WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychological processes underlying

  1. Individual differences in impression management: an exploration of the psychological processes underlying faking

    OpenAIRE

    ROSE A. MUELLER-HANSON; Eric D. Heggestad; GEORGE C. THORNTON III

    2006-01-01

    The present study proposes and tests a model of psychological processes underlying faking, which integrates concepts from earlier models of faking by McFarland and Ryan (2000; 2001) and Snell, Sydell, and Lueke (1999). The results provided partial support for the model, suggesting personality factors and perceptions of situational factors contribute to faking behavior. The implications of these findings are (a) people differ with regard to how much they will fake on a personality test in a si...

  2. Exploring the psychological processes underlying touch: lessons from the Alexander Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T; Glover, L

    2014-01-01

    The experience of touch is significant; both in its positive implications and in how it attracts caution and controversy. Accordingly, physical contact within psychological therapy has been shown to improve well-being and the therapeutic relationship, yet the majority of therapists never or rarely use touch. This research aimed to explore psychological processes underlying touch through the Alexander Technique, a psycho-physical technique taught one to one using touch. Six individuals who had received the Alexander Technique were interviewed, and 111 completed surveys. Interview data suggested an incompatibility between touch and the spoken word, which was understood through the way touch lacks verbal discourses in our society. The largely simplistic and dichotomous verbal understanding we have (either only very positive or very negative) could help understand some of the societal-level caution surrounding touch. Touch was seen also as a nurturing experience by interviewees, which influenced inter-personal and intra-personal relational processes. Developmental models were used to frame the way touch strengthened the pupil-teacher relationship and the way pupils' intra-personal psychological change seemed linked to this relational experience. The surveys largely supported these findings, and discussion is made around the notable way pupils negatively interpreted the intention of the survey. Implications for the use of touch in psychological therapies are discussed, as are limitations and ideas for future research. Touch is a powerful experience, and physical contact within psychological therapy has been shown to improve well-being and the therapeutic relationship, yet the majority of therapists never or rarely use touch. The AT is an alternative therapeutic approach to psycho-physical well-being that offers an interesting model to study the impact of touch. Findings from those that have used the technique reaffirmed that touch can improve well-being and can be a

  3. Individual differences in impression management: an exploration of the psychological processes underlying faking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSE A. MUELLER-HANSON

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes and tests a model of psychological processes underlying faking, which integrates concepts from earlier models of faking by McFarland and Ryan (2000; 2001 and Snell, Sydell, and Lueke (1999. The results provided partial support for the model, suggesting personality factors and perceptions of situational factors contribute to faking behavior. The implications of these findings are (a people differ with regard to how much they will fake on a personality test in a simulated employment setting with some people faking substantially and others faking very little or not at all, and (b the extent to which an individual fakes is partially determined by the person’s attitudes and personality characteristics. The present findings are interpreted, discussed, and might be useful for the prevention and mitigation of faking by altering people's beliefs about their ability to fake and the appropriateness of faking.

  4. Dual Psychological Processes Underlying Public Stigma and the Implications for Reducing Stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Reeder, Glenn D.; Pryor, John B.

    2008-01-01

    People with serious illness or disability are often burdened with social stigma that promotes a cycle of poverty via unemployment, inadequate housing and threats to mental health. Stigma may be conceptualized in terms of self-stigma (e.g., shame and lowered self-esteem) or public stigma (e.g., the general public's prejudice towards the stigmatized). This article examines two psychological processes that underlie public stigma: associative processes and rule-based processes. Associative proces...

  5. Modeling developmental processes in psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    In the present article I suggest first that modeling in psychology can be described as an interactive process between a phenomenon under study (reality) and different levels of theoretical conceptualizations that vary in respect to how directly they can be related to empirical observations and at what level of generalization they operate. Then, I give three examples of my own work concerning building theories and testing models. Next, I discuss some caveats scientists face when building theor...

  6. Differential Psychological Processes Underlying the Skill-Development Model and Self-Enhancement Model across Mathematics and Science in 28 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei-Shiu

    2012-01-01

    The skill-development model contends that achievements have an effect on academic self-confidences, while the self-enhancement model contends that self-confidences have an effect on achievements. Differential psychological processes underlying the 2 models across the domains of mathematics and science were posited and examined with structural…

  7. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS UNDERLYING UNETHICAL RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Nazemian, Sahar; Balash, Farhad; Balash, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Thisstudy is to cast a light on psychological factors, which force faculty memberstoward conducting unethical research. Since psychological factors are the keyfactors to control human behavior, in this paper, they are highlighted as themain purpose of the study. Methodologically, a qualitative approach was appliedto reveal the factors. Thematic analysis assisted the researchers discoveringthe main factors. Ten faculty members were interviewed as to understand theways that factors could deploy...

  8. Teaching Psychological Report Writing: Content and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Judith; Costaris, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of teaching graduate students in school psychology to write psychological reports that teachers and parents find readable and that guide intervention. The consensus from studies across four decades of research is that effective psychological reports connect to the client's context; have clear…

  9. How Do People Become W.E.I.R.D.? Migration Reveals the Cultural Transmission Mechanisms Underlying Variation in Psychological Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Mesoudi, Alex; Magid, Kesson; Hussain, Delwar

    2016-01-01

    Cultural psychologists have shown that people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD) countries often exhibit different psychological processing to people from less-WEIRD countries. The former exhibit more individualistic and less collectivistic social orientation, and more analytic and less holistic cognition, than non-Westerners. Yet the mechanisms responsible for maintaining this cultural variation are unclear. Immigration is an ideal ‘natural experiment’ for uncov...

  10. How do people become W.E.I.R.D.? Migration reveals the cultural transmission mechanisms underlying variation in psychological processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Mesoudi; Kesson Magid; Delwar Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Cultural psychologists have shown that people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD) countries often exhibit different psychological processing to people from less-WEIRD countries. The former exhibit more individualistic and less collectivistic social orientation, and more analytic and less holistic cognition, than non-Westerners. Yet the mechanisms responsible for maintaining this cultural variation are unclear. Immigration is an ideal 'natural experiment' for uncov...

  11. Religion, Psychology and Globalisation Process: Attitudinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion, Psychology and Globalisation Process: Attitudinal. Appraisal. Emmanuel Orok Duke. Lecturer, Department of Religious and Cultural Studies. University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria. Abstract. A key consequence of globalisation is the integrative approach to reality whereby emphasis is placed on interdependence.

  12. How Do People Become W.E.I.R.D.? Migration Reveals the Cultural Transmission Mechanisms Underlying Variation in Psychological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; Magid, Kesson; Hussain, Delwar

    2016-01-01

    Cultural psychologists have shown that people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD) countries often exhibit different psychological processing to people from less-WEIRD countries. The former exhibit more individualistic and less collectivistic social orientation, and more analytic and less holistic cognition, than non-Westerners. Yet the mechanisms responsible for maintaining this cultural variation are unclear. Immigration is an ideal 'natural experiment' for uncovering such mechanisms. We used a battery of psychological measures previously shown to vary cross-culturally to compare the social orientation and cognitive style of 286 residents of East London from three cultural backgrounds: (i) 1st-generation British Bangladeshi immigrants; (ii) 2nd-generation British Bangladeshis raised in the UK to Bangladeshi-raised parents; and (iii) non-migrants whose parents were born and raised in the UK. Model comparison revealed that individualism and dispositional attribution, typical of Western societies, are driven primarily by horizontal cultural transmission (e.g. via mass media), with parents and other family members having little or no effect, while collectivism, social closeness and situational attribution were driven by a mix of vertical/oblique cultural transmission (e.g. via family contact) and horizontal cultural transmission. These individual-level transmission dynamics can explain hitherto puzzling population-level phenomena, such as the partial acculturation of 2nd-generation immigrants on measures such as collectivism (due to the mix of vertical and horizontal cultural transmission), or the observation in several countries of increasing individualism (which is transmitted horizontally and therefore rapidly) despite little corresponding change in collectivism (which is transmitted partly vertically and therefore more slowly). Further consideration of cultural transmission mechanisms, in conjunction with the study of migrant

  13. How Do People Become W.E.I.R.D.? Migration Reveals the Cultural Transmission Mechanisms Underlying Variation in Psychological Processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mesoudi

    Full Text Available Cultural psychologists have shown that people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD countries often exhibit different psychological processing to people from less-WEIRD countries. The former exhibit more individualistic and less collectivistic social orientation, and more analytic and less holistic cognition, than non-Westerners. Yet the mechanisms responsible for maintaining this cultural variation are unclear. Immigration is an ideal 'natural experiment' for uncovering such mechanisms. We used a battery of psychological measures previously shown to vary cross-culturally to compare the social orientation and cognitive style of 286 residents of East London from three cultural backgrounds: (i 1st-generation British Bangladeshi immigrants; (ii 2nd-generation British Bangladeshis raised in the UK to Bangladeshi-raised parents; and (iii non-migrants whose parents were born and raised in the UK. Model comparison revealed that individualism and dispositional attribution, typical of Western societies, are driven primarily by horizontal cultural transmission (e.g. via mass media, with parents and other family members having little or no effect, while collectivism, social closeness and situational attribution were driven by a mix of vertical/oblique cultural transmission (e.g. via family contact and horizontal cultural transmission. These individual-level transmission dynamics can explain hitherto puzzling population-level phenomena, such as the partial acculturation of 2nd-generation immigrants on measures such as collectivism (due to the mix of vertical and horizontal cultural transmission, or the observation in several countries of increasing individualism (which is transmitted horizontally and therefore rapidly despite little corresponding change in collectivism (which is transmitted partly vertically and therefore more slowly. Further consideration of cultural transmission mechanisms, in conjunction with the study of

  14. How Do People Become W.E.I.R.D.? Migration Reveals the Cultural Transmission Mechanisms Underlying Variation in Psychological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; Magid, Kesson; Hussain, Delwar

    2016-01-01

    Cultural psychologists have shown that people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD) countries often exhibit different psychological processing to people from less-WEIRD countries. The former exhibit more individualistic and less collectivistic social orientation, and more analytic and less holistic cognition, than non-Westerners. Yet the mechanisms responsible for maintaining this cultural variation are unclear. Immigration is an ideal ‘natural experiment’ for uncovering such mechanisms. We used a battery of psychological measures previously shown to vary cross-culturally to compare the social orientation and cognitive style of 286 residents of East London from three cultural backgrounds: (i) 1st-generation British Bangladeshi immigrants; (ii) 2nd-generation British Bangladeshis raised in the UK to Bangladeshi-raised parents; and (iii) non-migrants whose parents were born and raised in the UK. Model comparison revealed that individualism and dispositional attribution, typical of Western societies, are driven primarily by horizontal cultural transmission (e.g. via mass media), with parents and other family members having little or no effect, while collectivism, social closeness and situational attribution were driven by a mix of vertical/oblique cultural transmission (e.g. via family contact) and horizontal cultural transmission. These individual-level transmission dynamics can explain hitherto puzzling population-level phenomena, such as the partial acculturation of 2nd-generation immigrants on measures such as collectivism (due to the mix of vertical and horizontal cultural transmission), or the observation in several countries of increasing individualism (which is transmitted horizontally and therefore rapidly) despite little corresponding change in collectivism (which is transmitted partly vertically and therefore more slowly). Further consideration of cultural transmission mechanisms, in conjunction with the study of migrant

  15. Psychological processes in young bullies versus bully-victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Anouk; Poorthuis, Astrid M G; Malti, Tina

    2017-09-01

    Some children who bully others are also victimized themselves ("bully-victims") whereas others are not victimized themselves ("bullies"). These subgroups have been shown to differ in their social functioning as early as in kindergarten. What is less clear are the motives that underlie the bullying behavior of young bullies and bully-victims. The present study examined whether bullies have proactive motives for aggression and anticipate to feel happy after victimizing others, whereas bully-victims have reactive motives for aggression, poor theory of mind skills, and attribute hostile intent to others. This "distinct processes hypothesis" was contrasted with the "shared processes hypothesis," predicting that bullies and bully-victims do not differ on these psychological processes. Children (n = 283, age 4-9) were classified as bully, bully-victim, or noninvolved using peer-nominations. Theory of mind, hostile intent attributions, and happy victimizer emotions were assessed using standard vignettes and false-belief tasks; reactive and proactive motives were assessed using teacher-reports. We tested our hypotheses using Bayesian model selection, enabling us to directly compare the distinct processes model (predicting that bullies and bully-victims deviate from noninvolved children on different psychological processes) against the shared processes model (predicting that bullies and bully-victims deviate from noninvolved children on all psychological processes alike). Overall, the shared processes model received more support than the distinct processes model. These results suggest that in early childhood, bullies and bully-victims have shared, rather than distinct psychological processes underlying their bullying behavior. © 2016 The Authors. Aggressive Behavior Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Advancing the Assessment of Dynamic Psychological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Most commonly used clinical assessment tools cannot fully capture the dynamic psychological processes often hypothesized as core mechanisms of psychopathology and psychotherapy. There is therefore a gap between our theories of problems and interventions for those problems and the tools we use to understand clients. The purpose of this special issue is to connect theory about clinical dynamics to practice by focusing on methods for collecting dynamic data, statistical models for analyzing dynamic data, and conceptual schemes for implementing dynamic data in applied settings. In this introductory article, we argue for the importance of assessing dynamic processes, highlight recent advances in assessment science that enable their measurement, review challenges in using these advances in applied practice, and adumbrate the articles in this issue.

  17. Implicit processes in health psychology : Diversity and promise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheeran, Paschal; Bosch, Jos A; Crombez, Geert; Hall, Peter A; Harris, Jennifer L; Papies, Esther K; Wiers, Reinout W

    Implicit processes refer to cognitive, affective, and motivational processes that influence health decisions and behavior without the person intending that influence. This special issue aims to increase appreciation of the diverse and promising research on implicit processes in health psychology,

  18. Dissociable learning processes in comparative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David; Church, Barbara A

    2017-08-10

    Comparative and cognitive psychologists interpret performance in different ways. Animal researchers invoke a dominant construct of associative learning. Human researchers acknowledge humans' capacity for explicit-declarative cognition. This article offers a way to bridge a divide that defeats productive cross-talk. We show that animals often challenge the associative-learning construct, and that it does not work to try to stretch the associative-learning construct to encompass these performances. This approach thins and impoverishes that important construct. We describe an alternative approach that restrains the construct of associative learning by giving it a clear operational definition. We apply this approach in several comparative domains to show that different task variants change-in concert-the level of awareness, the declarative nature of knowledge, the dimensional breadth of knowledge, and the brain systems that organize learning. These changes reveal dissociable learning processes that a unitary associative construct cannot explain but a neural-systems framework can explain. These changes define the limit of associative learning and the threshold of explicit cognition. The neural-systems framework can broaden empirical horizons in comparative psychology. It can offer animal models of explicit cognition to cognitive researchers and neuroscientists. It can offer simple behavioral paradigms for exploring explicit cognition to developmental researchers. It can enliven the synergy between human and animal research, promising a productive future for both.

  19. Psychological Processing in Chronic Pain: A Neural Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Laura; Elman, Igor; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of chronic pain involves complex brain circuits that include sensory, emotional, cognitive and interoceptive processing. The feed-forward interactions between physical (e.g., trauma) and emotional pain and the consequences of altered psychological status on the expression of pain have made the evaluation and treatment of chronic pain a challenge in the clinic. By understanding the neural circuits involved in psychological processes, a mechanistic approach to the implementation of psychology-based treatments may be better understood. In this review we evaluate some of the principle processes that may be altered as a consequence of chronic pain in the context of localized and integrated neural networks. These changes are ongoing, vary in their magnitude, and their hierarchical manifestations, and may be temporally and sequentially altered by treatments, and all contribute to an overall pain phenotype. Furthermore, we link altered psychological processes to specific evidence-based treatments to put forth a model of pain neuroscience psychology. PMID:24374383

  20. Using Forensic Psychology to Teach Basic Psychological Processes: Eyewitness Memory and Lie Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers can incorporate topics in forensic psychology into lower level courses to increase student interest and to show how psychological processes influence outcomes in high-stakes applied contexts. One such topic is eyewitness identification, which teachers can use to show how stress affects memory and how memories can become distorted during…

  1. The decade 1989-1998 in Spanish psychology: an analysis of research in basic psychological processes, history of psychology, and other related topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoa, J M

    2001-11-01

    This article presents a review of research published by Spanish Faculty from the area of basic psychology in the decade 1989-1998. It provides information about research on basic psychological processes commonly studied under the labels of experimental and cognitive psychology, plus a number of topics from other research areas, including some applied psychology issues. The review analyzes the work of 241 faculty members from 27 different Spanish universities, as reflected in 1,882 published papers, book chapters, and books. The analyses carried out in this report include a description of the main research trends found in each area, with some representative references of the published materials, and statistics showing the distribution of this research work in various relevant publications (both Spanish and foreign), with figures that reveal the impact of this work both at a national and international scale.

  2. Values underlying perceptions of breach of the psychological contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Botha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This study identifies the most prominent breaches of the psychological contract and the values underlying the perceptions that violations have occurred.Research purpose: The study identifies the most important breaches and investigates which values underlie employee perceptions of breach of the psychological contract. It also addresses values that lead to employees interpreting incidents as breaches.Motivation for the study: The study calls on the fact that employees make inconsequential contributions to the terms of many formal employment contracts may imply that such contracts cannot be viewed as documents between equals.Research design, approach and method: The study identifies the most prominent breaches of the psychological contract and the values underlying the perceptions that violations have occurred.Main findings: The data revealed lack of promotion, poor interpersonal relations between colleagues and bad treatment by seniors as three main breaches of the contract, and social recognition, world of peace and sense of accomplishment as three dominant values that underlie perceptions of contract violation.Practical/managerial implications: The competent and intelligent manner in which lack of promotion is handled and communicated to employees is vital because it has implications for their willingness to contribute, their career prospects and their intention to stay in the organisation.Contribution/value-add: This research can serve as the basis for the development of survey or research instruments that are appropriate and relevant to the population.

  3. Religion, Psychology and Globalisation Process: Attitudinal Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Orok Duke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A key consequence of globalisation is the integrative approach to reality whereby emphasis is placed on interdependence. Religion being an expression of human culture is equally affected by this cultural revolution. The main objective of this paper is to examine how religious affiliation, among Christians, influences attitudes towards the application of psychological sciences to the assuagement of human suffering. The sociological theory of structural functionalism was deployed to explain attitudinal appraisal. Ethnographic methodology, through quantitative analysis of administered questionnaire, was also used. The study reveals that religious tenets largely shape attitudinal appraisal and redefine the borders of globalisation’s metanarratives.

  4. Simple Additivity of Stochastic Psychological Processes: Tests and Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    Methods of testing relatively complete (distributional) models of internal psychological processes are described. It is shown that there is a sufficient condition for additive models to imply this property of the likelihood ratio. Also discussed are the examination of hazard rate functions of component processes and change in cumulative…

  5. The Role of Psychological Factors in the Process of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibian, Maryam; Roslan, Samsilah; Idris, Khairuddin; Othman, Jamilah

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, psychological factors have become vital factors in literacy education. Existing research has indicated that these factors haves received special attention in the comprehension process. Moreover, in reading process and teaching curriculum understanding, the role of these factors could be beneficial for the students. This paper…

  6. Rumination modulates stress and other psychological processes in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey Owen

    2015-12-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread pain and high levels of sleep disturbance, fatigue, and altered cognition. Psychological stress can modulate these features. In this study, we examined the thinking style of rumination in women with FM to assess the effect of rumination on stress levels and other psychological variables in FM. Ninety-eight women with FM completed questionnaires to assess levels of rumination, stress, anxiety, depression, optimism, control, and coping. T-tests and bivariate (Pearson) analysis was performed to assess relationships between rumination and other psychological factors. We found that those with higher levels of rumination had increased the use of negative coping techniques (panxiety (prumination correlated with lower optimism (prumination correlated strongest with stress (pRumination predicted 26% of variance for perceived stress. Rumination influenced several psychological processes deemed important in FM and was an important contributor to stress in FM. Specific interventions targeting rumination in FM may improve FM symptoms and outcomes.

  7. Physicians under the influence: social psychology and industry marketing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Sunita; Fugh-Berman, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and medical device companies apply social psychology to influence physicians' prescribing behavior and decision making. Physicians fail to recognize their vulnerability to commercial influences due to self-serving bias, rationalization, and cognitive dissonance. Professionalism offers little protection; even the most conscious and genuine commitment to ethical behavior cannot eliminate unintentional, subconscious bias. Six principles of influence - reciprocation, commitment, social proof, liking, authority, and scarcity - are key to the industry's routine marketing strategies, which rely on the illusion that the industry is a generous avuncular partner to physicians. In order to resist industry influence, physicians must accept that they are vulnerable to subconscious bias and have both the motivation and means to resist industry influence. A culture in which accepting industry gifts engenders shame rather than gratitude will reduce conflicts of interest. If greater academic prestige accrues to distant rather than close relationships with industry, then a new social norm may emerge that promotes patient care and scientific integrity. In addition to educating faculty and students about the social psychology underlying sophisticated but potentially manipulative marketing and about how to resist it, academic medical institutions should develop strong organizational policies to counteract the medical profession's improper dependence on industry. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  8. Neurodevelopmental processes and psychological functioning in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, C

    1999-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder with variable severity, occurring at all levels of cognitive ability and having a number of slightly different clinical presentations. It is associated with neuropsychological deficits that occur in other conditions also, but its pattern may be specific to autism. Genetic and environmental early insults to brain development are etiological determinants of the disorder. Brain circuitries important for social, communicative, and integrational purposes have been suggested to be dysfunctional in autism. There could be at least two different pathways to autism, one connected with primary temporofrontal dysfunction (and late prenatal-early postnatal origins) and another linked to primary brain-stem dysfunction (and early prenatal origins). Further study of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychological processes in autism will help elucidate not only the pathological mechanisms involved in the specific syndromes but also the underpinnings of normal brain development.

  9. A community psychology view of environmental organization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Julie H; Bush, Robert A

    2007-09-01

    Environmental organizations have a key role in addressing environmental degradation and promoting ecologically and socially sustainable societies. Psychosocial processes underpin their work, however, empirical studies of these processes remain underdeveloped. This paper presents the first stage of a community psychology study involving in-depth interviews with leaders in environmental organizations. Qualitative analysis revealed a framework of five types of psychosocial processes that assist environmental organizations to achieve a range of outcomes, namely: problem analysis; influencing decision-making; inter-organizational relationships; community participation and knowledge transfer. These psychosocial processes were used in substantially different ways depending on the organizations' orientation. Three key orientations towards outcomes were evident: on-ground conservation, developing innovation in specialist areas and transforming wider social institutions. The findings provide a model of the psychosocial processes involved in fostering sustainable futures and exemplify the contribution of community psychology to this critical global issue.

  10. A Garbage Can Model of the Psychological Research Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joanne

    1981-01-01

    Reviews models commonly used in psychological research, and, particularly, in organizational decision making. An alternative model of organizational decision making is suggested. The model, referred to as the garbage can model, describes a process in which members of an organization collect the problems and solutions they generate by dumping them…

  11. Process control under safety aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmer, T. E-mail: theo.vollmer@hvt.fzk.de; Borcherding, K.; Hellriegel, G.; Penzhorn, R.-D

    2000-08-01

    The safety of people and the environment is increasingly important in the operation and, consequently, also in the project design of process equipment. Rules and regulations for safeguarding of industrial process plants (not-nuclear and nuclear) by means of process control engineering are either being developed or expanded. This includes the international harmonization of existing national codes. This article presents an introduction into the philosophy of ensuring plant safety by means of instrumentation and control protection systems. The methods of risk assessment are described, and various potential solutions are shown which are geared to achieving the necessary level of safety and, at the same time, allowing flexible operation to be maintained. Reference is made to the problems existing with respect to integrating people into this process, i.e. man-machine interaction, especially in view of possible interventions in emergencies.

  12. The Importance of Processes and Contexts in Organizational Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Graduate School of Business V/ University of Wisconsin NR 170-892 Madison. Wisconsin 53706 ,,. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AM ADeRESS 12. REPORT DATE... organizacions as social realities is likely to exert its impact in several areas of study in the 1980s. The most likely examples are the continued use of...of control systems within organizations. Organizational psychology is very likely in the 80s to increasingly study the processes of how these stories

  13. What psychological and sociological processes lead to the Rwandan Genocide

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, Kasper Houmøller; Jonsson, Anna Ida Halsgaard; Nielsen, Astrid Kure; Hansen, Carsten Rodin; Postelnicu, Irina; Lind, Martine Søs

    2012-01-01

    This project investigates the 1994 Rwandan genocide from a primarily social psychological angle, analyzing the Hutu/Tutsi group dynamics. From the period of the Belgian colonization until and during the genocide, this project investigates the sociological motives for the genocide. Special attention is given to a range of theories that work with mass violence, inclusion and exclusion group processes, propaganda and furthermore incorporates the 8 stages to genocide. The project concludes that t...

  14. The Creative Process in Taoism and Western Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Mastrodoménico Brid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Through some analogies between eastern thinking, especially that of the ancient Chinese Taoism, and some contemporary schools of psychology related to the gestaltic neo-humanism and the so called trans-personal psychology, this paper presents and discusses the main findings of psychology on the creative process, the personality traits of highly creative subjects and the psychosocial circumstances that usually favor the appearance of creativity.Draw a line in space and now you have one side and the other. Think about something and I will tell you that the opposite also exists with its measure of truth. Justify “being” to me, and I will justify “not being”. Up and down, left and right, life and death, beauty and ugliness, good and evil, success and failure, light and darkness, sadness and happiness, etc. Those are just some examples of opposite concepts that, maybe, are truly opposite in reality or are just conceived as such due to the way in which our sensory and cognitive processes work.

  15. Psychological Aspects of Responding to Feedback in the Coaching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Fornalczyk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses ways in which individuals respond to feedback received in the coaching process. In the first part, the author discusses different response styles to feedback and their consequences. She focuses especially on the defensive, dominating, manipulative, and improvement-oriented behaviors of the coached. In the second part, she addresses psychological determinants of effective feedback reception by the coaching participants, including their dispositional determinants. The author concludes emphasizing that for the coached to correct their behavior, the provision of feedback by coaches must be founded on the knowledge of the mechanisms and the dispositional determinants of human functioning.

  16. Implicit processes in health psychology: Diversity and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paschal; Bosch, Jos A; Crombez, Geert; Hall, Peter A; Harris, Jennifer L; Papies, Esther K; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-08-01

    Implicit processes refer to cognitive, affective, and motivational processes that influence health decisions and behavior without the person intending that influence. This special issue aims to increase appreciation of the diverse and promising research on implicit processes in health psychology, and to promote discussion about how this research improves understanding of health behavior change and can be harnessed to meet public health mandates. The articles included in the special issue showcase this diversity and promise, and present not only new findings, but also new theories, new measures, and state-of-the- art summaries of progress. The research demonstrates the added value of considering implicit processes for understanding health behaviors, their interactions with explicit processes and neural mechanisms, as well as the benefits of targeting implicit processes in health behavior interventions. At the same time, however, the papers in this special issue also point to potential boundary conditions, the importance of good measures and appropriate tests of implicit processes, and the challenges involved in assessing implicit processes' causal role in determining health behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The role of psychological processes in estimates of stuttering severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Walter; Gayle Beck, J

    2013-12-01

    To examine the associations of trait anxiety (STAI), social anxiety (SIAS), depression (BDI-II), and personality features (ADP-IV) with three measures of stuttering severity: %SS, Stuttering Severity, Instrument, and the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering. Fifty adults with a history of stuttering served as participants. Participant scores on trait, anxiety, social anxiety, depression, and personality features were entered into a regression analysis, with the criterion variables (DVs) being: %SS, SSI-3, OASES total score. In order to explore the OASES, further, each of the four OASES subscales were also examined. A separate regression was conducted for, each dependent variable. The OASES total score model was significant (pstuttered and the SSI were not significantly associated with psychological, variables, suggesting that anxiety may not always be related to overt indicators of stuttering. Depression and personality dysfunction were not significantly associated with any measure of, stuttering severity. Anxiety in the form of social and trait anxiety are significantly associated with stuttering, severity as indicated by the OASES. Traditional procedures for assigning severity ratings to individuals, who stutter based on percent syllables stuttered and the Stuttering Severity Instrument are not, significantly related to psychological processes central to the stuttering experience. Depression and, personality characteristics do not meaningfully account for stuttering. The reader will be able to: (a) differentiate forms of anxiety that are likely to be associated with stuttering (b) understand the importance of determining features of stuttering that go beyond the obvious, surface characteristics of stuttering frequency, and (c) discuss the important clinical and theoretical implications for understanding the degree of psychological dysfunction that is likely to be characteristic of those who stutter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  18. Airway Responsiveness to Psychological Processes in Asthma and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eRitz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial factors have been found to impact airway pathophysiology in respiratory disease with considerable consistency. Influences on airway mechanics have been studied particularly well. The goal of this article is to review the literature on airway responses to psychological stimulation, discuss potential pathways of influence, and present a well-established emotion-induction paradigm to study airway obstruction elicited by unpleasant stimuli. Observational studies have found systematic associations between lung function and daily mood changes. The laboratory –based paradigm of bronchoconstrictive suggestion has been used successfully to elicit airway obstruction in a substantial proportion of asthmatic individuals. Other studies have demonstrated an enhancement of airway responses to standard airway challenges with exercise, allergens, or methacholine. Standardized emotion-induction techniques have consistently shown airway constriction during unpleasant stimulation, with surgery, blood and injury stimuli being particularly powerful. Findings with various forms of stress induction have been more mixed. A number of methodological factors may account for variability across studies, such as choice of measurement technique, temporal association between stimulation and measurement, and the specific quality and intensity of the stimulus material, in particular the extent of implied action-orientation. Research has also begun to elucidate physiological processes associated with psychologically induced airway responses, with vagal excitation and ventilatory influences being the most likely candidate pathways, whereas the role of specific central nervous system pathways and inflammatory processes has been less studied. The technique of emotion-induction using films has the potential to become a standardized challenge paradigm for the further exploration of airway hyperresponsiveness mediated by central nervous system processes.

  19. Psychological research in the process of creating artistic works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milićević Nebojša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This text is the review of previous attempt to research creative process in art. Neumann's and Weisberg's classification has been supplemented by the original research by the author of this text. On the example of Picasso's drawing of Guernica it was fulfilled the genesis of this monumental art piece in the light of the theory of aesthetic decision making (Ognjenović, 1980, 1991 and the theory of aesthetic evolution (Martindale, 1990. Based on the evaluation of the students of psychology (N = 32 on the scales of semantic differential, the trends of aesthetic modus in various phases in creating details of the picture (bull head, female had, horse head were analyzed. On the example of bull head details the hypothesis is mainly confirmed. The dimension of harmony (H during the phase of creation shows a soft fall of this detail (F = 3,02, p < 0.05. Decorative, redundant and richness in details (R during phases rapidly grows, while in finishing line falls (F = 13,88, p < 0.01. It is the same with the dimension of distance (D that rises during the period of creation of preliminary sketch bull head (F = 6,74, p < 0.05. Trend arousal potential is beside some oscillations, according with earlier Martindale's findings, shows a slow linear rise (F = 11,12, p < 0.05. Primordial content (PS changes from faze showing alternating oscillatory movement that can be hardly described by more simple regression equation. That is the main point of Picasso's sudden transformation in style of drawing. The results confirm the theoretical hypotheses. Finally, it can be concluded that beside the complexity of creative process, contemporary psychological research explain some of the aspects of creative process.

  20. Motivational factors and psychological processes in cosmetic breast augmentation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvi, Anette S; Foss, Kaja; von Soest, Tilmann; Roald, Helge E; Skolleborg, Knut C; Holte, Arne

    2010-04-01

    We investigated how and why prospective cosmetic breast augmentation patients decide to undergo such surgery. The results can offer important insights to plastic surgeons in addressing their patients' motives and expectations, and thereby avoiding potential patient dissatisfaction and disappointment. It is also a necessary first step to better understand the increasing tendency among women in the Western society to seek cosmetic breast augmentation. A qualitative, descriptive and phenomenological design was employed. Fourteen female prospective breast augmentation patients, aged 19-46 years, were recruited from a private plastic surgery clinic and interviewed in depth based on an informant-centred format. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded and analysed phenomenologically using a QSR-N*Vivo software program. We detected four psychological processes associated with cosmetic breast augmentation surgery (create, improve, repair and restore). The data could further be categorised into one basic drive (femininity), six generating factors (appearance dissatisfaction, ideal figure, self-esteem, comments, clothes and sexuality) and five eliciting factors motivating the decision (media, knowledge of former patients, physicians, finances and romantic partner). These new insights into how and why women seek cosmetic breast augmentation may aid plastic surgeons in enhancing their communication with patients. This can be achieved by addressing the patient's psychological process and motives, and thereby better assist them in making the best decision possible in their particular situation. It may also lay the groundwork for future quantitative studies on the prevalence of certain motives for undergoing such surgery and, as such, help explain the increasing popularity of cosmetic breast-augmentation surgery. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interpersonal and group processes in long-term spaceflight crews: perspectives from social and organizational psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Kenneth L

    2004-07-01

    The issues of interpersonal and group processes in long-term spacecrews from the perspectives of social and organizational psychology are considered here. A contrast between the Amundsen vs. Scott expeditions to the South Pole 90 yrs. ago highlights the importance of personnel selection and attention to interpersonal and group dynamics in expeditions to extreme and dangerous environments, such as long-term spaceflights today. Under the rubric of personnel selection, some further psychological "select-in" and "select-out" criteria are suggested, among them implicit measures of human motivation, intergroup attitudes ("implicit" and "explicit" measures of prejudice, social dominance orientation, and right-wing authoritarianism), attachment styles, and dispositional hardiness. The situational interview and the idea of "selection for teams," drawn from current advances in organizational psychology, are recommended for selecting members for future spacecrews. Under the rubrics of interpersonal and group processes, the social relations model is introduced as a technique for modeling and understanding interdependence among spacecrew members and partialling out variance in behavioral and perceptual data into actor/perceiver, partner/target, and relationship components. Group cohesion as a multidimensional construct is introduced, along with a consideration of the groupthink phenomenon and its controversial link to cohesion. Group composition issues are raised with examples concerning cultural heterogeneity and gender composition. Cultural value dimensions, especially power distance and individual-collectivism, should be taken into account at both societal and psychological levels in long-term space missions. Finally, intergroup processes and language issues in crews are addressed. The recategorization induction from the common ingroup identity model is recommended as a possible intervention for overcoming and inhibiting intergroup biases within spacecrews and between space

  2. Towards a Psychology of Rural Development Processes and Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landini, F.; Leeuwis, C.; Long, N.; Murtagh, S.

    2014-01-01

    A psychosocial approach to rural development and development interventions, which we designate as ‘psychology of rural development’ (PsyRD), does not yet exist as an area of research or intervention within the field of psychology or development studies, even though rural development is in part

  3. Psychological mechanisms underlying the Köhler motivation gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Norbert L; Messé, Lawrence A; Seok, Dong-Heon; Sambolec, Eric J; Lount, Robert B; Park, Ernest S

    2007-06-01

    Sometimes group work conditions lead to motivation gains rather than to social loafing. Two theoretical explanations for the Köhler motivation gain effect are identified, one stressing social comparison and a second stressing the indispensability of one's effort to the group. The results of three new experiments are reported. Experiment 1 suggested that both explanations are valid and contribute to the Köhler effect. Prior studies suggested that there might be gender differences in the relative importance of these two explanatory processes. Experiment 2 confirmed this suggestion. In Experiment 3, the gender difference was eliminated by priming women with a goal (viz., competition) presumed to be chronically more important to men. It is argued that the relative importance of these two motivational processes will depend on the immediate and chronic importance attached to more personal (viz., to achieve a favorable social comparison) versus collective (viz., to contribute to one's group) goals.

  4. Effect of Psychological Intervention on Marital Satisfaction of Mothers with Slow Pace Under 5 Years Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Soleymani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Objective of this study was investigating impact of early psychological interventions on marital satisfaction of mothers with slow pace under 5 years children. Considering variables of the research, that is, early psychological interventions and marital satisfaction, research hypotheses was as follows: "early psychological interventions affect marital satisfaction of mothers with slow pace under 5 years children" and it was examined. Methods: This research is of experimental type and pretest-posttest plan with control groups was used. Statistical population included all mothers with slow pace under 5 years children in Urmia. To this end, 40 mothers with slow pace children were selected as the sample in a non-random manner by convenience sampling. They were assigned randomly into two groups of 20 (20 test group and 20 control group, and finally psychological interventions were conducted on one of groups randomly. In order to evaluate marital satisfaction, Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire with 47 items was used. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis of covariance. Results: findings showed that there is significant difference between two groups in posttest in overall score of marital satisfaction as well as in some elements such as conventional responses, marital satisfaction, personality issues, marital relationships, conflict resolution, leisure, parenting, family and friends, and ideological orientation and sexual relations (P<0.005, and no significant difference was observed in financial supervision and roles related to gender equality. Discusion: Psychological interventions were effective in promoting marital satisfaction in mothers with slow pace under 5 years children.

  5. Medication adherence as a learning process: insights from cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Benjamin Margolin; Marcum, Zachary A; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Gellad, Walid F

    2017-03-01

    Non-adherence to medications is one of the largest contributors to sub-optimal health outcomes. Many theories of adherence include a 'value-expectancy' component in which a patient decides to take a medication partly based on expectations about whether it is effective, necessary, and tolerable. We propose reconceptualising this common theme as a kind of 'causal learning' - the patient learns whether a medication is effective, necessary, and tolerable, from experience with the medication. We apply cognitive psychology theories of how people learn cause-effect relations to elaborate this causal-learning challenge. First, expectations and impressions about a medication and beliefs about how a medication works, such as delay of onset, can shape a patient's perceived experience with the medication. Second, beliefs about medications propagate both 'top-down' and 'bottom-up', from experiences with specific medications to general beliefs about medications and vice versa. Third, non-adherence can interfere with learning about a medication, because beliefs, adherence, and experience with a medication are connected in a cyclic learning problem. We propose that by conceptualising non-adherence as a causal-learning process, clinicians can more effectively address a patient's misconceptions and biases, helping the patient develop more accurate impressions of the medication.

  6. Biological, psychological and social processes in the conduct disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews recent evidence on the causes and maintenance of aggressive and disruptive behaviours in childhood and adolescence. It considers the relative merits of several different ways of conceptualising such problems, in relation to the contribution of biological, psychological and social factors. It focuses on conduct problems appearing in young childhood, which greatly increase the likelihood of persistent antisocial behaviours in adolescence and adult life in association with wider interpersonal and social role impairments. It considers the contribution of individual factors, including impaired verbal skills, deficits in executive functions, and an imbalance between behavioural activation and inhibition systems. These are viewed in interaction with commonly associated environmental disadvantages such as hostile or intrusive parenting. The roles of attributional biases, unrealistic self-evaluations, and insecure attachment are considered in relation to affect regulation, and effective social action. The contributions of the wider social environments of peers, neighbourhood and socio-economic conditions are evaluated. The paper concludes that, although considerable progress has been made over the past ten years, there is a need to further refine our conceptualisation of the behaviours to be explained, to develop a coherent theory of the causal and maintaining processes, and to carry out prospective studies with adequate numbers of high risk children.

  7. [Psychological processes and readaptation to life in society of elderly widowers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroya, Kazuko; Tajima, Tukasa

    2013-09-01

    This study used a literature review to examine the psychological processes and readaptation to life in society of elderly widowers. The psychological restoration process after a bereavement is different among individuals, and there are various types of coping patterns. However the relationship between the psychological process after a bereavement and the psychological isolation caused by environmental factors of having social roles in the community or not, have not yet been clarified. Further research is needed on these points to support elderly widowers in their readaptation to life in society.

  8. The Role of Intrinsic Motivation and the Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs Under Conditions of Severe Resource Scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Egmond, Marieke Christina; Navarrete Berges, Andrés; Omarshah, Tariq; Benton, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    An emerging field of research is beginning to examine the ways in which socioeconomic disparities affect emotional, cognitive, and social processes. In this study, we took a two-step approach to examining the role that resource scarcity plays in the predictive power of intrinsic motivation on school attendance, as well as its influence on the precursors of intrinsic motivation: the psychological needs of relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Results revealed that intrinsic motivation predicts school attendance even under conditions of extreme adversity. The satisfaction of the basic needs is more important for participants who are exposed to severe rather than mild levels of deprivation. Our findings illustrate ecological effects on the mechanism underlying goal-directed behavior. They provide evidence in favor of self-determination theory's depiction of humans as active, growth-oriented organisms and for the potential of psychological interventions to reduce poverty.

  9. Effects of psychological training on the serum protein expression in soldiers under mental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong ZHANG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the changes of serum protein expression in soldiers under mental stress,who have undergone different psychological trainings,and to evaluate the effect of the psychological training.Methods Ninety-six male commando soldiers were randomly assigned into the common psychological training group,the circulation psychological training group,and the control group(each group comprising 32 soldiers.After four weeks of training,the soldiers in the three groups attended a high-intensity simulated anti-riot exercise.The changes in their serum protein expression were then determined using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry(SELDI-TOF-MS combined with ProteinChip technology.Results The variance analysis showed that significant differences existed among the three groups(P < 0.05 in the relative contents of proteins,with M/Z values of 6417.8,9134.2,15171.9,and 14972.7 Da.The expression of proteins with M/Z values 9134.2 and 15171.9 Da increased in the common psychological training group compared with the control group(P < 0.05.The expression of all four proteins increased in the circulation psychological training group compared with the control group(P < 0.05.The expression of proteins with M/Z values 6417.8 and 14972.7 Da increased in the circulation psychological training group compared with the common psychological training group(P < 0.05.The classification tree formed by proteins with M/Z values 6417.8 and 14972.7 Da classified the 96 soldiers correctly,both in the learning mode and in the test mode.Conclusion Psychological training may upregulate the expression of proteins that are downregulated after stress and may improve the adaptability of soldiers to psychological stress.The effect of circulation psychological training is better than that of common psychological training.

  10. Acceptance and Avoidance Processes at Different Levels of Psychological Recovery from Enduring Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius R. Siqueira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined the use of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance, two key concepts of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT, in the psychological recovery process of people with enduring mental illness. Method. Sixty-seven participants were recruited from the metropolitan, regional, and rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. They all presented some form of chronic mental illness (at least 12 months as reflected in DSM-IV Axis I diagnostic criteria. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-19 was used to measure the presence of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance; the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS was used to examine the levels of psychological recovery; and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being was used to observe if there are benefits in utilizing psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance in the recovery process. Results. An analysis of objectively quantifiable measures found no clear correlation between the use of psychological acceptance and recovery in mental illness as measured by the RAS. The data, however, showed a relationship between psychological acceptance and some components of recovery, thereby demonstrating its possible value in the recovery process. Conclusion. The major contribution of this research was the emerging correlation that was observed between psychological acceptance and positive levels of psychological well-being among individuals with mental illness.

  11. Communication Strategies and Psychological Processes Underlying Lexical Simplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaravadivelu, B.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes interlanguage written discourse produced by advanced Tamil-speaking learners of English as a second language. Eight communication strategies are discussed, including: 1) extended use of lexical items; 2) lexical paraphrase; 3) word coinage; 4) native language (L1) equivalence; 5) literal translation of L1 idiom; 6) L1 mode of emphasis; 7)…

  12. Psychological Processes Underlying Cultivation Effects: Further Tests of Construct Accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrum, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that tested whether the accessibility of information in memory mediates the cultivation effect (the effect of television viewing on social perceptions), consistent with the availability heuristic. Shows that heavy viewers gave higher frequency estimates (cultivation effect) and responded faster (accessibility effect) than did…

  13. What day is today? A social-psychological investigation into the process of time orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Kai J; Huguet, Pascal

    2008-03-01

    Social-psychological research on time has pointed to the social construct of time rather than a mere physical entity that we reflect cognitively. Using two paradigms (day retrieval process and goal priming), the authors show that the time orientation is strongly prone to social influences and argue that a self-regulatory process underlies these findings. The degree of social comparison orientation in Study 1 and the degree of identification with groups for which the landmark is relevant (Study 2) both moderate the functionality of the landmarks within time orientation. Consistent with these findings, Studies 3 and 4 offer evidence that the activation of a personally relevant goal activates the day of goal attainment, a process that again can be moderated by social comparison orientation and identification. Overall, these results suggest a socially regulated time orientation. The internal clock (if any) is at least partly a "social clock."

  14. Thinking in early modernity and the separation process between philosophy and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2015-03-01

    One of the big questions in psychology is when and how psychology disentangled from philosophy. Usually it is referred to the laboratory Wundt established in Leipzig in 1879 as the birth for psychology as an independent science. However this separation process can also be traced in other ways, like by focusing on how the two sciences approach and understand thinking. Although thinking and language were not included in the research in this laboratory, Wundt (1897) regarded thinking as the core of psychology. As a commentary to Papanicolaou (Integr Psychol Behav Sci doi:10.1007/s12124-014-9273-3, 2014), this paper investigates the differences in how psychology and philosophy conceptualized thinking in early Western modernity. Thus one of the findings is that the separation process between the two was more or less initiated by Immanuel Kant. By defining thinking in terms of the pure reason he excluded the psychological understanding of thinking because psychology basically defined thinking in terms of ideas derived from qualia and sensation. Another finding is that psychology itself has not completely realized the differences between the philosophical and the psychological understanding of thinking by having been influenced by Kant's ideal of the pure reason. This may also explain some of the crises psychology went through during the twentieth century.

  15. Psychological features of displaying attitude in the process of human mental activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Інна Вікторівна Каряка

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the main approaches to the study of human mental activity and the main features of displaying attitudes during this process. Relationship between attitudes and psychological human readiness to mental activity is revealed based on a systematic analysis of the literature. The conclusion of the feasibility of establishing psychological human readiness to mental activity by updating mechanisms of psychological attitude for this activity

  16. How Does Sexual Minority Stigma "Get under the Skin"? A Psychological Mediation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual minorities are at increased risk for multiple mental health burdens compared with heterosexuals. The field has identified 2 distinct determinants of this risk, including group-specific minority stressors and general psychological processes that are common across sexual orientations. The goal of the present article is to develop a…

  17. Socio-psychological processes of identity formation among EE/ESD enthusiast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Lysgaard, Jonas Greve

    navigating the often contradictionary field of ESD, Methods: This paper is a theoretical study drawing on theories focusing on socio-psychological processes of identity formation such as psychoanalysis, European-continental social psychology and micro-sociology. The paper also draws on recent empirical...

  18. Aporia in the information-processing paradigm of contemporary cognitive psychology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Miluše

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 4 (1999), s. 274-279 ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3077601 Keywords : information-processing approach * paradigm * cognitive psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.115, year: 1999

  19. First year effects of induction arrangements on beginning teachers' psychological processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Slof, Bert; van de Grift, Wim

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the (1) effects of a supportive program (i.e., induction arrangement) on beginning teachers' (BTs') psychological processes after a period of 1 year and (2) psychological paths of influence of the arrangement. Participants (56 Dutch secondary schools with 143 BTs) were randomly

  20. Borders and Modal Articulations. Semiotic Constructs of Sensemaking Processes Enabling a Fecund Dialogue Between Cultural Psychology and Clinical Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca Picione, Raffaele; Freda, Maria Francesca

    2016-03-01

    The notion of the border is an interesting advancement in research on the processes of meaning making within the cultural psychology. The development of this notion in semiotic key allows to handle with adequate complexity construction, transformation, stability and the breakup of the relationship between person/world/otherness. These semiotic implications have already been widely discussed and exposed by authors such Valsiner (2007, 2014), Neuman (2003, 2008), Simão (Culture & Psychology, 9, 449-459, 2003, Theory & Psychology, 15, 549-574, 2005, 2015), with respect to issues of identity/relatedness, inside/outside, stability/change in the irreversible flow of the time. In this work, after showing some of the basics of such semiotic notion of border, we discuss the processes of construction and transformation of borders through the modal articulation, defined as the contextual positioning that the person assumes with respect to the establishment of a boundary in terms of necessity, obligation, willingness, possibility, permission, ability. This modal subjective positioning acquires considerable interest from the clinical point of view since its degree of plasticity vs that of rigidity is the basis of processes of development or stiffening of relations between person/world/otherness.

  1. Psychological distance can improve decision making under information overload via gist memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukukura, Jun; Ferguson, Melissa J; Fujita, Kentaro

    2013-08-01

    Making a decision can be especially difficult when it is based upon a large amount of information. A number of demonstrations in the literature suggest that decision making under information overload leads to suboptimal outcomes. In this article, we draw on construal level theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003) and fuzzy-trace theory (Brainerd & Reyna, 1993) to suggest that psychologically distancing oneself from the information can be beneficial to decision making under information overload. Specifically, we propose that distancing prompts organization of information in terms of its gist. Across 4 studies, we demonstrated that increasing spatial distance, temporal distance, and abstraction lead to better decision outcomes when decision makers were overloaded with many pieces of information per decision. Furthermore, we showed that the relationship between psychological distance and decision outcome is mediated by gist memory. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Regime switching state-space models applied to psychological processes: handling missing data and making inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamaker, E.L.; Grasman, R.P.P.P.

    2012-01-01

    Many psychological processes are characterized by recurrent shifts between distinct regimes or states. Examples that are considered in this paper are the switches between different states associated with premenstrual syndrome, hourly fluctuations in affect during a major depressive episode, and

  3. Risk, rationality, and community: Psychology, ethnography, and transactions in the risk management process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantor, R. (National Science Foundation, Washington, DC (United States)); Schoepfle, M. (Dept. of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Communities at risk are confronted by an increasingly complex array of opportunities and need for involvement in decisions affecting them. Policy analysis often demands from researchers insights into the complicated process of how best to account for community involvement in decision making. Often, this requires additional understanding of how decisions are made by community members. Researchers trying to capture the important features of decision making will necessarily make assumptions regarding the rationality underlying the decision process. Two implicit and often incompatible sets of research assumptions about decision processes have emerged: outcome rationality and process rationality. Using outcome rationality, the principal goal of risk research often is to predict how people will react to risk regardless of what they say they would do. Using process rationality, the research goal is to determine how people perceive the risks to which they are exposed and how perceptions actually influence responses. The former approach is associated with research in risk communication, conducted by economists and cognitive psychologists; the latter approach is associated with the field of risk negotiation and acceptance, conducted by anthropologists, some sociologists, and planners. This article describes (1) the difference between the assumptions behind outcome and process rationality regarding decision making and the problems resulting from these differences; (2) the promise and limitations of both sets of assumptions; (3) the potential contributions from cognitive psychology, cognitive ethnography, and the theory of transaction costs in reconciling the differences in assumptions and making them more complementary; and (4) the implications of such complementarity.

  4. Protective Processes Underlying the Links between Marital Quality and Physical Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatcher, Richard B; Schoebi, Dominik

    2017-02-01

    Although the links between marital quality and physical health are now well established, the psychological processes through which marriage impacts health remain unclear. Additionally, prior research on the links between marriage and health has focused mainly on how negative aspects of relationships (e.g., conflict, hostility) can be damaging to one's physical health. In this article, we describe the strength and strain model of marital quality and health, which provides a roadmap for studying protective factors underlying marriage-health links. We home in one relationship process-partner responsiveness-and one broad class of psychological mechanisms-affective processes-to illustrate core aspects of the model. Our review suggests that future research will profit from a greater integration of theory from the social psychology of close relationships into studies of relationships and health.

  5. Health insurance status, psychological processes, and older African Americans’ use of preventive care

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neal, Catherine W; Wickrama, K. A. S; Ralston, Penny A; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Harris, Cynthia M; Coccia, Catherine; Young-Clark, Iris; Lemacks, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the influence of health insurance, psychological processes (i.e. psychological competency and vulnerability), and the interaction of these two constructs on older African Americans’ utilization of five preventive care services (e.g. cholesterol screening and mammogram/prostate examination) using data from 211 older African Americans (median age = 60). In addition to direct effects, the influence of health insurance sometimes varied depending on respondents’ psychological competency and/or vulnerability. Policies and interventions to increase older African Americans’ use of preventive health services should consider structural (e.g. health insurance) and psychological (e.g. psychological competency and vulnerability) factors along with the interaction between these factors. PMID:23456216

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY OF PEDAGOGICAL COLLEGE STUDENT IN THE PROCESS OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Aleksandrovna Kechina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to studying of the interrelation between psychological safety and professional competence of pedagogical institutions students. The author points out the didactic unit elements of psychological disciplines which mastering forms the notions of the factors and ways of preventing or overcoming their effects. The article enlarges upon the certain sectional branches of psychological science (social and educational ones by means of which the differentiation of “risk” factors of psychological safety deprivation of the students is achieved, it also illustrates the mechanism of mastering-in these factors in the study of the course of “Psychology”. This work is performed by means of active application of humanitarian, psychological and educational technologies, interactive educational methods (i.e., social-and-psychological training, brainstorming, project method, group discussion method, case method in HEIs (Higher Eduction Institutions. The author reveals the importance of determination the psychological “risk” factors of psychological safety deprivation regarding the formation of professional competence of a pedagogical college student.Objective: To determine the “risk” factors of psychological safety deprivation of a Pedagogical college student in the process of formation of professional competence.Methods of the work performance: analysis of psychological and educational literature on the subject of the present study, a comparative analysis of learning didactic unit elements and identifying the “risk” factors of psychological safety deprivation.The work methodology: scientific research works of I.A. Bayeva, N.M. Borytko, and Y.V. Vardanyan.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-42

  7. Cognition in Children's Mathematical Processing: Bringing Psychology to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The cognitive processes that underpin successful mathematical processing in children have been well researched by experimental psychologists, but are not widely understood among teachers of primary mathematics. This is a shame, as an understanding of these cognitive processes could be highly useful to practitioners. This paper…

  8. Decision-Making Under Risk: Integrating Perspectives From Biology, Economics, and Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sandeep

    2014-08-01

    Decision-making under risk has been variably characterized and examined in many different disciplines. However, interdisciplinary integration has not been forthcoming. Classic theories of decision-making have not been amply revised in light of greater empirical data on actual patterns of decision-making behavior. Furthermore, the meta-theoretical framework of evolution by natural selection has been largely ignored in theories of decision-making under risk in the human behavioral sciences. In this review, I critically examine four of the most influential theories of decision-making from economics, psychology, and biology: expected utility theory, prospect theory, risk-sensitivity theory, and heuristic approaches. I focus especially on risk-sensitivity theory, which offers a framework for understanding decision-making under risk that explicitly involves evolutionary considerations. I also review robust empirical evidence for individual differences and environmental/situational factors that predict actual risky decision-making that any general theory must account for. Finally, I offer steps toward integrating various theoretical perspectives and empirical findings on risky decision-making. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  9. Worry and rumination : underlying processes and transdiagnostic characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Jolijn

    2014-01-01

    Worry and rumination are cognitive processes that have been proposed to constitute a driving force across many psychological disorders, emotional disorders in particular. The two concepts are often referred to by the overarching term repetitive negative thinking (RNT), however whether they are

  10. A mismatch with dual process models of addiction rooted in psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Havermans, R.C.; Deutsch, R.; Stacy, A.W.

    2008-01-01

    The model of addiction proposed by Redish et al. shows a lack of fit with recent data and models in psychological studies of addiction. In these dual process models, relatively automatic appetitive processes are distinguished from explicit goal-directed expectancies and motives, whereas these are

  11. A THEORETICAL MODEL OF SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT WORK PROCESSES FOR MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTION TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Gennadevna Pronyushkina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the management of production team, in particular the developed theoretical model of socio-psychological support work processes for management of production team. The author of the research are formulated the purpose and objectives of social-psychological work on management of the production team. Developed in the study a theoretical model aimed at determining the conditions and the identification of features of effective management of the enterprise taking into account the socio-psychological characteristics of its staff. Tasks include: definition of the main characteristics of the production team and their severity, the analysis of these characteristics and identifying opportunities for their transformation, development of recommendations for management of social-psychological work on effects on the characteristics of the collective enterprise.Practical study of the activities of a number of businesses have shown the need to improve socio-psychological support of management processes production team: introducing a social and psychological planning team and develop the practice of sociological research on the state of the team, to ensure the smoothing of relations between workers and management through periodic meetings, creations of conditions for feedback, maintaining healthy competition among team members.

  12. Sex differences in mediating and moderating processes linking economic stressors, psychological distress, and drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis Brown, Robyn; Richman, Judith A

    2012-09-01

    Given the recent downturn in the U.S. economy, we considered in this study the processes linking economic stressors, psychological distress, and two alcohol-related outcomes (past-month drinking and problematic drinking). Data were drawn from a mail survey of a national sample of 663 respondents. Structural equation modeling was used to assess whether psychological distress mediates the associations between economic stressors and the alcohol-related outcomes considered and whether these associations varied by gender. Controlling for correlations among the outcomes and the effects of the sociodemographic control variables, psychological distress was found to partly explain the association between economic stressors and problematic drinking. The mediating effects on problematic drinking were significantly greater for men than women. The findings demonstrate the utility of considering interrelationships among alcohol-related outcomes and, in this context, reveal the circumstances in which gender matters most for understanding the associations among economy-related stressors, psychological distress, and drinking.

  13. The process of the Community Psychologist training: Experiences in the Community Psychology nucleus (NUCOM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, James Ferreira; Brito da Silva, Lorena; Cidade, Elívia Camurça; Braga, Alana Alencar; Ximenes, Verônica Morais

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the Community Psychology training concept created at the Community Psychology Nucleus (NUCOM), Federal University of Ceará (Brazil); mainly composed of university extension processes and their theoretical-methodological bases. Thus, university extension/cooperation emerges as a space to build new knowledge based on a cooperative perspective opposed to traditional anti-dialogical and hegemonic mechanisms. By evidencing the unabridged training of NUCOM's graduate students, we seek to provide elements that will enable the comprehension of the learning concept present in daily relations constructed in extension activities. We also plan to socialize a way of thinking Community Psychology performance, whose reference is the people, with their needs and potentials, emphasizing them as the true subjects of psychological practice.

  14. Psychology of Personality in the Conditions of Modern Migration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyeva, Tatiana V.; Chernov, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem due to the fact that, together with a positive influence on the demographic situation, the consequences of migration processes have a negative impact in all areas of social life and become a source of social tension and destabilization of the economic and political situation. The purpose of the article is to…

  15. Psychological processes mediate the impact of familial risk, social circumstances and life events on mental health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kinderman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite widespread acceptance of the 'biopsychosocial model', the aetiology of mental health problems has provoked debate amongst researchers and practitioners for decades. The role of psychological factors in the development of mental health problems remains particularly contentious, and to date there has not been a large enough dataset to conduct the necessary multivariate analysis of whether psychological factors influence, or are influenced by, mental health. This study reports on the first empirical, multivariate, test of the relationships between the key elements of the biospychosocial model of mental ill-health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants were 32,827 (age 18-85 years self-selected respondents from the general population who completed an open-access online battery of questionnaires hosted by the BBC. An initial confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the adequacy of the proposed factor structure and the relationships between latent and measured variables. The predictive path model was then tested whereby the latent variables of psychological processes were positioned as mediating between the causal latent variables (biological, social and circumstantial and the outcome latent variables of mental health problems and well-being. This revealed an excellent fit to the data, S-B χ(2 (3199, N = 23,397 = 126654.8, p<.001; RCFI = .97; RMSEA = .04 (.038-.039. As hypothesised, a family history of mental health difficulties, social deprivation, and traumatic or abusive life-experiences all strongly predicted higher levels of anxiety and depression. However, these relationships were strongly mediated by psychological processes; specifically lack of adaptive coping, rumination and self-blame. CONCLUSION: These results support a significant revision of the biopsychosocial model, as psychological processes determine the causal impact of biological, social, and circumstantial risk factors on mental health. This has clear

  16. Characteristics of a Dairy Process under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2007-01-01

    was evaluated with a minimization of the process pasteurization and cooling temperatures through vertex enumeration method. The quantitative analysis of the dairy process established a framework in developing of different flexible units, such as integrated milk and milk-based product productions, multi-task...

  17. Monitoring of the combustion process under industrial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    GrÄ dz, Å.»aklin M.

    2017-08-01

    The article presents the issue of monitoring the combustion process under industrial conditions. In order to ensure the adequate efficiency of the process, it should occur under optimal conditions, while the amount of pollution emitted into the atmosphere should be mitigated. The analysis of the combustion process under industrial conditions is usually conducted with the flame emission spectroscopy and flame imaging methods.

  18. Optimal control of psychological processes: a new computational paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, K O; Molenaar, P C M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we use general mathematical-statistical theorems to prove that developmental processes must be studied at the intra-individual level. We demonstrate how to model intra-individual variation using single-participant time series analysis with time-varying parameters. We use advanced signal analysis techniques based on nonlinear state-space modeling to present simulation results obtained with a new Maximum Likelihood technique based on Extended Kalman Filtering with Iteration and Smoothing (EKFIS) embedded in an Expectation Maximization (EM) loop. After showing how EKFIS results yield state-space models with time-varying parameters, we then couple EKFIS to recursive optimal control techniques to produce a receding horizon feedback-feedforward controller. In this way, we obtain a flexible on-line computational paradigm with which we can optimally control observed behavioral processes for an individual person in real time. We will present optimal control techniques using simulated data and outline preliminary applications to real time patient-specific treatment of type I diabetic patients and asthma patients.

  19. THE AUTOMATED INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR THE ORGANIZATION, CARRYING OUT AND PROCESSINGS OF RESULTS OF SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernova O.V.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The general regularities detecting in the psychological development of person is modern theoretical problem of psychology. So the computer-aided informational system was made as the psychological item for the resolving of this problem. The system stores empirical data, makes processing and generalization of the results, creates the new psychological tests and compares the results in Kamchatka region with other regions’ results by the identical parameters

  20. The un-making of a method: From rating scales to the study of psychological processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Philip J.; Valsiner, Jaan

    2011-01-01

    Rating scales are standard instruments in psychology. They force the research participant to provide a numerical estimate of an assumed “degree” of some characteristic along a linear scale. We prove that such numerical estimates are artifacts based on unknown psychological processes that are used...... in the making of a rating. Psychology’s current use of rating scales entails reliance upon unexplored and abbreviated introspection. It superimposes upon the rater the use of real numbers for the subjective construction of the ratings. The axiomatic superimposition of the notion of “degree” of subjective...... in terms of the study of microgenesis of rating processes allows psychology access to the reality of the workings of the human mind....

  1. Process and meaning: nonlinear dynamics and psychology in visual art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zausner, Tobi

    2007-01-01

    Creating and viewing visual art are both nonlinear experiences. Creating a work of art is an irreversible process involving increasing levels of complexity and unpredictable events. Viewing art is also creative with collective responses forming autopoietic structures that shape cultural history. Artists work largely from the chaos of the unconscious and visual art contains elements of chaos. Works of art by the author are discussed in reference to nonlinear dynamics. "Travelogues" demonstrates continued emerging interpretations and a deterministic chaos. "Advice to the Imperfect" signifies the resolution of paradox in the nonlinear tension of opposites. "Quanah" shows the nonlinear tension of opposites as an ongoing personal evolution. "The Mother of All Things" depicts seemingly separate phenomena arising from undifferentiated chaos. "Memories" refers to emotional fixations as limit cycles. "Compassionate Heart," "Wind on the Lake," and "Le Mal du Pays" are a series of works in fractal format focusing on the archetype of the mother and child. "Sameness, Depth of Mystery" addresses the illusion of hierarchy and the dynamics of symbols. In "Chasadim" the origin of worlds and the regeneration of individuals emerge through chaos. References to chaos in visual art mirror the nonlinear complexity of life.

  2. Psychological Processes Mediate the Impact of Familial Risk, Social Circumstances and Life Events on Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinderman, Peter; Schwannauer, Matthias; Pontin, Eleanor; Tai, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite widespread acceptance of the ‘biopsychosocial model’, the aetiology of mental health problems has provoked debate amongst researchers and practitioners for decades. The role of psychological factors in the development of mental health problems remains particularly contentious, and to date there has not been a large enough dataset to conduct the necessary multivariate analysis of whether psychological factors influence, or are influenced by, mental health. This study reports on the first empirical, multivariate, test of the relationships between the key elements of the biospychosocial model of mental ill-health. Methods and Findings Participants were 32,827 (age 18–85 years) self-selected respondents from the general population who completed an open-access online battery of questionnaires hosted by the BBC. An initial confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the adequacy of the proposed factor structure and the relationships between latent and measured variables. The predictive path model was then tested whereby the latent variables of psychological processes were positioned as mediating between the causal latent variables (biological, social and circumstantial) and the outcome latent variables of mental health problems and well-being. This revealed an excellent fit to the data, S-B χ2 (3199, N = 23,397) = 126654·8, ppsychological processes; specifically lack of adaptive coping, rumination and self-blame. Conclusion These results support a significant revision of the biopsychosocial model, as psychological processes determine the causal impact of biological, social, and circumstantial risk factors on mental health. This has clear implications for policy, education and clinical practice as psychological processes such as rumination and self-blame are amenable to evidence-based psychological therapies. PMID:24146890

  3. Psychology of Agenda-Setting Effects. Mapping the Paths of Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell McCombs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Need for Orientation introduced in the early years of agenda-setting research provided a psychological explanation for why agenda-setting effects occur in terms of what individuals bring to the media experience that determines the strength of these effects. Until recently, there had been no significant additions to our knowledge about the psychology of agenda-setting effects. However, the concept of Need for Orientation is only one part of the answer to the question about why agenda setting occurs. Recent research outlines a second way to answer the why question by describing the psychological process through which these effects occur. In this review, we integrate four contemporary studies that explicate dual psychological paths that lead to agenda-setting effects at the first and second levels. We then examine how information preferences and selective exposure can be profitably included in the agenda-setting framework. Complementing these new models of information processing and varying attention to media content and presentation cues, an expanded concept of psychological relevance, motivated reasoning goals (accuracy versus directional goals, and issue publics are discussed.

  4. Sociodemographic, Educational, Behavioral, and Psychologic Factors Underlying Orofacial Esthetics and Self-Reported Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Polo, Cristina; Montero, Javier

    The aim of the present study was to compare sociodemographic, behavioral, and educational characteristics, together with personality traits, on perceptions of individuals' own oral health and orofacial esthetics. The participants had different educational backgrounds: dentistry students and students not following health care-related courses (university groups), and volunteers with no university studies (nonstudent group). The age range was 18 to 30 years. Sociodemographic and behavioral data and data on facial and dental attractiveness were gathered via personalized interviews. Personality traits were measured using the Big Five Inventory (BFI) (extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness), and the Life Orientation Test was used to measure optimism and pessimism. No statistically significant differences were observed among the three educational groups regarding the mean scores on the five personality variables. The nonstudent group accorded significantly greater importance to tooth color, whereas the university groups considered tooth alignment more important (P = .016). The logistic regression model used to predict perceptions about orofacial health and esthetics revealed that underlying behavioral (pattern of visits to dentist and brushing habits), psychologic (pessimism and agreeableness), and educational (training in dentistry) factors affected the participants' perceptions of orofacial attractiveness, oral satisfaction, and self-rated oral health. The results of this study show that there are behavioral, psychologic, and educational factors that significantly modulate people's perceptions of orofacial esthetics, oral satisfaction, and self-rated oral health.

  5. [Psychological anxiety evaluation and analysis of graduates at a medical university under employment pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke-rong; Hu, Gui-fang; Zhang, Mao-yun; Yan, Yu-xia; Nie, Jun

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the psychological anxiety of graduates at a medical university under the ever-increasing employment pressure, so as to provide ground work for psychological intervention on college students. Subjects were randomly drawn from the students who majored in clinical medicine, biomedical engineering, nursing and integrated Chinese and western medicine and graduated in the year of 2008 and 2009, with 25 subjects from each major each year, totaling up to 200. In March of their graduation year, they were evaluated by Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA). A general analysis into their anxiety was first made and then the comparative analysis of anxiety on the basis of gender, year group and major of the subjects. Female students showed a significantly higher anxiety than male students. Graduates in 2009 showed a significantly higher anxiety than those in 2008. In terms of the major difference, the anxiety was in a falling curve from integrated Chinese and western medicine, clinical medicine, biomedical engineering and nursing. There was no major difference in the students majoring integrated Chinese and western medicine, clinical medicine and biomedical engineering, but nursing students showed significantly low anxiety. The increasing employment pressure has caused the significant increase in the anxiety of college students. The employment rate in different majors may play a positive role in anxiety. Generally, female students showed a higher degree of anxiety than male students.

  6. Medicinal plants consumption by patients under psychological treatment in a municipality in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramírez-Tagle

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: High levels of mental illness are found today in the population of Chile and the consumption of medicinal herbs could be included in the scope of complementary therapies for the treatment of mental illnesses. In Chile there is no information respect to consumption of medicinal herbs in patients under psychological treatment. Aims: To characterize the consumption of medicinal herbs by patients treated in a mental health clinic. Methods: In this quantitative cross-sectional study (n = 100, patients were administered a closed-response survey to determine the frequency of medicinal plant consumption as complementary treatment and subsequently to characterize such consumption. Results: Among the patients surveyed, 36% consumed medicinal herbs to treat a psychological pathology as a complementary treatment. Among those who consumed medicinal herbs, 65% consumed Cannabis sativa (marijuana either exclusively (42% or in conjunction with other plants (23%, 80% reported that their therapist was aware of this behavior, and 35% consumed medicinal herbs once or twice a day. Conclusions: In the present study, there was significant use of medicinal plants by patients treated at the mental health clinic, especially marijuana consuming. This demonstrates the importance of recognizing citizens´ right to free and equal access to healthcare and acknowledging the responsibility of the state to ensure the safety and quality of the services offered to the population.

  7. Leadership Style and Communication Process: An Experiment Using the Psychological Isotope Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemers, Martin M.; And Others

    The "psychological isotope" technique was used to study the effect of leadership style on group process and productivity, by planting identifiable units of information with specific group members. Data indicated that the movement of these traceable bits provides data on the flow of information in the group, the relative influence and impact of…

  8. Teaching Information Processing System (TIPS): Evaluation in a Large Introductory Psychology Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Hal R.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluates the Teaching Information Processing System (TIPS), which utilizes frequent testing over course units in an undergraduate psychology course. It is not necessary for students to demonstrate mastery before moving to new material, no proctoring is required, and self-pacing is eliminated. Students indicate positive attitudes about TIPS and…

  9. The psychological aftermath of bereavement : Risk factors, mediating processes, and intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Houwen, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation some of the major facets associated with the psychological effects of bereavement were the subject of investigation: risk factors, mediating processes and intervention. Previous research on risk factors is limited because of a number of methodological shortcomings: a focus on

  10. What day is today? A social-psychological investigation into the process of time orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonas, K.J.; Huguet, P.

    2008-01-01

    Social-psychological research on time has pointed to the social construct of time rather than a mere physical entity that we reflect cognitively. Using two paradigms (day retrieval process and goal priming), the authors show that the time orientation is strongly prone to social influences and argue

  11. School Psychology as a Relational Enterprise: The Role and Process of Qualitative Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Daniel S.; Clare, Mary M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the application of qualitative research to establishing a more complete understanding of relational processes inherent in school psychology practice. We identify the building blocks of rigorous qualitative research design through a conceptual overview of qualitative paradigms, methodologies, methods (i.e.,…

  12. Levels of salivary immunoglobulin A under psychological stress and its relationship with rumination and five personality traits in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Afrishama; Mohammad Aberomand; Omid SoliemaniFar; Wesam Kooti; Damoon Ashtary-Larky; Fatima Alamiri; Sedigheh Najjar-Asl; Ali Khaneh-Keshi; Sahar Sadegh-Nejadi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The measurement of salivary immunoglobulin A is a useful and non-invasive method for measuring stress. Personality traits and rumination act as possible mediators in the relationship between psychological stressors and the immune system. This study was aimed to evaluate the levels of salivary IgA under psychological stress and its relationship with rumination and five personality traits in medical students. Methods: In this cross- sectional study, 45 medical student...

  13. System Consolidation During Sleep - A Common Principle Underlying Psychological and Immunological Memory Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, Jürgen; Lange, Tanja; Textor, Johannes; Born, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Sleep benefits the consolidation of psychological memory, and there are hints that sleep likewise supports immunological memory formation. Comparing psychological and immunological domains, we make the case for active system consolidation that is similarly established in both domains and partly

  14. System consolidation during sleep - a common principle underlying psychological and immunological memory formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, J.; Lange, T.; Textor, J.C.; Born, J. van den

    2015-01-01

    Sleep benefits the consolidation of psychological memory, and there are hints that sleep likewise supports immunological memory formation. Comparing psychological and immunological domains, we make the case for active system consolidation that is similarly established in both domains and partly

  15. Behavioral economics: Reunifying psychology and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin

    1999-01-01

    “Behavioral economics” improves the realism of the psychological assumptions underlying economic theory, promising to reunify psychology and economics in the process. Reunification should lead to better predictions about economic behavior and better policy prescriptions.

  16. Psychological Functions of Semiotic Borders in Sense-Making: Liminality of Narrative Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele De Luca Picione

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the semiotic functions of the psychological borders that structure the flow of narrative processes. Each narration is always a contextual, situated and contingent process of sensemaking, made possible by the creation of borders, such as dynamic semiotic devices that are capable of connecting the past and the future, the inside and the outside, and the me with the non-me. Borders enable us to narratively construct one’s own experiences using three inherent processes: contextualization, intersubjective positioning and setting of pertinence. The narrative process – as a subjective articulation of signs in a contingent social context – involves several functions of semiotic borders: separation, differentiation, distinction-making, connection, articulation and relation-enabling. The relevant psychological aspect highlighted here is that a border is a semiotic device which is required for both maintaining stability and inducing transformation at the same time. The peculiar dynamics and the semiotic structure of borders generate a liminal space, which is characterized by instability, by a blurred space-time distinction and by ambiguities in the semantic and syntactic processes of sensemaking. The psychological processes that occur in liminal space are strongly affectively loaded, yet it is exactly the setting and activation of liminality processes that lead to novelty and creativity and enable the creation of new narrative forms.

  17. Psychological Functions of Semiotic Borders in Sense-Making: Liminality of Narrative Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca Picione, Raffaele; Valsiner, Jaan

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we discuss the semiotic functions of the psychological borders that structure the flow of narrative processes. Each narration is always a contextual, situated and contingent process of sensemaking, made possible by the creation of borders, such as dynamic semiotic devices that are capable of connecting the past and the future, the inside and the outside, and the me with the non-me. Borders enable us to narratively construct one's own experiences using three inherent processes: contextualization, intersubjective positioning and setting of pertinence. The narrative process - as a subjective articulation of signs in a contingent social context - involves several functions of semiotic borders: separation, differentiation, distinction-making, connection, articulation and relation-enabling. The relevant psychological aspect highlighted here is that a border is a semiotic device which is required for both maintaining stability and inducing transformation at the same time. The peculiar dynamics and the semiotic structure of borders generate a liminal space, which is characterized by instability, by a blurred space-time distinction and by ambiguities in the semantic and syntactic processes of sensemaking. The psychological processes that occur in liminal space are strongly affectively loaded, yet it is exactly the setting and activation of liminality processes that lead to novelty and creativity and enable the creation of new narrative forms.

  18. Psychological Functions of Semiotic Borders in Sense-Making: Liminality of Narrative Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca Picione, Raffaele; Valsiner, Jaan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the semiotic functions of the psychological borders that structure the flow of narrative processes. Each narration is always a contextual, situated and contingent process of sensemaking, made possible by the creation of borders, such as dynamic semiotic devices that are capable of connecting the past and the future, the inside and the outside, and the me with the non-me. Borders enable us to narratively construct one’s own experiences using three inherent processes: contextualization, intersubjective positioning and setting of pertinence. The narrative process – as a subjective articulation of signs in a contingent social context – involves several functions of semiotic borders: separation, differentiation, distinction-making, connection, articulation and relation-enabling. The relevant psychological aspect highlighted here is that a border is a semiotic device which is required for both maintaining stability and inducing transformation at the same time. The peculiar dynamics and the semiotic structure of borders generate a liminal space, which is characterized by instability, by a blurred space-time distinction and by ambiguities in the semantic and syntactic processes of sensemaking. The psychological processes that occur in liminal space are strongly affectively loaded, yet it is exactly the setting and activation of liminality processes that lead to novelty and creativity and enable the creation of new narrative forms. PMID:28904600

  19. The psychology of privacy: Analyzing processes of media use and interpersonal communication

    OpenAIRE

    Dienlin, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    What is the psychology of privacy? How do people perceive privacy? Why do people disclose personal information on the Internet, and what does this reveal about our their personalities? With four studies, this cumulative dissertation discusses potential answers to these questions. Study 1 (“The Privacy Process Model”) proposes a new privacy theory, the so-called Privacy Process Model (PPM). The PPM states that privacy consists of three major elements: the privacy context, the privacy perce...

  20. Psychological Factors related with Driving under the Influence of Alcohol and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Budak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Driving under the influence of alcohol and substance use is an important traffic problem that caused many people in the world to lose their lieves. Many features that are important in terms of driving adversely affected under the influence of alcohol and substance and therefore impaired driving behavior arises in drivers. The most effective way to fight for prevent this impaired driver behavier is the restrictions and regulations imposed on drivers in traffic related to alcohol and drug use. Nevertheless, in the literature, some drivers continue to impaired driving function with a risky traffic behavior, in which the driver personality (risk-taking, thrill-seeking, self-control, psychopathological (substance abuse, personality disorders, mood disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, anger and aggression, and many other neuropsychological features are considered to have a relationship with this situation. In this article psychological, psychopathological and neuropsychological studies have examined regarding drive under the influence of alcohol and drug. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 333-347

  1. A point-by-point analysis of performance in a fencing match: psychological processes associated with winning and losing streaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Julie; Gaudreau, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to revisit the complex nature of serial dependency of performance during a match, examining the prospective associations between psychological processes and subsequent performance at the within-person level of analysis, and explore whether psychological processes are associated with the likelihood of winning series of points. A process-oriented sequential approach was used with 16 elite fencers during a simulated competition. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that serial dependency of performance fluctuates within a match. Results of a Bayesian multilevel structural equation model showed that prior performance subsequently influenced psychological processes. Although psychological processes did not predict performance in the subsequent point, successive winnings were associated with higher perceived control and task-oriented coping and lower negative affectivity compared with both losing streaks and nonstreaks. Overall, serial dependencies of performance are nonstationary during a match whereas psychological processes significantly differ in episodes of winning after winning versus losing after losing.

  2. ‘Face’ and psychological processes of laid-off workers in transitional China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxin Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to explore the psychological experiences of laid-off workers in contemporary transitional China and to formulate a theoretical model of these. Methods: In-depth interviews of 26 laid-off workers were conducted and analysed using grounded theory techniques. Results: Four themes underline the psychological processes of these laid-off workers – feeling of loss, feeling of physical pain, feeling of fatalism, and final acceptance. These are characterized by Chinese culture and its philosophy – feeling of loss is dominated by their loss of face (diu mianzi, physical pain is a somatization of their mental painfulness, their fatalism is traced back to the Chinese ancient theocratic concept of Tian Ming, and their acceptance of reality to their final making face (zheng mianzi is sourced from both Confucianism and Daoism. Conclusion: The psychological experience of laid-off workers (or unemployed workers is likely to have varied manifestations in different cultural contexts. The psychological processes of Chinese laid-off workers (or unemployed workers might be different from those of laid-off workers in Western countries. A therapeutic intervention to cater for the needs of laid-off workers derived from the four themes might be effective.

  3. Exploring Selective Exposure and Confirmation Bias as Processes Underlying Employee Work Happiness: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paige; Kern, Margaret L.; Waters, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Employee psychological capital (PsyCap), perceptions of organizational virtue (OV), and work happiness have been shown to be associated within and over time. This study examines selective exposure and confirmation bias as potential processes underlying PsyCap, OV, and work happiness associations. As part of a quasi-experimental study design, school staff (N = 69) completed surveys at three time points. After the first assessment, some staff (n = 51) completed a positive psychology training intervention. Results of descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analyses on the intervention group provide some support for selective exposure and confirmation bias as explanatory mechanisms. In focusing on the processes through which employee attitudes may influence work happiness this study advances theoretical understanding, specifically of selective exposure and confirmation bias in a field study context. PMID:27378978

  4. Why clinical psychology needs process research: an examination of four methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Paul

    2012-10-01

    This paper advocates for process research as a valid source of evidence in clinical psychology, research that focuses on why and how therapy works, both across the course of treatment and in the minutiae of interactions between therapist and client. Process research is consistent with the aims of the scientist-practitioner model, supporting the provision of practical and realistic guidance to clinicians. Specific examples of methods are provided, including the analysis of mechanisms of change, patient-focused research, conversational analysis and interpersonal process recall.

  5. The impact of receiving an HIV diagnosis and cognitive processing on psychological distress and posttraumatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Vienna R; Sher, Tamara G; Hansen, Nathan B

    2010-08-01

    This study examined human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a traumatic stressor, intrusive and deliberate cognitive processing, psychological distress, and posttraumatic growth. One-hundred twelve participants completed interviews on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Criterion A, Rumination Scale-Revised, Impact of Event Scale, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory; relationships were modeled using path analysis. Model 1 attempted to replicate prior empirical research, Model 2 attempted to empirically replicate part of the posttraumatic growth theoretical model, and Model 3 attempted to empirically replicate an integrated model of posttraumatic growth and traumatic stress theories. Model 3 had good fit with study data. Results suggest shared and separate pathways from traumatic stressor to psychological distress and posttraumatic growth, with pathways mediated by cognitive processing. Implications of findings are discussed.

  6. The information-processing paradigm: a valuable framework for clinical child and adolescent psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijttebier, Patricia; Vasey, Michael W; Braet, Caroline

    2003-03-01

    Provides an introduction to the special section on information-processing (I-P) factors in child and adolescent psychopathology. First, we describe the I-P paradigm and summarize its central tenets, presenting examples of past research that illustrate the heuristic value of the paradigm. Next, we discuss the potential benefits of the I-P paradigm for the field of clinical child and adolescent psychology. Finally, we present an overview of the articles in the special section.

  7. Study to Examine Psychological Processes in Suicidal Ideation and Behavior (STEPPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    water), smoke or brush their teeth in the 1 hour prior to arriving at the laboratory, or (ii) consume alcohol, take pain medication or engage in...be instructed to not brush their teeth , and to refrain from smoking, eating and drinking (except water) 30 minutes prior to and during sampling, as...Study to Examine Psychological Processes in Suicidal Ideation and Behavior ANNUAL REPORT (YEAR 2) 4 Introduction: The importance of

  8. Vygotsky's Stage Theory: The Psychology of Art and the Actor under the Direction of "Perezhivanie"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Vygotsky's writings on arts (particularly logocentric art including the theater) and emotions, drawing on his initial exploration in "The Psychology of Art" and his final considerations set forth in a set of essays, treatises, and lectures produced in the last years of his life. The review of "The Psychology of Art" includes…

  9. Probabilistic reasoning under time pressure: an assessment in Italian, Spanish and English psychology undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, M.; Hitchcott, P. K.; Penna, M. P.; Peró-Cebollero, M.; Guàrdia-Olmos, J.

    2016-11-01

    Many studies have investigated the features of probabilistic reasoning developed in relation to different formats of problem presentation, showing that it is affected by various individual and contextual factors. Incomplete understanding of the identity and role of these factors may explain the inconsistent evidence concerning the effect of problem presentation format. Thus, superior performance has sometimes been observed for graphically, rather than verbally, presented problems. The present study was undertaken to address this issue. Psychology undergraduates without any statistical expertise (N = 173 in Italy; N = 118 in Spain; N = 55 in England) were administered statistical problems in two formats (verbal-numerical and graphical-pictorial) under a condition of time pressure. Students also completed additional measures indexing several potentially relevant individual dimensions (statistical ability, statistical anxiety, attitudes towards statistics and confidence). Interestingly, a facilitatory effect of graphical presentation was observed in the Italian and Spanish samples but not in the English one. Significantly, the individual dimensions predicting statistical performance also differed between the samples, highlighting a different role of confidence. Hence, these findings confirm previous observations concerning problem presentation format while simultaneously highlighting the importance of individual dimensions.

  10. Lev Semenovich Vygotsky (1896-1924): an introduction to the historico-cultural psychology and the development of the higher psychological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2017-09-01

    In the 1930's LS Vygotsky developed an original conception of the psychology and the development of the higher psychological processes, which stands up the current theories in Russia and the West. He layed the bases for the study of the higher mental processes and their relationship with the brain functioning, which will be later on developped by AR Luria. After a brief historical notice, this paper will specify the relationships between Vygoski and Marx's and Engels's philosophy, the Soviet power and the works of Freud and Piaget.

  11. Weight stigma "gets under the skin"-evidence for an adapted psychological mediation framework: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2015-02-01

    Research consistently shows a negative view of individuals with obesity in the general public and in various other settings. Stigma and discrimination can be considered chronic stressors, as these factors have a profound impact on the psychological well-being of the affected individuals. This article proposes a framework that entails a mediation of the adverse effects of discrimination and stigmatization on mental well-being through elevated psychological risk factors that are not unique to weight but that could affect overweight and normal-weight individuals alike. A systematic review was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychological risk factors, such as self-esteem and coping, in individuals with obesity. Forty-six articles were assessed and included for detailed analysis. The number of studies on these topics is limited to certain dimensions of psychological processes. The best evaluated association of obesity and psychosocial aspects is seen for self-esteem. Most studies establish a negative association of weight and self-esteem in children and adults. All studies with mediation analysis find a positive mediation through psychological risk factors on mental health outcomes. This review shows that elevated psychological risk factors are existent in individuals with obesity and that they may be a mediator between weight discrimination and pathopsychological outcomes. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  12. Self-centeredness and selflessness: happiness correlates and mediating psychological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to test central assumptions from the Self-centeredness/Selflessness Happiness Model. According to this model, while self-centered psychological functioning induces fluctuating happiness, authentic–durable happiness results from selflessness. Distinct mediating processes are supposed to account for these relationships: afflictive affects (e.g., anger, fear, jealousy, frustration) in the case of the former, and both emotional stability and feelings of harmony in the case of the latter. We tested these hypotheses in two studies based on heterogeneous samples of citizens (n = 547). Factor analyses revealed that self-centeredness (assessed through egocentrism and materialism) and selflessness (assessed through self-transcendence and connectedness to other) were two distinct psychological constructs. Second, while self-centeredness was positively and significantly related to fluctuating happiness, selflessness was positively and significantly related to authentic–durable happiness. Finally, distinct psychological processes mediated these relationships (study 2). On one hand, the relationship between self-centeredness and fluctuating happiness was fully mediated by afflictive affects. On the other hand, emotional stability and the feeling of being in harmony partially mediated the relation between selflessness and authentic–durable happiness. PMID:28507820

  13. Psychological support of a cancer patient based on nursing care process records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiazek, J; Gaworska-Krzemińska, A; Piotrkowska, R

    2007-01-01

    The care of a cancer patient undergoes considerable changes. Patients' most important need is a demand of support in dealing with somatic, psychological, emotional and social complaints. The purpose of this research is to analyse the realization of the psychological support of a cancer patient based on nursing care process records. The research analysis is based on 150 nursing care case histories of cancer children and adults treated in the Independent Public Clinical Hospital No 1 of the Academic Clinical Centre at the Medical University of Gdańsk in such wards as: Paediatric Haematology, Paediatric Chemotherapy, Adults' Haematology, Oncology and Radiotherapy, Thoracic Surgery. Evaluation chart of nursing care histories and statistical methods were tools in this research. The nursing case history evaluation chart created for this very research is successfully used by members of nursing records team in all of 61 wards. The results indicate that in all analysed wards the most problematic factor for nurses was taking the patients' (children's) habits and free time planning into account while establishing the plan of action. In numerous cases a stated nursing care diagnosis was not connected with the realization of psychological support. Providing patients with the feeling of safety and contact with family was positively assessed. In the care process nurses should pay more attention to the evaluation of patients and their families' need of social support.

  14. Names in Psychological Science: Investigating the Processes of Thought Development and the Construction of Personal Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglia, Rocco; Longobardi, Claudio; Mendola, Manuela; Prino, Laura Elvira

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the name as an issue of interest in the psychology field. In thinking about the role played by names for some of the most important approaches on the psychology panorama, it has been found that the analysis of names can be used as an instrument for the investigation of thought formation processes, or as an element in the process of constructing personal identity. In the first case, the focus is on the so-called "common" names, which designate objects; in the second case, instead, it is on people's given names and on the way they are perceived by their bearers and those who surround them. We have examined both domains, since it is essential to understand how the psychological concepts related to names develop in children's minds, if we aim to grasp their importance as designators of people's internal and external realities. Lastly, we have proposed our own view of the person's name, linked to the relational systems perspective which essentially sees the name as a signifier or "representative" of the child-parent relationship, while the "relationship" is the signified.

  15. Qualitative Research and the Analysis of Processes. Considerations towards a "Qualitative Developmental Psychology"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Mey

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution begins with a brief description of the three phases of developmental psychology in regards to their predominant methodical orientations. The use and analysis of qualitative documents as a characteristic research strategy could only be discovered in the first phase. Following this introduction is a brief summary of some new directions connected to the early phase of developmental psychology, which are based on the analyses of para-literal documents, observations and interviews. In closing, a plea for a stronger and more equal use of a qualitative research perspective, necessary to reflect the genuine subject of developmental psychology—processes and transformation—in a more adequate way, is outlined. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0001107

  16. Evidence of different underlying processes in pattern recall and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Adam D; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian

    2015-01-01

    The visual search characteristics of expert and novice basketball players were recorded during pattern recall and decision-making tasks to determine whether the two tasks shared common visual-perceptual processing strategies. The order in which participants entered the pattern elements in the recall task was also analysed to further examine the nature of the visual-perceptual strategies and the relative emphasis placed upon particular pattern features. The experts demonstrated superior performance across the recall and decision-making tasks [see also Gorman, A. D., Abernethy, B., & Farrow, D. (2012). Classical pattern recall tests and the prospective nature of expert performance. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65, 1151-1160; Gorman, A. D., Abernethy, B., & Farrow, D. (2013a). Is the relationship between pattern recall and decision-making influenced by anticipatory recall? The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 2219-2236)] but a number of significant differences in the visual search data highlighted disparities in the processing strategies, suggesting that recall skill may utilize different underlying visual-perceptual processes than those required for accurate decision-making performance in the natural setting. Performance on the recall task was characterized by a proximal-to-distal order of entry of the pattern elements with participants tending to enter the players located closest to the ball carrier earlier than those located more distal to the ball carrier. The results provide further evidence of the underlying perceptual processes employed by experts when extracting visual information from complex and dynamic patterns.

  17. The construction of mind, self, and society: the social process behind G. H. Mead'S social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Daniel R

    2012-01-01

    Mind, Self, and Society, the posthumously published volume by which George Herbert Mead is primarily known, poses acute problems of interpretation so long as scholarship does not consider the actual process of its construction. This paper utilizes extensive archival correspondence and notes in order to analyze this process in depth. The analysis demonstrates that the published form of the book is the result of a consequential interpretive process in which social actors manipulated textual documents within given practical constraints over a course of time. The paper contributes to scholarship on Mead by indicating how this process made possible certain understandings of his social psychology and by relocating the materials that make up the single published text within the disparate contexts from which they were originally drawn. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Psychological process from hospitalization to death among uninformed terminal liver cancer patients in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobori Eiko

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the attitude among doctors toward disclosing a cancer diagnosis is becoming more positive, informing patients of their disease has not yet become a common practice in Japan. We examined the psychological process, from hospitalization until death, among uninformed terminal cancer patients in Japan, and developed a psychological model. Methods Terminal cancer patients hospitalized during the recruiting period voluntarily participated in in-depth interviews. The data were analyzed by grounded theory. Results Of the 87 uninformed participants at the time of hospitalization, 67% (N = 59 died without being informed of their diagnosis. All were male, 51–66 years of age, and all experienced five psychological stages: anxiety and puzzlement, suspicion and denial, certainty, preparation, and acceptance. At the end of each stage, obvious and severe feelings were observed, which were called "gates." During the final acceptance stage, patients spent a peaceful time with family, even talking about their dreams with family members. Conclusion Unlike in other studies, the uninformed patients in this study accepted death peacefully, with no exceptional cases. Despite several limitations, this study showed that almost 70% of the uninformed terminal cancer patients at hospitalization died without being informed, suggesting an urgent need for culturally specific and effective terminal care services for cancer patients in Japan.

  19. Psychological vulnerability, burnout, and coping among employees of a business process outsourcing organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Machado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The business process outsourcing (BPO sector is a contemporary work setting in India, with a large and relatively young workforce. There is concern that the demands of the work environment may contribute to stress levels and psychological vulnerability among employees as well as to high attrition levels. Materials and Methods: As part of a larger study, questionnaires were used to assess psychological distress, burnout, and coping strategies in a sample of 1,209 employees of a BPO organization. Results: The analysis indicated that 38% of the sample had significant psychological distress on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28; Goldberg and Hillier, 1979. The vulnerable groups were women, permanent employees, data processors, and those employed for 6 months or longer. The reported levels of burnout were low and the employees reported a fairly large repertoire of coping behaviors. Conclusions: The study has implications for individual and systemic efforts at employee stress management and workplace prevention approaches. The results point to the emerging and growing role of mental health professionals in the corporate sector.

  20. Psychological vulnerability, burnout, and coping among employees of a business process outsourcing organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Tanya; Sathyanarayanan, Vidya; Bhola, Poornima; Kamath, Kirthi

    2013-01-01

    The business process outsourcing (BPO) sector is a contemporary work setting in India, with a large and relatively young workforce. There is concern that the demands of the work environment may contribute to stress levels and psychological vulnerability among employees as well as to high attrition levels. As part of a larger study, questionnaires were used to assess psychological distress, burnout, and coping strategies in a sample of 1,209 employees of a BPO organization. The analysis indicated that 38% of the sample had significant psychological distress on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28; Goldberg and Hillier, 1979). The vulnerable groups were women, permanent employees, data processors, and those employed for 6 months or longer. The reported levels of burnout were low and the employees reported a fairly large repertoire of coping behaviors. The study has implications for individual and systemic efforts at employee stress management and workplace prevention approaches. The results point to the emerging and growing role of mental health professionals in the corporate sector.

  1. Conceptualizing psychological processes in response to globalization: Components, antecedents, and consequences of global orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Lam, Ben C P; Hui, Bryant P H; Ng, Jacky C K; Mak, Winnie W S; Guan, Yanjun; Buchtel, Emma E; Tang, Willie C S; Lau, Victor C Y

    2016-02-01

    The influences of globalization have permeated various aspects of life in contemporary society, from technical innovations, economic development, and lifestyles, to communication patterns. The present research proposed a construct termed global orientation to denote individual differences in the psychological processes of acculturating to the globalizing world. It encompasses multicultural acquisition as a proactive response and ethnic protection as a defensive response to globalization. Ten studies examined the applicability of global orientations among majority and minority groups, including immigrants and sojourners, in multicultural and relatively monocultural contexts, and across Eastern and Western cultures. Multicultural acquisition is positively correlated with both independent and interdependent self-construals, bilingual proficiency and usage, and dual cultural identifications. Multicultural acquisition is promotion-focused, while ethnic protection is prevention-focused and related to acculturative stress. Global orientations affect individuating and modest behavior over and above multicultural ideology, predict overlap with outgroups over and above political orientation, and predict psychological adaptation, sociocultural competence, tolerance, and attitudes toward ethnocultural groups over and above acculturation expectations/strategies. Global orientations also predict English and Chinese oral presentation performance in multilevel analyses and the frequency and pleasantness of intercultural contact in cross-lagged panel models. We discuss how the psychological study of global orientations contributes to theory and research on acculturation, cultural identity, and intergroup relations. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The Role of Psychological Adjustment in the Decision-making Process for Voluntary Termination of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, Sara; Leal, Isabel; Maroco, João

    2013-07-01

    This study's objective was to evaluate the role of psychological adjustment in the decision-making process to have an abortion and explore individual variables that might influence this decision. In this cross-sectional study, we sequentially enrolled 150 women who made the decision to voluntarily terminate a pregnancy in Maternity Dr. Alfredo da Costa, in Lisbon, Portugal, between September 2008 and June 2009. The instruments were the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), Satisfaction with Social Support Scale (SSSS), Emotional Assessment Scale (EAS), Decision Conflict Scale (DCS), and Beliefs and Values Questionnaire (BVQ). We analyzed the data using Student's T-tests, MANOVA, ANOVA, Tukey's post-hoc tests and CATPCA. Statistically significant effects were accepted for pdecision difficult and emotionally demanding, although they also identified it as a low conflict decision. The prevailing emotions were sadness, fear and stress; but despite these feelings, the participants remained psychologically adjusted in the moment they decided to have an abortion. The resolution to terminate the pregnancy was essentially shared with supportive people and it was mostly motivated by socio-economic issues. The different beliefs and values found in this sample, and their possible associations are discussed. Despite high levels of stress, the women were psychologically adjusted at the time of making the decision to terminate the pregnancy. However, opposing what has been previously reported, the women presented high levels of sadness and fear, showing that this decision was hard to make, triggering disruptive emotions.

  3. Airway nitric oxide and psychological processes in asthma and health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Thomas; Trueba, Ana F

    2014-04-01

    The fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has been widely used as a marker of airway inflammation in asthma in recent years. However, NO serves multiple functions throughout the organism, and various influences on FeNO levels beyond inflammation have been documented. Emerging literature indicates that psychological processes are systematically linked to FeNO. Academic Search Complete, PubMed, PsychArticles, and PsychInfo databases. Relevant studies were identified using keywords exhaled nitric oxide paired with psychological stress, stress psychology, emotion, major depression, anxiety, or psychopathology. Studies measuring FeNO during naturalistic observation of emotion and stress, laboratory stress and emotion-induction protocols, and correlational designs using psychological questionnaires were included. Acute stress, anxiety, and negative affect have been repeatedly linked with higher FeNO levels, whereas more prolonged states of stress, in particular depression, have been associated with lower FeNO levels. The literature on FeNO is paralleled by research on NO in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems, which also shows systematic associations with psychosocial variables. Potential mechanisms of association include stimulation of NO release from different cells, including the epithelia and macrophages, through noradrenaline, interferon-γ, or vascular endothelial growth factor, changes in oxidative stress or arginase levels, or facilitation of diffusion by mechanical factors. Psychosocial factors may need to be considered in the interpretation of longitudinal FeNO changes in monitoring and management of patients with asthma. The distinction between constitutive and inducible sources of NO will be essential for future research. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dispute settlement process under GATT/WTO diplomatic or judicial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper probes the mechanisms of the dispute resolution process under the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT). It tries to analyse the evolution of the dispute process which was initially based on diplomatic procedures and gives an account of its evolution and ...

  5. Forest forming process and dynamic vegetation models under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Shvidenko; E. Gustafson

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes mathematical models that are used to project the dynamics of forest ecosystems on different spatial and temporal scales. Landscape disturbance and succession models (LDSMs) are of a particular interest for studying the forest forming process in Northern Eurasia. They have a solid empirical background and are able to model ecological processes under...

  6. Cognitive and social processes predicting partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon; Ostroff, Jamie; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Winkel, Gary

    2009-02-01

    The diagnosis and subsequent treatment for early stage breast cancer is stressful for partners. Little is known about the role of cognitive and social processes predicting the longitudinal course of partners' psychosocial adaptation. This study evaluated the role of cognitive and social processing in partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer, evaluating both main and moderator effect models. Moderating effects for meaning making, acceptance, and positive reappraisal on the predictive association of searching for meaning, emotional processing, and emotional expression on partner psychological distress were examined. Partners of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer were evaluated shortly after the ill partner's diagnosis (N=253), 9 (N=167), and 18 months (N=149) later. Partners completed measures of emotional expression, emotional processing, acceptance, meaning making, and general and cancer-specific distress at all time points. Lower satisfaction with partner support predicted greater global distress, and greater use of positive reappraisal was associated with greater distress. The predicted moderator effects for found meaning on the associations between the search for meaning and cancer-specific distress were found and similar moderating effects for positive reappraisal on the associations between emotional expression and global distress and for acceptance on the association between emotional processing and cancer-specific distress were found. Results indicate several cognitive-social processes directly predict partner distress. However, moderator effect models in which the effects of partners' processing depends upon whether these efforts result in changes in perceptions of the cancer experience may add to the understanding of partners' adaptation to cancer.

  7. THE CONTRIBUTION OF PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY IN THE ETHICAL DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA LIVIA DOLTU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explore the relationship between morality and organizational culture with reference to the process of ethical decision making and to the cooperation between philosopher and psychologist for the improvement of ethical climate within a public institution. Firstly, we introduce the notion of organizational culture emphasizing the importance of moral values and their role in building a true ethical climate. Secondly, we focus on the study of ethical decision making. The process is examined from the perspective of the interaction between human personality and different elements of organizational culture. Philosophy and psychology differently approach this problem. Our intention is to bridge the gap between the two perspectives, by demonstrating their belonging to the same continuum as well as the need for knowledge from both fields in order to have a complete overview of its internal mechanisms. Deontological and utilitarian theories fail to explain by themselves the decision making process and so psychology does: moral development theories, the leadership type, and emotions have on their basis a personal moral philosophy. We will also consider the influence of social groups on individual decision making.

  8. Click trains and the rate of information processing: does "speeding up" subjective time make other psychological processes run faster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Luke A; Allely, Clare S; Wearden, John H

    2011-02-01

    A series of experiments demonstrated that a 5-s train of clicks that have been shown in previous studies to increase the subjective duration of tones they precede (in a manner consistent with "speeding up" timing processes) could also have an effect on information-processing rate. Experiments used studies of simple and choice reaction time (Experiment 1), or mental arithmetic (Experiment 2). In general, preceding trials by clicks made response times significantly shorter than those for trials without clicks, but white noise had no effects on response times. Experiments 3 and 4 investigated the effects of clicks on performance on memory tasks, using variants of two classic experiments of cognitive psychology: Sperling's (1960) iconic memory task and Loftus, Johnson, and Shimamura's (1985) iconic masking task. In both experiments participants were able to recall or recognize significantly more information from stimuli preceded by clicks than those preceded by silence.

  9. Basic Psychological Skills Usage and Competitive Anxiety Responses: Perceived Underlying Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadey, Ross; Hanton, Sheldon

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between basic psychological skills usage (i.e., goal-setting, imagery, self-talk, and relaxation) and the intensity and directional dimensions of competitive anxiety. Semistructured interviews were used on a sample of 15 elite athletes (M age = 24.3 years, SD = 4.2) from a variety of team and individual sports.…

  10. The Cognitive Processes underlying Affective Decision-making Predicting Adolescent Smoking Behaviors in a Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eXiao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th grade to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1, we tested these adolescents’ decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the one-year follow-up (Time 2. The Expectancy-Valence (EV Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains versus losses; (ii a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes versus past experiences; and (iii a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population.

  11. The cognitive processes underlying affective decision-making predicting adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Koritzky, Gilly; Johnson, C Anderson; Bechara, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1), we tested these adolescents' decision-making using the IGT and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the 1-year follow-up (Time 2). The Expectancy-Valence (EV) Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i) a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains vs. losses; (ii) a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes vs. past experiences; and (iii) a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population.

  12. Workplace bullying, perceived job stressors, and psychological distress: Gender and race differences in the stress process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attell, Brandon K; Kummerow Brown, Kiersten; Treiber, Linda A

    2017-07-01

    A large body of empirical research documents the adverse mental health consequences of workplace bullying. However, less is known about gender and race differences in the processes that link workplace bullying and poor mental health. In the current study, we use structural equation modeling of survey data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study (N = 2292) and draw on stress process theory to examine coworker support as a buffering mechanism against workplace bullying, and gender and race differences in the relationships between bullying and psychological distress. The results of the analysis indicate that coworker support serves as a protective buffer against workplace bullying, although the buffering effect is relatively small. We also find that the effects of workplace bullying more heavily impact women and persons of color. Specifically, women and African American individuals in our sample were less protected from the buffering mechanism of co-worker social support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The cognitive viewpoint on information science and processing information in cognitive psychology - a vision for interdisciplinary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Guimarães Pimenta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction amongst the ‘user’, ‘information’, and ‘text’ is of interest to Information Science although it has deserved insufficient attention in the literature. This issue is addressed by this paper whose main purpose is to contribute to the discussion of theoretical affinity between the cognitive viewpoint in Information Science and the information processing approach in Cognitive Psychology. Firstly, the interdisciplinary nature of Information Science is discussed and justified as a means to deepen and strengthen its theoretical framework. Such interdisciplinarity helps to avoid stagnation and keep pace with other disciplines. Secondly, the discussion takes into consideration the cognitive paradigm, which originates the cognitive viewpoint approach in Information Science. It is highlighted that the cognitive paradigm represented a change in the Social Sciences due to the shift of focus from the object and the signal to the individual. Besides that, it sheds light to the notion of models of worlds, i.e., the systems of categories and concepts that guide the interaction between the individual and his/her environment. Thirdly, the theoretical assumptions of the cognitive viewpoint approach are discussed, with emphasis on the concept of ‘information’, as resulting of cognitive processes and as related to the notion of ‘text’. This approach points out the relevance of understanding the interaction amongst users, information, and text. However, it lacks further development. Using notions which are common to both approaches, some of the gaps can be fulfilled. Finally, the concept of ‘text’, its constituents and structures are presented from the perspective of text comprehension models and according to the information processing approach. As a concluding remark, it is suggested that bringing together the cognitive viewpoint and the information processing approach can be enriching and fruitful to the both Information

  14. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  15. On Text Processing Using ditroff and Related Tools under UNIX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    1990-01-01

    First we provide a guide to the literature on text processing under UNIX based on ditroff -ms and related programs like pic, tbl, and eqn. Then we turn our attention to some additional tools such as home-made macros, C shell scripts, stream editors, special characters and diacritical marks. Some of

  16. Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

  17. Twenty Years After Genocide: The Role of Psychology in the Reconciliation and Reconstruction Process in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig McGarty

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Thematic Section brings together eight papers that showcase different aspects of the contribution of psychology to the processes of recovery in Rwanda following the 1994 genocide. The Section is noteworthy in part because a majority of the papers have Rwandan authors. In summarizing the contributions I make six observations about the remarkable context of the genocide and its aftermath: a it was distinctive from previous mass violence in its intensity and character; b it has been characterized by bystander inaction and the problems of positioning outsiders to help; c hundreds of thousands of accused or convicted perpetrators have lived alongside survivors; d electronic media played a profound role not only in promoting violence but also in building peace; e Rwanda has been the site of unprecedented societal interventions with political goals that have the character and content of social psychological experiments; and f the role of memorialization in repairing or sustaining harm needs further examination. I conclude by noting that the study of recovery is clear proof that the genocide in Rwanda, as is the case with genocides of the past, failed to achieve its aims.

  18. The Role of Psychological Adjustment in the Decision-making Process for Voluntary Termination of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, Sara; Leal, Isabel; Maroco, João

    2013-01-01

    Background This study's objective was to evaluate the role of psychological adjustment in the decision-making process to have an abortion and explore individual variables that might influence this decision. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we sequentially enrolled 150 women who made the decision to voluntarily terminate a pregnancy in Maternity Dr. Alfredo da Costa, in Lisbon, Portugal, between September 2008 and June 2009. The instruments were the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), Satisfaction with Social Support Scale (SSSS), Emotional Assessment Scale (EAS), Decision Conflict Scale (DCS), and Beliefs and Values Questionnaire (BVQ). We analyzed the data using Student's T-tests, MANOVA, ANOVA, Tukey's post-hoc tests and CATPCA. Statistically significant effects were accepted for pabortion. The resolution to terminate the pregnancy was essentially shared with supportive people and it was mostly motivated by socio-economic issues. The different beliefs and values found in this sample, and their possible associations are discussed. Conclusion Despite high levels of stress, the women were psychologically adjusted at the time of making the decision to terminate the pregnancy. However, opposing what has been previously reported, the women presented high levels of sadness and fear, showing that this decision was hard to make, triggering disruptive emotions. PMID:24163799

  19. The role of urgency and its underlying psychological mechanisms in problematic behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billieux, Joël; Gay, Philippe; Rochat, Lucien; Van der Linden, Martial

    2010-11-01

    The urgency facet of impulsivity, that is, the tendency to act rashly in response to intense emotional contexts [Cyders, M. A., & Smith, G. T. (2008). Emotion-based dispositions to rash action: positive and negative urgency. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 807-828], has been related to a wide range of maladaptive behaviours. The present study further investigates the role of urgency in problematic behaviours by considering distinct psychological mechanisms that may underlie this component of impulsivity. With this aim, 95 volunteer participants were screened with self-reported questionnaires assessing urgency and three problematic behaviours (compulsive buying, excessive mobile phone use, excessive Internet use). They performed two laboratory tasks: a stop-signal task designed to assess the capacity to inhibit prepotent responses in response to both neutral and emotional stimuli; and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) measuring the ability to take into account the future consequences of an action. A poor ability to inhibit prepotent responses in the emotional condition of the stop-signal task was found to predict more disadvantageous choices in the IGT, which ultimately results in higher urgency and more problematic behaviours. These findings shed new light on the construct of urgency, its related psychological mechanisms, and its role in problematic behaviours. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2018-01-01

    of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...

  1. Auditory symptoms and psychological characteristics in adults with auditory processing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie Obuchi

    2017-09-01

    We have to take notice of a subject's psychological state when they perceive their listening difficulties as a large-scale problem and feel anxious as a result. For this purpose, we should take psychological characteristics into consideration at the time of the medical examination interview before audio-psychological testing.

  2. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  3. Examining the sex difference in lateralisation for processing facial emotion: does biological sex or psychological gender identity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Victoria J; Maxwell, Adele M

    2010-04-01

    The research examining sex differences in functional lateralisation has shown varying results. While some provide evidence for males being more strongly lateralised than females, a number have shown either no relationship or the opposite pattern of findings. In this study we consider whether psychological gender identity might clarify some of the conflicting results in this area of research. Eight five participants (39 males) aged from 18 to 49 years old were tested. We found that psychological masculinity was associated with stronger patterns of lateralisation for the processing of a range of emotional expressions. We also found an interaction between biological sex and psychological gender identity, with a positive relationship between psychological masculinity and lateralisation found for males, but a negative relationship found for females. The possible role of hormonal exposure in this relationship is discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A new process sensitivity index to identify important system processes under process model and parametric uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Heng [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Ye, Ming [Department of Scientific Computing, Florida State University, Tallahassee Florida USA; Walker, Anthony P. [Environmental Sciences Division and Climate Change Science Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee USA; Chen, Xingyuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological models are always composed of multiple components that represent processes key to intended model applications. When a process can be simulated by multiple conceptual-mathematical models (process models), model uncertainty in representing the process arises. While global sensitivity analysis methods have been widely used for identifying important processes in hydrologic modeling, the existing methods consider only parametric uncertainty but ignore the model uncertainty for process representation. To address this problem, this study develops a new method to probe multimodel process sensitivity by integrating the model averaging methods into the framework of variance-based global sensitivity analysis, given that the model averaging methods quantify both parametric and model uncertainty. A new process sensitivity index is derived as a metric of relative process importance, and the index includes variance in model outputs caused by uncertainty in both process models and model parameters. For demonstration, the new index is used to evaluate the processes of recharge and geology in a synthetic study of groundwater reactive transport modeling. The recharge process is simulated by two models that converting precipitation to recharge, and the geology process is also simulated by two models of different parameterizations of hydraulic conductivity; each process model has its own random parameters. The new process sensitivity index is mathematically general, and can be applied to a wide range of problems in hydrology and beyond.

  5. Learning process mapping heuristics under stochastic sampling overheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieumwananonthachai, Arthur; Wah, Benjamin W.

    1991-01-01

    A statistical method was developed previously for improving process mapping heuristics. The method systematically explores the space of possible heuristics under a specified time constraint. Its goal is to get the best possible heuristics while trading between the solution quality of the process mapping heuristics and their execution time. The statistical selection method is extended to take into consideration the variations in the amount of time used to evaluate heuristics on a problem instance. The improvement in performance is presented using the more realistic assumption along with some methods that alleviate the additional complexity.

  6. Salivary Testosterone Levels Under Psychological Stress and Its Relationship with Rumination and Five Personality Traits in Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrisham, Reza; Sadegh-Nejadi, Sahar; SoliemaniFar, Omid; Kooti, Wesam; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Alamiri, Fatima; Najjar-Asl, Sedigheh; Khaneh-Keshi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the salivary testosterone levels under psychological stress and its relationship with rumination and five personality traits in medical students. Methods A total of 58 medical students, who wanted to participate in the final exam, were selected by simple random sampling. Two months before the exam, in the basal conditions, the NEO Inventory short form, and the Emotional Control Questionnaire (ECQ) were completed. Saliva samples were taken from students in both the basal conditions and under exam stress. Salivary testosterone was measured by ELISA. Data was analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures, paired samples t-test, Pearson correlation and stepwise regression analysis. Results Salivary testosterone level of men showed a significant increase under exam stress (pstress. Conclusion Salivary testosterone reactivity to stress can be determined by sexual differences, personality traits, and emotional control variables which may decrease or increase stress effects on biological responses, especially the salivary testosterone. PMID:27909455

  7. Salivary Testosterone Levels Under Psychological Stress and Its Relationship with Rumination and Five Personality Traits in Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrisham, Reza; Sadegh-Nejadi, Sahar; SoliemaniFar, Omid; Kooti, Wesam; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Alamiri, Fatima; Aberomand, Mohammad; Najjar-Asl, Sedigheh; Khaneh-Keshi, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the salivary testosterone levels under psychological stress and its relationship with rumination and five personality traits in medical students. A total of 58 medical students, who wanted to participate in the final exam, were selected by simple random sampling. Two months before the exam, in the basal conditions, the NEO Inventory short form, and the Emotional Control Questionnaire (ECQ) were completed. Saliva samples were taken from students in both the basal conditions and under exam stress. Salivary testosterone was measured by ELISA. Data was analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures, paired samples t-test, Pearson correlation and stepwise regression analysis. Salivary testosterone level of men showed a significant increase under exam stress (pstress. Salivary testosterone reactivity to stress can be determined by sexual differences, personality traits, and emotional control variables which may decrease or increase stress effects on biological responses, especially the salivary testosterone.

  8. A qualitative study of life events and psychological needs underlying the decision to have cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Katia; Boccara, David; De Runz, Antoine; Fournier, Mathilde; Chaouat, Marc; Villa, François; Mimoun, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Objective A thorough psychological assessment of patients requesting cosmetic surgery can help to protect them from the risk of postoperative dissatisfaction and the onset and/or aggravation of psychiatric disorders. This study seeks to shed more light on why people desire cosmetic surgery and thus help surgeons, psychiatrists, and psychologists to conduct assessments before surgery. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 35 subjects who requested cosmetic surgery. The interviews were recorded and transcribed and then analyzed qualitatively with Grounded Theory. Themes and categories were identified and compared in logical order, to build a consistent theoretical model. Results In each interview, we identified one or more recent events that the subjects considered to be contributing factors in their decisions to have cosmetic surgery. We observed that 33 of 35 patients said they sought cosmetic surgery at a time when they were experiencing, or had just experienced, one or more major changes in their bodies or their relationships. Recent life events triggered or strengthened specific psychological needs in the subjects: to cope with the past and with change, attain a consistent identity, find or regain a positive self-image, alter others' perceptions, define themselves in relation to others, or please themselves or others. Patients said that they chose plastic surgery to fulfill one or more of these needs. Conclusions This study identifies the role of recent events in inciting individuals to resort to cosmetic surgery. This factor provides new perspectives for surgeons to understand those patients and opens new avenues for research.

  9. [Consumer's psychological processes of hoarding and avoidant purchasing after the Tohoku earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtomo, Shoji; Hirose, Yukio

    2014-02-01

    This study examined psychological processes of consumers that had determined hoarding and avoidant purchasing behaviors after the Tohoku earthquake within a dual-process model. The model hypothesized that both intentional motivation based on reflective decision and reactive motivation based on non-reflective decision predicted the behaviors. This study assumed that attitude, subjective norm and descriptive norm in relation to hoarding and avoidant purchasing were determinants of motivations. Residents in the Tokyo metropolitan area (n = 667) completed internet longitudinal surveys at three times (April, June, and November, 2011). The results indicated that intentional and reactive motivation determined avoidant purchasing behaviors in June; only intentional motivation determined the behaviors in November. Attitude was a main determinant of the motivations each time. Moreover, previous behaviors predicted future behaviors. In conclusion, purchasing behaviors were intentional rather than reactive behaviors. Furthermore, attitude and previous behaviors were important determinants in the dual-process model. Attitude and behaviors formed in April continued to strengthen the subsequent decisions of purchasing behavior.

  10. Synchronous consensus under hybrid process and link failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biely, Martin; Schmid, Ulrich; Weiss, Bettina

    2011-09-16

    WE INTRODUCE A COMPREHENSIVE HYBRID FAILURE MODEL FOR SYNCHRONOUS DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, WHICH EXTENDS A CONVENTIONAL HYBRID PROCESS FAILURE MODEL BY ADDING COMMUNICATION FAILURES: Every process in the system is allowed to commit up to fℓs send link failures and experience up to fℓr receive link failures per round here, without being considered faulty; up to some fℓsa≤fℓs and fℓra≤fℓr among those may even cause erroneous messages rather than just omissions. In a companion paper (Schmid et al. (2009) [14]), devoted to a complete suite of related impossibility results and lower bounds, we proved that this model surpasses all existing link failure modeling approaches in terms of the assumption coverage in a simple probabilistic setting.In this paper, we show that several well-known synchronous consensus algorithms can be adapted to work under our failure model, provided that the number of processes required for tolerating process failures is increased by small integer multiples of fℓs, fℓr, fℓsa, fℓra. This is somewhat surprising, given that consensus in the presence of unrestricted link failures and mobile (moving) process omission failures is impossible. We provide detailed formulas for the required number of processes and rounds, which reveal that the lower bounds established in our companion paper are tight. We also explore the power and limitations of authentication in our setting, and consider uniform consensus algorithms, which guarantee their properties also for benign faulty processes.

  11. Improving understanding of the quitting process: psychological predictors of quit attempts versus smoking cessation maintenance among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung S; Catley, Delwyn; Harris, Kari Jo

    2014-08-01

    This study examined motivation, positive and negative outcome expectations of quitting, and self-efficacy as predictors of quit attempts and cessation maintenance in a smoking cessation intervention for college students (N = 303). Psychological measures assessed at baseline were used to predict smoking behavior outcomes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression analysis revealed that motivation and self-efficacy were strong, differential predictors of quit attempts and cessation maintenance, respectively. This study extends the previous findings regarding psychological predictors of quitting processes to college students, and suggests the need for interventions tailored according to phases of quitting processes.

  12. Aerobic storage under dynamic conditions in activated sludge processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majone, M.; Dircks, K.

    1999-01-01

    In activated sludge processes, several plant configurations (like plug-flow configuration of the aeration tanks, systems with selectors, contact-stabilization processes or SBR processes) impose a concentration gradient of the carbon sources to the biomass. As a consequence, the biomass grows under...... mechanisms can also contribute to substrate removal, depending on the microbial composition and the previous "history" of the biomass. In this paper the type and the extent of this dynamic response is discussed by review of experimental studies on pure cultures, mixed cultures and activated sludges...... and with main reference to its relevance on population dynamics in the activated sludge. Possible conceptual approaches to storage modelling are also presented, including both structured and unstructured modelling. (C) 1999 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. An intelligent ecosystem to support the psychological diagnosis and intervention of children under social vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesántez-Avilés, Fernando; Cevallos-León Wong, Verónica; Robles-Bykbaev, Vladimir; Borck-Vintimilla, Estefanía.; Flores-Andrade, Santiago; Pineda-Villa, Yenner; Pacurucu-Pacurucu, Ana

    2015-12-01

    When children are taken apart from their parents because of many violence situations, they are taken to foster homes, where they share place with kids who have lived similar situations. United Nations Children's Fund (2014) refer that Children who have been abused or neglected, often may have low self-esteem and other emotional problems, which can lead, at worst, to risky behaviors and self-harm . They also could tend to internalize that behavior, repeating the pattern of violence and abuse as a response to their environment. In this line, the latest estimates provided by SOS Children's Village International show a global complex picture: around 24 million of children in the world live in foster homes, one billion of children live in conflict-affected areas; and, furthermore, there is a lack of mental health professionals in most of the countries. On those grounds, in this paper we propose an intelligent ecosystem to provide support for psychologists during the psychodiagnosis and intervention with children, especially the ones who are in foster homes. Currently, the system is able to automatically determine some psychological traits, according to responses provided by each patient. One part of the diagnostic system is based on two psychological tests: the Draw-A-Person test and the Draw-A-Family test. The results obtained on the first stage let the system establish different challenges according to the skills that the evaluated child needs to develop. Our proposed approach was tested in a population of 124 children (93 school students, and 31 living in shelters), and has achieved encouraging results (80% of precision in patient's profile determination).

  14. On the consideration of automatic as well as controlled psychological processes in aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    Without slighting the important role played by controlled psychological processes in human aggression, this paper recommends that considerable systematic attention should also be given to the operation of automatic processes in bringing about this behavior. The concepts of automaticity and impulsivity are discussed briefly and it is proposed that many impulsive actions, particularly antisocial ones, are due to failures of restraint after they were initiated involuntarily. A number of experiments are reviewed in which situational stimuli automatically instigated or heightened aggressive inclinations. These have to do with associations in hostility displacement, reactions to stigmatized persons, and association in aggressive reactions to media violence. The last-mentioned studies deal especially with factors affecting the selection of the target for aggression. In discussing these findings it is suggested that after the crucial situational features had automatically initiated the sequence of determinants, the aggression displayed could have been due either to a hostile appraisal of the target or the activation of aggression-related bodily reactions as well as hostile ideas. It is also hypothesized that in at least one of the studies, an experienced negative affect might have instigated the aggression independently of any appraisals. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Biological, psychological and social processes that explain celebrities' influence on patients' health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Tan, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Celebrities can have substantial influence as medical advisors. However, their impact on public health is equivocal: depending on the advice's validity and applicability, celebrity engagements can benefit or hinder efforts to educate patients on evidence-based practices and improve their health literacy. This meta-narrative analysis synthesizes multiple disciplinary insights explaining the influence celebrities have on people's health-related behaviors. Systematic searches of electronic databases BusinessSource Complete, Communication & Mass Media Complete, Humanities Abstracts, ProQuest Political Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Sociology Abstracts were conducted. Retrieved articles were used to inform a conceptual analysis of the possible processes accounting for the substantial influence celebrities may have as medical advisors. Fourteen mechanisms of celebrity influence were identified. According to the economics literature, celebrities distinguish endorsed items from competitors and can catalyze herd behavior. Marketing studies tell us that celebrities' characteristics are transferred to endorsed products, and that the most successful celebrity advisors are those viewed as credible, a perception they can create with their success. Neuroscience research supports these explanations, finding that celebrity endorsements activate brain regions involved in making positive associations, building trust and encoding memories. The psychology literature tells us that celebrity advice conditions people to react positively toward it. People are also inclined to follow celebrities if the advice matches their self-conceptions or if not following it would generate cognitive dissonance. Sociology explains how celebrities' advice spreads through social networks, how their influence is a manifestation of people's desire to acquire celebrities' social capital, and how they affect the ways people acquire and interpret health information. There are clear and deeply rooted biological

  16. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  17. Efficient Option Pricing under Levy Processes, with CVA and FVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy eLaw

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the Piterbarg (2010 model to include 1 bilateral default risk as in Burgard and Kjaer (2012, and 2 jumps in the dynamics of the underlying asset using general classes of L'evy processes of exponential type. We develop an efficient explicit-implicit scheme for European options and barrier options taking CVA-FVA into account. We highlight the importance of this work in the context of trading, pricing and management a derivative portfolio given the trajectory of regulations.

  18. Effects of Mindfulness-Based versus Interpersonal Process Group Intervention on Psychological Well-Being with a Clinical University Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Ciara; Bond, Lynne A.; London, Miv

    2013-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared a group mindfulness-based intervention (MI) with an interpersonal process (IP) group intervention and a no-treatment (NT) control condition in reducing psychological distress among 112 students at 2 universities. At postintervention, IP and MI group participants exhibited significant reductions in anxiety,…

  19. Perfusion functional MRI reveals cerebral blood flow pattern under psychological stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiongjiong; Rao, Hengyi; Wetmore, Gabriel S.; Furlan, Patricia M.; Korczykowski, Marc; Dinges, David F.; Detre, John A.

    2005-12-01

    Despite the prevalence of stress in everyday life and its impact on happiness, health, and cognition, little is known about the neural substrate of the experience of everyday stress in humans. We use a quantitative and noninvasive neuroimaging technique, arterial spin-labeling perfusion MRI, to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes associated with mild to moderate stress induced by a mental arithmetic task with performance monitoring. Elicitation of stress was verified by self-report of stress and emotional state and measures of heart rate and salivary-cortisol level. The change in CBF induced by the stress task was positively correlated with subjective stress rating in the ventral right prefrontal cortex (RPFC) and left insula/putamen area. The ventral RPFC along with right insula/putamen and anterior cingulate showed sustained activation after task completion in subjects reporting a high stress level during arithmetic tasks. Additionally, variations of baseline CBF in the ventral RPFC and right orbitofrontal cortex were found to correlate with changes in salivary-cortisol level and heart rate caused by undergoing stress tasks. We further demonstrated that the observed right prefrontal activation could not be attributed to increased cognitive demand accompanying stress tasks and extended beyond neural pathways associated with negative emotions. Our results provide neuroimaging evidence that psychological stress induces negative emotion and vigilance and that the ventral RPFC plays a key role in the central stress response. anterior cingulate cortex | arterial spin labeling | right prefrontal cortex

  20. The signal processing architecture underlying subjective reports of sensory awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, Brian; Lau, Hakwan

    2016-01-01

    What is the relationship between perceptual information processing and subjective perceptual experience? Empirical dissociations between stimulus identification performance and subjective reports of stimulus visibility are crucial for shedding light on this question. We replicated a finding that metacontrast masking can produce such a dissociation (Lau and Passingham, 2006), and report a novel finding that this paradigm can also dissociate stimulus identification performance from the efficacy with which visibility ratings predict task performance. We explored various hypotheses about the relationship between perceptual task performance and visibility rating by implementing them in computational models and using formal model comparison techniques to assess which ones best captured the unusual patterns in the data. The models fell into three broad categories: Single Channel models, which hold that task performance and visibility ratings are based on the same underlying source of information; Dual Channel models, which hold that there are two independent processing streams that differentially contribute to task performance and visibility rating; and Hierarchical models, which hold that a late processing stage generates visibility ratings by evaluating the quality of early perceptual processing. Taking into account the quality of data fitting and model complexity, we found that Hierarchical models perform best at capturing the observed behavioral dissociations. Because current theories of visual awareness map well onto these different model structures, a formal comparison between them is a powerful approach for arbitrating between the different theories.

  1. Modeling of matrix acidizing process under reservoir conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turegeldieva, Karlygash; Assilbekov, Bakhytzhan; Zhapbasbayev, Uzak; Zolotukhin, Anatoly; Bekibaev, Timur; Kenzhebekov, Nurlan; Gubkin Russian State University of oil; gas Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    Effectiveness of the process depends on the parameters: well choice, geological structure of the reservoir, definition of physical and chemical properties of rocks and fluids, agent choice. There are different mathematical models of the matrix acidizing, including the two scale model. These models describe the process in the core scale and Darcy scale, i.e. in an area with dimensions of several centimeters. It leads to the main problem - how to use these models to the near wellbore scale under reservoir conditions. Some authors have increased the dimensions of the cores in numerical simulations and investigated the influence of the core dimensions to acidizing process. In this paper effort to indirectly solve this problem made. It based on boundary conditions alteration and simultaneous solution of matrix acidizing in damaged zone and reservoir fluid flow models. Furthermore in this work the criterion of the acid injection shut down for optimal breakthrough volume calculation was modified. Influence of boundary conditions on near well-bore zone treatment process was investigated. Science Committee of Ministry of Education and Science of Republic of Kazakhstan.

  2. Who Avoids Cancer Information? Examining a Psychological Process Leading to Cancer Information Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jiyoung

    2016-07-01

    Although cancer information avoidance (CIA) is detrimental to public health, predictors of CIA have not been fully investigated. Based on uncertainty management theory, this study viewed CIA as a response to uncertainty related to the distress associated with cancer information and illustrated the psychological process leading to CIA. Given the current information context, it was hypothesized that cancer information overload (CIO), accompanied by confusion and stress about cancer information, causes CIA. As trait anxiety is a strong predictor of CIO, it was also hypothesized that trait anxiety has an indirect effect on CIA through CIO. Study 1 tested this relationship in a U.S. sample (N = 384); the results showed that CIO was positively associated with CIA and that trait anxiety indirectly influenced CIA through CIO. Whereas Study 1 tested the relationship with cross-sectional data in the general cancer context, Study 2 replicated Study 1 with 3-wave longitudinal data in the context of a specific cancer (i.e., stomach cancer) in South Korea (N = 1,130 at Wave 1, 813 at Wave 2, and 582 at Wave 3). Trait anxiety at Wave 1 predicted CIO at Wave 2, which in turn increased CIA at Wave 3, suggesting that some people are inherently inclined to avoid cancer information due to their trait anxiety, which results in confusion about cancer information.

  3. Exploratory Approaches for Studying Social Interactions, Dynamics, and Multivariate Processes in Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I argue for the need of more use of exploratory techniques to identify dynamics in social interactions. I describe several approaches as they are applied to multivariate time series data. The first approach is an algorithm that searches for periods of variability and stability at the individual level as well as for patterns of overlap in such periods between the two individuals in a couple. These patterns describe the daily ups and downs in the couples' affect and are predictive of the state of the couples 1 to 2 years later. The second approach, hierarchical segmentation, is based on the idea of partitioning the time series in segments with distinct data patterns. In the case of data from dyads, as in the illustration, the patterns can be compared in terms of coherence between the 2 individuals in the dyad. The third approach is based on network analysis, and its use is shown as a method to examine data transitions at the individual and dyadic level as well as system-wide coherence in multivariate systems. For each approach, I provide examples of its use with empirical data. The article ends with general guidelines and recommendations for researchers interested in using exploratory methods as a way to examine psychological processes.

  4. Divided Attention and Processes Underlying Sense of Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen eWen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sense of agency refers to the subjective feeling of controlling events through one’s behavior or will. Sense of agency results from matching predictions of one’s own actions with actual feedback regarding the action. Furthermore, when an action involves a cued goal, performance-based inference contributes to sense of agency. That is, if people achieve their goal, they would believe themselves to be in control. Previous studies have shown that both action-effect comparison and performance-based inference contribute to sense of agency; however, the dominance of one process over the other may shift based on task conditions such as the presence or absence of specific goals. In this study, we examined the influence of divided attention on these two processes underlying sense of agency in two conditions. In the experimental task, participants continuously controlled a moving dot for 10 s while maintaining a string of three or seven digits in working memory. We found that when there was no cued goal (no-cued-goal condition, sense of agency was impaired by high cognitive load. Contrastingly, when participants controlled the dot based on a cued goal (cued-goal-directed condition, their sense of agency was lower than in the no-cued-goal condition and was not affected by cognitive load. The results suggest that the action-effect comparison process underlying sense of agency requires attention. On the other hand, the weaker influence of divided attention in the cued-goal-directed condition could be attributed to the dominance of performance-based inference, which is probably automatic.

  5. Independent component processes underlying emotions during natural music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogenmoser, Lars; Zollinger, Nina; Elmer, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the brain processes underlying emotions during natural music listening. To address this, we recorded high-density electroencephalography (EEG) from 22 subjects while presenting a set of individually matched whole musical excerpts varying in valence and arousal. Independent component analysis was applied to decompose the EEG data into functionally distinct brain processes. A k-means cluster analysis calculated on the basis of a combination of spatial (scalp topography and dipole location mapped onto the Montreal Neurological Institute brain template) and functional (spectra) characteristics revealed 10 clusters referring to brain areas typically involved in music and emotion processing, namely in the proximity of thalamic-limbic and orbitofrontal regions as well as at frontal, fronto-parietal, parietal, parieto-occipital, temporo-occipital and occipital areas. This analysis revealed that arousal was associated with a suppression of power in the alpha frequency range. On the other hand, valence was associated with an increase in theta frequency power in response to excerpts inducing happiness compared to sadness. These findings are partly compatible with the model proposed by Heller, arguing that the frontal lobe is involved in modulating valenced experiences (the left frontal hemisphere for positive emotions) whereas the right parieto-temporal region contributes to the emotional arousal. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Attention Modulates the Neural Processes Underlying Multisensory Integration of Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tam Ho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Integrating emotional information from multiple sensory modalities is generally assumed to be a pre-attentive process (de Gelder et al., 1999. This assumption, however, presupposes that the integrative process occurs independent of attention. Using event-potentials (ERP the present study investigated whether the neural processes underlying the integration of dynamic facial expression and emotional prosody is indeed unaffected by attentional manipulations. To this end, participants were presented with congruent and incongruent face-voice combinations (eg, an angry face combined with a neutral voice and performed different two-choice tasks in four consecutive blocks. Three of the tasks directed the participants' attention to emotion expressions in the face, the voice or both. The fourth task required participants to attend to the synchronicity between voice and lip movements. The results show divergent modulations of early ERP components by the different attentional manipulations. For example, when attention was directed to the face (or the voice, incongruent stimuli elicited a reduced N1 as compared to congruent stimuli. This effect was absent, when attention was diverted away from the emotionality in both face and voice suggesting that the detection of emotional incongruence already requires attention. Based on these findings, we question whether multisensory integration of emotion occurs indeed pre-attentively.

  7. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  8. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  9. Qualitative Research and the Analysis of Processes. Considerations towards a "Qualitative Developmental Psychology"

    OpenAIRE

    Günter Mey

    2000-01-01

    This contribution begins with a brief description of the three phases of developmental psychology in regards to their predominant methodical orientations. The use and analysis of qualitative documents as a characteristic research strategy could only be discovered in the first phase. Following this introduction is a brief summary of some new directions connected to the early phase of developmental psychology, which are based on the analyses of para-literal documents, observations and interview...

  10. A CHECKLIST TO DEFINE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES/ UNA LISTA DE CONTROL PARA DEFINIR LOS PROCESOS PSICOLÓGICOS/ UM CHECK-LIST PARA DEFINIR OS PROCESSOS PSICOLÓGICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tamayo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores a conceptual definition of psychological processes. Previous researchers from the fields of psychology and neuroscience have noted that improving the definition of psychological processes may be extremely useful to help current efforts to map the neurobiological basis of psychological phenomena. In this essay I suggest a conceptual path in which psychological processes might be characterized by their material, efficient, formal, and final causes. I briefly explore the potential use of this way of defining psychological processes for neuroscience and psychology, and also comment on the effect it may have for the traditional distinction between basic and higher-order processes.

  11. Functional assessment of ubiquitin-depended processes under microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhabereva, Anastasia; Shenkman, Boris S.; Gainullin, Murat; Gurev, Eugeny; Kondratieva, Ekaterina; Kopylov, Arthur

    Ubiquitylation, a widespread and important posttranslational modification of eukaryotic proteins, controls a multitude of critical cellular processes, both in normal and pathological conditions. The present work aims to study involvement of ubiquitin-dependent regulation in adaptive response to the external stimuli. Experiments were carried out on C57BL/6 mice. The microgravity state under conditions of real spaceflight on the biosatellite “BION-M1” was used as a model of stress impact. Additionally, number of control series including the vivarium control and experiments in Ground-based analog were also studied. The aggregate of endogenously ubiquitylated proteins was selected as specific feature of ubiquitin-dependent processes. Dynamic changes of modification pattern were characterized in liver tissue by combination of some methods, particularly by specific isolation of explicit protein pool, followed by immunodetection and/or mass spectrometry-based identification. The main approach includes specific extraction of proteins, modified by multiubiquitin chains of different length and topology. For this purpose two techniques were applied: 1) immunoprecipitation with antibodies against ubiquitin and/or multiubiquitin chains; 2) pull-down using synthetic protein construct termed Tandem Ubiquitin Binding Entities (TUBE, LifeSensors). TUBE represents fusion protein, composed of well characterized ubiquitin-binding domains, and thereby allows specific high-affinity binding and extraction of ubiquitylated proteins. Resulting protein fractions were analyzed by immunoblotting with antibodies against different types of multiubiquitin chains. Using this method we mapped endogenously modified proteins involved in two different types of ubiquitin-dependent processes, namely catabolic and non-catabolic ubiquitylation, in liver tissues, obtained from both control as well as experimental groups of animals, mentioned above. Then, isolated fractions of ubiquitylated proteins

  12. Stochastic analysis in production process and ecology under uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Bieda, Bogusław

    2014-01-01

    The monograph addresses a problem of stochastic analysis based on the uncertainty assessment by simulation and application of this method in ecology and steel industry under uncertainty. The first chapter defines the Monte Carlo (MC) method and random variables in stochastic models. Chapter two deals with the contamination transport in porous media. Stochastic approach for Municipal Solid Waste transit time contaminants modeling using MC simulation has been worked out. The third chapter describes the risk analysis of the waste to energy facility proposal for Konin city, including the financial aspects. Environmental impact assessment of the ArcelorMittal Steel Power Plant, in Kraków - in the chapter four - is given. Thus, four scenarios of the energy mix production processes were studied. Chapter five contains examples of using ecological Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) - a relatively new method of environmental impact assessment - which help in preparing pro-ecological strategy, and which can lead to reducing t...

  13. Sustainable Process Design under uncertainty analysis: targeting environmental indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L. Gargalo, Carina; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on uncertainty analysis of environmental indicators used to support sustainable process design efforts. To this end, the Life Cycle Assessment methodology is extended with a comprehensive uncertainty analysis to propagate the uncertainties in input LCA data to the environmental...... indicators. The resulting uncertainties in the environmental indicators are then represented by empirical cumulative distribution function, which provides a probabilistic basis for the interpretation of the indicators. In order to highlight the main features of the extended LCA, the production of biodiesel...... from algae biomass is used as a case study. The results indicate there are considerable uncertainties in the calculated environmental indicators as revealed by CDFs. The underlying sources of these uncertainties are indeed the significant variation in the databases used for the LCA analysis...

  14. Understanding the Change Process Involved in Solving Psychological Problems: A Model-based Approach to Understanding How Psychotherapy Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marken, Richard S; Carey, Timothy A

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature on psychotherapy suggests that improvements in effectiveness, efficiency and accessibility have been hampered by a lack of understanding of how psychotherapy works. Central to gaining such understanding is an accurate description of the change process that occurs when someone solves a psychological problem. We describe the Perceptual Control Theory (PCT) model of human functioning, which can be used to understand the nature of psychological problems and how they are solved. PCT suggests that problems can be broadly grouped into two categories: those that can be solved using existing skills and those that require the generation of new skills. In general, psychological problems belong in the second category. PCT describes a fundamental form of learning in which existing structures and systems are reorganized to create new skills, perspective and insights. Psychotherapy based on PCT is aimed at directing reorganization to the source of the problem. Understanding the phenomenon of control is central to understanding how psychotherapy works. Conflict could be considered a general formulation for psychological distress. Therapy will be efficient when the reorganization process is focused at the right level of the client's control hierarchy. Therapy will be effective only when the client's reorganization system-not the therapist-has managed to come up with a solution to the client's problem. What the client says about the nature and reason for their problem is less important than the point of view from which these problems are being discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The role of psychological and physiological factors in decision making under risk and in a dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eFooken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different methods to elicit risk attitudes of individuals often provide differing results despite a common theory. Reasons for such inconsistencies may be the different influence of underlying factors in risk-taking decisions. In order to evaluate this conjecture, a better understanding of underlying factors across methods and decision contexts is desirable. In this paper we study the difference in result of two different risk elicitation methods by linking estimates of risk attitudes to gender, age and personality traits, which have been shown to be related. We also investigate the role of these factors during decision-making in a dilemma situation. For these two decision contexts we also investigate the decision-maker's physiological state during the decision, measured by heart rate variability (HRV, which we use as an indicator of emotional involvement. We found that the two elicitation methods provide different individual risk attitude measures which is partly reflected in a different gender effect between the methods. Personality traits explain only relatively little in terms of driving risk attitudes and the difference between methods. We also found that risk taking and the physiological state are related for one of the methods, suggesting that more emotionally involved individuals are more risk averse in the experiment. Finally, we found evidence that personality traits are connected to whether individuals made a decision in the dilemma situation, but risk attitudes and the physiological state were not indicative for the ability to decide in this decision context.

  16. System for Processing Coded OFDM Under Doppler and Fading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Haiping; Darden, Scott; Lee, Dennis; Yan, Tsun-Yee

    2005-01-01

    An advanced communication system has been proposed for transmitting and receiving coded digital data conveyed as a form of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) on orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signals in the presence of such adverse propagation-channel effects as large dynamic Doppler shifts and frequency-selective multipath fading. Such adverse channel effects are typical of data communications between mobile units or between mobile and stationary units (e.g., telemetric transmissions from aircraft to ground stations). The proposed system incorporates novel signal processing techniques intended to reduce the losses associated with adverse channel effects while maintaining compatibility with the high-speed physical layer specifications defined for wireless local area networks (LANs) as the standard 802.11a of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE 802.11a). OFDM is a multi-carrier modulation technique that is widely used for wireless transmission of data in LANs and in metropolitan area networks (MANs). OFDM has been adopted in IEEE 802.11a and some other industry standards because it affords robust performance under frequency-selective fading. However, its intrinsic frequency-diversity feature is highly sensitive to synchronization errors; this sensitivity poses a challenge to preserve coherence between the component subcarriers of an OFDM system in order to avoid intercarrier interference in the presence of large dynamic Doppler shifts as well as frequency-selective fading. As a result, heretofore, the use of OFDM has been limited primarily to applications involving small or zero Doppler shifts. The proposed system includes a digital coherent OFDM communication system that would utilize enhanced 802.1la-compatible signal-processing algorithms to overcome effects of frequency-selective fading and large dynamic Doppler shifts. The overall transceiver design would implement a two-frequency-channel architecture (see figure

  17. Cognitive Processes in Decisions Under Risk Are Not the Same As in Decisions Under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten G Volz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We deal with risk versus uncertainty, a distinction that is of fundamental importance for cognitive neuroscience yet largely neglected. In a world of risk (small world, all alternatives, consequences, and probabilities are known. In uncertain (large worlds, some of this information is unknown or unknowable. Most of cognitive neuroscience studies exclusively study the neural correlates for decisions under risk (e.g., lotteries, with the tacit implication that understanding these would lead to an understanding of decision making in general. First, we show that normative strategies for decisions under risk do not generalize to uncertain worlds, where simple heuristics are often the more accurate strategies. Second, we argue that the cognitive processes for making decisions in a world of risk are not the same as those for dealing with uncertainty. Because situations with known risks are the exception rather than the rule in human evolution, it is unlikely that our brains are adapted to them. We therefore suggest a paradigm shift towards studying decision processes in uncertain worlds and provide first examples.

  18. The Conditions under which Growth-Fostering Relationships Promote Resilience and Alleviate Psychological Distress among Sexual Minorities: Applications of Relational Cultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Relational cultural theory posits that resilience and psychological growth are rooted in relational connections and are facilitated through growth-fostering relationships. Framed within this theory, the current study examined the associations between growth-fostering relationships (i.e., relationships characterized by authenticity and mutuality) with a close friend and psychological distress among sexual minorities. More specifically, we tested the moderating effects of individuals’ internalized homophobia and their friend’s sexual orientation on the associations between growth-fostering relationship with their close friend and level of psychological distress. A sample of sexual minorities (N = 661) were recruited online and completed a questionnaire. The 3-way interaction between (a) growth-fostering relationship with a close friend, (b) the close friend’s sexual orientation, and (c) internalized homophobia was significant in predicting psychological distress. Among participants with low levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close heterosexual or LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress. Among participants with high levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress but not with a heterosexual friend. Our results demonstrate that growth-fostering relationships may be associated with less psychological distress but under specific conditions. These findings illuminate a potential mechanism for sexual minorities’ resilience and provide support for relational cultural theory. Understanding resilience factors among sexual minorities is critical for culturally sensitive and affirmative clinical practice and future research. PMID:26380836

  19. The Conditions under which Growth-Fostering Relationships Promote Resilience and Alleviate Psychological Distress among Sexual Minorities: Applications of Relational Cultural Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H; Poteat, V Paul

    2015-09-01

    Relational cultural theory posits that resilience and psychological growth are rooted in relational connections and are facilitated through growth-fostering relationships. Framed within this theory, the current study examined the associations between growth-fostering relationships (i.e., relationships characterized by authenticity and mutuality) with a close friend and psychological distress among sexual minorities. More specifically, we tested the moderating effects of individuals' internalized homophobia and their friend's sexual orientation on the associations between growth-fostering relationship with their close friend and level of psychological distress. A sample of sexual minorities ( N = 661) were recruited online and completed a questionnaire. The 3-way interaction between (a) growth-fostering relationship with a close friend, (b) the close friend's sexual orientation, and (c) internalized homophobia was significant in predicting psychological distress. Among participants with low levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close heterosexual or LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress. Among participants with high levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress but not with a heterosexual friend. Our results demonstrate that growth-fostering relationships may be associated with less psychological distress but under specific conditions. These findings illuminate a potential mechanism for sexual minorities' resilience and provide support for relational cultural theory. Understanding resilience factors among sexual minorities is critical for culturally sensitive and affirmative clinical practice and future research.

  20. Analysis of cognitive theories in artificial intelligence and psychology in relation to the qualitative process of emotion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semrau, P.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze selected cognitive theories in the areas of artificial intelligence (A.I.) and psychology to determine the role of emotions in the cognitive or intellectual processes. Understanding the relationship of emotions to processes of intelligence has implications for constructing theories of aesthetic response and A.I. systems in art. Psychological theories were examined that demonstrated the changing nature of the research in emotion related to cognition. The basic techniques in A.I. were reviewed and the A.I. research was analyzed to determine the process of cognition and the role of emotion. The A.I. research emphasized the digital, quantifiable character of the computer and associated cognitive models and programs. In conclusion, the cognitive-emotive research in psychology and the cognitive research in A.I. emphasized quantification methods over analog and qualitative characteristics required for a holistic explanation of cognition. Further A.I. research needs to examine the qualitative aspects of values, attitudes, and beliefs on influencing the creative thinking processes. Inclusion of research related to qualitative problem solving in art provides a more comprehensive base of study for examining the area of intelligence in computers.

  1. Social support network structure in older people: underlying dimensions and association with psychological and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Jeannette; Conroy, Ronán M; Lawlor, Brian A

    2009-05-01

    Social networks have been associated with a wide variety of health outcomes in older people. We examined the dimensions underlying the Wenger social support network type assessment to identify dimensions associated with mental and physical health. We interviewed 1334 community-dwelling participants aged 65+. The Geriatric Mental State automated geriatric examination for computer-assisted taxonomy interview was used to rate psychiatric symptoms and quality of life. Cognitive impairment was defined as a score of social support network domains: family (distance from and contact with relatives) and social engagement. Social engagement was associated with a lower age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of depression (odds ratio for a one-tertile increase 0.48), generalised anxiety disorder (OR 0.60), cognitive impairment (OR 0.68) and physical disability (OR 0.62) all p social engagement domain was also associated with better quality of life (OR 1.5) self-rated happiness (OR 1.3) and rating life as worth living (OR 1.4). The family domain, on the other hand, was not significantly associated with any health outcome. The results suggest that elective relationships and social engagement are the 'active ingredients' of social networks which promote health in later life.

  2. Development of Entrepreneurial Activity of the Processing Industry under Conditions of Deepening of Integration Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Daniali Pedram

    2013-01-01

    The article considers theoretical aspects of entrepreneurial activity under conditions of deepening of integration processes. It studies tendencies of development of economic subjects. It identifies integration of entrepreneurial structures at inter-firm and intra-firm levels. It analyses parts of the synergetic effect. It considers different forms of integration. It analyses the world practice of the forms of integration of companies, namely: strategic alliances, consortia, cartels, syndicat...

  3. Creative Industries: Development Processes Under Contemporary Conditions of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerija Kontrimienė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the processes of developing creative industries under conditions of a growth in the worldwide economy and globalization, discloses the role of the sector of creative industries and shows its place in the system of the modern global economy. The paper presents a comparative analysis of theories and theoretical approaches intended for the sector of creative industries and its development as well as defines regularities and specificities characteristic of the development of creative industries. Particular attention is shifted on the growth and development of creative industries considering the current challenges of globalization and on the most important specificities of the developing sector in the context of the challenges of economic globalization. The paper examines the trends reflecting the place of the sector of creative industries in the economy of the modern world, including the tendencies indicating changes in the export of the products created in this sector. The article considers the issues of developing creative industries and reveals priorities of future research.

  4. Anticipatory processes under academic stress: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongxia; Yuan, Yiran; Yang, Can; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that preparing for and taking high-stakes exams has a significant influence on the emotional and physiological wellbeing of exam-takers, but few studies have investigated the resulting cognitive changes. The current study examined the effect of examination-induced academic stress on anticipation in information processing. Anticipation was indexed using the contingent negative variation (CNV). Electroencephalograms (EEG) were collected from 42 participants using the classic S1-S2 paradigm. These participants were preparing for the Chinese National Postgraduate Entrance Exam (NPEE). EEGs were also collected from 21 age-matched, non-exam comparison participants. The levels of perceived stress and state anxiety were higher and both the initial CNV (iCNV) and the late CNV (lCNV) were more negative in the exam group than in the non-exam group. These results suggest that participants under academic stress experienced greater anticipation of upcoming events. More important, for the non-exam group, state anxiety was positively related to both the iCNV and lCNV amplitude, and this correlation existed when trait anxiety was controlled; however, there was no such relationship in the exam group. These results suggested that the cortical anticipatory activity in the high-stressed exam group reached the maximum ceiling, leaving little room for transient increases in state anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimization and Control of Pressure Swing Adsorption Processes Under Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Khajuria, Harish

    2012-03-21

    The real-time periodic performance of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system strongly depends on the choice of key decision variables and operational considerations such as processing steps and column pressure temporal profiles, making its design and operation a challenging task. This work presents a detailed optimization-based approach for simultaneously incorporating PSA design, operational, and control aspects under the effect of time variant and invariant disturbances. It is applied to a two-bed, six-step PSA system represented by a rigorous mathematical model, where the key optimization objective is to maximize the expected H2 recovery while achieving a closed loop product H2 purity of 99.99%, for separating 70% H2, 30% CH4 feed. The benefits over sequential design and control approach are shown in terms of closed-loop recovery improvement of more than 3%, while the incorporation of explicit/multiparametric model predictive controllers improves the closed loop performance. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  6. Gaussian process regression for sensor networks under localization uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadaliha, M.; Xu, Yunfei; Choi, Jongeun; Johnson, N.S.; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we formulate Gaussian process regression with observations under the localization uncertainty due to the resource-constrained sensor networks. In our formulation, effects of observations, measurement noise, localization uncertainty, and prior distributions are all correctly incorporated in the posterior predictive statistics. The analytically intractable posterior predictive statistics are proposed to be approximated by two techniques, viz., Monte Carlo sampling and Laplace's method. Such approximation techniques have been carefully tailored to our problems and their approximation error and complexity are analyzed. Simulation study demonstrates that the proposed approaches perform much better than approaches without considering the localization uncertainty properly. Finally, we have applied the proposed approaches on the experimentally collected real data from a dye concentration field over a section of a river and a temperature field of an outdoor swimming pool to provide proof of concept tests and evaluate the proposed schemes in real situations. In both simulation and experimental results, the proposed methods outperform the quick-and-dirty solutions often used in practice.

  7. Active Processing via Write-to-Learn Assignments: Learning and Retention Benefits in Introductory Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Karla J.; Bugg, Julie M.; Doe, Sue R.; Rowland, Christopher A.; Richards, Tracy L.; Tompkins, Sara Anne; McDaniel, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated brief, in-class write-to-learn assignments as a tool for promoting learning and retention in large, introductory psychology courses. A within-subjects (student) design was used with assignment of concepts to write-to-learn and copy (control) conditions counterbalanced across sections for each instructor. Students performed…

  8. Issues regarding the importance of studying the psychological State of individual students in the education process

    OpenAIRE

    NURMAMATOV A.S.; DURMANOVA G.D.

    2014-01-01

    This academic article attempts to expound on the methods of early childhood education and its unique and important qualities from a pedagogical and psychological point of view. Furthermore, it is important look at every child as an individual with unique qualities and to nurture them.

  9. Sexual Orientation and Psychological Distress in Adolescence: Examining Interpersonal Stressors and Social Support Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Koji

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents with homosexual and bisexual orientations have higher levels of psychological distress than other adolescents. Drawing from previous studies, I hypothesize that this epidemiological pattern is due largely to the interpersonal problems that sexual minorities experience at home and at school. Analysis of longitudinal data based on a…

  10. The Interconnection Between Athletes’ Psychological Momentum Processes During and Across Matches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartigh, Jan Rudolf; van Geert, Paul; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Cox, R.F.A; Gernigon, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Many athletes are familiar with the experience of an upward or downward spiral during a match, called psychological momentum (PM). Recently, researchers proposed that PM can be considered as a dynamical system that can move toward a positive or negative PM state (e.g., Briki, Den Hartigh, Markman,

  11. "This Is Produced by a Brain-Process!" Wittgenstein, Transparency and Psychology Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines sections of Wittgenstein's "Philosophical Investigations" with a view to exposing trail-effects of psychology in educational and social practice today. These are seen in understandings of the relations between mind and body, and language and thought, and their influence is identified in such contemporary preoccupations as…

  12. Restructuring of Values and Probabilities: Psychological Processes in Human Decision Making under Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenson, Ola; Salo, Ilkka [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology

    2001-07-01

    According to Differentiation and Consolidation Theory (Diff Con), the decision maker's representations of values and probabilities are interdependent and changing over time in risky decision making. This is a clear violation of most normative theories of decision making. The present contribution will present Diff Con and provide empirical illustrations of how mental representations of values and probabilities change over time. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings concerning expert and lay people decision making about risks and hazards.

  13. Beyond Positive Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2014-01-01

    The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative. PMID:21787036

  14. Psychologically informed physiotherapy for chronic pain: patient experiences of treatment and therapeutic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S; Chaloner, N; Osborn, M; Gauntlett-Gilbert, J

    2017-03-01

    Psychologically informed physiotherapy is used widely with patients with chronic pain. This study aimed to investigate patients' beliefs about, and experiences of, this type of treatment, and helpful and unhelpful experiences. A qualitative study using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of semi-structured interviews. Participants (n=8) were recruited within a national specialist pain centre following a residential pain management programme including 2.25hours of physiotherapy each day. Participants were eligible for inclusion if they had achieved clinically reliable improvements in physical functioning during treatment. Interviews were conducted 3 months post-treatment. Participants reported differing experiences of physiotherapy interventions and differences in the therapeutic relationship, valuing a more individualised approach. The themes of 'working with the whole of me', 'more than just a professional', 'awareness' and 'working through challenges in the therapeutic relationship' emerged as central to behavioural change, together with promotion of perceptions of improved capability and physical capacity. Psychologically informed physiotherapy is an effective treatment for some patients with chronic pain. Participants experienced this approach as uniquely different from non-psychologically informed physiotherapy approaches due to its focus on working with the patient's whole experience. Therapeutic alliance and management of relationship ruptures may have more importance than previously appreciated in physiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Disruption of Relational Processing Underlies Poor Memory for Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Tanya R.; MacLeod, Colin M.

    2015-01-01

    McDaniel and Bugg (2008) proposed that relatively uncommon stimuli and encoding tasks encourage elaborative encoding of individual items (item-specific processing), whereas relatively typical or common encoding tasks encourage encoding of associations among list items (relational processing). It is this relational processing that is thought to…

  16. Starch hydrolysis under low water conditions: a conceptual process design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der M.E.; Veelaert, S.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    A process concept is presented for the hydrolysis of starch to glucose in highly concentrated systems. Depending on the moisture content, the process consists of two or three stages. The two-stage process comprises combined thermal and enzymatic liquefaction, followed by enzymatic saccharification.

  17. Production Lot Sizing and Process Targeting under Process Deterioration and Machine Breakdown Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Al-Salamah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a production facility that might deteriorate suddenly at some point during the production run time; after deterioration, nonconforming items are produced in a greater rate compared to the rate before deterioration. Moreover, the production facility may ultimately break down; consequently, the production lot is aborted before completion. If breakdown happens, corrective action is started immediately; otherwise, the production lot is completed and preventive repair is implemented at the end of the production cycle to enhance system reliability. The mathematical model is formulated under general distributions of failure, corrective, and repair times, while the numerical examples are solved under exponential failure and uniform repair times. The formulated model successfully determines the optimal lot size in addition to the optimal process parameters (mean and standard deviation simultaneously.

  18. Dissociating processes underlying level-1 visual perspective taking in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Andrew R; Cameron, C Daryl; Simpson, Austin J

    2017-02-01

    Although reasoning about other people's mental states has typically been thought to require effortful deliberation, evidence from indirect measures suggests that people may implicitly track others' perspectives, spontaneously calculating what they see and know. We used a process-dissociation approach to investigate the unique contributions of automatic and controlled processes to level-1 visual perspective taking in adults. In Experiment 1, imposing time pressure reduced the ability to exert control over one's responses, but it left automatic processing of a target's perspective unchanged. In Experiment 2, automatic processing of a target's perspective was greater when the target was a human avatar versus a non-social entity, whereas controlled processing was relatively unaffected by the specific target. Our findings highlight the utility of a process-dissociation approach for increasing theoretical precision and generating new questions about the nature of perspective taking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Flux behaviour under different operational conditions in osmosis process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Zarebska, Agata; Buksek, Hermina

    the active membrane layer is facing draw solution. Osmosis process can be affected by several factors, such as operating conditions (temperature and cross flow velocity), feed and draw solution properties, and membrane characteristics. These factors can significantly contribute to the efficiency...... of the process itself. In order to implement the osmosis process on an industrial scale, process economy need to be taken into consideration, as well as the desired final product quality. Membrane performance can be evaluated based on the water permeability and the selectivity of the membrane. The permeability...

  20. Psychological Harassment At Work Under The Perspective Of Social Security And The Suitability Of Its Equalization To Work Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Ota Longo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was intended to investigate the treatment given to psychological harassment by Social Security, from the analysis of data extracted from its Statistical Yearbooks, and to situate it as contemporary factor of precarious work, seeking to expand the view of occupational accident. As psychological harassment is a serious problem to challenge an urgent solution to the effective protection of worker’s mental health, among the proposals based on the legal and social impact of the phenomenon, it was evidenced, through critical analysis of Bill n. 7.202/2010, the suitability of equalization of psychological harassment in employment context to accident work (FAPESP.

  1. The psychological process of reintegration following a nine month/260 day solo sailboat circumnavigation of the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaergaard, Anders; Leon, Gloria R; Venables, Noah C

    2015-04-01

    The focus of this case report is on the psychological reintegration process following the achievement of a highly challenging long-duration and solitary endeavor. The participant was a 29 year old male who successfully circumnavigated the globe during a 260 day solo sailing expedition. We assessed the psychological aftermath in terms of stability and change in personality characteristics and personal beliefs prior to, and at 180 and 360 days after the completion of the journey. Overall, the personality configuration reflected adaptive personality functioning. A belief in an internal locus of control was consistent throughout, as were perceptions of personal growth as a result of the circumnavigation experience. NEO PI-R Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, and Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (Tri-PM) Boldness scores remained stable. Positive personality change was reflected by an elevation in Conscientiousness; negative change by a decline in Agreeableness and an increase in Tri-PM Disinhibition. While overall the participant exhibited positive change as a result of his journey, there were also some negative aspects of the reintegration phase in regard to interactions with other persons. This latter change may be related to the effects of isolation from usual social contacts over an extended period. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. KINETICS OF DENSIFICATION PROCESSES OF POWDER MATERIALS UNDER ELECTROPULSE SINTERING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoryev, E. G.

    The process of electropulse sintering of ferrous and high-speed steel powder materials by powerful pulse current and external pressure was investigated. Formation of high density and high strength structure of ferrous and highspeed steel powder materials was analyzed and optimal process parameters

  3. Donders revisited: Discrete or continuous temporal processing underlying reaction time distributions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan; Yang, Taoxi; Lin, Xiaoxiong; Pöppel, Ernst

    2016-09-01

    Differences of reaction times to specific stimulus configurations are used as indicators of cognitive processing stages. In this classical experimental paradigm, continuous temporal processing is implicitly assumed. Multimodal response distributions indicate, however, discrete time sampling, which is often masked by experimental conditions. Differences in reaction times reflect discrete temporal mechanisms that are pre-semantically implemented and suggested to be based on entrained neural oscillations. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide under plasma DBD process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouroux, Jacques; Cavadias, Simeon

    2017-11-01

    Carbon dioxide can be converted, by reaction with hydrogen, into fine chemicals and liquid fuels such as methanol and DME. Methane production by the Sabatier reaction opens the way of carbon recycling for a circular economy of carbon resources. The catalytic process of methanation of carbon dioxide produces two molecules of water as a by-product. A current limitation in the CO2 methanation is the ageing of catalysts, mainly due to water adsorption during the process. To avoid this adsorption, the process is operated at high temperature (300 °C–400 °C), leading to carbon deposition on the catalyst and its deactivation. To overcome this problem, a methanation plasma-catalytic process has been developed, which achieves high CO2 conversion rate (80%), and a selectivity close to 100%, working from room temperature to 150 °C, instead of 300 °C–400 °C for the thermal catalytic process. The main characteristics of this process are high-voltage pulses of few nanoseconds duration, activating the adsorption of CO2 in bent configuration and the polarization of the catalyst. The key step in this process is the desorption of water from the polarized catalyst. The high CO2 conversion at low temperature could be explained by the creation of a plasma inside the nanopores of the catalyst.

  5. Investigation on Formation and Hardening Process of Microcapsules Under Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tien-Chu

    This research investigates the micro-encapsulation process with a pressure-type micro-atomizer. Alginate and CaCl2 aqueous solution are used as the membrane material and hardening agent, respectively. The high speed images were taken to investigate the formation processes of the microcapsules. Results show that the geometric shape of the microcapsules was sensitive to the droplet flying distant and the concentration of alginate aqueous, however, insensitive to the concentration of CaCl2 aqueous. Results also show that the membrane thickness of the microcapsules was controlled by the diffusion processes of calcium chloride. An empirical formula was derived to describe the rate change of the membrane thickness in the hardening processes.

  6. Cerebro-cerebellar interactions underlying temporal information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Kenji; Hanakawa, Takashi; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2010-12-01

    The neural basis of temporal information processing remains unclear, but it is proposed that the cerebellum plays an important role through its internal clock or feed-forward computation functions. In this study, fMRI was used to investigate the brain networks engaged in perceptual and motor aspects of subsecond temporal processing without accompanying coprocessing of spatial information. Direct comparison between perceptual and motor aspects of time processing was made with a categorical-design analysis. The right lateral cerebellum (lobule VI) was active during a time discrimination task, whereas the left cerebellar lobule VI was activated during a timed movement generation task. These findings were consistent with the idea that the cerebellum contributed to subsecond time processing in both perceptual and motor aspects. The feed-forward computational theory of the cerebellum predicted increased cerebro-cerebellar interactions during time information processing. In fact, a psychophysiological interaction analysis identified the supplementary motor and dorsal premotor areas, which had a significant functional connectivity with the right cerebellar region during a time discrimination task and with the left lateral cerebellum during a timed movement generation task. The involvement of cerebro-cerebellar interactions may provide supportive evidence that temporal information processing relies on the simulation of timing information through feed-forward computation in the cerebellum.

  7. Maximizing potential impact of experimental research into cognitive processes in health psychology: A systematic approach to material development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alicia M; Gordon, Rola; Chalder, Trudie; Hirsch, Colette R; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2016-11-01

    There is an abundance of research into cognitive processing biases in clinical psychology including the potential for applying cognitive bias modification techniques to assess the causal role of biases in maintaining anxiety and depression. Within the health psychology field, there is burgeoning interest in applying these experimental methods to assess potential cognitive biases in relation to physical health conditions and health-related behaviours. Experimental research in these areas could inform theoretical development by enabling measurement of implicit cognitive processes that may underlie unhelpful illness beliefs and help drive health-related behaviours. However, to date, there has been no systematic approach to adapting existing experimental paradigms for use within physical health research. Many studies fail to report how materials were developed for the population of interest or have used untested materials developed ad hoc. The lack of protocol for developing stimuli specificity has contributed to large heterogeneity in methodologies and findings. In this article, we emphasize the need for standardized methods for stimuli development and replication in experimental work, particularly as it extends beyond its original anxiety and depression scope to other physical conditions. We briefly describe the paradigms commonly used to assess cognitive biases in attention and interpretation and then describe the steps involved in comprehensive/robust stimuli development for attention and interpretation paradigms using illustrative examples from two conditions: chronic fatigue syndrome and breast cancer. This article highlights the value of preforming rigorous stimuli development and provides tools to aid researchers engage in this process. We believe this work is worthwhile to establish a body of high-quality and replicable experimental research within the health psychology literature. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Cognitive

  8. Characterizing the monaural and binaural processes underlying reflection masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    Reflection masked thresholds (RMTs) for the simple scenario of a test reflection masked by the direct sound (200 ms long broadband noise) were measured as a function of reflection delay for diotic and dichotic stimulus presentations. In order to discriminate between contributions to reflection....... The monaural and binaural processes that may underlie reflection masking are discussed in terms of auditory-modelling concepts....

  9. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  10. Clinical psychology of Internet addiction: a review of its conceptualization, prevalence, neuronal processes, and implications for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontes HM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Halley M Pontes, Daria J Kuss, Mark D Griffiths International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Division, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK Abstract: Research into Internet addiction (IA has grown rapidly over the last decade. The topic has generated a great deal of debate, particularly in relation to how IA can be defined conceptually as well as the many methodological limitations. The present review aims to further elaborate and clarify issues that are relevant to IA research in a number of areas including: definition and characterization, incidence and prevalence rates, associated neuronal processes, and implications for treatment, prevention, and patient-specific considerations. It is concluded that there is no consensual definition for IA. Prevalence rates among nationally representative samples across several countries vary greatly (from 1% to 18.7%, most likely reflecting the lack of methodological consistency and conceptual rigor of the studies. The overlaps between IA and other more traditional substance-based addictions and the possible neural substrates implicated in IA are also highlighted. In terms of treatment and prevention, both psychological and pharmacological treatments are examined in light of existing evidence alongside particular aspects inherent to the patient perspective. Based on the evidence analyzed, it is concluded that IA may pose a serious health hazard to a minority of people. Keywords: Internet addiction, review, behavioral addictions, prevalence, neuronal processes, treatment

  11. Living under surveillance: Gender, psychological distress, and stop-question-and-frisk policing in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Abigail A; Jefferson, Kevin A; Lee, Hedwig

    2016-06-01

    A growing body of research highlights the collateral consequences of mass incarceration, including stop-and-frisk policing tactics. Living in a neighborhood with aggressive policing may affect one's mental health, especially for men who are the primary targets of police stops. We examine whether there is an association between psychological distress and neighborhood-level aggressive policing (i.e., frisking and use of force by police) and whether that association varies by gender. The 2009-2011 New York City (NYC) Stop, Question, and Frisk Database is aggregated to the neighborhood-level (N = 34) and merged with individual data from the 2012 NYC Community Health Survey (N = 8066) via the United Hospital Fund neighborhood of respondents' residence. Weighted multilevel generalized linear models are used to assess main and gendered associations of neighborhood exposures to aggressive police stops on psychological distress (Kessler-6 items). While the neighborhood stop rate exhibits inconsistent associations with psychological distress, neighborhood-level frisk and use of force proportions are linked to higher levels of non-specific psychological distress among men, but not women. Specifically, men exhibit more non-specific psychological distress and more severe feelings of nervousness, effort, and worthlessness in aggressively surveilled neighborhoods than do women. Male residents are affected by the escalation of stop-and-frisk policing in a neighborhood. Living in a context of aggressive policing is an important risk factor for men's mental health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of a psychological intervention on the quality of life of obese adolescents under a multidisciplinary treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila R.M. Freitas

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To investigate the effects of multidisciplinary treatment with and without psychological counseling on obese adolescents' self-reported quality of life. Methods: Seventy-six obese adolescents (15.87 ± 1.53 y were allocated into psychological counseling group (PCG; n = 36 or control group (CG; n = 40 for 12 weeks. All participants received the same supervised exercise training, nutritional and clinical counseling. Participants in PCG also received psychological counseling. QOL was measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention by Generic Questionnaire for the Evaluation of Quality of Life (SF-36. Results: The dropout rate was higher in GC (22.5% when compared with PCG (0.0% (p < 0.001. After 12 weeks, participants from PCG presents lower body weight, relative fat mass and higher free fat mass (p < 0.001 for all compared to GC. QOL improved among adolescents from both groups (p < 0.05, however, a better QOL was reported from those adolescents enrolled in PCG. Conclusion: The inclusion of a psychological counseling component in multidisciplinary treatment for adolescent obesity appears to provide benefits observed for improved QOL as compared with treatment without psychological counseling.

  13. Manager responses to employee dissent about psychological contract breach : A dyadic process approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, M.; Schalk, Rene; Blomme, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Communication scholars have made significant headway toward understanding the upward dissent process, conceptualizing different types of upward dissent strategies and investigating the use of these strategies. However, scholars have hardly considered the dyadic process associated with upward dissent

  14. Neural Correlates of Feedback Processing in Decision Making under Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate eSchuermann

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Event-related brain potentials (ERP provide important information about the sensitivity of the brain to process varying risks. The aim of the present study was to determine how different risk levels are reflected in decision-related ERPs, namely the feedback-related negativity (FRN and the P300. Material and Methods. 20 participants conducted a probabilistic two-choice gambling task while an electroencephalogram was recorded. Choices were provided between a low-risk option yielding low rewards and low losses and a high-risk option yielding high rewards and high losses. While options differed in expected risks, they were equal in expected values and in feedback probabilities. Results. At the behavioral level, participants were generally risk-averse but modulated their risk-taking behavior according to reward history. An early positivity (P200 was enhanced on negative feedbacks in high-risk compared to low-risk options. With regard to the FRN, there were significant amplitude differences between positive and negative feedbacks in high-risk options, but not in low-risk options. While the FRN on negative feedbacks did not vary with decision riskiness, reduced amplitudes were found for positive feedbacks in high-risk relative to low-risk choices. P300 amplitudes were larger in high-risk decisions, and in an additive way, after negative compared to positive feedback. Discussion. The present study revealed significant influences of risk and valence processing on ERPs. FRN findings suggest that the reward prediction error signal is increased after high-risk decisions. The increased P200 on negative feedback in risky decisions suggests that large negative prediction errors are processed as early as in the P200 time range. The later P300 amplitude is sensitive to feedback valence as well as to the risk of a decision. Thus, the P300 carries additional information for reward processing, mainly the enhanced motivational significance of risky

  15. Oscillatory EEG dynamics underlying automatic chunking during sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhage, Corinna E; Meyer, Lars; Gruber, Thomas; Friederici, Angela D; Mueller, Jutta L

    2017-05-15

    Sentences are easier to remember than random word sequences, likely because linguistic regularities facilitate chunking of words into meaningful groups. The present electroencephalography study investigated the neural oscillations modulated by this so-called sentence superiority effect during the encoding and maintenance of sentence fragments versus word lists. We hypothesized a chunking-related modulation of neural processing during the encoding and retention of sentences (i.e., sentence fragments) as compared to word lists. Time-frequency analysis revealed a two-fold oscillatory pattern for the memorization of sentences: Sentence encoding was accompanied by higher delta amplitude (4Hz), originating both from regions processing syntax as well as semantics (bilateral superior/middle temporal regions and fusiform gyrus). Subsequent sentence retention was reflected in decreased theta (6Hz) and beta/gamma (27-32Hz) amplitude instead. Notably, whether participants simply read or properly memorized the sentences did not impact chunking-related activity during encoding. Therefore, we argue that the sentence superiority effect is grounded in highly automatized language processing mechanisms, which generate meaningful memory chunks irrespective of task demands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Instrumentos psicológicos utilizados em seleção profissional Psychological instruments of recruiting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Leite de Godoy

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a importância que os instrumentos de avaliação psicológica possuem nos contextos profissionais do psicólogo, entre os quais as organizações, o presente estudo teve como objetivos: a identificar os instrumentos mais utilizados em seleção profissional; e b identificar as técnicas mais empregadas nos processos seletivos. Participaram como sujeitos desta pesquisa 15 estudantes último anistas do curso de Psicologia de uma instituição de ensino superior particular do interior paulista e 15 psicólogos recrutadores e selecionadores da região de Campinas. O material utilizado se constituiu de um questionário enviado aos profissionais por e-mail e distribuído aos estudantes na universidade. Os resultados mostraram que os instrumentos psicológicos mais utilizados nas seleções foram Wartegg, Atenção Concentrada, Teste de Inteligência Não Verbal G36, Bateria CEPA e Palográfico e as técnicas mais empregadas foram entrevistas individuais, dinâmicas de grupo e testes psicológicos. Sugere-se novos estudos na área como fomento para ações seguras relacionadas à avaliação psicológica.Considering the importance of psychological assessment instruments in professional contexts of the psychologist (in organizations among others, the present study has the purpose of identifying not only the main useful strategies of recruiting people, but also the most innovative practices in the recruiting process. A group of 15 graduate students, in their last year of the Psychology Course at a private university in São Paulo's countryside, and 15 psychologists, who work as recruiters in the city of Campinas, participated in this research. A questionnaire was emailed to professionals and handled out to the university students. The results showed that the Wartegg, Concentrated Attention, Non-Verbal Intelligence Test G36, "Bateria CEPA" and "Palográfico" were the instruments most frequently used in the recruiting process, and the most

  17. Circumstances and underlying causes of suicidal attempts in teen patients of mental health facilities – a psychological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Stradomska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper brings together and summarizes the results of a study carried out in 2011–2015, aimed at analysing circumstances and reasons underlying adolescent suicidal attempts. Material and methods: The studied group comprised 115 patients hospitalised due to having attempted suicide, aged 13–19 years old, based in 3 voivodeships, namely the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Lubelskie Voivodeship, and Podkarpackie Voivodeship. The results of the study have been subject to quantitative and qualitative analysis. Results: Our analysis has demonstrated that in the opinion of 95% of the patients another suicide previously committed in their environment inspired their own suicidal attempt. A significant proportion of the participants of the study (88% claims suicidal behaviours in a person’s environment to be conducive to similar behaviours not only in adolescents, but across all age groups alike. A majority of participants have admitted possessing a lack of sufficient knowledge concerning mental health and wellbeing. Nor do they receive effective help, feeling emotional distress, yet failing to meet with any response on the part of their relatives and friends, who seem not to take teenagers’ psychological condition seriously. Suicidal and depressive disposition is commonly regarded as a sign of mere moodiness, fanciness, being spoilt, or being prone to playing practical jokes. According to the majority of the participants (71%, their relatives had directly influenced their decision to attempt suicide. As much as 88% of the responses provided in the study indicated causes stemming from inadequate communication. Teenagers’ attempts to talk about death-related issues (suicidal issues failed, not being met with understanding on the part of their parents and other caregivers. Conclusions: There is a need for education, prophylaxis, and raising social awareness concerning the problem of suicides. Education on a broad scale

  18. Introductory Biology Textbooks Under-Represent Scientific Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dara B.; Lubman, Alexandra; Hoskins, Sally G.

    2011-01-01

    Attrition of undergraduates from Biology majors is a long-standing problem. Introductory courses that fail to engage students or spark their curiosity by emphasizing the open-ended and creative nature of biological investigation and discovery could contribute to student detachment from the field. Our hypothesis was that introductory biology books devote relatively few figures to illustration of the design and interpretation of experiments or field studies, thereby de-emphasizing the scientific process. To investigate this possibility, we examined figures in six Introductory Biology textbooks published in 2008. On average, multistep scientific investigations were presented in fewer than 5% of the hundreds of figures in each book. Devoting such a small percentage of figures to the processes by which discoveries are made discourages an emphasis on scientific thinking. We suggest that by increasing significantly the illustration of scientific investigations, textbooks could support undergraduates’ early interest in biology, stimulate the development of design and analytical skills, and inspire some students to participate in investigations of their own. PMID:23653758

  19. Introductory Biology Textbooks Under-Represent Scientific Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara B. Duncan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Attrition of undergraduates from Biology majors is a long-standing problem. Introductory courses that fail to engage students or spark their curiosity by emphasizing the open-ended and creative nature of biological investigation and discovery could contribute to student detachment from the field. Our hypothesis was that introductory biology books devote relatively few figures to illustration of the design and interpretation of experiments or field studies, thereby de-emphasizing the scientific process.To investigate this possibility, we examined figures in six Introductory Biology textbooks published in 2008. On average, multistep scientific investigations were presented in fewer than 5% of the hundreds of figures in each book. Devoting such a small percentage of figures to the processes by which discoveries are made discourages an emphasis on scientific thinking. We suggest that by increasing significantly the illustration of scientific investigations, textbooks could support undergraduates’ early interest in biology, stimulate the development of design and analytical skills, and inspire some students to participate in investigations of their own.

  20. Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development as well as "studies as usual": a thematic analysis of medical students' reflective writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semb, Olof; Kaiser, Niclas; Andersson, Sven-Olof; Sundbom, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    Reflective writing in medical training has been shown to be most effective when combined with some form of personal meeting or dialog. During a course in medical psychology for medical students, reflective texts were followed up by an individual personal talk with a teacher from the course. Thematic analysis of the texts revealed four separate sub-themes: 1) the course has enabled me and the class to develop, which is good albeit arduous; 2) understanding myself is a resource in understanding people as well as knowing psychology; 3) the course provided me with new, purely intellectual skills as well as eye-openers; and 4) the receiving teacher is an integral part of my reflective writing. The main theme, capturing the students' writing process, concluded that students perceive the course as "Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development" as well as "studies as usual". Ethical, psychological, and pedagogical aspects are discussed in the paper.

  1. Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development as well as “studies as usual”: a thematic analysis of medical students’ reflective writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semb, Olof; Kaiser, Niclas; Andersson, Sven-Olof; Sundbom, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    Reflective writing in medical training has been shown to be most effective when combined with some form of personal meeting or dialog. During a course in medical psychology for medical students, reflective texts were followed up by an individual personal talk with a teacher from the course. Thematic analysis of the texts revealed four separate sub-themes: 1) the course has enabled me and the class to develop, which is good albeit arduous; 2) understanding myself is a resource in understanding people as well as knowing psychology; 3) the course provided me with new, purely intellectual skills as well as eye-openers; and 4) the receiving teacher is an integral part of my reflective writing. The main theme, capturing the students’ writing process, concluded that students perceive the course as “Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development” as well as “studies as usual”. Ethical, psychological, and pedagogical aspects are discussed in the paper. PMID:25540601

  2. [Psychological processes of stress management and neuroendocrine regulation in incarcerated adolescent offenders: A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillod, L; Habersaat, S; Suter, M; Jeanneret, T; Bertoni, C; Stéphan, P; Urben, S

    2016-10-10

    Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation. Indeed, repeated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in chronic stress situations may have long-term effects on subsequent cortisol regulation and lead to psychological difficulties. It was also shown that basal cortisol levels are lower in adolescents with externalizing behaviors. This study aims to assess the links between constructive thinking and neuroendocrine regulation in adolescent offenders and their association with externalizing symptoms (e.g., aggression, delinquency, psychopathic traits, substance use). Identifying particular biopsychological patterns can help to better understand stress management in youth with externalizing behaviors and to improve clinical treatments. Sixteen adolescent males aged from 12 to 18 years were recruited in an institution for juvenile offenders. Exclusion criteria were insufficient reasoning abilities assessed using the Raven Matrices Test. Regarding psychological dimensions, constructive thinking was assessed through the Constructive thinking inventory (CTI), psychopathic traits through the Youth psychopathic traits inventory (YPI), externalizing behaviors through 30 items (out of 113) and 2 subscales (aggressive behavior and delinquency problems) from the Child behavior checklist-youth self-report (CBCL), and substance use through the Dep-ado. Regarding biological dimensions, cortisol daily secretion and regulation were assessed through saliva samples

  3. Modelling the emergence of hallucinations: early acquired vulnerabilities, proximal life stressors and maladaptive psychological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Eliot; Farhall, John; Ong, Ben

    2012-09-01

    The study aimed to expand upon existing findings on the vulnerability to psychosis by examining synergistic models of hallucination emergence. Hypothesised vulnerability factors were separated into three stages of vulnerability; early acquired and enduring vulnerabilities (heredity, childhood trauma, early cannabis use), proximal life stressors (life hassles) and psychological appraisals/coping (metacognitions/experiential avoidance). Participants were recruited to a non-clinical sample (N = 133) and a clinical sample of psychosis patients (N = 100). Path analyses in the non-clinical sample indicated that experiences of childhood emotional trauma, in combination with subsequent experiences of life hassles, best predicted vulnerability to both hallucinations in general and auditory hallucinations specifically. This pathway was partially mediated by negative metacognitions. The models were then replicated in the clinical sample, with two notable differences: (1) childhood sexual trauma replaced childhood emotional trauma as the best enduring predictor in the clinical model. (2) Experiential avoidance replaced metacognitions as the best cognitive predictor of hallucinations. The study's findings highlighted how vulnerability to hallucinations can occur developmentally across time, with early acquired vulnerability factors, combining additively with more proximal day-to-day factors and cognitive style, to propel a person further towards the formation of hallucinations.

  4. On modeling the digital gate delay under process variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingzhi, Gao; Zuochang, Ye; Yan, Wang; Zhiping, Yu

    2011-07-01

    To achieve a characterization method for the gate delay library used in block based statistical static timing analysis with neither unacceptably poor accuracy nor forbiddingly high cost, we found that general-purpose gate delay models are useful as intermediaries between the circuit simulation data and the gate delay models in required forms. In this work, two gate delay models for process variation considering different driving and loading conditions are proposed. From the testing results, these two models, especially the one that combines effective dimension reduction (EDR) from statistics society with comprehensive gate delay models, offer good accuracy with low characterization cost, and they are thus competent for use in statistical timing analysis (SSTA). In addition, these two models have their own value in other SSTA techniques.

  5. Modelling soil carbon fate under erosion process in vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Scalenghe, Riccardo; Minacapilli, Mario; Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Borgogno Mondino, Enrico; Gristina, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion processes in vineyards beyond water runoff and sediment transport have a strong effect on soil organic carbon loss (SOC) and redistribution along the slope. The variation of SOC across the landscape determines a difference in soil fertility and vine productivity. The aim of this research was to study erosion of a Mediterranean vineyard, develop an approach to estimate the SOC loss, correlate the vines vigor with sediment and carbon erosion. The study was carried out in a Sicilian (Italy) vineyard, planted in 2011. Along the slope, six pedons were studied by digging 6 pits up to 60cm depth. Soil was sampled in each pedon every 10cm and SOC was analyzed. Soil erosion, detachment and deposition areas were measured by pole height method. The vigor of vegetation was expressed in term of NDVI (Normalized difference Vegetation Index) derived from a satellite image (RapidEye) acquired at berry pre-veraison stage (July) and characterized by 5 spectral bands in the shortwave region, including a band in the red wavelength (R, 630-685 nm) and in the near infrared (NIR, 760-850 nm) . Results showed that soil erosion, sediments redistribution and SOC across the hill was strongly affected by topographic features, slope and curvature. The erosion rate was 46Mg ha-1 y-1 during the first 6 years since planting. The SOC redistribution was strongly correlated with the detachment or deposition area as highlighted by pole height measurements. The approach developed to estimate the SOC loss showed that during the whole study period the off-farm SOC amounts to 1.6Mg C ha-1. As highlighted by NDVI results, the plant vigor is strong correlated with SOC content and therefore, developing an accurate NDVI approach could be useful to detect the vineyard areas characterized by low fertility due to erosion process.

  6. Serendipity in Relationship: A Tentative Theory of the Cognitive Process of Yuanfen and Its Psychological Constructs in Chinese Cultural Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Ping; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen), relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered. PMID:26973576

  7. Serendipity in relationship: A tentative theory of the cognitive process of yuanfen and its psychological constructs in Chinese cultural societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ping eHsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen, relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered.

  8. Serendipity in Relationship: A Tentative Theory of the Cognitive Process of Yuanfen and Its Psychological Constructs in Chinese Cultural Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Ping; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen), relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered.

  9. Work conditions and employees' self-set goals: goal processes enhance prediction of psychological distress and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomaki, Georgia; Maes, Stan; Ter Doest, Laura

    2004-06-01

    Although previous theory and research suggest that employee well-being should be predicted by work conditions (viz., Karasek and colleagues' job demands-control-social support [J-DCS] model), other factors are also likely to be important. In this study, the authors consider correlates of employee psychological distress and well-being using a goal-focused approach grounded in Ford's (1992) motivational systems theory. Specifically, work conditions and midlevel work goal processes (WGP) were examined in a questionnaire study of health care employees. Regarding predictions derived from the J-DCS model, the authors found full support for the iso-strain, partial support for the nonlinearity, and no support for the buffer hypothesis. Of importance, however, WGP (i.e., cognitions and emotions involved in the pursuit of self-set work goals) explained variance in job satisfaction, burnout, depression, and somatic complaints, over and above that of the J-DCS model. This suggests that investigation of WGP can enhance our understanding of employee psychological distress and well-being.

  10. A regional process under the international initiative for IFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murase Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is likely to result in increases in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather events including floods. The International Flood Initiative (IFI, initiated in January 2005 by UNESCO and WMO and voluntary partner organizations has promoted an integrated flood management (IFM to take advantage of floods and use of floodplains while reducing the social, environmental and economic risks. Its secretariat is located in ICHARM. The initiative objective is to support national platforms to practice evidence-based disaster risk reduction through mobilizing scientific and research networks. After its initial decade, the initiative is providing a stepping-stone for the implementation of Sendai Framework by revitalizing its activities aimed at building on the sucess of the past, while addressing existing gaps in integrated flood managemnet strategies comprising of optimal structural and nonstructural measures thereby mainstreaming disaster risk reduction and targeting sustainable development. In this context, a new mechanism try to facilitate monitoring, assessment and capacity building in the Asia Pacific region. The primary outcomes of the mechanism are demand-driven networking and related documentations of best practices for 1 hazard assessment, 2 exposure assessment, 3 vulnerability assessment and coping capacity to identify the gaps, and 4 follow-ups and monitoring of the IFM process.

  11. Processes underlying dimensional interactions: correspondences between linguistic and nonlinguistic dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melara, R D; Marks, L E

    1990-09-01

    In six experiments, we examined speeded classification when one dimension was linguistic and the other was nonlinguistic. In five of these, attributes on the dimensions corresponded meaningfully, having in common the concepts "high" and "low." For example, in Experiment 1, the visually presented words HI and LO were paired with high- or low-pitched tones; in Experiment 2, the dimensions were visual words and vertical position, in Experiment 3, they were spoken words and position, and in Experiments 4 and 5, spoken words and pitch. For each dimension in each pair, subjects suffered Garner interference when dimensions were varied orthogonally. Garner interference remained constant across 15 blocks of trials (Experiment 5). Subjects also showed significant congruity effects in all experiments, with attributes from congruent stimuli (e.g., HI/high pitch) classified faster than attributes from incongruent stimuli (e.g., HI/low pitch). These results differ from those obtained previously with noncorresponding pairs of linguistic-nonlinguistic dimensions. The results also differ from those obtained with traditional Stroop dimensions (colors and color words; Experiment 6), which showed minimal Garner interference and diminishing congruity effects across blocks of trials. We conclude that the interactions found here represent cross-talk between channels within a semantic level of processing. We contrast our view with current models of dimensional interaction.

  12. Neural processing of reward magnitude under varying attentional demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, Christian Michael; Boehler, Carsten Nicolas; Strumpf, Hendrik; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Hopf, Jens-Max; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel

    2011-04-06

    Central to the organization of behavior is the ability to represent the magnitude of a prospective reward and the costs related to obtaining it. Therein, reward-related neural activations are discounted in dependence of the effort required to resolve a given task. Varying attentional demands of the task might however affect reward-related neural activations. Here we employed fMRI to investigate the neural representation of expected values during a monetary incentive delay task with varying attentional demands. Following a cue, indicating at the same time the difficulty (hard/easy) and the reward magnitude (high/low) of the upcoming trial, subjects performed an attention task and subsequently received feedback about their monetary reward. Consistent with previous results, activity in anterior-cingulate, insular/orbitofrontal and mesolimbic regions co-varied with the anticipated reward-magnitude, but also with the attentional requirements of the task. These activations occurred contingent on action-execution and resembled the response time pattern of the subjects. In contrast, cue-related activations, signaling the forthcoming task-requirements, were only observed within attentional control structures. These results suggest that anticipated reward-magnitude and task-related attentional demands are concurrently processed in partially overlapping neural networks of anterior-cingulate, insular/orbitofrontal, and mesolimbic regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Foveal Processing Under Concurrent Peripheral Load in Profoundly Deaf Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Development of the visual system typically proceeds in concert with the development of audition. One result is that the visual system of profoundly deaf individuals differs from that of those with typical auditory systems. While past research has suggested deaf people have enhanced attention in the visual periphery, it is still unclear whether or not this enhancement entails deficits in central vision. Profoundly deaf and typically hearing adults were administered a variant of the useful field of view task that independently assessed performance on concurrent central and peripheral tasks. Identification of a foveated target was impaired by a concurrent selective peripheral attention task, more so in profoundly deaf adults than in the typically hearing. Previous findings of enhanced performance on the peripheral task were not replicated. These data are discussed in terms of flexible allocation of spatial attention targeted towards perceived task demands, and support a modified “division of labor” hypothesis whereby attentional resources co-opted to process peripheral space result in reduced resources in the central visual field. PMID:26657078

  14. Processes and conditions underlying the link between shyness and school adjustment among Turkish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Cheah, Charissa S L; Coplan, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the underlying processes and conditions that contribute to the school adjustment of shy children in Turkey, where children's interpersonal relationships in social settings and academic achievement are highly emphasized. First, we examined the unique mediating roles of children's feelings of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and loneliness in the associations between shyness and indices of school outcomes (academic achievement and school liking/avoidance). Second, we explored the moderating role of children's peer acceptance in these associations. Fourth- and fifth-grade children (N = 599; M age  = 10.11 years, SD = 0.65; 48% girls) provided information on shyness, social anxiety, depressive symptoms, loneliness, and school liking/avoidance. Head teachers in each classroom reported on students' academic performance. The peer nomination method was used to assess children's peer relationships. Results revealed that when children displayed shy behaviours, they reported more depressive symptoms that were, in turn, associated with poorer academic performance, less school liking, and higher school avoidance. Moreover, shyness negatively predicted school liking at low levels of peer acceptance, suggesting that difficulties in peer relationships increased shy children's risk of school dissatisfaction. Overall, our findings support the importance of the interpersonal relationship context for children's adjustment within the Turkish cultural context. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Shy children have difficulties initiating and maintaining social interactions, which put them at risk for a wide range of socio-emotional difficulties. Shy children have poor academic performance and experience school adjustment difficulties in North America. What does this study add? Shyness is an important risk factor for poorer academic performance and adjustment among children in Turkey. The association between shyness and

  15. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.

  16. Undisciplined beginnings, academic success, and discursive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billig, Michael

    2012-09-01

    This paper reflects on the conditions under which Discourse and social psychology, Common knowledge, and the author's Arguing and thinking were written. These books, which were independently conceived, were not specifically written as contributions to 'discursive psychology', for discursive psychology did not exist at that time. Their authors were rejecting conventional approaches to doing psychological research. The paper discusses what it takes for a new academic movement, such as discursive psychology, to be successfully established in the current climate of 'academic capitalism'. Two requirements are particularly mentioned: the necessity for a label and the necessity for adherents to be recruited. Of the three books, only Discourse and social psychology was outwardly recruiting its readers to a new way of doing social psychology. Arguing and thinking, with its celebration of ancient rhetoric, was much more ambiguous in its aims. It was turning away from present usefulness towards the past. By claiming to be 'an antiquarian psychologist' the author was rejecting disciplinary thinking. The paper also considers the intellectual costs of establishing a new specialism or sub-discipline. The 'first generation' may have freedom, but success can bring about a narrowing of perspectives and the development of orthodoxies for subsequent academic generations. This applies as much to the development of experimental social psychology as to discursive psychology. These processes are particular enhanced in the present socio-economic situation of contemporary universities, which make it more difficult for young academics to become, in the words of William James, 'undisciplinables'. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Psychological Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Gideon Conway

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.

  18. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Examining Mechanisms Underlying Fear-Control in the Extended Parallel Process Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Brian L; LaVoie, Nicole R; Reynolds-Tylus, Tobias; Martinez-Gonzalez, Andrea; Skurka, Chris

    2017-01-17

    This investigation sought to advance the extended parallel process model in important ways by testing associations among the strengths of efficacy and threat appeals with fear as well as two outcomes of fear-control processing, psychological reactance and message minimization. Within the context of print ads admonishing against noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and the fictitious Trepidosis virus, partial support was found for the additive model with no support for the multiplicative model. High efficacy appeals mitigated freedom threat perceptions across both contexts. Fear was positively associated with both freedom threat perceptions within the NIHL context and favorable attitudes for both NIHL and Trepidosis virus contexts. In line with psychological reactance theory, a freedom threat was positively associated with psychological reactance. Reactance, in turn, was positively associated with message minimization. The models supported reactance preceding message minimization across both message contexts. Both the theoretical and practical implications are discussed with an emphasis on future research opportunities within the fear-appeal literature.

  20. Predicting Factors of Drop Out Counseling Process in University Psychological Counseling and Guidance Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer ÖZER

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predicting factors the drop out the counseling process . Methods: The study group consists of 555 college students admitted to a Counseling and Guidance Center (CGC and participated in at least one session of counseling after the first view in the 2013-2014 academic year. As a data collection tool, an "Application Form" on the demographic information and the "Brief Symptom Inventory" was applied to the students; and independent samples t-test and binary logistic regression techniques were used in the analysis of the collected data. Results: According to the analysis results, the age of the students attending the counseling process was found to be higher than those who drop out, but no significant difference was found in their psychometric properties in terms of continuation of the counseling process. Only the age of clients and their previous psychiatric help history was found to predict the dropping out counseling process early. Conclusion: Drop outs are less frequently observed in clients having a previous psychiatric help experience. In addition, it was determined that older clients less frequently drop out the counseling process. [JCBPR 2015; 4(1.000: 18-25

  1. Predicting Factors of Drop Out Counseling Process in University Psychological Counseling and Guidance Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer OZER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predicting factors the drop out the counseling process. Methods: The study group consists of 555 college students admitted to a Counseling and Guidance Center (CGC and participated in at least one session of counseling after the first view in the 2013-2014 academic year. As a data collection tool, an “Application Form” on the demographic information and the “Brief Symptom Inventory” was applied to the students; and independent samples t-test and binary logistic regression techniques were used in the analysis of the collected data. Results: According to the analysis results, the age of the students attending the counseling process was found to be higher than those who drop out, but no significant difference was found in their psychometric properties in terms of continuation of the counseling process. Only the age of clients and their previous psychiatric help history was found to predict the dropping out counseling process early. Conclusion: Drop outs are less frequently observed in clients having a previous psychiatric help experience. In addition, it was determined that older clients less frequently drop out the counseling process

  2. Pain-related insomnia versus primary insomnia: a comparison study of sleep pattern, psychological characteristics, and cognitive-behavioral processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Nicole K Y; Goodchild, Claire E; Hester, Joan; Salkovskis, Paul M

    2012-06-01

    Recent applications of cognitive-behavior therapy for primary insomnia in the management of pain-related insomnia are based on the implicit assumption that the 2 types of insomnia share the same presentation and maintaining mechanisms. The objectives of this study were to compare the characteristics of patients who have pain-related insomnia with those reporting primary insomnia and to identify psychological factors that predict pain-related insomnia. Chronic pain patients with concomitant insomnia (n=137; Pain-related Insomnia Group) completed a selection of questionnaires that measure sleep patterns, psychological attributes, and cognitive-behavioral processes associated with the persistence of insomnia. Their responses were compared with those of primary insomnia patients (n=33; Primary Insomnia Group), using 3 sets of multivariate analyses of covariance that took account of demographic differences. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of insomnia severity among the chronic pain patients. The Pain-related Insomnia Group did not differ from the Primary Insomnia Group in their pattern and severity of sleep disturbance. The 2 groups were largely comparable in terms of their psychological characteristics, except that the Primary Insomnia Group was distinguishable from the Pain-related Insomnia Group by their greater tendency to worry. Patients in the Pain-related Insomnia Group reported levels of sleep-related anxiety and presleep somatic arousal that matched with those reported by patients in the Primary Insomnia Group. However, relative to patients in the Pain-related Insomnia Group, those in the Primary Insomnia Group reported more dysfunctional sleep beliefs and presleep cognitive arousal. In addition to pain intensity, depression, and presleep cognitive arousal were significant predictors of insomnia severity within the Pain-related Insomnia Group. There are more similarities than differences between the 2 types of insomnia

  3. Effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) Training on Clinical Psychology Trainee Stress, Therapist Skills and Attributes, and ACT Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakenham, Kenneth I

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing uptake of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) by mental health practitioners, few studies have investigated the effects of ACT training on trainees. Clinical psychology trainees (CPTs) are susceptible to high stress such that their training represents a teachable moment for personal application of the therapy skills they learn for clinical practice. This study investigates the effects of ACT training on stress, therapist skills and attributes, and the personal acquisition of ACT strategies in CPTs. Thirty-two CPTs completed questionnaires before and after university-based ACT training that consisted of 12 2-h weekly workshops. Pairwise t-tests showed that CPTs reported improvements from before to after training on measures of counselling self-efficacy, client-therapist alliance, self-kindness, acceptance, defusion, mindfulness and values, and a marginally significant improvement on somatic symptoms, despite a trend towards increased work-related stress. As predicted, each of the ACT process variables was related to one or more of the therapist stress, skill and attribute variables, such that greater levels of mindfulness, values and acceptance, and less thought suppression were related to better trainee outcomes. This study provides preliminary data on therapist skill development and personal benefits for CPTs related to receiving ACT training that interweaves instruction in competencies acquisition with self-care. This study provides preliminary data on therapist skill development and personal benefits for clinical psychology trainees related to receiving ACT training that integrates training in competencies acquisition with self-care. The ACT training offers a framework for integrating the acquisition of clinical competencies and self-care skills and positive therapist attributes in trainees. Findings support a strong positive union between the ACT processes and better trainee personal and professional outcomes. Copyright © 2014 John

  4. Psychological variables underlying political orientations in an old and a new democracy: A comparative study between Sweden and Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimdins, Girts; Sandgren, Maria; Montgomery, Henry

    2016-10-01

    This study examines in detail the psychological variables underlying ideological political orientation, and structure and contents of this orientation, in Sweden and Latvia. Individual political orientation is conceptualized on two dimensions: acceptance vs. rejection of social change and acceptance vs. rejection of inequality. Swedish (N = 320) and Latvian (N = 264) participants completed measures of political orientation, Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA), self vs. other orientation, tolerance for ambiguity, humanism and normativism, core political values, system justification, as well as moral foundations questionnaire and portrait values questionnaire. The results showed that the relation among the measured variables was similar in both samples. Swedish participants showed stronger endorsement of egalitarian attitudes and social values, whereas we found more self-enhancing and socially conservative values and attitudes among the Latvian participants. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development as well as “studies as usual”: a thematic analysis of medical students’ reflective writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semb O

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Olof Semb,1 Niclas Kaiser,2 Sven-Olof Andersson,1 Elisabet Sundbom3 1Department of Clinical Sciences, Division for Professional Development, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 2Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 3Department of Clinical Sciences, Division for Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Abstract: Reflective writing in medical training has been shown to be most effective when combined with some form of personal meeting or dialog. During a course in medical psychology for medical students, reflective texts were followed up by an individual personal talk with a teacher from the course. Thematic analysis of the texts revealed four separate sub-themes: 1 the course has enabled me and the class to develop, which is good albeit arduous; 2 understanding myself is a resource in understanding people as well as knowing psychology; 3 the course provided me with new, purely intellectual skills as well as eye-openers; and 4 the receiving teacher is an integral part of my reflective writing. The main theme, capturing the students’ writing process, concluded that students perceive the course as “Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development” as well as “studies as usual”. Ethical, psychological, and pedagogical aspects are discussed in the paper. Keywords: reflective writing, self-knowledge, individual personal talks, thematic analysis, medical education

  6. Scientific psychology in Brazil in the 20th century: the dialogue with European researchers, a look at Brazilian culture and a successful process of professionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Regina Helena de Freitas

    2006-01-01

    The first laboratories of psychology established in Brazil were organized in the early twentieth century by professionals trained in medical schools or in education. These laboratories, linked to mental health hospitals or to normal schools, followed guidelines suggested by Edouard Claparède, from the Laboratory of Psychology of the University of Geneva, and by Alfred Binet, from the Laboratory of Psychology of the University of Paris (Sorbonne). Besides replicating experimental studies done in Europe, their purpose was to study the psychological characteristics of the population attended by the mental health or educational systems. The themes explored by the researchers were the comparison of psychological processes in normal and mentally troubled individuals, or the study of the mental development of school-age children. The meaning of the word "laboratory" became associated with applied psychology, and with the adaptation to the Brazilian population of mental tests elaborated in other countries (mainly in France). Around the 1940s and 1950s, with the establishment of the teaching of psychology in higher learning institutions, research in the area expanded. Two authors are mainly responsible for this expansion: Lourenço Filho (1897-1970), and Helena Antipoff (1892-1974). Their work, still inspired by Claparède and Binet, contributed to the development of important lines of research in psychology in Brazil, with a lasting influence on subsequent generations of psychologists. From the 1960s onwards, with the regulation of the profession of psychologist, formal university programs increased strongly, and, in the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive system of graduate programs in psychology was established, contributing to the professionalization of research in the field.

  7. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities and psychological well-being of Chinese adolescents in intact and non-intact families in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Lee, Tak Yan

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines whether Chinese adolescents' perceptions (N = 3,017) of parental behavioral control (parental knowledge, expectation, monitoring, discipline, and demandingness as well as parental control based on indigenous Chinese concepts), parental psychological control, parent-child relational qualities (perceived parental trust, child's trust of the parents, child's readiness to communicate with the parents, and child's satisfaction with parental control), and adolescent psychological well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and self-esteem) differed in intact and non-intact families. Results showed that relative to non-intact families, parental behavioral control processes were higher and parent-child relational qualities were better in intact families. In contrast, parental psychological control was higher in non-intact families than in intact families. Finally, the psychological well-being of adolescents in non-intact families was poorer than that of adolescents in intact families.

  8. What is Political Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  9. Psychological Processes Promoting the Relation Between Exposure to Media Violence and Aggressive Behavior by the Viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L. Rowell

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the effect of media violence on individual differences in aggression is primarily the result of a cumulative learning process during childhood. Presents a developmental theory holding that a child's repeated viewing of media violence, in combination with other factors, can culminate in aggressive behavior patterns (including…

  10. Predicting Factors of Drop Out Counseling Process in University Psychological Counseling and Guidance Center

    OpenAIRE

    Ömer ÖZER; Ahmet ALTINOK

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predicting factors the drop out the counseling process . Methods: The study group consists of 555 college students admitted to a Counseling and Guidance Center (CGC) and participated in at least one session of counseling after the first view in the 2013-2014 academic year. As a data collection tool, an "Application Form" on the demographic information and the "Brief Symptom Inventory" was applied to the students; and independent sam...

  11. Organizational Change: The Effects Of Trust In Organization and Psychological Capital During Change Process

    OpenAIRE

    Saruhan, Nese

    2013-01-01

    Due to dynamic business environments, organizations must implement changes in their strategies, structures and/or processes when existing conditions are not sufficient to create a competitive advantage in the market. According to Kotter and Schlesinger (1978), most companies must undertake moderate organizational changes at least once a year and major changes every four or five years because of increasing demands from government, growth, competition, technological development, and changes in ...

  12. THE CONTRIBUTION OF PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY IN THE ETHICAL DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELA LIVIA DOLTU

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to explore the relationship between morality and organizational culture with reference to the process of ethical decision making and to the cooperation between philosopher and psychologist for the improvement of ethical climate within a public institution. Firstly, we introduce the notion of organizational culture emphasizing the importance of moral values and their role in building a true ethical climate. Secondly, we focus on the study of ethical decision making. The proce...

  13. Language Processing as Cue Integration: Grounding the Psychology of Language in Perception and Neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrea E

    2016-01-01

    I argue that cue integration, a psychophysiological mechanism from vision and multisensory perception, offers a computational linking hypothesis between psycholinguistic theory and neurobiological models of language. I propose that this mechanism, which incorporates probabilistic estimates of a cue's reliability, might function in language processing from the perception of a phoneme to the comprehension of a phrase structure. I briefly consider the implications of the cue integration hypothesis for an integrated theory of language that includes acquisition, production, dialogue and bilingualism, while grounding the hypothesis in canonical neural computation.

  14. Twenty-first century science as a relational process: from eureka! to team science and a place for community psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Thai, Nghi D; Matlin, Samantha L

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we maintain that twenty-first century science is, fundamentally, a relational process in which knowledge is produced (or co-produced) through transactions among researchers or among researchers and public stakeholders. We offer an expanded perspective on the practice of twenty-first century science, the production of scientific knowledge, and what community psychology can contribute to these developments. We argue that: (1) trends in science show that research is increasingly being conducted in teams; (2) scientific teams, such as transdisciplinary teams of researchers or of researchers collaborating with various public stakeholders, are better able to address complex challenges; (3) transdisciplinary scientific teams are part of the larger, twenty-first century transformation in science; (4) the concept of heterarchy is a heuristic for team science aligned with this transformation; (5) a contemporary philosophy of science known as perspectivism provides an essential foundation to advance twenty-first century science; and (6) community psychology, through its core principles and practice competencies, offers theoretical and practical expertise for advancing team science and the transformation in science currently underway. We discuss the implications of these points and illustrate them briefly with two examples of transdisciplinary team science from our own work. We conclude that a new narrative is emerging for science in the twenty-first century that draws on interpersonal transactions in teams, and active engagement by researchers with the public to address critical accountabilities. Because of its core organizing principles and unique blend of expertise on the intersection of research and practice, community psychologists are well-prepared to help advance these developments, and thus have much to offer twenty-first century science.

  15. 21st Century Science as a Relational Process: From Eureka! to Team Science and a Place for Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Thai, Nghi D.; Matlin, Samantha L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we maintain that 21st century science is, fundamentally, a relational process in which knowledge is produced (or co-produced) through transactions among researchers or among researchers and public stakeholders. We offer an expanded perspective on the practice of 21st century science, the production of scientific knowledge, and what community psychology can contribute to these developments. We argue that: 1) trends in science show that research is increasingly being conducted in teams; 2) scientific teams, such as transdisciplinary teams of researchers or of researchers collaborating with various public stakeholders, are better able to address complex challenges; 3) transdisciplinary scientific teams are part of the larger, 21st century transformation in science; 4) the concept of heterarchy is a heuristic for team science aligned with this transformation; 5) a contemporary philosophy of science known as perspectivism provides an essential foundation to advance 21st century science; and 6) community psychology, through its core principles and practice competencies, offers theoretical and practical expertise for advancing team science and the transformation in science currently underway. We discuss the implications of these points and illustrate them briefly with two examples of transdisciplinary team science from our own work. We conclude that a new narrative is emerging for science in the 21st century that draws on interpersonal transactions in teams, and active engagement by researchers with the public to address critical accountabilities. Because of its core organizing principles and unique blend of expertise on the intersection of research and practice, community psychologists are extraordinarily well-prepared to help advance these developments, and thus have much to offer 21st century science. PMID:24496718

  16. Work overload, burnout, and psychological ill-health symptoms: a three-wave mediation model of the employee health impairment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Leon T; Pienaar, Jaco; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2016-07-01

    The study reported here investigated the causal relationships in the health impairment process of employee well-being, and the mediating role of burnout in the relationship between work overload and psychological ill-health symptoms, over time. The research is deemed important due to the need for longitudinal evidence of the health impairment process of employee well-being over three waves of data. A quantitative survey design was followed. Participants constituted a longitudinal sample of 370 participants, at three time points, after attrition. Descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling methods were implemented. Work overload at time one predicted burnout at time two, and burnout at time two predicted psychological ill-health symptoms at time three. Indirect effects were found between work overload time one and psychological ill-health symptoms time three via burnout time two, and also between burnout time one and psychological ill-health symptoms time three, via burnout time two. The results provided supportive evidence for an "indirect-only" mediation effect, for burnout's causal mediation mechanism in the health impairment process between work overload and psychological ill-health symptoms.

  17. Risky driving in fog : psychological explanations

    OpenAIRE

    CAVALLO, V; CARO, S; DORE, J; COLOMB, M; DUMONT, E

    2007-01-01

    Fog doubles the risk of accidents and modifies driving behaviour in a way that leads to greater risk-taking. Traffic studies indicate that most drivers adopt excessive speeds and insufficient headways in foggy conditions. Yet our understanding of the psychological processes underlying this common but unsuitable behaviour, and the effectiveness of road safety measures, remain limited. Two main hypotheses have been put forward. The first one, stemming from social psychology, evokes a deteriorat...

  18. Determinants of central processing order in psychological refractory period paradigms: central arrival times, detection times, or preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhard, Tanja

    2011-10-01

    Three psychological refractory period (PRP) experiments were conducted to assess the effect of central arrival times at the bottleneck on task order scheduling. In Experiment 1, a visual first task (plus-minus symbol discrimination) was combined with an auditory second task (left-right tone judgement) in a standard PRP paradigm with constant task order. In Experiment 2, the order of the tasks varied unpredictably. In Experiment 3, visual-auditory dual-task trials were randomly mixed with single-task trials. To dissociate central arrival times from stimulus detection times, the perceptual stage of the visual task was extended using stimulus degradation. Most importantly, no evidence for a first-come, first-served principle at the central bottleneck was found with the employed paradigms. Instead, the results indicated that preparation (Experiment 1) and the detection times of the stimuli (Experiments 2 and 3) were the main determinants of central processing order in the present study. In the light of previous research, the results indicate that central processing order can be influenced by various factors. The interplay between these factors seems to depend highly on the conditions and requirements of the employed experimental paradigm.

  19. Positive emotions: A psychological tool for promoting resilience process in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Greco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this theoretical work is to assess the relation between the capacity to experiment positive emotions and the process of resilience throughout childhood. Our interest arises from two research works being carried out in the province of Mendoza, in Argentina (INCIHUSA-CRICYT-CONICET, directed by Dr Mirta Ison. One the so called “Assessment of resilience in childhood maltreatment”, and the other “ Positive emotions as psycological tools for fostering mental health throughout childhood within vulnerable social contexts”. Resilience is always associated to risky or vulnerable social situations. Positive emotions constitute a resource favorable to the development of resilience. This working hypothesis is based on previous studies which hold that positive emotions favor creative thinking for the solution of interpersonal problems, promote cognitive flexibility, reduce risks at decision making, promote replies to generosity and altruism, increase intelectual resources and counteract depressive tendencies among others. Other authors support the fact that the features a resilient child holds are closely connected to cognitive flexibility, to creative capacity, to the capacity for solving interpersonal problems, to self esteem and attachment links among others. Thus, positive emotions are believed to be one of the psycological resources and tools needed for the development of resilience throughout childhood. 

  20. Attachment and Family Processes in Children's Psychological Adjustment in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demby, Kimberly P; Riggs, Shelley A; Kaminski, Patricia L

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the links between parent-child attachment, whole family interaction patterns, and child emotional adjustment and adaptability in a sample of 86 community families with children between the ages of 8 and 11 years. Family interactions were observed and coded with the System for Coding Interactions and Family Functioning (SCIFF; Lindahl, 2001). Both parents and each target child completed the appropriate form of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2nd Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). Target children also completed the Children's Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CCSQ; Yunger, Corby, & Perry, 2005). Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that Secure mother-child attachment was a robust predictor of children's emotional symptoms, but father-child attachment strategies were not significant independent predictors. Positive Affect in family interactions significantly increased the amount of variance accounted for in children's emotional symptoms. In addition, Family Cohesion and Positive Affect moderated the relationship between father-child attachment and children's emotional symptoms. When data from all BASC-2 informants (mother, father, child) were considered simultaneously and multidimensional constructs were modeled, mother-child security directly predicted children's adjustment and adaptive skills, but the influence of father-child security was fully mediated through positive family functioning. Results of the current study support the utility of considering dyadic attachment and family interaction patterns conjointly when conceptualizing and fostering positive emotional and behavioral outcomes in children. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  1. The measurement of psychological literacy: a first approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Heritage, Brody; Gasson, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Psychological literacy, the ability to apply psychological knowledge to personal, family, occupational, community and societal challenges, is promoted as the primary outcome of an undergraduate education in psychology. As the concept of psychological literacy becomes increasingly adopted as the core business of undergraduate psychology training courses world-wide, there is urgent need for the construct to be accurately measured so that student and institutional level progress can be assessed and monitored. Key to the measurement of psychological literacy is determining the underlying factor-structure of psychological literacy. In this paper we provide a first approximation of the measurement of psychological literacy by identifying and evaluating self-report measures for psychological literacy. Multi-item and single-item self-report measures of each of the proposed nine dimensions of psychological literacy were completed by two samples (N = 218 and N = 381) of undergraduate psychology students at an Australian university. Single and multi-item measures of each dimension were weakly to moderately correlated. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of multi-item measures indicated a higher order three factor solution best represented the construct of psychological literacy. The three factors were reflective processes, generic graduate attributes, and psychology as a helping profession. For the measurement of psychological literacy to progress there is a need to further develop self-report measures and to identify/develop and evaluate objective measures of psychological literacy. Further approximations of the measurement of psychological literacy remain an imperative, given the construct's ties to measuring institutional efficacy in teaching psychology to an undergraduate audience. PMID:25741300

  2. La investigacion sovietica en psicologia de la actividad linguistica (Soviet Investigations in Psychology Relating to Linguistic Processes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prucha, J.

    1975-01-01

    Surveys the actual state of Russian research on verbal behavior as seen from the field of psychology. The research is in four parts: (1) language and thought, especially internal language, (2) neurological aspects of language, (3) child language, and (4) psychology of language learning and teaching for native and foreign languages. (Text is in…

  3. 75 FR 37707 - Administrative Process for Seizures and Forfeitures Under the Immigration and Nationality Act and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Secretary 8 CFR Part 274 19 CFR Part 162 RIN 1651-AA58 Administrative Process for Seizures and Forfeitures... initiation of any administrative or judicial forfeiture process. In contrast, the regulations adopted under... remission of seized property before the completion of the forfeiture process. The interim final rule also...

  4. Process evaluation of the MOSAIC trial: treatment experience of two psychological therapies for out-patient treatment of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Kelly Ann; Renwick, Beth; Keyes, Alexandra; Lose, Anna; Kenyon, Martha; DeJong, Hannah; Broadbent, Hannah; Serpell, Lucy; Richards, Lorna; Johnson-Sabine, Eric; Boughton, Nicky; Whitehead, Linette; Treasure, Janet; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of a series of process evaluations within the MOSAIC Trial (Maudsley Outpatient Study of Treatments for Anorexia Nervosa and Related Conditions). This randomised controlled trial (RCT) compared two psychological treatments, the Maudsley Model for Treatment of Adults with Anorexia Nervosa (MANTRA) and Specialist Supportive Clinical Management (SSCM) for adult outpatients with Anorexia Nervosa. The present process study integrates quantitative (treatment acceptability and credibility) and qualitative (written) feedback to evaluate patients' treatment experiences. All 142 MOSAIC participants were asked to (a) rate treatment acceptability and credibility on visual analogue scales (VAS) at six and 12 months post-randomisation, and (b) provide written feedback regarding their views on their treatment at 12 months. Transcripts were first analysed thematically and then rated according to the global valence of feedback (positive, mixed/negative). 114/142 (80.3 %) MOSAIC participants provided VAS data and 82 (57.7 %) provided written feedback. At 12 months, MANTRA patients gave significantly higher acceptability and credibility ratings compared to SSCM patients. A significantly higher proportion of MANTRA patients provided written feedback. MANTRA patients also tended to write in more detail and to give globally more positive feedback when compared to individuals receiving SSCM. Qualitative themes suggest that patients experienced the two treatments differently in terms of characteristics and outcomes. This study highlights the benefits of incorporating qualitative and quantitative data into RCT process evaluations. MANTRA patients were more willing to express their views on treatment and generally felt more positively about this than those receiving SSCM.

  5. Thermal and non-thermal processing of apple cider: storage quality under equivalent process conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three processing techniques: heat, pulsed electric field (PEF) and ultraviolet light (UV) were optimized to achieve a similar 6 log reduction of inoculated Escherichia coli K12 in apple cider. PEF treatment at 23 kV/cm for a total treatment time of 150 us at 48C, UV exposure for 51 s at 15C and heat...

  6. Are Phonological Processes Separate from the Processes Underlying Naming Speed in a Shallow Orthography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Escribano, Carmen; Katzir, Tami

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The present study examined the contributions of phonological decoding skills and rapid naming to the prediction of reading skills in Spanish-speaking children with dyslexia. Method: Thirty-eight dyslexic readers with phonological decoding processing deficits (mean age 9;11) were assessed on reading speed, reading comprehension, word…

  7. The Brazilian Psychology Postgraduate System and the Internationalization Process: Critical Aspects, Evaluation Indicators and Challenges for Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Meira Menandro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe paper discusses aspects of internationalization policies pertaining to research and postgraduate training programs in Brazilian psychology. Indicators from eight areas of knowledge, used by CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education to assess the level of internationalization of the postgraduate programs, are presented to support the arguments. The authors contend that: a internationalization is not a theme limited to the strict framework of science and technology, requiring knowledge of cultural, educational, economic and political aspects; b different axioms and rules apply to different areas of knowledge; c collaboration with researchers from different centers can be more beneficial than focusing only on publishing in foreign periodicals; d coordination and collaboration between researchers does not require alignment of national research agenda to the standards of foreign research centers. Indeed, internationalization is recognized and is rapidly developing in academic institutions and support agencies. In this process, challenges are presented to postgraduate programs: a to ensure that communication extrapolates the limit of the Portuguese language and is in the language appropriate to the context of the student/researcher; b to reduce bureaucratic obstacles that hinder cooperation in Brazilian universities; c to support arrangements and policies that facilitate joint funding proposals with other countries that benefit Brazilian science and technology.

  8. South Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and psychological mediators of faecal occult blood colorectal screening participation: A prospective test of a process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbell, Sheina; Szczepura, Ala; Weller, David; Gumber, Anil; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-12-01

    Although ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) correlate with health inequality, efforts to explain variance in health behavior attributable to these factors are limited by difficulties in population sampling. We used ethnicity identification software to test effects of psychological beliefs about screening as mediators of ethnicity and SES on faecal occult blood colorectal screening behavior in a no-cost health care context. Adults aged 50-67 years (N = 1,678), of whom 28% were from minority South Asian religiolinguistic ethnic groups (Hindu-Gujarati/Hindi, Muslim-Urdu and Sikh-Punjabi), participated in a prospective survey study. Subsequent screening participation was determined from medical records. Screening nonparticipation in the most deprived SES quintile was 1.6 times that of the least deprived quintile. Nonparticipation was 1.6 times higher in South Asians compared with non-Asians. A process model in which psychological variables mediated effects of ethnicity and SES on uptake was tested using structural equation modeling. Self-efficacy and perceived psychological costs of screening were, respectively, positive and negative direct predictors of uptake. Paths from Hindu, Muslim, and Sikh ethnicity, and SES on uptake were fully mediated by lower self-efficacy and higher perceived psychological costs. Paths from South Asian ethnicity to participation via self-efficacy and psychological costs were direct, and indirect via SES. SES is implicated, but does not fully account for low colorectal screening uptake among South Asians. Targeting increased self-efficacy and reduced perceived psychological costs may minimize health inequality effects. Future research should test independent effects of SES and ethnicity on lower self-efficacy and higher psychological costs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. [Effects in the adherence treatment and psychological adjustment after the disclosure of HIV/AIDS diagnosis with the "DIRE" clinical model in Colombian children under 17].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejos, Ana María; Reyes, Lizeth; Bahamon, Marly Johana; Alarcón, Yolima; Gaviria, Gladys

    2015-08-01

    A study in five Colombian cities in 2006, confirms the findings of other international studies: the majority of HIV-positive children not know their diagnosis, caregivers are reluctant to give this information because they believe that the news will cause emotional distress to the child becoming primary purpose of this study to validate a model of revelation. We implemented a clinical model, referred to as: "DIRE" that hypothetically had normalizing effects on psychological adjustment and adherence to antiretroviral treatment of HIV seropositive children, using a quasi-experimental design. Test were administered (questionnaire to assess patterns of disclosure and non-disclosure of the diagnosis of VIH/SIDA on children in health professionals and participants caregivers, Family Apgar, EuroQol EQ- 5D, MOS Social Support Survey Questionnaire Information treatment for VIH/SIDA and child Symptom Checklist CBCL/6-18 adapted to Latinos) before and after implementation of the model to 31 children (n: 31), 30 caregivers (n: 30) and 41 health professionals. Data processing was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science version 21 by applying parametric tests (Friedman) and nonparametric (t Student). No significant differences in adherence to treatment (p=0.392), in the psychological adjustment were found positive significant differences at follow-ups compared to baseline 2 weeks (p: 0.001), 3 months (p: 0.000) and 6 months (p: 0.000). The clinical model demonstrated effectiveness in normalizing of psychological adjustment and maintaining treatment compliance. The process also generated confidence in caregivers and health professionals in this difficult task.

  10. Quality assessment of baby food made of different pre-processed organic raw materials under industrial processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Kathrin; Kahl, Johannes; Paoletti, Flavio; Birlouez, Ines; Busscher, Nicolaas; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Seljåsen, Randi; Sinesio, Fiorella; Torp, Torfinn; Baiamonte, Irene

    2015-02-01

    The market for processed food is rapidly growing. The industry needs methods for "processing with care" leading to high quality products in order to meet consumers' expectations. Processing influences the quality of the finished product through various factors. In carrot baby food, these are the raw material, the pre-processing and storage treatments as well as the processing conditions. In this study, a quality assessment was performed on baby food made from different pre-processed raw materials. The experiments were carried out under industrial conditions using fresh, frozen and stored organic carrots as raw material. Statistically significant differences were found for sensory attributes among the three autoclaved puree samples (e.g. overall odour F = 90.72, p baby food.

  11. Behavioral and molecular processing of visceral pain in the brain of mice: impact of colitis and psychological stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush eJain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal disorders with abdominal pain are associated with central sensitization and psychopathologies that are often exacerbated by stress. Here we investigated the impact of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS and repeated water avoidance stress (WAS on spontaneous and nociception-related behavior and molecular signaling in the mouse brain. DSS increased the mechanical pain sensitivity of the abdominal skin while both WAS and DSS enhanced the mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity of the plantar skin. These manifestations of central sensitization were associated with augmented c-Fos expression in spinal cord, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex. While WAS stimulated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK p42/44, DSS activated another signaling pathway, both of which converged on c-Fos. The DSS- and WAS-induced hyperalgesia in the abdominal and plantar skin and c-Fos expression in the brain disappeared when the mice were subjected to WAS+DSS treatment. Intrarectal allyl isothiocyanate (AITC evoked aversive behavior (freezing, reduction of locomotion and exploration in association with p42/44 MAPK and c-Fos activation in spinal cord and brain. These effects were inhibited by morphine, which attests to their relationship with nociception. DSS and WAS exerted opposite effects on AITC-evoked p42/44 MAPK and c-Fos activation, which indicates that these transduction pathways subserve different aspects of visceral pain processing in the brain. In summary, behavioral perturbations caused by colitis and psychological stress are associated with distinct alterations in cerebral signaling. These findings provide novel perspectives on central sensitization and the sensory and emotional processing of visceral pain stimuli in the brain.

  12. Asymptotic equivalent analysis of the LMS algorithm under linearly filtered processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rupp, Markus

    2016-01-01

    While the least mean square (LMS) algorithm has been widely explored for some specific statistics of the driving process, an understanding of its behavior under general statistics has not been fully achieved...

  13. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR

  14. 22 CFR 92.92 - Service of legal process under provisions of State law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service of legal process under provisions of State law. 92.92 Section 92.92 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Quasi-Legal Services § 92.92 Service of legal process under provisions of State law. It may be found that a State statue...

  15. Mashing of Rice with Barley Malt Under Nonconventional Process Conditions for Use in Food Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, T.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    1994-01-01

    Non-conventional mashing conditions are relevant in the development of a lactic acid-fermented soymilk beverage where mashed rice is the source of carbohydrates for the fermentation and sweetness of the beverage. Advantages in the process layout could be achieved by mashing at higher pH and lower...... at 50 degrees C and 62 degrees C was investigated. Regression equations have been established for predicting yields of soluble protein, low molecular weight sugars and total fermentability as functions of pH and malt concentration. The results showed that the maltose yield was constant while glucose......, maltotriose and total fermentable sugar yields decreased slightly with increasing pH and decreasing malt concentration. Prolonged mash holding times at 50 degrees C and 62 degrees C gave minor increases in protein yields only. It is concluded that it is quite acceptable to use nonconventional mashing...

  16. Military Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS...TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS.

  17. Molecular consequences of psychological stress in human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Villanueva, M; Bürkle, A

    2015-08-01

    Psychological stress has often been described as a feeling of being overwhelmed by the necessity of constant adjustment to an individual's changing environment. Stress affects people of all ages, but the lives of the elderly may particularly be affected. Major changes can cause anxiety leading to feelings of insecurity and/or loss of self-esteem and depression. The cellular mechanisms underlying psychological stress are poorly understood. This review focuses on the physical and molecular consequences of psychological stress linked to aging processes and, in particular, how molecular changes induced by psychological stress can compromise healthy aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. LIFE-LONG EDUCATION AS A RESOURCE TO OVERCOME THE PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIERS IN THE PROCESS OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDIVIDUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira E. Symanyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current situation in Russia is characterized by rapid modernization and development of various spheres of activity. Intense pace of social and economic development of some countries, the processes of globalization, increasing competition due to the open labor market, act as a call to the level of personal and professional specialist development, to its ability for properly planning activities, mobility reconstructed in a rapidly changing professional situation, develop innovative technology and build their professional career. The aim of this paper is a theoretical justification of continuing education as a resource for overcoming the psychological barriers in the process of professional development of the individual. Career stagnation objectively arising in the process of professionalization, the reduction of professional expectations and values mismatch personal and professional characteristics with the requirements of current professional situation are considered by the authors as psychological barriers to the professional development of an individual. Methods. The authors used theoretical methods of research – analysis of the literature on the study, the synthesis of the conceptual issues of the classification. The paper presents an analysis of the Russian and foreign theories on the origin and development of psychological barriers. Results. The terms «psychological barrier» and «overcoming the behavior» are specified. The psychological professional-development barriers of the person are highlighted and classified: professional degradation, deterioration of professional and psychological health of individuals. The resources for overcoming the psychological barriers are defined; the integral role is assigned to continuing education and self-education. As both Russian and international experience shows, adult education is becoming one of the leading forms of social activity having a wide array of technologies, methods and

  19. From production-oriented farming towards multifunctional entrepreneurship : exploring the underlying learning process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seuneke, P.L.M.

    2014-01-01

      This thesis unravels the learning process underlying the switch from conventional production-oriented farming towards ‘multifunctional entrepreneurship’. In other words: the process by which former production-oriented farmers (men, women and their families) re-invent themselves

  20. 78 FR 70088 - Agency Proposed Business Process Vision Under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... individuals who: Are blind or visually impaired; are deaf or hard of hearing; have cognitive or learning... ADMINISTRATION Agency Proposed Business Process Vision Under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of availability of proposed business process vision following...

  1. 76 FR 56357 - Expedited Vocational Assessment Under the Sequential Evaluation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... assessment of your residual functional capacity at step five of the sequential evaluation process to decide... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Parts 404 and 416 RIN 0960-AH26 Expedited Vocational Assessment Under the Sequential Evaluation Process AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM...

  2. Comparing two psychological interventions in reducing impulsive processes of eating behaviour: effects on self-selected portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Veling, Harm; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Aarts, Henk

    2014-11-01

    influence of more deliberate processes on behaviour. This perspective has stimulated the development of new interventions - which have so far been studied in isolation - aimed at decreasing the influence of impulsive or hedonic processes to decrease unhealthy eating behaviour. What does this study add? Linking sweets to stop signals and diet-prime implementation intentions both reduce self-selected portion size. Combining the interventions does not lead to additive effects. Each intervention reduces self-selected portion size of sweets, making the other redundant. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Stochastic stability of mechanical systems under renewal jump process parametric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Larsen, Jesper Winther

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic system under parametric excitation in the form of a non-Erlang renewal jump process is considered. The excitation is a random train of nonoverlapping rectangular pulses with equal, deterministic heights. The time intervals between two consecutive jumps up (or down), are the sum of two...... independent, negative exponential distributed variables; hence, the arrival process may be termed as a generalized Erlang renewal process. The excitation process is governed by the stochastic equation driven by two independent Poisson processes, with different parameters. If the response in a single mode...

  4. Body Contact and Body Language: Moments of Personal Development and Social and Cultural Learning Processes in Movement Psychology and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Winther

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based on the Dance Therapy Form Dansergia. The author, who is a practi­tioner-researcher, is methodologically inspir­ed by phenomenology, performative methods and a narrative and auto-ethnographic approach. The project will be presented in an organic, cre­at­ive and performative way. Through a moving dia­logue between a written text and a visceral on-line performance involving photographs and music, the reader/audience has the possibility to be touched both sensually and intellectually, although through communication is in cyberspace, missing the liveliness of direct body language. See online performance: http://www.viddler.com/player/c3c7a343/. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802637

  5. HIV prevention interventions to reduce sexual risk for African Americans: the influence of community-level stigma and psychological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Allecia E; Dovidio, John F; Ballester, Estrellita; Johnson, Blair T

    2014-02-01

    Interventions to improve public health may benefit from consideration of how environmental contexts can facilitate or hinder their success. We examined the extent to which efficacy of interventions to improve African Americans' condom use practices was moderated by two indicators of structural stigma-Whites' attitudes toward African Americans and residential segregation in the communities where interventions occurred. A previously published meta-analytic database was re-analyzed to examine the interplay of community-level stigma with the psychological processes implied by intervention content in influencing intervention efficacy. All studies were conducted in the United States and included samples that were at least 50% African American. Whites' attitudes were drawn from the American National Election Studies, which collects data from nationally representative samples. Residential segregation was drawn from published reports. Results showed independent effects of Whites' attitudes and residential segregation on condom use effect sizes. Interventions were most successful when Whites' attitudes were more positive or when residential segregation was low. These two structural factors interacted: Interventions improved condom use only when communities had both relatively positive attitudes toward African Americans and lower levels of segregation. The effect of Whites' attitudes was more pronounced at longer follow-up intervals and for younger samples and those samples with more African Americans. Tailoring content to participants' values and needs, which may reduce African Americans' mistrust of intervention providers, buffered against the negative influence of Whites' attitudes on condom use. The structural factors uniquely accounted for variance in condom use effect sizes over and above intervention-level features and community-level education and poverty. Results highlight the interplay of social identity and environment in perpetuating intergroup disparities

  6. A randomized controlled trial of a web-based psychological intervention for patients under treatment for chronic HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Skeie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: One of the most prevalent mental conditions in people with HIV is depression as uniquely characterized by low positive affect. This study examined the effect of a web-based intervention (Avanti on overall mood and depressive symptoms among patients with HIV infection. Methods: Patients treated with effective antiretroviral treatment were included in a two-armed trial with substance abuse as an exclusion criterion and randomized to Avanti (n=36 or control (n=31. Patients were surveyed at baseline, as well as 1 and 3 months after the initiation of a 5-week intervention period. Outcomes were Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule which was combined into an overall mood index. Changes within groups were tested by Wilcoxon matched pairs test and baseline differences between groups by chi-square and Mann-Whitney independent samples test. Summary of results: Baseline scores for both groups were similar. However, patients in the intervention group had an improvement in median (M overall mood from baseline (M=67.6 to 1 month (M=71, p=0.02 which was also maintained from 1 to 3 months (M=71.9. Moreover, these patients had a favorable reduction in negative affect from 1 (M=24 to 3 months (M=22, p=0.01 and a transient improvement in positive affect from baseline (M=31.7 to 1 month after intervention onset (M=35, p<0.01 which almost returned to baseline levels at month 3 (M=32, p=0.01. In contrast, no significant changes were observed within the control group, except for a reduction in negative affect from 1 (M=23 to 3 months (M=21.6, p=0.05. Notably, symptoms of depression at baseline were low in both the Avanti (M=13 and control (M=12 groups, possibly explaining why no further reduction in depression was observed from baseline to 3 months in either of the two groups. Conclusions: The results of this study lend support to the promise of a web-based psychological intervention

  7. Minority stress, psychological distress, and alcohol misuse among sexual minority young adults: A resiliency-based conditional process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Nicholas A; Christianson, Nathan; Cochran, Bryan N

    2016-12-01

    Sexual minority young adults experience elevated rates of distal stress (discrimination, victimization), and related psychological distress and alcohol misuse. However, few studies have examined the degree to which personality trait differences confer risk/resilience among sexual minority young adults. We hypothesized that psychological distress would mediate the relationship between distal stress and alcohol misuse, but that these relationships would be moderated by personality trait differences. Sexual minority young adults (N=412) were recruited nationally. Survey measures included demographic questions, minority stressors, Five Factor personality traits, and current psychological distress and alcohol misuse symptoms. We used a data-driven two-stage cluster analytic technique to empirically derive personality trait profiles, and conducted mediation and moderated mediation analyses using a regression-based approach. Our results supported a two-group personality profile solution. Relative to at-risk individuals, those classified as adaptive scored lower on neuroticism, and higher on agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. As predicted, psychological distress mediated the relationship between distal stress and alcohol misuse. However, personality moderated these relationships to the degree that they did not exist among individuals classified as adaptive. In the current study, we found that personality moderated the established relationships between distal stress, psychological distress, and alcohol misuse among sexual minority young adults. Future research is needed to further explicate these relationships, and in order to develop tailored interventions for sexual minority young adults at risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Adolescent psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemerle, Sophie

    2005-05-31

    Adolescence is a transitional period dominated by puberty modifications. These modifications must come with a psychological work leading towards increased self containing from parents and also towards the choice of an own life orientation. In order to do so, adolescent must satisfy his needs to be able to change. This process will not run smoothly. The troubled adolescent will express himself with groans or acting out more than with words. This modus operandi is typical of that age. The general practitioner will be in the front line in being attentive to the adolescent and his parents needs.

  9. Adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit Internet material and notions of women as sex objects: assessing causality and underlying processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify causality in the previously established link between adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and notions of women as sex objects. Furthermore, the study investigated which psychological processes underlie this link and whether the

  10. Circumstances and underlying causes of suicidal attempts in teen patients of mental health facilities – a psychological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Marlena Stradomska; Jolanta Wolińska; Milena Marczak

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The paper brings together and summarizes the results of a study carried out in 2011–2015, aimed at analysing circumstances and reasons underlying adolescent suicidal attempts. Material and methods: The studied group comprised 115 patients hospitalised due to having attempted suicide, aged 13–19 years old, based in 3 voivodeships, namely the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Lubelskie Voivodeship, and Podkarpackie Voivodeship. The results of the study have been subject to quan...

  11. Psychological and Biological Perspectives on Altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martin L.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the case for viewing altruism as an inherent part of human nature. Postulates an altruistic disposition or motive to act which is under the control of perceptual and cognitive processes. Presents psychological evidence complementing this view. Discusses social implications of a biological basis for human altruism. (RH)

  12. Study on Decision Process and Strategy Choice Behavior under Multimode Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanmei Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Information Display Board is used to design an experimental survey and dynamic decision process data are retrieved under a multimode choice scenario with car, bus and subway, and park and ride. It is concluded that car travelers who will switch to choosing park and ride need more decision time to compare it with the existing modes (car, bus and subway and tend to mainly use compensatory decision strategies in the decision process. The most commonly used decision strategy for travelers is the combined strategy under the multimode choice scenario. Correlation analysis shows that the influencing factors of age, whether the travelers have ever used park and ride, and decision time highly correlate with decision strategy choice. These conclusions have a certain reference value for theory research of decision process under multimode choice.

  13. Advancing Intervention Research in School Psychology: Finding the Balance between Process and Outcome for Social and Behavioral Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Elise; Reinke, Wendy M.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.

    2011-01-01

    School psychology research focused on child outcomes is critical for understanding which social and behavioral interventions affect children in schools. Yet effective interventions fulfill their promise when they fit their implementation contexts, are implemented well with existing resources, and can be sustained or scaled up to new populations.…

  14. Virtual Learning Environments in Social Psychology: Using "The SIMs[superscript 3]" to Teach Self-Related Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Jessica A.

    2017-01-01

    An interactive learning module was developed and implemented in a social psychology course to teach concepts of the "self" via self-exploration and game play using "The SIMS[superscript 3]." Students volunteered to play the computer video game throughout a 5-week summer session as a supplement to reading the chapter in the…

  15. Electrochemical reaction and oxidation of lecithin under pulsed electric fields (PEF) processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Yang, Ruijin; Liang, Qi; Zhang, Wenbin; Hua, Xiao; Tang, Yali

    2012-12-12

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) processing is a promising nonthermal food preservation technology, which is ongoing from laboratory and pilot plant scale levels to the industrial level. Currently, greater attention has been paid to side effects occurring during PEF treatment and the influences on food qualities and food components. The present study investigated the electrochemical reaction and oxidation of lecithin under PEF processing. Results showed that electrochemical reaction of NaCl solutions at different pH values occurred during PEF processing. Active chlorine, reactive oxygen, and free radicals were detected, which were related to the PEF parameters and pH values of the solution. Lecithin extracted from yolk was further selected to investigate the oxidation of food lipids under PEF processing, confirming the occurrence of oxidation of lecithin under PEF treatment. The oxidative agents induced by PEF might be responsible for the oxidation of extracted yolk lecithin. Moreover, this study found that vitamin C as a natural antioxidant could effectively quench free radicals and inhibit the oxidation of lipid in NaCl and lecithin solutions as model systems under PEF processing, representing a way to minimize the impact of PEF treatment on food qualities.

  16. Microreactors with integrated UV/Vis spectroscopic detection for online process analysis under segmented flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jun; Falke, Floris H; Schouten, Jaap C; Nijhuis, T Alexander

    2013-12-21

    Combining reaction and detection in multiphase microfluidic flow is becoming increasingly important for accelerating process development in microreactors. We report the coupling of UV/Vis spectroscopy with microreactors for online process analysis under segmented flow conditions. Two integration schemes are presented: one uses a cross-type flow-through cell subsequent to a capillary microreactor for detection in the transmission mode; the other uses embedded waveguides on a microfluidic chip for detection in the evanescent wave field. Model experiments reveal the capabilities of the integrated systems in real-time concentration measurements and segmented flow characterization. The application of such integration for process analysis during gold nanoparticle synthesis is demonstrated, showing its great potential in process monitoring in microreactors operated under segmented flow.

  17. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CHITIN AND CHITOSAN PREPARED UNDER VARIOUS PROCESSING TIMES

    OpenAIRE

    Crescentiana Dewi Poeloengasih; Hernawan Hernawan; M. Angwar

    2010-01-01

    Generally production of chitosan from crustacean shells consists of 4 steps, i.e. deproteinization, demineralization, decolorization and deacetylation. Simplification of chitosan production by elimination of deproteinization and/or demineralization, or reducing of reaction time would give many advantages, e.g. reduction of processing time and cost production due to reduction of chemical and power usage. The objectives of this research were to prepare chitosan under various processing times an...

  18. Exploring the Use of Design of Experiments in Industrial Processes Operating Under Closed-Loop Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capaci, Francesca; Kulahci, Murat; Vanhatalo, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Industrial manufacturing processes often operate under closed-loop control, where automation aims to keep important process variables at their set-points. In process industries such as pulp, paper, chemical and steel plants, it is often hard to find production processes operating in open loop...... such processes. The Tennessee Eastman challenge process simulator is used as a test-bed to highlight two experimental scenarios. The first scenario explores the impact of experimental factors that may be considered as disturbances in the closed-loop system. The second scenario exemplifies a screening design...... using the set-points of controllers as experimental factors. We provide examples of how to analyze the two scenarios. ...

  19. Linking dispositional mindfulness and positive psychological processes in cancer survivorship: a multivariate path analytic test of the mindfulness-to-meaning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Thielking, Paul; Thomas, Elizabeth A; Coombs, Mary; White, Shelley; Lombardi, Joy; Beck, Anna

    2017-05-01

    Research indicates that dispositional mindfulness is associated with positive psychological functioning. Although this disposition has been linked with beneficial outcomes in the broader mental health literature, less is known about dispositional mindfulness in cancer survivors and how it may be linked with indices of psychological and physical health relevant to cancer survivorship. We conducted a multivariate path analysis of data from a heterogeneous sample of cancer patients (N = 97) to test the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory, an extended process model of emotion regulation linking dispositional mindfulness with cancer-related quality of life via positive psychological processes. We found that patients endorsing higher levels of dispositional mindfulness were more likely to pay attention to positive experiences (β = .56), a tendency which was associated with positive reappraisal of stressful life events (β = .51). Patients who engaged in more frequent positive reappraisal had a greater sense of meaning in life (β = .43) and tended to savor rewarding or life affirming events (β = .50). In turn, those who engaged in high levels of savoring had better quality of life (β = .33) and suffered less from emotional distress (β = -.54). Findings provide support for the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory and help explicate the processes by which mindfulness promotes psychological flourishing in the face of cancer. Cancer survivors may benefit from enhancing mindfulness, reappraisal, and savoring. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Factors underlying the psychological and behavioral characteristics of Office of Strategic Services candidates: the assessment of men data revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2015-01-01

    During World War II, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the forerunner of the Central Intelligence Agency, sought the assistance of clinical psychologists and psychiatrists to establish an assessment program for evaluating candidates for the OSS. The assessment team developed a novel and rigorous program to evaluate OSS candidates. It is described in Assessment of Men: Selection of Personnel for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS Assessment Staff, 1948). This study examines the sole remaining multivariate data matrix that includes all final ratings for a group of candidates (n = 133) assessed near the end of the assessment program. It applies the modern statistical methods of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to this rich and highly unique data set. An exploratory factor analysis solution suggested 3 factors underlie the OSS assessment staff ratings. Confirmatory factor analysis results of multiple plausible substantive models reveal that a 3-factor model provides the best fit to these data. The 3 factors are emotional/interpersonal factors (social relations, emotional stability, security), intelligence processing (effective IQ, propaganda skills, observing and reporting), and agency/surgency (motivation, energy and initiative, leadership, physical ability). These factors are discussed in terms of their potential utility for personnel selection within the intelligence community.

  1. Political processes in the Sverdlovsk region under the Governor E. Kuivashev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhametov Ruslan Salikhovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to the political life of the Middle Urals. The author identifies several political processes taking place in the Sverdlovsk region under the Governor E. Kuivashev. The paper reveals the municipal policy of Sverdlovsk authorities. The author presents the detailed description of the reaction of municipal authorities in the reform of the local self-governing.

  2. Recovery of Online Sentence Processing in Aphasia: Eye Movement Changes Resulting from Treatment of Underlying Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Jennifer E.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study tested whether (and how) language treatment changed online sentence processing in individuals with aphasia. Method: Participants with aphasia (n = 10) received a 12-week program of Treatment of Underlying Forms (Thompson & Shapiro, 2005) focused on production and comprehension of passive sentences. Before and after…

  3. The Orexin Component of Fasting Triggers Memory Processes Underlying Conditioned Food Selection in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Barbara; Duchamp-Viret, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    To test the selectivity of the orexin A (OXA) system in olfactory sensitivity, the present study compared the effects of fasting and of central infusion of OXA on the memory processes underlying odor-malaise association during the conditioned odor aversion (COA) paradigm. Animals implanted with a cannula in the left ventricle received ICV infusion…

  4. A mesoscale modelling perspective of cracking process and fracture energy under high strain rate tension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Xu, J.; Weerheijm, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical modelling study on the simulation of the cracking process and fracture energy in concrete under high strain rate. To capture the stress wave effect and the damage evolution at the meso-length scale, both a homogeneous model with a millimetre-resolution mesh and an

  5. A mesoscale modelling perspective of cracking process and fracture energy under high strain rate in tension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheijm, J.; Lu, Y.; Xu, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical modelling study on the simulation of the cracking process and fracture energy in concrete under high strain rate. To capture the stress wave effect and the damage evolution at the meso-length scale, both a homogeneous model with a millimetreresolution mesh and an

  6. 77 FR 43492 - Expedited Vocational Assessment Under the Sequential Evaluation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... use the same assessment of your residual functional capacity at step five of the sequential evaluation... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Parts 404 and 416 RIN 0960-AH26 Expedited Vocational Assessment Under the Sequential Evaluation Process AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Final rules. SUMMARY: We are revising our...

  7. Examining the Underlying Values of Turkish and German Mathematics Teachers' Decision Making Processes in Group Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the values underlying the decision-making processes in group studies for Turkish and German mathematics teachers. This study presented a small part of a wider study investigating German and Turkish mathematics teachers' and their students' values (Values in Mathematics Teaching in Turkey and Germany…

  8. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CHITIN AND CHITOSAN PREPARED UNDER VARIOUS PROCESSING TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crescentiana Dewi Poeloengasih

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally production of chitosan from crustacean shells consists of 4 steps, i.e. deproteinization, demineralization, decolorization and deacetylation. Simplification of chitosan production by elimination of deproteinization and/or demineralization, or reducing of reaction time would give many advantages, e.g. reduction of processing time and cost production due to reduction of chemical and power usage. The objectives of this research were to prepare chitosan under various processing times and to characterize the obtained chitin and chitosan. Chitin was prepared under various deproteinization times (0, 15, 30 min at 90 ºC using NaOH 2N and demineralization times (0, 15, 30 min at ambient temperature using HCl 2N. Chitin was then bleached using aceton/etanol (1:1 for an hour. Deacetylation was achieved by treatment of chitin under condition at 120 ºC for 5 hr using NaOH 50%. Ash and nitrogen content, and degree of deacetylation of chitosan were evaluated. Demineralization and/or deproteinization times influenced the quality of chitin. Chitin and chitosan prepared without demineralization had white and chalky appearance, whereas the other chitosan were off-white in color. Ash and nitrogen contents of the chitosan products were 0.18 - 32.40% and 3.56 - 7.59%, respectively. Chitosan prepared under various processing times, except chitosan without demineralization treatment, had degree of deacetylation ≥ 70%.   Keywords: chitosan, deproteinization, demineralization, deacetylation, processing times

  9. Modeling and Compensatory Processes Underlying Involvement in Child Care among Kibbutz-Reared Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Ruth; Bassi, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined modeling and compensatory processes underlying the effects of an early paternal model on father involvement in child care. Drawing on social learning theory, it was hypothesized that father-son relationships would moderate the association between a father's involvement and his own father's involvement. A sample of 136 kibbutz…

  10. An experimental study on the coalescence process of binary droplets in oil under ultrasonic standing waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoming; Cao, Juhang; He, Limin; Wang, Hongping; Yan, Haipeng; Qin, Yahua

    2017-01-01

    The coalescence process of binary droplets in oil under ultrasonic standing waves was investigated with high-speed photography. Three motion models of binary droplets in coalescence process were illustrated: (1) slight translational oscillation; (2) sinusoidal translational oscillation; (3) migration along with acoustic streaming. To reveal the droplets coalescence mechanisms, the influence of main factors (such as acoustic intensity, droplet size, viscosity and interfacial tension, etc) on the motion and coalescence of binary droplets was studied under ultrasonic standing waves. Results indicate that the shortest coalescence time is achieved when binary droplets show sinusoidal translational oscillation. The corresponding acoustic intensity in this case is the optimum acoustic intensity. Under the optimum acoustic intensity, drop size decrease will bring about coalescence time decrease by enhancing the binary droplets oscillation. Moreover, there is an optimum interfacial tension to achieve the shortest coalescence time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Handedness is related to neural mechanisms underlying hemispheric lateralization of face processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frässle, Stefan; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Jansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    While the right-hemispheric lateralization of the face perception network is well established, recent evidence suggests that handedness affects the cerebral lateralization of face processing at the hierarchical level of the fusiform face area (FFA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying differential hemispheric lateralization of face perception in right- and left-handers are largely unknown. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI, we aimed to unravel the putative processes that mediate handedness-related differences by investigating the effective connectivity in the bilateral core face perception network. Our results reveal an enhanced recruitment of the left FFA in left-handers compared to right-handers, as evidenced by more pronounced face-specific modulatory influences on both intra- and interhemispheric connections. As structural and physiological correlates of handedness-related differences in face processing, right- and left-handers varied with regard to their gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and their pupil responses to face stimuli. Overall, these results describe how handedness is related to the lateralization of the core face perception network, and point to different neural mechanisms underlying face processing in right- and left-handers. In a wider context, this demonstrates the entanglement of structurally and functionally remote brain networks, suggesting a broader underlying process regulating brain lateralization.

  12. Processive and Distributive Extension of Human Telomeres by Telomerase Under Homeostatic and Non-equilibrium Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Abreu, Eladio; Kim, Jinyong; Stadler, Guido; Eskiocak, Ugur; Terns, Michael P.; Terns, Rebecca M.; Shay, Jerry W.; Wright, Woodring E.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Specific information about how telomerase acts in vivo is necessary for understanding telomere dynamics in human tumor cells. Our results imply that under homeostatic telomere length-maintenance conditions only one molecule of telomerase acts at each telomere during every cell division and processively adds ~60 nt to each end. In contrast, multiple molecules of telomerase act at each telomere when telomeres are elongating (non-equilibrium conditions). Telomerase extension is less processive during the first few weeks following the reversal of long-term treatment with the telomerase inhibitor GRN163L, a time when Cajal bodies fail to deliver telomerase RNA to telomeres. This result implies that processing of telomerase by Cajal bodies may affect its processivity. Overexpressed telomerase is also less processive than the endogenously expressed telomerase. These findings reveal two major distinct extension modes adopted by telomerase in vivo. PMID:21549308

  13. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ...

  14. Phases' characteristics of poultry litter hydrothermal carbonization under a range of process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, Vivian; Quance, Julie; Posmanik, Roy; Gross, Amit

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the hydrothermal carbonization of poultry litter under a range of process parameters. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of HTC of poultry litter under a range of operational parameters (temperature, reaction time, and solids concentration) on the formation and characteristics of its phases. Results showed production of a hydrochar with caloric value of 24.4MJ/kg, similar to sub-bituminous coal. The gaseous phase consisted mainly of CO2. However, significant amounts of H2S dictate the need for (further) treatment. The process also produced an aqueous phase with chemical characteristics suggesting its possible use as a liquid fertilizer. Temperature had the most significant effect on processes and product formation. Solids concentration was not a significant factor once dilution effects were considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic architecture of context processing in late middle age: more than one underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremen, William S; Panizzon, Matthew S; Xian, Hong; Barch, Deanna M; Franz, Carol E; Grant, Michael D; Toomey, Rosemary; Lyons, Michael J

    2011-12-01

    Studies comparing young and older adults suggest a deficit in processing context information as a key mechanism underlying cognitive aging. However, the genetic architecture of context processing has not been examined. Consistent with previous results, we found evidence of functionally dissociable components of context processing accuracy in 1127 late middle-aged twins ages 51-60. One component emphasizes use of context cues to prepare responses (proactive cognitive control), and the other emphasizes adjustment of responses after probes are presented (reactive control). Approximately one-quarter of the variance in each component was accounted for by genes. Multivariate twin analysis indicated that genetic factors underlying two important components of context processing were independent of one another, thus implicating more than one underlying mechanism. Slower reaction time (RT) on noncontext processing trials was positively correlated with errors on the strongly proactive control component on which young adults outperform older adults, but RT was negatively correlated with errors on the strongly reactive control component on which older adults perform better. Although this RT measure was uncorrelated with chronological age in our age-homogeneous sample, slower RT was associated with performance patterns that were more like older adults. However, this did not generalize to other processing speed measures. Genetic correlations, which reflect shared genetic variance, paralleled the phenotypic correlations. There was also a positive genetic correlation between general cognitive ability and accuracy on the proactive control component, but there were still mostly distinct genetic influences underlying these measures. In contrast, the reactive control component was unrelated to general cognitive ability.

  16. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  17. Biodegradation and detoxification of textile azo dyes by bacterial consortium under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Release of textile azo dyes to the environment is an issue of health concern while the use of microorganisms has proved to be the best option for remediation. Thus, in the present study, a bacterial consortium consisting of Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 and Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 has been investigated for degradation and detoxification of structurally different azo dyes. The consortium showed 98-99 % decolorization of all the selected azo dyes viz. Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Orange 16 (RO 16), Disperse Red 78 (DR 78) and Direct Red 81 (DR 81) within 12 to 30 h at 100 mg L-1 concentration at 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic, sequential aerobic/microaerophilic and microaerophilic/aerobic processes. However, decolorization under microaerophilic conditions viz. RB 5 (0.26 mM), RO 16 (0.18 mM), DR 78 (0.20 mM) and DR 81 (0.23 mM) and sequential aerobic/microaerophilic processes viz. RB 5 (0.08 mM), RO 16 (0.06 mM), DR 78 (0.07 mM) and DR 81 (0.09 mM) resulted into the formation of aromatic amines. In distinction, sequential microaerophilic/ aerobic process doesn’t show the formation of amines. Additionally, 62-72 % reduction in total organic carbon content was observed in all the dyes decolorized broths under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggesting the efficacy of method in mineralization of dyes. Notable induction within the levels of azoreductase and NADH-DCIP reductase (97 and 229 % for RB 5, 55 and 160 % for RO 16, 63 and 196 % for DR 78, 108 and 258 % for DR 81) observed under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggested their critical involvements in the initial breakdown of azo bonds, whereas, a slight increase in the levels of laccase and veratryl alcohol oxidase confirmed subsequent oxidation of formed amines. Also, the acute toxicity assay with Daphnia magna revealed the nontoxic nature of the dye-degraded metabolites under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes. As biodegradation under sequential microaerophilic

  18. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  19. Mapping Common Aphasia Assessments to Underlying Cognitive Processes and Their Neural Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Xing, Shihui; Fama, Mackenzie E; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the relationships between clinical tests, the processes they measure, and the brain networks underlying them, is critical in order for clinicians to move beyond aphasia syndrome classification toward specification of individual language process impairments. To understand the cognitive, language, and neuroanatomical factors underlying scores of commonly used aphasia tests. Twenty-five behavioral tests were administered to a group of 38 chronic left hemisphere stroke survivors and a high-resolution magnetic resonance image was obtained. Test scores were entered into a principal components analysis to extract the latent variables (factors) measured by the tests. Multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to localize lesions associated with the factor scores. The principal components analysis yielded 4 dissociable factors, which we labeled Word Finding/Fluency, Comprehension, Phonology/Working Memory Capacity, and Executive Function. While many tests loaded onto the factors in predictable ways, some relied heavily on factors not commonly associated with the tests. Lesion symptom mapping demonstrated discrete brain structures associated with each factor, including frontal, temporal, and parietal areas extending beyond the classical language network. Specific functions mapped onto brain anatomy largely in correspondence with modern neural models of language processing. An extensive clinical aphasia assessment identifies 4 independent language functions, relying on discrete parts of the left middle cerebral artery territory. A better understanding of the processes underlying cognitive tests and the link between lesion and behavior may lead to improved aphasia diagnosis, and may yield treatments better targeted to an individual's specific pattern of deficits and preserved abilities.

  20. Face processing pattern under top-down perception: a functional MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Liang, Jimin; Tian, Jie; Liu, Jiangang; Zhao, Jizheng; Zhang, Hui; Shi, Guangming

    2009-02-01

    Although top-down perceptual process plays an important role in face processing, its neural substrate is still puzzling because the top-down stream is extracted difficultly from the activation pattern associated with contamination caused by bottom-up face perception input. In the present study, a novel paradigm of instructing participants to detect faces from pure noise images is employed, which could efficiently eliminate the interference of bottom-up face perception in topdown face processing. Analyzing the map of functional connectivity with right FFA analyzed by conventional Pearson's correlation, a possible face processing pattern induced by top-down perception can be obtained. Apart from the brain areas of bilateral fusiform gyrus (FG), left inferior occipital gyrus (IOG) and left superior temporal sulcus (STS), which are consistent with a core system in the distributed cortical network for face perception, activation induced by top-down face processing is also found in these regions that include the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC), right oribitofrontal cortex (OFC), left precuneus, right parahippocampal cortex, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), right frontal pole, bilateral premotor cortex, left inferior parietal cortex and bilateral thalamus. The results indicate that making-decision, attention, episodic memory retrieving and contextual associative processing network cooperate with general face processing regions to process face information under top-down perception.

  1. The psychological imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Tateo

    Full Text Available Abstract: The commentary presents an epistemological reflection about Dialogical Self theory. First, the theoretical issues of DS about the relationship between individuality, alterity and society are discussed, elaborating on the articles of this special issue. Then, it is presented the argument of psychologist's ontological fallacy, that is the attitude to moving from the study of processes to the study of psychological entities. Finally a development toward new research directions is proposed, focusing on the study of higher psychological functions and processes, taking into account complex symbolic products of human activity and developing psychological imagination.

  2. Chaotic home environment is associated with reduced infant processing speed under high task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomalski, Przemysław; Marczuk, Karolina; Pisula, Ewa; Malinowska, Anna; Kawa, Rafał; Niedźwiecka, Alicja

    2017-08-01

    Early adversity has profound long-term consequences for child development across domains. The effects of early adversity on structural and functional brain development were shown for infants under 12 months of life. However, the causal mechanisms of these effects remain relatively unexplored. Using a visual habituation task we investigated whether chaotic home environment may affect processing speed in 5.5 month-old infants (n=71). We found detrimental effects of chaos on processing speed for complex but not for simple visual stimuli. No effects of socio-economic status on infant processing speed were found although the sample was predominantly middle class. Our results indicate that chaotic early environment may adversely affect processing speed in early infancy, but only when greater cognitive resources need to be deployed. The study highlights an attractive avenue for research on the mechanisms linking home environment with the development of attention control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Keep your eyes on development - The behavioural and neurophysiological development of visual mechanisms underlying form processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlijn eVan Den Boomen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual form perception is essential for correct interpretation of, and interaction with, our environment. Form perception depends on visual acuity and processing of specific form characteristics, such as luminance contrast, spatial frequency, colour, orientation, depth and even motion information. As other cognitive processes, form perception matures with age. This paper aims at providing a concise overview of our current understanding of the typical development, from birth to adulthood, of form-characteristic processing, as measured both behaviourally and neurophysiologically. Two main conclusions can be drawn. First, the current literature conveys that for most reviewed characteristics a developmental pattern is apparent. These trajectories are discussed in relation to the organisation of the visual system. The second conclusion is that significant gaps in the literature exist for several age-ranges. To complete our understanding of the typical and, by consequence, atypical development of visual mechanisms underlying form processing, future research should uncover these missing segments.

  4. Suicide or accident? A psychological autopsy study of suicide in youths under the age of 16 compared to deaths labeled as accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freuchen Anne

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective In the present paper, we describe suicide in youths under 16 years of age and compare their risk factors for suicide to those of older adolescents as described in the literature. Furthermore, we evaluate the possible mislabeling of suicides as accidents, and vice versa. Method We used the data from a nationwide psychological autopsy of youths 15 years and younger who had committed suicide or died in accidents in Norway from 1993 to 2004 (n = 84. We additionally constructed a suicide index to distinguish between the two causes of death. Results The young suicide victims presented, with little gender difference, fewer obvious risk factors and less suicide intent than commonly described for older adolescents. The suicide index distinguished quite well between suicides and accidents, with few cases indicating a possible mislabeling, although some suicide cases could have been labeled as uncertain. Conclusion In line with previous research, suicides in 11-15-year-olds have many similarities to suicides in older adolescents in terms of external circumstances, but they present less apparent warning signs. In our total sample of 84 deaths, there were few indications of incorrect labeling.

  5. Consumption of Red/Processed Meat and Colorectal Carcinoma: Possible Mechanisms Underlying the Significant Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerling, Ulf; Bergman Laurila, Jonas; Grafström, Roland; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology and experimental studies provide an overwhelming support of the notion that diets high in red or processed meat accompany an elevated risk of developing pre-neoplastic colorectal adenoma and frank colorectal carcinoma (CRC). The underlying mechanisms are disputed; thus several hypotheses have been proposed. A large body of reports converges, however, on haem and nitrosyl haem as major contributors to the CRC development, presumably acting through various mechanisms. Apart from a potentially higher intestinal mutagenic load among consumers on a diet rich in red/processed meat, other mechanisms involving subtle interference with colorectal stem/progenitor cell survival or maturation are likewise at play. From an overarching perspective, suggested candidate mechanisms for red/processed meat-induced CRC appear as three partly overlapping tenets: (i) increased N-nitrosation/oxidative load leading to DNA adducts and lipid peroxidation in the intestinal epithelium, (ii) proliferative stimulation of the epithelium through haem or food-derived metabolites that either act directly or subsequent to conversion, and (iii) higher inflammatory response, which may trigger a wide cascade of pro-malignant processes. In this review, we summarize and discuss major findings of the area in the context of potentially pertinent mechanisms underlying the above-mentioned association between consumption of red/processed meat and increased risk of developing CRC.

  6. Psychological Testing: MMPI Under Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Robert J.

    1972-01-01

    Questions the right of employer's use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) as a selective instrument for employment. Discusses issues of constitutionality, in terms of invasion of privacy, qualifications of a personality assessor, use of personality tests on minorities, and the right to assess another's personality. (LK)

  7. Synthesis of Optimal Processing Pathway for Microalgae-based Biorefinery under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    decision making, we propose a systematic framework for the synthesis and optimal design of microalgae-based processing network under uncertainty. By incorporating major uncertainties into the biorefinery superstructure model we developed previously, a stochastic mixed integer nonlinear programming (s......MINLP) problem is formulated for determining the optimal biorefinery structure under given parameter uncertainties modelled as sampled scenarios. The solution to the sMINLP problem determines the optimal decisions with respect to processing technologies, material flows, and product portfolio in the presence......The research in the field of microalgae-based biofuels and chemicals is in early phase of the development, and therefore a wide range of uncertainties exist due to inconsistencies among and shortage of technical information. In order to handle and address these uncertainties to ensure robust...

  8. Bi-Objective Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem Considering Energy Consumption under Stochastic Processing Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Zeng, Zhenxiang; Wang, Ruidong; Sun, Xueshan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method on the optimization of bi-objective Flexible Job-shop Scheduling Problem (FJSP) under stochastic processing times. The robust counterpart model and the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) are used to solve the bi-objective FJSP with consideration of the completion time and the total energy consumption under stochastic processing times. The case study on GM Corporation verifies that the NSGA-II used in this paper is effective and has advantages to solve the proposed model comparing with HPSO and PSO+SA. The idea and method of the paper can be generalized widely in the manufacturing industry, because it can reduce the energy consumption of the energy-intensive manufacturing enterprise with less investment when the new approach is applied in existing systems.

  9. The orexin component of fasting triggers memory processes underlying conditioned food selection in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Barbara; Duchamp-Viret, Patricia

    2014-03-14

    To test the selectivity of the orexin A (OXA) system in olfactory sensitivity, the present study compared the effects of fasting and of central infusion of OXA on the memory processes underlying odor-malaise association during the conditioned odor aversion (COA) paradigm. Animals implanted with a cannula in the left ventricle received ICV infusion of OXA or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) 1 h before COA acquisition. An additional group of intact rats were food-deprived for 24 h before acquisition. Results showed that the increased olfactory sensitivity induced by fasting and by OXA infusion was accompanied by enhanced COA performance. The present results suggest that fasting-induced central OXA release influenced COA learning by increasing not only olfactory sensitivity, but also the memory processes underlying the odor-malaise association.

  10. Adolescents' sexual media use and willingness to engage in casual sex : differential relations and underlying processes

    OpenAIRE

    Oosten, van, Johanna M. F.; Peter, Jochen; Vandenbosch, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The present study investigated the relationship between different types of sexual media use (i.e., sexually explicit internet material, sexually oriented reality TV, and sexy self-presentations on social network sites) and adolescents' willingness to engage in casual sex, as well as underlying sociocognitive processes of this relationship. Drawing on a longitudinal three-wave panel study among 1,467 adolescents (aged 1317, 50% female), we found that exposure to sexually explicit Int...

  11. The cognitive processes underlying affective decision-making predicting adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Lin eXiao; Gilly eKoritzky; C. Anderson Johnson; Antoine eBechara

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th grade to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1), we tested these adolescents’ decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered...

  12. Charging process of polyurethane based composites under electronic irradiation: Effects of cellulose fiber content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjadj, Aomar; Jbara, Omar; Tara, Ahmed; Gilliot, Mickael; Dellis, Jean-Luc

    2013-09-01

    The study deals with the charging effect of polyurethanes-based composites reinforced with cellulose fibers, under electronic beam irradiation in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that the leakage current and the trapped charge as well as the kinetics of charging process significantly change beyond a critical concentration of 10% cellulose fibers. These features are correlated with the cellulose concentration-dependence of the electrical properties, specifically resistivity and capacitance, of the composite.

  13. Image processing strategies based on saliency segmentation for object recognition under simulated prosthetic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Su, Xiaofan; Wang, Jing; Kan, Han; Han, Tingting; Zeng, Yajie; Chai, Xinyu

    2017-11-10

    Current retinal prostheses can only generate low-resolution visual percepts constituted of limited phosphenes which are elicited by an electrode array and with uncontrollable color and restricted grayscale. Under this visual perception, prosthetic recipients can just complete some simple visual tasks, but more complex tasks like face identification/object recognition are extremely difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate and apply image processing strategies for optimizing the visual perception of the recipients. This study focuses on recognition of the object of interest employing simulated prosthetic vision. We used a saliency segmentation method based on a biologically plausible graph-based visual saliency model and a grabCut-based self-adaptive-iterative optimization framework to automatically extract foreground objects. Based on this, two image processing strategies, Addition of Separate Pixelization and Background Pixel Shrink, were further utilized to enhance the extracted foreground objects. i) The results showed by verification of psychophysical experiments that under simulated prosthetic vision, both strategies had marked advantages over Direct Pixelization in terms of recognition accuracy and efficiency. ii) We also found that recognition performance under two strategies was tied to the segmentation results and was affected positively by the paired-interrelated objects in the scene. The use of the saliency segmentation method and image processing strategies can automatically extract and enhance foreground objects, and significantly improve object recognition performance towards recipients implanted a high-density implant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Image Processing Strategies Based on a Visual Saliency Model for Object Recognition Under Simulated Prosthetic Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Heng; Fu, Weizhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Liming; Lyu, Qing; Han, Tingting; Chai, Xinyu

    2016-01-01

    Retinal prostheses have the potential to restore partial vision. Object recognition in scenes of daily life is one of the essential tasks for implant wearers. Still limited by the low-resolution visual percepts provided by retinal prostheses, it is important to investigate and apply image processing methods to convey more useful visual information to the wearers. We proposed two image processing strategies based on Itti's visual saliency map, region of interest (ROI) extraction, and image segmentation. Itti's saliency model generated a saliency map from the original image, in which salient regions were grouped into ROI by the fuzzy c-means clustering. Then Grabcut generated a proto-object from the ROI labeled image which was recombined with background and enhanced in two ways--8-4 separated pixelization (8-4 SP) and background edge extraction (BEE). Results showed that both 8-4 SP and BEE had significantly higher recognition accuracy in comparison with direct pixelization (DP). Each saliency-based image processing strategy was subject to the performance of image segmentation. Under good and perfect segmentation conditions, BEE and 8-4 SP obtained noticeably higher recognition accuracy than DP, and under bad segmentation condition, only BEE boosted the performance. The application of saliency-based image processing strategies was verified to be beneficial to object recognition in daily scenes under simulated prosthetic vision. They are hoped to help the development of the image processing module for future retinal prostheses, and thus provide more benefit for the patients. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Phasic deactivation of the medial temporal lobe enables working memory processing under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousijn, Helena; Rijpkema, Mark; Qin, Shaozheng; van Wingen, Guido A; Fernández, Guillén

    2012-01-16

    Demanding cognitive tasks are sometimes carried out under stressful conditions. Several studies indicate that whereas severe stress impairs performance, moderate stress can enhance cognitive performance. In this study, we investigated how moderate stress influences the neural systems supporting working memory. We embedded an N-back working memory task in a moderately stressful context, as indicated by our physiological stress measures, and probed phasic and tonic human brain activity using two fMRI-techniques: conventional blood oxygen level dependent fMRI and arterial spin labeling (ASL). The results showed that the stress induction, as compared to the neutral control condition, led to slightly faster reaction times without changes in accuracy. In general, working memory processing was associated with increased activity in a frontoparietal network and reduced activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL). The stress induction led to enhanced reduction of phasic MTL responses, specifically the hippocampus and amygdala. In addition, ASL showed that stress increased tonic amygdala activity, while tonic hippocampal activity was unaffected. These findings suggest that the influence of stress on MTL deactivation during working memory processing is task-related rather than a general consequence of the stressful state. The temporal suspension of hippocampal processing in favor of more task relevant processes may allow subjects to maintain normal performance levels under moderate stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Research on Collapse Process of Cable-Stayed Bridges under Strong Seismic Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to present the collapse process and failure mechanism of long-span cable-stayed bridges under strong seismic excitations, a rail-cum-road steel truss cable-stayed bridge was selected as engineering background, the collapse failure numerical model of the cable-stayed bridge was established based on the explicit dynamic finite element method (FEM, and the whole collapse process of the cable-stayed bridge was analyzed and studied with three different seismic waves acted in the horizontal longitudinal direction, respectively. It can be found from the numerical simulation analysis that the whole collapse failure process and failure modes of the cable-stayed bridge under three different seismic waves are similar. Furthermore, the piers and the main pylons are critical components contributing to the collapse of the cable-stayed bridge structure. However, the cables and the main girder are damaged owing to the failure of piers and main pylons during the whole structure collapse process, so the failure of cable and main girder components is not the main reason for the collapse of cable-stayed bridge. The analysis results can provide theoretical basis for collapse resistance design and the determination of critical damage components of long-span highway and railway cable-stayed bridges in the research of seismic vulnerability analysis.

  17. Permaculture as a sustainable lifestyle: the vision of environmental psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Farias Diniz

    2016-01-01

    Due to the ecological crisis evident over the past decades, it is necessary to understand that various environmental problems are based on human behavior. In this sense, the psychological science seeks to contribute to the construction of cognitive, emotional and motivational knowledge processes that predispose behaviors in favor of the environmental conservation and to the development of ecological individuals. Under the sustainability framework, environmental psychology has been devoted to ...

  18. A comparison of the psychological refractory period and prioritized processing paradigms: Can the response-selection bottleneck model explain them both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Durst, Moritz

    2015-10-01

    Four experiments examined whether well-established phenomena from the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm are also observed in the prioritized processing paradigm, as would be expected from a common description of the 2 paradigms with the response selection bottleneck (RSB) model. Consistent with a generalization of the RSB model to the prioritized processing paradigm, Experiments 1 and 2 showed that this paradigm yields effects of SOA and stimulus discriminability analogous to those observed in the PRP paradigm. In Experiments 3 and 4, however, overall RTs and effect sizes differed between the PRP and prioritized processing paradigms in ways that are difficult to explain within the RSB model. Understanding the differences between these 2 paradigms offers considerable promise as a way to extend the RSB model beyond the domain of the PRP paradigm and to generalize our understanding of multitasking interference. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. 22 CFR 41.57 - International cultural exchange visitors and visitors under the Irish Peace Process Cultural and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... visitors under the Irish Peace Process Cultural and Training Program Act (IPPCTPA). 41.57 Section 41.57... visitors and visitors under the Irish Peace Process Cultural and Training Program Act (IPPCTPA). (a... operation of the Irish Peace Process Cultural and Training Program (IPPCTP) which establishes at a minimum...

  20. The Investigations of Friction under Die Surface Vibration in Cold Forging Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinming, Sha

    The objective of this thesis is to fundamentally study the influence of die surface vibration on friction under low frequency in metal forging processes. The research includes vibrating tool system design for metal forming, theoretical and experimental investigations, and finite element simulations...... on die surface vibration in forging process. After a general introduction to friction mechanisms and friction test techniques in metal forming, the application of ultrasonic vibration in metal forming, the influence of sliding velocity on friction is described. Some earlier investigations...... is undergoing vibration. In the experiments, die surface orientation, frequency and amplitude of vibration, vibrating wave form and the direction of vibration has been taken into account as the parameters which influence friction behaviour in forging process. The results reveal that friction could be reduced up...

  1. Probabilistic estimation of irrigation requirement under climate uncertainty using dichotomous and marked renewal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Hosein; Mousavi, S. Jamshid

    2013-03-01

    This study addresses estimation of net irrigation requirement over a growing season under climate uncertainty. An ecohydrological model, building upon the stochastic differential equation of soil moisture dynamics, is employed as a basis to derive new analytical expressions for estimating seasonal net irrigation requirement probabilistically. Two distinct irrigation technologies are considered. For micro irrigation technology, probability density function of seasonal net irrigation depth (SNID) is derived assessing transient behavior of a stochastic process which is time integral of dichotomous Markov process. Probability mass function of SNID which is a discrete random variable for traditional irrigation technology is also presented using a marked renewal process with quasi-exponentially-distributed time intervals. Comparing the results obtained from the presented models with those resulted from a Monte Carlo approach verified the significance of the probabilistic expressions derived and assumptions made.

  2. Optimal processing pathway selection for microalgae-based biorefinery under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Zaman, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.

    2015-01-01

    to the sMINLP problem determines the processing technologies, material flows, and product portfolio that are optimal with respect to all the sampled scenarios. The developed framework is implemented and tested on a specific case study. The optimal processing pathways selected with and without......We propose a systematic framework for the selection of optimal processing pathways for a microalgaebased biorefinery under techno-economic uncertainty. The proposed framework promotes robust decision making by taking into account the uncertainties that arise due to inconsistencies among...... and shortage in the available technical information. A stochastic mixed integer nonlinear programming (sMINLP) problem is formulated for determining the optimal biorefinery configurations based on a superstructure model where parameter uncertainties are modeled and included as sampled scenarios. The solution...

  3. Analysis and design of networks-on-chip under high process variation

    CERN Document Server

    Ezz-Eldin, Rabab; Hamed, Hesham F A

    2015-01-01

    This book describes in detail the impact of process variations on Network-on-Chip (NoC) performance. The authors evaluate various NoC topologies under high process variation and explain the design of efficient NoCs, with advanced technologies. The discussion includes variation in logic and interconnect, in order to evaluate the delay and throughput variation with different NoC topologies. The authors describe an asynchronous router, as a robust design to mitigate the impact of process variation in NoCs and the performance of different routing algorithms is determined with/without process variation for various traffic patterns. Additionally, a novel Process variation Delay and Congestion aware Routing algorithm (PDCR) is described for asynchronous NoC design, which outperforms different adaptive routing algorithms in the average delay and saturation throughput for various traffic patterns. Demonstrates the impact of process variation on Networks-on-Chip of different topologies;  Includes an overview of the sy...

  4. Tomorrow's players under occupation: an analysis of the association of political violent with psychological functioning and domestic violence, among Palestinian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R; Sehwail, Mahmud A

    2007-07-01

    A 2005 survey of 2,328 youth (ages 12 to 18) in the West Bank, Palestine, revealed an association between exposure to politically violent events, domestic violence, and school violence and with psychological symptomatology. Results also found associations between family violence, family economic status, and psychological symptomatology. Respondents reported low levels of family functioning. Data revealed some geographic variability in experiences of politically violent events, domestic violence, school violence, and psychological symptomatology. Implications for practice are discussed. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Chemo-Mechano Coupling Processes Inducing Evolution of Rock Permeability under Hydrothermal and Stressed Conditions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, H.; Takahashi, M.; Kishida, K.; Nakashima, S.

    2013-12-01

    Coupled thermo-hydro-mechano-chemo (THMC) processes prevailing within fractured rocks are of significant importance in case of a long-term geo-sequestration of anthropogenic wastes of high level radioactive materials and carbon dioxide, and an effective recovery of energy from petroleum and geothermal reservoirs typically located in deep underground. The THMC processes should change the mechanical, hydraulic, and transport properties of the host rocks. Under even moderate pressure and temperature conditions, geochemical processes such as mineral dissolution should be active and may induce the change of those properties. Therefore, the effects should be examined in detail. In this work, a suite of long-term permeability experiments using granite, sandstone, and mudstone with or without a single fracture has been conducted under moderate confining pressures ranging 3 - 15 MPa and temperatures of 20 and 90 °C, and monitors the evolution in rock permeability and effluent chemistry throughout the experimental periods. Under net reduction or augmentation of pore/fracture volumes, the net permeability should alternatively increase or decrease with time, depending on the prevailing mechanical and geochemical processes. In granite samples, At 20 °C the observed fracture permeabilities monotonically reduce and reach quasi-steady state in two weeks, but after the temperature is increased to 90 °C those resume decreasing throughout the rest of experiments - the ultimate reductions are roughly two orders of magnitude within 40 days. In mudstone samples, similar results to those in granite samples are obtained (i.e., monotonic reduction and subsequent quasi-steady state). In contrast, in sandstone samples, a monotonic augmentation in permeability has been observed throughout the experiments. A chemo-mechanical model that accounts for temperature-dependent mineral dissolutions at contacting areas and free walls of pore spaces is applied to replicating the experimental

  6. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  7. Can we always sweep the details of RNA-processing under the carpet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klironomos, Filippos D.; de Meaux, Juliette; Berg, Johannes

    2013-10-01

    RNA molecules follow a succession of enzyme-mediated processing steps from transcription to maturation. The participating enzymes, for example the spliceosome for mRNAs and Drosha and Dicer for microRNAs, are also produced in the cell and their copy-numbers fluctuate over time. Enzyme copy-number changes affect the processing rate of the substrate molecules; high enzyme numbers increase the processing rate, while low enzyme numbers decrease it. We study different RNA-processing cascades where enzyme copy-numbers are either fixed or fluctuate. We find that for the fixed enzyme copy-numbers, the substrates at steady-state are Poisson-distributed, and the whole RNA cascade dynamics can be understood as a single birth-death process of the mature RNA product. In this case, solely fluctuations in the timing of RNA processing lead to variation in the number of RNA molecules. However, we show analytically and numerically that when enzyme copy-numbers fluctuate, the strength of RNA fluctuations increases linearly with the RNA transcription rate. This linear effect becomes stronger as the speed of enzyme dynamics decreases relative to the speed of RNA dynamics. Interestingly, we find that under certain conditions, the RNA cascade can reduce the strength of fluctuations in the expression level of the mature RNA product. Finally, by investigating the effects of processing polymorphisms, we show that it is possible for the effects of transcriptional polymorphisms to be enhanced, reduced or even reversed. Our results provide a framework to understand the dynamics of RNA processing.

  8. Process antecedents of challenging, under-cover and readily-adopted innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard; Tranfield, David; Denyer, David

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to test the utility of a taxonomy of innovation based on perceived characteristics in the context of healthcare by exploring the extent to which discrete innovation types could be distinguished from each other in terms of process antecedents. A qualitative approach was adopted to explore the process antecedents of nine exemplar cases of "challenging", "under-cover" and "readily-adopted" healthcare innovations. Data were collected by semi-structured interview and from secondary sources, and content analysed according to a theoretically informed framework of innovation process. Cluster analysis was applied to determine whether innovation types could be distinguished on the basis of process characteristics. The findings provide moderate support for the proposition that innovations differentiated on the basis of the way they are perceived by potential users exhibit different process characteristics. Innovations exhibiting characteristics previously believed negatively to impact adoption may be successfully adopted but by a different configuration of processes than by innovations exhibiting a different set of characteristics. The findings must be treated with caution because the sample consists of self-selected cases of successful innovation and is limited by sample size. Nevertheless, the study sheds new light on important process differences in healthcare innovation. The paper offers a heuristic device to aid clinicians and managers to better understand the relatively novel task of promoting and managing innovation in healthcare. The paper advances the argument that there is under-exploited opportunity for cross-disciplinary organisational learning for innovation management in the NHS. If efficiency and quality improvement targets are to be met through a strategy of encouraging innovation, it may be advantageous for clinicians and managers to reflect on what this study found mostly to be absent from the processes of the innovations studied

  9. SIMULTANEOUS DEGRADATION OF SOME PHTHALATE ESTERS UNDER FENTON AND PHOTO-FENTON OXIDATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELDEAN-GALEA M.S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the assessment of the degradation efficiency of five phthalates, DEP, BBP, DEHP, DINP and DIDP, found in a mixture in a liquid phase, using the Fenton and Photo Fenton oxidation processes, was conducted. It was observed that the main parameters that influence the Fenton oxidative processes of phthalates were the concentration of the oxidizing agent, H2O2, the concentration of the catalyst used, Fe2+, the pH value, UV irradiation and the reaction time. For the Fenton oxidative process, the highest degradation efficiencies were 19% for DEP, 50% for BBP, 84% for DEHP, 90% for DINP and 48% for DIDP, when the experiments were carried out using concentrations of 20 mg L-1 phthalate mixture, 100 mg L-1 H2O2, 10 mg L-1 Fe2+ at a pH value of 3, with a total reaction time of 30 minutes. For the Photo-Fenton oxidative process carried out in the same conditions as Fenton oxidative process, it was observed that after an irradiation time of 90 minutes under UV radiation the degradation efficiencies of phthalates were improved, being 22% for DEP, 71% for BBP, 97% for DEHP, 97% for DINP and 81% for DIDP.

  10. Detection and Correction of Under-/Overexposed Optical Soundtracks by Coupling Image and Audio Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquet, Jonathan; Besserer, Bernard; Hassaine, Abdelali; Decenciere, Etienne

    2008-12-01

    Film restoration using image processing, has been an active research field during the last years. However, the restoration of the soundtrack has been mainly performed in the sound domain, using signal processing methods, despite the fact that it is recorded as a continuous image between the images of the film and the perforations. While the very few published approaches focus on removing dust particles or concealing larger corrupted areas, no published works are devoted to the restoration of soundtracks degraded by substantial underexposure or overexposure. Digital restoration of optical soundtracks is an unexploited application field and, besides, scientifically rich, because it allows mixing both image and signal processing approaches. After introducing the principles of optical soundtrack recording and playback, this contribution focuses on our first approaches to detect and cancel the effects of under and overexposure. We intentionally choose to get a quantification of the effect of bad exposure in the 1D audio signal domain instead of 2D image domain. Our measurement is sent as feedback value to an image processing stage where the correction takes place, building up a "digital image and audio signal" closed loop processing. The approach is validated on both simulated alterations and real data.

  11. Detection and Correction of Under-/Overexposed Optical Soundtracks by Coupling Image and Audio Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Decenciere

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Film restoration using image processing, has been an active research field during the last years. However, the restoration of the soundtrack has been mainly performed in the sound domain, using signal processing methods, despite the fact that it is recorded as a continuous image between the images of the film and the perforations. While the very few published approaches focus on removing dust particles or concealing larger corrupted areas, no published works are devoted to the restoration of soundtracks degraded by substantial underexposure or overexposure. Digital restoration of optical soundtracks is an unexploited application field and, besides, scientifically rich, because it allows mixing both image and signal processing approaches. After introducing the principles of optical soundtrack recording and playback, this contribution focuses on our first approaches to detect and cancel the effects of under and overexposure. We intentionally choose to get a quantification of the effect of bad exposure in the 1D audio signal domain instead of 2D image domain. Our measurement is sent as feedback value to an image processing stage where the correction takes place, building up a “digital image and audio signal” closed loop processing. The approach is validated on both simulated alterations and real data.

  12. Depolarization current relaxation process of insulating dielectrics after corona poling under different charging conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As an insulating dielectric, polyimide is favorable for the application of optoelectronics, electrical insulation system in electric power industry, insulating, and packaging materials in space aircraft, due to its excellent thermal, mechanical and electrical insulating stability. The charge storage profile of such insulating dielectric is utmost important to its application, when it is exposed to electron irradiation, high voltage corona discharge or other treatments. These treatments could induce changes in physical and chemical properties of treated samples. To investigate the charge storage mechanism of the insulating dielectrics after high-voltage corona discharge, the relaxation processes responsible for corona charged polyimide films under different poling conditions were analyzed by the Thermally Stimulated Discharge Currents method (TSDC. In the results of thermal relaxation process, the appearance of various peaks in TSDC spectra provided a deep insight into the molecular status in the dielectric material and reflected stored space charge relaxation process in the insulating polymers after corona discharge treatments. Furthermore, the different space charge distribution status under various poling temperature and different discharge voltage level were also investigated, which could partly reflect the influence of the ambiance condition on the functional dielectrics after corona poling.

  13. Dynamics of bacterial communities in soils of rainforest fragments under restoration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Rafael; Zucchi, Tiago; Taketani, Rodrigo; Andreote, Fernando; Cardoso, Elke

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest ("Mata Atlântica") has been largely studied due to its valuable and unique biodiversity. Unfortunately, this priceless ecosystem has been widely deforested and only 10% of its original area still remains. Many projects have been successfully implemented to restore its fauna and flora but there is a lack of information on how the soil bacterial communities respond to this process. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the influence of soil attributes and seasonality on soil bacterial communities of rainforest fragments under restoration processes. Soil samples from a native site and two ongoing restoration fragments with different ages of implementation (10 and 20 years) were collected and assayed by using culture-independent approaches. Our findings demonstrate that seasonality barely altered the bacterial distribution whereas soil chemical attributes and plant diversity highly influenced the bacterial community structure during the restoration process. Moreover, the strict relationship observed for two bacterial groups, Solibacteriaceae and Verrucomicrobia, one with the youngest (10 years) and the other with the oldest (native) site suggests their use as bioindicators of soil quality and soil recovery of forest fragments under restoration.

  14. Depolarization current relaxation process of insulating dielectrics after corona poling under different charging conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. W.; Zhou, T. C.; Wang, J. X.; Yang, X. F.; Zhu, F.; Tian, L. M.; Liu, R. T.

    2017-10-01

    As an insulating dielectric, polyimide is favorable for the application of optoelectronics, electrical insulation system in electric power industry, insulating, and packaging materials in space aircraft, due to its excellent thermal, mechanical and electrical insulating stability. The charge storage profile of such insulating dielectric is utmost important to its application, when it is exposed to electron irradiation, high voltage corona discharge or other treatments. These treatments could induce changes in physical and chemical properties of treated samples. To investigate the charge storage mechanism of the insulating dielectrics after high-voltage corona discharge, the relaxation processes responsible for corona charged polyimide films under different poling conditions were analyzed by the Thermally Stimulated Discharge Currents method (TSDC). In the results of thermal relaxation process, the appearance of various peaks in TSDC spectra provided a deep insight into the molecular status in the dielectric material and reflected stored space charge relaxation process in the insulating polymers after corona discharge treatments. Furthermore, the different space charge distribution status under various poling temperature and different discharge voltage level were also investigated, which could partly reflect the influence of the ambiance condition on the functional dielectrics after corona poling.

  15. American option valuation under time changed tempered stable Lévy processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoli; Zhuang, Xintian

    2017-01-01

    Given that the underlying assets in financial markets exhibit stylized facts such as leptokurtosis, asymmetry, clustering properties and heteroskedasticity effect, this paper presents a novel model for pricing American option under the assumptions that the stock price processes are governed by time changed tempered stable Lévy process. As this model is constructed by introducing random time changes into tempered stable (TS) processes which specially refer to normal tempered stable (NTS) distribution as well as classical tempered stable (CTS) distribution, it permits infinite jumps as well as capturing random varying time in stochastic volatility, consequently taking into account the empirical facts such as leptokurtosis, skewness and volatility clustering behaviors. We employ the Fourier-cosine technique to calculate American option and propose the improved Particle Swarm optimization (IPSO) intelligent algorithm for model calibration. To demonstrate the advantage of the constructed model, we carry out empirical research on American index option in financial markets across wide ranges of models, with the time changing normal tempered stable distribution model yielding a superior performance than others.

  16. The experimental research on response characteristics of coal samples under the uniaxial loading process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing; Wei, Jian-Ping; Wen, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Yun-Gang; Jia, Lin-Xing

    2017-11-01

    In order to study the response characteristics of infrasound in coal samples under the uniaxial loading process, coal samples were collected from GengCun mine. Coal rock stress loading device, acoustic emission tested system and infrasound tested system were used to test the infrasonic signal and acoustic emission signal under uniaxial loading process. The tested results were analyzed by the methods of wavelet filter, threshold denoise, time-frequency analysis and so on. The results showed that in the loading process, the change of the infrasonic wave displayed the characteristics of stage, and it could be divided into three stages: initial stage with a certain amount infrasound events, middle stage with few infrasound events, and late stage gradual decrease. It had a good consistency with changing characteristics of acoustic emission. At the same time, the frequency of infrasound was very low. It can propagate over a very long distance with little attenuation, and the characteristics of the infrasound before the destruction of the coal samples were obvious. A method of using the infrasound characteristics to predict the destruction of coal samples was proposed. This is of great significance to guide the prediction of geological hazards in coal mines.

  17. A direct comparison of unconscious face processing under masking and interocular suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izatt, Gregory; Dubois, Julien; Faivre, Nathan; Koch, Christof

    2014-01-01

    Different combinations of forward and backward masking as well as interocular suppression have been used extensively to render stimuli invisible and to study those aspects of visual stimuli that are processed in the absence of conscious experience. Although the two techniques-masking vs. interocular suppression-obviously differ both in their applications and mechanisms, only little effort has been made to compare them systematically. Yet, such a comparison is crucial: existing discrepancies in the extent of unconscious processing inferred from these two techniques must be reconciled, as our understanding of unconscious vision should be independent of the technique used to prevent visibility. Here, we studied similarities and differences between faces rendered invisible by masking vs. interocular suppression using a priming paradigm. By carefully equating stimulus strength across the two techniques, we analyzed the effects of face primes with the same viewpoint (repetition priming, Experiment 1) and of face primes with a different viewpoint (identity priming, Experiment 2) on the reaction times for a fame categorization task. Overall, we found that the magnitude of both repetition and identity priming largely depended on stimulus visibility. Moreover, when the primes were subjectively invisible, both repetition and identity priming were found to be qualitatively stronger under masking than under interocular suppression. Taken together, these results help refine our understanding of which level of visual processing each technique disrupts, and illustrate the importance of systematic methodological comparisons in the field of unconscious vision.

  18. The decade 1989-1998 in Spanish psychology: an analysis of research in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, A; de la Corte, L

    2001-11-01

    In this study, a detailed exploration is carried out of the production of research and theory in social psychology in the Spanish context. The main research areas are: Work and organizational psychology, social health psychology, community and social services psychology, environmental research, judicial and political psychology, psychosocial theory and meta-theory, social psychology of language, research on emotion, group processes and social identity. The growing importance of social psychology within the framework of Spanish psychology is emphasized, and the relation with specific social problems from the national context, and the paradoxically scarce originality of the theoretical perspectives and the leading research, strongly influenced by Anglo Saxon social psychology, is commented upon.

  19. Stochastic Games for Continuous-Time Jump Processes Under Finite-Horizon Payoff Criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Qingda, E-mail: weiqd@hqu.edu.cn [Huaqiao University, School of Economics and Finance (China); Chen, Xian, E-mail: chenxian@amss.ac.cn [Peking University, School of Mathematical Sciences (China)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper we study two-person nonzero-sum games for continuous-time jump processes with the randomized history-dependent strategies under the finite-horizon payoff criterion. The state space is countable, and the transition rates and payoff functions are allowed to be unbounded from above and from below. Under the suitable conditions, we introduce a new topology for the set of all randomized Markov multi-strategies and establish its compactness and metrizability. Then by constructing the approximating sequences of the transition rates and payoff functions, we show that the optimal value function for each player is a unique solution to the corresponding optimality equation and obtain the existence of a randomized Markov Nash equilibrium. Furthermore, we illustrate the applications of our main results with a controlled birth and death system.

  20. Numerical Tests on Failure Process of Rock Particle under Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jun Zuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By using numerical code RFPA2D (dynamic version, numerical model is built to investigate the failure process of rock particle under impact loading, and the influence of different impact loading on crushing effect and consumed energy of rock particle sample is analyzed. Numerical results indicate that crushing effect is good when the stress wave amplitude is close to the dynamic strength of rock; it is difficult for rock particle to be broken under too low stress wave amplitude; on the other hand, when stress wave amplitude is too high, excessive fine particle is produced, and crushing effect is not very good on the whole, and more crushing energy is consumed. Secondly, in order to obtain good crushing effect, it should be avoided that wavelength of impact load be too short. Therefore, it is inappropriate to choose impact rusher with too high power and too fast impact frequency for ore particle.

  1. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-04-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  2. Role of (α ,n ) reactions under r -process conditions in neutrino-driven winds reexamined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Background: The astrophysical r -process occurs in an explosive astrophysical event under extremely neutron-rich conditions, leading to (n ,γ )-(γ ,n ) equilibrium along isotopic chains which peaks around neutron separation energies of a few MeV. Nuclei with larger Z are usually produced by β- decay, but under certain conditions also α -induced reactions may become relevant for the production of nuclei with Z +2 . Purpose: The uncertainties of the reaction rates of these α -induced reactions are discussed within the statistical model. As an example, α -induced (α ,n ) and (α ,x n ) reaction cross sections for the neutron-rich 86Se nucleus are studied in detail. Method: In a first step, the relevance of (α ,n ) and (α ,x n ) reactions is analyzed. Next the uncertainties are determined from a variation of the α -nucleus potential which is the all-dominant parameter for the astrophysical Z →Z +2 reaction rate. Results: It is found that the r -process flow towards nuclei with larger Z is essentially influenced only by the α -nucleus potential whereas the other ingredients of the statistical model play a very minor role. This finding is based on the fact that the flow towards larger Z depends on the sum over all (α ,x n ) cross sections, which is practically identical to the total α -induced reaction cross section. Conclusions: α -nucleus potentials play an important role under certain r -process conditions because the flow towards larger Z depends sensitively on the total α -induced reaction cross section. The uncertainty of the reaction rate is about a factor of two to three at higher temperatures and exceeds one order of magnitude at very low temperatures.

  3. The rapid expansion of (mainstream) health psychology in France: Historical foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Delefosse, Marie; Del Rio Carral, Maria

    2017-06-01

    This article traces the historical evolution of ongoing theoretical debates in psychology in France from the 1940s until today. Its aim is to show how the conjunction of certain conditions was determinant for a rapid expansion of American-derived mainstream health psychology during the 1980s. The authors describe the French context in the post-World War II period that made possible the introduction of psychology courses at the university, which included the tensions between two epistemological orientations: experimental psychology and clinical psychology, the latter partly inspired by Politzer's concrete psychology. We also outline the process that led to the implementation of 'clinical psychology in health settings' in the 1950s, under the influence of Daniel Lagache. Furthermore, the strong critiques that were made to the new psychology profession in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s are examined against oppositions among psychologists, psychiatrists, philosophers and psychoanalysts. Moreover, we discuss how under turbulent conditions, a pragmatic-oriented psychology arriving from the United States was smoothly and rapidly introduced in France during the 1980s, promoting a socio-cognitive framework and offering new career perspectives. But the French dissension to this new sub-discipline will also be considered. Finally, our conclusion reflects upon future implications of ongoing rivalries between different approaches to psychology. It underlines a growing interest in critical perspectives developed in Anglo-Saxon cultures which are being applied, by French academics and practitioners who work in psychology in health settings.

  4. The Operator's Diagnosis Task under Abnormal Operating Conditions in Industrial Process Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodstein, L.P.; Pedersen, O.M.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1974-01-01

    of diagnosis for use in discussions of (a) the studies which are necessary in order to formulate the operator's diagnostic procedures and (b) the possibilities which exists for supporting these procedures through appropriate data processing and display in the control system. At the same time, attempts are made......Analysis of serious accidents in connection with the operation of technical installations demonstrate that the diagnosis task which confronts personnel under non-normal plant conditions is a critical one. This report presents a preliminary outline of characteristic traits connected with the task...

  5. An assessment of patient safety in acupuncture process under EMR support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Chang; Hung, Ming-Chien; Hsiao, Shih-Jung; Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Chang, Mei-Man

    2011-12-01

    With the facilitating roles of IT, this study is to investigate the safety issues of the acupuncture process in the current practices under EMR support. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in 80 Chinese medicine practice hospitals and clinics in Taiwan. Concerns over patient safety during the acupuncture process were raised, such as an inconsistency between the practice and prescription and a lack of monitoring patient's condition during the treatment. Confirming the physicians' prescription and documenting patients' reaction for patient record management are needed to add to the EMR system for patient safety while performing acupuncture. The results of this study can be used by the government or medical institutes to assess the work flow and set up standards of EMRs design for their acupuncture treatment to ensure patient safety and to enhance healthcare quality.

  6. Location-Dependent Query Processing Under Soft Real-Time Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoubir Mammeri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, mobile devices and applications achieved an increasing development. In database field, this development required methods to consider new query types like location-dependent queries (i.e. the query results depend on the query issuer location. Although several researches addressed problems related to location-dependent query processing, a few works considered timing requirements that may be associated with queries (i.e., the query results must be delivered to mobile clients on time. The main objective of this paper is to propose a solution for location-dependent query processing under soft real-time constraints. Hence, we propose methods to take into account client location-dependency and to maximize the percentage of queries respecting their deadlines. We validate our proposal by implementing a prototype based on Oracle DBMS. Performance evaluation results show that the proposed solution optimizes the percentage of queries meeting their deadlines and the communication cost.

  7. Processing and Probability Analysis of Pulsed Terahertz NDE of Corrosion under Shuttle Tile Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Ely, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines data processing and probability analysis of pulsed terahertz NDE scans of corrosion defects under a Shuttle tile. Pulsed terahertz data collected from an aluminum plate with fabricated corrosion defects and covered with a Shuttle tile is presented. The corrosion defects imaged were fabricated by electrochemically etching areas of various diameter and depth in the plate. In this work, the aluminum plate echo signal is located in the terahertz time-of-flight data and a threshold is applied to produce a binary image of sample features. Feature location and area are examined and identified as corrosion through comparison with the known defect layout. The results are tabulated with hit, miss, or false call information for a probability of detection analysis that is used to identify an optimal processing threshold.

  8. Decision making under uncertainty and information processing in positive and negative mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sachi Nandan; Suar, Damodar

    2014-08-01

    This study examines whether mood states (a) influence decision making under uncertainty and (b) affect information processing. 200 students at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur participated in this study. Positive mood was induced by showing comedy movie clips to 100 participants and negative mood was induced by showing tragedy movie clips to another 100 participants. The participants were administered a questionnaire containing hypothetical situations of financial gains and losses, and a health risk problem. The participants selected a choice for each situation, and stated the reasons for their choice. Results suggested that the participants preferred cautious choices in the domain of gain and in health risk problems and risky choices in the domain of loss. Analysis of the reasons for the participants' choices suggested more fluency, originality, and flexibility of information in a negative mood compared to a positive mood. A negative (positive) mood state facilitated systematic (heuristic) information processing.

  9. Heterogeneity and loss of soil nutrient elements under aeolian processes in the Otindag Desert, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danfeng; Wang, Xunming; Lou, Junpeng; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Hui; Ma, Wenyong; Jiao, Linlin

    2018-02-01

    The heterogeneity of the composition of surface soils that are affected by aeolian processes plays important roles in ecological evolution and the occurrence of aeolian desertification in fragile ecological zones, but the associated mechanisms are poorly understood. Using field investigation, wind tunnel experiments, and particle size and element analyses, we discuss the variation in the nutrient elements of surface soils that forms in the presence of aeolian processes of four vegetation species (Caragana microphylla Lam, Artemisia frigida Willd. Sp. Pl., Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. and Stipa grandis P. Smirn) growing in the Otindag Desert, China. These four vegetation communities correspond to increasing degrees of degradation. A total of 40 macro elements, trace elements, and oxides were measured in the surface soil and in wind-transported samples. The results showed that under the different degradation stages, the compositions and concentrations of nutrients in surface soils differed for the four vegetation species. Aeolian processes may cause higher heterogeneity and higher loss of soil nutrient elements for the communities of Artemisia frigida Willd. Sp. Pl., Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel, and Stipa grandis P. Smirn than for the Caragana microphylla Lam community. There was remarkable variation in the loss of nutrients under different aeolian transportation processes. Over the past several decades, the highest loss of soil elements occurred in the 1970s, whereas the loss from 2011 to the present was generally 4.0% of that in the 1970s. These results indicate that the evident decrease in nutrient loss has played an important role in the rehabilitation that has occurred in the region recently.

  10. Possible Weakening Processes Imposed on California's Earthen Levees under Protracted Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. D.; Vahedifard, F.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2015-12-01

    California is currently suffering from a multiyear extreme drought and the impacts of the drought are anticipated to worsen in a warming climate. The resilience of critical infrastructure under extreme drought conditions is a major concern which has not been well understood. Thus, there is a crucial need to improve our understanding about the potential threats of drought on infrastructure and take subsequent actions in a timely manner to mitigate these threats and adopt our infrastructure for forthcoming extreme events. The need is more pronounced for earthen levees, since their functionality to protect limited water resources and dryland is more critical during drought. A significant amount of California's levee systems are currently operating under a high risk condition. Protracted drought can further threaten the structural competency of these already at-risk levee systems through several thermo-hydro mechanical weakening processes that undermine their stability. Viable information on the implications of these weakening processes, particularly on California's earthen levees, is relatively incomplete. This article discusses, from a geotechnical engineering perspective, how California's protracted drought might threaten the integrity of levee systems through the imposition of several thermo-hydro mechanical weakening processes. Pertinent facts and statistics regarding the drought in California are presented and discussed. Catastrophic levee failures and major damages resulting from drought-induce weakening processes such as shear strength reduction, desiccation cracking, land subsidence and surface erosion, fissuring and soil softening, and soil carbon oxidation are discussed to illustrate the devastating impacts that the California drought might impose on existing earthen levees. This article calls for further research in light of these potential drought-inducing weakening mechanisms to support mitigation strategies for reducing future catastrophic levee failures.

  11. The underlying processes of a soil mite metacommunity on a small scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxu Dong

    Full Text Available Metacommunity theory provides an understanding of how ecological processes regulate local community assemblies. However, few field studies have evaluated the underlying mechanisms of a metacommunity on a small scale through revealing the relative roles of spatial and environmental filtering in structuring local community composition. Based on a spatially explicit sampling design in 2012 and 2013, this study aims to evaluate the underlying processes of a soil mite metacommunity on a small spatial scale (50 m in a temperate deciduous forest located at the Maoershan Ecosystem Research Station, Northeast China. Moran's eigenvector maps (MEMs were used to model independent spatial variables. The relative importance of spatial (including trend variables, i.e., geographical coordinates, and broad- and fine-scale spatial variables and environmental factors in driving the soil mite metacommunity was determined by variation partitioning. Mantel and partial Mantel tests and a redundancy analysis (RDA were also used to identify the relative contributions of spatial and environmental variables. The results of variation partitioning suggested that the relatively large and significant variance was a result of spatial variables (including broad- and fine-scale spatial variables and trend, indicating the importance of dispersal limitation and autocorrelation processes. The significant contribution of environmental variables was detected in 2012 based on a partial Mantel test, and soil moisture and soil organic matter were especially important for the soil mite metacommunity composition in both years. The study suggested that the soil mite metacommunity was primarily regulated by dispersal limitation due to broad-scale and neutral biotic processes at a fine-scale and that environmental filtering might be of subordinate importance. In conclusion, a combination of metacommunity perspectives between neutral and species sorting theories was suggested to be important

  12. German Military Psychology 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, *WEST GERMANY, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, APTITUDE TESTS, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHIATRY, MILITARY PROCUREMENT, CLASSIFICATION, SELECTION, PILOTS, AVIATION MEDICINE.

  13. Training processes in under 6s football competition: The transition from ingenuity to institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Merino Orozco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Under 6s football competition is a school sport that has inherent educational implications. Moreover, it is a booming non-formal socio-educational framework where families and children lay training expectations and dreams. The aim is to comprehend the emerging learning processes promoted in this environment for 6 years-old children, when the child starts the institutionalization process in the ruled sport. The research uses a case study design, the ethnographic mode, through participant observation. It uses the narrative and image data to understand the scenario from the perspective of its builder. The results show that the institutionalization process starts from the ingenuity and lack of understanding of the child, who develops training processes in a prescriptive environment, where the competitive performance of the team is pursued. Promoting certain types of learning which the participant himself consciously considers inappropriate undertakes the presence of different kinds of behaviour, which go against the positive values usually attributed to football. The study claims for the necessity of taking advantage of the training opportunities which football offers to children such as the enhancing of creativity, self-efficacy and self-esteem.

  14. Vivid: How valence and arousal influence word processing under different task demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Busch, Nathaniel; Wilkie, Gianna; Kuperberg, Gina

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine how dimensions of emotion – valence and arousal – influence different stages of word processing under different task demands. In two experiments, two groups of participants viewed the same single emotional and neutral words while carrying out different tasks. In both experiments, valence (pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral) was fully crossed with arousal (high and low). We found that task made a substantial contribution to how valence and arousal modulated the Late Positive Complex (LPC), which is thought to reflect sustained evaluative processing (particularly of emotional stimuli). When participants performed a semantic categorization task in which emotion was not directly relevant to task performance, the LPC showed a larger amplitude for high-arousal words than low-arousal words, but no effect of valence. In contrast, when participants performed an overt valence categorization task, the LPC showed a large effect of valence (with unpleasant words eliciting the largest positivity), but no effect of arousal. These data show not only that valence and arousal act independently to influence word processing, but that their relative contributions to prolonged evaluative neural processes are strongly influenced by situational demands (and individual differences, as revealed in a subsequent analysis of subjective judgments). PMID:26833048

  15. Path Dependence in Decision-Making Processes: Exploring the Impact of Complexity under Increasing Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Koch

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of path-dependent processes basically refers to positive feedback in terms of increasing returns as the main driving forces of such processes. Furthermore, path dependence can be affected by context factors, such as different degrees of complexity. Up to now, it has been unclear whether and how different settings of complexity impact path-dependent processes and the probability of lock-in. In this paper we investigate the relationship between environmental complexity and path dependence by means of an experimental study. By focusing on the mode of information load and decision quality in chronological sequences, the study explores the impact of complexity on decision-making processes. The results contribute to both the development of path-dependence theory and a better understanding of decision-making behavior under conditions of positive feedback. Since previous path research has mostly applied qualitative case-study research and (to a minor part simulations, this paper makes a further contribution by establishing an experimental approach for research on path dependence.

  16. Performance of a dual-process PVD/PS tungsten coating structure under deuterium ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunmyung; Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Sung Hwan [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jae-Min [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Changheui, E-mail: chjang@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • D{sup +} irradiation performance of a dual-process PVD/PS W coating was evaluated. • Low-energy plasmas exposure of 100 eV D{sup +} with 1.17 × 10{sup 21} D/s{sup −1} m{sup 2} flux was applied. • After D ion irradiation, flakes were observed on the surface of the simple PS coating. • While, sub-μm size protrusions were observed for dual-process PVD/PS W coating. • Height of D spike in depth profile was lower for dual-process PVD/PS W coating. - Abstract: A dual-process coating structure was developed on a graphite substrate to improve the performance of the coating structure under anticipated operating condition of fusion devices. A thin multilayer W/Mo coating (6 μm) was deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method with a variation of Mo interlayer thickness on plasma spray (PS) W coating (160 μm) of a graphite substrate panel. The dual-process PVD/PS W coatings then were exposed to 3.08 × 10{sup 24} D m{sup −2} of 100 eV D ions with a flux of 1.71 × 10{sup 21} D m{sup −2} s{sup −1} in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) chamber. After irradiation, surface morphology and D depth profiles of the dual-process coating were analyzed and compared to those of the simple PS W coating. Both changes in surface morphology and D retention were strongly dependent on the microstructure of surface coating. Meanwhile, the existence of Mo interlayer seemed to have no significant effect on the retention of deuterium.

  17. The spermatogenic process of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus under a histomorphometric view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Danielle Barbosa; Puga, Luciano Carlos Heringer Porcaro; Paula, Tarcízio Antônio Rêgo de; Freitas, Mariella Bontempo Duca; Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto da

    2017-01-01

    Among all bat species, Desmodus rotundus stands out as one of the most intriguing due to its exclusively haematophagous feeding habits. However, little is known about their spermatogenic cycle. This study aimed at describing the spermatogenic process of common vampire bats through testicular histomorphometric characterization of adult specimens, spermatogenic production indexes, description of stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and estimative of the spermatogenic process duration. Morphometrical and immunohistochemical analyzes for bromodeoxiuridine were conducted under light microscopy and ultrastructural analyzes were performed under transmission electron microscopy. Vampire bats showed higher investment in gonadal tissue (gonadosomatic index of 0.54%) and in seminiferous tubules (tubulesomatic index of 0.49%) when compared to larger mammals. They also showed a high tubular length per gram of testis (34.70 m). Approximately half of the intertubular compartment was found to be comprised by Leydig cells (51.20%), and an average of 23.77x106 of these cells was found per gram of testis. The germline cells showed 16.93% of mitotic index and 2.51% of meiotic index. The overall yield of spermatogenesis was 60% and the testicular spermatic reserve was 71.44x107 spermatozoa per gram of testis. With a total spermatogenesis duration estimated at 37.02 days, vampire bats showed a daily sperm production of 86.80x106 gametes per gram of testis. These findings demonstrate a high sperm production, which is commonly observed in species with promiscuous mating system.

  18. The spermatogenic process of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus under a histomorphometric view.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Barbosa Morais

    Full Text Available Among all bat species, Desmodus rotundus stands out as one of the most intriguing due to its exclusively haematophagous feeding habits. However, little is known about their spermatogenic cycle. This study aimed at describing the spermatogenic process of common vampire bats through testicular histomorphometric characterization of adult specimens, spermatogenic production indexes, description of stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and estimative of the spermatogenic process duration. Morphometrical and immunohistochemical analyzes for bromodeoxiuridine were conducted under light microscopy and ultrastructural analyzes were performed under transmission electron microscopy. Vampire bats showed higher investment in gonadal tissue (gonadosomatic index of 0.54% and in seminiferous tubules (tubulesomatic index of 0.49% when compared to larger mammals. They also showed a high tubular length per gram of testis (34.70 m. Approximately half of the intertubular compartment was found to be comprised by Leydig cells (51.20%, and an average of 23.77x106 of these cells was found per gram of testis. The germline cells showed 16.93% of mitotic index and 2.51% of meiotic index. The overall yield of spermatogenesis was 60% and the testicular spermatic reserve was 71.44x107 spermatozoa per gram of testis. With a total spermatogenesis duration estimated at 37.02 days, vampire bats showed a daily sperm production of 86.80x106 gametes per gram of testis. These findings demonstrate a high sperm production, which is commonly observed in species with promiscuous mating system.

  19. In Situ Visualization of the Phase Behavior of Oil Samples Under Refinery Process Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde-Boutet, Cedric; McCaffrey, William C

    2017-02-21

    To help address production issues in refineries caused by the fouling of process units and lines, we have developed a setup as well as a method to visualize the behavior of petroleum samples under process conditions. The experimental setup relies on a custom-built micro-reactor fitted with a sapphire window at the bottom, which is placed over the objective of an inverted microscope equipped with a cross-polarizer module. Using reflection microscopy enables the visualization of opaque samples, such as petroleum vacuum residues, or asphaltenes. The combination of the sapphire window from the micro-reactor with the cross-polarizer module of the microscope on the light path allows high-contrast imaging of isotropic and anisotropic media. While observations are carried out, the micro-reactor can be heated to the temperature range of cracking reactions (up to 450 °C), can be subjected to H2 pressure relevant to hydroconversion reactions (up to 16 MPa), and can stir the sample by magnetic coupling. Observations are typically carried out by taking snapshots of the sample under cross-polarized light at regular time intervals. Image analyses may not only provide information on the temperature, pressure, and reactive conditions yielding phase separation, but may also give an estimate of the evolution of the chemical (absorption/reflection spectra) and physical (refractive index) properties of the sample before the onset of phase separation.

  20. Underlying Skills of Oral and Silent Reading Fluency in Chinese: Perspective of Visual Rapid Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Kwok, Rosa K W; Liu, Menglian; Liu, Hanlong; Huang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Reading fluency is a critical skill to improve the quality of our daily life and working efficiency. The majority of previous studies focused on oral reading fluency rather than silent reading fluency, which is a much more dominant reading mode that is used in middle and high school and for leisure reading. It is still unclear whether the oral and silent reading fluency involved the same underlying skills. To address this issue, the present study examined the relationship between the visual rapid processing and Chinese reading fluency in different modes. Fifty-eight undergraduate students took part in the experiment. The phantom contour paradigm and the visual 1-back task were adopted to measure the visual rapid temporal and simultaneous processing respectively. These two tasks reflected the temporal and spatial dimensions of visual rapid processing separately. We recorded the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task, as well as reaction time and accuracy in the visual 1-back task. Reading fluency was measured in both single-character and sentence levels. Fluent reading of single characters was assessed with a paper-and-pencil lexical decision task, and a sentence verification task was developed to examine reading fluency on a sentence level. The reading fluency test in each level was conducted twice (i.e., oral reading and silent reading). Reading speed and accuracy were recorded. The correlation analysis showed that the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task did not correlate with the scores of the reading fluency tests. Although, the reaction time in visual 1-back task correlated with the reading speed of both oral and silent reading fluency, the comparison of the correlation coefficients revealed a closer relationship between the visual rapid simultaneous processing and silent reading. Furthermore, the visual rapid simultaneous processing exhibited a significant contribution to reading fluency in silent mode but not in oral reading mode. These

  1. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesirable behavior. The traditional psychological model attempts to satisfy the scientific interest and partly practical interest, while avoiding emancipatory interest. But I believe modern socio-historical models of psychology to be significant precisely owing to the inclusion of emancipatory interest. The difference between these two models of psychology is most obvious in their perception of identity i.e. individuality. Conventional perceptions follow the logic of "possessive individualism" in which the individual is seen as an autonomous bearer and owner of his/her psychological states and processes. The conventional model of identity supports the modernist concept of the individual as being focused on his/her self or personal identity. Socio-historical models, on the other hand, see the individual as a being embedded in social relations and social interactions, and one who builds and expresses his/her individuality through the reflection on social interactions, discursive practices, and response to the hierarchy of power and social mechanisms of control. According to this model, identity evolves through a series of social constructions which are embodied in the individual and represent him/her in society. Identity thus becomes a notion that combines individuality and social context, subjectivation and objectivation of the individual, and historical and biographical time.

  2. Differential behaviors of tea catechins under thermal processing: Formation of non-enzymatic oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fang-Yuan; Shi, Meng; Nie, Ying; Zhao, Yue; Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2016-04-01

    Tea catechins as a member of flavan-3-ols subclass with the same skeleton may behave differentially. This study investigated the chemical conversions of 8 catechins under heat treatment with the involvement of epimerization, hydrolysis and oxidation/condensation reactions. Three reactions were enhanced as temperature increased from 30 °C to 90 °C. The epimerization of non-gallated catechins was favored by epi-configuration but hindered by pyrogallol moiety, and the hydrolysis reaction of gallated catechins was facilitated by pyrogallol moiety. Epicatechin and epigallocatechin had the lowest thermostabilities due to epimerization and oxidation/condensation reactions respectively. Sufficient O2 was not a precondition for the occurrence of chemical conversions of catechins under heat treatment. Non-enzymatic oligomerization occurred to epi type catechins and catechin under heat treatment, and dehydrodicatechins A were mainly responsible for the browning of epicatechin and catechin solutions. The evidence of generation of catechin oligomers provides a novel way to explain sensory change of tea and relevant products during thermal processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of microbial processes on gas generation under expected WIPP repository conditions: Annual report through 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    1993-09-01

    Microbial processes involved in gas generation from degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository are being investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These laboratory studies are part of the Sandia National Laboratories -- WIPP Gas Generation Program. Gas generation due to microbial degradation of representative cellulosic waste was investigated in short-term (< 6 months) and long-term (> 6 months) experiments by incubating representative paper (filter paper, paper towels, and tissue) in WIPP brine under initially aerobic (air) and anaerobic (nitrogen) conditions. Samples from the WIPP surficial environment and underground workings harbor gas-producing halophilic microorganisms, the activities of which were studied in short-term experiments. The microorganisms metabolized a variety of organic compounds including cellulose under aerobic, anaerobic, and denitrifying conditions. In long-term experiments, the effects of added nutrients (trace amounts of ammonium nitrate, phosphate, and yeast extract), no nutrients, and nutrients plus excess nitrate on gas production from cellulose degradation.

  4. Auditory processing disorder and speech perception problems in noise: finding the underlying origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagacé, Josée; Jutras, Benoît; Gagné, Jean-Pierre

    2010-06-01

    A hallmark listening problem of individuals presenting with auditory processing disorder (APD) is their poor recognition of speech in noise. The underlying perceptual problem of the listening difficulties in unfavorable listening conditions is unknown. The objective of this article was to demonstrate theoretically how to determine whether the speech recognition problems are related to an auditory dysfunction, a language-based dysfunction, or a combination of both. Tests such as the Speech Perception in Noise (SPIN) test allow the exploration of the auditory and language-based functions involved in speech perception in noise, which is not possible with most other speech-in-noise tests. Psychometric functions illustrating results from hypothetical groups of individuals with APD on the SPIN test are presented. This approach makes it possible to postulate about the origin of the speech perception problems in noise. APD is a complex and heterogeneous disorder for which the underlying deficit is currently unclear. Because of their design, SPIN-like tests can potentially be used to identify the nature of the deficits underlying problems with speech perception in noise for this population. A better understanding of the difficulties with speech perception in noise experienced by many listeners with APD should lead to more efficient intervention programs.

  5. China’s Foreign- and Security-policy Decision-making Processes under Hu Jintao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Cabestan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 1979, foreign- and security-policy-making and implementation processes have gradually and substantially changed. New modes of operation that have consolidated under Hu Jintao, actually took shape under Jiang Zemin in the 1990s, and some, under Deng Xiaoping. While the military’s role has diminished, that of diplomats, experts, and bureaucracies dealing with trade, international economic relations, energy, propaganda and education has increased. Decision making in this area has remained highly centralized and concentrated in the supreme leading bodies of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP. However, China’s globalization and decentralization, as well as the increasing complexity of its international interests, have intensified the need to better coordinate the activities of the various CCP and state organs involved in foreign and security policy; hence, the growing importance of the CCP leading small groups (foreign affairs, national security, Taiwan, etc.. But the rigidity of the current institutional pattern has so far foiled repeated attempts to establish a National Security Council.

  6. Utilization of random process spectral properties for the calculation of fatigue life under combined loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svoboda J.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution includes the results of experimental works aiming to find a new methodology for the calculation of fatigue life of structures subjected to operational loading from a combination of forces and moments of random character. Considering the fracture mechanics theory, then the damaging of material is both in the micro- and macro-plastic area connected with the rise of plastic deformation and hence with the plastic transformation rate which depends on the amount of supplied energy. The power spectral density (PSD indicating the power at individual frequencies in the monitored frequency band yields information about the supplied amount of energy. Therefore, it can be assumed that there is a dependence between the PSD shape and the size of damage and that the supplied power which is proportional to the value of dispersion s^2 under the PSD curve could be a new criterion for the calculation of fatigue life under combined loading. The searching for links between the spectral properties of the loading process and the fatigue life of structure under load is dealt with by new Grant GA No. 101/09/0904 of the Czech Technical University in Prague and the Institute of Thermomechanics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i.

  7. Will your words become mine? underlying processes and cowitness intimacy in the memory conformity paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeberst, Aileen; Seidemann, Julienne

    2014-06-01

    Eyewitness reports become less accurate after exposure to inconsistent information. When such phenomenon of diminishing accuracy occurs among cowitnesses, it is termed memory conformity or the social contagion effect. The present study set out to provide a rigorous test of the underlying mechanisms with particular emphasis on investigating whether genuine false memory is involved. To this end, we conducted an earwitness experiment in which some participants were exposed to discrepant cowitness information and provided their recollections repeatedly and under different conditions. Additionally, we examined the impact of cowitness intimacy by using a random assignment procedure, an aspect that has not been previously studied. With regard to the underlying processes, our findings clearly argue that informational rather than normative influence plays a dominant role. Moreover, highly accurate source attributions indicated that participants were aware of drawing on the recollection of their counterparts. Consequently, we did not obtain any evidence for false memory. With regard to cowitness intimacy, the results were inconsistent and call for further research.

  8. Experimental study and artificial neural network modeling of tartrazine removal by photocatalytic process under solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebti, Aicha; Souahi, Fatiha; Mohellebi, Faroudja; Igoud, Sadek

    2017-07-01

    This research focuses on the application of an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the removal efficiency of tartrazine from simulated wastewater using a photocatalytic process under solar illumination. A program is developed in Matlab software to optimize the neural network architecture and select the suitable combination of training algorithm, activation function and hidden neurons number. The experimental results of a batch reactor operated under different conditions of pH, TiO2 concentration, initial organic pollutant concentration and solar radiation intensity are used to train, validate and test the networks. While negligible mineralization is demonstrated, the experimental results show that under sunlight irradiation, 85% of tartrazine is removed after 300 min using only 0.3 g/L of TiO2 powder. Therefore, irradiation time is prolonged and almost 66% of total organic carbon is reduced after 15 hours. ANN 5-8-1 with Bayesian regulation back-propagation algorithm and hyperbolic tangent sigmoid transfer function is found to be able to predict the response with high accuracy. In addition, the connection weights approach is used to assess the importance contribution of each input variable on the ANN model response. Among the five experimental parameters, the irradiation time has the greatest effect on the removal efficiency of tartrazine.

  9. [THE PATHOGENIC POTENTIAL OF MORAXELLA CATARRHALIS AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS UNDER INFLAMMATORY PROCESSES OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeva, L A; Burgasova, O A; Kunilova, E S; Petrova, I S; Tseneva, G Ya; Bespalova, G L

    2015-11-01

    The frequent isolation from biological material of Moraxella catarrhalis under bronchitis and pneumonia and Staphilococcus epidermidis under rhinitis and sinusitis requires profound investigation offactors ofpathogenicity ofthe mentioned microorganisms. The genetic and phenotypic markers of virulence of strains M. catarrhalis and S. epidermidis are examined. Their etiologic role in development of infection processes of respiratory tract and middle ear is determined The most of M catarrhalis strains isolated under bronchitis and pneumonia have gene mcaP responsiblefor production ofprotein McaP that provides adhesion to epithelium cell of host and lipolitic activity of bacteria. The strains isolated from patients with pneumonia had the most adhesive activity. The cluster of genes ICA with leading role of gene icaA is responsible for for availability offactors of intercellular adhesion in Staphilococci strains. In the clinical samples from patients with sinusitis this gene is detected 5 times more frequently than from healthy individuals. In phenotypic tests, expression of gene icaA in S. epidermidis isolated from patients is three times higher than in strains isolated from healthy individuals. To establish etiologic role of M. catarrhalis and S. epidermidis and to develop tactic of therapy of patients with bronchitis, pneumonia and sinusitis complex approach is needed, including detection of genetic and phenotypic markers of virulence in isolated microorganisms.

  10. [CO2 response process and its simulation of Prunus sibirica photosynthesis under different soil moisture conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Zhang, Guang-Can; Pei, Bin; Xu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Yu; Fang, Li-Dong

    2013-06-01

    Taking the two-year old potted Prunus sibirica seedlings as test materials, and using CIRAS-2 photosynthetic system, this paper studied the CO2 response process of P. sibirica photosynthesis in semi-arid loess hilly region under eight soil moisture conditions. The CO2 response data of P. sibirica were fitted and analyzed by rectangular hyperbola model, exponential equation, and modified rectangular hyperbola model. Meanwhile, the quantitative relationships between the photosynthesis and the soil moisture were discussed. The results showed that the CO2 response process of P. sibirica photosynthesis had obvious response characteristics to the soil moisture threshold. The relative soil water content (RWC) required to maintain the higher photosynthetic rate (P(n)) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) of P. sibirica was in the range of 46.3%-81.9%. In this RWC range, the photosynthesis did not appear obvious CO2 saturated inhibition phenomenon. When the RWC exceeded this range, the photosynthetic capacity (P(n max)), CE, and CO2 saturation point (CSP) decreased evidently. Under different soil moisture conditions, there existed obvious differences among the three models in simulating the CO2 response data of P. sibirica. When the RWC was in the range of 46.3%-81.9%, the CO2 response process and the characteristic parameters such as CE, CO2 compensation point (see symbol), and photorespiration rate (R(p)) could be well fitted by the three models, and the accuracy was in the order of modified rectangular hyperbola model > exponential equation > rectangular hyperbola model. When the RWC was too high or too low, namely, the RWC was > 81.9% or process and the characteristic parameters. It was suggested that when the RWC was from 46.3% to 81.9%, the photosynthetic efficiency of P. sibirica was higher, and, as compared with rectangular hyperbola model and exponential equation, modified rectangular hyperbola model had more applicability to fit the CO2 response data of P. sibirica

  11. The Influence of the Early Retirement Process on Satisfaction with Early Retirement and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocnik, Kristina; Tordera, Nuria; Peiro, Jose Maria

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores the influence of the early retirement process on adjustment to early retirement, taking into account the roles of individual characteristics and social context in this process. We proposed a systematic model integrating perceived ability to continue working, organizational pressures toward early retirement and group…

  12. New social tasks for cognitive psychology; or, new cognitive tasks for social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettersten, John

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate how differing theories of rationality lead to differing practices, their social rules must be analyzed. This is true not merely in science but also in society at large. This analysis of social thinking requires both the identification of innate cognitive social psychological processes and explanations of their relations with differing rules of rational practice. These new tasks can enable social psychologists to contribute to the study of how social situations facilitate or inhibit rational practice and enable cognitive psychologists to improve social psychological theory. In contrast to dominant current research strategies, social and cognitive psychologists can integrate social studies of rational practices and their consequences with studies of underlying cognitive psychological processes. In this article I do not attempt to carry out these tasks but rather point to both their lack of recognition and their importance.

  13. Criteria of the peer review process for publication of experimental and quasi-experimental research in Psychology: A guide for creating research papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel M. Ramos-Álvarez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research in Psychology is characterized by ensuring a method that guarantees objectivity, reliability, validity and replication of results. In this theoretical study we propose a set of criteria for the preparation and review of quasiexperimental and experimental research manuscripts, which follows such methodological objective dictates. These criteria are based on a review of structural aspects in experimental research, in the modern theory of psychological theorization, and in the validity theory of scientific research. All these aspects are complemented with those proposed in revisions about empirically-based, statistically-based peer-review systems, and recently refined according to the expert judgment approach. We distinguish between essential, obligatory, complementary, and methodological criteria. These norms are organized according to a measuring tool -the ExperimenCheck2 system-, including report characteristics, antecedents, theoretical development, design, analysis and interpretation of results, format and bibliographical sources, also summarized in the form of a conceptual map. We also introduce the general guidelines of a reviewing process that fulfils scientific criteria, using the proposed evaluative guideline as the main organizing principle.

  14. Auditory processing under cross-modal visual load investigated with simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Regenbogen

    Full Text Available Cognitive task demands in one sensory modality (T1 can have beneficial effects on a secondary task (T2 in a different modality, due to reduced top-down control needed to inhibit the secondary task, as well as crossmodal spread of attention. This contrasts findings of cognitive load compromising a secondary modality's processing. We manipulated cognitive load within one modality (visual and studied the consequences of cognitive demands on secondary (auditory processing. 15 healthy participants underwent a simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment. Data from 8 participants were obtained outside the scanner for validation purposes. The primary task (T1 was to respond to a visual working memory (WM task with four conditions, while the secondary task (T2 consisted of an auditory oddball stream, which participants were asked to ignore. The fMRI results revealed fronto-parietal WM network activations in response to T1 task manipulation. This was accompanied by significantly higher reaction times and lower hit rates with increasing task difficulty which confirmed successful manipulation of WM load. Amplitudes of auditory evoked potentials, representing fundamental auditory processing showed a continuous augmentation which demonstrated a systematic relation to cross-modal cognitive load. With increasing WM load, primary auditory cortices were increasingly deactivated while psychophysiological interaction results suggested the emergence of auditory cortices connectivity with visual WM regions. These results suggest differential effects of crossmodal attention on fundamental auditory processing. We suggest a continuous allocation of resources to brain regions processing primary tasks when challenging the central executive under high cognitive load.

  15. Subcortical processing of speech regularities underlies reading and music aptitude in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities supports fundamental human behaviors such as hearing in noise and reading. Although the failure to encode acoustic regularities in ongoing speech has been associated with language and literacy deficits, how auditory expertise, such as the expertise that is associated with musical skill, relates to the brainstem processing of speech regularities is unknown. An association between musical skill and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities would not be surprising given the importance of repetition and regularity in music. Here, we aimed to define relationships between the subcortical processing of speech regularities, music aptitude, and reading abilities in children with and without reading impairment. We hypothesized that, in combination with auditory cognitive abilities, neural sensitivity to regularities in ongoing speech provides a common biological mechanism underlying the development of music and reading abilities. Methods We assessed auditory working memory and attention, music aptitude, reading ability, and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities in 42 school-aged children with a wide range of reading ability. Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities was assessed by recording brainstem responses to the same speech sound presented in predictable and variable speech streams. Results Through correlation analyses and structural equation modeling, we reveal that music aptitude and literacy both relate to the extent of subcortical adaptation to regularities in ongoing speech as well as with auditory working memory and attention. Relationships between music and speech processing are specifically driven by performance on a musical rhythm task, underscoring the importance of rhythmic regularity for both language and music. Conclusions These data indicate common brain mechanisms underlying reading and music abilities that relate to how the nervous system responds to regularities in auditory input

  16. Subcortical processing of speech regularities underlies reading and music aptitude in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Hornickel, Jane; Kraus, Nina

    2011-10-17

    Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities supports fundamental human behaviors such as hearing in noise and reading. Although the failure to encode acoustic regularities in ongoing speech has been associated with language and literacy deficits, how auditory expertise, such as the expertise that is associated with musical skill, relates to the brainstem processing of speech regularities is unknown. An association between musical skill and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities would not be surprising given the importance of repetition and regularity in music. Here, we aimed to define relationships between the subcortical processing of speech regularities, music aptitude, and reading abilities in children with and without reading impairment. We hypothesized that, in combination with auditory cognitive abilities, neural sensitivity to regularities in ongoing speech provides a common biological mechanism underlying the development of music and reading abilities. We assessed auditory working memory and attention, music aptitude, reading ability, and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities in 42 school-aged children with a wide range of reading ability. Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities was assessed by recording brainstem responses to the same speech sound presented in predictable and variable speech streams. Through correlation analyses and structural equation modeling, we reveal that music aptitude and literacy both relate to the extent of subcortical adaptation to regularities in ongoing speech as well as with auditory working memory and attention. Relationships between music and speech processing are specifically driven by performance on a musical rhythm task, underscoring the importance of rhythmic regularity for both language and music. These data indicate common brain mechanisms underlying reading and music abilities that relate to how the nervous system responds to regularities in auditory input. Definition of common biological underpinnings

  17. Subcortical processing of speech regularities underlies reading and music aptitude in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strait Dana L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities supports fundamental human behaviors such as hearing in noise and reading. Although the failure to encode acoustic regularities in ongoing speech has been associated with language and literacy deficits, how auditory expertise, such as the expertise that is associated with musical skill, relates to the brainstem processing of speech regularities is unknown. An association between musical skill and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities would not be surprising given the importance of repetition and regularity in music. Here, we aimed to define relationships between the subcortical processing of speech regularities, music aptitude, and reading abilities in children with and without reading impairment. We hypothesized that, in combination with auditory cognitive abilities, neural sensitivity to regularities in ongoing speech provides a common biological mechanism underlying the development of music and reading abilities. Methods We assessed auditory working memory and attention, music aptitude, reading ability, and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities in 42 school-aged children with a wide range of reading ability. Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities was assessed by recording brainstem responses to the same speech sound presented in predictable and variable speech streams. Results Through correlation analyses and structural equation modeling, we reveal that music aptitude and literacy both relate to the extent of subcortical adaptation to regularities in ongoing speech as well as with auditory working memory and attention. Relationships between music and speech processing are specifically driven by performance on a musical rhythm task, underscoring the importance of rhythmic regularity for both language and music. Conclusions These data indicate common brain mechanisms underlying reading and music abilities that relate to how the nervous system responds to

  18. Green Catalytic Process for Cyclic Carbonate Synthesis from Carbon Dioxide under Mild Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Xian-Dong; He, Liang-Nian

    2016-06-01

    As a renewable and abundant C1 resource possessing multiple attractive characteristics, such as low cost, nontoxicity, non-flammability, and easy accessibility, CO2 conversion into value-added chemicals and fuels can contribute to green chemistry and sustainable development. Since CO2 is a thermodynamically inert molecule, the activation of CO2 is pivotal for its effective conversion. In this regard, the formation of a transition-metal CO2 complex through direct coordination is one of the most powerful ways to induce the inert CO2 molecule to undergo chemical reactions. To date, numerous processes have been developed for efficient synthesis of cyclic carbonates from CO2 . On the basis of mechanistic understanding, we have developed efficient metal catalysts and green processes, including heterogeneous catalysis, and metal-free systems, such as ionic liquids, for cyclic carbonate synthesis. The big challenge is to develop catalysts that promote the reaction under low pressure (preferably at 1 bar). In this context, bifunctional catalysis is capable of synergistic activation of both the substrate and CO2 molecule, and thus, could render CO2 conversion smoothly under mild conditions. Alternatively, converting CO2 derivatives, that is, the captured CO2 as an activated species, would more easily take place at low pressure in comparison with gaseous CO2 . The aim of this Personal Account is to summarize versatile catalytic processes for cyclic carbonate synthesis from CO2 , including epoxide/CO2 coupling reaction, carboxylation of 1,2-diol with CO2 , oxidative cyclization of olefins with CO2 , condensation of vicinal halohydrin with CO2 , carboxylative cyclization of propargyl alcohols with CO2 , and conversion of the CO2 derivatives. © 2016 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Model of the heat load under dynamic abrasive processing of food material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Аlеksееv

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern stage of the improvement food production is conditioned by tense fight for their cost-performance that is defined in significant measure by maximum efficiency of the use agricultural cheese. At the same time problems with disadvantage ecological condition, accompanying life our society, require from taken person of the food different influences on recovery of the organism. For decision of this problem to researchers most different countries unite their own efforts on decision of the touched questions. The improvement and development technology must rest in study existing. In base of the studies can lie the mathematical product models of the feeding and corresponding to processes created in different exploratory organization. The development qualitative, claimed, competitive products – a purpose of each modern producer, choosing for itself most idle time, effective and economic justified way of the decision given problems. Modern prospecting in theories and practical person of the checking quality and analysis allow to use in principal new methods at determination of the possible negative changes to product of the feeding happened in them, in particular, under heat processing. The given methods, except traditional touch component, take into account else and complex of the analytical models of the models, for positioning undesirable warm-up mode for processing the product in target group of the consumers (for instance for integer medical-preventive feeding.

  20. Evaluation of electron beam irradiation under heating process on vulcanized EPDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Leandro; Cardoso, Jessica R.; Moura, Eduardo; Geraldo, Aurea B.C., E-mail: lgabriell@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The Global consumption of rubber is estimated around 30.5 million tons in 2015, when it is expected an increase of 4.3% of this volume in the coming of years. This demand is mainly attributed to the production of elastomeric accessories for the automotive sector. However, the generation of this type of waste also reaches major proportions at the end of its useful life, when it is necessary to dispose the environmental liability. Rubber reprocessing is an alternative where it can be used as filler in other polymer matrices or in other types of materials. The devulcanization process is another alternative and it includes the study of methods that allow economic viability and waste reduction. Therefore, this study aims to recycle vulcanized EPDM rubber with the use of ionizing radiation. In this work we are using the electron beam irradiation process with simultaneous heating at absorbed doses from 150 kGy to 800 kGy, under high dose rate of 22.3 kGy/s on vulcanized EPDM powder and on samples about 4 mm thick. Their characterization, before and after the irradiation process, have been realized by thermal analysis and their changes have been discussed. (author)

  1. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...

  2. Psychological flexibility and mindfulness explain intuitive eating in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairanen, Essi; Tolvanen, Asko; Karhunen, Leila; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Järvelä, Elina; Rantala, Sanni; Peuhkuri, Katri; Korpela, Riitta; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2015-07-01

    The current study investigated whether mindfulness and psychological flexibility, independently and together, explain intuitive eating. The participants were overweight or obese persons (N = 306) reporting symptoms of perceived stress and enrolled in a psychological lifestyle intervention study. Participants completed self-report measures of psychological flexibility; mindfulness including the subscales observe, describe, act with awareness, non-react, and non-judgment; and intuitive eating including the subscales unconditional permission to eat, eating for physical reasons, and reliance on hunger/satiety cues. Psychological flexibility and mindfulness were positively associated with intuitive eating factors. The results suggest that mindfulness and psychological flexibility are related constructs that not only account for some of the same variance in intuitive eating, but they also account for significant unique variances in intuitive eating. The present results indicate that non-judgment can explain the relationship between general psychological flexibility and unconditional permission to eat as well as eating for physical reasons. However, mindfulness skills-acting with awareness, observing, and non-reacting-explained reliance on hunger/satiety cues independently from general psychological flexibility. These findings suggest that mindfulness and psychological flexibility are interrelated but not redundant constructs and that both may be important for understanding regulation processes underlying eating behavior. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Fed-batch and perfusion culture processes: economic, environmental, and operational feasibility under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, James; Ho, Sa V; Farid, Suzanne S

    2013-01-01

    This article evaluates the current and future potential of batch and continuous cell culture technologies via a case study based on the commercial manufacture of monoclonal antibodies. The case study compares fed-batch culture to two perfusion technologies: spin-filter perfusion and an emerging perfusion technology utilizing alternating tangential flow (ATF) perfusion. The operational, economic, and environmental feasibility of whole bioprocesses based on these systems was evaluated using a prototype dynamic decision-support tool built at UCL encompassing process economics, discrete-event simulation and uncertainty analysis, and combined with a multi-attribute decision-making technique so as to enable a holistic assessment. The strategies were compared across a range of scales and titres so as to visualize how their ranking changes in different industry scenarios. The deterministic analysis indicated that the ATF perfusion strategy has the potential to offer cost of goods savings of 20% when compared to conventional fed-batch manufacturing processes when a fivefold increase in maximum viable cell densities was assumed. Savings were also seen when the ATF cell density dropped to a threefold increase over the fed-batch strategy for most combinations of titres and production scales. In contrast, the fed-batch strategy performed better in terms of environmental sustainability with a lower water and consumable usage profile. The impact of uncertainty and failure rates on the feasibility of the strategies was explored using Monte Carlo simulation. The risk analysis results demonstrated the enhanced robustness of the fed-batch process but also highlighted that the ATF process was still the most cost-effective option even under uncertainty. The multi-attribute decision-making analysis provided insight into the limited use of spin-filter perfusion strategies in industry. The resulting sensitivity spider plots enabled identification of the critical ratio of weightings of

  4. Stochastic process underlying emergent recognition of visual objects hidden in degraded images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Tsutomu; Hamada, Takashi; Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Tanifuji, Manabu; Yanagida, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    When a degraded two-tone image such as a "Mooney" image is seen for the first time, it is unrecognizable in the initial seconds. The recognition of such an image is facilitated by giving prior information on the object, which is known as top-down facilitation and has been intensively studied. Even in the absence of any prior information, however, we experience sudden perception of the emergence of a salient object after continued observation of the image, whose processes remain poorly understood. This emergent recognition is characterized by a comparatively long reaction time ranging from seconds to tens of seconds. In this study, to explore this time-consuming process of emergent recognition, we investigated the properties of the reaction times for recognition of degraded images of various objects. The results show that the time-consuming component of the reaction times follows a specific exponential function related to levels of image degradation and subject's capability. Because generally an exponential time is required for multiple stochastic events to co-occur, we constructed a descriptive mathematical model inspired by the neurophysiological idea of combination coding of visual objects. Our model assumed that the coincidence of stochastic events complement the information loss of a degraded image leading to the recognition of its hidden object, which could successfully explain the experimental results. Furthermore, to see whether the present results are specific to the task of emergent recognition, we also conducted a comparison experiment with the task of perceptual decision making of degraded images, which is well known to be modeled by the stochastic diffusion process. The results indicate that the exponential dependence on the level of image degradation is specific to emergent recognition. The present study suggests that emergent recognition is caused by the underlying stochastic process which is based on the coincidence of multiple stochastic events.

  5. Stochastic process underlying emergent recognition of visual objects hidden in degraded images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Murata

    Full Text Available When a degraded two-tone image such as a "Mooney" image is seen for the first time, it is unrecognizable in the initial seconds. The recognition of such an image is facilitated by giving prior information on the object, which is known as top-down facilitation and has been intensively studied. Even in the absence of any prior information, however, we experience sudden perception of the emergence of a salient object after continued observation of the image, whose processes remain poorly understood. This emergent recognition is characterized by a comparatively long reaction time ranging from seconds to tens of seconds. In this study, to explore this time-consuming process of emergent recognition, we investigated the properties of the reaction times for recognition of degraded images of various objects. The results show that the time-consuming component of the reaction times follows a specific exponential function related to levels of image degradation and subject's capability. Because generally an exponential time is required for multiple stochastic events to co-occur, we constructed a descriptive mathematical model inspired by the neurophysiological idea of combination coding of visual objects. Our model assumed that the coincidence of stochastic events complement the information loss of a degraded image leading to the recognition of its hidden object, which could successfully explain the experimental results. Furthermore, to see whether the present results are specific to the task of emergent recognition, we also conducted a comparison experiment with the task of perceptual decision making of degraded images, which is well known to be modeled by the stochastic diffusion process. The results indicate that the exponential dependence on the level of image degradation is specific to emergent recognition. The present study suggests that emergent recognition is caused by the underlying stochastic process which is based on the coincidence of multiple

  6. Study on acoustic–electric–heat effect of coal and rock failure processes under uniaxial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Hui; Lou, Quan; Wang, En-Yuan; Liu, Shuai-Jie; Niu, Yue

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, coal and rock dynamic disasters are becoming more and more severe, which seriously threatens the safety of coal mining. It is necessary to carry out an depth study on the various geophysical precursor information in the process of coal and rock failure. In this paper, with the established acoustic–electric–heat multi-parameter experimental system of coal and rock, the acoustic emission (AE), surface potential and thermal infrared radiation (TIR) signals were tested and analyzed in the failure processes of coal and rock under the uniaxial compression. The results show that: (1) AE, surface potential and TIR have different response characteristics to the failure process of the sample. AE and surface potential signals have the obvious responses to the occurrence, extension and coalescence of cracks. The abnormal TIR signals occur at the peak and valley points of the TIR temperature curve, and are coincident with the abnormities of AE and surface potential to a certain extent. (2) The damage precursor points and the critical precursor points were defined to analyze the precursor characteristics reflected by AE, surface potential and TIR signals, and the different signals have the different precursor characteristics. (3) The increment of the maximum TIR temperature after the main rupture of the sample is significantly higher than that of the average TIR temperature. Compared with the maximum TIR temperature, the average TIR temperature has significant hysteresis in reaching the first peak value after the main rapture. (4) The TIR temperature contour plots at different times well show the evolution process of the surface temperature field of the sample, and indicate that the sample failure originates from the local destruction.

  7. Mechanical Behavior of Liquid Route Processed SiCf/Ti Composites Under Longitudinal and Transverse Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Roger; Daux, Jean-Claude

    2017-02-01

    Due to the high melting point and strong chemical reactivity of titanium alloys, titanium matrix composites (TMCs) are usually processed through solid-state routes such as the foil-fiber-foil technique. An alternative method consists in the deposition of the matrix on the fibers. However, techniques such as physical vapor deposition lead to a very low deposition rate, contrary to liquid route processing using a levitating liquid alloy sphere held in a cold crucible. In order to investigate the effects of the resulting thermal shock on carbon-coated SiC fibers, and select an appropriate fiber, fibers are subjected to a pure thermal shock using a laser bench facility. These fibers are then tensile tested to failure in order to evaluate the resulting fiber strength degradation and, thus, the maximum acceptable temperature. Mechanical characterization of the liquid route processed TMC is then investigated through longitudinal and transverse tensile and creep tests at temperatures representative of aeronautical applications. The specimens, unbroken after long-duration creep tests, are then subjected to tensile loading to failure: conditions representative of service, i.e., short-time overspeeding of a gas turbine. Finally, interpretation of the mechanical tests through micrographical and microfractographical examinations is focused on the identification of the deformation and failure mechanisms specific to the liquid route processed composite, e.g., nucleation, under either longitudinal or transverse loadings, of internal cracks in the α-phase of the titanium-based matrix, explained through a physical model involving a high shear stress and normal stress combination, leading to cleavage.

  8. Changes of the intensity of morphogenetic process in the bone skeleton under lowering of gravitational loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilievna Rodionova, Natalia; Zolotova-Haidamaka, Nadezhda

    The development of long skeleton bones and reconstruction of bone structures in ontogenesis during adaptive remodeling are performed due to a combination of the bone apposition and bone resorption processes. With the use of radioactive markers of specific biosyntheses -3H- thymidine and 3H-glycine we studied the dynamics and peculiarities of these processes under modeling microgravity conditions by unloading the hind limbs of young white rats (tail suspension method) during 28 days. The radionuclides were administered in a single dose at the end of the experiment and the biomaterial was taken 1, 24, 48, 120 and 192 h. after injection. In histoautographs the counts were made of a nuclei labeling index (3H-thymidine), of the number of silver grains over the cells and in the forming bone matrix in growth and remodeling zones of the femoral bone (3H-glycine). The tendency for a reduction of a labeling index in the 3H-thymidine-labeled osteogenic cells in the periost and endost has been established. The dynamics of labeled cells following various intervals after 3H-thymidine injection testifies to a delay in the rates of osteoblasts' differentiation and their transformation to osteocytes in the experiment animals. 3H-glycine is assimilated by osteogenic cells 30 min after the radionuclide injection and following 24 h. it is already incorporated into the forming bone matrix. As a result an appositional bone addition by 192 h. the silver grains are registered in the bone matrix as "labeling lines". A lower 3H-glycine uptake by the osteogenic cells and bone matrix as compared with a control is indicative of a decrease of the osteoplastic process under hypokinesia, particulary in the periost. At the same time the resorption and remodeling bone zones reveal regions of an intensive 3H-glycine uptake after 1 and 24 h. We associate this latter fact with an activation of collagen proteins in the differentiating fibroblasts (instead of osteoblasts) in these locations. This is

  9. Autoradiographic studies of the intensity of morphogenetic processes in the bone skeleton under modeling microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, N. V.; Zolotova-Haidamaka, N. V.; Nithevich, T. P.

    In ontogenesis the development of long skeleton bones and reconstruction of bone structures during adaptive remodeling are performed due to a combination of the bone apposition and bone resorption processes. With the use of radioactive markers of specific biosyntheses -3H-thymidine and 3H-glycine we studied the dynamics and peculiarities of these processes under hypokinesia by unloading the hind limbs of young white rats (tail suspension method) during 28 days. The radionuclides were administered in a single dose at the end of the experiment and the biomaterial was taken 1, 24, 48, 120 and 192 h. after injection. In histoautographs the counts were made of a nuclei labeling index (3H-thymidine), of the number of silver grains over the cells and in the forming bone matrix in growth and remodeling zones of the femoral bone (3H-glycine). The tendency for a reduction of a labeling index in the 3H-thymidine-labeled osteogenic cells in the periost and endost has been established. The dynamics of labeled cells following various intervals after 3H-thymidine injection testifies to a delay in the rates of osteoblasts' differentiation and their transformation to osteocytes in the experiment animals. 3H-glycine is assimilated by osteogenic cells 30 min after the radionuclide injection and following 24 h. it is already incorporated into the forming bone matrix. As a result an appositional bone addition by 192 h. the silver grains are registered in the bone matrix as "labeling lines". A lower 3H-glycine uptake by the osteogenic cells and bone matrix as compared with a control is indicative of a decrease of the osteoplastic process under hypokinesia, particulary in the periost. At the same time the resorption and remodeling bone zones reveal regions of an intensive 3H-glycine uptake after 1 and 24 h. We associate this latter fact with an activation of collagen proteins in the differentiating fibroblasts (instead of osteoblasts) in these locations. This is confirmed by our previous

  10. Process evaluation of the maudsley model for treatment of adults with anorexia nervosa trial. Part II: Patient experiences of two psychological therapies for treatment of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lose, Anna; Davies, Charlotte; Renwick, Beth; Kenyon, Martha; Treasure, Janet; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2014-03-01

    This study is the second part of a process evaluation, embedded in the MOSAIC study, a large randomised controlled trial comparing two different psychological therapies, the Maudsley Model for Treatment of Adults with Anorexia Nervosa (MANTRA) and Specialist Supportive Clinical Management (SSCM). The study adopted a qualitative approach to examine patient experiences of the two treatments. Seventeen semi-structured interviews were conducted with Anorexia Nervosa and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified-Anorexia Nervosa type patients, and transcripts were analysed thematically. Patient responses yielded five main themes: positive and helpful aspects, beneficial outcomes, less helpful aspects, possible improvements to the treatments, and the therapeutic and external environment. The findings show clear differences and some overlaps between patients' views on MANTRA and SSCM. Both therapies were experienced by patients as credible and largely helpful, albeit in different ways. These results are in agreement with those of therapists' views on these treatments. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. Thermally induced processes in mixtures of aluminum with organic acids after plastic deformations under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhorin, V. A.; Kiselev, M. R.; Roldugin, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    DSC is used to measure the thermal effects of processes in mixtures of solid organic dibasic acids with powdered aluminum, subjected to plastic deformation under pressures in the range of 0.5-4.0 GPa using an anvil-type high-pressure setup. Analysis of thermograms obtained for the samples after plastic deformation suggests a correlation between the exothermal peaks observed around the temperatures of degradation of the acids and the thermally induced chemical reactions between products of acid degradation and freshly formed surfaces of aluminum particles. The release of heat in the mixtures begins at 30-40°C. The thermal effects in the mixtures of different acids change according to the order of acid reactivity in solutions. The extreme baric dependences of enthalpies of thermal effects are associated with the rearrangement of the electron subsystem of aluminum upon plastic deformation at high pressures.

  12. Alpha band event-related desynchronization underlying social situational context processing during irony comprehension: A magnetoencephalography source localization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Yoritaka; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Gunji, Atsuko; Kaneko, Yuu; Asano, Michiko; Matsuo, Junko; Ota, Miho; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Hanakawa, Takashi; Mazuka, Reiko; Kamio, Yoko

    2017-09-27

    Irony comprehension requires integration of social contextual information. Previous studies have investigated temporal aspects of irony processing and its neural substrates using psychological/electroencephalogram or functional magnetic resonance imaging methods, but have not clarified the temporospatial neural mechanisms of irony comprehension. Therefore, we used magnetoencephalography to investigate the neural generators of alpha-band (8-13Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) occurring from 600 to 900ms following the onset of a critical sentence at which social situational contexts activated ironic representation. We found that the right anterior temporal lobe, which is involved in processing social knowledge and evaluating others' intentions, exhibited stronger alpha ERD following an ironic statement than following a literal statement. We also found that alpha power in the left anterior temporal lobe correlated with the participants' communication abilities. These results elucidate the temporospatial neural mechanisms of language comprehension in social contexts, including non-literal processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stereotypes Can “Get Under the Skin”: Testing a Self-Stereotyping and Psychological Resource Model of Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Luis M.; Paredez, Stefanie M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors draw upon social, personality, and health psychology to propose and test a self-stereotyping and psychological resource model of overweight and obesity. The model contends that self-stereotyping depletes psychological resources, namely self-esteem, that help to prevent overweight and obesity. In support of the model, mediation analysis demonstrates that adult Hispanics who highly self-stereotype had lower levels of self-esteem than those who self-stereotype less, which in turn predicted higher levels of body mass index (overweight and obesity levels). Furthermore, the model did not hold for the referent sample, White participants, and an alternative mediation model was not supported. These data are the first to theoretically and empirically link self-stereotyping and self-esteem (a psychological resource) with a strong physiological risk factor for morbidity and short life expectancy in stigmatized individuals. Thus, this research contributes to understanding ethnic-racial health disparities in the United States and beyond. PMID:25221353

  14. Peculiarities of psychological, clinical and instrumental indicators in children with vegetative dysfunction and hypotension under the influence of innovative psychocorrective program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Mitjurjajeva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. To study the features of psychological state, clinical and instrumental parameters in children with vegetative dysfunction (VD and hypotension influenced by comprehensive treatment with the inclusion of the innovative psychocorrective program with elements of music therapy, visual art therapy and gelotology. Materials and methods. The study included 57 patients with VD and hypotension aged 12 to 17 years, 37 of them received psychotherapy with innovative program “Our drugs — music, laughter, creativity” in comprehensive treatment, 20 children (control group received basic treatment without psychological assistance. General clinical, laboratory, instrumental and psychodiagnostic studies were performed both in main and control groups. Results. Using innovative psychocorrective program in children with VD and hypotension as a part of comprehensive treatment contributed to the improvement of clinical and instrumental data: number of cases with autonomic influences on the heart reduced (from 22.1 to 5.25 %, р < 0.05, orthostatic test autonomic provision was normalized in 40.5 % of children, psychological state improvement was observed in 74.1 % of cases. Conclusions. Innovative psychocorrective program with elements of music therapy, visual art therapy and gelotology can be recommended as a part of comprehensive treatment of children with VD and hypotension in hospital environment and in future psychological support of patients.

  15. Sport Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  16. Five Facets of Mindfulness and Psychological Health: Evaluating a Psychological Model of the Mechanisms of Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David B.; Bravo, Adrian J.; Roos, Corey R.

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on determining the psychological mechanisms underlying the broad effects of mindfulness on psychological health. Mindfulness has been posited to be related to the construct of reperceiving or decentering, defined as a shift in perspective associated with decreased attachment to one’s thoughts and emotions. Decentering is proposed to be a meta-mechanism that mobilizes four psychological mechanisms (cognitive flexibility, values clarification, self-regulation, and exposure), which in turn are associated with positive health outcomes. Despite preliminary support for this model, extant studies testing this model have not examined distinct facets of mindfulness. The present study used a multidimensional measure of mindfulness to examine whether this model could account for the associations between ive facets of mindfulness and psychological symptoms (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, alcohol-related problems) in a sample of college students (N = 944). Our findings partially support this model. We found significant double-mediated associations in the expected directions for all outcomes (stress, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms) except alcohol-related problems, and for each of the facets of mindfulness except observing. However, decentering and the specific mechanisms did not fully mediate the associations among mindfulness facets and psychological health outcomes. Experimental and ecological momentary assessment designs are needed to understand the psychological processes that account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness. PMID:26504498

  17. Five Facets of Mindfulness and Psychological Health: Evaluating a Psychological Model of the Mechanisms of Mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David B; Bravo, Adrian J; Roos, Corey R; Pearson, Matthew R

    2015-10-01

    There has been an increasing focus on determining the psychological mechanisms underlying the broad effects of mindfulness on psychological health. Mindfulness has been posited to be related to the construct of reperceiving or decentering, defined as a shift in perspective associated with decreased attachment to one's thoughts and emotions. Decentering is proposed to be a meta-mechanism that mobilizes four psychological mechanisms (cognitive flexibility, values clarification, self-regulation, and exposure), which in turn are associated with positive health outcomes. Despite preliminary support for this model, extant studies testing this model have not examined distinct facets of mindfulness. The present study used a multidimensional measure of mindfulness to examine whether this model could account for the associations between ive facets of mindfulness and psychological symptoms (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, alcohol-related problems) in a sample of college students ( N = 944). Our findings partially support this model. We found significant double-mediated associations in the expected directions for all outcomes (stress, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms) except alcohol-related problems, and for each of the facets of mindfulness except observing. However, decentering and the specific mechanisms did not fully mediate the associations among mindfulness facets and psychological health outcomes. Experimental and ecological momentary assessment designs are needed to understand the psychological processes that account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness.

  18. [Influence of the recording interval and a graphic organizer on the writing process/product and on other psychological variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Sánchez, Jesús N; Rodríguez Pérez, Celestino

    2007-05-01

    An experimental study of the influence of the recording interval and a graphic organizer on the processes of writing composition and on the final product is presented. We studied 326 participants, age 10 to 16 years old, by means of a nested design. Two groups were compared: one group was aided in the writing process with a graphic organizer and the other was not. Each group was subdivided into two further groups: one with a mean recording interval of 45 seconds and the other with approximately 90 seconds recording interval in a writing log. The results showed that the group aided by a graphic organizer obtained better results both in processes and writing product, and that the groups assessed with an average interval of 45 seconds obtained worse results. Implications for educational practice are discussed, and limitations and future perspectives are commented on.

  19. Light-induced magnetoresistance in solution-processed planar hybrid devices measured under ambient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreetama Banerjee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report light-induced negative organic magnetoresistance (OMAR measured in ambient atmosphere in solution-processed 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynylpentacene (TIPS-pentacene planar hybrid devices with two different device architectures. Hybrid electronic devices with trench-isolated electrodes (HED-TIE having a channel length of ca. 100 nm fabricated in this work and, for comparison, commercially available pre-structured organic field-effect transistor (OFET substrates with a channel length of 20 µm were used. The magnitude of the photocurrent as well as the magnetoresistance was found to be higher for the HED-TIE devices because of the much smaller channel length of these devices compared to the OFETs. We attribute the observed light-induced negative magnetoresistance in TIPS-pentacene to the presence of electron–hole pairs under illumination as the magnetoresistive effect scales with the photocurrent. The magnetoresistance effect was found to diminish over time under ambient conditions compared to a freshly prepared sample. We propose that the much faster degradation of the magnetoresistance effect as compared to the photocurrent was due to the incorporation of water molecules in the TIPS-pentacene film.

  20. Fabrication of antimony telluride nanoparticles using a brief chemical synthetic process under atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cham [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31 Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hwan; Han, Yoon Soo [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jong Shik [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31 Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoyoung, E-mail: hoykim@dgist.ac.kr [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-21

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: > A resulting sample exhibited the single Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} rhombohedral structure (JCPDS card No. 71-0393). > The sample was composed of nanoparticles under 100 nm with very narrow size distribution. > It was confirmed that the sample was generated with the desired atomic composition between Sb and Te. - Abstract: Antimony telluride (Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) nanoparticles for thermoelectric applications were successfully prepared via a water-based chemical reaction under atmospheric conditions. In this process, we tried to prepare the nanostructured compound by employing both a complexing agent (L-tartaric acid) and a reducing agent (NaBH{sub 4}) to stabilize the Sb precursor (SbCl{sub 3}) in water and to favor the reaction with Te. It was observed that various products of Te, Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} were individually or simultaneously generated depending on the amount of the complexing and reducing agents used. In order to obtain solely a rhombohedral Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} compound, the aging time of the reaction needed to be adjusted.

  1. Acoustic emission characteristics of instability process of a rock plate under concentrated loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It can facilitate the understanding of the mechanical properties and failure laws of rocks to research on the rock failure mechanism and evolution characteristics of Acoustic Emission (AE. Under the concentrated loading condition, the fracture and instability test of a rock plate was conducted by using the rock Mechanics Testing System (MTS, meanwhile, these AE events were recorded through the AE recording system. Based on the laboratory test, the numerical simulation was completed by using FLAC3D technique under the criterion that the rupture of a cell or several adjacent cells was regarded as an AE event. The results show that the process of the fracture and instability of the rock plate can be divided into four stages, such as the stress adjusting stage, the brittle fracture stage, the rock-arch bearing load stage and the rock-arch instability stage. And the acoustic emissions display the different characteristics in each one of the four stages. The temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of the AE events with large magnitudes are very similar to those of the natural earthquakes.

  2. Metric sensitivity of the multisensor information fusion process under instance-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasarathy, Belur V.

    2001-03-01

    The study investigated the sensitivity of the instance-based- learning (IBL) driven multi-source information fusion process to the underlying distance metric. An audio-visual system for recognition of spoken French vowels is used as an example for this investigation. Three different distance measures, namely, Euclidian, city block and chess board metrics, are employed for this initial foray into metric sensitivity analysis. In this example, the test phase encompasses a broader range of noise environments of the audio signal as compared to the training phase. The system is thus exercised in both trained and untrained noise regimes. Under the untrained regime, interpolation as well as extrapolation or off-nominal scenarios are considered. In the former, the signal to noise ratio in the test phase is within the range used in training phase but does not specifically include it. In the latter, the signal to noise ratio in the test phase is outside the range used in the training phase. It is observed that while both of the single-sensor based decision systems individually are not very sensitive to the choice of the metric, the fused decision system is indeed significantly more sensitive to this choice. The city block metric offers better performance as compared to the other two in the case of the fused audio- visual system across most of the spectrum of noise environments, except for the extreme off-nominal conditions wherein the Euclidian offers slightly better performance. The chess board metric offers the lowest performance across the entire test range. The lack of training in the interpolation scenario has a noticeably strong effect on audio performance under the chess board metric.

  3. Psychological impact of unexpected explicit recall of events occurring during surgery performed under sedation, regional anaesthesia, and general anaesthesia: data from the Anesthesia Awareness Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, C D; Mashour, G A; Metzger, N A; Posner, K L; Domino, K B

    2013-03-01

    Anaesthetic awareness is a recognized complication of general anaesthesia (GA) and is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although complete amnesia for intraprocedural events during sedation and regional anaesthesia (RA) may occur, explicit recall is expected by anaesthesia providers. Consequently, the possibility that there could be psychological consequences associated with unexpected explicit recall of events during sedation and RA has not been investigated. This study investigated the psychological sequelae of unexpected explicit recall of events during sedation/RA that was reported to the Anesthesia Awareness Registry. The Registry recruited subjects who self-identified as having had anaesthetic awareness. Inclusion criteria were a patient-reported awareness experience in 1990 or later and availability of medical records. The sensations experienced by the subjects during their procedure and the acute and persistent psychological sequelae attributed to this explicit recall were assessed for patients receiving sedation/RA and those receiving GA. Among the patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, medical record review identified 27 sedation/RA and 50 GA cases. Most patients experienced distress (78% of sedation/RA vs 94% of GA). Approximately 40% of patients with sedation/RA had persistent psychological sequelae, similar to GA patients. Some sedation/RA patients reported an adverse impact on their job performance (15%), family relationships (11%), and friendships (11%), and 15% reported being diagnosed with PTSD. Patients who self-reported to the Registry unexpected explicit recall of events during sedation/RA experienced distress and persistent psychological sequelae comparable with those who had reported anaesthetic awareness during GA. Further study is warranted to determine if patients reporting distress with explicit recall after sedation/RA require psychiatric follow-up.

  4. 30 CFR 285.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will my SAP be processed for Federal... Plan § 285.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? Your SAP will be processed based on how your commercial lease was issued: ER29AP09.118 ...

  5. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  6. State-Space Modeling of Dynamic Psychological Processes via the Kalman Smoother Algorithm: Rationale, Finite Sample Properties, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hairong; Ferrer, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a state-space modeling (SSM) technique for fitting process factor analysis models directly to raw data. The Kalman smoother via the expectation-maximization algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood parameter estimates is used. To examine the finite sample properties of the estimates in SSM when common factors are involved, a…

  7. The metaphor-gestalt synergy underlying the self-organisation of perception as a semiotic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rail, David

    2013-04-01

    Recently the basis of concept and language formation has been redefined by the proposal that they both stem from perception and embodiment. The experiential revolution has lead to a far more integrated and dynamic understanding of perception as a semiotic system. The emergence of meaning in the perceptual process stems from the interaction between two key mechanisms. These are first, the generation of schemata through recurrent sensorimotor activity (SM) that underlies category and language formation (L). The second is the interaction between metaphor (M) and gestalt mechanisms (G) that generate invariant mappings beyond the SM domain that both conserve and diversify our understanding and meaning potential. We propose an important advance in our understanding of perception as a semiotic system through exploring the affect of self-organising to criticality where hierarchical behaviour becomes widely integrated through 1/f process and isomorphisms. Our proposal leads to several important implications. First, that SM and L form a functional isomorphism depicted as SM L. We contend that SM L is emergent, corresponding to the phenomenal self. Second, meaning structures the isomorphism SM L through the synergy between M and G (M-G). M-G synergy is based on a combination of structuring and imagination. We contend that the interaction between M-G and SM L functions as a macro-micro comutation that governs perception as semiosis. We discuss how our model relates to current research in fractal time and verb formation.

  8. Stability of zinc stearate under alpha irradiation in the manufacturing process of SFR nuclear fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, J.; Vermeulen, J.; Baux, D.; Sauvage, T.; Venault, L.; Audubert, F.; Colin, X.

    2018-03-01

    The manufacture of new fuels for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) will involve powders derived from recycling existing fuels in order to keep on producing electricity while saving natural resources and reducing the amount of waste produced by spent MOX fuels. Using recycled plutonium in this way will significantly increase the amount of 238Pu, a high energy alpha emitter, in the powders. The process of shaping powders by pressing requires the use of a solid lubricant, zinc stearate, to produce pellets with no defects compliant with the standards. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of alpha radiolysis on this additive and its lubrication properties. Experiments were conducted on samples in contact with PuO2, as well as under external helium ion beam irradiation, in order to define the kinetics of radiolytic gas generation. The yield results relating to the formation of these gases (G0) show that the alpha radiation of plutonium can be simulated using external helium ion beam irradiation. The isotopic composition of plutonium has little impact on the yield. However, an increased yield was globally observed with increasing the mean linear energy transfer (LET). A radiolytic degradation process is proposed.

  9. Separation Process of Nonpolar Gas Hydrate in Food Solution under High Pressure Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Aris Purwanto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Separation process of nonpolar gas hydrate formation in liquid food was experimentally studied under high pressure container. Xenon (Xe gas was selected as hydrate forming gas and coffee solution was used as a sample of liquid food. The high-pressure stainless steel container having the inner diameter of 60 mm and the volume of 700 mL with a U-shaped stirrer was designed to carry out this experiment. A temperature of 9.0°C and Xe partial pressure of 0.9 MPa were set as a given condition. The experiment was designed to examine the effect of steel screen size, formation rate, temperature condition, and amount of Xe gas dissolving in the solution on the separation process which was indicated by concentration efficiency. Screen size of 200 and 280 mesh resulted in higher concentration efficiency than that of 100 mesh. The higher stirring rate caused the higher formation rate of Xe hydrate and created the smaller Xe hydrate crystals. At the condition giving the same solubility in water, temperature of 14.8°C resulted in lower concentration efficiency than 9.0°C. The increase in the amount of Xe gas dissolving in coffee solution caused the concentration efficiency to decrease; however, the concentration ratio between the final and initial concentration of the solution increased.

  10. iPSC-Based Models to Unravel Key Pathogenetic Processes Underlying Motor Neuron Disease Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Faravelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motor neuron diseases (MNDs are neuromuscular disorders affecting rather exclusively upper motor neurons (UMNs and/or lower motor neurons (LMNs. The clinical phenotype is characterized by muscular weakness and atrophy leading to paralysis and almost invariably death due to respiratory failure. Adult MNDs include sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS-fALS, while the most common infantile MND is represented by spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. No effective treatment is ccurrently available for MNDs, as for the vast majority of neurodegenerative disorders, and cures are limited to supportive care and symptom relief. The lack of a deep understanding of MND pathogenesis accounts for the difficulties in finding a cure, together with the scarcity of reliable in vitro models. Recent progresses in stem cell field, in particular in the generation of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs has made possible for the first time obtaining substantial amounts of human cells to recapitulate in vitro some of the key pathogenetic processes underlying MNDs. In the present review, recently published studies involving the use of iPSCs to unravel aspects of ALS and SMA pathogenesis are discussed with an overview of their implications in the process of finding a cure for these still orphan disorders.

  11. Aggregation and chemical modification of monoclonal antibodies under upstream processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengl, Stefan; Wehmer, Marc; Hesse, Friederike; Lipsmeier, Florian; Popp, Oliver; Lang, Kurt

    2013-05-01

    To investigate antibody stability and formation of modified species under upstream processing conditions. The stability of 11 purified monoclonal human IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies, including an IgG1-based bispecific CrossMab, was compared in downscale mixing stress models. One of these molecules was further evaluated in realistic bioreactor stress models and in cell culture fermentations. Analytical techniques include size exclusion chromatography (SEC), turbidity measurements, cation exchange chromatography (cIEX), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Sensitivity in downscale stress models varies among antibodies and results in formation of high molecular weight (HMW) aggregates. Stability is increased in cell culture medium and in bioreactors. Media components stabilizing the proteins were identified. Extensive chemical modifications were detected both in stress models as well as during production of antibodies in cell culture fermentations. Protective compounds must be present in chemically defined fermentation media in order to stabilize antibodies against the formation of HMW aggregates. An increase in chemical modifications is detectable in bioreactor stress models and over the course of cell culture fermentations; this increase is dependent on the expression rate, pH, temperature and fermentation time. Consequently, product heterogeneity increases during upstream processing, and this compromises the product quality.

  12. Preparedness Formation of the Future Vocational Education Teachers to Occupational Adaptation under Conditions of Globalization Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushentseva Liliya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the preparedness formation of future teachers of vocational training to the professional adaptation under conditions of globalization processes in society is considered. The analysis of scientific and educational literature devoted to the study of occupational adaptation and preparedness formation of specialists to it is carried out. Different approaches to the interpretation of the term “adaptation” of the various sciences positions as in in our country and foreign scientific literature are analyzed. It is determined that the professional adaptation is the process of joining a young vocational education teacher in a new social environment in the system of interpersonal relations of particular staff, during which it is taking place the standards of thinking and behavior production in terms of values system and behavioral norms of the staff; readiness for occupational adaptation as one of the essential parameters of professional and social maturity of a person is the particular bound, which characterizes the internal readiness of a man to the qualitative changes.

  13. Aspects of Information Architecture involved in process mapping in Military Organizations under the semiotic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Amaral Cartaxo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The description of the processes to represent the activities in an organization has important call semiotic, It is the flowcharts of uses, management reports and the various forms of representation of the strategies used. The subsequent interpretation of the organization's employees involved in learning tasks and the symbols used to translate the meanings of management practices is essential role for the organization. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify evidence of conceptual and empirical, on aspects of information architecture involved in the mapping process carried out in military organizations under the semiotic perspective. Methodology: The research is characterized as qualitative, case study and the data collection technique was the semi-structured interview, applied to management advisors. Results: The main results indicate that management practices described with the use of pictorial symbols and different layouts have greater impact to explain the relevance of management practices and indicators. Conclusion: With regard to the semiotic appeal, it was found that the impact of a management report is significant due to the use of signs and layout that stimulate further reading by simplifying complex concepts in tables, diagrams summarizing lengthy descriptions.

  14. Electrical properties of montmorillonite studied together with the processes occurring under thermal activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseinov, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    The results of laboratory experiments on studying the electrical conductivity σ of a clay mineral montmorillonite from different sedimentary mineral deposits of Dagestan in the temperature interval from 100 to 1000°C are presented. The general regularities in the dependence of the electrical conductivity σ of the studied samples on the absolute temperature T are accounted for by the existence of the associated complexes of elementary defects of the crystal lattice. These complexes play important role in a variety of kinetic processes under the conditions of the Earth's interior, and their existence is demonstrated by the experiments. The activation energy of the electrical conductivity and the preexponential factors are determined for all the temperature zones. The relationship between the pattern of temperature variations in electrical conductivity and the processes of releasing interlayer water and hydroxyls from different energy sites is established. It is concluded that the anomalous change in electrical conductivity in some samples reflects the postsedimentation changes of montmorillonite manifesting themselves by the emergence of a hydromuscovite component.

  15. Effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT under Neisseria meningitidis transformation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Ives B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed at verifying the action of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT under the naturally transformable Neisseria meningitidis against two different DNA obtained from isogenic mutants of this microorganism, an important pathogen implicated in the genetic horizontal transfer of DNA, causing the escape of the principal vaccination measured worldwide by the capsular switching process. Materials and methods The bacterium receptor strain C2135 was cultivated and had its mutant DNA donor M2 and M6, which received a receptor strain and MWCNT at three different concentrations. The inhibition effect of DNAse on the DNA in contact with nanoparticles was evaluated. Results The results indicated an in increase in the transformation capacity of N. meninigtidis in different concentrations of MWCNT when compared with negative control without nanotubes. A final analysis of the interaction between DNA and MWCNT was carried out using Raman Spectroscopy. Conclusion These increases in the transformation capacity mediated by MWCNT, in meningococci, indicate the interaction of these particles with the virulence acquisition of these bacteria, as well as with the increase in the vaccination escape process.

  16. Quantitative Methods in Psychology: Inevitable and Useless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomela, Aaro

    2010-01-01

    Science begins with the question, what do I want to know? Science becomes science, however, only when this question is justified and the appropriate methodology is chosen for answering the research question. Research question should precede the other questions; methods should be chosen according to the research question and not vice versa. Modern quantitative psychology has accepted method as primary; research questions are adjusted to the methods. For understanding thinking in modern quantitative psychology, two epistemologies should be distinguished: structural-systemic that is based on Aristotelian thinking, and associative-quantitative that is based on Cartesian–Humean thinking. The first aims at understanding the structure that underlies the studied processes; the second looks for identification of cause–effect relationships between the events with no possible access to the understanding of the structures that underlie the processes. Quantitative methodology in particular as well as mathematical psychology in general, is useless for answering questions about structures and processes that underlie observed behaviors. Nevertheless, quantitative science is almost inevitable in a situation where the systemic-structural basis of behavior is not well understood; all sorts of applied decisions can be made on the basis of quantitative studies. In order to proceed, psychology should study structures; methodologically, constructive experiments should be added to observations and analytic experiments. PMID:21833199

  17. Improved design of a three roll tube bending process under geometrical uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Matteo; Colosimo, Bianca Maria; Castillo, Enrique Del

    2011-05-01

    In the tube bending industry a process is considered flexible if it allows the forming of different curvature radii, without the need for a machine setup or a tool change. This is possible by numerically controlling one or more moving dies or rolls which are able to produce different radii. Unlike conventional tube bending processes, where the tube is clamped at its end and bent around a fixed die, bending with variable radius generally requires that the tube is axially fed into the forming area. A flexible bending operation is traditionally operated by dividing it into an opening phase (the bending roll is moving) and a steady phase (the bending roll is on hold and the tube is axially fed). A technological limit of the process is its intrinsic variability, e.g. measured in terms of repeatability of the obtained bent angle. An FEM based sensitivity analysis is shown in the paper in order to verify which input parameters of the incoming tubes (dimensions, material properties, etc.) are more influential on the results in terms of repeatability. The presence of the two opening and steady phases, with different mechanical conditions is an obstacle to the production of an aesthetic tube with a constant, uniform curvature radius. As a result, the real curvature radius moving along the tube spine will have some variations, which may also transform into defects, such as wrinkling or bumps. A modification of the traditionally operated control curves is proposed in the paper in order to improve the uniformity of the obtained curvature radius. Finally, a method is proposed for optimizing the control curves, under the presence of noise factors.

  18. Implicit Social Cognitive Processes Underlying Victim Self and Identity: Evidence With College-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Nicole M; Veysey, Bonita M; Rivera, Luis M

    2017-11-01

    Past research on victimization has relied predominantly on individuals' awareness of and willingness to self-report a victimization experience and its effect on self and identity processes. The present research adopts theoretical and methodological innovations in implicit social cognition research to provide a new perspective on how a violent victimization experience might influence identity processes outside of conscious awareness. Our main goal was to test whether individuals who have victimization experience implicitly associate the self with victims (implicit victim identity) and their stereotypes (implicit victim self-stereotyping), and the relation of these associations to explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping. Two pretests with undergraduate student participants ( Ns = 122 and 72) identified victim-related word stimuli for two Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) measures of implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping. In Pretest Study A, participants read crime vignettes and listed words that described a victim, then in Pretest Study B, participants rated these words on victim relatedness and valence. The Main Study recruited undergraduate student participants ( N = 101) who completed the SC-IATs, self-report measures of explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, and victimization experiences. Three of our five hypotheses were supported. Individuals with past victimization experience exhibited strong explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, but not implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, relative to those with no victimization experience. Explicit and implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping were unrelated. Finally, among individuals with victimization experience, a strong implicit victim identity was associated with strong implicit victim self-stereotyping. This research has implications for understanding the processes underlying revictimization and for preventing further victimization.

  19. The persistence of Salmonella following desiccation under feed processing environmental conditions: a subject of relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habimana, O; Nesse, L L; Møretrø, T; Berg, K; Heir, E; Vestby, L K; Langsrud, S

    2014-11-01

    Although Salmonella persistence has been predominantly linked to biofilm formation, the physiological state of Salmonella should also be considered as a possible pathway for persistence and survival in the feed industry. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess the extent of viability of Salmonella cells through long-term desiccation periods under conditions typically found in feed processing environments, and whether these same cells could resuscitate and cause salmonellosis in vivo. We showed that upon desiccation, Salmonella Agona, a representative feed industry isolate and Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, a laboratory strain, were induced into a nonculturable state at 35 and 85% relative humidity conditions, at defined temperatures of 30 and 12°C, respectively. Although the reduction in culturable cells was more than 6 log10 , metabolic activity was found in more than 1% of the population. Desiccation-induced nonculturable Salm. Typhimurium could not be revived and were nonvirulent in a mouse model following infection through oral gavage. These results suggest that the specific conditions for reviving nonculturable Salmonella after long periods of desiccation are yet to be fully identified. The need for mapping key factors involved in the persistence of Salmonella would help better detect it and improve feed safety measures. While Salmonella has been shown to persist for years in feed processing environments, it is still unknown how temperature and humidity affect the persistence of Salmonella cells over time in terms of their metabolic states and cultivability. Here, we show that long-term exposure to feed processing environmental conditions induces Salmonella into a nonculturable state even though about 1% of the population remains metabolically active. This has significant implications when monitoring Salmonella from the environment which could yield false-negative results using conventional pre-enrichment detection methods. © 2014 The Society

  20. Effects of auditory distraction on voluntary movements: exploring the underlying mechanisms associated with parallel processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigliassi, Marcelo; Karageorghis, Costas I; Nowicky, Alexander V; Wright, Michael J; Orgs, Guido

    2017-04-08

    Highly demanding cognitive-motor tasks can be negatively influenced by the presence of auditory stimuli. The human brain attempts to partially suppress the processing of potential distractors in order that motor tasks can be completed successfully. The present study sought to further understand the attentional neural systems that activate in response to potential distractors during the execution of movements. Nineteen participants (9 women and 10 men) were administered isometric ankle-dorsiflexion tasks for 10 s at a light intensity. Electroencephalography was used to assess the electrical activity in the brain, and a music excerpt was used to distract participants. Three conditions were administered: auditory distraction during the execution of movement (auditory distraction; AD), movement execution in the absence of auditory distraction (control; CO), and auditory distraction in the absence of movement (stimulus-only; SO). AD was compared with SO to identify the mechanisms underlying the attentional processing associated with attentional shifts from internal association (task-related) to external (task-unrelated) sensory cues. The results of the present study indicated that the EMG amplitude was not compromised when the auditory stimulus was administered. Accordingly, EEG activity was upregulated at 0.368 s in AD when compared to SO. Source reconstruction analysis indicated that right and central parietal regions of the cortex activated at 0.368 s in order to reduce the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli during the execution of movements. The brain mechanisms that underlie the control of potential distractors during exercise were possibly associated with the activity of the frontoparietal network.

  1. Contribution of underlying processes to improved visuospatial working memory associated with physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingchun Ji

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Working memory is critical for various cognitive processes and can be separated into two stages: short-term memory storage and manipulation processing. Although previous studies have demonstrated that increased physical activity (PA improves working memory and that males outperform females on visuospatial working memory tasks, few studies have determined the contribution of the two underlying stages to the visuospatial working memory improvement associated with PA. Thus, the aims of the present study were to verify the relationship between physical activity and visuospatial working memory, determine whether one or both stages were affected by PA, and investigate any sex differences. Methods A total of 56 undergraduate students were recruited for this study. Their scores on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ were used to separate them into either a lower PA (n = 26; IPAQ score ≤3,000 metabolic equivalent [MET]-min/week or higher PA (n = 30; IPAQ score >3,000 MET-min/week group. Participants were required to complete three tasks: a visuospatial working memory task, a task that examines the short-term memory storage stage, and a mental rotation task that examines the active manipulation stage. Results Participants in the higher PA group maintained similar accuracy but displayed significantly faster reaction times (RT than those in the lower PA group on the visuospatial working memory and manipulation tasks. By contrast, no difference was observed between groups on the short-term memory storage task. In addition, no effects of sex were detected. Discussion Our results confirm that PA was positively to visuospatial working memory and that this positive relationship was associated with more rapid cognitive processing during the manipulation stage, with little or no relationship between PA and the memory storage stage of visuospatial working memory.

  2. ERP evidence of distinct processes underlying semantic facilitation and interference in word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Python, Grégoire; Fargier, Raphaël; Laganaro, Marina

    2017-10-03

    In everyday conversations, we take advantage of lexical-semantic contexts to facilitate speech production, but at the same time, we also have to reduce interference and inhibit semantic competitors. The blocked cyclic naming paradigm (BCNP) has been used to investigate such context effects. Typical results on production latencies showed semantic facilitation (or no effect) during the first presentation cycle, and interference emerging in subsequent cycles. Even if semantic contexts might be just as facilitative as interfering, previous BCNP studies focused on interference, which was interpreted as reflecting lemma selection and self-monitoring processes. Facilitation in the first cycle was rarely considered/analysed, although it potentially informs on word production to the same extent as interference. Here we contrasted the event-related potential (ERP) signatures of both semantic facilitation and interference in a BCNP. ERPs differed between homogeneous and heterogeneous blocks from about 365 msec post picture onset in the first cycle (facilitation) and in an earlier time-window (270 msec post picture onset) in the third cycle (interference). Three different analyses of the ERPs converge towards distinct processes underlying semantic facilitation and interference (post-lexical vs lexical respectively). The loci of semantic facilitation and interference are interpreted in the context of different theoretical frameworks of language production: the post-lexical locus of semantic facilitation involves interactive phonological-semantic processes and/or self-monitoring, whereas the lexical locus of semantic interference is in line with selection through increased lexical competition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An ecological process model of female sex offending: the role of victimization, psychological distress, and life stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Rowland, Sarah E; Kaplan, Stephanie P; Lynch, Shannon M

    2015-06-01

    Female sex offenders may be implicated in up to one fifth of all sex crimes committed in the United States. Despite previous research findings that suggest unique patterns of offending among female sex offenders, limited empirical research has investigated the motivations and processes involved. The present study qualitatively examined female sex offenders' offense-related experiences and characterized the internal and external factors that contributed to offending. Semi-structured interviews with 24 female sex offenders were analyzed by a team of coders with limited exposure to the existing literature using grounded theory analysis. A conceptual framework emerged representing distinctive processes for solo- and co-offending, contextualized within ecological layers of social and environmental influence. This model extends previous work by offering an example of nested vulnerabilities proximal to female sexual offending. Implications for future research, prevention, and treatment are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Transpersonal Psychology: Mapping Spiritual Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwight Judy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The first Journal of Transpersonal Psychology was published in 1969. Since this signal event, transpersonal psychology has emerged as a field of theory and application. A way has been made in Western psychology for the appreciation and study of interior subjective awareness, the domain of spiritual experience. One of the most recent contributions, the Wilber-Combs Lattice, offers a typology to account for both developmental processes throughout the human life span, as well as different qualities of spiritual experience.

  5. Sports Psychology: Maximizing Team Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Fransen, Katrien; Vande Broek, Gert

    2017-01-01

    The application of sport psychology is often overlooked in favor of the more familiar training of physical abilities and technical volleyball skills. Sport psychology interventions are too often perceived as the last call for help if all else has failed to generate success. However, sport psychology is much more than picking up the pieces after a defeat and instead should be regarded as a very useful tool in all stages of the training and coaching process. The present chapter will outline the...

  6. The Effects of Television Consumption on Social Percrptions: The Use of Priming Procedures to Investigate Psychological Processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Shrum, L.J.; Wyer, Robert S, Jr; O'Guinn, Thomas C

    1998-01-01

    Two studies investigated the extent to which heavy television viewing affects consumers perceptions of social reality and the cognitive processes that underlie these effects. Both studies found evidence heavy viewers beliefs about social reality are more consistent with the content of television programming than are those of light viewers. The use of a priming methodology provided support for the notion that television is a causal factor in the formation of these beliefs and that a failure to...

  7. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...

  8. Fluctuating systems under cyclic perturbations: Relation between energy dissipation and intrinsic relaxation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerin, Fabrizio; Frezzato, Diego

    2016-08-01

    This study focuses on fluctuating classical systems in contact with a thermal bath, and whose configurational energetics undergoes cyclic transformations due to interaction with external perturbing agents. Under the assumptions that the configurational dynamics is a stochastic Markov process in the overdamped regime and that the nonequilibrium configurational distribution remains close to the underlying equilibrium one, we derived an analytic approximation of the average dissipated energy per cycle in the asymptotic limit (i.e., after many cycles of perturbation). The energy dissipation is then readily translated into average entropy production, per cycle, in the environment. The accuracy of the approximation was tested by comparing the outcomes with the exact values obtained by stochastic simulations of a model case: a "particle on a ring" that fluctuates in a bistable potential perturbed in two different ways. As pointed out in previous studies on the stochastic resonance phenomenon, the dependence of the average dissipation on the perturbation period may unveil the inner spectrum of the system's fluctuation rates. In this respect, the analytical approximation presented here makes it possible to unveil the connection between average dissipation, intrinsic rates and modes of fluctuation of the system at the unperturbed equilibrium, and features of the perturbation itself (namely, the period of the cycle and the projections of the energy perturbation over the system's modes). The possibilities of employing the analytical results as a guide to devising and rationalizing a sort of "spectroscopic calorimetry" experiment, and of employing them in strategies aiming to optimize the system's features on the basis of a target average dissipation, are briefly discussed.

  9. Effects of flow scarcity on leaf-litter processing under oceanic climate conditions in calcareous streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Aingeru; Pérez, Javier; Molinero, Jon; Sagarduy, Mikel; Pozo, Jesús

    2015-01-15

    Although temporary streams represent a high proportion of the total number and length of running waters, historically the study of intermittent streams has received less attention than that of perennial ones. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of flow cessation on litter decomposition in calcareous streams under oceanic climate conditions. For this, leaf litter of alder was incubated in four streams (S1, S2, S3 and S4) with different flow regimes (S3 and S4 with zero-flow periods) from northern Spain. To distinguish the relative importance and contribution of decomposers and detritivores, fine- and coarse-mesh litter bags were used. We determined processing rates, leaf-C, -N and -P concentrations, invertebrate colonization in coarse bags and benthic invertebrates. Decomposition rates in fine bags were similar among streams. In coarse bags, only one of the intermittent streams, S4, showed a lower rate than that in the other ones as a consequence of lower invertebrate colonization. The material incubated in fine bags presented higher leaf-N and -P concentrations than those in the coarse ones, except in S4, pointing out that the decomposition in this stream was driven mainly by microorganisms. Benthic macroinvertebrate and shredder density and biomass were lower in intermittent streams than those in perennial ones. However, the bags in S3 presented a greater amount of total macroinvertebrates and shredders comparing with the benthos. The most suitable explanation is that the fauna find a food substrate in bags less affected by calcite precipitation, which is common in the streambed at this site. Decomposition rate in coarse bags was positively related to associated shredder biomass. Thus, droughts in streams under oceanic climate conditions affect mainly the macroinvertebrate detritivore activity, although macroinvertebrates may show distinct behavior imposed by the physicochemical properties of water, mainly travertine precipitation, which can

  10. Introducing positive psychology to SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mercer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA. This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, studies of the good language learner, and the concepts related to the self. There are reasons for both encouragement and caution as studies inspired by positive psychology are undertaken. Papers in this special issue of SSLLT cover a range of quantitative and qualitative methods with implications for theory, research, and teaching practice. The special issue serves as a springboard for future research in SLA under the umbrella of positive psychology.

  11. Psychology of sport injury rehabilitation: a review of models and interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Santi, Giampaolo; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide the state of the art about the psychology of sport injury rehabilitation by analyzing the most recent literature and research on this field. In the first part, we presented theoretical models contextualizing the sport injury, the motivational process underlying the recovery, and the influence of social and contextual factors. The second part focuses on the possible psychological interventions and their effect on the rehabilitation process. In conclusion, s...

  12. Notification: Preliminary Research on EPA's Decision Making Process to Release Information Under the Freedom of Information Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    July 19, 2013. The Office of Inspector General plans to begin preliminary research on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s process for deciding to release information requested under the Freedom of Information Act.

  13. Processes underlying the effects of adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material: the role of perceived realism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated a link between adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and sexual attitudes, the processes underlying this association are not well understood. More specifically, studies have pointed to a mediating role of perceived realism,

  14. Process evaluation of community monitoring under national health mission at Chandigarh, union territory: Methodology and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Prasad Tripathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community monitoring was introduced on a pilot mode in 36 selected districts of India in a phased manner. In Chandigarh, it was introduced in the year 2009-2010. A preliminary evaluation of the program was undertaken with special emphasis on the inputs and the processes. Methodology: Quantitative methods included verification against checklists and record reviews. Nonparticipant observation was used to evaluate the conduct of trainings, interviews, and group discussions. Health system had trained health system functionaries (nursing students and Village Health Sanitation Committee [VHSC] members to generate village-based scorecards for assessing community needs. Community needs were assessed independently for two villages under the study area to validate the scores generated by the health system. Results: VHSCs were formed in all 22 villages but without a chairperson or convener. The involvement of VHSC members in the community monitoring process was minimal. The conduct of group discussions was below par due to poor moderation and unequal responses from the group. The community monitoring committees at the state level had limited representation from the non-health sector, lower committees, and the nongovernmental organizations/civil societies. Agreement between the report cards generated by the investigator and the health system in the selected villages was found to be to be fair (0.369 whereas weighted kappa (0.504 was moderate. Conclusion: In spite of all these limitations and challenges, the government has taken a valiant step by trying to involve the community in the monitoring of health services. The dynamic nature of the community warrants incorporation of an evaluation framework into the planning of such programs.

  15. Investigation of the influence of process parameters on adhesive wear under hot stamping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingenschlögl, P.; Weldi, M.; Merklein, M.

    2017-09-01

    Current challenges like increasing safety standards and reducing fuel consumption motivate lightweight construction in modern car bodies. Besides using lightweight workpiece materials like aluminum, hot stamping has been established as a key technology for producing safety relevant components. Producing hot stamped parts out of ultra-high strength steels offers the possibility to improve the crash performance. At the same time the weight of car structure is reduced by using thinner sheet thicknesses. In order to avoid oxide scale formation and ensure corrosion protection, AlSi coatings are commonly deposited on the sheet surfaces used for direct hot stamping. This workpiece coating has a critical impact on the tribological conditions within the forming process and, as a consequence, influences the quality of hot stamped parts as well as tool wear. AlSi coatings have been identified as major reason for adhesive wear, which represents the main wear mechanism in hot stamping. Within this study, the influence of the process parameters on adhesive wear are investigated in dependency of workpiece and tool temperatures, drawing velocities and contact pressures. The tribological behavior is analyzed based on strip drawing experiments under direct hot stamping conditions. The experiments are performed with AlSi coated 22MnB5 in contact with the hot working tool steel 1.2367. For analyzing the amount of adhesion on the friction jaws, the surfaces are characterized by optical measurements. The experiments indicate that higher workpiece temperatures cause severe adhesive wear on the tool surface, while an increase of drawing velocity or contact pressure led to reduced adhesion. The measured friction coefficients decreased with rising amount of adhesion and remained at a constant level after a certain adhesive layer was built up on the tool surface.

  16. Process evaluation of community monitoring under national health mission at Chandigarh, union territory: Methodology and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Aggarwal, Arun Kumar; Patro, Binod Kumar; Verma, Himbala

    2015-01-01

    Community monitoring was introduced on a pilot mode in 36 selected districts of India in a phased manner. In Chandigarh, it was introduced in the year 2009-2010. A preliminary evaluation of the program was undertaken with special emphasis on the inputs and the processes. Quantitative methods included verification against checklists and record reviews. Nonparticipant observation was used to evaluate the conduct of trainings, interviews, and group discussions. Health system had trained health system functionaries (nursing students and Village Health Sanitation Committee [VHSC] members) to generate village-based scorecards for assessing community needs. Community needs were assessed independently for two villages under the study area to validate the scores generated by the health system. VHSCs were formed in all 22 villages but without a chairperson or convener. The involvement of VHSC members in the community monitoring process was minimal. The conduct of group discussions was below par due to poor moderation and unequal responses from the group. The community monitoring committees at the state level had limited representation from the non-health sector, lower committees, and the nongovernmental organizations/civil societies. Agreement between the report cards generated by the investigator and the health system in the selected villages was found to be to be fair (0.369) whereas weighted kappa (0.504) was moderate. In spite of all these limitations and challenges, the government has taken a valiant step by trying to involve the community in the monitoring of health services. The dynamic nature of the community warrants incorporation of an evaluation framework into the planning of such programs.

  17. trans-Fatty acid isomers in two sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed byproducts under processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhibi, Madiha; Mechri, Beligh; Cheraif, Imed; Hammami, Mohamed

    2010-12-08

    The present study has been inspired by the growing need for rigorously controlling the nutritional quality and safety of food products. The impact of application in the food industry on fatty acids composition, trans-fatty acids (TFAs), and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) profiles were investigated in a highly consumed candy byproduct of sesame seed (chamia) in comparison to fresh sesame seed oil (SSO) and heated SSO under simulated frying experiments. The effect of treatment on SSO was studied by determining the TFA and CLA changes. Results showed significant differences between the two byproducts in TFA and CLA amounts. Total TFAs were found to be significantly higher in chamia than fresh SSO (1.31 versus 0.066%, respectively; p < 0.05) and even higher than all heated SSO from 2 to 10 h at 180 °C (1.31 versus 0.33%, respectively; p < 0.05). A significant linear relationship was found between trans-monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), trans-polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and total TFA and the time of processing, with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) greater than 0.9 for TFA and PUFA, with a higher correlation assigned to PUFA (r = 0.988; p < 0.001), followed by TFA (r = 0.959; p < 0.01) and MUFA (r = 0.844; p < 0.05). Principal component analysis of the fatty acid (FA) profiles showed discrimination between chamia and both fresh and heated SSO. A high stability of SSO against isomerization reactions as compared to their chamia sample counterpart has been noted. These findings suggest that the food industry engenders relatively higher changes in fatty acid configurations than the frying process.

  18. Psychological models of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.

  19. Effects of Psychological Distance and Need for Cognitive Closure on Impression Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Ivan; Tonković, Mirjana; Ivanec, Dragutin

    2017-01-01

    Based on theoretical and empirical similarities between Construal level theory of psychological distance and the Need for cognitive closure (NFC) theory, it could be hypothesized that psychological distance and NFC represent constructs that overlap to some degree. Since both theories describe judgmental behavior in terms of schematic processing, we hypothesized that primacy effect, a schema-driven phenomenon, is strengthened under the heightened NFC and psychological distance. We tested this hypothesis in an impression formation experiment while manipulating psychological distance and measuring NFC. Low NFC and psychological closeness reflect preference for situationally specific, contextually rich information, and therefore their joint effect resulted in reliance on all available information regardless of their position in a sequence. High NFC and psychological distance produced a preference for clear, schematic, stable knowledge, and therefore weighed first information more, which resulted in the primacy effect.

  20. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  1. Comparative evaluation of underlying causes of death processed by the Automated Classification of Medical Entities and the Underlying Cause of Death Selection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto H. Santo

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The correct identification of the underlying cause of death and its precise assignment to a code from the International Classification of Diseases are important issues to achieve accurate and universally comparable mortality statistics These factors, among other ones, led to the development of computer software programs in order to automatically identify the underlying cause of death. OBJECTIVE: This work was conceived to compare the underlying causes of death processed respectively by the Automated Classification of Medical Entities (ACME and the "Sistema de Seleção de Causa Básica de Morte" (SCB programs. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The comparative evaluation of the underlying causes of death processed respectively by ACME and SCB systems was performed using the input data file for the ACME system that included deaths which occurred in the State of S. Paulo from June to December 1993, totalling 129,104 records of the corresponding death certificates. The differences between underlying causes selected by ACME and SCB systems verified in the month of June, when considered as SCB errors, were used to correct and improve SCB processing logic and its decision tables. RESULTS: The processing of the underlying causes of death by the ACME and SCB systems resulted in 3,278 differences, that were analysed and ascribed to lack of answer to dialogue boxes during processing, to deaths due to human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] disease for which there was no specific provision in any of the systems, to coding and/or keying errors and to actual problems. The detailed analysis of these latter disclosed that the majority of the underlying causes of death processed by the SCB system were correct and that different interpretations were given to the mortality coding rules by each system, that some particular problems could not be explained with the available documentation and that a smaller proportion of problems were identified as SCB errors. CONCLUSION

  2. Comparative evaluation of underlying causes of death processed by the Automated Classification of Medical Entities and the Underlying Cause of Death Selection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Augusto H.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The correct identification of the underlying cause of death and its precise assignment to a code from the International Classification of Diseases are important issues to achieve accurate and universally comparable mortality statistics These factors, among other ones, led to the development of computer software programs in order to automatically identify the underlying cause of death. OBJECTIVE: This work was conceived to compare the underlying causes of death processed respectively by the Automated Classification of Medical Entities (ACME and the "Sistema de Seleção de Causa Básica de Morte" (SCB programs. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The comparative evaluation of the underlying causes of death processed respectively by ACME and SCB systems was performed using the input data file for the ACME system that included deaths which occurred in the State of S. Paulo from June to December 1993, totalling 129,104 records of the corresponding death certificates. The differences between underlying causes selected by ACME and SCB systems verified in the month of June, when considered as SCB errors, were used to correct and improve SCB processing logic and its decision tables. RESULTS: The processing of the underlying causes of death by the ACME and SCB systems resulted in 3,278 differences, that were analysed and ascribed to lack of answer to dialogue boxes during processing, to deaths due to human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] disease for which there was no specific provision in any of the systems, to coding and/or keying errors and to actual problems. The detailed analysis of these latter disclosed that the majority of the underlying causes of death processed by the SCB system were correct and that different interpretations were given to the mortality coding rules by each system, that some particular problems could not be explained with the available documentation and that a smaller proportion of problems were identified as SCB errors. CONCLUSION

  3. CIVIL PROCEDURE - SERVICE OF PROCESS - DISTRICT COURT ALLOWS SERVICE OF PROCESS ON AN INTERNATIONAL DEFENDANT VIA TWITTER UNDER RULE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    .... Kuwait Finance House, the US District Court for the Northern District of California extended Rule, holding that service of process via Twitter on an otherwise unreachable international defendant was permissible...

  4. The interactive biotic and abiotic processes of DDT transformation under dissimilatory iron-reducing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Wang, Fang; Gu, Chenggang; Yang, Xinglun; Kengara, Fredrick O; Bian, Yongrong; Song, Yang; Jiang, Xin

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the study was to elucidate the biotic and abiotic processes under dissimilatory iron reducing conditions involved in reductive dechlorination and iron reduction. DDT transformation was investigated in cultures of Shewanella putrefaciens 200 with/without α-FeOOH. A modified first-order kinetics model was developed and described DDT transformation well. Both the α-FeOOH reduction rate and the dechlorination rate of DDT were positively correlated to the biomass. Addition of α-FeOOH enhanced reductive dechlorination of DDT by favoring the cell survival and generating Fe(II) which was absorbed on the surface of bacteria and iron oxide. 92% of the absorbed Fe(II) was Na-acetate (1M) extractable. However, α-FeOOH also played a negative role of competing for electrons as reflected by the dechlorination rate of DDT was inhibited when increasing the α-FeOOH from 1 g L(-1) to 5 g L(-1). DDT was measured to be toxic to S. putrefaciens 200. The metabolites DDD, DDE and DDMU were recalcitrant to S. putrefaciens 200. The results suggested that iron oxide was not the key factor to promote the dissipation of DDX (DDT and the metabolites), whereas the one-electron reduction potential (E1) of certain organochlorines is the main factor and that the E1 higher than the threshold of the reductive driving forces of DIRB probably ensures the occur of reductive dechlorination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in health perceptions after exposure to human suffering: using discrete emotions to understand underlying processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia A Paschali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to human suffering is associated with negative changes in perceptions about personal health. We further examined the relation of possible health perception changes, to changes in five discrete emotions (i.e., fear, guilt, hostility/anger, and joviality, as a guide to understand the processes underlying health perception changes, provided that each emotion conveys information regarding triggering conditions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An experimental group (N = 47 was exposed to images of human affliction, whereas a control group (N = 47 was exposed to relaxing images. Participants in the experimental group reported more health anxiety and health value, as well as lower health-related optimism and internal health locus of control, in comparison to participants exposed to relaxing images. They also reported more fear, guilt, hostility and sadness, as well as less joviality. Changes in each health perception were related to changes in particular emotions. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that health perceptions are shaped in a constant dialogue with the representations about the broader world. Furthermore, it seems that the core of health perception changes lies in the acceptance that personal well-being is subject to several potential threats, as well as that people cannot fully control many of the factors the determine their own well-being.

  6. Detection of head slump under high-G level by computer image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hui; Zhang, Aimin; Che, Meisheng; Xue, Yueying; Qiu, Yanbo; Li, Wenbo; Wei, Min

    1998-09-01

    With the rapid development of aerospace technique, the performance of advanced fighter aircraft becomes improved. These aircrafts can perform beyond the acceleration tolerance limits of human. G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) has become Air-Force's a serious human factor problem. It remains a killer of both men and machines. Various G-LOC research efforts all over the world about the principle and monitoring system have been initiated. Nowadays, in order to detect G-LOC, under a special centrifuge training facility environment, we studied the methods of testing subject's eye blink, head-slump and grip strength measuring force stick and control ability. This article only presents the method for real-time detection of head-attitude, recording head video image any analysis of moving track by video image. We have developed image processing, which is more advanced than infrared technique and laser technique for more information. This method is simple and avoids the affect of infrared ray to partial physiological sensors.

  7. Analysis of the activated sludge process in an MBR under starvation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, M.; Briski, F. [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb, Marulicev trg 19, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Matosic, M.; Mijatovic, I. [Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-03-15

    An aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) at complete biomass retention was studied over a period of time under starvation conditions. Kinetic parameters were determined in a no-feed batch test. The decay rate of activated sludge, k{sub d} = 0.05 d{sup -1}, was determined by tracking the decrease of MLSS. The ratio of MLVSS/MLSS was in the range 0.76-0.85. The pH values were between 7.02 and 8.23. As a function of different initial concentrations of MLSS, specific nitrification rates q{sub N,} decreased from 4.23 to 0.02 mg-N/(g MLVSS d) and specific biodegradation rates q{sub b} increased from 0.23 to 1.90 mg-COD/(g MLVSS d). From experimental data the kinetic constants for respiration, which followed Monod kinetics, were determined as q{sub O2max} = 9.8 mg-O{sub 2}/(g MLVSS h), K{sub x} = 2.9 g/dm{sup 3}. Additionally, a linear correlation between MLSS and mean floc size was found to exist during the biodegradation process. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Underlying Processes of an Inverted Personalization Effect in Multimedia Learning – An Eye-Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi Zander

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the frequently examined design principles in multimedia learning is the personalization principle. Based on empirical evidence this principle states that using personalized messages in multimedia learning is more beneficial than using formal language (e.g., using ‘you’ instead of ‘the’. Although there is evidence that these slight changes in regard to the language style affect learning, motivation and the perceived cognitive load, it remains unclear, (1 whether the positive effects of personalized language can be transferred to all kinds of content of learning materials (e.g., specific potentially aversive health issues and (2 which are the underlying processes (e.g., attention allocation of the personalization effect. German university students (N = 37 learned symptoms and causes of cerebral hemorrhages either with a formal or a personalized version of the learning material. Analysis revealed comparable results to the few existing previous studies, indicating an inverted personalization effect for potentially aversive learning material. This effect was specifically revealed in regard to decreased average fixation duration and the number of fixations exclusively on the images in the personalized compared to the formal version. These results can be seen as indicators for an inverted effect of personalization on the level of visual attention.

  9. Optimum Accelerated Degradation Tests for the Gamma Degradation Process Case under the Constraint of Total Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heonsang Lim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An accelerated degradation test (ADT is regarded as an effective alternative to an accelerated life test in the sense that an ADT can provide more accurate information on product reliability, even when few or no failures may be expected before the end of a practical test period. In this paper, statistical methods for optimal designing ADT plans are developed assuming that the degradation characteristic follows a gamma process (GP. The GP-based approach has an advantage that it can deal with more frequently encountered situations in which the degradation should always be nonnegative and strictly increasing over time. The optimal ADT plan is developed under the total experimental cost constraint by determining the optimal settings of variables such as the number of measurements, the measurement times, the test stress levels and the number of units allocated to each stress level such that the asymptotic variance of the maximum likelihood estimator of the q-th quantile of the lifetime distribution at the use condition is minimized. In addition, compromise plans are developed to provide means to check the adequacy of the assumed acceleration model. Finally, sensitivity analysis procedures for assessing the effects of the uncertainties in the pre-estimates of unknown parameters are illustrated with an example.

  10. Processes Underlying 50 Years of Local Forest-Cover Change in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Frayer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the importance of forests for local livelihoods, biodiversity and the climate system has spurred a growing interest in understanding the factors that drive forest-cover change. Forest transitions, the change from net deforestation to net reforestation, may follow different pathways depending on a complex interplay of driving forces. However, most studies on forest transitions focus on the national level rather than the local level. Here, case studies from 10 villages in Yunnan, China, are used to clarify the complex interactions among various pathways of forest transitions, derive insights on the underlying drivers that shaped the forest transitions, and determine the importance of changes in drivers over time. The results demonstrate that China’s recent forest transition was caused by a range of interrelated pathways that were mediated by local circumstances. The degradation of forest ecosystem services caused by rampant deforestation and forest degradation created a scarcity of forest products and triggered state-initiated afforestation efforts, particularly in the 1990s, which continue to be important. More recently, economic development concomitant with smallholder intensification spurred reforestation, while the importance of state forest policy declined. The complexity of local land-use changes demonstrates the difficulty of identifying distinct transition pathways and calls for a more diverse approach that recognizes the interdependence of local processes.

  11. Swarm motility inhibitory and antioxidant activities of pomegranate peel processed under three drying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K M Maria; Bhagwat, Arvind A; Luthria, Devanand L

    2017-11-15

    During processing of ready-to-eat fresh fruits, large amounts of peel and seeds are discarded as waste. Pomegranate (Punicagranatum) peels contain high amounts of bioactive compounds which inhibit migration of Salmonella on wet surfaces. The metabolic distribution of bioactives in pomegranate peel, inner membrane, and edible aril portion was investigated under three different drying conditions along with the anti-swarming activity against Citrobacter rodentium. Based on the multivariate analysis, 29 metabolites discriminated the pomegranate peel, inner membrane, and edible aril portion, as well as the three different drying methods. Punicalagins (∼38.6-50.3mg/g) were detected in higher quantities in all fractions as compared to ellagic acid (∼0.1-3.2mg/g) and punicalins (∼0-2.4mg/g). The bioactivity (antioxidant, anti-swarming) and phenolics content was significantly higher in peels than the edible aril portion. Natural anti-swarming agents from food waste may have promising potential for controlling food borne pathogens. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Grain boundary traction signatures: Quantifying the asymmetrical dislocation emission processes under tension and compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruizhi; Chew, Huck Beng

    2017-06-01

    The disruption in crystallographic arrangement of atoms across a grain boundary interface generates local stress fields in the vicinity. Here, we reconstruct the continuum-equivalent grain boundary tractions from local atomic stresses near symmetrical-tilt Ni grain boundaries. We show that the resolved shear stress contribution from the grain boundary tractions, τGB, along active slip-systems either assists or prevents the emission of dislocations, depending on its direction with respect to the resolved shear stress contribution from external loading, τext. When τGB acts in the same direction as τext, Shockley partial dislocations are readily emitted from the boundary once | τGB +τext | exceeds the critical barrier stress for shear-slip. When τGB opposes τext, the higher sustainable stresses in the grain boundary structure instead triggers: (a) emission of dislocations from the bulk, or (b) reconfiguration of the grain boundary atomic structure and subsequent emission of non-Schmid dislocations or formation of extrinsic stacking faults. Our results quantitatively explain the asymmetrical grain boundary dislocation emission processes observed in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations under applied tensile and compressive loads. The relationship between the traction signatures and periodic structural units along the grain boundary is discussed.

  13. Thin-Ideal Internalization and Comparison Process as Mediators of Social Influence and Psychological Functioning in the Development of Disturbed Eating Habits in Croatian College Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pokrajac-Bulian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of internalization and comparison as mediators of relationships between socio-cultural pressures to be thin, psychological factors, restrictive and bulimic behaviours in college females. Participants were 262 Croatian college females (mean age = 21.22 ± 1.47 years who completed self-report questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to test a model in which internalization and social comparison mediated the impact of socio-cultural pressure (parents and peers dieting, teasing, pressure to be thin, media influences, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and perfectionism in restrictive and bulimic behaviours. Internalization is a significant mediator of the relationships between all predictors included in this research and disturbed eating habits. Social comparison is relevant as a mediator between social influence, negative affect, self-esteem, perfectionism and restrictive behaviour but does not mediate bulimic behaviour. These findings could be seful in understanding processes that may predispose young women to develop eating dysfunctions and indicate the need for prevention programs that incorporate formative influences and processes such as internalization of societal norms and comparison in the construction of therapeutic strategies.

  14. Cognitive procedures in sports psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Rojšek

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Sport with its emphasised efficiency component clearly reflects cognitive contents and the way they are linked to experience and behaviour. Beliefs, subjective judgements, attitudes, etc. define the attitude to sport, training, competition and results. Their contents can be defined by a psychological examination. We assess their meaning, appropriateness or inappropriateness. They can also be changed by using diverse cognitive-behavioural or reeducative procedures. Psychological work is carried out through systematic psychological preparation, crisis interventions and special psychological preparation within the framework of a training process. Cognitive forms of work represent a significant part of ideomotor, verbal, intellectual and situational training.

  15. Molecular Processes Underlying the Structure and Assembly of Thin Films and Nanoparticles at Complex interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Geraldine [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2016-06-03

    Since 1995 we have pursued a number of different studies that are quite diverse in nature but with the common theme of using novel laser based methods to study important processes at buried interfaces. Studies of Corrosion, Passivation on n-GaAs(100)Methanol Photoelectrochemical Cell In these studies we have used picosecond photoluminescence and electrochemical studies to understand the GaAs/methanol interface. In our most extensive set of studies we conducted photo-illumination and XPS experiments to understand the chemistry occurring in the GaAs/methanol photoelectrochemical during photoexcitation. An important distinction between photocorrosion and photoetching of GaAs is elucidated by these studies. The dependence of GaAs photocorrosion on light intensity has been explored to better understand intrinsic differences between the lamplight studies and the picosecond photoluminescence studies. The effect of coating the GaAs with a sulfide layer prior to immersion in the cell has also been explored. This last result has led us to examine n-GaAs as a function of crystallographic orientation after exposure to aqueous Na2S containing solutions has been studied as a function of crystallographic orientation of the GaAs surface. The (100) and (110) surfaces are relatively similar, with significant amounts of As-S species present at the interface. The (111)B surface lacks this constituent, but shows significant amounts of metallic As. The XPS results have been correlated with the results of previous photocorrosion and passivation studies conducted in a photoelectrochemical cell. The studies indicate that the metallic As present at (111)B surface contributes strongly to the large surface recombination velocity found there, and to the inability of Na2S to passivate the (111)B surface. SAMS Under Water: Water Molecular Structure and Bonding at Hydrophobic Surfaces In these DOE sponsored studies we have been interested in learning the similarities and

  16. Research methods for economic psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranyard, Rob; Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of possible avenues for research in relation to various key economic-psychological problems. Theoretical research mainly comprises (mathematical) modelling of economic psychological processes. The starting point for theoretical research often is literature search

  17. Study of coagulation processes of selected humic acids under copper ions influence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguta, Patrycja; Sokolowska, Zofia

    2013-04-01

    Humic acids have limited sorption capacity and big dose of metal or other mineral component which can be sorbed on humic acids, can cause saturation of negative, surface charge of humic acids leading to destabilization of dissolved humic acids compounds. Destabilisation can be observed as coagulation and floculation proces of humic acids. However there are a lot of mechanisms which causing precipitation of humic acids. Thereby, in order to full description of coagulation process, different methods should be applied. Ordinarily, humic acids coagulation is studied by measurement of absorbance, transmittance or carbon loss in solution. Meanwhile, very significant information is also variation of metal content in soil solution and information whether metal goes to precipitate together with humic acids or stays in dissolved form in solution. So, that, from one side, processes of stronger accumulation of metal can lead to soil degradation and micronutrient deficiency for plants. However, there is also possibility to stay metal in solution in toxic and bioavailable form for plants. Main aim of this paper was to study coagulation process of different humic acids extracted from mucking peats under copper ions influence at adjusted pH to 5. In order to this, four peaty-muck soils were taken from selected places in east part of Poland (meadows and river valleys). These soils differed by humification degree, secondary transformation, density and pH. At next step, humic acids were extracted from soils using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) extractant. After exact purification by washing with HF-HCl mixture and water, humic acids were liofilized. Solutions of humic acids were prepared at concentration 40 mg/dm3 with addition of different amount of copper ions to obtain final concentration of Cu(II) ranged from 0-40mg/dm3. After 24 hours solutions were investigated using measurements of absorbance at 470nm (UV-VIS spectrometer Jasco V-530), measurements of organic carbon in solution

  18. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, David C.; Bjorklund, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Describes evolutionary developmental psychology as the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. Outlines basic assumptions and domains of…

  19. Sociogenomic Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657

  20. Product-limit estimators of the gap time distribution of a renewal process under different sampling patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Richard D.; Keiding, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Nonparametric estimation of the gap time distribution in a simple renewal process may be considered a problem in survival analysis under particular sampling frames corresponding to how the renewal process is observed. This note describes several such situations where simple product limit estimators, though inefficient, may still be useful.

  1. Product-limit estimators of the gap time distribution of a renewal process under different sampling patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Richard D; Keiding, Niels

    2010-10-01

    Nonparametric estimation of the gap time distribution in a simple renewal process may be considered a problem in survival analysis under particular sampling frames corresponding to how the renewal process is observed. This note describes several such situations where simple product limit estimators, though inefficient, may still be useful.

  2. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  3. Deployment psychology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    breaking fashion, brings into a single compendium the growing body of literatures, since Yerkes's work, which point to the ... [they] reflect on how they have changed”.3 From the outset of this text, there is a very real and palpable sense .... embedded and enmeshed. At times, Deployment psychology appears to ignore the.

  4. The psychology of creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    The psychology of creativity is nowadays a thriving field of investigation, but also a discipline in crisis. This is the premise for the critical reading of past and present work within this area proposed here. The presentation follows the typical headings of a research article, beginning...... in order to help us develop a stronger psychology of creativity in the decades to come. In the end, six main points are placed on a hypothetical agenda for future (creative) creativity re-search. In this sense, a critical reading is actually the first step in the process of being constructive and calling...

  5. Integrated Optimization of Upstream and Downstream Processing in Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing under Uncertainty: A Chance Constrained Programming Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, S.; Farid, S. S.; Papageorgiou, L. G.

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the integrated optimization of upstream and downstream processing strategies of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) under uncertainty. In the upstream processing (USP), the bioreactor sizing strategies are optimized, while in the downstream processing (DSP), the chromatography sequencing and column sizing strategies, including the resin at each chromatography step, the number of columns, the column diameter and bed height, and the number of cycles per batch, are determined. Meanwh...

  6. Altered saccadic targets when processing facial expressions under different attentional and stimulus conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsen, Frank A; Dvorak, Justin D; Pulusu, Vinay K; Ross, Elliott D

    2017-04-01

    Depending on a subject's attentional bias, robust changes in emotional perception occur when facial blends (different emotions expressed on upper/lower face) are presented tachistoscopically. If no instructions are given, subjects overwhelmingly identify the lower facial expression when blends are presented to either visual field. If asked to attend to the upper face, subjects overwhelmingly identify the upper facial expression in the left visual field but remain slightly biased to the lower facial expression in the right visual field. The current investigation sought to determine whether differences in initial saccadic targets could help explain the perceptual biases described above. Ten subjects were presented with full and blend facial expressions under different attentional conditions. No saccadic differences were found for left versus right visual field presentations or for full facial versus blend stimuli. When asked to identify the presented emotion, saccades were directed to the lower face. When asked to attend to the upper face, saccades were directed to the upper face. When asked to attend to the upper face and try to identify the emotion, saccades were directed to the upper face but to a lesser degree. Thus, saccadic behavior supports the concept that there are cognitive-attentional pre-attunements when subjects visually process facial expressions. However, these pre-attunements do not fully explain the perceptual superiority of the left visual field for identifying the upper facial expression when facial blends are presented tachistoscopically. Hence other perceptual factors must be in play, such as the phenomenon of virtual scanning. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Process and outcomes of euthanasia requests under the belgian act on euthanasia: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wesemael, Yanna; Cohen, Joachim; Bilsen, Johan; Smets, Tinne; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje; Deliens, Luc

    2011-11-01

    Since 2002, the administration of a lethal drug by a physician at the explicit request of the patient has been legal in Belgium. The incidence of euthanasia in Belgium has been studied, but the process and outcomes of euthanasia requests have not been investigated. To describe which euthanasia requests were granted, withdrawn, and rejected since the enactment of the euthanasia law in terms of the characteristics of the patient, treating physician, and aspects of the consultation with a second physician. A representative sample of 3006 Belgian physicians received a questionnaire investigating their most recent euthanasia request. The response rate was 34%. Since 2002, 39% of respondents had received a euthanasia request. Forty-eight percent of requests had been carried out, 5% had been refused, 10% had been withdrawn, and in 23%, the patient had died before euthanasia could be performed. Physicians' characteristics associated with receiving a request were not being religious, caring for a high number of terminally ill patients, and having experience in palliative care. Patient characteristics associated with granting a request were age, having cancer, loss of dignity, having no depression, and suffering without prospect of improvement as a reason for requesting euthanasia. A positive initial position toward the request from the attending physician and positive advice from the second physician also contributed to having a request granted. Under the Belgian Act on Euthanasia, about half of the requests are granted. Factors related to the reason for the request, position of the attending physician toward the request, and advice from the second physician influence whether a request is granted or not. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of processes of transformation on dairy enterprises’ activity under crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.V. Davydiuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyze the dairy enterprises’ activity in Zhytomyr region, in particular, the ways of adaptation to the major crisis factors and outlining the prospects of the industry. The paper considers macro factors impact on the dairy enterprises’ activity during the period from 2005 to 2015. Synthesis of these factors allowed us to determine major of them. The main changes in the dairy 147 enterprises’ activity under determined factors have been researched. Retrospective statistical analysis of indicators of financial and economic activities of dairy enterprises in Zhytomyr region has been carried out. There were the following issues that restrained the development of dairy enterprises in Ukraine, e.g. the crises that were caused by the absence of effective market-oriented economic system; the retardation of forage from needs of livestock breeding; the lack of economic relations between suppliers of raw milk and dairy enterprises; the high cost price of milk supplied by households and poor quality of milk etc. The analysis of the dairy enterprises in Zhytomyr region allowed to show rather significant changes in the key indicators of economic activity. Thus, the most impact on the dairy enterprises’ activity was observed in 2006 and 2009 years when there was the significant drop in the index of industrial production. However, profitability began growing. Significant changes were observed in the range of products. The research has identified the prospects of the industry, so we can predict the further reduction in the number of dairy enterprises. The efforts of leading enterprises of dairy products will continue focusing on the further development of product range and brands and adaptation to European practices of management. Keywords: manufacturing; macro environment; processes of transformation; crisis; dairy production; rate of localization; standardization.

  9. Assessment of global morphological and topological changes in trabecular structure under the bone resorption process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, Irina N.; Bauer, Jan; Monetti, Roberto; Baum, Thomas; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Eckstein, Felix; Matsuura, Maiko; Lochmueller, Eva-Maria; Zysset, Philippe K.; Raeth, Christoph W.

    2012-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a frequent skeletal disease characterised both by loss of bone mineral mass and deterioration of cancellous bone micro-architecture. It can be caused by mechanical disuse, estrogen deficiency or natural age-related resorption process. Numerical analysis of high-resolution images of the trabecular network is recognised as a powerful tool for assessment of structural characteristics. Using μCT images of 73 thoracic and 78 lumbar human vertebral specimens in vitro with isotropic resolution of 26μm we simulate bone atrophy as random resorption of bone surface voxels. Global morphological and topological characteristics provided by four Minkowski Functionals (MF) are calculated for two numerical resorption models with and without conservation of global topological connectivity of the trabecular network, which simulates different types of bone loss in osteoporosis, as it has been described in males and females. Diagnostic performance of morphological and topological characteristics as a function of relative bone loss is evaluated by a correlation analysis with respect to experimentally measured Maximum Compressive Strength (MCS). In both resorption models the second MF, which coincides with bone surface fraction BS/TV, demonstrates almost constant value of Pearson's correlation coefficient with respect to the relative bone loss ▵BV/TV. This morphological characteristic does not vary considerably under age-related random resorption and can be used for predicting bone strength in the elderly. The third and fourth MF demonstrate an increasing correlation coefficients with MCS after applying random bone surface thinning without preserving topological connectivity, what can be used for improvement of evaluation of the current state of the structure.

  10. How Often Are Drugs Made Available Under the Food and Drug Administration's Expanded Access Process Approved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Amy E; Markon, André O; Chan-Tack, Kirk M; Lurie, Peter

    2017-10-01

    In this review of individual patient expanded-access requests to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research for the period Fiscal Year 2010 to Fiscal Year 2014, we evaluated the number of applications received and the number allowed to proceed. We also evaluated whether drugs and certain biologics obtained under expanded access went on to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Finally, we considered concerns that adverse events occurring during expanded access might place sponsors at risk for legal liability. Overall, 98% of individual patient expanded-access requests were allowed to proceed. During the study period, among drugs without a previous approval for any indication or dosage form, 24% of unique drugs (ie, multiple applications for access to the same drug were considered to relate to 1 unique drug), and 20% of expanded-access applications received marketing approval by 1 year after initial submission; 43% and 33%, respectively, were approved by 5 years after initial submission. A search of 3 legal databases and a database of news articles did not appear to identify any product liability cases arising from the use of a product in expanded access. Our analyses seek to give physicians and patients a realistic perspective on the likelihood of a drug's approval as well as certain information regarding the product liability risks for commercial sponsors when providing expanded access to investigational drugs. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s expanded-access program maintains a careful balance between authorizing patient access to potentially beneficial drugs and protecting them from drugs that may have unknown risks. At the same time, the agency wishes to maintain the integrity of the clinical trials process, ultimately the best way to get safe and effective drugs to patients. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  11. 〈Review〉Psychological Response to Sport Injury and Psychological Skills Interventions for Injured Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Naoi, Airi; Deaner, Heather. R.

    2006-01-01

    [Abstract] This article reviews previous research studies that have examined the psychological responses of injured athletes and the effectiveness of psychological skills interventions for injured athletes. In order to understand psychological response to injury, two models, a cognitive appraisal model of psychological adjustment to athletic injury and an integrated model of psychological response to the sport injury and rehabilitation process, are described. Additionally, the relationship am...

  12. A Social Psychological Perspective:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Westerling, Allan

    2008-01-01

    institutionalised individualism and interconnectedness. The focus is on the vertical and horizontal relationships within the socio-cultural psychological framework combining positioning theory with the  life course perspectives. Moreover there is focus on the diaspora processes for the South Asian young adults....... The paper analyses the discourses of intergenerational care as they intersect with everyday life practices and psychological realities of persons. The results indicate changes in the care pattern and deals with the dilemmas of solidarity, which are in contrast to dominant discourses of generations...... of agency with the changing societal structures and the diaspora context is confirmed. Key words: intergenerational care, individualisation, social network analysis, socio-cultural psychology, modernisation...

  13. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well...

  14. Monitoring and characterization of yeasts behavior under fermentation processes using technometric approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Cristiana C.

    2013-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Chemical and Biological Engineering Technometrics concerns on the development and use of statistical methods in different fields, such as biotechnological processes, in order to understand their multivariate and multidimensional complexity. Chemical changes occurring within these processes can be monitored using chemometric tools that combined with bioinformatic methodologies, can provide an enlarged overview of the process, enabling the unbiased study ...

  15. LEARNING THEORY AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , *ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), LEARNING, LEARNING, BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY, ANXIETY, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, MENTAL DISORDERS...PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), THERAPY.

  16. CyberPsychological Computation on Social Community of Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Genghui; Huang, Shuang; Sun, Xuemin; Hu, Feng; Hu, Hongzhi; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Under the modern network environment, ubiquitous learning has been a popular way for people to study knowledge, exchange ideas, and share skills in the cyberspace. Existing research findings indicate that the learners' initiative and community cohesion play vital roles in the social communities of ubiquitous learning, and therefore how to stimulate the learners' interest and participation willingness so as to improve their enjoyable experiences in the learning process should be the primary consideration on this issue. This paper aims to explore an effective method to monitor the learners' psychological reactions based on their behavioral features in cyberspace and therefore provide useful references for adjusting the strategies in the learning process. In doing so, this paper firstly analyzes the psychological assessment of the learners' situations as well as their typical behavioral patterns and then discusses the relationship between the learners' psychological reactions and their observable features in cyberspace. Finally, this paper puts forward a CyberPsychological computation method to estimate the learners' psychological states online. Considering the diversity of learners' habitual behaviors in the reactions to their psychological changes, a BP-GA neural network is proposed for the computation based on their personalized behavioral patterns. PMID:26557846

  17. CyberPsychological Computation on Social Community of Ubiquitous Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Genghui; Huang, Shuang; Sun, Xuemin; Hu, Feng; Hu, Hongzhi; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Under the modern network environment, ubiquitous learning has been a popular way for people to study knowledge, exchange ideas, and share skills in the cyberspace. Existing research findings indicate that the learners' initiative and community cohesion play vital roles in the social communities of ubiquitous learning, and therefore how to stimulate the learners' interest and participation willingness so as to improve their enjoyable experiences in the learning process should be the primary consideration on this issue. This paper aims to explore an effective method to monitor the learners' psychological reactions based on their behavioral features in cyberspace and therefore provide useful references for adjusting the strategies in the learning process. In doing so, this paper firstly analyzes the psychological assessment of the learners' situations as well as their typical behavioral patterns and then discusses the relationship between the learners' psychological reactions and their observable features in cyberspace. Finally, this paper puts forward a CyberPsychological computation method to estimate the learners' psychological states online. Considering the diversity of learners' habitual behaviors in the reactions to their psychological changes, a BP-GA neural network is proposed for the computation based on their personalized behavioral patterns.

  18. Comparison of pain, cortisol levels, and psychological distress in women undergoing surgical termination of pregnancy under local anaesthesia versus intravenous sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Dan J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The weight of evidence suggests that women who freely choose to terminate a pregnancy are unlikely to experience significant mental health risks, however some studies have documented psychological distress in the form of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in the aftermath of termination. Choice of anaesthetic has been suggested as a determinant of outcome. This study compared the effects of local anaesthesia and intravenous sedation, administered for elective surgical termination, on outcomes of pain, cortisol, and psychological distress. Methods 155 women were recruited from a private abortion clinic and state hospital (mean age: 25.4 ± 6.1 years and assessed on various symptom domains, using both clinician-administered interviews and self-report measures just prior to termination, immediately post-procedure, and at 1 month and 3 months post-procedure. Morning salivary cortisol assays were collected prior to anaesthesia and termination. Results The group who received local anaesthetic demonstrated higher baseline cortisol levels (mean = 4.7 vs 0.2, more dissociative symptoms immediately post-termination (mean = 14.7 vs 7.3, and higher levels of pain before (mean = 4.9 vs 3.0 and during the procedure (mean = 8.0 vs 4.4. However, in the longer-term (1 and 3 months, there were no significant differences in pain, psychological outcomes (PTSD, depression, self-esteem, state anxiety, or disability between the groups. More than 65% of the variance in PTSD symptoms at 3 months could be explained by baseline PTSD symptom severity and disability, and post-termination dissociative symptoms. Of interest was the finding that pre-procedural cortisol levels were positively correlated with PTSD symptoms at both 1 and 3 months. Conclusion High rates of PTSD characterise women who have undergone surgical abortions (almost one fifth of the sample meet criteria for PTSD, with women who receive local anaesthetic experiencing more

  19. Longevity factor klotho and chronic psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, A A; Epel, E S; Arenander, J; Broestl, L; Garay, B I; Wang, D; Dubal, D B

    2015-06-16

    Chronic psychological stress is associated with accelerated aging and premature morbidity and mortality; however, the biology linking chronic psychological stress and its maladaptive effects remains largely unknown. Klotho is a pleiotropic hormone that regulates the aging process and promotes better brain and body health. Whether klotho is linked to psychosocial stress or its negative impact in humans has not been investigated. To address this gap, we recruited 178 healthy women who were either chronically high-stress maternal caregivers for a child with autism spectrum disorder (n = 90) or low-stress control mothers of a typically developing child (n = 88). We found that women under high chronic stress displayed significantly lower levels of the longevity hormone klotho compared with low-stress controls (t(176) = 2.92, P = 0.004; d = 0.44), and the decrease among those under high stress was age-dependent. In addition, high-stress caregivers who reported more depressive symptoms displayed even lower klotho levels compared with low-stress participants. These findings provide the first evidence that klotho levels are sensitive to psychosocial stressors and raise the possibility that klotho may serve as a novel biological link connecting stress, depression and risk for accelerated disease development. Furthermore, these findings have important implications for understanding the plasticity of the aging process and may represent a therapeutic target for mitigating the deleterious effects of chronic psychological stress on health and well-being.

  20. Transcriptional profiling of the pea shoot apical meristem reveals processes underlying its function and maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Mohan B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM in plant development and organ formation, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling its function is limited. Genomic tools have the potential to unravel the molecular mysteries of the SAM, and legume systems are increasingly being used in plant-development studies owing to their unique characteristics such as nitrogen fixation, secondary metabolism, and pod development. Garden pea (Pisum sativum is a well-established classic model species for genetics studies that has been used since the Mendel era. In addition, the availability of a plethora of developmental mutants makes pea an ideal crop legume for genomics studies. This study aims to utilise genomics tools in isolating genes that play potential roles in the regulation of SAM activity. Results In order to identify genes that are differentially expressed in the SAM, we generated 2735 ESTs from three cDNA libraries derived from freshly micro-dissected SAMs from 10-day-old garden peas (Pisum sativum cv Torsdag. Custom-designed oligonucleotide arrays were used to compare the transcriptional profiles of pea SAMs and non-meristematic tissues. A total of 184 and 175 transcripts were significantly up- or down-regulated in the pea SAM, respectively. As expected, close to 61% of the transcripts down-regulated in the SAM were found in the public database, whereas sequences from the same source only comprised 12% of the genes that were expressed at higher levels in the SAM. This highlights the under-representation of transcripts from the meristematic tissues in the current public pea protein database, and demonstrates the utility of our SAM EST collection as an essential genetic resource for revealing further information on the regulation of this developmental process. In addition to unknowns, many of the up-regulated transcripts are known to encode products associated with cell division and proliferation