription of the APA ethical guidelines concerning human participants. Researchers of qualitative research in psychology can generalize their research findings to other people, times, or treatments to the degree to which they are similar to other people, times, or treatments in the original research (naturalistic generalization. There are some strategies for expanding qualitative research as a research approach so the methodology can be accepted as one significant method in understanding psychological phenomena. Keywords:qualitative research, psychology.
This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…
JHON J. SANABRIA
Full Text Available In this paper, I review the prevention and intervention efforts addressing youth homelessness in the fieldof psychology between 1994 and 2004. Analyses of the literature revealed that the majority of papersincluding homeless youth as a population for study have focused on issues other than homelessness.These issues include HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention. Eleven journal articles addressing youthhomelessness were reviewed. These articles focused on outcomes, interventions, and recommendationsfor clinical practice. Literature findings revealed that demographic variables did not predict outcomesfor homeless youth; youth returning home with their parents have more positive outcomes than youthmoving into other locations, emergency shelter services improve youth’s mental health and social condition,and services should be comprehensive and move beyond the individuals. Implications for communitypsychology, policy makers, and shelters are discussed.
Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
Human subjects and social relations are crucial in research psychologists’ ethical considerations. Lists of ethical criteria - including how to anonymize data, avoid causing harm, handle asymmetries – are pivotal. A situated ethics inspired by new materialism and poststructuralism would, however......, elaborate these focuses to include social orders, discursive power, and more comprehensive material-discursive apparatuses. I will draw on concepts developed by Barad, Foucault and Butler to discuss how ethics can be understood as an intra-acting, emergent element of the research apparatus. Barad’s notion...... the researchers’ moral narcissism in relation to the enactment of social-subjective phenomena in research; on the other hand, it leaves researchers with a broader spectrum of phenomena to include in their ethical considerations. This invites new questions: Which perspectives of human and non-human existence...
Burger, D. R.
A summary of solar-cell process research analysis efforts was presented. Process design and cell design are interactive efforts where technology from integrated circuit processes and other processes are blended. The primary factors that control cell efficiency are: (1) the bulk parameters of the available sheet material, (2) the retention and enhancement of these bulk parameters, and (3) the cell design and the cost to produce versus the finished cells performance. The process sequences need to be tailored to be compatible with the sheet form, the cell shape form, and the processing equipment. New process options that require further evaluation and utilization are lasers, robotics, thermal pulse techniques, and new materials. There are numerous process control techniques that can be adapted and used that will improve product uniformity and reduced costs. Two factors that can lead to longer life modules are the use of solar cell diffusion barriers and improved encapsulation.
Bakker, M.; Hartgerink, C. H. J.; Wicherts, J. M.; Van Der Maas, H. L. J.
Many psychology studies are statistically underpowered. In part, this may be because many researchers rely on intuition, rules of thumb, and prior practice (along with practical considerations) to determine the number of subjects to test. In Study 1, we surveyed 291 published research psychologists
Banks, Brea M.; D'Santiago-Eastman, Verenice
Underrepresentation of individuals from diverse backgrounds in the field of psychology is a well-documented concern, as identified gaps directly impact individuals served (Rogers & Molina, 2006; Zhang & Katsiyannis, 2002). This pilot examination evaluated a task force that sought to address this deficit through targeting the recruitment…
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roof projects...
ABSTRACT The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roo...
Grzanka, Patrick R; Santos, Carlos E; Moradi, Bonnie
This article introduces the special section on intersectionality research in counseling psychology. Across the 4 manuscripts that constitute this special section, a clear theme emerges: a need to return to the roots and politics of intersectionality. Importantly, the 2 empirical articles in this special section (Jerald, Cole, Ward, & Avery, 2017; Lewis, Williams, Peppers, & Gadson, 2017) are studies of Black women's experiences: a return, so to speak, to the subject positions and social locations from which intersectionality emanates. Shin et al. (2017) explore why this focus on Black feminist thought and social justice is so important by highlighting the persistent weaknesses in how much research published in leading counseling psychology journals has tended to use intersectionality as a way to talk about multiple identities, rather than as a framework for critiquing systemic, intersecting forms of oppression and privilege. Shin and colleagues also point to the possibilities intersectionality affords us when scholars realize the transformative potential of this critical framework. Answers to this call for transformative practices are foregrounded in Moradi and Grzanka's (2017) contribution, which surveys the interdisciplinary literature on intersectionality and presents a series of guidelines for using intersectionality responsibly. We close with a discussion of issues concerning the applications of intersectionality to counseling psychology research that spans beyond the contributions of each manuscript in this special section. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Kendel, Friederike; Rockenbauch, Katrin; Deubner, Rolf; Philipp, Swetlana; Fabry, Götz
Background: The increasing significance of university teaching also leads to higher demands for academic teachers. Against this background this study inquires how teachers in the field of medical pychology experience and evaluate their various activities and how their efforts on the one hand and gratifications on the other hand relate to each other (as conceptualized by the effort-reward-imbalance, ERI). Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in 2012 among the academic staff of departments of medical psychology in Germany. The questionnaire was answered by 188 participants (return rate: 39.2%), of whom 62% were women. Work stress was measured according to Siegrist's effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) model. Further questions referred to the distribution of academic activities and meaningfulness. Results: Among all participants, 67.3% were satisfied with the portion of their workload devoted to teaching, while 63% wanted more time for research. The ERI-coefficient was on average M=0.76 (SD=0.45), thus indicating a shift towards reward. There were no associations with gender, age, or fixed-term work contracts. Meaningfulness was associated negatively with the ERI (r=-.21, p=.012), and positively with overcommitment (r=.52, pTeaching medical psychology is evaluated as positive and meaningful by a majority of respondents. In general, the rewarding aspects seem to outweigh the stressful factors. Thus, teaching might be a protective factor with regard to coping with work related burden.
Wahl, H-W; Diegelmann, M
Psychological aging research (PAF) focuses on age-related changes and behavioral stability (e.g. structure of social relations), performance and competences (e.g. cognitive functioning) as well as experiences (e.g. well-being) in advanced age. Knowledge is based in particular on currently available longitudinal studies, which historically for the first time allow very long observational periods (nearly across the complete life span). Additionally, innovative statistical analytical methods co-developed in the PAF nowadays allow a better understanding of the dynamics of change than ever before. This results in a new picture of psychological aging that confirms the multifaceted strengths of human aging but also reveals new risks of the current "prolonged aging".
The traditional methodology for health risk assessment used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is based on the use of exposure assumptions (e.g. exposure duration, food ingestion rate, body weight, etc.) that represent the entire American population, either as a central tendency exposure (e.g. average, median) or as a reasonable maximum exposure (e.g. 95% upper confidence limit). Unfortunately, EPA lacked exposure information for assessing health risks for New England regional tribes sustaining a tribal subsistence way of life. As a riverine tribe, the Penobscot culture and traditions are inextricably tied to the Penobscot River watershed. It is through hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering and making baskets, pottery, moccasins, birch-bark canoes and other traditional practices that the Penobscot culture and people are sustained. The Penobscot River receives a variety of pollutant discharges leaving the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN) questioning the ecological health and water quality of the river and how this may affect the practices that sustain their way of life. The objectives of this Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) study were to: (1) Develop culturally sensitive methodologies for assessing the potential level of exposure to contaminants that Penobscot Indian Nation tribal members may have from maintaining tribal sustenance practices; (2) Conduct field surveys and laboratory analysis on targeted flora and fauna for chemical expo
Adjerid, Idris; Kelley, Ken
The potential for big data to provide value for psychology is significant. However, the pursuit of big data remains an uncertain and risky undertaking for the average psychological researcher. In this article, we address some of this uncertainty by discussing the potential impact of big data on the type of data available for psychological research, addressing the benefits and most significant challenges that emerge from these data, and organizing a variety of research opportunities for psychology. Our article yields two central insights. First, we highlight that big data research efforts are more readily accessible than many researchers realize, particularly with the emergence of open-source research tools, digital platforms, and instrumentation. Second, we argue that opportunities for big data research are diverse and differ both in their fit for varying research goals, as well as in the challenges they bring about. Ultimately, our outlook for researchers in psychology using and benefiting from big data is cautiously optimistic. Although not all big data efforts are suited for all researchers or all areas within psychology, big data research prospects are diverse, expanding, and promising for psychology and related disciplines. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Power, Séamus A; Velez, Gabriel; Qadafi, Ahmad; Tennant, Joseph
We propose a SAGE model for social psychological research. Encapsulated in our acronym is a proposal to have a synthetic approach to social psychological research, in which qualitative methods are augmentative to quantitative ones, qualitative methods can be generative of new experimental hypotheses, and qualitative methods can capture experiences that evade experimental reductionism. We remind social psychological researchers that psychology was founded in multiple methods of investigation at multiple levels of analysis. We discuss historical examples and our own research as contemporary examples of how a SAGE model can operate in part or as an integrated whole. The implications of our model are discussed.
Power, Séamus A.; Velez, Gabriel; Qadafi, Ahmad; Tennant, Joseph
We propose a SAGE model for social psychological research. Encapsulated in our acronym is a proposal to have a synthetic approach to social psychological research, in which qualitative methods are augmentative to quantitative ones, qualitative methods can be generative of new experimental hypotheses, and qualitative methods can capture experiences that evade experimental reductionism. We remind social psychological researchers that psychology was founded in multiple methods of investigation at multiple levels of analysis. We discuss historical examples and our own research as contemporary examples of how a SAGE model can operate in part or as an integrated whole. The implications of our model are discussed. PMID:29361241
Full Text Available Background: The increasing significance of university teaching also leads to higher demands for academic teachers. Against this background this study inquires how teachers in the field of medical pychology experience and evaluate their various activities and how their efforts on the one hand and gratifications on the other hand relate to each other (as conceptualized by the effort-reward-imbalance, ERI.Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in 2012 among the academic staff of departments of medical psychology in Germany. The questionnaire was answered by 188 participants (return rate: 39.2%, of whom 62% were women. Work stress was measured according to Siegrist’s effort–reward-imbalance (ERI model. Further questions referred to the distribution of academic activities and meaningfulness. Results: Among all participants, 67.3% were satisfied with the portion of their workload devoted to teaching, while 63% wanted more time for research. The ERI-coefficient was on average M=0.76 (SD=0.45, thus indicating a shift towards reward. There were no associations with gender, age, or fixed-term work contracts. Meaningfulness was associated negatively with the ERI (r=-.21, p=.012, and positively with overcommitment (r=.52, p<.001 and the desire for less administrative tasks (r=.24, p=.017.Conclusions: Teaching medical psychology is evaluated as positive and meaningful by a majority of respondents. In general, the rewarding aspects seem to outweigh the stressful factors. Thus, teaching might be a protective factor with regard to coping with work related burden.
Demuth, Carolin; Fatigante, Marilena
The present paper aims to provide an approach that allows to study the interplay of culture and psychological human functioning in comparative study designs. Starting out with a brief overview of how qualitative, cultural, and comparative research is addressed in the field of psychology we...... will take a Cultural Psychology approach to suggest that the unit of analysis for comparative research needs to be situated social interaction. We will then suggest an integrative approach that allows us to study social interaction both on a micro- and on a macro-level by combining discourse analysis...... some criteria of validity that particularly apply to the field of comparative research in Cultural Psychology....
Qualitative Research gains increasing popularity in the field of Psychology. With the renewed interest, there are, however, also some risks related to the overhomogenization and increasing standardization of qualitative methods. This special issue is dedicated to clarify some of the existing misconceptions of qualitative research and to discuss its potentials for the field of psychology in light of recent endeavors to overcome paradigmatic battles and a re-orientation to the specifities of psychology. The issue comprises a discussion from workshop on the future of qualitative research in psychology organized at Aalborg University, and several contributions that resulted from it.
Qualitative Research gains increasing popularity in the field of Psychology. With the renewed interest, there are, however, also some risks related to the overhomogenization and increasing standardization of qualitative methods. This special issue is dedicated to clarify some of the existing...... misconceptions of qualitative research and to discuss its potentials for the field of psychology in light of recent endeavors to overcome paradigmatic battles and a re-orientation to the specifities of psychology. The issue comprises a discussion from workshop on the future of qualitative research in psychology...
Morrow, Susan L.
Beginning with calls for methodological diversity in counseling psychology, this article addresses the history and current state of qualitative research in counseling psychology. It identifies the historical and disciplinary origins as well as basic assumptions and underpinnings of qualitative research in general, as well as within counseling…
Rathert, Jamie; Fite, Paula J.; Gaertner, Alden E.
The current study examined relations between effortful control (ones ability to focus and shift attention in an adaptive manner), psychological control (caregiver attempts to manipulate the child's internal world) and proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 69 children (54% male) ranging from 9 to 12 years of age (M = 10.35, SD =…
The purpose of this article is to highlight pioneering and fundamental contributions by South African researchers to establishing a new paradigm in psychology, namely positive psychology. The article provides an overview of the national and international historic development of this field. Current and completed South ...
In anticipation of the impending revision of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, APA’s Publications and Communications Board formed the Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS) and charged it to provide the board with background and recommendations on information that should be included in manuscripts submitted to APA journals that report (a) new data collections and (b) meta-analyses. The JARS Group reviewed efforts in related fields to develop standards and sought input from other knowledgeable groups. The resulting recommendations contain (a) standards for all journal articles, (b) more specific standards for reports of studies with experimental manipulations or evaluations of interventions using research designs involving random or nonrandom assignment, and (c) standards for articles reporting meta-analyses. The JARS Group anticipated that standards for reporting other research designs (e.g., observational studies, longitudinal studies) would emerge over time. This report also (a) examines societal developments that have encouraged researchers to provide more details when reporting their studies, (b) notes important differences between requirements, standards, and recommendations for reporting, and (c) examines benefits and obstacles to the development and implementation of reporting standards. PMID:19086746
Full Text Available Background and aims: The relationship between physical-mental health and Migraine headaches and stress, especially job stress, is known. Many factors can construct job stress in work settings. The factor that has gained much attention recently is inequality (imbalance of employees’ effort versus the reward they gain. The aim of the current attempt was to investigate the validity of effort-reward imbalance model and indicate the relation of this model with migraine headaches and psychological well-being among subjects in balance and imbalance groups. Methods: Participants were 180 personnel of Oil distribution company located in Isfahan city, and instruments used were General health questionnaire (Goldberg & Hilier, Social Re-adjustment Rating Scale (Holmes & Rahe, Ahvaz Migraine Questionnaire (Najariyan and Effort-reward imbalance scale (Van Vegchel & et al. Results: The result of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis for investigating the Construct validity of the effort-reward imbalance model showed that in both analyses, the two factor model was confirmed. Moreover, findings indicate that balance group was in better psychological (p<0/01 and physical (migraine (p<0/05 status comparing to the imbalance group. These findings indicate the significance of justice to present appropriate reward relative to personnel performance on their health. Conclusion: Implication of these findings can improve Iranian industrial personnel health from both physical and psychological aspects.
... ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.009 Subcontracting research and development effort. Since the selection of R&D contractors is substantially based on... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subcontracting research...
In this dissertation we have questioned the current research practices in psychological science and thereby contributed to the current discussion about the credibility of psychological research. We specially focused on the problems with the reporting of statistical results and showed that reporting
Geng, Steven M.; Niedra, Janis M.; Schwarze, Gene E.
The Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company, and NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency, 110 watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for NASA Space Science missions. NASA Glenn is conducting in-house research on rare earth permanent magnets and on linear alternators to assist in developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for the SRG110 and for developing advanced technology. The permanent magnet research efforts include magnet characterization, short-term magnet aging tests, and long-term magnet aging tests. Linear alternator research efforts have begun just recently at GRC with the characterization of a moving iron type linear alternator using GRC's alternator test rig. This paper reports on the progress and future plans of GRC's magnet and linear alternator research efforts.
Demuth, Carolin; Terkildsen, Thomas Schjødt
(Aalborg University) and Günter Mey (Stendal University of Applied Science). The discussion started out by addressing the specifics of qualitative research in the field of psychology, its historical development and the perils of recent trends of standardization and neo-positivistic orientations. In light......In May 2014, a workshop on ”The future of qualitative research in psychology” took place at Aalborg University, Department of Communication & Psychology organized by Carolin Demuth. Participants from Aalborg University engaged in a lively exchange with the two invited discussants Svend Brinkmann...... of the discrepancy of what could be potentially achieved with qualitative methods for psychological research and how they are actually currently applied, the need was stressed to return to an understanding of qualitative methods as a craft skill and to take into account the subjectivity of the researcher...
Bakker, M.; Hartgerink, C.H.J.; Wicherts, J.M.; van der Maas, H.L.J.
Many psychology studies are statistically underpowered. In part, this may be because many researchers rely on intuition, rules of thumb, and prior practice (along with practical considerations) to determine the number of subjects to test. In Study 1, we surveyed 291 published research psychologists
Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.
With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…
Full Text Available . Today, it is known and widely accepted that researchers must know the research paradigms and develop skills and non-dogmatic attitudes for conducting and evaluating studies in any methodology. Quantitative research methodology is more common while qualitative research is relatively new in Turkey. Researchers who have not developed sufficient knowledge and experiences in qualitative study would create nonevidence based and non-ethical research projects. This creates threats to the research community. In order to improve and be competent in any methodology, it is important to review and critically analyze the completed dissertations, thesis and the journal articles emerged from those research efforts. In this effort self-reflection of one’s own research effort is essential. In this paper as an experienced researcher the author shares her experiences in supervising theses and dissertations and conducting her own research projects in qualitative research methodology in the last 20 years in Turkey. In the light of the literature considering various aspects she discusses advantages and disadvantages conducting qualitative studies in Turkey. Considering the disadvantages, the author came up with the idea of keeping thinking positively, acting modestly, being patient, learning how to deal with the authority, learning how to deal with the exploiters, working hard, never giving up, focusing on the target, being assertive when necessary, and so keeping going in the scientific way.
DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Schutz, Paul A.
In this article, we question why race as a sociohistorical construct has not traditionally been investigated in educational psychology research. To do so, we provide a historical discussion of the significance of race as well as present current dilemmas in the exploration of race, including an examination of the incidence and prevalence of…
We begin this talk with a brief description of the gender and ethnic diversity of the physics community. We then discuss several current efforts within Physics Education Research that have the potential to further our understanding of issues surrounding underrepresentation. These efforts include research into (1) the role of community and strategies for developing effective communities; (2) physics identity and self-efficacy; (3) the affordances that students from underrepresented groups bring to physics learning; (4) socioeconomics and its impact on mathematization. One of the challenges to conducting this research is the relatively small proportion of underrepresented minority students in current physics classes, and the small number of women in physics and engineering majors. In collaboration with Stephen Kanim, New Mexico State University.
McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M.; Rutherford, P.H.
This report presents a comparative assessment of the world's four major research efforts on magnetic confinement fusion, including a comparison of the capabilities in the Soviet Union, the European Community (Western Europe), Japan, and the United States. A comparative evaluation is provided in six areas: tokamak confinement; alternate confinement approaches; plasma technology and engineering; and fusion computations. The panel members are involved actively in fusion-related research, and have extensive experience in previous assessments and reviews of the world's four major fusion programs. Although the world's four major fusion efforts are roughly comparable in overall capabilities, two conclusions of this report are inescapable. First, the Soviet fusion effort is presently the weakest of the four programs in most areas of the assessment. Second, if present trends continue, the United States, once unambiguously the world leader in fusion research, will soon lose its position of leadership to the West European and Japanese fusion programs. Indeed, before the middle 1990s, the upgraded large-tokamak facilities, JT-60U (Japan) and JET (Western Europe), are likely to explore plasma conditions and operating regimes well beyond the capabilities of the TFTR tokamak (United States). In addition, if present trends continue in the areas of fusion nuclear technology and materials, and plasma technology and materials, and plasma technology development, the capabilities of Japan and Western Europe in these areas (both with regard to test facilities and fusion-specific industrial capabilities) will surpass those of the United States by a substantial margin before the middle 1990s
Full Text Available The paper proposes a reflection on the relationship between clinical psychology and research, highlighting the constant epistemological crossing the two practices, empirical and professional. The paper warns against the pitfalls of reductionism that, in both cases, may impact the effectiveness of therapeutic results. In fact, both in clinical practice and is in psychological research, the mere application of techniques contradicts the specificity of the object of study (the mind which, rather, requires the constant attention to a complexity of variables and contextual elements essential for the understanding the psychic. Qualitative research has been a prolific space for dialogue and joint trials between research and clinical practice that has rehabilitated scientific dignity of affective and subjective for a long time confined to the ephemeral world of poetry and literature. It must therefore be a further extension of the convergence not only of qualitative and quantitative methods but also of training modules for researchers and practitioners are able to stimulate, in daily practice, confidence in the utility of scientific monitoring and detection of inter-subjective variables in research devices.
Andysz, Aleksandra; Waszkowska, Małgorzata; Merecz, Dorota; Drabek, Marcin
The history of simulators dates back to the first decades of the twentieth century. At the beginning they were used to train pilots, and eventually they were used in the automotive industry for testing the strength of new vehicles and ergonomic solutions. With time research institutions and technical universities from outside the automotive industry have become more and more interested in simulators. Attractiveness of simulators for researchers is based on a number of important factors: they create the possibility of modeling, control and repeatability of different experimental situations, reducing at the same time the impact of confounding factors. Simulators have a great potential for data collection and processing. What's more, they are safe and ecologic. These values make them almost an ideal research tool. The article presents a review of psychological studies with use of vehicle driving simulators. It also points to advantages and disadvantages of these devices and outlines the future prospects for experimental research.
Cormack, Sophie; Bourne, Victoria; Deuker, Charmaine; Norton, Lin; O'Siochcru, Cathal; Watling, Rosamond
Psychology lecturers are well-qualified to carry out action research which would contribute to the theoretical understanding of learning as well as having practical benefits for students. Pedagogical action research demonstrates how knowledge of psychology can be applied to solve practical problems, providing role models of psychological literacy…
Burns, Matthew K.
The current article comments on the importance of theoretical implications within school psychological research, and proposes that ecological theory and prevention science could provide the conceptual framework for school psychology research and practice. Articles published in "School Psychology Review" should at least discuss potential…
Graybill, Emily; Baker, Courtney N.; Cloth, Allison H.; Fisher, Sycarah; Nastasi, Bonnie K.
The purpose of the current content analysis was to build upon previous empirical research both within school psychology and in other subdisciplines of psychology to refine the operationalized definition of social justice within school psychology research. Operationalizing the definition and substantiating it within the empirical literature is a…
Šolcová, Iva; Mikšík, O.
Roč. 43, č. 3 (2009), s. 74-76 ISSN 0233-528X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : aerospace psychological research * Interkosmos * psychological condition * ability to work * small isolated groups Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Watkins, Marley W; Chan-Park, Christina Y
Hirsch's (2005) h index has become one of the most popular indicators of research productivity for higher education faculty. However, the h index varies across academic disciplines so empirically established norms for each discipline are necessary. To that end, the current study collected h index values from Scopus and Google Scholar databases for 401 tenure-track faculty members from 109 school psychology training programs. Male faculty tended to be more senior than female faculty and a greater proportion of the male faculty held professorial rank. However, female faculty members outnumbered males at the assistant and associate professor ranks. Although strongly correlated (rho=.84), h index values from Google Scholar were higher than those from Scopus. h index distributions were positively skewed with many faculty having low values and a few faculty having high values. Faculty in doctoral training programs exhibited significantly larger h index values than faculty in specialist training programs and there were univariate differences in h index values across academic rank and sex, but sex differences were not significant after taking seniority into account. It was recommended that the h index be integrated with peer review and diverse other indicators when considering individual merit. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hazard, L.; Terrill, E. J.; Cook, T.; de Paolo, T.; Otero, M. P.; Rogowski, P.; Schramek, T. A.
The U.S. High Frequency Radar Network (HFRNet) has been in operation for over ten years with representation from 31 organizations spanning academic institutions, state and local government agencies, and private organizations. HFRNet currently holds a collection from over 130 radar installations totaling over 10 million records of surface ocean velocity measurements. HFRNet is a primary example of inter-agency and inter-institutional partnerships for improving oceanographic research and operations. HF radar derived surface currents have been used in several societal applications including coastal search and rescue, oil spill response, water quality monitoring and marine navigation. Central to the operational success of the large scale network is an efficient data management, storage, access, and delivery system. The networking of surface current mapping systems is characterized by a tiered structure that extends from the individual field installations to local regional operations maintaining multiple sites and on to centralized locations aggregating data from all regions. The data system development effort focuses on building robust data communications from remote field locations (sites) for ingestion into the data system via data on-ramps (Portals or Site Aggregators) to centralized data repositories (Nodes). Centralized surface current data enables the aggregation of national surface current grids and allows for ingestion into displays, management tools, and models. The Coastal Observing Research and Development Center has been involved in international relationships and research in the Philippines, Palau, and Vietnam. CORDC extends this IT architecture of surface current mapping data systems leveraging existing developments and furthering standardization of data services for seamless integration of higher level applications. Collaborations include the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), The Coral Reef Research
Henley, Nancy M.
Considers recent efforts within the field of psychology to understand issues involving gender. Demonstrates patterns of development within feminist psychology and its relation to mainstream psychology. Examines status of the field, two case studies, and new research. (Author/SA)
With the rapid development of society, the competition in the market is aggravating day by day. The loyalty of employees to the enterprises is decreasing. With the constant improvement of the employees' abilities, the willingness of job-hopping and the needs of employees become more diversified. Employees as an important driving force for the development of enterprises is the basic and necessary factor to support the operation of enterprises. In the face of increasingly fierce market competition, enterprises must use reasonable ways to motivate their employees and maintain the sense of belonging and trust with their employees. Continuous development to enhance staff treatment, so that employees dedicated to enterprise development services . This article briefly discusses the exploration and research on the practical thinking of psychological incentive in business management.
Bakker, Marjan; Hartgerink, Chris H. J.; Wicherts, Jelte M.; van der Maas, Han L. J.
Many psychology studies are statistically underpowered. In part, this may be because many researchers rely on intuition, rules of thumb, and prior practice (along with practical considerations) to determine the number of subjects to test. In Study 1, we surveyed 291 published research psychologists and found large discrepancies between their reports of their preferred amount of power and the actual power of their studies (calculated from their reported typical cell size, typical effect size, and acceptable alpha). Furthermore, in Study 2, 89% of the 214 respondents overestimated the power of specific research designs with a small expected effect size, and 95% underestimated the sample size needed to obtain .80 power for detecting a small effect. Neither researchers’ experience nor their knowledge predicted the bias in their self-reported power intuitions. Because many respondents reported that they based their sample sizes on rules of thumb or common practice in the field, we recommend that researchers conduct and report formal power analyses for their studies. PMID:27354203
Hutter, R. I (Vana); Pijpers, J. R (Rob); Oudejans, Raôul R.D.
Competent practice in sport psychology is of utmost importance for the professional status of the field, and hence proper assessment of competence for sport psychology practice is needed. We describe three cycles of action research to improve the assessment of competence in a sport psychology
Full Text Available During the past 10 years, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI has performed a study to control hydrogen gas in the containment of the nuclear power plants. Before the Fukushima accident, analytical activities for gas distribution analysis in experiments and plants were primarily conducted using a multidimensional code: the GASFLOW. After the Fukushima accident, the COM3D code, which can simulate a multidimensional hydrogen explosion, was introduced in 2013 to complete the multidimensional hydrogen analysis system. The code validation efforts of the multidimensional codes of the GASFLOW and the COM3D have continued to increase confidence in the use of codes using several international experimental data. The OpenFOAM has been preliminarily evaluated for APR1400 containment, based on experience from coded validation and the analysis of hydrogen distribution and explosion using the multidimensional codes, the GASFLOW and the COM3D. Hydrogen safety in nuclear power has become a much more important issue after the Fukushima event in which hydrogen explosions occurred. The KAERI is preparing a large-scale test that can be used to validate the performance of domestic passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs and can provide data for the validation of the severe accident code being developed in Korea.
Lilo Süllwold (*1930) was the first psychologist in the German Federal Republic to acquire habilitation for Clinical Psychology at a Medical Faculty. However, she had already been appointed professor for Clinical Psychology following to a new University Act implementing the recommendations of the National Council of Science and Humanities. Her habilitation treatise to justify the initial professorship appointment centered on a self-made questionnaire as a diagnostic tool for beginning schizophrenia. The manner how the questionnaire together with the politico-scientific structural changes at the German Federal universities endowed the young psychologist with a carrier in psychiatry, is an illuminating example of psychology's way into psychiatry: the institutionalization and professionalization of Clinical Psychology in psychiatry since the end of the 1950s up to the end of the 1970s. In a comparative perspective on the developments of Clinical Psychology in the German Democratic Republic, the example demonstrates not only the role of new psychological theories und methods in research and clinic in enabling the entry of the new profession into psychiatry, but also the importance of initial socio-economic and socio-politic frame conditions and decisions. The negotiation of the scope or limits of competences between doctors and psychologists created more than a professional niche inside the clinic; it changed psychiatry and psychology as academic branches in their structures due to the establishment of new Clinical Psychology departments. The role of the psychologist turned from a doctor's "assistant" into a colleague at "eye level".
Mazarrasa, Inés; Olsen, Ylva S; Mayol, Eva; Marbà, Núria; Duarte, Carlos M
Exploitation of the world's oceans is rapidly growing as evidenced by a booming patent market of marine products including seaweed, a resource that is easily accessible without sophisticated bioprospecting technology and that has a high level of domestication globally. The investment in research effort on seaweed aquaculture has recently been identified to be the main force for the development of a biotechnology market of seaweed-derived products and is a more important driver than the capacity of seaweed production. Here, we examined seaweed patent registrations between 1980 and 2009 to assess the growth rate of seaweed biotechnology, its geographic distribution and the types of applications patented. We compare this growth with scientific investment in seaweed aquaculture and with the market of seaweed production. We found that both the seaweed patenting market and the rate of scientific publications are rapidly growing (11% and 16.8% per year respectively) since 1990. The patent market is highly geographically skewed (95% of all registrations belonging to ten countries and the top two holding 65% of the total) compared to the distribution of scientific output among countries (60% of all scientific publications belonging to ten countries and the top two countries holding a 21%), but more homogeneously distributed than the production market (with a 99.8% belonging to the top ten countries, and a 71% to the top two). Food industry was the dominant application for both the patent registrations (37.7%) and the scientific publications (21%) followed in both cases by agriculture and aquaculture applications. This result is consistent with the seaweed taxa most represented. Kelp, which was the target taxa for 47% of the patent registrations, is a traditional ingredient in Asian food and Gracilaria and Ulva, which were the focus of 15% and 13% of the scientific publications respectively, that are also used in more sophisticated applications such as cosmetics, chemical
Jucks, Regina; Hillbrink, Alessa
In Germany, most PhD psychology students are engaged in research and teach as well. As a result, they may experience both synergy and competition between these two activities. How do PhD psychology students themselves perceive the relationship between research and teaching? And how does this perception depend on their conceptions of research and…
Rollin, Stephen A.; Subotnik, Rena F.; Bassford, Maya; Smulson, Jennifer
The following article details the work of the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Coalition for Psychology in the Schools and Education (CPSE). First, a brief history of the background and creation of the coalition is described. The article then details the projects, completed and ongoing, of the CPSE. Those projects include a Teacher…
Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J
Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available In recent decades, the increasing worldwide problems in the reproductive sphere of people, the problem of preserving reproductive health of the population has become very topical, it requires joint medical and psychological efforts. This article presents a review of more than 70 modern English-language scientific publications devoted to the study of psychological and psychosomatic peculiarities of men, women and couples with reproductive disorders and psychological predictors and consequences of these problems. The best known and the least explored psychological aspects of reproductive disorders are highlighted, the results of research are described, also R. Linder’s psychotherapeutic method of preventing premature births is outlined. The article has two parts: the first part presents the research of psychosomatic aspects of male and female reproductive diseases, including infertility; the second one is devoted to psychological and psychosomatic disorders of women during pregnancy and childbirth.
The present paper addresses several aspects discussed in the special issue on the future of qualitative research in psychology. Particularly, it asks whether in light of the overhomogenization of the term “qualitative methods” researchers actually can still assume that they talk about the same...... thing when using this terminology. In addressing the topic of what constitutes the object of psychological research and what accordingly could be a genuinely psychological qualitative research it acknowledges the need to return to the study of persons’ unique experience. In light of the risk of “Mc......Donaldization” in present qualitative research, it argues that we need to return to learning research methods as craft skills. It will then give an outlook on how recent developments in discursive and narrative psychology offer a fruitful avenue for studying unique psychological experience as people manage to ‘move on...
After the successful demonstration of H mode on KSTAR, the problem of fast-ion driven MHD modes such as Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) and the reverse effects on fast ions of MHD modes is under study in KSTAR. In this paper, I will briefly describe some recent efforts of KSTAR on energetic particle physics study. (J.P.N.)
James, Susan; Harris, Sara; Foster, Gary; Clarke, Juanne; Gadermann, Anne; Morrison, Marie; Bezanson, Birdie Jane
This article outlines a model for conducting psychotherapy with people of diverse cultural backgrounds. The theoretical foundation for the model is based on clinical and cultural psychology. Cultural psychology integrates psychology and anthropology in order to provide a complex understanding of both culture and the individual within his or her cultural context. The model proposed in this article is also based on our clinical experience and mixed method research with the Portuguese communi...
Reis, Harry T.; Judd, Charles M.
This volume provides an overview of research methods in contemporary social psychology. Coverage includes conceptual issues in research design, methods of research, and statistical approaches. Because the range of research methods available for social psychology have expanded extensively in the past decade, both traditional and innovative methods are presented. The goal is to introduce new and established researchers alike to new methodological developments in the field.
Shim, Minsun; Mercer Kollar, Laura M.; Roberts, Linda; Gustafson, David
Despite existing research identifying psychological benefits of patients’ interpersonal competence in various contexts, little longitudinal research has addressed underlying mechanism(s). To address this limitation, we examined both the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between cancer patients’ communication competence in close relationships and psychological well-being, as well as the mediating role of coping efforts. Data came from a larger project with women with breast cancer (N = 661), recruited from April 2005 to May 2007 at three large university-affiliated cancer centers in the U.S. to study the effects of an Internet-based system providing patients and families with a range of services. The present study focused on survey data at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after the intervention (controlling for the possible effects of the intervention). Results from both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicated that competence in open communication between patients and their close support persons had a positive association with patients’ psychological well-being and that approach coping efforts partially mediated this association. We discussed the implications and limitations of the study. PMID:25793748
Haverkamp, Beth E.
The present article explores ethical issues that emerge in qualitative research conducted by applied psychologists. The utility and relevance of the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association, 2002) for qualitative research are examined. The importance of psychology's fiduciary relationship with…
Michael A. Mingroni
Full Text Available After nearly thirty years of concerted effort by many investigators, the cause or causes of the secular gains in IQ test scores, known as the Flynn effect, remain elusive. In this target article, I offer six suggestions as to how we might proceed in our efforts to solve this intractable mystery. The suggestions are as follows: (1 compare parents to children; (2 consider other traits and conditions; (3 compare siblings; (4 conduct more and better intervention programs; (5 use subtest profile data in context; and (6 quantify the potential contribution of heterosis. This last section contains new simulations of the process of heterosis, which provide a plausible scenario whereby rapid secular changes in multiple genetically influenced traits are possible. If there is any theme to the present paper, it is that future study designs should be simpler and more highly focused, coordinating multiple studies on single populations.
Brancaccio, Maria Teresa
This paper traces Enrico Morselli's intellectual trajectory from the 1870s to the early 1900s. His interest in phenomena of physical mediumship is considered against the backdrop of the theoretical developments in Italian psychiatry and psychology. A leading positivist psychiatrist and a prolific academic, Morselli was actively involved in the making of Italian experimental psychology. Initially sceptical of psychical research and opposed to its association with the 'new psychology', Morselli subsequently conducted a study of the physical phenomena produced by the medium Eusapia Palladino. He concluded that her phenomena were genuine and represented them as the effects of an unknown bio-psychic force present in all human beings. By contextualizing Morselli's study of physical mediumship within contemporary theoretical and disciplinary discourse, this study elaborates shifts in the interpretations of 'supernormal' phenomena put forward by leading Italian psychiatrists and physiologists. It demonstrates that Morselli's interest in psychical research stems from his efforts to comprehend the determinants of complex psychological phenomena at a time when the dynamic theory of matter in physics, and the emergence of neo-vitalist theories influenced the theoretical debates in psychiatry, psychology and physiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Swaminathan, Hariharan; Rogers, H. Jane
Statistical reform in school psychology research is discussed in terms of research designs, measurement issues, statistical modeling and analysis procedures, interpretation and reporting of statistical results, and finally statistics education.
Proctor, Robert W; Urcuioli, Peter J
We consider requirements for effective interdisciplinary communication and explore alternative interpretations of "building bridges between functional and cognitive psychology." If the bridges are intended to connect radical behaviourism and cognitive psychology, or functional contextualism and cognitive psychology, the efforts are unlikely to be successful. But if the bridges are intended to connect functional relationships and cognitive theory, no construction is needed because the bridges already exist within cognitive psychology. We use human performance and animal research to illustrate the latter point and to counter the claim that the functional approach is unique in offering a close relationship between science and practice. Effective communication will be enhanced and, indeed, may only occur if the goal of functional contextualism extends beyond just "the advancement of functional contextual cognitive and behavioral science and practice" to "the advancement of cognitive and behavioral science and practice" without restriction. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Hutter, R. I (Vana); Pijpers, J. R (Rob); Oudejans, Raôul R.D.
Competent practice in sport psychology is of utmost importance for the professional status of the field, and hence proper assessment of competence for sport psychology practice is needed. We describe three cycles of action research to improve the assessment of competence in a sport psychology education program. The cycles were directed at (a) empowering supervisors in their assessing role, (b) improving the assessment checklist, and (c) investigating an alternative assessment method. Although...
Full Text Available Geoengineering (also called climate engineering, which refers to large-scale intervention in the Earth's climate system to counteract greenhouse gas-induced warming, has been one of the most rapidly growing areas of climate research as a potential option for tackling global warming. Here, we provide an overview of the scientific background and research progress of proposed geoengineering schemes. Geoengineering can be broadly divided into two categories: solar geoengineering (also called solar radiation management, or SRM, which aims to reflect more sunlight to space, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR, which aims to reduce the CO2 content in the atmosphere. First, we review different proposed geoengineering methods involved in the solar radiation management and carbon dioxide removal schemes. Then, we discuss the fundamental science underlying the climate response to the carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management schemes. We focus on two basic issues: 1 climate response to the reduction in solar irradiance and 2 climate response to the reduction in atmospheric CO2. Next, we introduce an ongoing geoengineering research project in China that is supported by National Key Basic Research Program. This research project, being the first coordinated geoengineering research program in China, will systematically investigate the physical mechanisms, climate impacts, and risk and governance of a few targeted geoengineering schemes. It is expected that this research program will help us gain a deep understanding of the physical science underlying geoengineering schemes and the impacts of geoengineering on global climate, in particular, on the Asia monsoon region.
Leth Olsen, Asmus; Tummers, L.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341028274; Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405; Jilke, Sebastian
Well-known public administration scholars have stressed the importance of psychological research for the study of public administration. Neighboring disciplines such as economics and political science, have witnessed the emergence of the psychology-informed subfields of behavioral economics and
Pawlow, Laura A.; Meinz, Elizabeth J.
Participation in undergraduate research has been shown to provide a wide array of benefits across many disciplines of study; however, relatively less is known about the impact of this experience on Psychology majors specifically. We collected measures of Psychology students' (N = 229) knowledge of the major (career, core, and…
The author presents several arguments against Toomela's (Culture of science: Strange history of the methodological thinking in psychology. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 2007a, doi:10.1007/sl2124-007-9004-0, History of methodology in psychology: Starting point, not the goal. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 2007b, doi:10.1007/sl2124-007-9005-z) pessimistic thesis: "The last 60 years of research in psychology seems to have gone astray." Nevertheless he admits that Toomela's article despite the excessively categorical assessments contained in it and the undue pessimism crowing its conclusion, represents a substantial contribution to the highlighting of socio-cultural impact on various models of psychological cognition, which lurks behind the international unification of globalizing science.
Information System (ATIS) categories as products of research on ITS were developed with data derived from urban trip makers ..... Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria aimed ... advocated for government and private sector driven.
Micaelli, Jean-Claude; Van Dorsselaere, Jean-Pierre; Chaumont, Bernard; Adroguer, Bernard; Haste, Tim; Bonnet, Jean-Michel; Meyer, Leonhard; Beraha, David; Trambauer, Klaus; Annunziato, Alessandro; Sehgal, Raj
49 organisations network in SARNET (Severe Accident Research and management NETwork) their capacities of research in order to resolve the most important remaining uncertainties and safety issues for enhancing, in regard of Severe Accidents (SA), the safety of existing and future Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). This project has been defined bearing in mind the necessity to optimise the use of the available means and to constitute sustainable research groups. SARNET tackles the fragmentation that exists between the different R and D national programmes, notably in defining common research programmes and developing common computer tools and methodologies for safety assessment. SARNET comprises most of the actors involved in SA research in Europe. To reach these objectives, all the organizations networked in SARNET contribute to a so-called Joint Programme of Activities (JPA), which can be broken in several elements: - Implementing an advanced communication tool for fostering exchange of information; - Harmonizing and re-orienting the research programmes, and defining commonly new ones; - Analysing commonly the experimental results provided by research programmes in order to elaborate a common understanding of concerned phenomena; - Developing ASTEC code (integral computer code used to predict the NPP behaviour during a postulated SA), which capitalizes in terms of physical models the knowledge produced within SARNET; - Developing Scientific Databases, in which all the results of research programmes are stored; - Developing a common methodology for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of NNPs; - Developing educational courses and text (source) books; - Promoting personnel mobility between the various European organisations. A few organizations are covering a wide range of competences though not complete, whereas others are specialized in very specific areas and thus complementarities are developing. The critical mass of competence for performing experiments needed in the
Gough, Brendan; Lyons, Antonia
In this paper we reflect on current trends and anticipate future prospects regarding qualitative research in Psychology. We highlight various institutional and disciplinary obstacles to qualitative research diversity, complexity and quality. At the same time, we note some causes for optimism, including publication breakthroughs and vitality within the field. The paper is structured into three main sections which consider: 1) the positioning of qualitative research within Psychology; 2) celebrating the different kinds of knowledge produced by qualitative research; and 3) implementing high quality qualitative research. In general we accentuate the positive, recognising and illustrating innovative qualitative research practices which generate new insights and propel the field forward. We conclude by emphasising the importance of research training: for qualitative research to flourish within Psychology (and beyond), students and early career researchers require more sophisticated, in-depth instruction than is currently offered.
Programmatic initiatives for fathers have grown rapidly in early childhood settings during the past decade. This article reviews the research literature on attitudes about father involvement in programs, patterns of father involvement, studies about program development, outcome studies, and correlates of father involvement in programs.…
Research Paper An exploratory study of psychological and developmental issues facing HIV and AIDS affected adolescents living in a residential care facility. Myrthe Van Vilsteren, Sadiyya Haffejee, Rabia Patel, Brett Bowman ...
Adams, G. R.
This paper reviews research on physical attractiveness from a dialectical-interactional perspective and attempts to examine the relationship between outer appearance and inner psychological characteristics from a developmental perspective. (BD)
Gee, Joanna; Bertrand-Godfrey, Betty
The psychological therapies are widely considered within the forensic literature as holding a useful role in the prison system, however, despite this, very little research into the psychological therapies has taken place. Further, where research is carried out, it is often associated with the need for evidence-based practice (EBP), involving quantification and randomization. The paper aims to discuss these issues. This paper will initially introduce the importance of research into the psychological therapies in prison, followed by a consideration of EBP which can be thought of as the current movement governing research in the psychological therapies in the UK. However, in providing a focused critique of EBP, particularly within prisons, this paper will attempt to pave the way for a consideration of alternative research methodologies and resultant methods in researching the psychological therapies in prisons in the UK. Through this it is argued that research within the prison setting should act not to promote interventions and create an evidence-based as such, but to provide an accessible body of knowledge for the psychological therapists working in prisons in the UK.
Rezaiyan, A.J.; Gill, R.T.
Research and experimental development comprise innovative and creative work undertaken systematically to increase the stock of knowledge of science, engineering, and society. This knowledge reserve is used to improve living conditions and standards, including economic growth. Research and development (R ampersand D) expenditures are useful measures of the scale and direction of technological innovation within a country, industry, or scientific field. Administrators concerned with economic growth and performance rely on R ampersand D statistics as one possible type of indicator of technological change. R ampersand D statistics are an essential tool in many government programs and evaluations (OECD 1993). The objective of the analysis was to identify and evaluate R ampersand D funding sources, levels, and trends in the energy sectors of selected industrialized countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States) and the European Union (EU). Fossil fuel technologies, particularly fuel cells and advanced gas turbines, were the focus of the analysis, whose results are presented in this report
小倉, 正義; OGURA, Masayoshi
These days, the importance of school-family partnership has much understanding. It is valuable forschool-family partnership to promote children's growth, their school progress, and their development.So school-family partnership is one of notable topics in psychological research. The purpose of thisstudy was to overview psychological research on school-family partnership and to discuss the determinantsof school-family relationship and the methods of promoting school-family partnership. In thef...
Moore, Sean D.; Teter, Ken
Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student-one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-effort applied research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with…
Schmitz, R.; Carlson, P.B.; Lorenz, G.D.; Watson, M.D.; Erno, B.P.
Gas migration, which is the leakage of gas from outside the wellbore casings of oil and gas wells, has been recognized for many years as a problem but is still not clearly understood. It can exhibit itself as gas pressure on the surface casing, gas migrating through the soil surrounding the casing, or both. The phenomena is particularly visible in the Lloydminster area, in part due to the fact that well density is high and much of the land is under cultivation, making the effects on soil more evident. A research and development program has been initiated to determine the extent and impact of the problem and to identify technical solutions. The magnitude of the problem is discussed, indicating that 1 in 20 wells in Alberta has gas pressure on the surface casing. In the Lloydminster area, nearly half of all wells show indication of gas migration. Industry/regulatory action in the past is discussed, and the search for technical and business solutions is described. It is shown that methane leakage from gas migration is low, and emission from most gas migration wells is comparable to that generated by a typical dairy cow. 8 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs
Mahoney, Kevin T; Buboltz, Walter C; Calvert, Barbara; Hoffmann, Rebecca
Examination of research productivity has a long history in psychology. Journals across psychology have periodically published research-productivity studies. An analysis of institutional research productivity was conducted for 17 journals published by the American Psychological Association for the years 1986-2008. This analysis implemented two methodologies: one a replication and extension of G. S. Howard, D. A. Cole, and S. E. Maxwell's (1987) method, the other a new method designed to give credit to psychology departments rather than only overall institutions. A system of proportional credit assured all articles with multiple institutions received credit. Results show that for the 23-year period, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign was ranked 1st, followed by the University of California, Los Angeles, and the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Overall, results showed both consistency and change across all journals examined. The authors explore the implications of these findings in the context of the current academic environment.
Salmon, Peter; Clark, Louise; McGrath, Elly; Fisher, Peter
Although health policy for cancer care promotes screening of patients for emotional distress, the utility and validity of screening have been questioned. Continued research to refine detection of distress or to evaluate outcomes of screening programmes is unlikely to end this controversy. Instead, we need to identify more fundamental research questions that address the validity or utility of screening in this context. We critically and selectively review research and policy literature on psychological screening in cancer care, drawing also from research literature about the nature of psychological needs in cancer care and from relevant literature on psychological screening in mental health. We identify three broad research questions: (i) Apart from intensity of distress, what further information should screening seek about the context of distress, psychological processes that promote distress and patients' own perspective on their needs? (ii) What are the implications of the contextual dependence of disclosure of emotional feelings, given that screening questions can be asked in contexts ranging from an impersonal questionnaire to dialogue with a trusted practitioner? (iii) How should a screen be responded to, given the inherent uncertainty associated with screening results and given that distress in a cancer context can indicate instrumental as well as psychological needs? Examining these questions will mean exchanging a diagnostic framework for screening, in which health need is indicated by the presence of a psychological disorder, for a public health framework, in which health need is identified from multiple perspectives. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Morys-Carter, Wakefield L.; Paltoglou, Aspasia E.; Davies, Emma L.
Statistics and Research Methods modules are often unpopular with psychology students; however, at Oxford Brookes University the seminar component of the second-year research methods module tends to get very positive feedback. Over half of the seminars work towards the submission of a research-based experimental lab report. This article introduces…
An understanding of the current intervention research is critical to the adoption of evidence-based practices in the delivery of psychological services; however, the generalizability and utility of intervention research for culturally and linguistically diverse youth may be limited by the types of research samples utilized. This study addresses…
In this short Opinion piece, I outline how iPad apps can facilitate theory development, data collection, data representation and dissemination of postgraduate psychology research. I reflect on how apps supported my own postgraduate research practice and how one particular app--Our Story--enriched the individual stages of my research enquiry. I…
Roberts, Patricia; Ertubey, Candan; McMurray, Isabella; Robertson, Ian
Psychology is a science-based discipline in which research is inextricably embedded in teaching and learning activities. Educators use different methods to help students in their learning of the nature of research and the practical skills required to conduct research, with students playing either a passive or more active role in the learning…
Rosenkranz, Patrick; Fielden, Amy; Tzemou, Effy
Research methods teaching in psychology is pivotal in preparing students for the transition from student as learner to independent practitioner. We took an action research approach to re-design, implement and evaluate a module guiding students through a programmatic and pragmatic research cycle. These revisions allow students to experience how…
van der Werff, Ellen; Perlaviciute, Goda; Muinos, Gabriel
The aim of this special issue is to bring the work of early-career researchers in environmental psychology to the spotlight. These young researchers come from different countries and cultures, have their own theoretical approaches and employ different research methods to increase knowledge on the
Ohe, Takeru; Kanada, Yasumasa; Momota, Hiromu; Ichikawa, Y.H.
This paper presents a quantitative analysis of research trends in the fields of plasma physics and nuclear fusion. This analysis is based on information retrieval from available data bases such as INSPEC tapes. The results indicate that plasma physics research is now in the maturation phase of its life cycle, and that nuclear fusion research is in its growth phase. This paper indicates that there is a correlation between the number of accumulated papers in the fields of plasma physics and nuclear fusion and the experimentally attained values of the plasma ignition parameter ntT. Using this correlation ''research effort curve'', we forecast that the scientific feasibility of controlled fusion using magnetic confinement systems will be proved around 1983. (author)
Full Text Available Stephen Thielke1, Alexander Thompson2, Richard Stuart31Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work.Keywords: health psychology, primary care, integrated care, collaborative care, referral, colocation
Ding, Cody S
This book explores the fundamentals of multidimensional scaling (MDS) and how this analytic method can be used in applied setting for educational and psychological research. The book tries to make MDS more accessible to a wider audience in terms of the language and examples that are more relevant to educational and psychological research and less technical so that the readers are not overwhelmed by equations. The goal is for readers to learn the methods described in this book and immediately start using MDS via available software programs. The book also examines new applications that have previously not been discussed in MDS literature. It should be an ideal book for graduate students and researchers to better understand MDS. Fundamentals of Applied Multidimensional Scaling for Educational and Psychological Research is divided into three parts. Part I covers the basic and fundamental features of MDS models pertaining to applied research applications. Chapters in this section cover the essential features of da...
Portillo-Salido, Enrique F
From the very outset of scientific Psychology, psychologists have shown interest for drugs and their effects on behavior. This has given rise to numerous contributions, mostly in the form of Psychopharmacology publications. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate these contributions and compare them with other academic disciplines related to Psychopharmacology. Using the PubMed database, we retrieved information about articles from 15 journals included in the Pharmacology and Pharmacy category of the Journal Citation Reports database for a 21-year period (1987 to 2007). There were 37540 articles which about 52% were represented by 3 journals. About 70% of psychology publications were represented by 2 of these journals. Psychology departments accounted for the 11% of the published papers, which places Psychology third behind Psychiatry and Pharmacology, which contributed to 22.69 and 13% respectively. Psychology contributed to the greatest number of studies in 3 journals, second in 3 and third in 8. This report represents the first effort to explore the contribution of academic Psychology to the multidisciplinary science of psychopharmacology. Although leaders of production of psychopharmacology research were from Psychiatry and Pharmacology, Psychology departments are an important source of studies and thus of knowledge in the field of Psychopharmacology.
Edwards, Oliver W.
This article addresses a translational research framework for school psychology. Translational research uses outcomes of basic and applied science to enhance the overall well-being of persons. This transdisciplinary framework connects disciplines and uses their resources, capacities, systems, and procedures to advance prevention, intervention, and…
Beck, Kirk A.
This article describes ethnographic decision tree modeling (EDTM; C. H. Gladwin, 1989) as a mixed method design appropriate for counseling psychology research. EDTM is introduced and located within a postpositivist research paradigm. Decision theory that informs EDTM is reviewed, and the 2 phases of EDTM are highlighted. The 1st phase, model…
This is a description of the creation of a research methods tool, the "Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research With Mexican Americans." For conducting literature reviews of and planning mixed methods studies with Mexican Americans, it contains evaluative criteria calling for transformative mixed methods, perspectives…
Full Text Available The turning point in economic science has now come, marked especially by triggering the biggest crisis since the Great Depression of '29-'33, has called into question the need to reconsider the status of economic science and finding ways in which it can increase its practical foundations. In the elaboration of this study I’ve took into account the fact that beyond any abstract, formal and mathematical model, economics is a science, having the man in its center. Furthermore, every economic process is based on the human being. But the way individuals behave does not follow precisely the pattern predicted by classical and neoclassical models, but most of the time they are making decisions under the influence of psychological factors. Starting from these assumptions I considered important to highlight a real need for psychology in economic research. Therefore, the aim of this work is exclusively theoretical meant to show that the study of psychological factors is necessary in economic research, because it allows a better explanation of the economic problems and lead to obtaining results closer to reality than those who only take into consideration economic factors. In this way I appealed to behavioral economics. This represents a new trend of economic thinking that reunites psychology with economy. The thing that I observed after finishing the study is that behavioral economics can increase the explanatory power of economics by providing more realistic psychological bases, because human behavior is not only the subject matter of economics but psychology too.
Gerson, Mary-Joan; And Others
Summarizes research on various aspects of mothering, including the decision to have children, child rearing in the early years and maternal employment, and late parenting with adult children. Urges an ecological perspective toward parenting and various publicly and privately-supported child care facilities and arrangements. (CJM)
Marszalek, Jacob M; Barber, Carolyn; Kohlhart, Julie; Holmes, Cooper B
The American Psychological Association (APA) Task Force on Statistical Inference was formed in 1996 in response to a growing body of research demonstrating methodological issues that threatened the credibility of psychological research, and made recommendations to address them. One issue was the small, even dramatically inadequate, size of samples used in studies published by leading journals. The present study assessed the progress made since the Task Force's final report in 1999. Sample sizes reported in four leading APA journals in 1955, 1977, 1995, and 2006 were compared using nonparametric statistics, while data from the last two waves were fit to a hierarchical generalized linear growth model for more in-depth analysis. Overall, results indicate that the recommendations for increasing sample sizes have not been integrated in core psychological research, although results slightly vary by field. This and other implications are discussed in the context of current methodological critique and practice.
Smith, Kirsten V; Thew, Graham R
The combination of clinical psychologists' therapeutic expertise and research training means that they are in an ideal position to be conducting high-quality research projects. However, despite these skills and the documented benefits of research to services and service users, research activity in practice remains low. This article aims to give an overview of the advantages of, and difficulties in conducting research in clinical practice. We reviewed the relevant literature on barriers to research and reflected on our clinical and research experiences in a range of contexts to offer practical recommendations. We considered factors involved in the planning, sourcing support, implementation, and dissemination phases of research, and outline suggestions to improve the feasibility of research projects in post-qualification roles. We suggest that research leadership is particularly important within clinical psychology to ensure the profession's continued visibility and influence within health settings. Clinical implications Emerging evidence suggests that clinical settings that foster research are associated with better patient outcomes. Suggestions to increase the feasibility of research projects in clinical settings are detailed. Limitations The present recommendations are drawn from the authors' practical experience and may need adaptation to individual practitioners' settings. This study does not attempt to assess the efficacy of the strategies suggested. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.
Does, Serena; Ellemers, Naomi; Dovidio, John F; Norman, Jasmine B; Mentovich, Avital; van der Lee, Romy; Goff, Phillip Atiba
Long-standing research traditions in psychology have established the fundamental impact of social categories, such as race and gender, on people's perceptions of themselves and others, as well as on the general human cognition and behavior. However, there is a general tendency to ignore research staff demographics (e.g., researchers' race and gender) in research development and research reports. Variation in research staff demographics can exert systematic and scientifically informative influences on results from psychological research. Consequently, research staff demographics need to be considered, studied, and/or reported, along with how these demographics were allowed to vary across participants or conditions (e.g., random assignment, matched with participant demographics, or included as a factor in the experimental design). In addition to providing an overview of multidisciplinary evidence of research staff demographics effects, we discuss how research staff demographics might influence research findings through (a) ingroup versus outgroup effects, (b) stereotype and (implicit) bias effects, and (c) priming and social tuning effects. Finally, an overview of recommended considerations is included (see the Appendix) to help illustrate how to systematically incorporate relevant research staff demographics in psychological science. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Randy J. McCarthy
Full Text Available “Crowdsourcing” is a methodological approach in which several researchers coordinate their resources to achieve research goals that would otherwise be difficult to attain individually. This article introduces a 'Nexus'—a collection of empirical and theoretical articles that will be published in 'Collabra: Psychology'—that is intended to encourage more crowdsourced research in psychological science by providing a specific outlet for such projects and by assisting researchers in developing and executing their projects. We describe how individuals can propose and lead a crowdsourced research project, how individuals can contribute to other ongoing projects, and other ways to contribute to this 'Nexus'. Ultimately, we hope this 'Nexus' will contain a set of highly-informative articles that demonstrate the flexibility and range of the types of research questions that can be addressed with crowdsourced research methods.
Thieman, Thomas J.; Clary, E. Gil; Olson, Andrea M.; Dauner, Rachel C.; Ring, Erin E.
For 6 years, we have offered an integrated weekly laboratory focusing on research methods as part of our general psychology course. Through self-report measures and controlled comparisons, we found that laboratory projects significantly increase students' knowledge and comfort level with scientific approaches and concepts, sustain interest in…
de la Rosa, Stephan; Breidt, Martin
One major challenge of social interaction research is to achieve high experimental control over social interactions to allow for rigorous scientific reasoning. Virtual reality (VR) promises this level of control. Pan and Hamilton guide us with a detailed review on existing and future possibilities and challenges of using VR for social interaction research. Here, we extend the discussion to methodological and practical implications when using VR. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.
Fang Xiang; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan
Based on the working tasks of an operator being taken into full consideration in this paper, on the one hand the table of measuring psychological characteristics is designed through the selection of special dimensions; on the other hand the table of performance appraisal is drafted through the choice of suitable standards of an operator. The paper analyzes the results of two aspects, sets relevant nuclear power plant operators as the research objective, and obtains the psychological characteristics and performance relativity of operators. The research can be as important and applied reference for the selection, evaluation and use of operators
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L
Psychological research has provided essential insights into how stigma operates to disadvantage those who are targeted by it. At the same time, stigma research has been criticized for being too focused on the perceptions of stigmatized individuals and on microlevel interactions, rather than attending to structural forms of stigma. This article describes the relatively new field of research on structural stigma, which is defined as societal-level conditions, cultural norms, and institutional policies that constrain the opportunities, resources, and well-being of the stigmatized. I review emerging evidence that structural stigma related to mental illness and sexual orientation (a) exerts direct and synergistic effects on stigma processes that have long been the focus of psychological inquiry (e.g., concealment, rejection sensitivity), (b) serves as a contextual moderator of the efficacy of psychological interventions, and (c) contributes to numerous adverse health outcomes for members of stigmatized groups-ranging from dysregulated physiological stress responses to premature mortality-indicating that structural stigma represents an underrecognized mechanism producing health inequalities. Each of these pieces of evidence suggests that structural stigma is relevant to psychology and therefore deserves the attention of psychological scientists interested in understanding and ultimately reducing the negative effects of stigma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available We discuss the main theoretical concepts of a dream: dream definitions, ideas about its genesis, functions, dream location in the structure of activity. We analyze the similarities and differences between the approaches. The results of empirical studies of adolescent and adult dreams are generalized, dream functions in adolescence are analyzed. Based on the analysis of different approaches, we chose theoretical basis of our own research – A. Leontiev activity theory, L.S. Vygotsky concept, K. Lewin's model. We formulated and substantiated the definition of dream as emotionally colored image of the desired future, having a subjective significance. We show the significance and hypotheses of our research: 1 the content of dreams is connected not only with a situation of frustration, but also with the teenager abilities, 2 the dream is involved in regulating of values choice; 3 restoration and development of the ability to dream can be used in the practice of counseling and psychotherapy as an effective tool to help adolescents and adults
Thielke, Stephen; Thompson, Alexander; Stuart, Richard
Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work.
Paradis, E K
This paper presents a feminist and community psychology analysis of ethical concerns that can arise throughout the process of doing research with women who are homeless. The unique contexts of the lives of women who are homeless demand that researchers redefine traditional ethical constructs such as consent, privacy, harm, and bias. Research that fails to do this may perpetuate the stereotyping, marginalization, stigmatization, and victimization homeless women face. Feminist and community research ethics must go beyond the avoidance of harm to an active investment in the well-being of marginalized individuals and communities. Using feminist and community psychology ethics, this paper addresses some common problems in research with women who are homeless, and argues for the transformation of research from a tool for the advancement of science into a strategy for the empowerment of homeless women and their communities.
Full Text Available This report aims to present the researcher in Psychology techniques for search and retrieval of information for academic and science research. Is based on my experiences as university librarian and as a doctoral student in Psychology, in a project on scientometry of the Social Skills field. This goal is to obtain information reliable and with quality to develop research, from sources of online information. Are recommended and described steps to the process of searching for scientific information, with examples from the Social Skills field: defining research topic; applying appropriate search tactics; selecting reliable sources of information and experts on the topic; translating research into the language of the information source; developing an effective search strategy; evaluating the quality and reliability of the obtained items. It is expected that by following these steps, the researcher obtain a coherent corpus with the subject, time saving and quality bibliographic.
Brooks, Joanna; McCluskey, Serena; Turley, Emma L.; King, Nigel
Thematic analysis is widely used in qualitative psychology research, and in this article, we present a particular style of thematic analysis known as Template Analysis. We outline the technique and consider its epistemological position, then describe three case studies of research projects which employed Template Analysis to illustrate the diverse ways it can be used. Our first case study illustrates how the technique was employed in data analysis undertaken by a team of researchers in a larg...
Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.
Treatment integrity data are essential to drawing valid conclusions in treatment outcome studies. Such data, however, are not always included in peer-reviewed research articles in school psychology or related fields. To gain a better understanding of why treatment integrity data are lacking in the school psychology research, we surveyed the…
Holosko, Michael J.; Barner, John R.
Objectives: We sought the answer to one major research question--Does psychology have a more defined culture of research than social work? Methods: Using "U.S. News and World Report" 2012 and 2013 rankings, we compared psychology faculty (N = 969) from their 25 top ranked programs with a controlled sample of social work faculty (N = 970)…
Taylor, Ian M; Lonsdale, Chris
Using basic psychological needs theory (BPNT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) as our guiding framework, we explored cultural differences in the relationships among physical education students' perceptions of teacher autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, subjective vitality and effort in class. Seven hundred and fifteen students (age range from 13 to 15 years) from the U.K. and Hong Kong, China, completed a multisection inventory during a timetabled physical education class. Multilevel analyses revealed that the relationships among autonomy support, subjective vitality and effort were mediated by students' perceptions of psychological need satisfaction. The relationship between autonomy support and perceptions of competence was stronger in the Chinese sample, compared with the U.K. sample. In addition, the relationship between perceptions of relatedness and effort was not significant in the Chinese students. The findings generally support the pan-cultural utility of BPNT and imply that a teacher-created autonomy supportive environment may promote positive student experiences in both cultures.
Kahn, Jeffrey H.
Multilevel modeling (MLM) is rapidly becoming the standard method of analyzing nested data, for example, data from students within multiple schools, data on multiple clients seen by a smaller number of therapists, and even longitudinal data. Although MLM analyses are likely to increase in frequency in counseling psychology research, many readers…
Boone, William J.; Noltemeyer, Amity
In order to progress as a field, school psychology research must be informed by effective measurement techniques. One approach to address the need for careful measurement is Rasch analysis. This technique can (a) facilitate the development of instruments that provide useful data, (b) provide data that can be used confidently for both descriptive…
Hicks, Melanie; Monroy-Paz, Jorge
In a world of fast moving technology, pressure cooker work climates and stretched resources, productivity, employee engagement, and talent retention are critical to the success of any organization. Research administration offices are no exception. Psychological contract theory provides insightful illumination on reactions to these environments by…
Jebb, Andrew T; Tay, Louis; Wang, Wei; Huang, Qiming
Psychological research has increasingly recognized the importance of integrating temporal dynamics into its theories, and innovations in longitudinal designs and analyses have allowed such theories to be formalized and tested. However, psychological researchers may be relatively unequipped to analyze such data, given its many characteristics and the general complexities involved in longitudinal modeling. The current paper introduces time series analysis to psychological research, an analytic domain that has been essential for understanding and predicting the behavior of variables across many diverse fields. First, the characteristics of time series data are discussed. Second, different time series modeling techniques are surveyed that can address various topics of interest to psychological researchers, including describing the pattern of change in a variable, modeling seasonal effects, assessing the immediate and long-term impact of a salient event, and forecasting future values. To illustrate these methods, an illustrative example based on online job search behavior is used throughout the paper, and a software tutorial in R for these analyses is provided in the Supplementary Materials.
Wicherts, J.M.; Borsboom, D.; Kats, J.; Molenaar, D.
The origin of the present comment lies in a failed attempt to obtain, through e-mailed requests, data reported in 141 empirical articles recently published by the American Psychological Association (APA). Our original aim was to reanalyze these data sets to assess the robustness of the research
Ward, Roger A.; Grasha, Anthony F.
Provides a classroom demonstration designed to test an astrological hypothesis and help teach introductory psychology students about research design and data interpretation. Illustrates differences between science and nonscience, the role of theory in developing and testing hypotheses, making comparisons among groups, probability and statistical…
Jebb, Andrew T.; Tay, Louis; Wang, Wei; Huang, Qiming
Psychological research has increasingly recognized the importance of integrating temporal dynamics into its theories, and innovations in longitudinal designs and analyses have allowed such theories to be formalized and tested. However, psychological researchers may be relatively unequipped to analyze such data, given its many characteristics and the general complexities involved in longitudinal modeling. The current paper introduces time series analysis to psychological research, an analytic domain that has been essential for understanding and predicting the behavior of variables across many diverse fields. First, the characteristics of time series data are discussed. Second, different time series modeling techniques are surveyed that can address various topics of interest to psychological researchers, including describing the pattern of change in a variable, modeling seasonal effects, assessing the immediate and long-term impact of a salient event, and forecasting future values. To illustrate these methods, an illustrative example based on online job search behavior is used throughout the paper, and a software tutorial in R for these analyses is provided in the Supplementary Materials. PMID:26106341
Fang Xiang; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan
The qualitative and quantitative psychology evaluation methods to the nuclear power plant operators were analyzed and discussed in the paper. The comparison analysis to the scope and result of application was carried out between method of outline figure fitted and method of fuzzy synthetic evaluation. The research results can be referenced to the evaluation of nuclear power plant operators. (authors)
Wicherts, Jelte M.; Borsboom, Denny; Kats, Judith; Molenaar, Dylan
The origin of the present comment lies in a failed attempt to obtain, through e-mailed requests, data reported in 141 empirical articles recently published by the American Psychological Association (APA). Our original aim was to reanalyze these data sets to assess the robustness of the research findings to outliers. We never got that far. In June…
Murdock, Nancy L.
Scheel et al. offer an interesting analysis on the publication rate of counseling-related research articles in counseling psychology's two major journals. In this reaction to their work, the author considers various aspects of their results and contemplates possible explanations for the decline of counseling-related publications. The author…
Christopher, Andrew N.; Marek, Pam; Benigno, Joann
To enhance student interest in research methods, tests and measurement, and statistics classes, we describe how teachers may use resources from economic psychology to illustrate key concepts in these courses. Because of their applied nature and relevance to student experiences, topics covered by these resources may capture student attention and…
Full Text Available Quantitative psychological research is focused on detecting the occurrence of certain population phenomena by analyzing data from a sample, and statistics is a particularly helpful mathematical tool that is used by researchers to evaluate hypotheses and make decisions to accept or reject such hypotheses. In this paper, the various statistical tools in psychological research are reviewed. The limitations of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST and the advantages of using effect size and its respective confidence intervals are explained, as the latter two measurements can provide important information about the results of a study. These measurements also can facilitate data interpretation and easily detect trivial effects, enabling researchers to make decisions in a more clinically relevant fashion. Moreover, it is recommended to establish an appropriate sample size by calculating the optimum statistical power at the moment that the research is designed. Psychological journal editors are encouraged to follow APA recommendations strictly and ask authors of original research studies to report the effect size, its confidence intervals, statistical power and, when required, any measure of clinical significance. Additionally, we must account for the teaching of statistics at the graduate level. At that level, students do not receive sufficient information concerning the importance of using different types of effect sizes and their confidence intervals according to the different types of research designs; instead, most of the information is focused on the various tools of NHST.
Elisangela Barboza Fernandes
Full Text Available This article aims to examine how research in social sciences is likely to be over procedure-oriented and quite distant from creativity, thus being less effective in dealing with the studied phenomenon. In pursuit of objectivity, psychology researchers have defined experimentation as the best investigation device and consequently devalued interpretive approaches, running the risk of studying mere peripheral phenomena. The present article is conducted through literature research and conceptual analysis around the opposition of two types of researcher positions: the machine-trick researcher, according to Becker’s perspective (1977, versus the bricoleur or communicative researcher, as named by Denzin and Lincoln (2006, and Spink (2008, respectively. In conclusion, the well-trained researcher can get loose from technical formalization in order to create what his/her studied phenomenon and context require. Therefore, it can be asserted that the bricoleur-researcher type better meets the conditions of qualitative research in social sciences.
Thorne, M.C.; Plews, M.; Kane, P.
Based on papers submitted to the Government's Radioactivity Research and Environmental Monitoring Committee (RadREM), this report presents a consolidated summary of perceived research requirements for 1988/89 and a comparison with the research proposed for that period. On this basis, discussion is included of gaps in the national research effort to 1989, duplication of research plans and areas where better co-ordination or funding of research might be appropriate. (author)
Kidd, Sean A
The acceptance of qualitative research in 15 journals published and distributed by the American Psychological Association (APA) was investigated. This investigation included a PsycINFO search using the keyword qualitative, an analysis of 15 APA journals for frequency of qualitative publication, a content analysis of the journal descriptions, and the results of qualitative interviews with 10 of the chief editors of those journals. The results indicate that there exists a substantial amount of interest in the potential contribution of qualitative methods in major psychological journals, although this interest is not ubiquitous, well defined, or communicated. These findings highlight the need for APA to state its position regarding the applicability of qualitative methods in the study of psychology.
Villarreal, Victor; Umaña, Ileana
The purpose of this study was to identify authors and training programs making the most frequent contributions to intervention research published in six school psychology journals ("School Psychology Review," "School Psychology Quarterly," "Journal of School Psychology," "Psychology in the Schools,"…
Thielke, Stephen; Thompson,; Stuart,
Stephen Thielke1, Alexander Thompson2, Richard Stuart31Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, ...
Pedro S. A. Wolf
Full Text Available Animal behaviorists have made extensive use of GPS technology since 1991. In contrast, psychological research has made little use of the technology, even though the technology is relatively inexpensive, familiar, and widespread. Hence, its potential for pure and applied psychological research remains untapped. We describe three methods psychologists could apply to individual differences research, clinical research, or spatial use research. In the context of individual differences research, GPS technology permits us to test hypotheses predicting specific relations among patterns of spatial use and individual differences variables. In a clinical context, GPS technology provides outcome measures that may relate to the outcome of interventions designed to treat psychological disorders that, for example, may leave a person homebound (e.g. Agoraphobia, PTSD, TBI. Finally, GPS technology provides natural measures of spatial use. We, for example, used GPS technology to quantify traffic flow and exhibit use at the Arizona Sonora Desert Museum. Interested parties could easily extend this methodology some aspects of urban planning or business usage.DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v1i1.74
Moore, Sean D.; Teter, Ken
Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student - one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-Effort Applied Research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with meaningful research experiences. The GEAR curriculum delivers concept-driven lecture material and provides hands-on training in the context of an active research project from the instructor's lab. Because GEAR is structured as a class, participating students benefit from intensive, supervised research training that involves a built-in network of peer support and abundant contact with faculty mentors. The class format also ensures a relatively standardized and consistent research experience. Furthermore, meaningful progress toward a research objective can be achieved more readily with GEAR than with the traditional one student - one mentor model of undergraduate research because sporadic mistakes by individuals in the class are overshadowed by the successes of the group as a whole. Three separate GEAR classes involving three distinct research projects have been offered to date. In this paper, we provide an overview of the GEAR format and review some of the recurring themes for GEAR instruction. We propose GEAR can serve as a template to expand student opportunities for life science research without sacrificing the quality of the mentored research experience. PMID:24898007
Leong, Frederick T L; Leung, Kwok; Cheung, Fanny M
Multicultural psychology has 2 related but often disconnected streams, namely cross-cultural psychology and racial and ethnic minority psychology (Hall & Maramba, 2001). We propose that advances in both fields will be facilitated if there is greater cross-fertilization, especially in methodological approaches given that proponents in both fields are interested in studying and understanding the role and impact of culture on human behavior. To facilitate this cross-fertilization, we present 3 methodological approaches that would be of value in racial and ethnic minority psychology. First, we present an overview of the importance of and the approaches to evaluating and establishing measurement equivalence. Second, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of conceptual equivalence in light of indigenous approaches, cultural manipulation, and multilevel analysis. Third, we present a combined etic-emic approach to cross-cultural personality research as illustrated by the Cross-Cultural Personality Assessment Inventory developed by Fanny Cheung and her colleagues. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Scientists produce research resources that are useful to future research and innovative efforts. In a typical scientific scenario, the results created by a collaborative team often include numerous artifacts, observations and relationships relevant to research findings, such as programs that generate data, parameters that impact outputs, workflows…
James, Susan; Harris, Sara; Foster, Gary; Clarke, Juanne; Gadermann, Anne; Morrison, Marie; Bezanson, Birdie Jane
This article outlines a model for conducting psychotherapy with people of diverse cultural backgrounds. The theoretical foundation for the model is based on clinical and cultural psychology. Cultural psychology integrates psychology and anthropology in order to provide a complex understanding of both culture and the individual within his or her cultural context. The model proposed in this article is also based on our clinical experience and mixed-method research with the Portuguese community. The model demonstrates its value with ethnic minority clients by situating the clients within the context of their multi-layered social reality. The individual, familial, socio-cultural, and religio-moral domains are explored in two research projects, revealing the interrelation of these levels/contexts. The article is structured according to these domains. Study 1 is a quantitative study that validates the Agonias Questionnaire in Ontario. The results of this study are used to illustrate the individual domain of our proposed model. Study 2 is an ethnography conducted in the Azorean Islands, and the results of this study are integrated to illustrate the other three levels of the model, namely family, socio-cultural, and the religio-moral levels. PMID:23720642
Bryzgalina Elena V.
Full Text Available Biobanking is an emerging medical, research, and social institution that has many im- plications for psychological science and practice. The bibliographic study of abstracts and full text articles retrieved from major databases (PsycInfo, PubMed, EBSCO, SAgE indicates that the role of psychology in the establishment and functioning of biobanks is not well articulated. Two promising directions of biobank-based studies are concerned with studies of risk factors for various disorders and with genetic and epigenetic mecha- nisms of psychological and behavioral trait development, and are closely tied to a devel- oping model of a new “personalized” medicine. It is important to carefully select the psy- chological variables and measurements, with consideration of their suitability for genetic studies, possibilities for networking and sharing of results, economic limitations, and biobank purposes. Of special importance is a systemic foundation of mental functions that requires not only the assessment of efficacy, but also the search for simple, natural, and objectively observable components. Applied tasks of professional psychologists in the field of biobanking can be defined, such as donor selection and management of ethi- cal issues. As a new technology, biobanking poses several challenges to society and the individual that need to be studied in order to prevent misuse and to earn the public trust. The hidden dangers of eugenics-like ideas, of consumer practices with genetic products, and of over-emphasis on human enhancement are particularly stressed. We conclude that while biobanks represent a promising and fertile ground for psychological research and applications, there is a need for a comprehensive psychology of biobanking to make them fruitful.
Francesco La Barbera
Full Text Available The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants’ motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants’ actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual’s level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed.
Grant, Kathryn E; Finkelstein, Jo-Ann S; Lyons, Aoife L
A liberation psychology is needed to bridge the gap between psychology's focus on individual distress and broad social forces that foster such distress. We offer a model for bridging this gap by focusing on a specific area of psychology (psychological research on girls) and a specific social movement (feminist activism). Psychological research on girls and feminist activism share the common goal of improving the lives of girls and women. However, both have fallen short of this goal. This is due, in part, to the weaknesses associated with each endeavor and to the fact that the complementary strengths of each have remained isolated from the other. In this paper, we propose a common language and shared framework to integrate psychological research with feminist activism. First, we review the basic strengths and weaknesses associated with psychological research and feminist activism, with a particular focus on how they are distinct from one another. Second, we provide a taxonomic framework for integrating these two areas on the basis of the stress paradigm, with specific examples provided from our recent reviews of the literature and our own empirical work with adolescent girls. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future work needed to integrate psychological research on girls with feminist activism toward the goal of building a liberation psychology in the United States.
Brooks, Joanna; McCluskey, Serena; Turley, Emma; King, Nigel
Thematic analysis is widely used in qualitative psychology research, and in this article, we present a particular style of thematic analysis known as Template Analysis. We outline the technique and consider its epistemological position, then describe three case studies of research projects which employed Template Analysis to illustrate the diverse ways it can be used. Our first case study illustrates how the technique was employed in data analysis undertaken by a team of researchers in a large-scale qualitative research project. Our second example demonstrates how a qualitative study that set out to build on mainstream theory made use of the a priori themes (themes determined in advance of coding) permitted in Template Analysis. Our final case study shows how Template Analysis can be used from an interpretative phenomenological stance. We highlight the distinctive features of this style of thematic analysis, discuss the kind of research where it may be particularly appropriate, and consider possible limitations of the technique. We conclude that Template Analysis is a flexible form of thematic analysis with real utility in qualitative psychology research.
McIntosh, Kent; Martinez, Rebecca S; Ty, Sophie V; McClain, Maryellen B
A survey of established researchers in school psychology was conducted to reflect on the state of the science of school psychology research. A total of 54 members of the Society for the Study of School Psychology shared their perceptions of (a) the most significant findings of the past 25years that have influenced research and practice in school psychology, (b) current, exciting research topics, and (c) topics that are likely to guide the future of research in school psychology. Qualitative analyses revealed 6 major categories and 17 minor categories within the major categories. Four major categories were present across each of the three time periods: (a) Data-Informed Practices and their Implementation, (b) Theory Development, (c) Changing Role and Function, and (d) Biological Bases of Behavior. Additional major categories included Advances in Research Methodology and Psychometrics (found across past and present time periods) and There is Not One Single Most Important Idea (found during only the past time period). Quotations are provided to illustrate these categories and share the respondents' ideas in their own words. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Valentina V. Barabanshchikova
Full Text Available Nowadays athletes in order to achieve high results and achievements should donate their own interests and private life because of spending much more time for countless flights, acclimatization, everyday workout and competition. So they are short of time to fully replenish their psychological and physiological resources, resulting in accumulation of negative human functional states. Without application of any external psychological interventions there is a high probability of occurrence and development of occupational deteriorations in athletes. The main objective of this theoretical research was to identify and analyze the specificity of occupational deteriorations which can develop in sport as a career. In the presented research paper we described the major occupational deteriorations such as burnout (Maslach et al, 2008, workaholism (Schaufeli et al., 2008, perfectionism (Xolmogorova, 2010, type A behaviour (Ryska et al., 1999 and procrastination (Milgram et al., 2000. Accumulation of negative human functional states can entail one or even more occupational deteriorations that will play important role in career termination from sport. Workaholism, burnout, perfectionism, type A Behaviour and procrastination has their own specific manifestations, which can also appear in postretirement from sport activity. The most popular approaches to occupational deteriorations, operationalization and specific features of their appearance and particular manifestations are emphasized, and also various consequences in athlete’s life are described. Thus, occupational deteriorations are one of the most topical and pressed forward issues, which need further development in the framework of conceptualization and inventory development in modern psychology.
Barber, Larissa K
Over the past several years, interest into the role of sleep in the workplace has grown. The theoretical shift from research questions examining sleep as an outcome to placing sleep as the independent variable has increased experimental approaches to manipulating sleep in organizational studies. This is an exciting trend that is likely to continue in the organizational sciences. However, sleep experimentation can also pose special challenges for organizational researchers unaccustomed to sleep science. In this commentary, I discuss five ethical considerations of conducting negative sleep interventions in organizational psychology research. I also provide recommendations for organizational researchers-or even other researchers in disciplines outside of sleep science-who wish to implement sleep interventions in their studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Andrea Velandia Morales
Full Text Available Qualitative research is a research strategy used to analyze the reality. When applied to consumer psychology, it allows a deeper knowledge about consumer’s behavior and associated emotions and motivations. Qualitative research goes beyond the description of buyers’ behavior and shows information about how and why that behavior is produced.The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how qualitative research is relevant for the knowledge and the understanding of consumers’ behavior and how, through its techniques, it approaches the consumer’s socio-cultural reality and provides an interpretation of it. The present paper resumes the key aspects of qualitative research, mentioning its related antecedents of its contributions to the marketing and explaining the four most applied techniques in consumer psychology (interviews, focus group, ethnography and observation; moreover, it also studies the way to carry them out and gives some examples of some of the market issues which it can analyze. Finally, we take up again the qualitative data analysis as one of the most relevant topics because it produces important information for the decision making process related to the consumer. In addition, we explain the steps, strategies, types and technological tools to carry it out.
Milburn, Norweeta G
Community psychology is commented upon from the perspective of a community psychologist who was trained in the Community Psychology Program at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. Her background and training are reviewed. A brief survey of research on homelessness as a frame for community psychology research is presented. Concluding remarks are provided on the future of research in community psychology. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Valentina V. Barabanshchikova
Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of work engagement and workaholism, and also the current research. Work engagement differs from workaholism as a psychological phenomenon, but both concepts are closely connected with each other. The scientific research of the phenomena mentioned above began only in 1970, when Oates published his first book called “On being a “workaholic”. Each employee has to find balance between private life and work to get utmost job satisfaction, and to perform his/her job responsibilities productively. Work engaged staff have higher levels of subjective comfort and psychological well-being, without any experience of occupational deteriorations. In modern psychology, there is no prescription for perfect recipe of finding balance between work and family that entails different angles of considering work engagement and workaholism, their causes and prevention mechanisms. On the other hand, the impact of excessive work engagement may be one of the reasons of developing negative human functional states that plays a moderating role in the transit stage from work engagement to workaholism. Schaufeli discribed work engagement as a positive, affective-motivational state of fulfillment that can be characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Workaholism is a multidimensional construct, which can be linked to both positive and negative outcomes. At the contemporary stage of scientific development a lot of difficulties in studying workaholism and work engagement could be analyzed, e.g. there are no adopted Russian diagnostics instruments to assess workaholism and its manifastations. Thus, further research should be devoted to the issues of choosing proper research instruments in order to obtain clear and reliable results.
Irina A. Shmeleva
Full Text Available The paper examines the methodological principles of the psychological study of ecological consciousness as one of the urgent interdisciplinary problems of XX–XXI century, caused by the aggravation of global ecological problems and the need for the realization of the “sustainable development”ideas. Ecological consciousness is considered as multilayered, dynamic, reflexive element of human consciousness, incorporating multivariate, holistic aspects of interaction of the human being as the H.S. and the Humanity representative with the environment and the Planet. The possibility of the more active introduction of Russian psychology in the process is argued for in connection with the existing conceptual approaches, which compose the methodological basis for ecological consciousness research. Among these approaches are considered: the principles of holistic study of the human being by B. Ananyev, the methodology of system psychological description by V. Gansen and G. Sukhodolsky, the idea of reflexivity of consciousness by S. Rubinstein, the humanitarian- ecological imperative of the development of consciousness by V. Zinchenko, the theory of relations by V. Myasishev, consideration of ecological consciousness as relation to nature by S. Deryabo and V. Yasvin, theories of consciousness by V. Petrenko, V. Allakhverdov and other Russian psychologists. The value component of ecological consciousness is distinguished as the most significant. The possibility of applying the Values’ theory of the by S. Schwartz for studying the ecological values is discussed along with the prognostic potential of the universalism value.
Full Text Available The characteristic direction of psychological and theological interpretations of spirituality is very important. The traditional psychological approach to the spiritual sphere is characterised by reductionism, which consists in reducing spiritual experiences to mental experiences, or even biological processes. The studies in the field of religion psychology led to distinguish between two types of spirituality. The first one is theocentric spirituality, where human being places God in the centre of his interest and life in general. The second type of spirituality is anthropocentric spirituality, focused on human being, his own aspirations, preferences and needs. Both types of spirituality have certain value. Their close characteristics includes sources of inspiration, purpose, presented image of God, as well as understanding of spirituality and manner of realizing spiritual life. In order to distinguish between two types of spirituality, anthropocentric and theocentric, in practice, a proper research method – Range of Theocentric and Anthropocentric Spirituality (SDT – DA had to be developed. The individuals with theocentric spirituality displayed a higher level of stability and emotional balance, better social adjustment, higher sense of duty and attachment to acceptable social standards, deeper and more satisfactory contacts with other human beings, more trust and openness towards others, as well as higher trust to themselves and to God. Such individuals are better at handling difficulties and have optimistic attitude to life.
Powell, Heather; Mihalas, Stephanie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Suldo, Shannon; Daley, Christine E.
This article illustrates the utility of mixed methods research (i.e., combining quantitative and qualitative techniques) to the field of school psychology. First, the use of mixed methods approaches in school psychology practice is discussed. Second, the mixed methods research process is described in terms of school psychology research. Third, the…
Park, Crystal L
Positive psychology is an increasingly influential force in theory and research within psychology and many related fields, including behavioral medicine, sociology, and public health. This article aims to review the ways in which positive psychology and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) research currently interface and to suggest fruitful future directions. This article reviews the basic elements of positive psychology and provides an overview of conceptual and empirical links between positive psychology and HRQOL. The role of one central aspect of positive psychology (meaning) within HRQOL is highlighted, and unresolved issues (e.g., lack of definitional clarity) are discussed. Some research on HRQOL has taken a positive psychology perspective, demonstrating the usefulness of taking a positive psychology approach. However, many areas await integration. Once conceptual and methodological issues are resolved, positive psychology may profitably inform many aspects of HRQOL research and, perhaps, clinical interventions to promote HRQOL as well.
This presentation summarizes the efforts being made by the Department of Energy to renew acceptance of spent nuclear fuel shipments from foreign research reactors. The author reviews the actions undertaken in this process in a fairly chronological manner, through the present time, as well as the development of an environmental impact statement to support the proposed actions.
Diegelman, Nathan M.; Uffelman, Rachel A.; Wagner, Kimberly S.; Diegelman, Sally A.
This study investigated institutional publication activity in counseling psychology journals for the 10-year period from 1993 to 2002. Four journals reported by counseling psychology training directors as prime publication outlets for the field of counseling psychology were used: "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "The Counseling Psychologist,"…
Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.
In the spring of 1987, we undertook to provide environmental enrichment to nonhuman primate subjects in ways that would complement and even contribute to the bio-behaviorial science that justified the monkeys' captivity. Of course, the psychological well-being of captive primates--and indeed all research species-- has been an area of intense research activity since the 1985 amendment of the Animal Welfare Act. This mandate for researchers to ensure the psychological, as well as physical, fitness of experimental animals catalyzed the humane and scientific interests of the research community. The contemporary literature is replete with proposed means both of assaying and of providing enrichment and well-being. Notwithstanding, consensus on either assessment or intervention has yet to be reached. The paradigm we employed was modelled after successful efforts with chimpanzees. An automated test system was constructed in which subjects responded to computer tasks by manipulating a joystick. The tasks, interactive game-like versions of many of the classic testing paradigms of cognitive and comparative psychology, permitted the controlled presentation of stimuli and demands without the required presence of a human experimenter. Despite significant barriers to the success, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and a variety of other primate species (including, of course, humans) have mastered the skills necessary for testing in this paradigm. Previous experiments have illustrated the utility of the test system for addressing questions of learning, memory, attention, perception, and motivation. Additional data have been reported to support the contention that the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) serves its other raison d'etre--providing environmental enrichment and assessing psychological well-being. This paper is designed to augment previous descriptions of the technology and the paradigm for scientists and caretakers interested in environmental
Chen, Eric Evan; Wojcik, Sean P
The massive volume of data that now covers a wide variety of human behaviors offers researchers in psychology an unprecedented opportunity to conduct innovative theory- and data-driven field research. This article is a practical guide to conducting big data research, covering data management, acquisition, processing, and analytics (including key supervised and unsupervised learning data mining methods). It is accompanied by walkthrough tutorials on data acquisition, text analysis with latent Dirichlet allocation topic modeling, and classification with support vector machines. Big data practitioners in academia, industry, and the community have built a comprehensive base of tools and knowledge that makes big data research accessible to researchers in a broad range of fields. However, big data research does require knowledge of software programming and a different analytical mindset. For those willing to acquire the requisite skills, innovative analyses of unexpected or previously untapped data sources can offer fresh ways to develop, test, and extend theories. When conducted with care and respect, big data research can become an essential complement to traditional research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
In view of highly prevalent stressful conditions in modern working life, in particular increasing work pressure and job insecurity, it is of interest to know whether specific constellations of an adverse psychosocial work environment increase the risk of depressive disorder among employed people. This contribution gives a short overview of current research evidence based on an internationally established work stress model of effort-reward imbalance. Taken together, results from seven prospective epidemiological investigations demonstrate a two-fold elevated relative risk of incident depressive disorder over a mean observation period of 2.7 years among exposed versus non-exposed employees. Additional findings from experimental and quasi-experimental studies point to robust associations of effort-reward imbalance at work with proinflammatory cytokines and markers of reduced immune competence. These latter markers may indicate potential psychobiological pathways. In conclusion, incorporating this new knowledge into medical treatment and preventive efforts seems well justified.
Full Text Available Despite the increasing investment in sustainable development over the past decade, a systematic review of sustainable construction project financing is lacking. The objectives of this paper are to conduct a systematic review to examine the policies, practices, and research efforts in the area of sustainable construction project financing, and to explore the potential opportunities for the future research. To achieve these goals, this paper first reviewed the sustainable construction project financing practices implemented by four representative developed economies including the United Kingdom, the United States, Singapore, and Australia. Then, this paper reviewed the efforts and initiatives launched by three international organizations including the United Nations, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and International Finance Corporation. After that, this paper reviewed the research efforts of sustainable construction project financing published in peer-review journals and books. This paper identified four major research themes within this area, which are the review of financial stakeholders and market of sustainable construction, benefits and barriers to sustainable construction project financing, financial vehicles for sustainable construction projects, innovative models and mechanisms for sustainable construction project financing. Additionally, this paper revealed five directions for the future research of sustainable construction project financing, which are the identification of financial issues in sustainable construction projects, the investigation of financial vehicles for sustainable construction projects in terms of their strengths, limitations, and performances, the examination of critical drivers for implementing sustainable construction project financing, the development of a knowledge-based decision support system for implementing sustainable construction financing, and the development of best practices for
Full Text Available Successful accumulation of knowledge is critically dependent on the ability to verify and replicate every part of scientific conduct. However, such principles are difficult to enact when researchers continue to resort on ad hoc workflows and with poorly maintained code base. In this paper I examine the needs of neuroscience and psychology community, and introduce psychopy_ext, a unifying framework that seamlessly integrates popular experiment building, analysis and manuscript preparation tools by choosing reasonable defaults and implementing relatively rigid patterns of workflow. This structure allows for automation of multiple tasks, such as generated user interfaces, unit testing, control analyses of stimuli, single-command access to descriptive statistics, and publication quality plotting. Taken together, psychopy_ext opens an exciting possibility for faster, more robust code development and collaboration for researchers.
Oldehinkel, Albertine J
For many scientists, performing statistical tests has become an almost automated routine. However, p-values are frequently used and interpreted incorrectly; and even when used appropriately, p-values tend to provide answers that do not match researchers' questions and hypotheses well. Bayesian statistics present an elegant and often more suitable alternative. The Bayesian approach has rarely been applied in child psychology and psychiatry research so far, but the development of user-friendly software packages and tutorials has placed it well within reach now. Because Bayesian analyses require a more refined definition of hypothesized probabilities of possible outcomes than the classical approach, going Bayesian may offer the additional benefit of sparkling the development and refinement of theoretical models in our field. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
The aim of this study is to analyze Spanish research published between 1989 and 1998 in clinical psychology and its most directly related psychological disciplines: personality psychology, psychopathology, differential psychology, health psychology, and psychological assessment. A search was performed in the various databases of the works published in that decade by Spanish university professors who investigate in these areas. Their localization was verified by direct correspondence with the professors, to whom was also sent a questionnaire to evaluate their research field and preferred theoretical approach. The 2,079 works located allowed me to identify 85 different research trends. These research trends are characterized by the predominance of applied studies over basic studies, of empirical research over theoretical research, and of the cognitive-behavioral approach over the rest of the theoretical orientations. In addition, various bibliometrical indicators of production, dissemination, and impact were calculated. They revealed that productivity and dissemination of Spanish research in these areas grew considerably during this 1989-98 period.
Olga Lucia Obando-Salazar
Full Text Available Qualitative methodology is used in social and intervention research because it facilitates a deeper analysis of causal factors and development of alternative solutions to social problems. Based on the findings of three studies in the field of political and gender psychology, this article focuses on Participant Action Research (PAR as a useful qualitative approach to deal with social phenomena, such as racism, violence against women, and the problem of children and youth who have been dislocated as the result of armed conflict and sheltered by the Colombian government's program for persons relocated to civil society. This article is composed of three parts. The first part offers historical and theoretical background to the Action Research (AR paradigm, its validation criteria and their meaning for the development of the Latin American rendering of Participant Action Research (PAR. The second part synthesizes trends in the AR approach in the United States and Germany, discusses feminist research and compares these to trends in PAR in Latin America. The third part is a description of Participant Action Research as an intervention method, including features, models, goals, and concepts. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060438
van der Ark, L.A.; Bolt, D.M.; Wang, W.-C.; Douglas, J.A.; Wiberg, M.
The research articles in this volume cover timely quantitative psychology topics, including new methods in item response theory, computerized adaptive testing, cognitive diagnostic modeling, and psychological scaling. Topics within general quantitative methodology include structural equation
Ponterotto, Joseph G
This article reviews the current and emerging status of qualitative research in psychology. The particular value of diverse philosophical paradigms and varied inquiry approaches to the advancement of psychology generally, and multicultural psychology specifically, is emphasized. Three specific qualitative inquiry approaches anchored in diverse philosophical research paradigms are highlighted: consensual qualitative research, grounded theory, and participatory action research. The article concludes by highlighting important ethical considerations in multicultural qualitative research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Madan-Swain, Avi; Hankins, Shirley L; Gilliam, Margaux Barnes; Ross, Kelly; Reynolds, Nina; Milby, Jesse; Schwebel, David C
This article considers the development of research competencies in professional psychology and how that movement might be applied to training in pediatric psychology. The field of pediatric psychology has a short but rich history, and experts have identified critical competencies. However, pediatric psychology has not yet detailed a set of research-based competencies. This article initially reviews the competency initiative in professional psychology, including the cube model as it relates to research training. Next, we review and adapt the knowledge-based/foundational and applied/functional research competencies proposed by health psychology into a cube model for pediatric psychology. We focus especially on graduate-level training but allude to its application throughout professional development. We present the cube model as it is currently being applied to the development of a systematic research competency evaluation for graduate training at our medical/clinical psychology doctoral program at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Based on the review and synthesis of the literature on research competency in professional psychology we propose future initiatives to develop these competencies for the field of pediatric psychology. The cube model can be successfully applied to the development of research training competencies in pediatric psychology. Future research should address the development, implementation, and assessment of the research competencies for training and career development of future pediatric psychologists.
Full Text Available This text is the review of previous attempt to research creative process in art. Neumann's and Weisberg's classification has been supplemented by the original research by the author of this text. On the example of Picasso's drawing of Guernica it was fulfilled the genesis of this monumental art piece in the light of the theory of aesthetic decision making (Ognjenović, 1980, 1991 and the theory of aesthetic evolution (Martindale, 1990. Based on the evaluation of the students of psychology (N = 32 on the scales of semantic differential, the trends of aesthetic modus in various phases in creating details of the picture (bull head, female had, horse head were analyzed. On the example of bull head details the hypothesis is mainly confirmed. The dimension of harmony (H during the phase of creation shows a soft fall of this detail (F = 3,02, p < 0.05. Decorative, redundant and richness in details (R during phases rapidly grows, while in finishing line falls (F = 13,88, p < 0.01. It is the same with the dimension of distance (D that rises during the period of creation of preliminary sketch bull head (F = 6,74, p < 0.05. Trend arousal potential is beside some oscillations, according with earlier Martindale's findings, shows a slow linear rise (F = 11,12, p < 0.05. Primordial content (PS changes from faze showing alternating oscillatory movement that can be hardly described by more simple regression equation. That is the main point of Picasso's sudden transformation in style of drawing. The results confirm the theoretical hypotheses. Finally, it can be concluded that beside the complexity of creative process, contemporary psychological research explain some of the aspects of creative process.
The development of nuclear power in the European Community up to the present time is reviewed in the light of the 1973 oil crisis. The European Community nuclear energy policy and strategy are described, as well as the future objectives for the development of nuclear power in Europe. The research effort in the Community, concerning energy resources, and including nuclear fission energy, is outlined. Research and development (R and D) work in the field of radioactive waste management is reviewed. Also some achievements of the twelve year Plan of Action, and of the multiannual R and D programmes are presented. (U.K.)
Rao, T.K.; Andhansare, M.G.
On-power fuelling machine of Dhruva Research Reactor has been indigenously designed, manufactured, installed and commissioned. This is being used for fuelling of Dhruva Research reactor regularly since June 1985. This paper deals with the developmental efforts made during design and manufacture for meeting the functional requirements of the fuelling machine. This paper also highlights the special features of the components like servo valves, hydraulic motors, S.S. bellows, bearings, roller chains, solenoid valves etc. needed for reliable operation and maintenance of the fuelling machine whose down time should be minimum to achieve maximum reactor availability. (author). 17 figs
Full Text Available In any social analysis, one can attribute observed behavioural outcomes to actions and inactions of people (agents or to the presence or absence of certain structures or systems. The dualism of agent and structure is resolved through the concept of duality as proposed by Anthony Giddens in his structuration theory (ST. Though ST has been applied in other disciplines, it is either less known or applied in psychology. This paper sought to examine ST as a framework for understanding the interdependent relationship between structure and agents in the light of offering explanatory framework in social science research or policy formulation. It concluded with an integrated model comprising elements of both Bandura’s social-cognitive theory and Giddens’ ST.
Risk perceptions are only slightly correlated with the expected values of a probability distribution for negative health impacts. Psychometric studies have documented that context variables such as dread or personal control are important predictors for the perceived seriousness of risk. Studies about cultural patterns of risk perceptions emphasize different response set to risk information, depending on cultural priorities such as social justice versus personal freedom. This chapter reports the major psychological research pertaining to the factors that govern individual risk perception and discusses the psychometric effects due to people's risk perception and the experience of severe stress. The relative importance of the psychometric content variables, the signals pertaining to each health risks and symbolic beliefs are explained. (Author)
Alexey Vladimirovich Mikhalsky
Full Text Available This article discusses the modern domestic research in the field of psychology of future perception and construction. Time, space, events only become meaningful when a position of observer arises, and when people are directly and vividly involved into them. The presence of human perception – an essential attribute of comprehension, appearance of the value for the time and space, in other words – the attribution of values – a separate measurement, giving the existence of time and space, allowing the existence of semantic relations, an integral component of constructing the future. An array of publications, images, ideas, «memes» on constructing the future is becoming more voluminous, but at the same time, it is very difficult to trace the evolution of a single line of ideas, concepts, theories, research directions, scientific and philosophical approaches to the practical aspects of use. The proposed concept and practical approach of contemporary researchers define a new impetus to scientific research, serves as the basis for practices and, perhaps, is the philosophy that is needed humanity, standing on sharp blades to survive in conditions of information overload, uncertainty and economic fluctuations, on the verge of which can not go – on the verge of using weapons of mass destruction, global international, cross-cultural encounters.
Antonopoulos, A.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Grohmann, K. [US Citrus and Subtropical Products Lab., Winter Haven, FL (United States)
This report presents research presented at the poster session of the Symposium covering a wide spectrum of current biotechnological research activities. Research focused mostly on ethanol production and methane generation from biomass material via microbial processing, as well as on enhanced hydrogen yield from algae. Several of the posters dealt with the pretreatment of cellulosic materials, and enzyme production/characterization, while a good number of papers displayed research efforts on bioremediation, photosynthesis, production of various useful chemicals from biomass by bioprocessing, and on other miscellaneous subjects. One of the papers treated a very interesting topic of cellulose-cellulase complexes. Many of the poster papers are included in this volume, and a synopsis of all the poster/papers presented is the subject of this article.
Antonopoulos, A.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Grohmann, K. (US Citrus and Subtropical Products Lab., Winter Haven, FL (United States))
This report presents research presented at the poster session of the Symposium covering a wide spectrum of current biotechnological research activities. Research focused mostly on ethanol production and methane generation from biomass material via microbial processing, as well as on enhanced hydrogen yield from algae. Several of the posters dealt with the pretreatment of cellulosic materials, and enzyme production/characterization, while a good number of papers displayed research efforts on bioremediation, photosynthesis, production of various useful chemicals from biomass by bioprocessing, and on other miscellaneous subjects. One of the papers treated a very interesting topic of cellulose-cellulase complexes. Many of the poster papers are included in this volume, and a synopsis of all the poster/papers presented is the subject of this article.
Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E; Parry, Carla; Hahn, Erin E; Tang, Tania; Nguyen, Huong Q; Gould, Michael K; Kanter, Michael H; Sharp, Adam L
Despite reports advocating for integration of research into healthcare delivery, scant literature exists describing how this can be accomplished. Examples highlighting application of qualitative research methods embedded into a healthcare system are particularly needed. This article describes the process and value of embedding qualitative research as the second phase of an explanatory, sequential, mixed methods study to improve antibiotic stewardship for acute sinusitis. Purposive sampling of providers for in-depth interviews improved understanding of unwarranted antibiotic prescribing and elicited stakeholder recommendations for improvement. Qualitative data collection, transcription and constant comparative analyses occurred iteratively. Emerging themes and sub-themes identified primary drivers of unwarranted antibiotic prescribing patterns and recommendations for improving practice. These findings informed the design of a health system intervention to improve antibiotic stewardship for acute sinusitis. Core components of the intervention are also described. Qualitative research can be effectively applied in learning healthcare systems to elucidate quantitative results and inform improvement efforts.
Hansen, Benni Winding; Jepsen, Per Meyer; Drillet, Guillaume
Increased collaboration and communication is needed between the planktologists engaged in marine ecological research and those working with industrial applications. Lessening the dichotomy between “basic” and “applied” sciences will lead to increase scientific advances in both fields. Thanks...... to dedicated research efforts, industrial production of rotifers, Artemia and, more recently, copepods as live feed for fish hatcheries is established. Yet, there are still many biological and technical challenges to be tackled for optimizing production. Some of these challenges could be eliminated faster...... examples from research carried out to support aquaculture production of the cosmopolitan calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. We argue that research questions are often answered using similar experimental approaches and quality standards; and that scientists working across different fields would gain by more...
Jones, Samantha K; Griep, Yannick
Employees often draw meaning from personal experiences and contributions in their work, particularly when engaging in organizational activities that align with their personal identity or values. However, recent empirical findings have demonstrated how meaningful work can also have a negative effect on employee's well-being as employees feel so invested in their work, they push themselves beyond their limits resulting in strain and susceptibility to burnout. We develop a framework to understand this "double edged" role of meaningful work by drawing from ideological psychological contracts (iPCs), which are characterized by employees and their employer who are working to contribute to a shared ideology or set of values. Limited iPC research has demonstrated employees may actually work harder in response to an iPC breach. In light of these counterintuitive findings, we propose the following conceptual model to theoretically connect our understanding of iPCs, perceptions of breach, increases in work effort, and the potential "dark side" of repeated occurrences of iPC breach. We argue that time plays a central role in the unfolding process of employees' reactions to iPC breach over time. Further, we propose how perceptions of iPC breach relate to strain and, eventually, burnout. This model contributes to our understanding of the role of time in iPC development and maintenance, expands our exploration of ideology in the PC literature, and provides a framework to understanding why certain occupations are more susceptible to instances of strain and burnout. This framework has the potential to guide future employment interventions in ideology-infused organizations to help mitigate negative employee outcomes.
Jones, Samantha K.; Griep, Yannick
Employees often draw meaning from personal experiences and contributions in their work, particularly when engaging in organizational activities that align with their personal identity or values. However, recent empirical findings have demonstrated how meaningful work can also have a negative effect on employee’s well-being as employees feel so invested in their work, they push themselves beyond their limits resulting in strain and susceptibility to burnout. We develop a framework to understand this “double edged” role of meaningful work by drawing from ideological psychological contracts (iPCs), which are characterized by employees and their employer who are working to contribute to a shared ideology or set of values. Limited iPC research has demonstrated employees may actually work harder in response to an iPC breach. In light of these counterintuitive findings, we propose the following conceptual model to theoretically connect our understanding of iPCs, perceptions of breach, increases in work effort, and the potential “dark side” of repeated occurrences of iPC breach. We argue that time plays a central role in the unfolding process of employees’ reactions to iPC breach over time. Further, we propose how perceptions of iPC breach relate to strain and, eventually, burnout. This model contributes to our understanding of the role of time in iPC development and maintenance, expands our exploration of ideology in the PC literature, and provides a framework to understanding why certain occupations are more susceptible to instances of strain and burnout. This framework has the potential to guide future employment interventions in ideology-infused organizations to help mitigate negative employee outcomes. PMID:29479334
Samantha K. Jones
Full Text Available Employees often draw meaning from personal experiences and contributions in their work, particularly when engaging in organizational activities that align with their personal identity or values. However, recent empirical findings have demonstrated how meaningful work can also have a negative effect on employee’s well-being as employees feel so invested in their work, they push themselves beyond their limits resulting in strain and susceptibility to burnout. We develop a framework to understand this “double edged” role of meaningful work by drawing from ideological psychological contracts (iPCs, which are characterized by employees and their employer who are working to contribute to a shared ideology or set of values. Limited iPC research has demonstrated employees may actually work harder in response to an iPC breach. In light of these counterintuitive findings, we propose the following conceptual model to theoretically connect our understanding of iPCs, perceptions of breach, increases in work effort, and the potential “dark side” of repeated occurrences of iPC breach. We argue that time plays a central role in the unfolding process of employees’ reactions to iPC breach over time. Further, we propose how perceptions of iPC breach relate to strain and, eventually, burnout. This model contributes to our understanding of the role of time in iPC development and maintenance, expands our exploration of ideology in the PC literature, and provides a framework to understanding why certain occupations are more susceptible to instances of strain and burnout. This framework has the potential to guide future employment interventions in ideology-infused organizations to help mitigate negative employee outcomes.
Duckett, Paul; Sixsmith, Judith; Kagan, Carolyn
This study explores the relationships between a school, its staff and its pupils and the impact of these relationships on school pupils' well-being. The authors adopted a community psychological perspective and applied critical, social constructionist epistemologies and participatory, multi-method research tools. The article discusses the…
Kingsley, Barbara E.; Robertson, Julia M.
As a fundamental element of any psychology degree, the teaching and learning of research methods is repeatedly brought into sharp focus, and it is often regarded as a real challenge by undergraduate students. The reasons for this are complex, but frequently attributed to an aversion of maths. To gain a more detailed understanding of students'…
Wang, Qing; Li, Huiping; Pang, Weiguo; Liang, Shuo; Su, Yiliang
Medical schools have been making efforts to develop their own problem-based learning (PBL) approaches based on their educational conditions, human resources and existing curriculum structures. This study aimed to explore a new framework by integrating the essential features of PBL and coaching psychology applicable to the undergraduate medical education context. A participatory research design was employed. Four educational psychology researchers, eight undergraduate medical school students and two accredited PBL tutors participated in a four-month research programme. Data were collected through participatory observation, focus groups, semi-structured interviews, workshop documents and feedback surveys and then subjected to thematic content analysis. The triangulation of sources and member checking were used to ensure the credibility and trustworthiness of the research process. Five themes emerged from the analysis: current experience of PBL curriculum; the roles of and relationships between tutors and students; student group dynamics; development of self-directed learning; and coaching in PBL facilitation. On the basis of this empirical data, a systematic model of PBL and coaching psychology was developed. The findings highlighted that coaching psychology could be incorporated into the facilitation system in PBL. The integrated framework of PBL and coaching psychology in undergraduate medical education has the potential to promote the development of the learning goals of cultivating clinical reasoning ability, lifelong learning capacities and medical humanity. Challenges, benefits and future directions for implementing the framework are discussed in this paper.
In the present thesis, the short-term effects of Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) are studied by measuring indices of vagal control, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPAC) activity and affect. The studies provide an illustration of recent developments in the field. Primarily, Ecological Momentary
Mercer, Sterett H.; Idler, Alyssa M.; Bartfai, Jamie M.
This study is an investigation of the extent to which school psychology intervention research is guided by theory and addresses theoretical implications of findings. Intervention studies published during 2007-2012 in four journals, "Journal of School Psychology," "Psychology in the Schools," "School Psychology…
Fan Zhiyong; Zhong Sheng
As a part of the carrying capacity system of tourism destination,tourism psychological carrying capacity and its makeup are very important indexes which reflect the harmonious development of tourism destination develops harmoniously,but the academy has not paid enough attention to them.Based on the concept and connotation of psychological carrying capacity,this paper explains the influencing factors which affect the psychological capacity of the tourist and the resident after the acknowledged concept,and then designs a harmonious development model of tourism destination.Finally,it offers some countermeasures against the overloading psychological capacity.
Lintern, Fiona; Davies, Jamie; McGinty, Andrew; Fisher, Jeannine
The first cohort of a new MSc programme is due to complete the course in August 2014. During the three-year online course students conduct several pieces of action research in their classrooms. There is little research specifically related classroom practice in the pre-tertiary psychology classroom. The following describes the rationale and context of the MSc in the Teaching of Psychology and reports on three students’ final year research. The first considers the benefits of Psychology Applie...
Kraut, Robert; Olson, Judith; Banaji, Mahzarin; Bruckman, Amy; Cohen, Jeffrey; Couper, Mick
As the Internet has changed communication, commerce, and the distribution of information, so too it is changing psychological research. Psychologists can observe new or rare phenomena online and can do research on traditional psychological topics more efficiently, enabling them to expand the scale and scope of their research. Yet these…
Research and development efforts in the implementation of nuclear power programme in Indonesia are presented. According to Indonesia Law, the National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) is an official body which is reponsible for all aspects of nuclear development. In implementing the nuclear power, BATAN together with the State Electricity Corporation (PLN) have pioneered the introduction of nuclear power plant in Indonesia by carrying out various activities, studies, seminars, workshops and report writings. A nuclear power planning study was carried out jointly with the International Atomic Energy Agency. The feasibility studies were also carried out by NIRA, an Italian consultant firm in cooperation with BATAN and PLN. To improve research and development, BATAN has established 5 research nuclear centres which function as centres of basic and applied research, isotope and radiation application, standardization and calibration and uranium exploration. Nowadays BATAN is constructing a sophisticated and multidisciplinary complex at Serpong near Jakarta. It is hoped that the participation of the national industry can be synchronized to the construction of the first nuclear power in Indonesia. To endorse the movement towards the industrial and technological future, the National Centre for Research, Science and Technology (known as PUSPITEK) has been established. There will be 12 different laboratories providing facilities for research and development of all aspects of technology. For training manpower, BATAN has established the Education and Training Centre (PUSDIKLAT). BATAN has also collaborated with universities, such as Gadjahmada University in Yogyakarta, in establishing Nuclear Engineering Division in the School of Engineering. 6 refs, 3 figs
Landrine, Hope, Ed.
This book focuses on the theoretical, empirical and practice-based implications of recognizing cultural diversity in the psychology of women. Contributors to this volume share the common objective of keeping feminist psychology robust and useful. Chapters in the first section, "Cultural Diversity in Theory and Methodology in Feminist…
Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Lee, Sharon
We conducted an exploratory content analysis of disability research in 5 major counseling psychology journals between 1990 and 2010. The goal was to review the counseling psychology literature to better understand the prevalence of disability research, identify research methods most often conducted, and elucidate the types of concerns most…
Full Text Available The field of Music Psychology has grown in the past 20 years, to emerge from being just a minor topic to one of mainstream interest within the brain sciences (Hallam, Cross, & Thaut, 2011. Despite the plethora of research attempts to examine the so-called hotly disputed “Mozart effect” which was first reported by Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993, 1995, we still know little about it. This group of researchers were the first to support experimentally that visuospatial processing was enhanced in participants following exposure to Mozart’s Sonata for Two Pianos in D major (K.448. Although the first research attempts referred to the Mozart effect as an easy way of improving cognitive performance immediately after passive music listening to Mozart’s sonata K. 448 (Chabris, 1999, after which healthy young adult students could perform with enhanced spatial- temporal abilities in tasks such as the Paper Folding Task (PFT, nowadays there is a number of studies indicating that this specific music excerpt does not necessarily have this magical influence on all cognitive abilities (e.g. on the overall Intelligence Quotient in humans and on the behavior of animals (for a review see Giannouli, Tsolaki & Kargopoulos, 2010. In addition to that, questions arise whether listening to this ‘magic music excerpt’ does indeed have benefits that generalize across a wide range of cognitive performance, and if it can induce changes that are of importance for medical and therapeutic purposes in patients with neurological disorders (e.g. epilepsy or psychiatric disorders (e.g. dementia, depression (Verrusio et al., 2015.
Full Text Available To study the availability of psychological research data, we requested data from 394 papers, published in all issues of four APA journals in 2012. We found that 38% of the researchers sent their data immediately or after reminders. These findings are in line with estimates of the willingness to share data in psychology from the recent or remote past. Although the recent crisis of confidence that shook psychology has highlighted the importance of open research practices, and technical developments have greatly facilitated data sharing, our findings make clear that psychology is nowhere close to being an open science.
Stephen C. Groft
Full Text Available
Introduction: Rare diseases present unique challenges to meet the numerous and varied needs of the rare diseases community and it is required to identify and address these needs. Significant financial and personnel resources are required to address these needs identified. The Office of Rare Diseases Research (ORDR at the USA National Institutes of Health (NIH has attempted to meet many of these needs in collaborative efforts with the research Institutes and Centers of NIH and other partners in the private and public sectors in the USA and around the world. Several of the activities of the NIH and the ORDR are presented as possible collaborative efforts available to research investigators and include the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network, the Bench-to-Bedside research program at NIH, the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information center, the genetic test development program, and the information on clinical research studies made available through Clinical trials.gov. The value of an appropriate family medical history is discussed as are the provisions of the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act of 2008 (GINA. Definitions of rare or orphan diseases vary from country to country and may cause some confusion to the rare diseases community.
Conclusions: Rare diseases are not limited by geographical or historical boundaries and global partnerships of the rare diseases community are experiencing rapid expansion to assist in the development of orphan products for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of rare diseases and conditions. The unmet needs of the rare diseases community require additional innovative research and educational programs to reach the extensive global populations affected by the thousands of different rare diseases including activities with the National Organization for Rare Disorders and the Genetic Alliance.
The present paper addresses several aspects discussed in the special issue on the future of qualitative research in psychology. Particularly, it asks whether in light of the overhomogenization of the term "qualitative methods" researchers actually can still assume that they talk about the same thing when using this terminology. In addressing the topic of what constitutes the object of psychological research and what accordingly could be a genuinely psychological qualitative research it acknowledges the need to return to the study of persons' unique experience. In light of the risk of "McDonaldization" in present qualitative research, it argues that we need to return to learning research methods as craft skills. It will then give an outlook on how recent developments in discursive and narrative psychology offer a fruitful avenue for studying unique psychological experience as people manage to 'move on' in a material world and in irreversible time.
Yulia Vladimirovna Vardanyan
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the research of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. On the basis of analysis of ideas about psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form the necessity of overcoming the fragmentation and lack of system is substantiated. The authors state that one and the same sports situation can constructively or destructively affect the psychological safety of direct or indirect participants of sports events. In this context, it is important to create the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports. Great attention is paid to systematization of the content of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. The created models of words and expressions that convey ideas about this phenomenon are of particular value. In the structure of the concept the dominant meanings, expressed in the nucleus, and additional meanings, related to the periphery of the concept are distinguished.Purpose: to explore the ideas of psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form; to determine ways of overcoming the conceptual psycholinguistic problems in the process of experimental research of psychological safety in sports; to create the model of words and expressions which are used to verbalize the concept “psychological safety in sports”.Methodology: theoretical analysis of psychological and linguistic literature, creation of the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research, modeling of the conceptual ideas of psychological safety in sports.Results: psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports, the model of content and structure of the corresponding concept.Practical implications: Pedagogical Psychology, Sports Psychology, Philology, Psycholinguistics.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-11
Funder, David C; Levine, John M; Mackie, Diane M; Morf, Carolyn C; Sansone, Carol; Vazire, Simine; West, Stephen G
In this article, the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP) Task Force on Publication and Research Practices offers a brief statistical primer and recommendations for improving the dependability of research. Recommendations for research practice include (a) describing and addressing the choice of N (sample size) and consequent issues of statistical power, (b) reporting effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), (c) avoiding "questionable research practices" that can inflate the probability of Type I error, (d) making available research materials necessary to replicate reported results, (e) adhering to SPSP's data sharing policy, (f) encouraging publication of high-quality replication studies, and (g) maintaining flexibility and openness to alternative standards and methods. Recommendations for educational practice include (a) encouraging a culture of "getting it right," (b) teaching and encouraging transparency of data reporting, (c) improving methodological instruction, and (d) modeling sound science and supporting junior researchers who seek to "get it right."
The Japan Atomic Power Co. which is one of specified business company on nuclear power generation, has carried out construction and operation of power plants with different types of reactor such as boiling light water reactor (BWR), pressurized light water rector (PWR), and so forth. And, by actively using technical powers and experiences accumulated before then, additional construction of a new power unit, and researches and developments on a simplified light water reactor, a future type rector, and a high breeder proof reactor have been made some efforts. Here were introduced some outlines on development of an improved type PWR, development of a new type reactor for example, deep embedded plant), future type reactor (for example, revolutionary middle and small type reactor, simplified PWR, and simplified BWR), a fast breeder reactor, and a reactor building suitable for a ship shell structure. (G.K.)
Braver, Todd S.
Cognitive effort has been implicated in numerous theories regarding normal and aberrant behavior and the physiological response to engagement with demanding tasks. Yet, despite broad interest, no unifying, operational definition of cognitive effort itself has been proposed. Here, we argue that the most intuitive and epistemologically valuable treatment is in terms of effort-based decision-making, and advocate a neuroeconomics-focused research strategy. We first outline psychological and neuroscientific theories of cognitive effort. Then we describe the benefits of a neuroeconomic research strategy, highlighting how it affords greater inferential traction than do traditional markers of cognitive effort, including self-reports and physiologic markers of autonomic arousal. Finally, we sketch a future series of studies that can leverage the full potential of the neuroeconomic approach toward understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that give rise to phenomenal, subjective cognitive effort. PMID:25673005
Øhrstrøm, Peter; Dyhrberg, Johan
This paper deals with certain ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information. Section 1 contains an analysis of research on Internet debates. In particular, it takes into account a famous example of deception for psychology research...... purposes. In section 2, the focus is on research on personal data in texts published on the Internet. Section 3 includes an attempt to formulate some ethical principles and guidelines, which should be regarded as fundamental in research on stored information....
Washburn, Anthony N; Morgan, G Scott; Skitka, Linda J
Social psychology is not a very politically diverse area of inquiry, something that could negatively affect the objectivity of social psychological theory and research, as Duarte et al. argue in the target article. This commentary offers a number of checks to help researchers uncover possible biases and identify when they are engaging in hypothesis confirmation and advocacy instead of hypothesis testing.
It is just over 12 years since "Psychology Teaching Review"'s first Special Issue on action research psychology. In the guest editorial for that issue Lin Norton suggested that pedagogical action research can be controversial, and that for some academic psychologists it appears to be more than curriculum development rather than…
Eagly, Alice H.; Eaton, Asia; Rose, Suzanna M.; Riger, Stephanie; McHugh, Maureen C.
Starting in the 1960s, feminists argued that the discipline of psychology had neglected the study of women and gender and misrepresented women in its research and theories. Feminists also posed many questions worthy of being addressed by psychological science. This call for research preceded the emergence of a new and influential body of research…
Eccles, David W; Ward, Paul; Woodman, Tim; Janelle, Christopher M; Le Scanff, Christine; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Castanier, Carole; Coombes, Stephen A
The aim of this study was to demonstrate how research on emotion in sport psychology might inform the field of human factors. Human factors historically has paid little attention to the role of emotion within the research on human-system relations. The theories, methods, and practices related to research on emotion within sport psychology might be informative for human factors because fundamentally, sport psychology and human factors are applied fields concerned with enhancing performance in complex, real-world domains. Reviews of three areas of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology are presented, and the relevancy of each area for human factors is proposed: (a) emotional preparation and regulation for performance, (b) an emotional trait explanation for risk taking in sport, and (c) the link between emotion and motor behavior. Finally, there are suggestions for how to continue cross-talk between human factors and sport psychology about research on emotion and related topics in the future. The relevance of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology for human factors is demonstrated. The human factors field and, in particular, research on human-system relations may benefit from a consideration of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology. Theories, methods, and practices from sport psychology might be applied usefully to human factors.
Lykes, M. Brinton; Stewart, Abigail J.
Women's involvement in the research process, the types of research methods used, and substantive concerns were examined in selected issues of the "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" between 1963 and 1983. Comparisons with studies published in the "Psychology of Women Quarterly" suggest that the impact of the feminist challenge is more…
Although many colleges offer programs in women's studies, research on the psychology of women has very low visibility in professional journals. Feminist research can enrich the discipline of social and personality psychology through its unique orientation and methodology. Gender must be viewed as both a characteristic of participants in a…
Lau, Michael Y.; Cisco, Hilary C.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.
Research productivity was examined across 5 highly nominated multicultural psychology journals. This yielded a ranking of 40 highly productive institutions and individuals between 1994 and 2007. The results are potentially useful in beginning to track trends in the publication of multicultural psychology studies in research journals.…
Brand, Andrew; Bradley, Michael T
Confidence interval ( CI) widths were calculated for reported Cohen's d standardized effect sizes and examined in two automated surveys of published psychological literature. The first survey reviewed 1,902 articles from Psychological Science. The second survey reviewed a total of 5,169 articles from across the following four APA journals: Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, and Developmental Psychology. The median CI width for d was greater than 1 in both surveys. Hence, CI widths were, as Cohen (1994) speculated, embarrassingly large. Additional exploratory analyses revealed that CI widths varied across psychological research areas and that CI widths were not discernably decreasing over time. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed along with ways of reducing the CI widths and thus improving precision of effect size estimation.
Garrison, Ellen Greenberg; Kobor, Patricia Clem
In the spring of 1999, a storm of controversy arose at the local, state, and national levels surrounding an article on the effects of child sexual abuse published in 1998 in Psychological Bulletin. The article was vehemently denounced by various media outlets, conservative grassroots organizations, members of the general public, state legislatures, and ultimately by the United States Congress. The authors chronicle these unprecedented events and related challenges faced by the American Psychological Association. The authors also describe the Association's efforts to resolve the crisis, while staunchly upholding academic freedom and scientific integrity, and review the lessons learned for the field of psychology.
Thomas, N.; Hayward, M.; Peters, E; van der Gaag, M.; Bentall, R.P.; Jenner, J.; Strauss, C.; Sommer, I.E.; Johns, L.C.; Varese, F.; Gracia-Montes, J.M.; Waters, F.; Dodgson, G.; McCarthy-Jones, S.
This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions,
Bemelmans, S.A.S.A.; K. Tromp (Krista); E.M. Bunnik (Eline); Milne, R.J.; Badger, S.; C. Brayne (Carol); M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje); Richard, E.
textabstractBackground: Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) research initiatives focus on cognitively healthy individuals with biomarkers that are associated with the development of AD. It is unclear whether biomarker results should be returned to research participants and what the psychological,
Bemelmans, S.AS.A.; Tromp, K.; Bunnik, E.M.; Milne, R.J.; Badger, S.; Brayne, C.; Schermer, M.H.; Richard, E.
BACKGROUND: Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) research initiatives focus on cognitively healthy individuals with biomarkers that are associated with the development of AD. It is unclear whether biomarker results should be returned to research participants and what the psychological, behavioral and
Bemelmans, S.A.; K. Tromp (Krista); E.M. Bunnik (Eline); Milne, R.J.; Badger, S.; C. Brayne (Carol); M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje); E. Richard (Edo)
markdownabstractBACKGROUND: Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) research initiatives focus on cognitively healthy individuals with biomarkers that are associated with the development of AD. It is unclear whether biomarker results should be returned to research participants and what the psychological,
Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Yang, Jen-Hau; Rotolo, Renee; Presby, Rose
Operant behavior is not only regulated by factors related to the quality or quantity of reinforcement, but also by the work requirements inherent in performing instrumental actions. Moreover, organisms often make effort-related decisions involving economic choices such as cost/benefit analyses. Effort-based decision making is studied using behavioral procedures that offer choices between high-effort options leading to relatively preferred reinforcers vs. low effort/low reward choices. Several neural systems, including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and other brain circuits, are involved in regulating effort-related aspects of motivation. Considerable evidence indicates that mesolimbic DA transmission exerts a bi-directional control over exertion of effort on instrumental behavior tasks. Interference with DA transmission produces a low-effort bias in animals tested on effort-based choice tasks, while increasing DA transmission with drugs such as DA transport blockers tends to enhance selection of high-effort options. The results from these pharmacology studies are corroborated by the findings from recent articles using optogenetic, chemogenetic and physiological techniques. In addition to providing important information about the neural regulation of motivated behavior, effort-based choice tasks are useful for developing animal models of some of the motivational symptoms that are seen in people with various psychiatric and neurological disorders (e.g., depression, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease). Studies of effort-based decision making may ultimately contribute to the development of novel drug treatments for motivational dysfunction.
John D. Salamone
Full Text Available Operant behavior is not only regulated by factors related to the quality or quantity of reinforcement, but also by the work requirements inherent in performing instrumental actions. Moreover, organisms often make effort-related decisions involving economic choices such as cost/benefit analyses. Effort-based decision making is studied using behavioral procedures that offer choices between high-effort options leading to relatively preferred reinforcers vs. low effort/low reward choices. Several neural systems, including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA system and other brain circuits, are involved in regulating effort-related aspects of motivation. Considerable evidence indicates that mesolimbic DA transmission exerts a bi-directional control over exertion of effort on instrumental behavior tasks. Interference with DA transmission produces a low-effort bias in animals tested on effort-based choice tasks, while increasing DA transmission with drugs such as DA transport blockers tends to enhance selection of high-effort options. The results from these pharmacology studies are corroborated by the findings from recent articles using optogenetic, chemogenetic and physiological techniques. In addition to providing important information about the neural regulation of motivated behavior, effort-based choice tasks are useful for developing animal models of some of the motivational symptoms that are seen in people with various psychiatric and neurological disorders (e.g., depression, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease. Studies of effort-based decision making may ultimately contribute to the development of novel drug treatments for motivational dysfunction.
Marcos Adegas de Azambuja
Full Text Available This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP, during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstracts in which circulate the utterances that make up the discursive field of Brazilian Social Psychology. Using the narrative of WGs we outlined a discursive formation of identities/technologies of the subject. The knowledges of Social Psychology in the history of the ANPEPP's WGs contribute to the constitution of categories and psychological classifications which objectivize subjects. We think Social Psychology, in its criticisms related to psychological and social concepts comprises practices and regimes of truth about the subject of Social Psychology.
Andrew P. Jacobson
Full Text Available The leopard’s (Panthera pardus broad geographic range, remarkable adaptability, and secretive nature have contributed to a misconception that this species might not be severely threatened across its range. We find that not only are several subspecies and regional populations critically endangered but also the overall range loss is greater than the average for terrestrial large carnivores. To assess the leopard’s status, we compile 6,000 records at 2,500 locations from over 1,300 sources on its historic (post 1750 and current distribution. We map the species across Africa and Asia, delineating areas where the species is confirmed present, is possibly present, is possibly extinct or is almost certainly extinct. The leopard now occupies 25–37% of its historic range, but this obscures important differences between subspecies. Of the nine recognized subspecies, three (P. p. pardus, fusca, and saxicolor account for 97% of the leopard’s extant range while another three (P. p. orientalis, nimr, and japonensis have each lost as much as 98% of their historic range. Isolation, small patch sizes, and few remaining patches further threaten the six subspecies that each have less than 100,000 km2 of extant range. Approximately 17% of extant leopard range is protected, although some endangered subspecies have far less. We found that while leopard research was increasing, research effort was primarily on the subspecies with the most remaining range whereas subspecies that are most in need of urgent attention were neglected.
Cross-cultural psychology, in both its culture-comparative and its cultural traditions, has been a highly successful enterprise; it has been instrumental in establishing context variation as an essential factor in the study of behavior and has led to a large volume of publications with culture as a
Reardon, Patrice; Prescott, Suzanne
Articles taken from the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1974 were reviewed for sex of subjects and type of conclusion drawn. Contrary to the Schwabacher study, the percentage of all male studies show a sharp drop of 15 percent while all female studies rose 22 percent. (Author)
Smeyers, Paul; Depaepe, Marc
Psychology has penetrated many domains of society and its vocabulary and discourse has become part of our everyday conversations. It not only carries with it the promise that it will deliver insights into human behaviour, but it is also believed that it can address many of the problems human beings are confronted with. As a discipline it thrives…
Skues, Jason L.; Wise, Lisa
Herein, we describe the implementation of, and responses to, a structured writing workshop in the form of an academic boot camp. Participants were 42 undergraduate psychology students from a medium-sized Australian university who were completing their major assignment for the semester. A majority of the students expressed satisfaction with the…
Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Luo, Jie-Si; Zhang, Xiao-Chang; Zhai, Yi; Wu, Jing
where China had the greatest need for improvement included increasing taxes on tobacco and addressing the needs of the population older than age 70 dying from major NCDs. In China the burden of disease of NCDs and disabilities remains serious, although China has put significant efforts into its governance and surveillance and research. To improve, further action is needed on reducing tobacco consumption, increasing investment in the national health budget, and increasing the focus on system construction. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY National Nanotechnology Coordination Office; Bridging NanoEHS Research Efforts: A Joint US-EU Workshop: Public Meeting AGENCY: National Nanotechnology Coordination Office, STPO. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The National Nanotechnology Coordination...
Oyefeso, A O; Adegoke, A R
This research examines the influence of family type on the psychological adjustment of Yoruba adolescents. Using a sample of 116 adolescents, 69 males and 47 females, with mean age of 17.8 years of age (S.D. = 1.72), the results reveal that male adolescents from monogamous families experience better psychological adjustment than their polygynous counterparts, whereas no such difference exists in the levels of psychological adjustment of female adolescents from both family types. These findings suggest that (i) sex-role prescription influences psychological adjustment of adolescents in Yoruba societies, and (ii) female children enjoy more protective upbringing in polygynous families than their male counterparts.
Jensen, Chad D; Duraccio, Kara M; Carbine, Kaylie M; Kirwan, C Brock
This review aims to provide a brief introduction of the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods in pediatric psychology research, describe several exemplar studies that highlight the unique benefits of MRI techniques for pediatric psychology research, and detail methods for addressing several challenges inherent to pediatric MRI research. Literature review. Numerous useful applications of MRI research in pediatric psychology have been illustrated in published research. MRI methods yield information that cannot be obtained using neuropsychological or behavioral measures. Using MRI in pediatric psychology research may facilitate examination of neural structures and processes that underlie health behaviors. Challenges inherent to conducting MRI research with pediatric research participants (e.g., head movement) may be addressed using evidence-based strategies. We encourage pediatric psychology researchers to consider adopting MRI techniques to answer research questions relevant to pediatric health and illness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Villarreal, Victor; Castro, Maria J.; Umaña, Ileana; Sullivan, Jeremy R.
The purpose of this study was to provide an updated content analysis of articles published in major journals of school psychology spanning the years 2010-2014, with an emphasis on intervention research (including intervention and participant characteristics). Six journals--"School Psychology Review," "School Psychology…
Hyde, Janet Shibley
Power and inequality are central concepts in feminist theory and practice. Yet, with a few notable exceptions, there is relatively little empirical research on gender and power within feminist psychology. A search of PsycINFO for articles published in "Psychology of Women Quarterly" for the years 2000-2011 yielded only 14 empirical articles with…
Cook, Robert S.; And Others
The psychological autopsy and its use in studying the suicides of three adolescents at a school for gifted students are described in this article. Positive and negative effects of autopsy interviews are discussed, as is the importance of confidentiality. A sample interview protocol is provided for psychological autopsy researchers. (Author/PB)
Szarkowski, Amy; Brice, Patrick
The emergence of positive psychology as an approach to studying what makes life worth living has inspired a new wave of research. Studies have focused on the prevalence and degree of positive attributes, attitudes, and characteristics in the wider population. Increasingly, lessons learned from positive psychology have been applied to understanding…
Sampson, James P., Jr., Ed.; Bullock-Yowell, Emily, Ed.; Dozier, V. Casey, Ed.; Osborn, Debra S., Ed.; Lenz, Janet G., Ed.
This publication is based on the 2016 Society for Vocational Psychology (SVP) Biennial Conference, that was held at the Florida State University on May 16-17, 2016. The conference theme was "Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice in Vocational Psychology." The conference content and the resulting edited book are based on the…
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ethical implications of video game companies employing psychologists and using psychological research in game design. Design/methodology/approach The author first argues that exploiting psychology in video games may be more ethically
Lichtenberg, James W.
Scheel et al. note a rather precipitous decline over the past 30 years in the number and proportion of counseling-related research articles appearing in "Journal of Counseling Psychology" ("JCP") and "The Counseling Psychologist" ("TCP"). Certainly, counseling psychology as a field has changed over its 65-year history, and a great deal of that…
Research purpose: The aim of the study was to explore the systems psychodynamic nature of the manifesting defensive structures operating in Positive Psychology. Motivation for the study: The study investigated the popularity of Positive Psychology amongst academics, students and organisational consultants and the tendency to avoid the complexity of the relatedness between positive and negative as part of the human condition. Research design, approach and method: Qualitative research by means of a Listening Post was used, consisting of six psychologists in their roles as lecturers and organisational consultants. Thematic analyses led to the formulation of various working hypotheses, integrated into a research hypothesis. Main findings: Four themes manifested – namely, the manifesting defence mechanisms, a reluctance to relinquish positive psychology as an object of hope, a need to guard against being too hasty in breaking down positive psychology and a need for a psychology that can engage us in a conversation about integrating the complexities of the human condition. Practical/managerial implications: The findings were linked to Deo Strümpfer’s work, indicating that Positive Psychology originated in early 20th century psychology, which is indeed not about simplification, but is imbedded in the complexity of various behavioural continua. Contribution/value-add: Academics, students and organisational consultants are encouraged to revisit Strümpfer’s work to ensure that this psychology is appreciated for its depth and quality.
Eagly, Alice H; Eaton, Asia; Rose, Suzanna M; Riger, Stephanie; McHugh, Maureen C
Starting in the 1960s, feminists argued that the discipline of psychology had neglected the study of women and gender and misrepresented women in its research and theories. Feminists also posed many questions worthy of being addressed by psychological science. This call for research preceded the emergence of a new and influential body of research on gender and women that grew especially rapidly during the period of greatest feminist activism. The descriptions of this research presented in this article derive from searches of the journal articles cataloged by PsycINFO for 1960-2009. These explorations revealed (a) a concentration of studies in basic research areas investigating social behavior and individual dispositions and in many applied areas, (b) differing trajectories of research on prototypical topics, and (c) diverse theoretical orientations that authors have not typically labeled as feminist. The considerable dissemination of this research is evident in its dispersion beyond gender-specialty journals into a wide range of other journals, including psychology's core review and theory journals, as well as in its coverage in introductory psychology textbooks. In this formidable body of research, psychological science has reflected the profound changes in the status of women during the last half-century and addressed numerous questions that these changes have posed. Feminism served to catalyze this research area, which grew beyond the bounds of feminist psychology to incorporate a very large array of theories, methods, and topics.
Cross-cultural psychology, in both its culture-comparative and its cultural traditions, has been a highly successful enterprise; it has been instrumental in establishing context variation as an essential factor in the study of behavior and has led to a large volume of publications with culture as a key term. At the same time, the question arises whether the further accumulation of findings of often small differences between groups will continue to be a worthwhile pursuit, or whether it is tim...
Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore general research trends in the field of industrial and organisational psychology in South Africa from 1950 to 2008. Motivation for study: Research in the field tends to be influenced by either the changing needs of business or the occupational or personal fields of interest of academics, which often lead to an overemphasis on specific subdisciplines at the expense of others. This research aims to critically review dominant trends in the research focus areas in the field, in the light of present challenges in the changing work context. Recommendations are also made for possible future research. Research design, approach and method: A broad systematic review was carried out to analyse documented published and accredited South African research in the field (n = 2501. Main findings: Although there has been a proportional decline in personnel psychology research since 1990, there has been a proportional increase in both organisational psychology and employee wellness research since 1980 and 1990, respectively. Some areas of the industrial and organisational psychology field appear to be consistently under-researched. Practical implications: The insights derived from the findings can be used by academia and researchers in the field to plan future research initiatives. Contribution/value-add: The findings provide preliminary insights that contribute to the body of knowledge concerned with the industrial and organisational psychology field in the South African context.
Krentzman, Amy R.
Advances in positive psychology have grown exponentially over the past decade. The addictions field has experienced its own growth in a positive direction, embodied by the recovery movement. Despite parallel developments, and great momentum on both sides, there has been little crosspollination. This review introduces positive psychology and the recovery movement, describes the research on positive psychology in the addictions, and discusses future avenues of theory, research, and intervention based on a positive-psychology framework. A systematic review of positive psychology applied to substance use, addiction, and recovery found nine studies which are discussed according to the following themes: theoretical propositions, character strengths and drinking, positive psychology and recovery, positive interventions, and addiction: feeling good and feeling bad. The current scholarship is scant, but diverse, covering a wide range of populations (adults, adolescents, those in and out of treatment), topics (character strengths, recovery, positive affect), and addictive behaviors (work addiction, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use disorders). There is diversity, too, in country of origin, with work originating in the US, UK, Poland, and Spain. The rigorous application of the lens, tools, and approaches of positive psychology to addiction research generally, and to the aims of the recovery movement specifically, has potential for the development of theory and innovation in prevention and intervention. Further, because the work in positive psychology has primarily focused on microsystems, it may be primed to make contributions to the predominantly macro-systems focus of the recovery movement. PMID:22985057
Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat; Al-Jabi, Samah W
Social media, defined as interactive Web applications, have been on the rise globally, particularly among adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the trend of the literature related to the most used social network worldwide (i.e. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, and Instagram) in the field of psychology. Specifically, this study will assess the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, author productivity, emerging topics and the mapping of frequent terms in publications pertaining to social media in the field of psychology. Publications related to social media in the field of psychology published between 2004 and 2014 were obtained from the Web of Science. The records extracted were analysed for bibliometric characteristics such as the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, emerging topics and the mapping of frequent terms in publications pertaining to social media in the field of psychology. VOSviewer v.1.6.5 was used to construct scientific maps. Overall, 959 publications were retrieved during the period between 2004 and 2015. The number of research publications in social media in the field of psychology showed a steady upward growth. Publications from the USA accounted for 57.14% of the total publications and the highest h -index (48).The most common document type was research articles (873; 91.03%). Over 99.06% of the publications were published in English. Computers in Human Behavior was the most prolific journal. The University of Wisconsin - Madison ranked first in terms of the total publications (n = 39). A visualisation analysis showed that personality psychology, experimental psychology, psychological risk factors, and developmental psychology were continual concerns of the research. This is the first study reporting the global trends in the research related to social media in the psychology field. Based on the raw data from the Web of Science, publication
Miranda, Felix A.
As it has done in the past, NASA is currently engaged in furthering the frontiers of space and planetary exploration. The effectiveness in gathering the desired science data in the amount and quality required to perform this pioneering work relies heavily on the communications capabilities of the spacecraft and space platforms being considered to enable future missions. Accordingly, the continuous improvement and development of radiofrequency and optical communications systems are fundamental to prevent communications to become the limiting factor for space explorations. This presentation will discuss some of the research and technology development efforts currently underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center in the radio frequency (RF) and Optical Communications. Examples of work conducted in-house and also in collaboration with academia, industry, and other government agencies (OGA) in areas such as antenna technology, power amplifiers, radio frequency (RF) wave propagation through Earths atmosphere, ultra-sensitive receivers, thin films ferroelectric-based tunable components, among others, will be presented. In addition, the role of these and other related RF technologies in enabling the NASA next generation space communications architecture will be also discussed.
Economic arguments, such as saving money, are often used to promote pro-environmental actions — for example, reducing energy use. However, research shows that people’s environmental motives are sometimes better drivers of behavioural change....
Segall, Marshall H.; Lonner, Walter J.; Berry, John W.
Examines interrelationship of culture and behavior. Perspectives include absolutism and relativism, each with methodological consequences for such research concerns as values gender differences, cognition, aggression, intergroup relations, and psychological acculturation. Describes societal concerns relating to these topics. Contains 88…
Xu, Jun Hua; Zhu, Lei Ye; Wang, Hai Bin
Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the interplay between individuals and their built and natural environments. Great progress has been made in the areas of environmental psychology by researchers form many countries. However, a thorough quantitative analysis to the emergent research trends and topics has not been found. To reveal the research characteristics and status on Environmental Psychology, 853 related papers from Web of Science core collection were analysed by CiteSpace II. The results show that: (1) the domain of Environmental Psychology was started in 1960s and showed a low growth over the past half century, which reaches a historical peak in 2017. Gifford, USA and the Journal of Environmental Psychology top the list of contributing authors, country and publication respectively. (2) "Environmental Psychology" is the most frequently keywords and has the longest span of the bursts. "ambient scent", "recycling", "children as outsiders" and "ambient temperature" are the top four largest clusters, which are the popular research topics in the domain of environmental psychology.
Full Text Available he article presents up-to-date data concerning psychosomatic problem in medicine, in particular world experience of studying disorders of psychological of adaptation in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, as well as own researches data. When using psychological tests, detection rate of anxiety and depression in patients with GERD was 100 and 91.2 %, respectively. Follow-up research studies revealed that presence of psychological dysadaptation in patients with GERD makes it impossible to achieve a stable remission of the underlying disease and necessitates appropriate correction.
Full Text Available Whether TAXI for People from Beijing traffic channel, the only special program customized for taxi driver in Beijing, knows about the psychological feature of the certain taxi group is an important factor that affects the development of program. Based on demand theory of psychology, this article uses the questionnaire method to find out the psychological feature and lifestyle of audience, and discusses the degree to the TAXI for People which meets the psychological demand of taxi driver audience by analysis on the program content. It is said from the research that the TAXI for People basically meets the psychological demand from taxi drivers. However, this program shall focus more on their basic needs and provide the opportunity for the audience to participate in the program and activity.
Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Lee, Sharon
We conducted an exploratory content analysis of disability research in 5 major counseling psychology journals between 1990 and 2010. The goal was to review the counseling psychology literature to better understand the prevalence of disability research, identify research methods most often conducted, and elucidate the types of concerns most studied. We searched 5 journals (Journal of Counseling & Development, Journal of Counseling Psychology, The Counseling Psychologist, Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, and Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology) using keywords derived from disability terms defined by the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA). Articles were categorized by methodology and disability category examined. We found that disability research continues to comprise an extremely small amount (from less than 1% to 2.7%) of the counseling psychology literature, with the frequency of articles plateauing in recent years. The research design of articles published has changed, with an increased number of empirical articles and a decrease in literature reviews. We conclude by calling for increased empirical investigation of disability among journals specific to counseling psychology to recognize disability as an important aspect of diversity within the field.
Full Text Available Pilates exercises have been shown beneficial impact on physical, physiological, and mental characteristics of human beings. In this paper, Z-number based fuzzy approach is applied for modeling the effect of Pilates exercises on motivation, attention, anxiety, and educational achievement. The measuring of psychological parameters is performed using internationally recognized instruments: Academic Motivation Scale (AMS, Test of Attention (D2 Test, and Spielberger’s Anxiety Test completed by students. The GPA of students was used as the measure of educational achievement. Application of Z-information modeling allows us to increase precision and reliability of data processing results in the presence of uncertainty of input data created from completed questionnaires. The basic steps of Z-number based modeling with numerical solutions are presented.
Roberts, Lynne D.; Povee, Kate
The adoption of mixed methods research in psychology has trailed behind other social science disciplines. Teaching psychology students, academics, and practitioners about mixed methodologies may increase the use of mixed methods within the discipline. However, tailoring and evaluating education and training in mixed methodologies requires an understanding of, and way of measuring, attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology. To date, no such measure exists. In this article we present the development and initial validation of a new measure: Attitudes toward Mixed Methods Research in Psychology. A pool of 42 items developed from previous qualitative research on attitudes toward mixed methods research along with validation measures was administered via an online survey to a convenience sample of 274 psychology students, academics and psychologists. Principal axis factoring with varimax rotation on a subset of the sample produced a four-factor, 12-item solution. Confirmatory factor analysis on a separate subset of the sample indicated that a higher order four factor model provided the best fit to the data. The four factors; ‘Limited Exposure,’ ‘(in)Compatibility,’ ‘Validity,’ and ‘Tokenistic Qualitative Component’; each have acceptable internal reliability. Known groups validity analyses based on preferred research orientation and self-rated mixed methods research skills, and convergent and divergent validity analyses based on measures of attitudes toward psychology as a science and scientist and practitioner orientation, provide initial validation of the measure. This brief, internally reliable measure can be used in assessing attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology, measuring change in attitudes as part of the evaluation of mixed methods education, and in larger research programs. PMID:25429281
Roberts, Lynne D; Povee, Kate
The adoption of mixed methods research in psychology has trailed behind other social science disciplines. Teaching psychology students, academics, and practitioners about mixed methodologies may increase the use of mixed methods within the discipline. However, tailoring and evaluating education and training in mixed methodologies requires an understanding of, and way of measuring, attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology. To date, no such measure exists. In this article we present the development and initial validation of a new measure: Attitudes toward Mixed Methods Research in Psychology. A pool of 42 items developed from previous qualitative research on attitudes toward mixed methods research along with validation measures was administered via an online survey to a convenience sample of 274 psychology students, academics and psychologists. Principal axis factoring with varimax rotation on a subset of the sample produced a four-factor, 12-item solution. Confirmatory factor analysis on a separate subset of the sample indicated that a higher order four factor model provided the best fit to the data. The four factors; 'Limited Exposure,' '(in)Compatibility,' 'Validity,' and 'Tokenistic Qualitative Component'; each have acceptable internal reliability. Known groups validity analyses based on preferred research orientation and self-rated mixed methods research skills, and convergent and divergent validity analyses based on measures of attitudes toward psychology as a science and scientist and practitioner orientation, provide initial validation of the measure. This brief, internally reliable measure can be used in assessing attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology, measuring change in attitudes as part of the evaluation of mixed methods education, and in larger research programs.
Haslam, N; Lusher, D
Psychiatry and clinical psychology are the two dominant disciplines in mental health research, but the structure of scientific influence and information flow within and between them has never been mapped. Citations among 96 of the highest impact psychiatry and clinical psychology journals were examined, based on 10 052 articles published in 2008. Network analysis explored patterns of influence between journal clusters. Psychiatry journals tended to have greater influence than clinical psychology journals, and their influence was asymmetrical: clinical psychology journals cited psychiatry journals at a much higher rate than the reverse. Eight journal clusters were found, most dominated by a single discipline. Their citation network revealed an influential central cluster of 'core psychiatry' journals that had close affinities with a 'psychopharmacology' cluster. A group of 'core clinical psychology' journals was linked to a 'behavior therapy' cluster but both were subordinate to psychiatry journals. Clinical psychology journals were less integrated than psychiatry journals, and 'health psychology/behavioral medicine' and 'neuropsychology' clusters were relatively peripheral to the network. Scientific publication in the mental health field is largely organized along disciplinary lines, and is to some degree hierarchical, with clinical psychology journals tending to be structurally subordinate to psychiatry journals.
Lord, Robert G; Day, David V; Zaccaro, Stephen J; Avolio, Bruce J; Eagly, Alice H
Although in the early years of the Journal leadership research was rare and focused primarily on traits differentiating leaders from nonleaders, subsequent to World War II the research area developed in 3 major waves of conceptual, empirical, and methodological advances: (a) behavioral and attitude research; (b) behavioral, social-cognitive, and contingency research; and (c) transformational, social exchange, team, and gender-related research. Our review of this work shows dramatic increases in sophistication from early research focusing on personnel issues associated with World War I to contemporary multilevel models and meta-analyses on teams, shared leadership, leader-member exchange, gender, ethical, abusive, charismatic, and transformational leadership. Yet, many of the themes that characterize contemporary leadership research were also present in earlier research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Burns, Matthew K.; Klingbeil, David A.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna
Methodological rigor in intervention research is important for documenting evidence-based practices and has been a recent focus in legislation, including the No Child Left Behind Act. The current study examined the methodological rigor of intervention research in four school psychology journals since the 1960s. Intervention research has increased…
Walsh, Richard T.
Examines the social relations of researchers and research participants in feminist psychology. Argues that the conventions governing how psychologists describe their research highlight certain activities and render others invisible. Discusses how the depersonalized writing style generally employed demonstrates a contradiction between ideals and…
Morrow, Susan L.
This article examines concepts of the trustworthiness, or credibility, of qualitative research. Following a "researcher-as-instrument," or self-reflective, statement, the paradigmatic underpinnings of various criteria for judging the quality of qualitative research are explored, setting the stage for a discussion of more transcendent standards…
Kulikova, Tatyana I.
Full Text Available In the modern world, the environment of any educational institution represents a spectrum of ethnic groups and subcultures: a multicultural educational environment. Pupils who are aware of their national identity often demonstrate intolerance toward students of other nationalities, which threatens pupils’ psychological safety. In this article, we present the results of pilot research examining the level of a pupil’s psychological safety in the multicultural educational environment and identifying the criteria that influence a pupil’s psychological safety. The research sample comprised 127 pupils aged 13–14 years from different schools living in various places that differed by the type of settlement, industrial development and level of science and culture. We isolated the following criteria for a pupil’s psychological safety in the multicultural educational environment: satisfaction with the educational environment, protection from psychological abuse and self-confidence. According to pupils, the essential characteristics of safety in the educational environment, regardless of school category and type, are being able to ask for help, protection of personal dignity, interactions with other students, and self-respect. Empirical data reveal the current status of the psychological safety of the entire sample group (n = 127 and compare indices of psychological safety in the educational institutions under study. Analysis of the results of our research indicates that protecting a pupil’s personality in the multicultural educational environment has the greatest influence on his/her psychological safety. In addition, a comfortable psychological atmosphere, mutual aid and support of pupils and low levels of classmates’ and coevals’ aggression positively influence the protection experience.
he USDA-ARS Greenhouse Production Research Group was established to provide a federally funded research emphasis on greenhouse crop production. It has focused on broad production issues (nutrition, water management, and energy conservation) by coordinating research between in-house researchers, Uni...
Freng, Scott; Webber, David; Blatter, Jamin; Wing, Ashley; Scott, Walter D.
Comprehension of statistics and research methods is crucial to understanding psychology as a science (APA, 2007). However, psychology majors sometimes approach methodology courses with derision or anxiety (Onwuegbuzie & Wilson, 2003; Rajecki, Appleby, Williams, Johnson, & Jeschke, 2005); consequently, students may postpone…
Green, Christopher D.
American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within…
This thesis contributes to Carlson et al.’s (2008) findings on a brand-based community and its psychological aspects. The research aimed to investigate the influences of psychological sense of brand community (PSBC) on mobile game loyalty. Particularly, it attempted to, first, look at sense of brand community from the social identity viewpoint, and second, explore the influence of PSBC on game loyalty as well as the role PSBC plays in the satisfaction–loyalty relationship. The relevant studie...
Stephen Wee Hun eLim; Gavin Jun Peng eNg; Gabriel Qi Hao eWong
Research methods and statistics are an indispensable subject in the undergraduate psychology curriculum, but there are challenges associated with engaging students in it, such as making learning durable. Here we hypothesized that retrieval-based learning promotes long-term retention of statistical knowledge in psychology. Participants either studied the educational material in four consecutive periods, or studied it just once and practiced retrieving the information in the subsequent three pe...
Full Text Available This article deals with the processes of emergence and evolution of qualitative research in psychology in Colombia. Two major arguments are advanced. First, these processes can only be fully understood in the light of the history of psychology in Colombia, and, at the same time, within the context of emergence and consolidation of the social sciences in Colombia. Second, the evolution of qualitative research in North American psychology coincides in some aspects with its corresponding path in Colombian psychology, even though the former exhibits some distinctive features. This article begins with a synthesis of some attempts to divide into historical periods the evolution of qualitative research in the United States. Then, it offers a historical view of psychology in Colombia. Finally, the article proposes three major historical periods to account for the emergence and evolution of qualitative research in our discipline. As a conclusion, the process of development of qualitative research in Colombia is compared to that in the United States and research challenges are proposed for Colombian scholars to address in the years to come. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0604317
In anticipation of the impending revision of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, APA’s Publications and Communications Board formed the Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS) and charged it to provide the board with background and recommendations on information that should be included in manuscripts submitted to APA journals that report (a) new data collections and (b) meta-analyses. The JARS Group reviewed efforts in related fields to develo...
Full Text Available this article is based on the psycho-pedagogical research of values orientation formation in different age groups. This research touches upon diverse approaches to values development and acceptance among children, teenagers and youngsters. This article adduses quantitative analysis of values preferences in different periods of life as well as qualitative analysis of these values in each age group.
Rhemtulla, M.; Hancock, G.R.
Although missing data are often viewed as a challenge for applied researchers, in fact missing data can be highly beneficial. Specifically, when the amount of missing data on specific variables is carefully controlled, a balance can be struck between statistical power and research costs. This
Cascio, Wayne F; Aguinis, Herman
The authors conducted a content analysis of all articles published in the Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology from January 1963 to May 2007 (N = 5,780) to identify the relative attention devoted to each of 15 broad topical areas and 50 more specific subareas in the field of industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology. Results revealed that (a) some areas have become more (or less) popular over time, whereas others have not changed much, and (b) there are some lagged relationships between important societal issues that involve people and work settings (i.e., human-capital trends) and I-O psychology research that addresses them. Also, much I-O psychology research does not address human-capital trends. Extrapolating results from the past 45 years to the next decade suggests that the field of I-O psychology is not likely to become more visible or more relevant to society at large or to achieve the lofty goals it has set for itself unless researchers, practitioners, universities, and professional organizations implement significant changes. In the aggregate, the changes address the broad challenge of how to narrow the academic-practitioner divide.
Van Hoof, Hubert B.
Ecuador's government understands that capable research universities can help in solving the country's pressing socio-economic problems. However, research capabilities and research productivity in its national universities have historically been low, as professors primarily teach and often do not have the inclination, the ability, or the time to do…
Lai, Kaisheng; Lee, Yan Xin; Chen, Hao; Yu, Rongjun
The widespread use of web searches in daily life has allowed researchers to study people's online social and psychological behavior. Using web search data has advantages in terms of data objectivity, ecological validity, temporal resolution, and unique application value. This review integrates existing studies on web search data that have explored topics including sexual behavior, suicidal behavior, mental health, social prejudice, social inequality, public responses to policies, and other psychosocial issues. These studies are categorized as descriptive, correlational, inferential, predictive, and policy evaluation research. The integration of theory-based hypothesis testing in future web search research will result in even stronger contributions to social psychology.
Park, Yeonsoo; Baik, Seung Yeon; Kim, Hyang-Sook; Lee, Seung-Hwan
Korea has the highest suicide rate amongst the OECD countries. Yet, its research on suicidal behaviors has been primitive. While the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide has gained global attention, there has only been a few researches, which examined its applicability in Korea. In this article, we review the previous studies on suicide and examine the association between the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide and traditional Korean culture, with an emphasis on Collectivism and Confucianism. We propose that pathways to suicide might vary depending on cultural influences. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research will be discussed.
Adam, E; Beishcher, P; Marancik, W; Lucariello, R; Young, M
Three processes for the production of low-loss superconducting tapes of Nb/sub 3/Sn were investigated. They are the rolled-bronze process, the electron beam (EB) bronze deposition process, and the high-rate sputtering process. Shortly after the start of the investigation, effort on the last two processes was suspended because the process-development time that would be needed to arrive at a suitable transmission-line tape appeared most likely to be the shortest with the rolled-bronze process. Long lengths of Nb/sub 3/Sn tapes were prepared by the rolled-bronze process from extruded and rolled bronze-clad niobium billets. Tapes were stabilized by removing the bronze layer after reaction and then coating the exposed Nb/sub 3/Sn with high-purity copper by EB evaporation. Several meters of high quality Nb/sub 3/Sn tapes were produced by the rolled-bronze process. Even when the tapes were stabilized with copper, the losses were as low as 1.8 ..mu..W/cm/sup 2/ at 4.2 K and a surface current density of 500 rms A/cm. Despite early curtailment of the effort on the EB bronze-deposition process, short samples of Nb/sub 3/Sn tapes were produced.
Morales-Nin, Beatriz; Albaigés Riera, Joan
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. The aim of the SEAS-ERA initiative (2010-2014), developed within the European Union Framework Programme (EU FPVII) (contract 249552), was to coordinate the structure of national and regional marine and maritime research programs to empower and strengthen marine research all across Europe. A major goal was the development and implementation of common research strategies and programs related to European seas basins. To achieve this goal, SEAS-ERA was applied at two differen...
Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.
Cross-Cultural psychology refers to the collective efforts of researchers who work among people who live in different societies, with different languages and different forms of government. There are a number of benefits to the study of human behavior which can be accrued by carrying out research in various cultures, largely concerned with better…
Chimirri, Niklas Alexander
The requirement that theoretical and empirical research is to sustainably benefit not only the nominal researcher, but also the other research participants, is deeply embedded in the conceptual-analytical framework of Psychology from the Standpoint of the Subject (PSS) and its co-researcher princ......The requirement that theoretical and empirical research is to sustainably benefit not only the nominal researcher, but also the other research participants, is deeply embedded in the conceptual-analytical framework of Psychology from the Standpoint of the Subject (PSS) and its co....... A discussion of recent methodological developments in child-targeted Participatory Design (PD) and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) serve as inspiration for this conceptual specification. The contribution thereby invites co-research to further investigate how emancipatory relevance cannot only...
Lovell, Elyse D'nn; Karr, Elizabeth
The excitement was palpable as the day had finally come -- Research Day! Introduction to Psychology students in a community college who were earning vocational and transfer degrees had become fledging researchers, exuberant to share their knowledge with peers, instructors, their families and community members. Students presented their research…
Wolfe, Kate S.
This article details an assignment developed to teach students at urban community colleges information-literacy skills. This annotated bibliography assignment introduces students to library research skills, helps increase information literacy in beginning college students, and helps psychology students learn research methodology crucial in…
Keegan, Richard James; Cotteril, Stewart; Woolway, Toby; Appaneal, Renee; Hutter, R.I.
This paper explores the continuing research-practice gap that exists within sport and exercise psychology. It explores the reasons why this gap exists, and, crucially, considers solutions to reduce the magnitude and impact of the gap between researchers and practitioners within the field. In this
Full Text Available The objectives are to review results and experiences from interdisciplinary research projects in Research Centre for the Management of Animal Production and Health (CEPROS concerning scientific content, organisation, and collaboration. The Centre has been founded as a result of an agreement between four institutions: the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS, the Danish Veterinary Laboratory (DVL, the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research (DVIV and The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (KVL. CEPROS is a "research centre without walls" and is physically located as an integrated part of the four institutions named above. The Centre has close collaboration with the industry. The superior goals of the Centre are to co-ordinate fundamental and applied research and simultaneously integrate the veterinary and the production oriented livestock research within animal health and welfare, taking into consideration the production economics and reduced use of medication. The assignment of the Centre is to initiate and carry out research, aiming to investigate the influence of breeding and production systems on animal health and welfare as well as on production and product quality. The Centre has since 1997 established 16 interdisciplinary research projects dealing with cattle, pigs, poultry, or mink. The scientific content can be divided into three research clusters: A. Management of animal production and health in production systems, B: Pathogenesis of production diseases, and C. Animal health economics. In Cluster A, the physical environments of production systems have been investigated, broader definitions of the concept health have been established and used in identification of risk factors. Cluster B has investigated physiological, immunological and genetic mechanisms behind development of production diseases and how to apply this knowledge in disease prevention. The cluster in animal health economics has developed decision
Zhu, LeiYe; Wang, Qi; Xu, JunHua; Wu, Qing; Jin, MeiDong; Liao, RongJun; Wang, HaiBin
Architectural Psychology is an interdisciplinary subject of psychology and architecture that focuses on architectural design by using Gestalt psychology, cognitive psychology and other related psychology principles. Researchers from China have achieved fruitful achievements in the field of architectural psychology during past thirty-three years. To reveal the current situation of the field in China, 129 related papers from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were analyzed by CiteSpace II software. The results show that: (1) the studies of the field in China have been started since 1984 and the annual number of the papers increased dramatically from 2008 and reached a historical peak in 2016. Shanxi Architecture tops the list of contributing publishing journals; Wuhan University, Southwest Jiaotong University and Chongqing University are the best performer among the contributing organizations. (2) “Environmental Psychology”, “Architectural Design” and “Architectural Psychology” are the most frequency keywords. The frontiers of the field in China are “architectural creation” and “environmental psychology” while the popular research topics were“residential environment”, “spatial environment”, “environmental psychology”, “architectural theory” and “architectural psychology”.
Wimmelmann, Cathrine L; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik L
Morbid obesity is the fastest growing BMI group in the U.S. and the prevalence of morbid obesity worldwide has never been higher. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe forms of obesity especially with regard to a sustained long-term weight loss. Psychological factors are thought to play an important role for maintaining the surgical weight loss. However, results from prior research examining preoperative psychological predictors of weight loss outcome are inconsistent. The aim of this article was to review more recent literature on psychological predictors of surgical weight loss. We searched PubMed, PsycInfo and Web of Science, for original prospective studies with a sample size >30 and at least one year follow-up, using a combination of search terms such as 'bariatric surgery', 'morbid obesity', 'psychological predictors', and 'weight loss'. Only studies published after 2003 were included. 19 eligible studies were identified. Psychological predictors of surgical weight loss investigated in the reviewed studies include cognitive function, personality, psychiatric disorder, and eating behaviour. In general, recent research remains inconsistent, but the findings suggest that pre-surgical cognitive function, personality, mental health, composite psychological variables and binge eating may predict post-surgical weight loss to the extent that these factors influence post-operative eating behaviour. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schloegel, Judy Johns; Schmidgen, Henning
This essay aims to shed new light on the relations between physiology and psychology in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by focusing on the use of unicellular organisms as research objects during that period. Within the frameworks of evolutionism and monism advocated by Ernst Haeckel, protozoa were perceived as objects situated at the borders between organism and cell and individual and society. Scholars such as Max Verworn, Alfred Binet, and Herbert Spencer Jennings were provoked by these organisms to undertake experimental investigations situated between general physiology and psychology that differed from the physiological psychology advocated by Wilhelm Wundt. Some of these investigations sought to locate psychological properties in the molecular structure of protoplasm; others stressed the existence of organic and psychological individuality in protozoa. In the following decades, leading philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Charles Sanders Peirce, and Henri Bergson, as well as psychological researchers like Sigmund Freud, integrated the results of these investigations into their reflections on such problems as the nature of the will, the structure of the ego, and the holistic nature of the reactions of organisms to their environment.
Reiser, Robert A.; Moore, Alison L.; Bradley, Terra W.; Walker, Reddick; Zhao, Weinan
Faculty members face increasing pressure to secure external research funding, and as a result, there is a critical need for professional development in this area. This paper describes a series of tools and services that have been designed and implemented by a College of Education Office of Research at a southeastern university in order to help…
Hodgetts, Darrin; Chamberlain, Kerry
This article outlines reasons why psychologists should concern themselves with media processes, noting how media are central to contemporary life and heavily implicated in the construction of shared understandings of health. We contend that the present research focus is substantially medicalized, privileging the investigation and framing of certain topics, such as the portrayal of health professionals, medical practices, specific diseases and lifestyle-orientated interventions, and restricting attention to social determinants of health as appropriate topics for investigation. We propose an extended agenda for media health research to include structural health concerns, such as crime, poverty, homelessness and housing and social capital.
Hekia Ellen Golden Bodwitch
Full Text Available In this thematic section, the authors take a critical stance to the notion of giving back. They emphasize that giving back should be a model of solidarity and movement building, not charity. They push us to consider the ways in which the framework of giving back may actually reinforce hierarchical relationships between the researcher and the researched. In doing so, they offer new ways of thinking about the relationship between researchers and their communities of subjects. The strategies employed by these authors resonate with work from feminist activists and scholars whose approaches bring us alternative theories and methods through which to address the potentially dangerous effects of speaking for others through research. Examined alongside the giving back pieces in this section, these feminist contributions illuminate ways that we can give back by advancing the anti-oppression agendas of marginalized subjects through our research.
Oldehinkel, Albertine J
For many scientists, performing statistical tests has become an almost automated routine. However, p-values are frequently used and interpreted incorrectly; and even when used appropriately, p-values tend to provide answers that do not match researchers' questions and hypotheses well. Bayesian
Aylward, Brandon S.; Rausch, Joseph R.
Objective Dynamic p-technique (DPT) is a potentially useful statistical method for examining relationships among dynamic constructs in a single individual or small group of individuals over time. The purpose of this article is to offer a nontechnical introduction to DPT. Method An overview of DPT analysis, with an emphasis on potential applications to pediatric psychology research, is provided. To illustrate how DPT might be applied, an example using simulated data is presented for daily pain and negative mood ratings. Results The simulated example demonstrates the application of DPT to a relevant pediatric psychology research area. In addition, the potential application of DPT to the longitudinal study of adherence is presented. Conclusion Although it has not been utilized frequently within pediatric psychology, DPT could be particularly well-suited for research in this field because of its ability to powerfully model repeated observations from very small samples. PMID:21486938
Nelson, Timothy D; Aylward, Brandon S; Rausch, Joseph R
Dynamic p-technique (DPT) is a potentially useful statistical method for examining relationships among dynamic constructs in a single individual or small group of individuals over time. The purpose of this article is to offer a nontechnical introduction to DPT. An overview of DPT analysis, with an emphasis on potential applications to pediatric psychology research, is provided. To illustrate how DPT might be applied, an example using simulated data is presented for daily pain and negative mood ratings. The simulated example demonstrates the application of DPT to a relevant pediatric psychology research area. In addition, the potential application of DPT to the longitudinal study of adherence is presented. Although it has not been utilized frequently within pediatric psychology, DPT could be particularly well-suited for research in this field because of its ability to powerfully model repeated observations from very small samples.
Hawker, James R.; Dali, Richard S.
By 1979, after a long decline following the end of the Apollo program, the Lewis Research Center found its very existence endangered because it was not doing the kind of research that could attract funding at the time. New management under Andrew J. Stofan applied a program of strategic planning, participative management, and consensus decision making. A corporate-cultural change was effected which enabled Lewis to commit itself to four fundable research and development projects. Morale-building and training programs which were essential to this change are described.
Wright, Stephen L; Díaz, Fernando
The advances in neuroscience have led to an increase in scientific understanding of the aging process, and counseling psychologists can benefit from familiarity with the research on the neuroscience of aging. In this article, we have focused on the cognitive neuroscience of aging, and we describe the progression of healthy aging to Alzheimer's disease, given its high prevalence rate among older adults (Alzheimer's Association, 2013). Common techniques used to study the cognitive neuroscience of aging are explained in regards to measuring age-related changes in the brain and the role of biomarkers in identifying cognitive decline related to Alzheimer's disease. Using this information and in collaboration with cognitive neuroscientists, it is our hope that counseling psychologists may further pursue research areas on aging as well as design appropriate interventions for older individuals who may be experiencing cognitive impairment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Hisrich, Robert; Langan-Fox, Janice; Grant, Sharon
Entrepreneurship is a major source of employment, economic growth, and innovation, promoting product and service quality, competition, and economic flexibility. It is also a mechanism by which many people enter the society's economic and social mainstream, aiding culture formation, population integration, and social mobility. This article aims to illuminate research opportunities for psychologists by exposing gaps in the entrepreneurship literature and describing how these gaps can be filled. A "call to action" is issued to psychologists to develop theory and undertake empirical research focusing on five key topic areas: the personality characteristics of entrepreneurs, the psychopathology of entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial cognition, entrepreneurship education, and international entrepreneurship. Methodological issues are discussed and recommendations provided. It is shown that psychologists can help identify the factors that influence new venture creation and success and inform the construction of public policy to facilitate entrepreneurship.
Lucariello, Joan M.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Anderman, Eric M.; Dwyer, Carol; Ormiston, Heather; Skiba, Russell
Psychological science has much to contribute to preK-12 education because substantial psychological research exists on the processes of learning, teaching, motivation, classroom management, social interaction, communication, and assessment. This article details the psychological science that led to the identification, by the American Psychological…
Brown, Jacqueline A.; Watanabe, Yayoi; Lee, Dong Hun; McIntosh, Kent
To engage in a comparison of school psychology research and practice in eastern and western countries, the current study sought to identify key themes that have influenced the field of school psychology in East Asian countries. Forty-six leading school psychology professionals in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Thailand, and Taiwan provided their…
Becker, Stephen P
To summarize recent research on sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and consider the potential relevance of SCT for the field of pediatric psychology. Literature review. Recent empirical evidence shows SCT symptoms consisting of sluggish/sleepy and daydreamy behaviors to be distinct from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. SCT is associated with psychosocial functioning in children and adolescents, including internalizing symptoms, social withdrawal, and, possibly, academic impairment. The recent findings reviewed suggest that SCT is an important construct for pediatric psychologists to be aware of and may also be directly useful for the research and practice of pediatric psychology.
Krause-Kjær, Elisa; Nedergaard, Jensine I
Awareness of including Single-Case Method (SCM), as a possible methodology in quantitative research in the field of psychology, has been argued as useful, e.g., by Hurtado-Parrado and López-López (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 49:2, 2015). Their article introduces a historical and conceptual analysis of SCMs and proposes changing the, often prevailing, tendency of neglecting SCM as an alternative to Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST). This article contributes by putting a new light on SCM as an equally important methodology in psychology. The intention of the present article is to elaborate this point of view further by discussing one of the most fundamental requirements as well as main characteristics of SCM regarding temporality. In this respect that; "…performance is assessed continuously over time and under different conditions…" Hurtado-Parrado and López-López (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 49:2, 2015). Defining principles when it comes to particular units of analysis, both synchronic (spatial) and diachronic (temporal) elements should be incorporated. In this article misunderstandings of the SCM will be adduced, and further the temporality will be described in order to propose how the SCM could have a more severe usability in psychological research. It is further discussed how to implement SCM in psychological methodology. It is suggested that one solution might be to reconsider the notion of time in psychological research to cover more than a variable of control and in this respect also include the notion of time as an irreversible unity within life.
A review of the cross-cultural research on gender in psychology since 1990 reveals (1) conceptual confusion of the definitions of sex, gender, man, and woman; (2) diversification, refinement, reification, and a problem-solving orientation in the research topics; and (3) the possibility of the elucidation of the psychological sex-difference mechanism in relation to the biological sex differences. A comparison of 1990 and 2000 cross-cultural psychological articles published in "Sex Roles" found that overall, the research is Western-centered and some methodological problems remain to be solved concerning the measures and the sampling. These findings lead to the following suggestions for cross-cultural research on gender to resolve the problems and contribute to the development of psychology in general: (1) use of an operational definition for conceptual equivalence; (2) conducting more etic-approach research; (3) avoiding ethnocentric or androcentric research attitudes; (4) use of a theoretical framework; (5) strict examination of methodologies; and (6) examination of the specific context of participants in terms of cultural diversity, dynamics of husband-wife relationships, and relationships with husbands and fathers.
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.
Psychological research has provided essential insights into how stigma operates to disadvantage those who are targeted by it. At the same time, stigma research has been criticized for being too focused on the perceptions of stigmatized individuals and on micro-level interactions, rather than attending to structural forms of stigma. This article describes the relatively new field of research on structural stigma, which is defined as societal-level conditions, cultural norms, and institutional policies that constrain the opportunities, resources, and wellbeing of the stigmatized. I review emerging evidence that structural stigma related to mental illness and sexual orientation (1) exerts direct and synergistic effects on stigma processes that have long been the focus of psychological inquiry (e.g., concealment, rejection sensitivity); (2) serves as a contextual moderator of the efficacy of psychological interventions; and (3) contributes to numerous adverse health outcomes for members of stigmatized groups—ranging from dysregulated physiological stress responses to premature mortality—indicating that structural stigma represents an under-recognized mechanism producing health inequalities. Each of these pieces of evidence suggests that structural stigma is relevant to psychology and therefore deserves the attention of psychological scientists interested in understanding and ultimately reducing the negative effects of stigma. PMID:27977256
Jerzy Marian Brzeziński
Full Text Available In this article I present a model of associations between two social domains: the scientific research domain (here psychology and the professional practice domain. In the former case, its quality is determined by social and individual methodological awareness (MA. I introduce my own definition of MA. What determines the validity and usefulness of practical actions undertaken by professionals (e.g., assessment, therapy in the practice domain is the accurately constructed empirical theory high in descriptive power, explanatory power and predictive power. I propose a model (my own conceptualization in which I analyze information flow between the domains of scientific research (psychology as a science and professional practice (psychology as a profession. In the subsequent and final part I discuss my own model which links theory and practice: Scientific Research and Professional Practice in Psychology (SRPPP. The article ends with a presentation of three contexts in which the interrelationship between theory and practice is immersed: the ethical, psychological and cultural contexts.
Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Lappalainen, Hanna; Sipilä, Mikko; Sorvari, Sanna; Alekseychik, Pavel; Paramonov, Mikhail; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Zilitinkevich, Sergej
Boreal forests are a substantial source of greenhouse gases, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and natural aerosols, the critical atmospheric components related to climate change processes. A large fraction of boreal forests of the world is situated in Siberian region. Representative measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations, BVOC emissions and aerosols production from Siberian are of special importance when estimating global budgets of climate change relevant factors. The scope of a new concept of the Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is to set up a process for planning of a large-scale, long-term, coordinated observations and modeling experiment in the Pan Eurasian region, especially to cover ground base, airborne and satellite observations together with global and regional models to find out different forcing and feedback mechanisms in the changing climate. University of Helsinki together with Finnish Meteorological institute are organizing the Pan-Eurasian Experiment and to gather all the European and Russian key players in the field of climate and Earth system science to plan the future research activities in the Pan-Eurasian region. In the European scale PEEX is part of the JPI Climate Fast Track Activity 1.3. "Changing cryosphere in the climate system - from observations to climate modeling". PEEX research topics are closely related the NordForsk's Top Research Initiative CRAICC - Cryosphere - atmosphere interaction in the changing Arctic climate. PEEX is also a central part of the ongoing the Finnish Cultural Foundation - Earth System modeling Working Group activity (2012-2013). PEEX scientific aims and future actions to develop Pan Eurasian research infrastructure can be linked to several EC and ESA funded activities aiming to develop next generation research infrastructures and data products: EU-FP7-ACTRIS-I3-project (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project 2011-2015); ICOS a research
The Partitive Analytical Forecasting (PAF) technique is applied to the overall long-term program plans for the Division of Controlled Thermonuclear Research (DCTR) of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). As part of the PAF technique, the Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERTS) IIIZ computer code is used to perform simulations on a logic network describing the DCTR long-term program plan. Logic networks describing the tokamak, mirror, and theta-pinch developments are simulated individually and then together to form an overall DCTR program network. The results of the simulation of the overall network using various funding schemes and strategies are presented. An economic sensitivity analysis is provided for the tokamak logic networks. An analysis is also performed of the fusion-fission hybrid concept in the context of the present DCTR goals. The results mentioned above as well as the PAF technique itself are evaluated, and recommendations for further research are discussed
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production system in the world. The research program at the USDA-ARS-SNARC strives to improve the efficiency and sustainability of warmwater U.S. aquaculture. SNARC scientists have impacted the catfish (#1 U.S. aquaculture industry), tilapia (#3) and hybrid st...
Full Text Available . The research indicated SIMRAC as not a waste of time and money. General positives that have emerged are the strong stakeholder support for the intent of the organisation, the view that SIMPROSS, in providing a project management and administrative support...
Ethiopian agriculture is characterized by smallholders farming whose access to modern technology and basic education is very limited. Research, extension, education and farmers are the main pillars of agricultural knowledge systems and their effectiveness largely depends on strong linkage among each other. However, the existing…
the next-generation semiconductors. A multi-institutional team led by NREL discovered a way to create to right) Stephan Lany, Aaron Holder, Paul Ndione, and Andriy Zakutayev. A multi-institutional team the breakthrough and took the idea from theory to reality. An Energy Frontier Research Center, which
Thomas A. Waldrop; Lucy Brudnak; Ross J. Phillips; Patrick H. Brose
Although fire was historically important to most eastern hardwood systems, its reintroduction by prescribed burning programs has been slow. As a result, less information is available on these systems to fire managers. Recent research and nationwide programs are beginning to produce usable products to predict fuel accumulation and fire behavior. We introduce some of...
Wiati, C. B.; Indriyanti, S. Y.; Maharani, R.; Subarudi
Conflict resolution in Labanan Research Forest (LRF) by the Dipterocarps Forest Ecosystem Research and Development Center (Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Ekosistem Hutan Dipterokarpa – B2P2EHD) needs support from other parties that are also interested in such forest management. This paper aimed to presented conflict resolution in LRF through stakeholder mapping for its engagement. This research was conducted for seven months (June to December 2015) with interviews and literature study as its data collection. Collected data were analysed by a stakeholder analysis and matrix based on their interest and power levels. Two important findings were: (1) There are 19 parties having interests in the existence of LRF should be engaged; (2) Conflict resolution of LRF can be achieved: (a) ensuring key stakeholders which have high interest and high power level has same perception in existence and management of LRF, (b) establishing a partnership with primary stakeholders which have high interest and high power levels; (c) building partnerships between primary stakeholders which have high interest but low power levels, (d) building partnerships between key and secondary stakeholders which have low interest but high power levels and (e) gaining support from primary and secondary stakeholders which have low interest and low power levels. Stakeholder mapping is an important tool for tenure conflict resolution through mapping the power and interest of the conflicted parties and finding the proper parties to be approached.
Wiggins, H. V.; Rich, R. H.
The rapid physical and social changes currently underway in the Arctic - and changes in the way in which we study and manage the region -- require coordinated research efforts to improve our understanding of the Arctic's physical, biological, and social systems and the implications of change at many scales. At the same time, policy-makers and Arctic communities need decision-support tools and synthesized information to respond and adapt to the "new Arctic". There are enormous challenges, however, in collaboration among the disparate groups of people needed for such efforts. A carefully planned strategic approach is required to bridge the scientific disciplinary and organizational boundaries, foster cooperation between local communities and science programs, and effectively communicate between scientists and policy-makers. Efforts must draw on bodies of knowledge from project management, strategic planning, organizational development, and group dynamics. This poster presentation will discuss best practices of building and sustaining networks of people to catalyze successful cross-disciplinary activities. Specific examples and case studies - both successes and failures -- will be presented that draw on several projects at the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS; www.arcus.org), a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic.
The hydrological community in Europe is growing rapidly in both size and, more importantly, scientific relevance and integrity. The Hydrological Sciences (HS) Division of EGU actively is promoting the above development by identifying research targets, stimulating the involvement of young scientists and managing a scientific open access journal based on a public peer review process. The management of the Division itself and the organisation of the General Assembly are carried out transparently, with the aim to seek an improved involvement of top and young scientists, with a bottom up approach. I believe the HS community is animated by a strong enthusiasm which, however, is not adequately supported by economical funding. In my opinion this is a major problem which HS should consider and discuss. The relevance of the societal and environmental problems dealt with by hydrologists, in a professional way and with exceptional scientific skills, is without doubt and therefore the limited amount of funding is not justified in practice. In my opinion, in order to refine the structure of the HS community, and promote its visibility, we should formally identify HS ethical principles for research in environmental science. The principles should highlight the role of hydrology as well as the ethical and scientific solidity of the HS community. Establishing ethical principles is even more important in view of the transparent approach HS is adopting for reviewing and publishing contributions and in view of the increasing need to transparently prove how public funding for research is administered. Establishing ethical principles for hydrology is not a trivial task. Hydrology is characterised by a relevant uncertainty in data, models and parameters. Hydrology is also relying on a large variety of approaches, ranging from statistical to physically based. The purpose of this poster is to present a collection of ethical principles for scientific research presented by the literature and
Sinclair, Robert R; Cheung, Janelle H
Money is arguably the most important resource derived from work and the most important source of stress for contemporary employees. A substantial body of research supports the relationship between access to financial resources and health and well-being, both at individual and aggregated (e.g. national) levels of analysis. Yet, surprisingly little occupational health psychology research has paid attention to financial issues experienced specifically by those in the labour force. With these issues in mind, the overarching goal of the present paper was to address conceptual and measurement issues in the study of objective and subjective aspects of financial stress and review several assessment options available to occupational health psychology researchers for both aspects of financial stress. Where appropriate, we offer guidance to researchers about choices among various financial stress measures and identify issues that require further research attention. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hoerster, Katherine D; Mayer, Joni A
The Correlates of Indoor Tanning in Youth (CITY100) project evaluated individual, built-environmental, and policy correlates of indoor tanning by adolescents in the 100 most populous US cities. After CITY100's completion, the research team obtained supplemental dissemination funding to strategically share data with stakeholders. The primary CITY100 dissemination message was to encourage state-level banning of indoor tanning among youth. We created a user-friendly website to broadly share the most relevant CITY100 data. Journalists were a primary target audience, as were health organizations that would be well positioned to advocate for legislative change. CITY100 data were used to pass the first US state law to ban indoor tanning among those under 18 (CA, USA), as well as in other legislative advocacy activities. This paper concludes with lessons learned from CITY100 dissemination activities that we hope will encourage more health researchers to proactively address policy implications of their data and to design relevant, effective dissemination strategies.
Hill, Clara E.; Corbett, Maureen M.
Traces development of process and outcome research from before foundation of counseling psychology in 1946 to present. Describes influence of Carl Rogers's theory, behavior, psychoanalytic, systems, interpersonal, and social influence theories. Covers Eysenck's challenge to efficacy of psychotherapy; uniformity myth that process and outcome are…
Vautier, Stephane; Lacot, Emilie; Veldhuis, Michiel
We compare the neo-Galtonian and nomothetic approaches of psychological research. While the former focuses on summarized statistics that depict average subjects, the latter focuses on general facts of form 'if conditions then restricted outcomes'. The nomothetic approach does not require
Scheel, Michael J.; Berman, Margit; Friedlander, Myrna L.; Conoley, Collie W.; Duan, Changming; Whiston, Susan C.
Three counseling psychology colleagues (Lichtenberg, 2011; Mallinckrodt, 2011; Murdock, 2011 [all this issue]) provide differing perspectives about the findings from our target article (Scheel et al., 2011) of the decline of published counseling-related research in our major journals. In this rejoinder we respond to each author's viewpoints…
Makarova, Elena; Birman, Dina
The present study aims at systematically analyzing the findings reported in qualitative research on acculturation and psychological adjustment in the school context. Content analysis was conducted using the deductively developed and inductively enriched system of categories. The results of the study provide insights into youths' acculturation and…
The greatest nuclear accident in the history, the Chernobyl accident, had strong influence on international nuclear safety regulations. Though human error, as factor of risk, was never completely neglected but now it takes careful consideration, from design to man power. The situation in our country and results of psychological tests of occupational exposed persons in research reactor are discussed (author) [sr
Kranzler, John H.; Grapin, Sally L.; Daley, Matt L.
This study examined the research productivity and scholarly impact of faculty in APA-accredited school psychology programs using data in the PsycINFO database from 2005 to 2009. We ranked doctoral programs on the basis of authorship credit, number of publications, and number of citations. In addition, we examined the primary publication outlets of…
Reed, Derek D.
In recent years, school psychology has become increasingly grounded in data-based decision making and intervention design, based upon behavior analytic principles. This paradigm shift has occurred in part by recent federal legislation, as well as through advances in experimental research replicating laboratory based studies. Translating basic…
Schmidt, F.; Boehnke, K. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine und Vergleichende Erziehungswissenschaft); Macpherson, M.J. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany))
The conference of December 10th and 11th, 1987 dealt with life under the nuclear threat and the perspectives of pedagogic-psychological research. The individual contributions are in condensed form; they are discussed from the angle of how the psyche of individuals copes with military and non-military nuclear hazards. (DG).
Schmidt, F.; Boehnke, K.
The conference of December 10th and 11th, 1987 dealt with life under the nuclear threat and the perspectives of pedagogic-psychological research. The individual contributions are in condensed form; they are discussed from the angle of how the psyche of individuals copes with military and non-military nuclear hazards. (DG) [de
Lekwa, Adam; Ysseldyke, Jim
Eighty school psychology programs offering training at the doctoral level were contacted with a request for lists of authors, titles, and abstracts of dissertations completed between the years 2000 and 2007. Titles and abstracts from 1119 dissertations were reviewed to assess the interests and experiences of new researchers and practitioners in…
Yoon, Eunju; Langrehr, Kimberly; Ong, Lee Za
The authors conducted a 22-year (1988-2009) content analysis of quantitative empirical research that included acculturation and/or enculturation as a study variable(s). A total of 138 studies in 134 articles were systematically evaluated from 5 major American Psychological Association and American Counseling Association journals in counseling and…
Bos, Angela L.; Schneider, Monica C.
This symposium consists of three papers written after a small mentoring conference, "New Research on Gender in Political Psychology," which was held in New Brunswick, New Jersey, March 4-5, 2011. As junior scholars, we received a grant from the National Science Foundation (#SES-1014854) to organize a conference for the purposes of mentoring…
Valentina A. Polyanskaya
Full Text Available The article considers the results of psychological-educational research, implemented in teaching process of law students’, studying at bachelor level. Special attention is attached to self-determination of future lawyers in professional specialization during introduction training
Montes-Berges, Beatriz; Aranda, Maria; Castillo-Mayen, Maria del Rosario
Roots in Spanish Psychology dated back to Huarte de San Juan (1575). From this period to nowadays, Psychology has notably developed, branching in different areas such as psychology and sports and physical exercise, clinical and health psychology, educational psychology, psychology of social intervention, legal psychology, work and organisational…
Franz, Anke; Worrell, Marcia; Vögele, Claus
In recent years, combining quantitative and qualitative research methods in the same study has become increasingly acceptable in both applied and academic psychological research. However, a difficulty for many mixed methods researchers is how to integrate findings consistently. The value of using a coherent framework throughout the research…
Full Text Available The differences of individual-psychological characteristics of young handball players playing in different game roles. It is shown the relationship of certain personality characteristics of athletes with a line of attack handball players. In research took part handball players at the age of 15-17 years. It is analyzed data from questionnaires by R. Kettela and R. Rusalova. Evaluated the differences in the properties of the temperament handball players of different roles. Established that the distribution of game functions athletes must take into account their individual psychological characteristics.
Full Text Available Background: Trauma survivors often have to negotiate legal systems such as refugee status determination or the criminal justice system. Methods & results: We outline and discuss the contribution which research on trauma and related psychological processes can make to two particular areas of law where complex and difficult legal decisions must be made: in claims for refugee and humanitarian protection, and in reporting and prosecuting sexual assault in the criminal justice system. Conclusion: There is a breadth of psychological knowledge that, if correctly applied, would limit the inappropriate reliance on assumptions and myth in legal decision-making in these settings. Specific recommendations are made for further study.
Bullion, John W; Brower, Stewart M
This case study describes the South Central Chapter of the Medical Library Association (SCC/MLA) initiative to develop an academic writing retreat for members who sought the necessary time and support to advance their research projects toward publication. SCC/MLA staged a dedicated writing retreat to coincide with the organization's 2012, 2013, and 2014 annual meetings. Each cohort met over two days to write and to workshop their peers' manuscripts. Organizers distributed an online survey one month after each retreat to evaluate attendees' perceptions. Three years' worth of writing retreats yielded fourteen peer-reviewed articles and one book chapter. Participants indicated that the retreat helped them meet or exceed their writing goals by offering protected time and a setting conducive to productivity. The format of the retreat is cost effective and easily adaptable for fellow professionals who wish to organize a formal event as a conference offering or simply support a writing group at their home institutions. In SCC/MLA, the retreat revitalized interest in writing and demystified the scholarly publication process.
Full Text Available Peace journalism is a relatively new research area in psychology which emerged in the last decade of the last century. Building on findings from social psychology (group processes, social influence, conflict research, attitude change, propaganda, and enemy concept research and on models of conflict management and the constructive transformation of conflicts, an investigation is made of the factors that determine the escalation oriented bias of conventional war reporting, and of how this can be transformed into de-escalation and/or peace oriented conflict reporting. This paper provides an outline of this research and development program in six sections: (1 Interest Perception, (2 Task Formulation, (3 Basic Theoretical Assumptions, (4 War Discourse vs. Peace Discourse, (5 a Two Step Model, and (6 Journalist Training.
Turiel, Elliot; Chung, Eunkyung; Carr, Jessica A
Issues of equality and social justice remain important concerns for contemporary societies. Struggles for equal rights and fair treatment continue in both organized movements and in acts of everyday life. We first consider trends in psychological research that fail to address such struggles and may even impede theoretical understanding of the complex processes of thought and action involved when individuals confront situations of welfare, justice, and rights. Then, we consider research, which attempts to address these issues. We review studies on the development of moral judgments and on understandings of equality and distributive justice. We also discuss research that accounts for the varying social contexts of individual lives and conceives of human behavior as engaged in moral judgments, which often produce resistance and opposition to injustice. In conclusion, we call for more attention in psychological research to issues of equity and social justice. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stephen Wee Hun eLim
Full Text Available Research methods and statistics are an indispensable subject in the undergraduate psychology curriculum, but there are challenges associated with teaching it, such as making learning durable. Here we hypothesized that retrieval-based learning promotes long-term retention of statistical knowledge in psychology. Participants either studied the educational material in four consecutive periods, or studied it just once and practised retrieving the information in the subsequent three periods, and then took a final test through which their learning was assessed. Whereas repeated studying yielded better test performance when the final test was immediately administered, repeated practice yielded better performance when the test was administered a week after. The data suggest that retrieval practice enhanced the learning – produced better long-term retention – of statistical knowledge in psychology than did repeated studying.
Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D; Bargh, John A
Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk; adolescents are also highly vulnerable; and food marketing may produce far-reaching negative health outcomes. We propose a food marketing defense model that posits four necessary conditions to effectively counter harmful food marketing practices: awareness, understanding, ability and motivation to resist. A new generation of psychological research is needed to examine each of these processes, including the psychological mechanisms through which food marketing affects young people, to identify public policy that will effectively protect them from harmful influence.
Tennen, H; Hall, J A; Affleck, G
Personality and social psychological studies of depression and depressive phenomena have become more methodologically sophisticated in recent years. In response to earlier problems in this literature, investigators have formulated sound suggestions for research designs. Studies of depression published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP) between 1988 and 1993 were reviewed to evaluate how well these recommendations have been followed. Forty-one articles were examined for adherence to 3 suggestions appearing consistently in the literature: (a) multiple assessment periods, (b) multiple assessment methods, and (c) appropriate comparison groups. The studies published in JPSP have not adhered well to these standards. The authors recommend resetting minimum methodological criteria for studies of depression published in the premier journal in personality and social psychology.
Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Chu, Carol; Joiner, Thomas E
Writing is a core feature of the training requirements and career demands of psychology faculty members and graduate students. Within academic psychology, specifically, writing is vital for the generation of scientific knowledge through manuscripts and grant applications. Although resources exist regarding how to improve one's writing skills, few models have been described regarding how to promote a culture of writing productivity that realizes tangible deliverables, such as manuscripts and grant applications. In this article, we discuss the rationale, model, and initial outcome data of a writing retreat developed and implemented to increase research productivity among psychology faculty and trainees. We also review best practices for conducting writing retreats and identify key areas for future SoTL on advancing writing.
In the 50 years since the 1965 Swampscott conference, the field of community psychology has not yet developed a well-articulated ethical framework to guide research and practice. This paper reviews what constitutes an "ethical framework"; considers where the field of community psychology is at in its development of a comprehensive ethical framework; examines sources for ethical guidance (i.e., ethical principles and standards) across multiple disciplines, including psychology, evaluation, sociology, and anthropology; and recommends strategies for developing a rich written discourse on how community psychology researchers and practitioners can address ethical conflicts in our work. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Aagaard, Jesper; Matthiesen, Noomi
This article challenges the hegemonic status of “language” as the primary substance of qualitative research in psychology, whether through interviews or recordings of naturally occurring talk. It thereby questions the overt focus on analyzing linguistic “meaning.” Instead, it is suggested that researchers should start paying attention to the material world (consisting of both human bodies and material objects) and what it means for how people live their lives. It is argued that this can be do...
Mustafa Kemal TOPCU
Full Text Available Employees’ contribution to organizations to be succesfull and to reach objectives are considered great. As a natural result, organizations has exponentially started to invest in human capital. By adapting positive psychology to organizational field, it is believed that the happier employees are the more porductive they work. In fact, psychology of employees at workplace has a great significance on organizational attitudes and behaviors towards the job itself, organization, co-workers, and customers. In particular, the effects on job satisfaction, which is a sum of emotions at workplace, is continously attached more attraction by researchers. Nonetheless, relations among variables are studied at organizations having a normal life cycle. On the other side, extreme cases like moving, downsizing, restructuring are rarely studied. To this end, this study aims at determining the effects of psychological capital and emotional labor on job satisfaction of employees working in a moving bank headquarters. Findings indicate that there is no significant effect of psychological capital and emotional labor on job satifaction due to organizational climate whilst psychological capital has a positive effect on emotional labor.
Terkildsen, Thomas; Petersen, Sofie
The aim of this article is to explore the future of qualitative research as seen from a students' perspective. This exploration will initially be incited through a discussion of the use of the term 'qualitative research', and the risks associated with the use of such an umbrella term. It is discussed that the use of an overarching umbrella term can lead to an overhomogenized understanding of qualitative research, that fails to represent the diversity and variety of methodological and epistemological approaches that exist within this research paradigm. It is also discussed that this overhomogenization reinforces the idea of qualitative research as an anti-doctrine to quantitative research, which is argued to discourage interparadigmatic integration. Lastly, it is considered how these (mis)conceptions of qualitative research influence how psychology students are taught about research methodology and how this education could affect these (mis)conceptions. We advocate that the future for qualitative research in psychology should be ensured through a restructure and a refocus on an educational level. This change should overall be centered around teaching students how to be reflective research practitioners based on an in-depth understanding of the variety of epistemologies within both meta-research-paradigms.
Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Nederhof, Esther; Riese, Harriette; Ormel, Johan
Effortful control is thought to foster adaptive action in defensive contexts and may thereby protect individuals against anxious inhibition and focus on their own distress. We examined if effortful control predicted adolescents' perceived arousal, unpleasantness, and control as well as autonomic
Responding to Martin Luther King Jr.'s 1968 address at the American Psychological Association calling for a psychology that would educate Whites about racial injustice, this article challenges the widening epistemological gap between those who suffer from inequality and those who conduct social policy research on inequality. In this 20-year memoir on the echoes of a single piece of participatory policy research, Changing Minds: The Impact of College in a Maximum-Security Prison (Fine et al., 2001), readers are invited to explore how deep critical participation by a collaborative team of university and prisoner researchers has facilitated theoretical and methodological complexity, enhanced contextual and construct validity, thickened commitments to ethics and action, and fueled the political sustainability and generalizability of the findings over time and space.
Youn, Soo Jeong; Castonguay, Louis G; Xiao, Henry; Janis, Rebecca; McAleavey, Andrew A; Lockard, Allison J; Locke, Benjamin D; Hayes, Jeffrey A
The goal of this article is to present information about a standardized multidimensional measure of psychological symptoms, the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS; Locke et al., 2011; Locke, McAleavey, et al., 2012; McAleavey, Nordberg, Hayes, et al., 2012), developed to assess difficulties specific to college students' mental health. We provide (a) a brief review and summary of the psychometric and research support for the CCAPS; (b) examples of the use of the CCAPS for various purposes, including clinical, training, policy, and counseling center advocacy; and (c) implications of the integration of routine outcome monitoring and feedback for the future of training, research, and clinical practice. In particular, the article emphasizes how the assimilation of and symbiotic relationship between research and practice can address the scientist-practitioner gap. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Mankowski, Eric S; Galvez, Gino; Glass, Nancy
An analysis of the respective organizational histories, missions, and scholarly activity of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology and the Society for Community Research and Action was conducted in order to inform the development of interdisciplinary linkages between members of the two organizations. The analysis revealed many points of shared values and actions, as well as some important differences. Both scholarly organizations developed out of a similar historical and cultural zeitgeist in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The missions emphasize the role of culture/diversity in psychological phenomena, adopting an interdisciplinary orientation, the value of collaboration, the importance of research method and ethics, and the value of action research. However, community psychology generally lacks an adequate treatment of cultural phenomena while cross-cultural psychology often fails to draw on community and participatory methods useful for understanding culture in context. These common roots and differences are examined. Finally, we describe a community based, participatory research and intervention project to address intimate partner violence among Latinos and European-Americans living in Oregon. Analysis of the research process and on some of our initial findings illustrates challenges and potential benefits of an interdisciplinary, cultural community psychology.
Full text of publication follows: this paper argues that perceptual control is an essential component in human risk evaluation. Control is seen as an integrative concept between the psychometric research paradigm and various psychological theories. The psychometric approach to the study of risk has mainly dealt with the intuitive judgements people do when they are asked to evaluate risky activities and technologies. It shows that people judge risk in relation to the possible consequences and probabilities related to an outcome; the former more typical for the public and the latter more often used by experts. The psychometric research tradition has concentrated on doing human risk evaluations quantifiable and the reactions predictable. This paper also relates to possible practical implications of this strategy, namely that humans react heterogeneously to different kinds of threats due to perceived control. Theoretical ability to explain and elaborate perceptions of risk, as well as individual reactions, were the main criteria for the literature selection, which includes work on e.g. attribution theory, locus of control, and learned helplessness. Thus, the paper addresses available psychological views for a contribution to a developed theoretical framework for human risk evaluation. It seeks to compare and integrate the psychometric research tradition within social psychological theories. The way in which people find their informational basis for their risk judgements, either from others or from their own perceptions is also discussed. Furthermore, the theories are related to the social and psychological reactions of the Chernobyl accident. The paper concludes that psychological theories can contribute to a more comprehensive framework for the understanding of human risk evaluation, leading to a more coherent and integrative knowledge. (author)
Thomas, Neil; Hayward, Mark; Peters, Emmanuelle; van der Gaag, Mark; Bentall, Richard P.; Jenner, Jack; Strauss, Clara; Sommer, Iris E.; Johns, Louise C.; Varese, Filippo; García-Montes, José Manuel; Waters, Flavie; Dodgson, Guy; McCarthy-Jones, Simon
This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions, through formulation-driven interventions using methods from cognitive therapy, to a number of contemporary developments. Recent developments include the application of acceptance- and mindfulness-based approaches, and consolidation of methods for working with connections between voices and views of self, others, relationships and personal history. In this article, we discuss the development of therapies for voices and review the empirical findings. This review shows that psychological therapies are broadly effective for people with positive symptoms, but that more research is required to understand the specific application of therapies to voices. Six key research directions are identified: (1) moving beyond the focus on overall efficacy to understand specific therapeutic processes targeting voices, (2) better targeting psychological processes associated with voices such as trauma, cognitive mechanisms, and personal recovery, (3) more focused measurement of the intended outcomes of therapy, (4) understanding individual differences among voice hearers, (5) extending beyond a focus on voices and schizophrenia into other populations and sensory modalities, and (6) shaping interventions for service implementation. PMID:24936081
Cohen, Lindsey L; Feinstein, Amanda; Masuda, Akihiko; Vowles, Kevin E
Single-case research allows for an examination of behavior and can demonstrate the functional relation between intervention and outcome in pediatric psychology. This review highlights key assumptions, methodological and design considerations, and options for data analysis. Single-case methodology and guidelines are reviewed with an in-depth focus on visual and statistical analyses. Guidelines allow for the careful evaluation of design quality and visual analysis. A number of statistical techniques have been introduced to supplement visual analysis, but to date, there is no consensus on their recommended use in single-case research design. Single-case methodology is invaluable for advancing pediatric psychology science and practice, and guidelines have been introduced to enhance the consistency, validity, and reliability of these studies. Experts generally agree that visual inspection is the optimal method of analysis in single-case design; however, statistical approaches are becoming increasingly evaluated and used to augment data interpretation.
DiLorenzo, Terry A; Becker-Fiegeles, Jill; Gibelman, Margaret
In this mixed-method study of education in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) in psychology, phase one survey respondents (n = 141) reported that faculty and students were familiar with RCR standards and procedures to educate them were believed to be adequate. However, educational methods varied widely. In phase two, seven survey respondents completed in-depth interviews assessing RCR training and education and research review procedures. Educational methods through which RCR content was presented included the following ones: traditional (lectures), technical (web-based), and experiential (internships), but RCR was often minimally considered in the formal curriculum. Our results suggest that psychology training programs might benefit from more formal consideration of RCR education and training in the curriculum.
Full Text Available The article addresses the influence of natural and social-economic factors on the formation of the psychology of mountain people. A special mountain environment, living and housekeeping conditions, religious beliefs, and traditions mold stamina, pride, industriousness, and courage. The research into the psyche of Ukrainian mountain people living in the highest areas of Ivano-Frankivsk, Chernivtsi and Transcarpathian regions in the totalitarian period was openly scorned if not completely forbidden. For a long time, no research was done on the ethnic identity formation and rich feelings of hutsuls — a numerous ethnic community. Far too little attention was paid to hutsuls’ most important psychological traits of character — bravery, freedom of mind, dignity, respect for others, industriousness, stamina etc.
Full Text Available The article deals with methodological support psychological and linguistic research "extremist" materials. Presents a comprehensive psycho-linguistic approach to the examination of information materials on matters related to combating extremism and terrorism, and certain provisions of the methodology developed by the Russian federal center of judicial examination of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation. Based on the analysis of the "verbal" crimes related to criminal legal interpretation of extremism and terrorism, highlighted the types of prohibited public expression of communicative action, corresponding to the seven types of "extremist" values. The article outlines the key features of psychological analysis "extremist" materials research stages. It is shown that the complex (psycho-linguistic approach to the study of materials of extremist orientation, is scientifically sound, methodically proven, appropriate to the needs of law enforcement, judicial and investigative practice.
Larisa Valentinovna Shipova
Full Text Available The review of psychology and pedagogical researches of the mentally retarded children devoted to studying of a problem of emotional development in foreign science and practice is presented in article. Various approaches to an assessment of the importance of violations of the emotional sphere of the personality at mentally retarded children for all mental development of the child are considered, need of the accounting of emotional frustration of mentally retarded children for their education and education, and also social adaptation and integration into sociocultural and educational space is discussed. Research of emotional development of mentally retarded children in the course of training is important for development of programs of psychology and pedagogical diagnostics and correction of emotional violations at this category of school students, formation of their self-control, development of the emotional relations.
Graham, Lindsay T; Gosling, Samuel D; Travis, Christopher K
Homes are important: People devote much of their thought, time, and resources to selecting, modifying, and decorating their living spaces, and they may be devastated when their homes must be sold or are destroyed. Yet the empirical psychological literature says virtually nothing about the roles that homes might play in people's lives. We argue that homes provide an informative context for a wide variety of studies examining how social, developmental, cognitive, and other psychological processes play out in a consequential real-world setting. The topic of homes is also well suited to collaborations with a diverse array of disciplines ranging from architecture and engineering to sociology and law. We illustrate the potential insights to be gained from studying homes with an exploratory study that maps the psychological ambiances (e.g., romance, comfort, togetherness) that people desire in their homes; we identify six broad ambiance dimensions (restoration, kinship, storage, stimulation, intimacy, productivity) that show mean differences across rooms. We connect these findings to existing work on situation selection in emotion regulation. These ideas provide only an initial foray into the domain of residential space, but they hint at the productive roles that homes and other spaces could play in psychological theorizing and research. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; López-López, Wilson
This paper presents a historical and conceptual analysis of a group of research strategies known as the Single-Case Methods (SCMs). First, we present an overview of the SCMs, their history, and their major proponents. We will argue that the philosophical roots of SCMs can be found in the ideas of authors who recognized the importance of understanding both the generality and individuality of psychological functioning. Second, we will discuss the influence that the natural sciences' attitude toward measurement and experimentation has had on SCMs. Although this influence can be traced back to the early days of experimental psychology, during which incipient forms of SCMs appeared, SCMs reached full development during the subsequent advent of Behavior Analysis (BA). Third, we will show that despite the success of SCMs in BA and other (mainly applied) disciplines, these designs are currently not prominent in psychology. More importantly, they have been neglected as a possible alternative to one of the mainstream approaches in psychology, the Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST), despite serious controversies about the limitations of this prevailing method. Our thesis throughout this section will be that SCMs should be considered as an alternative to NHST because many of the recommendations for improving the use of significance testing (Wilkinson & the TFSI, 1999) are main characteristics of SCMs. The paper finishes with a discussion of a number of the possible reasons why SCMs have been neglected.
柴山, 謙二; シバヤマ, ケンジ; Shibayama, Kenji
This is a tentative research on the education of teacher explored in Adlerian Psychology that used the structured group encounter method. The purpose of teacher education by Adlerian Psychology is to develop and deepen social interests of teachers, and to learn this theory and psychological techniques at school. The process of short-time workshop for teachers who were specialized in guidance for pupils was designed and documented for the education of teacher, and the author participated in th...
Sbarra, David A; Law, Rita W; Portley, Robert M
Divorce is a relatively common stressful life event that is purported to increase risk for all-cause mortality. One problem in the literature on divorce and health is that it is fragmented and spread across many disciplines; most prospective studies of mortality are based in epidemiology and sociology, whereas most mechanistic studies are based in psychology. This review integrates research on divorce and death via meta-analysis and outlines a research agenda for better understanding the potential mechanisms linking marital dissolution and risk for all-cause mortality. Random effects meta-analysis with a sample of 32 prospective studies (involving more than 6.5 million people, 160,000 deaths, and over 755,000 divorces in 11 different countries) revealed a significant increase in risk for early death among separated/divorced adults in comparison to their married counterparts. Men and younger adults evidenced significantly greater risk for early death following marital separation/divorce than did women and older adults. Quantification of the overall effect size linking marital separation/divorce to risk for early death reveals a number of important research questions, and this article discusses what remains to be learned about four plausible mechanisms of action: social selection, resource disruptions, changes in health behaviors, and chronic psychological distress. © Association for Psychological Science 2011.
This keynote address discusses previous and ongoing efforts to reduce the persistent gap between research and practice in social work and offers recommendations for further bridging that gap. Key among those recommendations is the need to conduct descriptive outcome studies of efforts to adapt research-supported interventions in everyday practice…
Kauh, Tina J; Dawkins-Lyn, Nicola; Dooyema, Carrie; Harris, Carole; Jernigan, Jan; Kettel Khan, Laura; Ottley, Phyllis; Young-Hyman, Deborah
Recent findings show that national childhood obesity prevalence overall is improving among some age groups, but that disparities continue to persist, particularly among populations that have historically been at higher risk of obesity and overweight. Over the past several years, many jurisdictions at the city or county level across the nation have also reported declines. Little evaluation has focused on understanding the factors that influence the implementation of efforts to reduce childhood obesity rates. This article summarizes the rationale, aims, and overall design of the Childhood Obesity Declines Project (COBD), which was the first of its kind to systematically study and document the what, how, when, and where of community-based obesity strategies in four distinct communities across the nation. COBD was initiated by the National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR), was led by a subset of NCCOR advisors and a research team at ICF, and was guided by external advisors made up of researchers, decision makers, and other key stakeholders. The research team used an adapted version of the Systematic Screening and Assessment method to review and collect retrospective implementation data in four communities. COBD found that sites implemented strategies across the many levels and environments that impact children's well being (akin to the social-ecological framework), building a Culture of Health in their communities. COBD demonstrates how collaboratives of major funders with the support of other experts and key stakeholders, can help to accelerate progress in identifying and disseminating strategies that promote healthy eating and physical activity.
Bakker, Marjan; Wicherts, Jelte M.
Background The removal of outliers to acquire a significant result is a questionable research practice that appears to be commonly used in psychology. In this study, we investigated whether the removal of outliers in psychology papers is related to weaker evidence (against the null hypothesis of no effect), a higher prevalence of reporting errors, and smaller sample sizes in these papers compared to papers in the same journals that did not report the exclusion of outliers from the analyses. Methods and Findings We retrieved a total of 2667 statistical results of null hypothesis significance tests from 153 articles in main psychology journals, and compared results from articles in which outliers were removed (N = 92) with results from articles that reported no exclusion of outliers (N = 61). We preregistered our hypotheses and methods and analyzed the data at the level of articles. Results show no significant difference between the two types of articles in median p value, sample sizes, or prevalence of all reporting errors, large reporting errors, and reporting errors that concerned the statistical significance. However, we did find a discrepancy between the reported degrees of freedom of t tests and the reported sample size in 41% of articles that did not report removal of any data values. This suggests common failure to report data exclusions (or missingness) in psychological articles. Conclusions We failed to find that the removal of outliers from the analysis in psychological articles was related to weaker evidence (against the null hypothesis of no effect), sample size, or the prevalence of errors. However, our control sample might be contaminated due to nondisclosure of excluded values in articles that did not report exclusion of outliers. Results therefore highlight the importance of more transparent reporting of statistical analyses. PMID:25072606
Aspiranti, Kathleen B.; McCleary, Daniel F.; Ratliff, Stephen R.
This study analyzed articles published in four school psychology journals ("Journal of School Psychology," "Psychology in the Schools," "School Psychology Quarterly," and "School Psychology Review") between the years 2009 and 2015. Articles were classified based on whether they were narrative or empirical,…
Bishop, Felicity L
To outline some of the challenges of mixed methods research and illustrate how they can be addressed in health psychology research. This study critically reflects on the author's previously published mixed methods research and discusses the philosophical and technical challenges of mixed methods, grounding the discussion in a brief review of methodological literature. Mixed methods research is characterized as having philosophical and technical challenges; the former can be addressed by drawing on pragmatism, the latter by considering formal mixed methods research designs proposed in a number of design typologies. There are important differences among the design typologies which provide diverse examples of designs that health psychologists can adapt for their own mixed methods research. There are also similarities; in particular, many typologies explicitly orient to the technical challenges of deciding on the respective timing of qualitative and quantitative methods and the relative emphasis placed on each method. Characteristics, strengths, and limitations of different sequential and concurrent designs are identified by reviewing five mixed methods projects each conducted for a different purpose. Adapting formal mixed methods designs can help health psychologists address the technical challenges of mixed methods research and identify the approach that best fits the research questions and purpose. This does not obfuscate the need to address philosophical challenges of mixing qualitative and quantitative methods. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Mixed methods research poses philosophical and technical challenges. Pragmatism in a popular approach to the philosophical challenges while diverse typologies of mixed methods designs can help address the technical challenges. Examples of mixed methods research can be hard to locate when component studies from mixed methods projects are published separately. What does this study add? Critical
Yalch, Matthew M
Several contemporary researchers have noted the virtues of Bayesian methods of data analysis. Although debates continue about whether conventional or Bayesian statistics is the "better" approach for researchers in general, there are reasons why Bayesian methods may be well suited to the study of psychological trauma in particular. This article describes how Bayesian statistics offers practical solutions to the problems of data non-normality, small sample size, and missing data common in research on psychological trauma. After a discussion of these problems and the effects they have on trauma research, this article explains the basic philosophical and statistical foundations of Bayesian statistics and how it provides solutions to these problems using an applied example. Results of the literature review and the accompanying example indicates the utility of Bayesian statistics in addressing problems common in trauma research. Bayesian statistics provides a set of methodological tools and a broader philosophical framework that is useful for trauma researchers. Methodological resources are also provided so that interested readers can learn more. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; Treffers, Philip D. A.; de Beurs, Edwin; Siebelink, Bart M.; Koudijs, Els
With the increased globalization of psychology and related fields, having reliable and valid measures that can be used in a number of languages and cultures is critical. Few guidelines or standards have been established in psychology for the translation and cultural adaptation of instruments. Usually little is reported in research publications…
Mounts, Jeffrey R W
This review examines attention research appearing in The American Journal of Psychology over the journal's rich 125-year history. In particular, the review examines studies focused on selective attention's role in modulating the influence of distraction and the methods used to capture the nature of selective attention. Special attention is given to classic articles by Treisman (1964a, 1964b), Neisser (1963), and Eriksen and Rohrbaugh (1970), whose methods and results are examined in detail in light of current theory and research in selective attention.
Stewart, James H.; Atkin, Julia A.
Three research paradigms, those of Ausubel, Gagné and Piaget, have received a great deal of attention in the literature of science education. In this article a fourth paradigm is presented - an information processing psychology paradigm. The article is composed of two sections. The first section describes a model of memory developed by information processing psychologists. The second section describes how such a model could be used to guide science education research on learning and problem solving.Received: 19 October 1981
Full Text Available In this article we review the argument outlined in the opening article in this special thematic section: that the current social psychology of citizenship can be understood as the development of longstanding conceptualisations of the concept within the discipline. These conceptualisations have contributed to the current social psychological study of the constructive, active and collective (but often exclusive understandings of citizenship in people’s everyday lives, as evidenced by contributions to this thematic section. We consider how this emerging body of work might fit with current citizenship studies and in particular how it may contribute to the current trend towards conceiving citizenship as an active practice embedded in everyday social life. Specifically, we highlight three areas of future research that we think are particularly promising: citizenship and recognition; displays and enactments of citizenship in public space; citizenship and lived coexistence. Although this is far from an exhaustive list of possibilities, we propose that research in these areas could enable the way for social psychology to articulate a distinct, recognisable and valuable contribution to citizenship studies.
Full Text Available Any serious injury is experienced as a traumatic life event with physical and psychological consequences. Research shows that psychological interventions are not only important, but essential during the rehabilitation of injured athletes. Anxiety and negative stressors are make psychological problems that accompany the injured athlete. Therefore, the development of individualized stress management techniques is necessary to help athletes to effectively cope and adapt to injury and rehabilitation process as well. It is crucial for effective social support that athletes have the right type of support at the right time, because the way individuals cope with stress may change with time. It was found that coaches, fitness trainers, and physicians are critical elements of social support, because these individuals can offer a unique experience and understanding of athletes (emotional and informational support. Prompt referral to a sports psychologist will allow the coping and release from any unjustified emotional pain. Research has identified an urgent need for a better definition of the psychosocial needs of injured athletes and strongly suggests that sport psychologists have an important role in meeting these needs.
This article takes its cue from the original work of sir Alexander Fleming on penicillin, published in the first issue of Recenti Progressi in Medicina in 1946 and reproduced here on the occasion of the approaching 70-year anniversary of the journal. The path that brought Fleming to the discovery of penicillin, one of the major milestones in the history of clinical pharmacology, provides insight for a range of considerations: the painstaking efforts of researchers, the contribution from accidental findings, and the dissemination of study results. Although the discovery of penicillin has changed the course of medicine, the benefits deriving from such an important advance are most likely to be offset by the overprescription of antibiotics, which is the leading cause of antimicrobial resistance and one of the most serious public health problems of our time.
Ian W Holloway
Full Text Available The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526, which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18-24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037 and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, p<0.001; psychological distress is an internalized response to environmental and cognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population.
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D; Nitiéma, Pascal; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Rahman, Ambreen
This review of the literature on disaster media coverage describes the events, samples, and forms of media coverage (television, newspapers, radio, internet) studied and examines the association between media consumption and psychological outcomes. A total of 36 studies representing both man-made and natural events met criteria for review in this analysis. Most studies examined disaster television viewing in the context of terrorism and explored a range of outcomes including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caseness and posttraumatic stress (PTS), depression, anxiety, stress reactions, and substance use. There is good evidence establishing a relationship between disaster television viewing and various psychological outcomes, especially PTSD caseness and PTS, but studies are too few to draw definitive conclusions about the other forms of media coverage that have been examined. As media technology continues to advance, future research is needed to investigate these additional media forms especially newer forms such as social media.
McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Spirito, Anthony
Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a "capstone experience"; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the "business of science." Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists.
Wallander, J L
Introduces a Special Issue, covering two published issues (5 and 6) of this journal, on theory-driven research in pediatric psychology. A rationale for conducting research from a conceptual basis is presented. It is emphasized that science is primarily an intellectual activity, demonstrated in the form of theory building, testing, and reformulation. Furthermore, it is argued theory serves as a planning and communication aide for scientific pursuit. The process and components of theory-driven research are then highlighted. Theoretical constructs, theoretical and empirical definitions of constructs, and the use of variables are discussed. A definition of scientific theory is offered. Theory testing is distinguished from post hoc theorizing. Differences in the scope of theories are noted. Connections between theory and hypothesis testing and research design are addressed, especially for nonexperimental or correlational research.
Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a “capstone experience”; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the “business of science.” Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists. PMID:22286345
Nette, H.P.; Onori, S.; Fattibene, P.; Regulla, D.; Wieser, A.
The IAEA has long been active in the field of high-dose standardization. An International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) was established based on alanine/ESR dosimetry. This service operates over the range of 100 Gy to 100 kGy and is directed towards industrial radiation processing in IAEA member states. It complements the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose intercomparison service for dose assurance in hospital radiotherapy departments. Experience with the alanine high dose service suggests that the alanine dosimeter might provide superior performance to TLD in the therapy dose range. Preliminary test measurements with the participation of GSF/Germany, Istituto Superiore di Sanita/Italy (both providing alanine dosimeters and their evaluation) and IAEA (providing reference irradiations) seems to justify research efforts through an IAEA Coordinated Research Programme (CRP). This CRP, entitled ''Therapy Level Dosimetry with the Alanine/ESR System'' is presently under set-up. It will include general work common to all assigned/potential contract holders as well as some specific research topics in accordance to individual proposals of each participant. (author)
Willis, Jerry; Kim, Seung H.
This book has been designed to assist researchers in the social sciences and education fields who are interested in learning how information technologies can help them successfully navigate the research process. Most researchers are familiar with the use of programs like SPSS to analyze data, but many are not aware of other ways information…
Wang, Mo; Wanberg, Connie R
This article surveys 100 years of research on career management and retirement, with a primary focus on work published in the Journal of Applied Psychology. Research on career management took off in the 1920s, with most attention devoted to the development and validation of career interest inventories. Over time, research expanded to attend to broader issues such as the predictors and outcomes of career interests and choice; the nature of career success and who achieves it; career transitions and adaptability to change; retirement decision making and adjustment; and bridge employment. In this article, we provide a timeline for the evolution of the career management and retirement literature, review major theoretical perspectives and findings on career management and retirement, and discuss important future research directions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Amer, Mona M; Bagasra, Anisah
Like other minority groups in North America, Muslim Americans have been largely ignored in the psychological literature. The overwhelming pressures faced by this group, including surveillance, hate crimes, and institutional discrimination, stimulate an urgent need for psychologists to better understand and ensure the well-being of this population. This article reviews challenges in conducting research with Muslim Americans in order to offer recommendations for culturally sensitive approaches that can enhance the growth of future scholarship. We first contextualize this endeavor by assessing trends in psychological scholarship pertinent to Muslims in North America over the past two decades. A total of 559 relevant publications were identified through a PsycINFO database search. The 10 years post 9/11 saw a more than 900% increase in the annual number of publications, paralleling a national interest in the Muslim American community subsequent to the World Trade Center attacks. Researchers who conducted these studies faced numerous barriers, including unclear definition of the target sample, unavailability of culturally sensitive measures, sampling difficulties, and obstacles to participant recruitment. To navigate these challenges, we provide a framework for effective research design along the continuum of the research process from study conceptualization to dissemination of results. The challenges and recommendations are illustrated with examples from previous studies.
Patil, Prasad; Peng, Roger D; Leek, Jeffrey T
A recent study of the replicability of key psychological findings is a major contribution toward understanding the human side of the scientific process. Despite the careful and nuanced analysis reported, the simple narrative disseminated by the mass, social, and scientific media was that in only 36% of the studies were the original results replicated. In the current study, however, we showed that 77% of the replication effect sizes reported were within a 95% prediction interval calculated using the original effect size. Our analysis suggests two critical issues in understanding replication of psychological studies. First, researchers' intuitive expectations for what a replication should show do not always match with statistical estimates of replication. Second, when the results of original studies are very imprecise, they create wide prediction intervals-and a broad range of replication effects that are consistent with the original estimates. This may lead to effects that replicate successfully, in that replication results are consistent with statistical expectations, but do not provide much information about the size (or existence) of the true effect. In this light, the results of the Reproducibility Project: Psychology can be viewed as statistically consistent with what one might expect when performing a large-scale replication experiment. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available We present scientometric results about worldwide centers of excellence in psychology. Based on Web of Science data, scientific excellence can be identified for cities from where highly-cited papers originate. Data refer to all psychology articles published in 2007 which are documented in the Social Science Citation Index and to their citation frequencies from 2007 to May 2011. 218 cities are visualized with an article output of at least 50 in 2007. Statistical z tests are used for the evaluation of the degree to which an observed number of top-cited papers (top-10% for a city differs from the number expected on the basis of randomness in the selection of papers. The map points at excellence centers in cities at the East and West Coast of the USA as well as in Great Britain, Germany, the Netherlands, Ireland, Belgium, Sweden, Finland, Australia, and Taiwan. These results indicate that highly-cited psychological research articles come from the Anglo-American countries and some of the non-English European countries in which the number of English-language publications has increased during the last decades. Implications of the results for the publication strategies of psychologists in non-English speaking countries are discussed as well as the neccessity to care for qualitative criteria in evaluations in addition to quantitative, scientometric criteria.
Full Text Available According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR, nowadays, 65,3 million individuals have been forcibly displaced worldwide. In Europe, Italy is one of the countries with the highest number of asylum seeker arrivals per year and the emergency nature of the present-day migratory flows are increasingly involving researchers and clinicians to come up with and develop new models of research and interventions. This article aims to conduct a review of the Italian psychological research in the field of forced migration in order to systematise the Italian studies, to compare the Italian situation with the international one and to define limits, resources and future directions of current Italian research. A literature review in the databases Scopus, PubMed and Web of Knowledge for documents published from 2012 to 2017 was conducted. From the analysis, twelve articles emerged principally following two main trajectories of investigation: a clinical and mental health-related trajectory and a psychosocial and community-based one. Compared with the wider international field of research, a general underdevelopment of Italian research emerged. Research into protective factors with regard to the development of psychopathological outcomes and on interventions is highly recommended. Results highlighted support for future research on the theme of asylum seekers and refugees. Some cause for reflection as regards levels of criticality, the direction of future research and specific links between research and Italian social policies were given.
Harris, Jennifer L.; Graff, Samantha K.
In the United States, one third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, yet food and beverage companies continue to target them with advertising for products that contribute to this obesity crisis. When government restrictions on such advertising are proposed, the constitutional commercial speech doctrine is often invoked as a barrier to action. We explore incongruities between the legal justifications for the commercial speech doctrine and the psychological research on how food advertising affects young people. A proper interpretation of the First Amendment should leave room for regulations to protect young people from advertising featuring calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. PMID:22390435
Harris, Jennifer L; Graff, Samantha K
In the United States, one third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, yet food and beverage companies continue to target them with advertising for products that contribute to this obesity crisis. When government restrictions on such advertising are proposed, the constitutional commercial speech doctrine is often invoked as a barrier to action. We explore incongruities between the legal justifications for the commercial speech doctrine and the psychological research on how food advertising affects young people. A proper interpretation of the First Amendment should leave room for regulations to protect young people from advertising featuring calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages.
Jones, Allan; Sommerlund, Bo
The uses of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) and statistical power analysis within psychological research are critically discussed. The article looks at the problems of relying solely on NHST when dealing with small and large sample sizes. The use of power-analysis in estimating...... the potential error introduced by small and large samples is advocated. Power analysis is not recommended as a replacement to NHST but as an additional source of information about the phenomena under investigation. Moreover, the importance of conceptual analysis in relation to statistical analysis of hypothesis...
Xu, Junhua; Wang, Qi; Zhu, Leiye; Qing, Wu; Jin, Meidong; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Haibin
Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the interplay between individuals and their surroundings. Chinese researchers conducted extensive research on the field and produced a wealth of academic achievements, especially on the application of environmental psychology, such as the protection of minority towns and villages and the prevention and solution of air pollution. To reveal the current situation of the researches in China, 388 related papers from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were analyzed by bibliometric and Knowledge Mapping. The results show that: (1) these studies stared since 1982 and demonstrated a year-on-year growth trend since 2001, which reaches a historical peak in 2016. Peiwen Zhan, Hu Zhao and Xiaofeng Lu top the list with a total of eighteen articles and Heilongjiang University is the best performer among the contributing organizations. (2)“Environmental Psychology” is the most frequently cited keywords and “Environmental perception”, “Physical environment” and “living environment” have the longest span of the bursts. the top seven largest clusters, which were environment, surroundings, application, privacy, environmental perception environmental art and physical environment.
Staats, Peter S; Hekmat, Hamid; Staats, Arthur W
The psychological behaviorism theory of pain unifies biological, behavioral, and cognitive-behavioral theories of pain and facilitates development of a common vocabulary for pain research across disciplines. Pain investigation proceeds in seven interacting realms: basic biology, conditioned learning, language cognition, personality differences, pain behavior, the social environment, and emotions. Because pain is an emotional response, examining the bidirectional impact of emotion is pivotal to understanding pain. Emotion influences each of the other areas of interest and causes the impact of each factor to amplify or diminish in an additive fashion. Research based on this theory of pain has revealed the ameliorating impact on pain of (1) improving mood by engaging in pleasant sexual fantasies, (2) reducing anxiety, and (3) reducing anger through various techniques. Application of the theory to therapy improved the results of treatment of osteoarthritic pain. The psychological behaviorism theory of the placebo considers the placebo a stimulus conditioned to elicit a positive emotional response. This response is most powerful if it is elicited by conditioned language. Research based on this theory of the placebo that pain is ameliorated by a placebo suggestion and augmented by a nocebo suggestion and that pain sensitivity and pain anxiety increase susceptibility to a placebo.
Cauce, Ana Mari
This article asks, and answers three separate questions: What is multicultural psychology? What is psychological science? Are multicultural psychology and (empirical/positivist) psychological science incompatible? A brief overview of the history of science is provided emphasizing the emancipatory impulses behind a modernist, empirical, positivist approach to science. It is argued that such an approach is not incompatible with multicultural psychology. The author concludes that multicultural psychological will be strengthened if psychologists draw upon both qualitative and quantitative methods, including those that come from a positivist tradition, when investigating psychological and social issues as they affect diverse populations.
Ponterotto, Joseph G.
This article presents an overview of philosophy of science and research paradigms. The philosophy of science parameters of ontology, epistemology, axiology, rhetorical structure, and methodology are discussed across the research paradigms of positivism, postpositivism, constructivism-interpretivism, and the critical-ideological perspective.…
Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Tan, Diane; Dunlap, Shannon; Kipke, Michele D.
The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526), which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18–24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037) and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, pcognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:28886128
Full Text Available Programming education has experienced a shift from imperative and procedural programming to object-orientation. This shift has been motivated by educators' desire to please the information technology industry and potential students; it is not motivated by research either in psychology of programming or in computer science education. There are practically no results that would indicate that such a shift is desirable, needed in the first place, or even effective for learning programming. Moreover, there has been an implicit assumption that classic results on imperative and procedural programming education and learning apply to object-oriented programming (OOP as well. We argue that this is not the case and call for systematic research into the fundamental cognitive and educational issues in learning and teaching OOP. We also present a research agenda intended to improve the understanding of OOP and OOP education.
Harth, S C; Johnstone, R R; Thong, Y H
Three standard psychometric tests were administered to parents who volunteered their children for a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a new asthma drug and to a control group of parents whose children were eligible for the trial but had declined the invitation. The trial took place at a children's hospital in Australia. The subjects comprised 68 parents who had volunteered their children and 42 who had not, a participation rate of 94 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively. The responses of these parents to the Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values Questionnaire, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire were analysed by computer. There was a marked difference between the psychological profiles of the two groups of parents. Volunteering parents put more value on benevolence while non-volunteering parents were more concerned with power and prestige. The self-esteem of volunteering parents was much lower than that of non-volunteering parents. Finally, volunteering parents were more introverted, exhibited greater anxiety and low supergo, while non-volunteering parents appeared to have greater social confidence and emotional stability. Since an individual's values, self-esteem and personality may be important antecedents of behaviour, these findings suggest that parents who volunteer their children for clinical research are not only socially disadvantaged and emotionally vulnerable, but may also be psychologically predisposed to volunteering. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the existence of a psychosocial 'filter' effect of the informed consent procedure, which may be discouraging the better educated, more privileged and psychologically resilient members of society from participation as research subjects.
Harth, S C; Johnstone, R R; Thong, Y H
Three standard psychometric tests were administered to parents who volunteered their children for a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a new asthma drug and to a control group of parents whose children were eligible for the trial but had declined the invitation. The trial took place at a children's hospital in Australia. The subjects comprised 68 parents who had volunteered their children and 42 who had not, a participation rate of 94 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively. The responses of these parents to the Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values Questionnaire, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire were analysed by computer. There was a marked difference between the psychological profiles of the two groups of parents. Volunteering parents put more value on benevolence while non-volunteering parents were more concerned with power and prestige. The self-esteem of volunteering parents was much lower than that of non-volunteering parents. Finally, volunteering parents were more introverted, exhibited greater anxiety and low supergo, while non-volunteering parents appeared to have greater social confidence and emotional stability. Since an individual's values, self-esteem and personality may be important antecedents of behaviour, these findings suggest that parents who volunteer their children for clinical research are not only socially disadvantaged and emotionally vulnerable, but may also be psychologically predisposed to volunteering. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the existence of a psychosocial 'filter' effect of the informed consent procedure, which may be discouraging the better educated, more privileged and psychologically resilient members of society from participation as research subjects. PMID:1619628
Stiers, William; Hanson, Stephanie; Turner, Aaron P; Stucky, Kirk; Barisa, Mark; Brownsberger, Mary; Van Tubbergen, Marie; Ashman, Teresa; Kuemmel, Angela
This article describes the methods and results of a national conference that was held to (1) develop consensus guidelines about the structure and process of rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training programs and (2) create a Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdoctoral Training Programs to promote training programs' abilities to implement the guidelines and to formally recognize programs in compliance with the guidelines. Forty-six conference participants were chosen to include important stakeholders in rehabilitation psychology, representatives of rehabilitation psychology training and practice communities, representatives of psychology accreditation and certification bodies, and persons involved in medical education practice and research. Consensus guidelines were developed for rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training program structure and process and for establishing the Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdoctoral Training Programs. The Conference developed aspirational guidelines for postdoctoral education and training programs in applied rehabilitation psychology and established a Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdoctoral Training Programs as a means of promoting their adoption by training programs. These efforts are designed to promote quality, consistency, and excellence in the education and training of rehabilitation psychology practitioners and to promote competence in their practice. It is hoped that these efforts will stimulate discussion, assist in the development of improved teaching and evaluation methods, lead to interesting research questions, and generally facilitate the continued systematic development of the profession of rehabilitation psychology. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved
Wright, Demia Sundra; Anderson, Lynda A; Brownson, Ross C; Gwaltney, Margaret K; Scherer, Jennifer; Cross, Alan W; Goodman, Robert M; Schwartz, Randy; Sims, Tom; White, Carol R
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Prevention Research Centers (PRC) Program underwent a 2-year evaluation planning project using a participatory process that allowed perspectives from the national community of PRC partners to be expressed and reflected in a national logic model. The PRC Program recognized the challenge in developing a feasible, useable, and relevant evaluation process for a large, diverse program. To address the challenge, participatory and utilization-focused evaluation models were used. Four tactics guided the evaluation planning process: 1) assessing stakeholders' communication needs and existing communication mechanisms and infrastructure; 2) using existing mechanisms and establishing others as needed to inform, educate, and request feedback; 3) listening to and using feedback received; and 4) obtaining adequate resources and building flexibility into the project plan to support multifaceted mechanisms for data collection. Participatory methods resulted in buy-in from stakeholders and the development of a national logic model. Benefits included CDC's use of the logic model for program planning and development of a national evaluation protocol and increased expectations among PRC partners for involvement. Challenges included the time, effort, and investment of program resources required for the participatory approach and the identification of whom to engage and when to engage them for feedback on project decisions. By using a participatory and utilization-focused model, program partners positively influenced how CDC developed an evaluation plan. The tactics we used can guide the involvement of program stakeholders and help with decisions on appropriate methods and approaches for engaging partners.
Koul, Atesh; Becchio, Cristina; Cavallo, Andrea
Recent years have seen an increased interest in machine learning-based predictive methods for analyzing quantitative behavioral data in experimental psychology. While these methods can achieve relatively greater sensitivity compared to conventional univariate techniques, they still lack an established and accessible implementation. The aim of current work was to build an open-source R toolbox - "PredPsych" - that could make these methods readily available to all psychologists. PredPsych is a user-friendly, R toolbox based on machine-learning predictive algorithms. In this paper, we present the framework of PredPsych via the analysis of a recently published multiple-subject motion capture dataset. In addition, we discuss examples of possible research questions that can be addressed with the machine-learning algorithms implemented in PredPsych and cannot be easily addressed with univariate statistical analysis. We anticipate that PredPsych will be of use to researchers with limited programming experience not only in the field of psychology, but also in that of clinical neuroscience, enabling computational assessment of putative bio-behavioral markers for both prognosis and diagnosis.
Villarreal, Victor; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; McCormick, Anita S.; Simek, Amber; Yoon, Hyunhee
This article reports on a content analysis of six school psychology journals spanning the years 2005-2009, with a particular focus on published intervention research. The analysis showed that (a) research articles were the most frequently published, with the largest category being descriptive research; (b) the percentage of intervention studies…
Whitley, Jessica; Gooderham, Suzanne
Mental health issues continue to present barriers for Canadian children, in terms of both psychological and academic outcomes. Growing numbers of students are placed "at risk" as a result. A mental health promotion approach suggests that students can develop a number of skills and competencies, namely those related to social-emotional…
Hadano, K; Nakamura, H; Hamanaka, T
We report three cases of effortful echolalia in patients with cerebral infarction. The clinical picture of speech disturbance is associated with Type 1 Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TCMA, Goldstein, 1915). The patients always spoke nonfluently with loss of speech initiative, dysarthria, dysprosody, agrammatism, and increased effort and were unable to repeat sentences longer than those containing four or six words. In conversation, they first repeated a few words spoken to them, and then produced self initiated speech. The initial repetition as well as the subsequent self initiated speech, which were realized equally laboriously, can be regarded as mitigated echolalia (Pick, 1924). They were always aware of their own echolalia and tried to control it without effect. These cases demonstrate that neither the ability to repeat nor fluent speech are always necessary for echolalia. The possibility that a lesion in the left medial frontal lobe, including the supplementary motor area, plays an important role in effortful echolalia is discussed.
Plant, Richard R; Turner, Garry
Since the publication of Plant, Hammond, and Turner (2004), which highlighted a pressing need for researchers to pay more attention to sources of error in computer-based experiments, the landscape has undoubtedly changed, but not necessarily for the better. Readily available hardware has improved in terms of raw speed; multi core processors abound; graphics cards now have hundreds of megabytes of RAM; main memory is measured in gigabytes; drive space is measured in terabytes; ever larger thin film transistor displays capable of single-digit response times, together with newer Digital Light Processing multimedia projectors, enable much greater graphic complexity; and new 64-bit operating systems, such as Microsoft Vista, are now commonplace. However, have millisecond-accurate presentation and response timing improved, and will they ever be available in commodity computers and peripherals? In the present article, we used a Black Box ToolKit to measure the variability in timing characteristics of hardware used commonly in psychological research.
Witte, Erich H.; Zenker, Frank
The gold standard for an empirical science is the replicability of its research results. But the estimated average replicability rate of key-effects that top-tier psychology journals report falls between 36 and 39% (objective vs. subjective rate; Open Science Collaboration, 2015). So the standard mode of applying null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST) fails to adequately separate stable from random effects. Therefore, NHST does not fully convince as a statistical inference strategy. We argue that the replicability crisis is “home-made” because more sophisticated strategies can deliver results the successful replication of which is sufficiently probable. Thus, we can overcome the replicability crisis by integrating empirical results into genuine research programs. Instead of continuing to narrowly evaluate only the stability of data against random fluctuations (discovery context), such programs evaluate rival hypotheses against stable data (justification context). PMID:29163256
Imada, Toshie; Schiavo, R Steven
For this study, the authors analyzed the contents of 16 psychology journals for the presence of empirical articles on African Americans, Latinos, Asians, and Native Americans during the period ranging from 1990 to 1999. In 6 APA journals, there was a low percentage (4.7%) of such articles. African Americans were the most studied ethnic group. Data collected for this study also indicated that minority research has been increasing more in non-APA journals than in APA journals. In both APA and non-APA journals, counseling-oriented journals had higher percentages of minority articles than did journals of other subdisciplines. Possible explanations, consequences, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Moyer, Anne; Franklin, Nancy
Participating in research must be an educational experience for students in order to ethically justify its inclusion as a requirement in college courses. Introductory Psychology students (N = 280) completed a written class assignment describing their research participation as a means to enhance this educational mission. Approximately half of students spontaneously mentioned something positive about the significance of the research or what they learned, with the remainder providing neutral, mixed, or negative comments. Students could articulate clearly and knowledgeably about the research in which they had participated. Such an assignment is an effective means to foster an understanding of the science of psychology.
Full Text Available School shooting homicide events generate considerable attention. A substantial number of research reports have tried to explain the phenomenon. However, the outcome of these studies has produced a conflicting picture of the issue. Our systematic review explored the quality of research in publications on school shooters. Research quality was assessed concerning description of design, method and interpretation of results according to PRISMA and CRD criteria. We investigated evidence of the impact of psychological theories on how research was designed and interpreted. A total of 10 papers met the criteria for inclusion in the review. With a few exceptions, the research quality was low. Only three studies contained a separate methods section. Two out of ten studies reported from an interview with a school shooter. Secondary sources such as school, hospital and/or psychological evaluations were used in four studies, while the rest had only applied tertiary data sources. There was a void of psychological theoretical analysis to inform the creation of relevant research designs. No study discussed psychological theories to inform inference from empirical data to conclusion. Higher quality of research and enhanced focus on theoretical understanding of psychological factors in school shooting are called upon.
Bemelmans, S A S A; Tromp, K; Bunnik, E M; Milne, R J; Badger, S; Brayne, C; Schermer, M H; Richard, E
Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) research initiatives focus on cognitively healthy individuals with biomarkers that are associated with the development of AD. It is unclear whether biomarker results should be returned to research participants and what the psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosure are. This systematic review therefore examines the psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosing genetic and nongenetic AD-related biomarkers to cognitively healthy research participants. We performed a systematic literature search in eight scientific databases. Three independent reviewers screened the identified records and selected relevant articles. Results extracted from the included articles were aggregated and presented per effect group. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the data synthesis. None of the identified studies examined the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers. All studies but one concerned the disclosure of APOE genotype and were conducted in the USA. Study populations consisted largely of cognitively healthy first-degree relatives of AD patients. In this group, disclosure of an increased risk was not associated with anxiety, depression or changes in perceived risk in relation to family history. Disclosure of an increased risk did lead to an increase in specific test-related distress levels, health-related behavior changes and long-term care insurance uptake and possibly diminished memory functioning. In cognitively healthy research participants with a first-degree relative with AD, disclosure of APOE ε4-positivity does not lead to elevated anxiety and depression levels, but does increase test-related distress and results in behavior changes concerning insurance and health. We did not find studies reporting the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers and only one study included people without a family history of AD. Empirical studies on the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers
Espelage, Dorothy L
Research focused on sexual orientation and gender identity among youth is scarce in school psychology journals. Graybill and Proctor (2016; this issue) found that across a sample of eight school support personnel journals only .3 to 3.0% of the articles since 2000 included lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT)-related research. It appears that special issues are a mechanism for publishing LGBT-related scholarship. This commentary includes a call for more research in school psychology and other related disciplines that intentionally addresses experiences of LGBT youth and their families. Two articles in this special section are summarized and critiqued with clear directions for future scholarship. Researchers and practitioners are ethically responsible for engaging in social justice oriented research and that includes assessing gender identity and sexual orientation in their studies and prevention program evaluations. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Orientation: Career research in organisations has increased in importance since the 1970s, which heralded new directions for organisational career research and practice both globally and nationally. Research purpose: The study critically reviewed trends in organisational career psychology research in South Africa from 1970 to 2011 in terms of global and present national challenges that require empirical investigation in the contemporary South African world of work context. Motivation for the study: The increasingly complex contexts, in which people have been pursuing their careers since the catalytic 1970s, demand the continuous generation and development of knowledge for the benefit of the discipline and practice of careers. Research design, approach and method: A broad systematic review was carried out to analyse documented academia research (N = 110 on careers from 1970 to 2011, which was published in six accredited South African scientific journals. Main findings: Much of the research addressed issues pertaining to career theory and concepts, the world of work and career assessment and technology. Career development, professional issues and organisational career interventions in the multi-cultural South African context appear to be under-researched. Practical/managerial implications: The insight derived from the findings can be employed by academia and researchers, in this field, to plan future research initiatives that will contribute to the profession and practice of career guidance and counselling in the contemporary workplace. Contribution/value-add: The findings provide preliminary insight that adds to the body of knowledge concerned with career studies in the South African organisational context.
Full Text Available Orientation: Career research in organisations has increased in importance since the 1970s, which heralded new directions for organisational career research and practice both globally and nationally. Research purpose: The study critically reviewed trends in organisational career psychology research in South Africa from 1970 to 2011 in terms of global and present national challenges that require empirical investigation in the contemporary South African world of work context.Motivation for the study: The increasingly complex contexts, in which people have been pursuing their careers since the catalytic 1970s, demand the continuous generation and development of knowledge for the benefit of the discipline and practice of careers.Research design, approach and method: A broad systematic review was carried out to analyse documented academia research (N = 110 on careers from 1970 to 2011, which was published in six accredited South African scientific journals.Main findings: Much of the research addressed issues pertaining to career theory and concepts, the world of work and career assessment and technology. Career development, professional issues and organisational career interventions in the multi-cultural South African context appear to be under-researched.Practical/managerial implications: The insight derived from the findings can be employed by academia and researchers, in this field, to plan future research initiatives that will contribute to the profession and practice of career guidance and counselling in the contemporary workplace.Contribution/value-add: The findings provide preliminary insight that adds to the body of knowledge concerned with career studies in the South African organisational context.
Full Text Available Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic intervention that can be traced back at least 2100 years and is emerging worldwide as one of the most widely used therapies in the field of complementary and alternative medicine. Due to limitations associated with Western medicine's focus on the treatment of diseases rather than on their causes, interests are shifting to complementary and alternative medicines. The Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center (AMSRC was established in 2005 to elucidate the neurophysiological mechanisms of acupuncture for neurological diseases based on multidisciplinary research supported by the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology. In the AMSRC, resultant research articles have shown that acupuncture can improve neurological and psychological problems, including Parkinson's disease, pain, and depression, in animal models. Basic research studies suggest its effectiveness in treating various problems such as depression, drug addiction, epilepsy, ischemia, dementia, Parkinson's disease, and pain. We strongly believe that these effects, evident from the AMSRC research results, can play leading roles in the use of acupuncture for treating neurological diseases, based on collaboration among various academic fields such as neurophysiology, molecular genetics, and traditional Korean medicine.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, depth(TD), GPS and haul by haul effort and catch data are collected during normal fishing activity of commercial fishing vessels participating in the...
Stricker, Lawrence J.
This is an account of a portion of the research on cognitive, personality, and social psychology at ETS since the organization's inception. The topics in cognitive psychology are the structure of abilities; in personality psychology, response styles and social and emotional intelligence; and in social psychology, prosocial behavior and stereotype…
Ponterotto, Joseph G; Ruckdeschel, Daniel E
The present article addresses issues in reliability assessment that are often neglected in psychological research such as acceptable levels of internal consistency for research purposes, factors affecting the magnitude of coefficient alpha (alpha), and considerations for interpreting alpha within the research context. A new reliability matrix anchored in classical test theory is introduced to help researchers judge adequacy of internal consistency coefficients with research measures. Guidelines and cautions in applying the matrix are provided.
Sugden, Nicole A.; Moulson, Margaret C.
Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families. PMID:25972829
The focus of my commentary is two-fold. First, I discuss what appeared to me as the central theoretical focus of the article; the possibility to create a space, if at all, for integrating post-colonial theory into the broader research field of social and psychological studies of the consequences of colonial past. Second, I intend to show why, in my opinion, the methodological choices of the authors and the criteria adopted for corpus construction allowed for data that, although too thin to establishing the state of knowledge in the field of study on consequences of colonial past, is nevertheless very informative and thoughts-provoking. My conclusions suggest that this study is an innovative attempt at describing and grasping the results of a search guided by two among the more consolidated electronic datasets currently available for English-speaking scholars. However, this study may not easily understand which can be the space to integrate post-colonial theory in the field of research on consequences of colonial past. To better reach this aim, it is perhaps necessary to build another kind of corpus, open to other languages (starting from French) and focused also on other scientific products, as books or proceedings of congress. In addition, disciplinary boundaries have to be even more explored, starting from interdisciplinary studies on education and historical culture. In spite of these limitations, I am convinced that this innovative study by Tomicic and Berardi tackles issues of relevance to any serious effort towards reflecting on long-term consequences of colonial violence and opens up to valuable new research questions and methods, to be taken into serious account and further explored in future works.
Rossi, Joseph S.
Calculated power for 6,155 statistical tests in 221 journal articles published in 1982 volumes of "Journal of Abnormal Psychology,""Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology," and "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology." Power to detect small, medium, and large effects was .17, .57, and .83, respectively. Concluded that power of…
Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.
Hartley, Nell Tabor
Helping students and practitioners to understand and utilize the Psychological Contract is often a difficult task. Unlike fault-finding research, this paper presents the PC as a positive, vibrant and valuable tool. In an effort to make the concept less elusive, the paper draws upon the metaphor of jazz. The metaphor is an accepted tool of…
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop future research proposals aiming to contribute the extant theory which explains decoy effects.Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, a review of the existing literature about decoy options and its interactions with contextual effects that could affect their performance is presented. Next, two research proposals are presented: the introduction of a double decoy choice set and the evaluation of decoy effect under different levels of cognitive effort in a purchasing process.Findings and Originality/value: For the research proposal concerning double decoy choice sets, different hypothesis are introduced based on the different theories aiming to explain the effect of simple decoy choice sets. This hypothesis predict different outcomes for the same experimental design, fact that could provide further support for at least one of the current explanations for decoy effects. Regarding the effect of decoy options under different levels of cognitive effort, implications for experimental design for sequential purchasing process are expected. Especially for those designed with complex options, with many steps or high number of options.Originality/value: Two new research proposal approaches are presented in order enhance the current theory. Moreover, both have managerial implications concerning the real usage of decoy options in reduced choice sets as well as in sequential purchasing processes.
After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious
The purpose of this paper was to review the theoretical underpinnings, major concepts, and methods of the typological approach. It was argued that the typological approach offers a systematic, empirically rigorous and reliable way to synthesize the nomothetic variable-centered approach with the idiographic case-centered approach. Recent advances in cluster analysis validation make it a promising method for uncovering natural typologies. This paper also reviewed findings from personality and family studies that have revealed 3 prototypical personalities and parenting styles: Adjusted/Authoritative, Overcontrolled/Authoritarian, and Undercontrolled/Permissive. These prototypes are theorized to be synonymous with attractor basins in psychological state space. The connection between family types and personality structure as well as future directions of typological research were also discussed.
Full Text Available Teacher Professional Identity is today an autonomous theoretical construct. The paper explores the dimensions of TPI stressed in psychological and educational research, presenting different answers provided to questions such as: Which dimensions have been taken into account to define what a teacher is? The image of teachers actually emerging from literature analysis points out vectors of tension between "mainstream" Social Representations of teacher and everyday experience; between different perceptions of TPI; between established practices and innovation in teaching; between technical rationalist assumptions and lived experience of teachers' job, involving ethical and emotional nature of teaching; and, definitely, between "reality-as-it-is" and "reality-to-be" in teaching. These questions are closely connected to the wider social debate on the future of education. Asking what a teacher is also implies questions about what a "good" teacher is, what should be and, consequently, what are the role and the Social Representations of teachers in society.
Hagger, M.S.; Luszczynska, A.; de Wit, J.; Benyamini, Y.; Burkert, S.; Chamberland, P.-E.; Chater, A.; Dombrowski, S.U.; van Dongen, A.; French, D.P.; Gauchet, A.; Hankonen, N.; Karekla, M.; Kinney, A.Y.; Kwasnicka, D.; Lo, S.H.; López-Roig, S.; Meslot, C.; Marques, M.M.; Neter, E.; Plass, A.M.; Potthoff, S.; Rennie, L.; Scholz, U.; Stadler, G.; Stolte, E.; ten Hoor, G.; Verhoeven, A.A.C.; Wagner, M.; Oettingen, G.; Sheeran, P.; Gollwitzer, P.M.
The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural
Hagger, M.S.; Luszczynska, A.; de Wit, J.; Benyamini, Y.; Burkert, S.; Chamberland, P.E.; Chater, A.; Dombrowski, S.U.; van Dongen, A.; French, D.P.; Gauchet, A.; Hankonen, N.; Karekla, M.; Kinney, A.Y.; Kwasnicka, D.; Lo, S.H.; López-Roig, S.; Meslot, C.; Marques, M.M.; Neter, E.; Plass, A.M.; Potthoff, S.; Rennie, L.; Scholz, U; Stadler, G.; Stolte, E.; Ten Hoor, G.; Verhoeven, A.; Wagner, M.; Oettingen, G.; Sheeran, P.; Gollwitzer, P.M.
The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural
Oakland, Thomas D.
International school psychology is discussed in reference to scholarly and professional development within psychology, the emergence of an international association of school psychology, its efforts to promote school psychology, prevailing characteristics of school psychologists, and additional efforts needed to further enhance its development.…
Batchelder, William H
Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Trottier, Kathryn; MacDonald, Danielle E
This paper provides an updated review of the literature on the relationship between psychological trauma exposure, other severe adverse experiences, and eating disorders. Trauma exposure and other severe adverse experiences (e.g., emotional abuse) in both childhood and adulthood are associated with eating disorders. The relationship between traumatic and other adverse experiences and eating disorders appears to be mediated by emotional and behavioral dysregulation, as well as by cognitive factors such as self-criticism. Biological vulnerabilities may also be relevant to this relationship. Overall, the literature is limited by predominantly cross-sectional designs. There is clear evidence of a correlational relationship between trauma exposure and other severe adverse events, and eating disorders. Both risk and maintenance factor hypotheses have been put forth; however, prospective research testing these hypotheses remains limited. Future research should use prospective designs and focus on trauma-related symptoms (rather than trauma exposure) in order to advance research on risk and maintaining factors for eating disorders and inform treatment directions.
Charlton, Bruce G
Crick and Watson gave complementary advice to the aspiring scientist based on the insight that to do your best work you need to make your greatest possible effort. Crick made the positive suggestion to work on the subject which most deeply interests you, the thing about which you spontaneously gossip - Crick termed this 'the gossip test'. Watson made the negative suggestion of avoiding topics and activities that bore you - which I have termed 'the boredom principle'. This is good advice because science is tough and the easy things have already been done. Solving the harder problems that remain requires a lot of effort. But in modern biomedical science individual effort does not necessarily correlate with career success as measured by salary, status, job security, etc. This is because Crick and Watson are talking about revolutionary science - using Thomas Kuhn's distinction between paradigm-shifting 'revolutionary' science and incremental 'normal' science. There are two main problems with pursuing a career in revolutionary science. The first is that revolutionary science is intrinsically riskier than normal science, the second that even revolutionary success in a scientific backwater may be less career-enhancing than mundane work in a trendy field. So, if you pick your scientific problem using the gossip test and the boredom principle, you might also be committing career suicide. This may explain why so few people follow Crick and Watson's advice. The best hope for future biomedical science is that it will evolve towards a greater convergence between individual effort and career success.
Inzlicht, Michael; Shenhav, Amitai; Olivola, Christopher Y
According to prominent models in cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and economics, effort (be it physical or mental) is costly: when given a choice, humans and non-human animals alike tend to avoid effort. Here, we suggest that the opposite is also true and review extensive evidence that effort can also add value. Not only can the same outcomes be more rewarding if we apply more (not less) effort, sometimes we select options precisely because they require effort. Given the increasing recognition of effort's role in motivation, cognitive control, and value-based decision-making, considering this neglected side of effort will not only improve formal computational models, but also provide clues about how to promote sustained mental effort across time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hughes, Sean; De Houwer, Jan; Perugini, Marco
The scientific goals, values and assumptions of functional and cognitive researchers have propelled them down two very different scientific pathways. Many have, and continue to argue, that these differences undermine any potential communication and collaboration between the two traditions. We explore a different view on this debate. Specifically, we focus on the Functional-Cognitive (FC) framework, and in particular, the idea that cognitive and functional researchers can and should interact to the benefit of both. Our article begins with a short introduction to the FC framework. We sweep aside misconceptions about the framework, present the original version as it was outlined by De Houwer (2011) and then offer our most recent thoughts on how it should be implemented. Thereafter, we reflect on its strengths and weaknesses, clarify the functional (effect-centric vs. analytic-abstractive) level and consider its many implications for cognitive research and theorising. In the final section, we briefly review the articles contained in this Special Issue. These contributions provide clear examples of the conceptual, empirical and methodological developments that can emerge when cognitive, clinical, personality and neuroscientists fully engage with the functional-cognitive perspective. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Shen, Winny; Kiger, Thomas B; Davies, Stacy E; Rasch, Rena L; Simon, Kara M; Ones, Deniz S
This study examines sample characteristics of articles published in Journal of Applied Psychology (JAP) from 1995 to 2008. At the individual level, the overall median sample size over the period examined was approximately 173, which is generally adequate for detecting the average magnitude of effects of primary interest to researchers who publish in JAP. Samples using higher units of analyses (e.g., teams, departments/work units, and organizations) had lower median sample sizes (Mdn ≈ 65), yet were arguably robust given typical multilevel design choices of JAP authors despite the practical constraints of collecting data at higher units of analysis. A substantial proportion of studies used student samples (~40%); surprisingly, median sample sizes for student samples were smaller than working adult samples. Samples were more commonly occupationally homogeneous (~70%) than occupationally heterogeneous. U.S. and English-speaking participants made up the vast majority of samples, whereas Middle Eastern, African, and Latin American samples were largely unrepresented. On the basis of study results, recommendations are provided for authors, editors, and readers, which converge on 3 themes: (a) appropriateness and match between sample characteristics and research questions, (b) careful consideration of statistical power, and (c) the increased popularity of quantitative synthesis. Implications are discussed in terms of theory building, generalizability of research findings, and statistical power to detect effects. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Vaci, Nemanja; Bilalić, Merim
The game of chess has often been used for psychological investigations, particularly in cognitive science. The clear-cut rules and well-defined environment of chess provide a model for investigations of basic cognitive processes, such as perception, memory, and problem solving, while the precise rating system for the measurement of skill has enabled investigations of individual differences and expertise-related effects. In the present study, we focus on another appealing feature of chess-namely, the large archive databases associated with the game. The German national chess database presented in this study represents a fruitful ground for the investigation of multiple longitudinal research questions, since it collects the data of over 130,000 players and spans over 25 years. The German chess database collects the data of all players, including hobby players, and all tournaments played. This results in a rich and complete collection of the skill, age, and activity of the whole population of chess players in Germany. The database therefore complements the commonly used expertise approach in cognitive science by opening up new possibilities for the investigation of multiple factors that underlie expertise and skill acquisition. Since large datasets are not common in psychology, their introduction also raises the question of optimal and efficient statistical analysis. We offer the database for download and illustrate how it can be used by providing concrete examples and a step-by-step tutorial using different statistical analyses on a range of topics, including skill development over the lifetime, birth cohort effects, effects of activity and inactivity on skill, and gender differences.
McBride, Colleen M; Birmingham, Wendy C; Kinney, Anita Y
The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in human genome sequencing technology and in the understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer development. These advances have raised hopes that such knowledge could lead to improvements in behavioral risk reduction interventions, tailored screening recommendations, and treatment matching that together could accelerate the war on cancer. Despite this optimism, translation of genomic discovery for clinical and public health applications has moved relatively slowly. To date, health psychologists and the behavioral sciences generally have played a very limited role in translation research. In this report we discuss what we mean by genomic translational research and consider the social forces that have slowed translational research, including normative assumptions that translation research must occur downstream of basic science, thus relegating health psychology and other behavioral sciences to a distal role. We then outline two broad priority areas in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment where evidence will be needed to guide evaluation and implementation of personalized genomics: (a) effective communication, to broaden dissemination of genomic discovery, including patient-provider communication and familial communication, and (b) the need to improve the motivational impact of behavior change interventions, including those aimed at altering lifestyle choices and those focusing on decision making regarding targeted cancer treatments and chemopreventive adherence. We further discuss the role that health psychologists can play in interdisciplinary teams to shape translational research priorities and to evaluate the utility of emerging genomic discoveries for cancer prevention and control. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Finkel, Eli J; Eastwick, Paul W; Reis, Harry T
In recent years, a robust movement has emerged within psychology to increase the evidentiary value of our science. This movement, which has analogs throughout the empirical sciences, is broad and diverse, but its primary emphasis has been on the reduction of statistical false positives. The present article addresses epistemological and pragmatic issues that we, as a field, must consider as we seek to maximize the scientific value of this movement. Regarding epistemology, this article contrasts the false-positives-reduction (FPR) approach with an alternative, the error balance (EB) approach, which argues that any serious consideration of optimal scientific practice must contend simultaneously with both false-positive and false-negative errors. Regarding pragmatics, the movement has devoted a great deal of attention to issues that frequently arise in laboratory experiments and one-shot survey studies, but it has devoted less attention to issues that frequently arise in intensive and/or longitudinal studies. We illustrate these epistemological and pragmatic considerations with the case of relationship science, one of the many research domains that frequently employ intensive and/or longitudinal methods. Specifically, we examine 6 research prescriptions that can help to reduce false-positive rates: preregistration, prepublication sharing of materials, postpublication sharing of data, close replication, avoiding piecemeal publication, and increasing sample size. For each, we offer concrete guidance not only regarding how researchers can improve their research practices and balance the risk of false-positive and false-negative errors, but also how the movement can capitalize upon insights from research practices within relationship science to make the movement stronger and more inclusive. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Shenhav, Amitai; Musslick, Sebastian; Lieder, Falk; Kool, Wouter; Griffiths, Thomas L; Cohen, Jonathan D; Botvinick, Matthew M
In spite of its familiar phenomenology, the mechanistic basis for mental effort remains poorly understood. Although most researchers agree that mental effort is aversive and stems from limitations in our capacity to exercise cognitive control, it is unclear what gives rise to those limitations and why they result in an experience of control as costly. The presence of these control costs also raises further questions regarding how best to allocate mental effort to minimize those costs and maximize the attendant benefits. This review explores recent advances in computational modeling and empirical research aimed at addressing these questions at the level of psychological process and neural mechanism, examining both the limitations to mental effort exertion and how we manage those limited cognitive resources. We conclude by identifying remaining challenges for theoretical accounts of mental effort as well as possible applications of the available findings to understanding the causes of and potential solutions for apparent failures to exert the mental effort required of us.
Watkins, M W
The proliferation of journals and the escalation of journal prices have made it difficult for psychologists, especially those in rural areas without access to comprehensive libraries, to obtain journal articles. A traditional source of otherwise unavailable papers is to request a reprint directly from the author. Although previous researchers found this method to be 60%-80% successful, there have been major changes in journal operations and alternative media since this research was conducted. In the present study, reprints were requested from 473 corresponding authors from 10 American Psychological Association journals. The compliance rate was 84% and reprints took, on average, 32 days to arrive. There was no difference in the rate or in the speed of response due to the requestor's status as an academic or applied psychologist. Although functional, the traditional reprint request method was slow, uncertain, and costly. It is suggested that a demand still exists for reprints, but that electronic reprints should replace the traditional paper format. Key words: reprints, scientific communication
Full Text Available We analyzed psychological research that consider the Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence. Based on the understanding of self-consciousness as a central adolescence new formation, we formulated a set of tasks of adolescence. It is shown that for the successful solution of age problems by teenagers on the Internet, specialized environments should be designed. Internet as a medium of teenagers’ socialization is characterized by a high degree of variety and uncontrollability. Behavior of adolescents on the Internet depends on the social and cultural context in which they live. The emergence of the Internet makes new demands on media competence of the teenager and his environment. Adolescents face online with a variety of risks. An essential resource for successful adolescent development is the presence of a person whom he trusts, with whom he can consult in difficult situations. The research plan involves the creation of Internet resources, contributing to the solution of teenagers’ problems age, as well as the mapping of the Internet in terms of its developmental potential.
Barner, John R.; Holosko, Michael J.; Thyer, Bruce A.; King, Steve, Jr.
The "h"-index for all social work and psychology tenured or tenure-track faculty in the top 25 social work programs and psychology departments as ranked by "U.S. News and World Report" in 2012 and 2013, respectively, were obtained, permitting comparison of the scholarly influence between members (N = 1,939) of the two fields.…
Liddle, James R.; Shackelford, Todd K.
As the burgeoning field of evolutionary psychology continues to gain exposure and acceptance throughout the psychological community, it is important to explain this field clearly and accurately to students. This article discusses some recent findings and trends in evolutionary psychological research to aid instructors in their efforts to provide…
Wilkinson, Rebecca A.; Chilton, Gioia
As a growing movement in the larger field of mental health, positive psychology has much to offer the art therapy profession, which in turn is uniquely poised to contribute to the study of optimal functioning. This article discusses the relationship of positive psychology to art therapy and its capacity to mobilize client strengths, to induce…
Begeny, John C.; Levy, Rebecca A.; Hida, Rahma; Norwalk, Kate
Past studies have examined the contents of journal articles in school psychology, and more recently there has been increased interest in examining the frequency and characteristics of experimental studies appearing in school psychology journals. However, no prior studies have examined the international representation of experimental and…
Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Phillips, Brian; Ditchman, Nicole; Kaseroff, Ashley
Positive psychology is a scientific study that explores what makes life most worth living and applies psychological theory to understand the human strengths that are important for enhancing overall well-being and happiness. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis on personal strengths and the importance of enhancing what…
Grunewald, Stephanie; Shriberg, David; Wheeler, Anitra S.; Miranda, Antoinette Halsell; O'Bryon, Elisabeth C.; Rogers, Margaret R.
One indicator of school psychology's capacity to provide culturally responsive practice is the percentage of articles in leading school psychology journals that have a "significant diversity focus." To date, there have been three published empirical studies (Brown, Shriberg, & Wang; Miranda & Gutte; Rogers Wiese) that have…
Iutcovich, Joyce M; Kennedy, John M; Levine, Felice J
The article provides an overview of the recent efforts and activities of the American Sociological Association (ASA) to keep its Code of Ethics visible and relevant to its membership. The development process and challenges associated with the most recent revision of the ASA's code are reviewed, the current education and support activities are described, and other strategies for taking a proactive and leadership role in establishing an ethical climate are proposed. In conclusion, while the ASA has made significant progress in this area, it recognizes that a lot of work remains.
Staats, Arthur W.
Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175
Comments on the original article by Robiner et al. (see record 2014-07939-001) regarding psychologists in medical schools and academic medical center settings. The current authors also discuss how to advance training in psychology using the Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Lemmens, L.H.J.M.; Müller, V.N.L.S.; Arntz, A.; Huibers, M.J.H.
We present a systematic empirical update and critical evaluation of the current status of research aimed at identifying a variety of psychological mediators in various forms of psychotherapy for depression. We summarize study characteristics and results of 35 relevant studies, and discuss the extent
Zucchero, Renee' A.
Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show the methodological power and potentiality of the concept paradigm of unity introduced originally in the ceremony on the occasion of honoring Chiara Lubich with the doctor honoris causa title by the Catholic University of Lublin in 1996. Originally this conception was used to suggest the societal activity of Chiara Lubich in building, via the Focolari movement, psychosocial infrastructures for unity in various social domains, (for example in the economy of communion, in politics (politicians for unity project, in public media (journalists for unity, in ecumenism and inter-religious contacts (ecumenical and inter-religion Focolari Centers This conception is a kind of a great inspiration (a kind of Copernican revolution in the social sciences which would motivate the social sciences to build their own research paradigm of a type of mental and methodological power and potentiality which could give a new vision of social world (as Copernicus did in natural sciences (Biela, 1996, 2006. Thomas Kuhn (1962 regarded the Copernician revolution as the one which, in the history of science, best illustrates the nature of scientific revolution. The essence of paradigm in a Kuhnian sense is a mentality change in its nature. Copernicus had to change the well-established geocentric system which functioned not only in the science of his day but also in culture, tradition, social perception, and even in the mentality of religious and political authorities. And he did it in a well prepared empirical, methodological and psychological way.
Shean, Glenn D
It is the thesis of this paper that differences in philosophical assumptions about the subject matter and treatment methods of psychotherapy have contributed to disagreements about the external validity of empirically supported therapies (ESTs). These differences are evident in the theories that are the basis for both the design and interpretation of recent psychotherapy efficacy studies. The natural science model, as applied to psychotherapy outcome research, transforms the constitutive features of the study subject in a reciprocal manner so that problems, treatments, and indicators of effectiveness are limited to what can be directly observed. Meaning-based approaches to therapy emphasize processes and changes that do not lend themselves to experimental study. Hermeneutic philosophy provides a supplemental model to establishing validity in those instances where outcome indicators do not lend themselves to direct observation and measurement and require "deep" interpretation. Hermeneutics allows for a broadening of psychological study that allows one to establish a form of validity that is applicable when constructs do not refer to things that literally "exist" in nature. From a hermeneutic perspective the changes that occur in meaning-based therapies must be understood and evaluated on the manner in which they are applied to new situations, the logical ordering and harmony of the parts with the theoretical whole, and the capability of convincing experts and patients that the interpretation can stand up against other ways of understanding. Adoption of this approach often is necessary to competently evaluate the effectiveness of meaning-based therapies.
Purawat, Shweta; Cowart, Charles; Amaro, Rommie E; Altintas, Ilkay
The BBDTC (https://biobigdata.ucsd.edu) is a community-oriented platform to encourage high-quality knowledge dissemination with the aim of growing a well-informed biomedical big data community through collaborative efforts on training and education. The BBDTC is an e-learning platform that empowers the biomedical community to develop, launch and share open training materials. It deploys hands-on software training toolboxes through virtualization technologies such as Amazon EC2 and Virtualbox. The BBDTC facilitates migration of courses across other course management platforms. The framework encourages knowledge sharing and content personalization through the playlist functionality that enables unique learning experiences and accelerates information dissemination to a wider community.
Liu Jingquan; Li Zhe; Li Maoyou
Based on the analysis of the work characteristics of nuclear power plant operators and the comparison of professional psychological selection indices for different occupations, the indices of psychological selection system which is applicable to nuclear power plant operators are proposed in this paper, using the method named 'taking classes,cross-comparison'. The index results of the suggested psychological selection system reflects all the professional requirements on the nuclear power plant operators, which can also be used for the recruitment, training and the retraining programs for operators. (authors)
Hall, Gordon C Nagayama; Allard, Carolyn B
The top 86 students were selected from a pool of approximately 400 applicants to a summer clinical psychology research training program for undergraduate students of color. Forty-three of the students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 clinical psychology research training programs, and 43 were randomly assigned to a control condition without training. The multicultural version of the training program emphasized the cultural context of psychology in all areas of training, whereas cultural context was de-emphasized in the monocultural version of the program. Although the cultural content of the 2 training programs was effectively manipulated as indicated by a fidelity check by an outside expert, there were no significant differences between the effects of the 2 programs on the outcomes measured in this study. The primary differences in this study were between students who did versus those who did not participate in a training program. Sixty-five percent of the students who completed the multicultural training program applied to graduate schools in psychology, compared with 47% of those who completed the monocultural training program, and 31% of those in the control group. Participation in summer research training programs also increased self-perceptions of multicultural competence.
Sawyer, Benjamin D; Hancock, P A; Deaton, John; Suedfeld, Peter
A two-week mission in March and April of 2011 sent six team members to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). MDRS, a research facility in the high Utah desert, provides an analogue for the harsh and unusual working conditions that will be faced by men and women who one day explore Mars. During the mission a selection of quantitative and qualitative psychological tests were administered to the international, multidisciplinary team. A selection of the results are presented along with discussion.
L. Elizabeth Crawford
Full Text Available Experimental psychology research commonly has participants respond to stimuli by pressing buttons or keys. Standard computer input devices constrain the range of motoric responses participants can make, even as the field advances theory about the importance of the motor system in cognitive and social information processing. Here we describe an inexpensive way to use an electromyographic (EMG signal as a computer input device, enabling participants to control a computer by contracting muscles that are not usually used for that purpose, but which may be theoretically relevant. We tested this approach in a study of facial mimicry, a well-documented phenomenon in which viewing emotional faces elicits automatic activation of corresponding muscles in the face of the viewer. Participants viewed happy and angry faces and were instructed to indicate the emotion on each face as quickly as possible by either furrowing their brow or contracting their cheek. The mapping of motor response to judgment was counterbalanced, so that one block of trials required a congruent mapping (contract brow to respond “angry,” cheek to respond “happy” and the other block required an incongruent mapping (brow for “happy,” cheek for “angry”. EMG sensors placed over the left corrugator supercilii muscle and left zygomaticus major muscle fed readings of muscle activation to a microcontroller, which sent a response to a computer when activation reached a pre-determined threshold. Response times were faster when the motor-response mapping was congruent than when it was incongruent, extending prior studies on facial mimicry. We discuss further applications of the method for research that seeks to expand the range of human-computer interaction beyond the button box.
Holmes, Karen Y.; Dodd, Brett A.
In this article, we discuss a collection of active learning activities derived from classic psychology studies that illustrate the appropriate use of descriptive and inferential statistics. (Contains 2 tables.)
Duygu TOPLU; Meltem AKCA
Persistence of an organization and its adaptation to changing environment is very crucial in organizational context. The organizations which give necessary importance to their employees’ needs and foster their willingness to learn, are expected to be more succesful than others. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of learning organizations’ characteristics on psychological empowerment. Within this context, first the relationship between learning organization and psychologic...
Stevenson, Clifford; Hopkins, Nick; Luyt, Russell; Dixon, John
In this article we review the argument outlined in the opening article in this special thematic section: that the current social psychology of citizenship can be understood as the development of longstanding conceptualisations of the concept within the discipline. These conceptualisations have contributed to the current social psychological study of the constructive, active and collective (but often exclusive) understandings of citizenship in people’s everyday lives, as evidenced by contribut...
Halladay, Jacqueline R; Donahue, Katrina E; Sleath, Betsy; Reuland, Dan; Black, Adina; Mitchell, C Madeline; Breland, Carol E; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Mottus, Kathleen; Watson, Sable Noelle; Lewis, Virginia; Wynn, Mysha; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
Engaging stakeholders in research carries the promise of enhancing the research relevance, transparency, and speed of getting findings into practice. By describing the context and functional aspects of stakeholder groups, like those working as community advisory boards (CABs), others can learn from these experiences and operationalize their own CABs. Our objective is to describe our experiences with diverse CABs affiliated with our community engagement group within our institution's Clinical Translational Sciences Award (CTSA). We identify key contextual elements that are important to administering CABs. A group of investigators, staff, and community members engaged in a 6-month collaboration to describe their experiences of working with six research CABs. We identified the key contextual domains that illustrate how CABS are developed and sustained. Two lead authors, with experience with CABs and identifying contextual domains in other work, led a team of 13 through the process. Additionally, we devised a list of key tips to consider when devising CABs. The final domains include (1) aligned missions among stakeholders (2) resources/support, (3) defined operational processes/shared power, (4) well-described member roles, and (5) understanding and mitigating challenges. The tips are a set of actions that support the domains. Identifying key contextual domains was relatively easy, despite differences in the respective CAB's condition of focus, overall mission, or patient demographics represented. By contextualizing these five domains, other research and community partners can take an informed approach to move forward with CAB planning and engaged research.
Miranda, Felix A.
This presentation will discuss research and technology development work at the NASA Glenn Research Center in advanced frequency communications in support of NASAs mission. An overview of the work conducted in-house and also in collaboration with academia, industry, and other government agencies (OGA) in areas such as antenna technology, power amplifiers, radio frequency (RF) wave propagation through Earths atmosphere, ultra-sensitive receivers, among others, will be presented. In addition, the role of these and other related RF technologies in enabling the NASA next generation space communications architecture will be also discussed.
Harris, Alex; Reeder, Rachelle; Hyun, Jenny
The authors surveyed 21 editors and reviewers from major psychology journals to identify and describe the statistical and design errors they encounter most often and to get their advice regarding prevention of these problems. Content analysis of the text responses revealed themes in 3 major areas: (a) problems with research design and reporting (e.g., lack of an a priori power analysis, lack of congruence between research questions and study design/analysis, failure to adequately describe statistical procedures); (b) inappropriate data analysis (e.g., improper use of analysis of variance, too many statistical tests without adjustments, inadequate strategy for addressing missing data); and (c) misinterpretation of results. If researchers attended to these common methodological and analytic issues, the scientific quality of manuscripts submitted to high-impact psychology journals might be significantly improved.
Fisher, W. P., Jr.; Petry, P.
Many published research studies document item calibration invariance across samples using Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement. A new approach to outcomes evaluation for very small samples was employed for two workshop series focused on stress reduction and joyful living conducted for health system employees and caregivers since 2012. Rasch-calibrated self-report instruments measuring depression, anxiety and stress, and the joyful living effects of mindfulness behaviors were identified in peer-reviewed journal articles. Items from one instrument were modified for use with a US population, other items were simplified, and some new items were written. Participants provided ratings of their depression, anxiety and stress, and the effects of their mindfulness behaviors before and after each workshop series. The numbers of participants providing both pre- and post-workshop data were low (16 and 14). Analysis of these small data sets produce results showing that, with some exceptions, the item hierarchies defining the constructs retained the same invariant profiles they had exhibited in the published research (correlations (not disattenuated) range from 0.85 to 0.96). In addition, comparisons of the pre- and post-workshop measures for the three constructs showed substantively and statistically significant changes. Implications for program evaluation comparisons, quality improvement efforts, and the organization of communications concerning outcomes in clinical fields are explored.
González-García, E; Gourdine, J L; Alexandre, G
the requirement for a change in research strategies and initiatives through the development of a complex but necessary multi-/inter-/trans-disciplinary teamwork spirit. We stress as essential the collaboration and active participation of local and regional actors, stakeholders and end-users in the identification...
González-García, E; Gourdine, J L; Alexandre, G; Archimède, H; Vaarst, M
Mixed farming systems (MFS) have demonstrated some success by focusing on the use of integrative and holistic mechanisms, and rationally building on and using the natural and local resource base without exhausting it, while enhancing biodiversity, optimizing complementarities between crops and animal systems and finally increasing opportunities in rural livelihoods. Focusing our analysis and discussion on field experiences and empirical knowledge in the Caribbean islands, this paper discusses the opportunities for a change needed in current MFS research-development philosophy. The importance of shifting from fragile/specialized production systems to MFS under current global conditions is argued with an emphasis on the case of Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) and the Caribbean. Particular vulnerable characteristics as well as the potential and constraints of SIDS and their agricultural sectors are described, while revealing the opportunities for the 'richness' of the natural and local resources to support authentic and less dependent production system strategies. Examples are provided of the use of natural grasses, legumes, crop residues and agro-industrial by-products. We analyse the requirement for a change in research strategies and initiatives through the development of a complex but necessary multi-/inter-/trans-disciplinary teamwork spirit. We stress as essential the collaboration and active participation of local and regional actors, stakeholders and end-users in the identification of research priorities, as well as the generation, exchange and dissemination of knowledge and technology innovations, while strengthening the leadership roles in the conduct of integrative and participative research and development projects.
Abbott, Kathy H.; Schutte, Paul C.
A development status evaluation is presented for the NASA-Langley Intelligent Cockpit Aids research program, which encompasses AI, human/machine interfaces, and conventional automation. Attention is being given to decision-aiding concepts for human-centered automation, with emphasis on inflight subsystem fault management, inflight mission replanning, and communications management. The cockpit envisioned is for advanced commercial transport aircraft.
Connolly, A. J.; And Others
The Satellite Technology Demonstration (STD) designed research for a satellite-based communication system that would transmit educational television programs. Their procedures were subject to a series of external and internal evaluations by the project sponsors, the National Institute of Education. In regard to external evaluation, STD recommended…
Purawat, Shweta; Cowart, Charles; Amaro, Rommie E; Altintas, Ilkay
The BBDTC (https://biobigdata.ucsd.edu) is a community-oriented platform to encourage high-quality knowledge dissemination with the aim of growing a well-informed biomedical big data community through collaborative efforts on training and education. The BBDTC collaborative is an e-learning platform that supports the biomedical community to access, develop and deploy open training materials. The BBDTC supports Big Data skill training for biomedical scientists at all levels, and from varied backgrounds. The natural hierarchy of courses allows them to be broken into and handled as modules . Modules can be reused in the context of multiple courses and reshuffled, producing a new and different, dynamic course called a playlist . Users may create playlists to suit their learning requirements and share it with individual users or the wider public. BBDTC leverages the maturity and design of the HUBzero content-management platform for delivering educational content. To facilitate the migration of existing content, the BBDTC supports importing and exporting course material from the edX platform. Migration tools will be extended in the future to support other platforms. Hands-on training software packages, i.e., toolboxes , are supported through Amazon EC2 and Virtualbox virtualization technologies, and they are available as: ( i ) downloadable lightweight Virtualbox Images providing a standardized software tool environment with software packages and test data on their personal machines, and ( ii ) remotely accessible Amazon EC2 Virtual Machines for accessing biomedical big data tools and scalable big data experiments. At the moment, the BBDTC site contains three open Biomedical big data training courses with lecture contents, videos and hands-on training utilizing VM toolboxes, covering diverse topics. The courses have enhanced the hands-on learning environment by providing structured content that users can use at their own pace. A four course biomedical big data series is
Hyman, I A
In the past 20 years, over half of the states have abolished corporal punishment in schools. Without the use of ethically questionable, experimental studies in which students were randomly assigned to paddlings, advocacy researchers were able to integrate the literature and experimental research on reward, punishment, and motivation, and conduct enough studies to provide sufficient data for policy changes. Further, every popular school discipline training program promotes well-proven positive and preventive techniques and punishments that do not inflict physical pain. Research on alternatives, naturalistic evidence from schools that eliminated corporal punishment, and survey research prove that schools do not need to use corporal punishment. The movement to eliminate parental spanking is at a stage similar to the beginning of the school corporal punishment debate in 1976. Even though some studies may show that moderate parental spanking may do no short-term harm, there is little scientific evidence that it is necessary. There are no data to indicate that schools which eliminated corporal punishment became any worse. The same demographic factors and political polarizations that have kept about half of American school children from the protections against paddling afforded students in almost all other Western democracies also impede the movement to eliminate parental spanking. Since we know that corporal punishment too often leads to excesses, and since we have a multitude of effective positive approaches, what is the worst thing that would happen if all Americans stopped hitting children in any setting? The same children who are hit for misbehavior would continue that misbehavior and other ineffective punishments would be used. Most parents and teachers would discover what behavioral scientists already know. A combination of reward, positive motivational techniques and appropriate, nonphysical punishments would prevent most misbehavior. Other factors being equal, in
Fisher, Jane RW; Hammarberg, Karin
Research concerning the psychosocial aspects of infertility and infertility treatment focuses more often on women than men. The aim of this review was to synthesize the English-language evidence related to the psychological and social aspects of infertility in men and discuss the implications of these reports for clinical care and future research. A structured search identified 73 studies that reported data concerning the desire for fatherhood and the psychological and social aspects of diagnosis, assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and unsuccessful treatment among men with fertility difficulties. The studies are diverse in conceptualisation, design, setting and data collection, but the findings were reasonably consistent. These studies indicated that fertile and infertile childless men of reproductive age have desires to experience parenthood that are similar to those of their female counterparts; in addition, diagnosis and initiation of treatment are associated with elevated infertility-specific anxiety, and unsuccessful treatment can lead to a state of lasting sadness. However, rates of clinically significant mental health problems among this patient population are no higher than in the general population. Infertile men who are socially isolated, have an avoidant coping style and appraise stressful events as overwhelming, are more vulnerable to severe anxiety than men without these characteristics. Men prefer oral to written treatment information and prefer to receive emotional support from infertility clinicians rather than from mental health professionals, self-help support groups or friends. Nevertheless, structured, facilitated psycho-educational groups that are didactic but permit informal sharing of experiences might be beneficial. There are gaps in knowledge about factors governing seeking, persisting with and deciding to cease treatment; experiences of invasive procedures; parenting after assisted conception; adoption and infertility
sustained monitoring tasks. Human Factors, 1979, 21, 647-653. Craik , F. I. M., & Lockhart , R. Levels of processing : A framework for memory research...original levels approach to human memory ( Craik & Lockhart , 1972) contended that verbal stimuli could be classified along a continuum ranging from...AND AN EVALUATION OF EFFORT AS A MEASURr OF LEVELS OF PROCESSING Arthur D. Fisk, William L. Derrick, and Walter Schneider REPORT HARL-ONR-8105 E. C
White, Samuel G.; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.
In accordance with the project plan for the report period in the proposal titled above, HU and FML teams investigated two sets of concepts for reduction of noise and improvement in efficiency for jet exhaust nozzles of aircraft engines and screws for mixers, fans, propellers and boats. The main achievements in the report period are: (a) Publication of the paper in the AIAA Journal, which described our concepts and some results. (b) The Award in the Civil Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) competition. This 2 year grant for Hampton University (HU) and Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute (TSAGI, Moscow, Russia) supports the research implementation under the current NASA FAR grant. (c) Selection for funding by NASA HQ review panel of the Partnership Awards Concept Paper. This two year grant also will support our current FAR grant. (d) Publication of a Mobius Strip concept in NASA Technical Briefs, June, 1996, and a great interest of many industrial companies in this invention. Successful experimental results with the Mobius shaped screw for mixers, which save more than 30% of the electric power by comparison with the standard screws. Creation of the scientific-popular video-film which can be used for commercial and educational purposes. (e) Organization work, joint meetings and discussions of the NASA LARC JNL Team and HU professors and administration for the solution of actual problems and effective work of the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Hampton University. In this report the main designs are enumerated. It also contains for both concept sets: (1) the statement of the problem for each design, some results, publications, inventions, patents, our vision for continuation of this research, and (2) present and expected problems in the future.
Geosynchronous objects appear as unresolved blurs even when observed with the largest ground-based telescopes. Due to the lack of any spatial detail, two or more objects appearing at similar brightness levels within the spectral bandpass they are observed are difficult to distinguish. Observing a changing pattern of such objects from one time epoch to another showcases the deficiencies in associating individual objects before and after the configuration change. This paper explores solutions to this deficiency in the form of spectral (under small business innovative research) and phase curve analyses. The extension of the technique to phase curves proves to be a powerful new capability.
Full Text Available Drawing on observations from more than fifty years of research into an important subgroup of non-ordinary states of consciousness that he calls holotropic, the author suggests a revision of some basic assumptions of modern psychiatry, psychology, and psychotherapy. The proposed changes involve the nature of consciousness and its relationship to matter, dimensions of the human psyche, the roots of emotional and psychosomatic disorders, and therapeutic strategy. In the light of the new observations, spirituality appears to be an essential attribute of the human psyche and of existence in general. An important and controversial subject that could be only tangentially addressed in the context of this paper is the importance of archetypal psychology and astrology for consciousness research.
McCormack, Lacey Arneson; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Larson, Nicole I; Story, Mary
The development and promotion of farmers' markets and community gardens is growing in popularity as a strategy to increase community-wide fruit and vegetable consumption. Despite large numbers of farmers' markets and community gardens in the United States, as well as widespread enthusiasm for their use as a health promotion tool, little is known about their influence on dietary intake. This review examines the current scientific literature on the implications of farmers' market programs and community gardens on nutrition-related outcomes in adults. Studies published between January 1980 and January 2009 were identified via PubMed and Agricola database searches and by examining reference lists from relevant studies. Studies were included in this review if they took place in the United States and qualitatively or quantitatively examined nutrition-related outcomes, including dietary intake; attitudes and beliefs regarding buying, preparing, or eating fruits and vegetables; and behaviors and perceptions related to obtaining produce from a farmers' market or community garden. Studies focusing on garden-based youth programs were excluded. In total, 16 studies were identified for inclusion in this review. Seven studies focused on the impact of farmers' market nutrition programs for Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participants, five focused on the influence of farmers' market programs for seniors, and four focused on community gardens. Findings from this review reveal that few well-designed research studies (eg, those incorporating control groups) utilizing valid and reliable dietary assessment methods to evaluate the influence of farmers' markets and community gardens on nutrition-related outcomes have been completed. Recommendations for future research on the dietary influences of farmers' markets and community gardens are provided. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hinsch, R. [Rohoel-Aufsuchungs AG, Vienna (Austria)
The understanding of the detailed geological evolution of the Molasse Basin is crucial for the continued success of exploration in this mature basin. Results from several research projects help to find new play types and increase the understanding of stratigraphic traps by characterising the sedimentological processes that control them. Risks associated with play types can be better assessed considering their evolutionary framework. Several studies focussed on that subject have been concluded in recent years or are still ongoing. This presentation will give an overview of the objectives, results and implications of these initiatives for evaluation and analysis of the geological evolution and for exploration of the Molasse Basin. An initial collaboration with Stanford University integrated sedimentological core analyses with 3D seismic, wireline log data interpretation and outcrop studies in analogue settings. The study yielded a modern sedimentological model for the Upper Puchkirchen Formation which was subsequently applied to exploration. A sequence stratigraphic study examined the sequence framework of the Molasse Basin fill and was able to correlate 5 sequences from the shelf into the deep basin. Studies on seismic and core analyses from the south slope of the Puchkirchen trough show how slope morphology and confinement control sediment distribution in the southern slope deposits. The transition from deep to more shallow marine conditions and the progradation of deltaic sequences into the basin in Eggenburgian/Burdigalian times is described by an intense 3-D seismic interpretation in combination with sedimentological core work. Working on a more local scale, other projects are improving the understanding of the detailed architecture of distinct play elements such as the Upper Puchkirchen Channel or the Basal Hall Formation Channel. In general, these studies highlight the complex interaction of processes that control sediment distribution in the basin. Morphology
D A Yatsenko
The article states the illegitimacy of including the problems and matters not directly connected with the methods of scientific studying the psychological phenomena in the works on the methodology of psychology. It also argues about the necessity of separating such problems from the methodology of psychology and transferring them into different meta-psychological sciences: philosophy of psychology, logics of psychology, fundamental problem psychology, meta-theoretical psychology. In conclusi...
Lemmens, Lotte H J M; Müller, Viola N L S; Arntz, Arnoud; Huibers, Marcus J H
We present a systematic empirical update and critical evaluation of the current status of research aimed at identifying a variety of psychological mediators in various forms of psychotherapy for depression. We summarize study characteristics and results of 35 relevant studies, and discuss the extent to which these studies meet several important requirements for mechanism research. Our review indicates that in spite of increased attention for the topic, advances in theoretical consensus about necessities for mechanism research, and sophistication of study designs, research in this field is still heterogeneous and unsatisfactory in methodological respect. Probably the biggest challenge in the field is demonstrating the causal relation between change in the mediator and change in depressive symptoms. The field would benefit from a further refinement of research methods to identify processes of therapeutic change. Recommendations for future research are discussed. However, even in the most optimal research designs, explaining psychotherapeutic change remains a challenge. Psychotherapy is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that might work through interplay of multiple mechanisms at several levels. As a result, it might be too complex to be explained in relatively simple causal models of psychological change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cheung, Fanny M.
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…
Evans, J. E.
Over 1,000 U.S. dams have been removed (1975-2015) for reasons including obsolescence, liability concerns, water quality upgrades, fisheries, or ecosystem enhancements. Contaminated sediment can significantly complicate the approval process, cost, and timeline of a dam removal, or stop it entirely. In a dam removal, reservoir sediment changes from a sink to a source of contaminants. Recently, the Sierra Club sued to stop the removal of a large dam in Ohio because of the potential impact of phosphate releases on toxic algal blooms in Lake Erie. Heavy metals, PCBs, PAHs, pesticides, and petroleum hydrocarbons can be present in reservoir sediments. In a non-dam removal scenario, reservoir management tools range from "no action" to dredging, dewatering and removal, or sediment capping. But it is not clear how these reservoir management techniques apply to dam removals. Case studies show typically >80% of the reservoir sediment is eventually eroded, precluding sediment capping as a containment option. However, the released contaminants are diluted by mixing with "clean" sediment and are transported to different physio-chemical environments which may immobilize or biodegrade the contaminants. Poorly understood options include phased drawdown/reseeding the former reservoir to contain sediments, diking contaminant "hot spots," and addressing contaminant stratigraphy (where historical use created "hot layers" in the reservoir sediment). Research and policy development needs include: (1) assessment methods based on synergistic effects of multiple contaminants being present; (2) ways to translate the pre-removal contaminant concentrations to post-removal health risks downstream; (3) evaluation of management practices for contaminant "hot spots" and "hot layers;" (4) tools to forecast the presence of contaminated sediment using easily accessible information; and (5) ways to limit liability risk for organizations participating in dam removals involving contaminated sediment.
Brown, Stephanie L.; Shriberg, David; Wang, Aimin
School psychologists in the United States are not nearly as diverse demographically as the students they serve (T.K. Fagan & P.S. Wise, 2000). A.H. Miranda and P.B. Gutter (2002) investigated the number of diversity-related articles in four leading school psychology journals from 1990 to 1999 and found that there was an increase in the…
Worrell, Frank C.
This article reviews and critiques the article by Frisby (2015) in this special issue of "School Psychology Forum" as well as Frisby's book, "Meeting the Psychoeducational Needs of Minority Students: Evidence-Based Guidelines for School Psychologists and Other School Personnel" (Frisby, 2013). The concepts discussed are in the…
Cross, Tracy L.; Gust-Brey, Karyn; Ball, P. Bonny
A case study of an academically gifted college student who committed suicide resulted in three sets of findings: those that reflected exclusively on the subject's life, those that compared his life with 3 previous psychological autopsies conducted, and those that reflected the parents' observations and experiences of his life. (Contains…
Richmond, Aaron S.; Broussard, Kristin A.; Sterns, Jillian L.; Sanders, Kristina K.; Shardy, Justin C.
The purpose of the current study was to examine the sample diversity of empirical articles published in four premier teaching of psychology journals from 2008 to 2013. We investigated which demographic information was commonly reported and if samples were ethnically representative and whether gender was representative compared to National…
Blake, Jamilia J.; Graves, Scott; Newell, Markeda; Jimerson, Shane R.
Why is there a need to increase the racial/ethnic diversity of faculty in school psychology? Chiefly, school psychologists serve the most racially/ethnically diverse population: children in US schools. Therefore, developing a knowledge base that is inclusive of this wide range of perspective as well as growing a workforce that is reflective of…
Houkamau, Carla A.; Sibley, Chris G.
Maori, the indigenous peoples of New Zealand, experience a range of negative outcomes. Psychological models and interventions aiming to improve outcomes for Maori tend to be founded on a "culture-as-cure" model. This view promotes cultural efficacy as a critical resilience factor that should improve outcomes for Maori. This is a founding…
Robbins, Paul R.; Tanck, Roland H.
Reported further data using a psychological diary technique designed to monitor emotional states over time. The principal factors identified were interpersonal stress, depression-isolation, and physical complaints. Items in both the interpersonal stress and depression-isolation factors tended to be related positively to physical complaints…
Mierlo, van H.; Rutte, C.G.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.
In this article, we present a qualitative discussion of 28 empirical studies on self-managing team-work and psychological well-being. We address three questions: (a) Which variables did they include and which results did they obtain?; (b) How did authors deal with issues of level of theory,
Mierlo, H. van; Rutte, C.G.; Vermunt, J.K.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.
In this article, we present a qualitative discussion of 28 empirical studies on self-managing team-work and psychological well-being. We address three questions: (a) Which variables did they include and which results did they obtain?; (b) How did authors deal with issues of level of theory,
American Psychologist, 2008
In anticipation of the impending revision of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, APA's Publications and Communications Board formed the Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS) and charged it to provide the board with background and recommendations on information that should be included in…
Nicholi, Armand M., Jr.
This paper focuses on current knowledge about adverse biological and psychological affects of marijuana use, with special reference to risks for college students. Short-term effects on intellectual functioning and perceptual-motor coordination and long-term effects on reproduction and motivation are highlighted. (PP)
Proctor, Sherrie L.; Simpson, Chamane M.; Levin, Jacqueline; Hackimer, Laura
Lack of racially, ethnically, and linguistically (REL) diverse school psychologists has been a concern for decades. Recent and rapid increases in student diversity within America's public schools require that school psychology address the longstanding lack of diversity within the field. This article details the demographics of school…
McMaster, Kristen L.; Espin, Christine A.; van den Broek, Paul
Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of reading comprehension interventions for struggling readers, including students with learning disabilities. Yet, some readers continue to struggle with comprehension despite receiving these interventions. In this article, we argue that an explicit link between cognitive psychology and intervention…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Having a child hospitalized is a stressful event for parents. Previous studies have found increased stress in families with children affected by different kinds of pathologies, and analyzed disease related objective variables producing stress. However, most of these studies recruited caregivers of children with chronic or serious illnesses, and focused on evaluation of objective environmental stressors and did not consider subjective "perception" of stress. The aim of this study was to investigate perception of acute stress in caregivers taking care of children without serious physical damage that were hospitalized for short periods. Moreover, some variables, such as recreational and school services offered to children, influencing perception of cognitive, physiological and behavioral state relating to the sensation of "being stressed" were analyzed. Methods This study was realized with a sample of caregivers of children hospitalized for mild acute diseases. Research was conducted using two standardized tests, PSM (Psychological Stress Measure and STAI (State Trait Anxiety Inventory, whose characteristics of reliability and validity had been successfully established. Results Present data showed that caregivers of hospitalized children perceived high levels of stress and anxiety. Perception of stress was influenced by the degree of kindred with patients, length of hospitalization, and, notably, participation in some of the activities offered to children, mainly school services. Discussion Findings showed that child hospitalization is a stressful event for caregivers, even if hospitalization is for middle and transient pathologies. Perception of stress was influenced by length of hospitalization, and by degree of kindred. Findings even suggest that some services offered to children can modulate caregivers' perception of stress and impact of hospitalization. Caregivers whose children used school services describe themselves as
Roberts, Lynne D.; Castell, Emily
In Australia the tradition of conducting quantitative psychological research within a positivist framework has been challenged, with calls made for the inclusion of the full range of qualitative and quantitative methodologies within the undergraduate psychology curriculum. Despite this, the undergraduate psychology curriculum in most Australian universities retains a strong focus on teaching quantitative research methods. Limited research has examined attitudes toward qualitative research held by undergraduate psychology students taught within a positivist framework, and whether these attitudes are malleable and can be changed through teaching qualitative methodologies. Previous research has suggested that students from strong quantitative backgrounds experience some cognitive dissonance and greater difficulties in learning qualitative methods. In this article we examine 3rd year undergraduate psychology students’ attitudes to qualitative research prior to commencing and upon completion of a qualitative research unit. All students had previously completed two 13 weeks units of study in quantitative research methods. At Time 1, 63 students (84.1% female) completed online surveys comprising attitudinal measures. Key themes to emerge from student comments were that qualitative research was seen as an alternative approach, representing a paradigmatic shift that was construed by some students advantageous for meeting future professional and educative goals. Quantitative measures of attitudes to qualitative research were associated with general attitudes toward research, and psychology-specific epistemological beliefs. Changes in attitudes following completion of the qualitative research methods unit were in the hypothesized direction, but non-significant (small effect sizes). The findings increase our understanding of psychology students’ attitudes toward qualitative research and inform our recommendations for teaching research methods within the undergraduate
Roberts, Lynne D; Castell, Emily
In Australia the tradition of conducting quantitative psychological research within a positivist framework has been challenged, with calls made for the inclusion of the full range of qualitative and quantitative methodologies within the undergraduate psychology curriculum. Despite this, the undergraduate psychology curriculum in most Australian universities retains a strong focus on teaching quantitative research methods. Limited research has examined attitudes toward qualitative research held by undergraduate psychology students taught within a positivist framework, and whether these attitudes are malleable and can be changed through teaching qualitative methodologies. Previous research has suggested that students from strong quantitative backgrounds experience some cognitive dissonance and greater difficulties in learning qualitative methods. In this article we examine 3rd year undergraduate psychology students' attitudes to qualitative research prior to commencing and upon completion of a qualitative research unit. All students had previously completed two 13 weeks units of study in quantitative research methods. At Time 1, 63 students (84.1% female) completed online surveys comprising attitudinal measures. Key themes to emerge from student comments were that qualitative research was seen as an alternative approach, representing a paradigmatic shift that was construed by some students advantageous for meeting future professional and educative goals. Quantitative measures of attitudes to qualitative research were associated with general attitudes toward research, and psychology-specific epistemological beliefs. Changes in attitudes following completion of the qualitative research methods unit were in the hypothesized direction, but non-significant (small effect sizes). The findings increase our understanding of psychology students' attitudes toward qualitative research and inform our recommendations for teaching research methods within the undergraduate
Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse
Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Carroll, Erin E.; Skinner, Christopher H.; McCleary, Daniel F.; von Mizener, Briana Hautau; Bliss, Stacy L.
Articles published between 2000 and 2008 in four major school psychology journals--"School Psychology Review," "Journal of School Psychology," "Psychology in the Schools," and "School Psychology Quarterly"--were classified based on type (empirical or narrative) and on the primary and secondary authors' affiliations. Results showed that more than…
Research on genetic factors influencing cognitive and behavioural traits or which are central to the aetiology of neuropsychiatric diseases has been complicated by a furtive discrepancy between high heritability estimates and a scarcity of replicable gene-disorder associations. This 'missing heritability' has been either euphemised as the 'dark matter' of gene-trait association or aggravated as the 'looming crisis in behavioural genetics'. Nevertheless, in recognising the importance of this topic for our understanding of child psychiatric conditions and highlighting its commitment to the field, the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (JCPP) has for the first time appointed an editor with special responsibility for molecular (epi)genetics. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Rutter, Michael; Pickles, Andrew
Suggestions have been made that many claims concern false-positive findings in the field of child psychology and psychiatry. The literature was searched for concepts and findings on the validity of child psychiatry and psychology. Substantial progress has been made in some, but not all, areas and considerable challenges remain in all. The two major threats to validity concern the inability to examine brain tissues in life and the evidence that there is a high overlap among disorders. We emphasize the need to follow published guidelines on preplanned analyses and we note the dangers associated with unregulated flexibility in data analysis. We note the very important clinical and developmental findings that have been ignored, perhaps partly because of an excessive focus on technologies. Nevertheless, we are positive about both the accomplishments and the ways in which challenges are being met. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Fletcher, David; Scott, Michael
Sports coaches operate within a complex, ever-changing environment that imposes many pressures on them. Here, we address the psychological impact of these demands via a critical review of the literature pertaining to stress in sport coaches. The narrative is divided into three main sections: (1) conceptual and definitional issues, (2) theoretical and empirical issues, and (3) implications for applied practice. The review focuses on the environmental stressors that coaches encounter, their appraisals of and responses to these demands, and the impact this has on their personal well-being and job performance. The influence of various personal and situational characteristics is also discussed. A key message to emerge from this review is that the potential health and performance costs of psychological stress to sports coaches are significant. The rapid rate of change in contemporary sport and the dynamic nature of stress mean that stress in coaches is an ongoing problem that needs to be monitored and addressed.
Zyoud, Sa’ed H.; Sweileh, Waleed M.; Awang, Rahmat; Al-Jabi, Samah W.
Background Social media, defined as interactive Web applications, have been on the rise globally, particularly among adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the trend of the literature related to the most used social network worldwide (i.e. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, and Instagram) in the field of psychology. Specifically, this study will assess the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, author productivity, emerging topics and the m...
The article discusses the phenomenon ‘understanding’ from the position of psychological science. The paper also examines the relationship between the categories of ‘understanding’, ‘knowledge’, ‘perception’, ‘sense’, in particular the relationship (interdependence) in dyads ‘understanding–knowledge’, ‘understanding–perception’, ‘understanding–sense’. The article also covers the functions of understanding (cognitive, regulatory, ideological), levels of understanding (depth, clarity and complet...
Harris, Jennifer L.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Bargh, John A.
Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk;...
Cavallo, Andrea; Becchio, Cristina; Koul, Atesh
Recent years have seen an increased interest in machine learning based predictive methods for analysing quantitative behavioural data in experimental psychology. While these methods can achieve relatively greater sensitivity compared to conventional univariate techniques, they still lack an established and accessible software framework. The goal of this work was to build an open-source toolbox – “PredPsych” – that could make these methods readily available to all psychologists. PredPsych is a...
Polushina, N D; Babina, L M; Shvedunova, L N
Experiments on 80 Wistar rats revealed the ability of Essentuki mineral waters to stimulate the reserves and sensitivity of the intestinal serotonin-producing system. A clinical trial on two groups of children (exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation or with posttraumatic astheno-neurotic syndrome) found out pronounced positive changes in the psychological status of the children which progressed in correlation with an increase of the blood serotonin levels.
Rhodes, Ryan E; Nasuti, Gabriella
To investigate content of the psychology of physical activity research over the past 20 years. Volumes of 10 journals, identified by impact factor and relevance to physical activity were audited every other year, during the period of 1990-2008. Inclusion criteria were studies that measured a physical activity outcome, and/or a psychological outcome as a result of physical activity. Data were extracted and coded based on 15 factors. The review yielded 889 studies for analysis. Total volume of studies (from 127 in the 1990s to 762 in the 2000s), and the proportionate content space allotted to journals has increased significantly across 20 years (effect size w=0.24) (Cohen, 1992). Many study characteristics (assessment of minority/high-risk groups, self-report measurement, cross-sectional designs) have not changed. There was evidence, however, of less growth in research among older adults and young children (effect size w=0.15) compared to other age groups (effect size w=0.24), a move from pure measurement studies (effect size w=0.21) to descriptive research (effect size w=0.27), and considerable growth in environmental correlates research across time (effect size w=0.41) in the 10 journals sampled. The behavioral science of physical activity has clearly increased in prominence and volume among the 10 journals sampled, but methodological characteristics of research could be improved in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi
The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research.
Albisser Schleger, Heidi; Oehninger, Nicole R; Reiter-Theil, Stella
When ethical decisions have to be taken in critical, complex medical situations, they often involve decisions that set the course for or against life-sustaining treatments. Therefore the decisions have far-reaching consequences for the patients, their relatives, and often for the clinical staff. Although the rich psychology literature provides evidence that reasoning may be affected by undesired influences that may undermine the quality of the decision outcome, not much attention has been given to this phenomenon in health care or ethics consultation. In this paper, we aim to contribute to the sensitization of the problem of systematic reasoning biases by showing how exemplary individual and group biases can affect the quality of decision-making on an individual and group level. We are addressing clinical ethicists as well as clinicians who guide complex decision-making processes of ethical significance. Knowledge regarding exemplary group psychological biases (e.g. conformity bias), and individual biases (e.g. stereotypes), will be taken from the disciplines of social psychology and cognitive decision science and considered in the field of ethical decision-making. Finally we discuss the influence of intuitive versus analytical (systematical) reasoning on the validity of ethical decision-making.
Anatoly V. Karpov
Full Text Available This article discusses some key methodological and theoretical issues of the fundamental,common psychological problem of abilities. It shows that there is a lackof modern ideas about the content of the subject matter of the psychology ofabilities and, therefore, a need for enrichment. In this conceptual expansion itis necessary to differentiate a special, qualitatively specific class of abilities – theintegral abilities of the individual. All these abilities are differentiated on the basisof the most promising paradigm in the development of the ability problem– thefunctional-genetic paradigm – and are related to one of the basic classes of mentalprocesses – the integral mental processes (goal formation, anticipation, decisionmaking, programming, prognosis, planning, control, self-control. In the article adetailed psychological characteristic of the basic integral abilities is presented, asa result of which the correspondence of these abilities to all features and criteriaof abilities as such is proved. The necessity of using the structural-level approachin relation to the ability problem is shown, and a holistic, generalized hierarchy ofthe basic ability classes is proposed. This hierarchy has three main levels. At thehighest level the general abilities are located; at the basic level are the specificabilities of a person. The integral abilities are located between these two levelsand thus form a mesolevel in the general hierarchical organization of the abilitiesof the individual.
Table of contents: Motzkau and Jefferson: Research as Practice: On Critical Methodologies (editorial) Jefferson and Huniche: (Re) Searching for persons in practice: Field based methods for critical psychological practice research Khawaja and Mørck: Researcher positioning - Muslim ‘otherness......' and beyond Hasse and Trentemøller: The method of culture contrast Nissen: Objectification and Prototype Lee: Researching Children's Diets in England: Critical Methods in a Consumer Society Nolas: Between the ideal and the real: using ethnography as a way of extending our language of change Motzkau......: The Semiotic of Accusation: Thinking about deconstruction, development, the critique of practice and the practice of critique Zavos and Biglia: Embodying Feminist Research: learning from action research, political practices and collective knowledge...
Hughes, Alicia M; Gordon, Rola; Chalder, Trudie; Hirsch, Colette R; Moss-Morris, Rona
There is an abundance of research into cognitive processing biases in clinical psychology including the potential for applying cognitive bias modification techniques to assess the causal role of biases in maintaining anxiety and depression. Within the health psychology field, there is burgeoning interest in applying these experimental methods to assess potential cognitive biases in relation to physical health conditions and health-related behaviours. Experimental research in these areas could inform theoretical development by enabling measurement of implicit cognitive processes that may underlie unhelpful illness beliefs and help drive health-related behaviours. However, to date, there has been no systematic approach to adapting existing experimental paradigms for use within physical health research. Many studies fail to report how materials were developed for the population of interest or have used untested materials developed ad hoc. The lack of protocol for developing stimuli specificity has contributed to large heterogeneity in methodologies and findings. In this article, we emphasize the need for standardized methods for stimuli development and replication in experimental work, particularly as it extends beyond its original anxiety and depression scope to other physical conditions. We briefly describe the paradigms commonly used to assess cognitive biases in attention and interpretation and then describe the steps involved in comprehensive/robust stimuli development for attention and interpretation paradigms using illustrative examples from two conditions: chronic fatigue syndrome and breast cancer. This article highlights the value of preforming rigorous stimuli development and provides tools to aid researchers engage in this process. We believe this work is worthwhile to establish a body of high-quality and replicable experimental research within the health psychology literature. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Cognitive
Euthanasia has received increasing attention in both academic and public debates as one of the most controversial issues. However, the contribution of psychology-related themes to the topic has had little role on these ongoing debates. The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to explore the main themes relating to euthanasia as provided by psychology-related research; (2) to analyze the temporal trends of psychology-related research on euthanasia over the last decades. A comprehensive search of academic literature was conducted on PsychINFO database. A qualitative software-based thematic analysis was carried out on 602 journal abstracts published from 1935 to 2014. This study highlighted four different thematic areas which characterized the scientific discourse on euthanasia: (1) moral values, in terms of religious, philosophical, and social implications concerning the individual's decision to die; (2) professional ethics, in terms of health and social workers' legal responsibility in death assistance; (3) end-of-life care, with regard to medical options provided to support individuals nearing death; and (4) patient's right to healthcare, in terms of access to palliative care and better quality of dying. Euthanasia discourse over the last decades seems to be overall characterized by two main dimensions: (1) the increasing trend of social legitimacy and acceptability of euthanasia over time, which moved from ethical to healthcare issues; and (2) the curvilinear temporal trend about the request/provision process in euthanasia, which moved from patient's decision for ending life (mainly characterizing the most past and recent research) to the role of health professionals (with a peak in the 1990s). The results suggest palliative care as a potential future research area which can provide healthcare providers with skills to 'connect' with patients, understand patients' hidden agendas, and grant a good quality of life and dying process.
Hoyt, W T
Rater bias is a substantial source of error in psychological research. Bias distorts observed effect sizes beyond the expected level of attenuation due to intrarater error, and the impact of bias is not accurately estimated using conventional methods of correction for attenuation. Using a model based on multivariate generalizability theory, this article illustrates how bias affects research results. The model identifies 4 types of bias that may affect findings in research using observer ratings, including the biases traditionally termed leniency and halo errors. The impact of bias depends on which of 4 classes of rating design is used, and formulas are derived for correcting observed effect sizes for attenuation (due to bias variance) and inflation (due to bias covariance) in each of these classes. The rater bias model suggests procedures for researchers seeking to minimize adverse impact of bias on study findings.
Raimond, E.; Bonnet, J.M.; Generino, G.; Dubreuil, M.; Pichereau, F.; Van Dorsselaere, J.P.
In the context of post Fukushima accident, the paper presents the continuous efforts performed in France to upgrade progressively the French Gen II pressurised water reactors safety features in order to face the risks of any severe accident. It reminds some decisions taken after the TMI2 and the Chernobyl accidents and describes the situation in France before the Fukushima accident: -) progress done on severe accident consequences analysis thanks to recent research activities, -) improvement of Gen II PWRs safety features, in relation with the periodic safety review process, -) definition of higher safety levels requirement directly linked to the protection of population in the framework of Gen II PWRs long term operation. The last part of the paper comments carefully how the Fukushima accident will interfere on all these previous efforts to increase the Gen II PWRs robustness. The Fukushima accident clearly highlights a need of additional efforts to identify possible cliff edge effect in case of beyond design events (especially external events). The definition of additional accident management procedures and means to secure a reactor (or a site) whatever the conditions will be a major consequence for the French NPPs. In a second step, some complements on the existing defense-in-depth approach are now expected: additional requirements to define line of defense against adverse consequences of beyond design situations. The need for specific additional research activities after the Fukushima accident seems to be limited to some specific issues (for example spent fuel pool behaviour in case of long term loss of cooling). This paper is followed by the slides of the presentation