WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychological problems caused

  1. Infertility as a psychological problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolska, Magdalena Z; Bidzan, Mariola

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been enormous progress in couple infertility treatment and diagnostics. Some couples cannot conceive despite the fact that there seems to be no objective somatic or immunologic reasons. In such situations gynaecologists are helpless and couples may be overwhelmed by a sense of defeat and hopelessness. Thus, consulting a psychologist or therapist on how to cope better with the problem may be a good solution. The objective of the following paper is to discuss the dilemmas of couples undergoing infertility treatment, related psychological problems, and to determine the need for psychological and therapeutic support. The study demonstrates numerous infertility causes and concludes that there is no universal method of dealing with them. Very frequently psychological and somatic problems overlap. Psychological causes are often the primary factors, but sometimes they are secondary derivatives of the therapeutic process. A wide scope of factors must be considered to attempt psychological analysis of patients treated for infertility including the influence of the family and relations within, reaction to the diagnosis and suggested treatment, the influence of religion on the treatment, the evaluation of the relations in the family of procreation, sexual life assessment, the sense of a woman's self-esteem and self-acceptance. Basing on empirical analysis it was concluded that all women treated for infertility want to create a full family. They have problems in coping with emotional liability during treatment and a sense of fear and failure. Understanding the psychological mechanisms observed in patients treated for infertility might help to diagnose the causes of their problems with facing the new, extremely difficult situation.

  2. Infertility as a psychological problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Podolska, Magdalena Z; Bidzan, Mariola

    2011-01-01

    .... The objective of the following paper is to discuss the dilemmas of couples undergoing infertility treatment, related psychological problems, and to determine the need for psychological and therapeutic support...

  3. Avoidance motivation in psychological problems and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtforth, Martin Grosse

    2008-03-01

    Avoidance of aversive experiences is common to all human beings. However, when avoidance is too strong, it might be associated with impaired psychological functioning and psychopathology. This article examines the role of avoidance motivation in psychological problems and psychotherapy from conceptual, assessment, and empirical perspectives. The concept of avoidance motivation is introduced, and measures of the intensity and satisfaction of avoidance motivation that the author developed are presented. Empirical findings generated using these measures are also reported. The findings address the role of avoidance motivation in relation to well-being, psychological problems, and psychotherapy outcome. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed and avenues for further research explored.

  4. Is atypical odontalgia a psychological problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Radford, S B; Solberg, W K

    1993-05-01

    Several authors have asserted that psychological factors are the underlying cause of atypical odontalgia. However, objective evidence is lacking to support this claim. In this study, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was used to assess psychological functioning of an atypical odontalgia population. Means of the standard scores for each Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scale were within normal ranges. Standard scores for atypical odontalgia profiles compared with standard scores for a chronic headache group (matched for age, sex, and chronicity) were similar and scales for both groups were within normal ranges. These findings fail to support psychological dysfunction as a primary condition associated with patients suffering from atypical odontalgia.

  5. The Psychological Four-Color Mapping Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Bias, Keri; Shive, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Mathematicians have proven that four colors are sufficient to color 2-D maps so that no neighboring regions share the same color. Here we consider the psychological 4-color problem: Identifying which 4 colors should be used to make a map easy to use. We build a model of visual search for this design task and demonstrate how to apply it to the task…

  6. [Androgenetic alopecia in women as an aesthetic and psychological problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierczak, Małgorzata; Bielecka-Grzela, Stanisława; Klimowicz, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia is a fairly common disorder which causes serious aesthetic and psychological problems. The paper discusses the etiology, diagnostics and possible treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women. Preparations for both general and external use in treatment of this dermatosis have been presented herein.

  7. The development of children's understanding of common psychological problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Eilis; Heary, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to explore children’s beliefs about the causes of psychological problems and their beliefs about potential sources of help for peers experiencing these problems. Despite its importance this is an area that has received relatively little attention from researchers. Methods: One hundred and sixteen children were read short vignettes in focus groups or individual interviews. The vignettes described the behaviour of hypothetical children with ADHD, con...

  8. SOME PSYCHOLOGICAL CAUSES OF THE FINANCIAL CRISIS

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    Paula-Elena DIACON

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Besides the numerous effects that the financial crisis of 2007 has produced over the entire global economy, its onset has reopened fundamental discussions on the methodology of the economic science. One of the main controversies in the literature revolves around the nature of the neoclassical homo oeconomicus used in the mainstream analysis, with emphasis on the concept of rationality. Although the causes of the crisis are numerous, we propose to investigate in this paper only some aspects related to the psychological factors that contributed to the outbreak of this situation. The analysis is developed especially around the concept of economic rationality, arguing that the human being has a bounded rationality rather than a perfect one. Moreover, the relationship that exists between bounded rationality and the economic freedom of the individual is brought to the fore.

  9. Psychological Problems and Challenge In EFL Speaking Classroom

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    Win Listyaningrum Arifin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychological aspect regarding to learning attitudes plays in determining learning achievement. Psychological problems also involve not only to the students but also teacher. Less-confidence, speech anxiety, and low self-esteem are almost common problem in classroom, and occur on both teachers and students. Students who have low of self-confidence are often hardly able to control themselves for public speaking in the classroom, like, Governing his/ her behavior on that his/her peers think, lose belief on self, thinking that his/her friends dis-appraising, afraid of getting mistakes, etc. However, teachers which are low self-esteem and confidence also lose their performance and ability to manage their classroom optimally. Low self-esteem may caused by teacher’s poor understanding on subject matter. Both of psychological problems impact on dis-effectiveness of classroom activities. This paper takes accounts of some psychological problems of students and teachers in English speaking classroom, and some guidelines to overcome. At the last discus, this paper also provides some keys of how to make good classroom atmosphere.

  10. Psychological problems in Turkish asthmatic children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçakaya, N; Aydogan, M; Hassanzadeh, A; Camcioglu, Y; Cokugraş, H

    2003-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of impaired breathing. The disease causes psychological problems due to hospitalization, long-term medication use, and restricted social life. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity and duration of asthma and psychological problems in asthmatic children, as well as the probability of maternal anxiety. Thirty-seven children with mild asthma, 55 with moderate asthma and eight with severe asthma were compared with 50 healthy children. The severity of asthma was evaluated using the Pearlman-Bierman classification. Psychological adjustment was measured using the Achenback child Behavior checklist and Spielberger's scale. Emotional factors and family dynamics were found to be triggering factors for disease attacks in 16% of children with mild asthma, 38% of those with moderate asthma and 63% of those with severe asthma (p anxiety score between the disease severity groups (p > 0.05). The mean depression score was significantly higher in children with moderate and severe asthma than in those with mild asthma (p anxiety. Both asthmatic children and their mothers are negatively affected by the disease.

  11. The impact of anticipated stigma on psychological and physical health problems in the unemployed group

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    Aisling T. O'Donnell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that the unemployed suffer increased psychological and physical health problems compared to their employed counterparts. Further, unemployment leads to an unwanted new social identity that is stigmatizing, and stigma is known to be a stressor causing psychological and physical health problems. However, it is not yet known whether being stigmatized as an unemployed group member is associated with psychological and physical health in this group. The current study tested the impact of anticipated stigma on psychological distress and physical health problems, operationalized as somatic symptoms, in a volunteer sample of unemployed people. Results revealed that anticipated stigma had a direct effect on both psychological distress and somatic symptoms, such that greater anticipated stigma significantly predicted higher levels of both. Moreover, the direct effect on somatic symptoms became non-significant when psychological distress was taken into account. Thus, to the extent that unemployed participants anticipated experiencing greater stigma, they also reported increased psychological distress, and this psychological distress predicted increased somatic symptoms. Our findings complement and extend the existing literature on the relationships between stigmatized identities, psychological distress and physical health problems, particularly in relation to the unemployed group. This group is important to consider both theoretically, given the unwanted and transient nature of the identity compared to other stigmatized identities, but also practically, as the findings indicate a need to orient to the perceived valence of the unemployed identity and its effects on psychological and physical health.

  12. Eliminating Problems Caused by Multicollinearity: A Warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter E.

    1982-01-01

    Explains why an econometric practice introduced by J.C. Soper cannot eliminate the problems caused by multicollinearity. The author suggests that it can be a useful technique in that it forces researchers to pay more attention to the specifications of their models. (AM)

  13. Culture in psychology: perennial problems and the contemporary methodological crisis

    OpenAIRE

    MIRONENKO IRINA A.; SOROKIN PAVEL S.

    2015-01-01

    This article begins by discussing the origins of the methodological crisis in psychology. In the literature the idea of a permanent methodological crisis in psychology, lasting since the 1890s, dominates. We contest this view and argue that the contemporary methodological problems in psychology should be considered within the context of the novel and larger crisis challenging all socio-humanitarian knowledge in the face of the transformations in social reality in recent decades. The nature of...

  14. STUDY FOR ADOLESCENT PROBLEM AND PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Astha; Monika; Gitika; Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is defined as the age group of 10-19 years. Adolescents suffer from psychosocial problems at one time or other during their development. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization majority of young couple are employed and get less time to look after their children. Psychosocial problem and drug abuse are quite prevalent in this age group. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of psychosocial, emotional, behavioral problems, sexual orientation, drug abuse in...

  15. [School absenteeism as a signal for psychological problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagmans, Michèle L M; Kamphuis, Mascha

    2014-01-01

    We present two patients with frequent school absences. Patient A is a 12-year-old boy, diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder. When his mother visits the youth community health doctor, he shows signs of an anxiety disorder with stress-related physical symptoms. Patient B is a 15-year-old boy whose teacher suspects a gaming and internet addiction. After consulting the youth community health doctor, he is referred to a psychologist for further diagnosis of a social anxiety disorder. Frequent school absenteeism is associated with psychological problems. After excluding physical causes referral for further psychiatric assessment is recommended. As the medical advisor of the school, the youth community health doctor can play a role in this process.

  16. Psychological predictors of problem mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Adriana; Phillips, James G

    2005-02-01

    Mobile phone use is banned or illegal under certain circumstances and in some jurisdictions. Nevertheless, some people still use their mobile phones despite recognized safety concerns, legislation, and informal bans. Drawing potential predictors from the addiction literature, this study sought to predict usage and, specifically, problematic mobile phone use from extraversion, self-esteem, neuroticism, gender, and age. To measure problem use, the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale was devised and validated as a reliable self-report instrument, against the Addiction Potential Scale and overall mobile phone usage levels. Problem use was a function of age, extraversion, and low self-esteem, but not neuroticism. As extraverts are more likely to take risks, and young drivers feature prominently in automobile accidents, this study supports community concerns about mobile phone use, and identifies groups that should be targeted in any intervention campaigns.

  17. Advocacy in School Psychology: Problems and Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcloughlin, Caven S.

    Inherent in the many roles of a school psychologist is a primary responsibility to act as a child advocate. Child advocacy carries with it a variety of definitions, all of which are concerned with aligning oneself with the cause of either an individual child or a group. Child advocacy involves asserting and defending those rights of an individual…

  18. Problems of contemporary maternity: psychological aspect

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    I. V. Puz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of modern motherhood and studies the phenomenon of deviant maternal behavior. Based on the literature, present study analyzes such forms of violation of maternal behavior as mother's refusal from a baby; mother's cruel treatment of a baby; frequent abortions; maternity in the early reproductive age; conscious maternity postponement for a later reproductive age. Also the factors that contribute to various manifestations of deviant motherhood are described.

  19. Psychological Problems Among Nursing Staff in a Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Shakya, D. R.; S Lama; P M Shyangwa

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: A high prevalence of psychological/ mental disorders has frequently been reported among nursing staff. However, there is a scarcity of data about ‘psychological, mental and behavioural problems’ among Nepalese nurses. Current study aimed to measure the prevalence of psychiatric problems among nursing staff in a tertiary care hosital. Methods: All nursing staffs working in the hospital during one year were the subjects of this study. With the informed written consent...

  20. The problem of a psychological definition of "Legally relevant situations"

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    Bogdanovich N. V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the concept of "legally significant situation." Discusses the classification of situations from the point of view of criminology and forensic psychological assessment. Highlights the main features of this type of situations from the point of view of psychology: the nature of conflict, involving the participation of third parties, as well as the presence of certain psychological consequences. This allows to describe the Genesis of certain situations, and to identify the States generated at each stage. It is also noted that the specificity of the legally significant cases involving minors is its group nature (the child as part of a family or other group. Thus, it is possible to give the following definition of a legally relevant situation within legal psychology, children and adolescents: a situation involving minors, subjects who are in relationships, conflict is caused by interactions in the legal context, which leads not only to legally relevant, but also to the psychological consequences for its participants.

  1. Emotion regulation and psychological problems among Indian college youth

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    T P Lavanya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Study of emotion regulation strategies used by youth becomes necessary in the background of the high prevalence of emotional disorders in this population. This study examined emotion regulation and psychological problems among college youth as well as the relationship between the two. Methodology: Four hundred and nineteen students, who were divided into two groups (older adolescents, aged 16-17 years - group 1, n = 217; young adults aged 18-25 years - group 2, n = 202 participated in this exploratory study. Results: Predominantly positive emotion regulation strategies were used by group 1 (positive refocusing, refocus on planning, and positive reappraisal, respectively. The sample as a whole used more positive strategies (positive refocusing: 82% and 64% and refocus on planning: 93% and 87% in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Significant correlations between emotion regulation strategies (CERQ and psychological problems (YSR/YASR were found, thereby indicating that negative emotion regulation strategies were associated with psychological problems and vice versa. Females were found to have more of anxiety problems as opposed to males with more of conduct problems. However with increase in age, increase in the percentage of psychological problems and usage of negative emotion regulation strategies was observed. Conclusion: The findings of the present study contribute to understanding the patterns of emotion regulation in various emotional disorders. Findings could also contribute to developing an intervention program to help students having difficulty in regulation of their emotions.

  2. Psychological problems among women with infertility problem: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Bibi Nooreen; Hasan, Shazia

    2014-11-01

    To explore the difference between anxiety and depression among infertile and fertile women. The study was conducted in 2009 and comprised fertile and infertile women. The sample of infertile women was drawn from the Liaquat National Hospital, Patel Hospital, Infertility Concept and Zainub Hospital, located in urban areas of Karachi, while fertile women were drawn from the general population in urban Karachi. All the subjects had at least 10 years of education and were in the age range of 20-35 years. They two groups were further divided into two sub-groups of working and non-working women. Institute for Personality and Ability Testing Depression and Anxiety scales were used to assess depression and anxiety. SPSS 14.0 was used to analyse the data. Of the 120 subjects, the two groups had 60(50%) each. The mean age of fertile women was 27.48±160.75 and that in the infertile group was 27.36±160.75. Depression among fertile women was 21.85±10.98 compared to 32.01±12.49 among the infertile women. Corresponding values for anxiety was 24.45±9.63 and 36.20±12.51. The difference was significant. Women with infertility experience a greater psychological impact.

  3. Globalization causes a world of health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, H

    1998-01-01

    Many countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean offer substantial tax breaks to foreign corporations that set up shops in free-trade zones and waive environmental regulations and repress trade unions to further induce this practice. Workers in these shops--mainly women--perform repetitive machine-based motions, are exposed to toxic chemicals and unsafe equipment, and face dangerously high production quotas. Health problems caused by these working conditions include headache and dizziness, fatigue, anemia, forgetfulness, stomach pains, respiratory problems, hypertension, heart disease, and allergies. Water and air pollution and dumping of hazardous waste affect the health of entire communities. Since free-trade zones are a permanent feature of the global economy, organizing to protect workers and communities assumes critical importance. Groups such as the Border Committee of Women Workers in Mexico are providing workers with skills and support to make demands such as better treatment of pregnant workers. International labor, environmental, and public health advocates can support such efforts by providing assistance to worker-controlled organizations and pressuring governments to enforce laws intended to protect workers and their communities.

  4. Childhood psychological problems in school settings in rural Southern Africa.

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    Melissa A Cortina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many children can be exposed to multiple adversities in low and middle-income countries (LMICs placing them at potential risk of psychological problems. However, there is a paucity of research using large representative cohorts examining the psychological adjustment of children in school settings in these countries. Children's psychological adjustment has been shown to affect educational progress which is critical for their future. This study, based in a rural, socio-economically disadvantaged area of South Africa, aimed to examine the prevalence of children's psychological problems as well as possible risk and protective factors. METHODS: Rates of psychological problems in 10-12 year olds were examined using teacher- and child-report questionnaires. Data on children from 10 rural primary schools, selected by stratified random sampling, were linked to individual and household data from the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system collected from households over 15 years. RESULTS: A total of 1,025 children were assessed. Teachers identified high levels of behavioural and emotional problems (41%. Children reported lower, but substantial rates of anxiety/depression (14%, and significant post-traumatic stress symptoms (24%; almost a quarter felt unsafe in school. Risk factors included being a second-generation former refugee and being from a large household. Protective factors highlight the importance of maternal factors, such as being more educated and in a stable partnership. CONCLUSION: The high levels of psychological problems identified by teachers are a serious public health concern, as they are likely to impact negatively on children's education, particularly given the large class sizes and limited resources in rural LMIC settings. Despite the high levels of risk, a proportion of children were managing well and research to understand resilience could inform interventions.

  5. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychological Problems: The Moderating Effect of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adolescent-parent communication moderates the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent psychological problems. Surveys were administered to a community sample of 1,001 adolescents in the spring of 2007. Results indicate that paternal problem drinking was associated with…

  6. Maternal psychologic problems increased the risk of childhood atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I J; Wen, H J; Chiang, T L; Lin, S J; Guo, Y L

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the effect of postnatal maternal psychologic problems on the development of childhood atopic disorders. To assess the association between early life maternal psychologic problems and atopic dermatitis (AD) in children in a national birth cohort. We used multistage, stratified systematic sampling to recruit 24,200 mother-newborn pairs from the Taiwan national birth registration. Maternal psychologic problems and potential confounders were gathered by the standard questionnaire at 6 months old. At 3 years of age, information about the development of AD was assessed by International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood via home interviews. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the association of postnatal maternal psychologic problems (postpartum depression (PPD) and maternal mental health index) and AD. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed AD was 10.5%. PPD increased the risk of subsequent physician-diagnosed AD in children after adjusting for potential confounders and other maternal mental health index (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.21-1.66). We observed that the risk of AD associated with PPD was not confounded by other social demographic factors such as maternal AD, maternal education, family income, breastfeeding, day care, and number of siblings. Postpartum depression increased the risk of childhood AD even when other maternal mental health index and social demographic factors are considered. Early intervention of PPD might be helpful for AD prevention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Future teachers’ nonverbal communication skill as psychological and pedagogical problem

    OpenAIRE

    GRAZHEVSKA OLEKSANDRA

    2015-01-01

    In this article the concept of nonverbal communication skill is discovered on the basis of the analysis of the concept ‘skill’ and peculiarities of nonverbal communication. The ‘nonverbal communication skill’ phenomenon is defined as psychological and pedagogical problem. Features and factors that contribute to the development of nonverbal communication skill of future teachers (students of Pedagogical University) are determined.

  8. Psychological aspects of infertility due to various causes--prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, L K; Gupta, K R; Gopalan, S; Kulhara, P

    2004-01-01

    One hundred and twenty infertile couples (30 each among unexplained infertility, anovulation, tubal factor, and male factor groups) and 30 fertile couples as controls were evaluated for psychological assessment by different psychological test instruments. Initial evaluation was done at recruitment, followed by reassessment at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months during the infertility work-up, and at the end when the specific diagnosis and the management and prognosis were disclosed. Psychological components were found to play a significant role in infertility of unknown etiology, especially in the male partner. They affected the personality and social behavior of the male partner and caused anxiety, but led to depression in the female partner. In cases of organically caused infertility, partners were worried about the other's reaction. Anxiety was significantly greater in the partner with the fertility problem than in the other partner. Life events were significant in the partner in whom the fertility problem was detected. Periodic psychological assessment was not affected by infertility work-up on the male partner in any of the groups, whereas anovulation and tubal factor infertility showed a significant psychological effect on the female partner at the end of work-up. Depression and anxiety in the female partner were evident soon after the investigation started.

  9. Culture in psychology: Perennial problems and the contemporary methodological crisis.

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    Mironenko, I.A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article begins by discussing the origins of the methodological crisis in psychology. In the literature the idea of a permanent methodological crisis in psychology, lasting since the 1890s, dominates. We contest this view and argue that the contemporary methodological problems in psychology should be considered within the context of the novel and larger crisis challenging all socio-humanitarian knowledge in the face of the transformations in social reality in recent decades. The nature of these transformations and their implications for the theory and methodology of the socio-humanitarian sciences are analyzed by drawing on the sociological literature, which is more sensitive to changes in social life than is psychology. Prominent sociologists argue that the “old” theories and interpretations of the “social” are no longer relevant in the new, highly complex, and globally unstable reality; this new reality has largely transformed the dimensions of human beings’ existence. Meanwhile psychology still tends to comprehend the universal nature of the human. This position undermines the relevance of both psychology’s theoretical models and the practical implications derived from these methodological assumptions. We argue for revision of the perennial psychological problem of the biology-culture interaction in human nature. To resolve the contemporary methodological crisis in psychology, a shift is needed from theories of universal and immutable human nature to the idea of the human as an infinitely changing creature. Because culture is, primarily, the ability to change, wherein the speed and extent of changes are unique for humans, distinguishing them from other living beings.

  10. Hans Driesch and the problems of "normal psychology". Rereading his Crisis in Psychology (1925).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesch, Christian G

    2012-06-01

    In 1925, the German biologist and philosopher Hans Driesch published a booklet entitled The Crisis in Psychology. It was originally published in English and was based on lectures given at various universities in China, Japan and the USA. The "crisis" in psychology of that time, in Driesch's opinion, lies in the necessity to decide about "the road which psychology is to follow in the future". This necessity refers to five "critical points", namely (1) to develop the theory of psychic elements to a theory of meaning by phenomenological analysis, (2) the overcoming of association theory, (3) to acknowledge that the unconscious is a fact and a "normal" aspect of mental life, (4) to reject "psychomechanical parallelism" or any other epiphenomenalistic solution of the mind-body problem, and (5) the extension of psychical research to new facts as described by parapsychology, for instance. Driesch saw close parallels between the development of modern psychology and that of biology, namely in a theoretical shift from "sum-concepts" like association and mechanics, to "totality-concepts" like soul and entelechy. The German translation of 1926 was entitled Grundprobleme der Psychologie (Fundamental Problems of Psychology) while "the crisis in psychology" forms just the subtitle of this book. This underlines that Driesch's argumentation--in contrast to that of Buehler--dealt with ontological questions rather than with paradigms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Social networking sites: an adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Indu S; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Chandra, Prabha S; Thennarasu, K

    2014-07-01

    Social networking is seen as a way to enhance social support and feeling of well-being. The present work explores the potentials of social networking sites as an adjunctive treatment modality for initiating treatment contact as well as for managing psychological problems. Interview schedule, Facebook intensity questionnaire were administered on 28 subjects with a combination of 18 males and 10 females. They were taken from the in-patient and out-patient psychiatry setting of the hospital. Facebook was the most popular sites and used to seek emotional support on the basis of the frequent updates of emotional content that users put in their profile; reconciliations, escape from the problems or to manage the loneliness; getting information about illness and its treatment and interaction with experts and also manifested as problematic use. It has implications for developing social networking based adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems.

  12. Assessment of psychological problems in schoolgoing adolescents of Aligarh

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    Nafis Faizi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period of physical, nutritional, and sexual transition, also remarkable for the accompanying psychological changes. Worldwide, 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a disabling mental illness. Therefore, knowledge of the prevalence of these disorders can be used to design intervention strategies. The present study was conducted in the 13–15 years' age group schoolgoing adolescents, with the objective to estimate the prevalence of psychological morbidity, employing Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in three different schools of Aligarh, in the 13–15 years' age group, with a prior permission from the school authorities. The study was approved by a multidisciplinary Institutional Ethics and Research Advisory Committee. Results: A total of 1456 students were sampled for the study. The prevalence of psychological morbidity on the basis of total difficulties score was found to be 9.75% (95% confidence interval - 8.33–11.39. The prevalence of emotional, conduct, hyperactivity, peer, and prosocial problems was 5.42%, 5.56%, 3.78%, 4.40%, and 4.26%, respectively. Conclusions: Psychological problems are fairly common in the adolescent age group. Despite the need, there is a dearth studies conducted in this crucial age group in India. Of the studies available, a wide variance is reported either due to the difference in diagnostic tools or due to the types of psychological disorders considered in different researches. For the purpose of uniformity and comparability, SDQ stands as a good option.

  13. Psychological considerations of man in space: Problems & solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, J.; Kass, R.; Samaltedinov, I.

    With concrete plans for long duration flight taking form a new impetus is lent to preparing man for this hostile and unnatural environment. Cramped conditions, isolation from family and loved ones, work stress, fear, and incompatibility with fellow crew, are but a few of the problems suffered by astronauts and cosmonauts during their long missions in orbit about the earth. Although criteria for selection of crew is one aspect of attacking the problem, it has not solved it Notwithstanding good selection, team combination, and counselling before flight, problems have still occurred with unwanted consequences. Incompatibility of team members, far from being the exception, has been frequent. This has been detrímental both physiologically and psychologically for the individual as well as for the operational success and safety of the missions. Because problems will inevitably occur in future long duration missions, especially when they are of international and multi-cultural nature, the importance of dealing with them is underlined. This paper takes a different approach towards ameliorating these problems, namely that of psychological group training before a mission.

  14. A cohort study of unemployment as a cause of psychological disturbance in Australian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, S; Taylor, R; Quine, S; Kerr, C; Western, J

    1994-06-01

    Data from the Australian Longitudinal Survey, conducted by the Commonwealth Department of Employment, Education and Training, were analysed to estimate relative risk of psychological disturbance accompanying unemployment in young people aged 15-24 years. Two cohorts were surveyed annually over 4 years during the mid-to-late-1980s; one from the general 15-24 year-old population (N = 8995), and the other selected from Commonwealth Employment Service records (N = 2403). Such large respondent numbers allowed control of confounding by exclusion to isolate employment transition groups suitable for hypothesis testing and quantification of causal relationships. Psychological morbidity was measured using binary outcomes of the 12 item psychological component of the General Health Questionnaire. Excluded from the analysis were those who: suffered from pre-existing physical health problems; were dissatisfied in their job; were self-employed; underwent marriage breakdown during the inter-survey period; had become widowed during the inter-survey period. A Bayesian probabilistic approach was used to calculate probabilities of psychologically normal respondents becoming psychologically morbid, given prior transition from employment to unemployment. Mantel-Haenszel analysis was utilised to estimate relative risks in comparison to a control group of those remaining employed, after controlling for age and gender. An overall relative risk of becoming psychologically disturbed as a consequence of becoming unemployed was estimated to be 1.51 (95% CI: 1.15-1.99). The overall relative risk of recovery from psychological disturbance upon re-employment in those with psychological disturbance was estimated to be 1.63 (95% CI: 1.08-2.48). Residual psychological effects of past unemployment experience and the effects of long-term unemployment were investigated, but found to be non-significant in this study. There was some evidence of psychological adaptation to unemployment, but this was

  15. The effect of a career choice guidance on self-reported psychological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnen, E S

    2014-01-01

    Late adolescents with career choice problems often have psychological problems as well. The starting point of this study was the question of career choice counselors whether potential clients with career choice problems and psychological problems could be accepted in career choice intervention, or whether it was better to advise them to seek help for their psychological problems. We investigated whether a successful career choice intervention reduced psychological problems, and whether this program was equally effective in participants with low and with high levels of psychological problems. Participants were 45 Dutch students (age 17-24) with career choice problems. They had above average levels of self-reported psychological problems before the start of the intervention. These problems decreased significantly following the intervention. With regard to vocational commitment development, the intervention was equally effective for participants with low or average and with (very) high levels of psychological problems before the start of the intervention.

  16. Violence Victimization in Korean Adolescents: Risk Factors and Psychological Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Jang, Hyesue; Jo, Minkyung

    2017-05-19

    We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES), exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.

  17. Violence Victimization in Korean Adolescents: Risk Factors and Psychological Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subin Park

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES, exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.

  18. Surprisingly few psychological problems and diabetes-related distress in patients with poor glycaemic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazelmans, E.; Netea-Maier, R.T.; Vercoulen, J.H.M.M.; Tack, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Poor glycaemic control is an undesirable, but frequently encountered problem in diabetes. Reasons for not achieving optimal glycaemic control are not yet clear. A common belief is that psychological factors contribute importantly. This study compared general psychological problems and

  19. Consultation for and identification of child and adolescent psychological problems in Dutch general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaanswijk, Marieke; Verhaak, Peter F M; van der Ende, Jan; Bensing, Jozien M; Verhulst, Frank C

    2005-10-01

    Child and adolescent psychological problems are rarely brought to the attention of GPs. Children and adolescents with psychological problems who do visit their GP are seldom identified as such by GPs. To investigate in a general population sample of 2,449 Dutch children and adolescents (4-17 years) GP consultation and GP diagnoses of child psychological problems, and the influence of child and family characteristics upon these variables. The degree to which parent, teacher, and adolescent reports of the presence of child psychological problems are in concordance with GP diagnoses of these problems was determined. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine correlates of GP consultation and psychological diagnoses. Approximately 80% of children and adolescents with psychological problems had visited their GP within the preceding year. GP consultation was most strongly associated with child/adolescent chronic physical disorders. Concordance between GP psychological diagnoses and parent, teacher, and adolescent reports of psychological problems was limited. Children and adolescents with psychological problems according to parent or teacher report, children with school problems, young boys, adolescents with negative health perceptions, and adolescents from single parent families were more likely to be diagnosed with psychological problems by GPs. Improving GPs' interview techniques, introducing standardised screening measures in general practice, increasing GPs' awareness of the possible presence of psychological problems in children consulting for physical problems, and strengthening collaboration between GPs and mental health professionals may increase GP identification of child psychological problems and enhance access to care for those in need.

  20. Problems and opportunity of personality inventories in clinical - psychological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Benedik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with possibilities and problems of usage of personality inventories in psychological diagnostic of persons with "heavy pathology", from aspect of validity and applicability in the first place. Personality inventories are usually designed for health population. By their usage in clinical psychology we often meet problems like specific tendencies when answering defined questions. This could be the result of situational factors but also the impact of their disorders and personality. The possibilities of classical interpretation of results are in this way limited. Do we have the opportunity of development of the diagnostic instruments that we could, not only recognise, but use such deformations (which represent cognitive style or defence of person in diagnostic purpose? The MMPI-2, most famous inventory in this field, offer us great aid, especially because its items are selected empirically. By the analysis of its items from aspect of sensing and localisation of subjects problems, we found differences between clinical scales which represent patients of different clinical groups. These differences are in accordance with psychoanalytical assumptions about characteristics of sensing self and other people.

  1. Psychological problems among nursing staff in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, D R; Lama, S; Shyangwa, P M

    2012-01-01

    A high prevalence of psychological/ mental disorders has frequently been reported among nursing staff. However, there is a scarcity of data about 'psychological, mental and behavioural problems' among Nepalese nurses. Current study aimed to measure the prevalence of psychiatric problems among nursing staff in a tertiary care hosital. All nursing staffs working in the hospital during one year were the subjects of this study. With the informed written consent, the responses to semi-structured proforma and the questionnaire General Health Questionnaire 28 were collected. A semi-structured proforma was used to record socio-demographic, clinical profiles and other information. The GHQ 28 was used to screen major psychiatric disorders. The GHQ 28 gives 'psychiatric caseness' to the subjects with score of 4 or more. Overwhelming majority of nursing staff in BPKIHS is female certificate level staff nurses. Majority were from urban and semi urban settings. Some had job and institute related stressors. Most common among the reported health complaints were low back pain and headache. Few staff revealed psychiatric diagnosis. Among the enrolled 337 subjects, 'psychiatric caseness' was present in 34.72%. Some departments (e.g. dialysis, eye, medical, gynecology ward) had proportionately higher 'psychiatric caseness' rates than other (e.g. ENT, psychiatry ward, emergency OT, CSSD). A great proportion of nursing staff suffer from mental and behavioral problems.

  2. Alcohol use, related problems and psychological health in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Bilesha; Torabi, Mohammad; Kay, Noy S

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, psychological distress, anxiety and depression mood and the relationship between these variables in a sample of 534 college students in the USA. In college men, 91% were current alcohol users (those who use alcohol at least once a month) and in college women 80% were current alcohol users (p alcohol use. Beer was more popular among moderate users than heavy users in both sexes. Over 90% of both moderate and heavy users in both men and women had used hard liquor in the 30-day period preceding the survey. College men had more alcohol-related problems than did college women. Blackouts, getting into fights and not being able to meet school responsibilities were the common alcohol-related adverse outcomes reported by the participants. No associations were found between alcohol use and distress and between alcohol use and depressive mood. Mean values of the anxiety scores, however, were higher in moderate users in the male sample compared to that of the female sample. The findings have implications for theories of alcohol-related psychological health in college students.

  3. The effect of a career choice guidance on self-reported psychological problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, E. S.

    2014-01-01

    Late adolescents with career choice problems often have psychological problems as well. The starting point of this study was the question of career choice counselors whether potential clients with career choice problems and psychological problems could be accepted in career choice intervention, or

  4. Looking at the Root Causes of Problems: Preventing Repeat Mistakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    the ac- quisition workforce, fit the environment, and A C Q U I S I T I O N P R O C E S S Looking at the Root Causes of Problems Preventing Repeat...we investigate and correct problems that caused op- erational accidents—thus avoiding similar problems in future operations. Currently, after a... stop taking the risks that continually show up as causes of failures. If we accept that the reason we need to take a risk is worthwhile, then we

  5. The problem of mental disorders and psychological effects of antitumour treatment in children with cancer pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оксана Владимировна Пионтковская

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim – analysis of the problem of psychological and psychiatrical aspects of impact of cancer disease on child and its parents for detection of the main directions of medical and psychological help to this contingent.Results. In the younger age group the most stress factors that provoke the development of psychogenic fears, anxiety states and the derivative mood disorders are the “hospital routine” – limitation of activity (playing, motor, subjectively heavy procedures and manipulations, pain. In the group of elder children and teenagers the main stress stimulus is connected with a fear of social consequences of disease and the fact of mortally dangerous disease is interpreted in mind as a threat to the successful social functioning as something that spread its negative impact on the future life. Reactively caused mood disorders prevail in this age group over the other psychogenic formations. Behavior reactions in these cases are the secondary ones relating to the mood disorders – to the acceptance or rejection the situation of disease (as an anxious hypochondriacal fixation or as an emotional denial and ignoring the possible grave effects of cancer process.Conclusion. The diversity of problems in child psycho-oncology causes the multilevelness and versatility of medical, psychological and psychosocial help and psycho rehabilitation of children and their parents

  6. "Asia's missing women" as a problem in applied evolutionary psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Robert

    2012-12-20

    In many parts of Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, women and children are so undervalued, neglected, abused, and so often killed, that sex ratios are now strongly male biased. In recent decades, sex-biased abortion has exacerbated the problem. In this article I highlight several important insights from evolutionary biology into both the origin and the severe societal consequences of "Asia's missing women", paying particular attention to interactions between evolution, economics and culture. Son preferences and associated cultural practices like patrilineal inheritance, patrilocality and the Indian Hindu dowry system arise among the wealthy and powerful elites for reasons consistent with models of sex-biased parental investment. Those practices then spread via imitation as technology gets cheaper and economic development allows the middle class to grow rapidly. I will consider evidence from India, China and elsewhere that grossly male-biased sex ratios lead to increased crime, violence, local warfare, political instability, drug abuse, prostitution and trafficking of women. The problem of Asia's missing women presents a challenge for applied evolutionary psychology to help us understand and ameliorate sex ratio biases and their most severe consequences.

  7. Codeine and Tramadol Can Cause Breathing Problems for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Codeine and Tramadol Can Cause Breathing Problems for Children ... children and nursing babies. Beware of Giving Kids Codeine or Tramadol The FDA is warning that children ...

  8. Psychological problems and psychosocial predictors of cigarette smoking behavior among undergraduate students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Heidhy, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smokers have their own motivation and justification to smoke. For example, smoking reduces their stress or enhances their pleasure. This study aimed to identify the (a) prevalence of cigarette smokers among undergraduates in Malaysia, (b) gender differences in nicotine dependence among current smokers, (c) differences in psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) based on the status of smoking cigarettes (current, former and non-smokers) and (d) extent to which precipitating factors (tension reduction, addiction, automatism, handling, social interaction, pleasure, and stimulation) predict the smoking behavior among current smokers. In this study 780 undergraduate students participated from a private university in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor state in Malaysia. The Depression, Stress and Anxiety Scale, Modified Reason for Smoking Scale and Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test were used to measure psychological problems, predictors of smoking behavior and nicotine dependency among current smokers. The results showed that 14.7%(n=106) of the students were smokers. Current smokers exhibited more psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) compared to former and non-smokers. Addiction, tension reduction, pleasure and automatism were predictors of smoking behavior among the current smoking students. Step wise regression analysis showed that smoking behavior was highly predicted by nicotine dependency or addiction. Smoking students were motivated to smoke cigarettes as they believed that it reduced their tension and enhance pleasure. Hence, there is a need for health promotion and anti-tobacco prevention as cigarette smokers experience more psychological problems. Nicotine dependency or addition was one of the major causes for smoking behavior among the student population in Malaysia.

  9. Causes of film property reproducibility problem in magnetron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Causes of reproducibility problem in thin film deposition using magnetron sputtering have been identified. To remedy this problem, one must calibrate deposition rate after installation of a new target or magnetron and should repeat such calibrations as frequently as possible in order to obtain films with reproducible ...

  10. EMOTIONAL MATURITY OF PERSONALITY: THE PRACTICAL PROBLEM OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Afonina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the dif?cult conditions of the contemporary society which are far from being favorable to maintain one’s emotional and physical health the problem of development and achievement of emotional maturity as a factor of the well-being is getting more signi?cant. Based on the theoretical concepts of different scientists who de?ned the construct of emotional maturity three groups of psychological methods for assessing emotional maturity are analyzed. The ?rst group includes the methods that are used to assess emotional maturity explicitly and have a theoretical or empirical veri?cation. The second group includes the methods that are intended to assess emotional maturity as a separate scale complimented by other scales, related to evaluating other aspects of emotionality in  the  structure  of  the  personality.  The  third  group  includes  the  methods  in  which  emotional maturity is mentioned in the description of other psychic phenomena, or in the interpretation of certain factors (scales. Psychodiagnostic methods studying different parameters depending on the theoretical concepts of the authors about the structure and content of the emotional maturity of the personality make references to concepts of emotional development, consciousness, cognitive and volitional capacities of the personality and the coping strategies the individual prefer to use. The problem of developing valid and reliable psychodiagnostic methods of studying emotional maturity of the adult personality as a holistic phenomenon still awaits attention and retains its signi?cance.

  11. Biological mechanisms of premature ovarian failure caused by psychological stress based on support vector regression

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiu-feng; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Qing-hua; Min, Jian-Xin; Ma, Na; Luo, Lai-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Psychological stress has become a common and important cause of premature ovarian failure (POF). Therefore, it is very important to explore the mechanisms of POF resulting from psychological stress. Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into control and model groups. Biomolecules associated with POF (β-EP, IL-1, NOS, NO, GnRH, CRH, FSH, LH, E2, P, ACTH, and CORT) were measured in the control and psychologically stressed rats. The regulation relationships of the biomolecules were explored in the...

  12. [Psychosocial features of suicide cases with alcohol problem: a psychological autopsy study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Masato; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Katsumata, Yotaro; Kitani, Masahiko; Hirokawa, Seiko; Takahashi, Yoshitomo; Hirayama, Masami; Kameyama, Akiko; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2010-04-01

    Alcohol use disorder is a well-known risk factor for suicide, as alcohol problems can deteriorate the medical and psychosocial conditions of individuals. Furthermore, the pharmacological effect of alcohol can cause impulsive behavior in individuals. However, few studies have investigated the association of alcohol problems with suicide in Japan. The purpose of the present study was to investigate psychosocial and psychiatric features of suicide-completers with alcohol problems in last one year before their death. Since December 2007, we have been conducting a Japan-wide study on suicide-completers using a psychological autopsy method, a semi-structured interview by a psychiatrist and a mental health professional including a public health nurse with the closest bereaved. Items questioned included family environment, suicide situation, history of life, labor situation, economic problems, and psychiatric diagnosis according to DSM-IV criteria at the time of death. As of December 2009, we had collected psychosocial and psychiatric information about 76 Japanese suicide cases. 16 suicide-completers with alcohol problems ("Alcohol problem" group 21.1%) were all males and almost middle-aged workers. The percentages of debt and accident proneness in "Alcohol problem" group were significantly higher than "Non-alcohol problem" group. In "Alcohol problem group", none of them have had treatment of alcohol dependence. The prevalence of alcohol use disorders in "Alcohol problem group" was significantly higher than in "Nonalcohol problem" group (81.2% vs. 0%). The findings of the present study suggest that it is important to improvement of psychiatric care in alcohol dependence for prevention future suicides among alcoholics. Furthermore, enlightenment the association between alcohol problems and suicide to the public and medical doctors is required.

  13. Adjustment Problems, Self-Efficacy, and Psychological Distress among Chinese Gifted Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The relationships among adjustment problems, self-efficacy, and psychological distress were investigated in a sample of 207 Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong. A mediation-effect model specifying that adjustment problems had an effect on psychological distress mediated by self-efficacy was hypothesized and tested using structural equation…

  14. Consultation for and identification of child and adolescent psychological problems in Dutch general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaanswijk, M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Ende, J. van der; Bensing, J.M.; Verhulst, F.C.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent psychological problems are rarely brought to the attention of GPs. Children and adolescents with psychological problems who do visit their GP are seldom identified as such by GPs. OBJECTIVE: To investigate in a general population sample of 2,449 Dutch children and

  15. How some infinities cause problems in classical physical theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, David; Peijnenburg, Jeanne; Allo, P.; van Kerhove, B.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review a 1992 excursion of Jean Paul Van Bendegem into physics, ‘How Infinities Cause Problems in Classical Physical Theories’, in the light of two later models concerning colliding balls, of Pérez Laraudogoitia and of Alper and Bridger, respectively. We show that Van Bendegem

  16. Presbyastasis: a multifactorial cause of balance problems in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... Review: Presbyastasis: a multifactorial cause of balance problems in the elderly. 431. Vol 52 No 5. SA Fam Pract 2010 .... as a limited focus on geriatric concerns in training, a lack of healthcare practitioners with ... from a decline in muscle mass which begins from the 6th decade and affects leg strength and.

  17. Psychological maltreatment, coping strategies, and mental health problems: A brief and effective measure of psychological maltreatment in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Gökmen

    2017-06-01

    Psychological maltreatment is an important social and public health problem and associated with a wide range of short and long-term outcomes in childhood to adulthood. Given the importance of investigating mitigating factors on its effect, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the mediating effect of active and avoidant coping strategies on the association between psychological maltreatment and mental health- internalizing and externalizing- problems in adolescents. Participants of the study consisted of 783 adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 18 years (M=15.57, SD=0.88), with 52.9% female and 47.1% male. Several structural equation models were conducted to investigate the mediating role of coping strategies on the effect of psychological maltreatment on adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. Findings from mediation analyses demonstrated the mediating effect of active and avoidant coping strategies on the association between psychological maltreatment and mental health problems. The outcomes support adolescents use more avoidant coping strategies and fewer active coping strategies in the face of psychological maltreatment experiences, and this affects their mental health. Taken together, these results should contribute to the design of prevention and intervention services in order to promote mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Dominant Robot: Threatening Robots Cause Psychological Reactance, Especially When They Have Incongruent Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubroeks, M. A. J.; Ham, J. R. C.; Midden, C. J. H.

    Persuasive technology can take the form of a social agent that persuades people to change behavior or attitudes. However, like any persuasive technology, persuasive social agents might trigger psychological reactance, which can lead to restoration behavior. The current study investigated whether interacting with a persuasive robot can cause psychological reactance. Additionally, we investigated whether goal congruency plays a role in psychological reactance. Participants programmed a washing machine while a robot gave threatening advice. Confirming expectations, participants experienced more psychological reactance when receiving high-threatening advice compared to low-threatening advice. Moreover, when the robot gave high-threatening advice and expressed an incongruent goal, participants reported the highest level of psychological reactance (on an anger measure). Finally, high-threatening advice led to more restoration, and this relationship was partially mediated by psychological reactance. Overall, results imply that under certain circumstances persuasive technology can trigger opposite effects, especially when people have incongruent goal intentions.

  19. College Students' Perceptions of Severity and Willingness to Seek Psychological Help For Drug and Alcohol Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowinger, Robert Jay

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 201 college students were surveyed with respect to their perceptions of severity and willingness to seek psychological help for drug and alcohol problems. Results indicated that students perceive alcohol problems as significantly less serious than drug problems and are significantly less willing to seek help for alcohol problems. Males…

  20. The effects of cosmetic surgery on body image, self-esteem, and psychological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soest, T; Kvalem, I L; Roald, H E; Skolleborg, K C

    2009-10-01

    This study aims to investigate whether cosmetic surgery has an effect on an individual's body image, general self-esteem, and psychological problems. Further tests were conducted to assess whether the extent of psychological problems before surgery influenced improvements in postoperative psychological outcomes. Questionnaire data from 155 female cosmetic surgery patients from a plastic surgery clinic were obtained before and approximately 6 months after surgery. The questionnaire consisted of measures on body image, self-esteem, and psychological problems. Pre- and postoperative values were compared. Pre- and postoperative measures were also compared with the data compiled from a representative sample of 838 Norwegian women, aged 22-55, with no cosmetic surgery experience. No differences in psychological problems between the presurgery patient and comparison samples were found, whereas differences in body image and self-esteem between the sample groups were reported in an earlier publication. Analyses further revealed an improvement in body image (satisfaction with own appearance) after surgery. A significant but rather small effect on self-esteem was also found, whereas the level of psychological problems did not change after surgery. Postoperative measures of appearance satisfaction, self-esteem, and psychological problems did not differ from values derived from the comparison sample. Finally, few psychological problems before surgery predicted a greater improvement in appearance satisfaction and self-esteem after surgery. The study provides evidence of improvement in satisfaction with own appearance after cosmetic surgery, a variable that is thought to play a central role in understanding the psychology of cosmetic surgery patients. The study also points to the factors that surgeons should be aware of, particularly the role of psychological problems, which could inhibit the positive effects of cosmetic surgery.

  1. Obesogenic eating behaviors mediate the relationships between psychological problems and BMI in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Nicholson, Jan M

    2017-05-01

    To examine the association between psychological problems and weight status in children aged 3.5 to 4 years and test whether obesogenic eating behaviors mediate this relationship. This study is a cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from first-time mothers (N = 194) in the control arm of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial. At child age 3.5 to 4 years, maternal-reported child eating behaviors and psychological problems were collected via valid tools, and child weight and height data were collected by trained study staff. Pearson's correlations and linear regressions examined associations between eating behaviors, psychological problems, and BMI z score. Multiple mediation models were tested by assessing indirect effects of psychological problems on BMI z score via obesogenic eating behaviors. Peer problems were associated with both higher food responsiveness and emotional overeating and directly with higher BMI z score. This relationship was partially mediated by emotional overeating. Both emotional overeating and food responsiveness fully mediated the association between emotional problems and BMI z score, and food responsiveness fully mediated the association between conduct problems and BMI z score. The findings suggest that children with psychological problems may also display obesogenic eating behaviors, which may result in higher BMI. This needs to be considered in the clinical management of both pediatric overweight/obesity and psychological problems. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  2. The world solution for world problems : the problem, its cause, its solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    León, L.

    2002-01-01

    The book discusses the main world problem of today, which is the gradual, but lethal change of the soil and atmosphere, the main cause, which is the world-wide overpopulation, and the main solution, which is world government by lottocracy. It is a recipe for the solution of the one and only problem

  3. Ask Not Only "What Can Problem-Based Learning Do for Psychology?" but "What Can Psychology Do for Problem-Based Learning?" A Review of the Relevance of Problem-Based Learning for Psychology Teaching and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Sally; Chiriac, Eva Hammar; Abbad, Gunvor Larsson; Pauli, Regina; Worrell, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an internationally recognised pedagogical approach that is implemented within a number of disciplines. The relevance and uptake of PBL in psychology has to date, however, received very limited attention. The aim of this paper is therefore to review published accounts of how PBL is being used to deliver psychology…

  4. Incest: the psychological problem and the biological contradiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, C H

    1989-01-01

    We have yet to map an "inbreeding avoider" gene or design a psychological test that can accurately diagnose incest transgressors. Until those events occur, sociobiology, nursing, and psychology must explain phenomena, such as the incest taboo, with a theoretical language of supposition. It is in this light that the etiology of taboo is analyzed. This article proposes that a propensity for sexual selection originates in the gene system, and what becomes taboo is acquired through the learning that accompanies the experiences of the individual and culture when sexual selection occurs. Influences of the genetic system and psychological culture on the existence of a taboo are contrasted. The conclusion posits an eclectic taboo hypothesis, derived from the congruencies found in the literature, and suggests how this hypothesis can guide nursing interventions with incestual families.

  5. Can Raising Awareness about the Psychological Causes of Obesity Reduce Obesity Stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sammyh S; Tarrant, Mark; Weston, Dale; Shah, Pooja; Farrow, Claire

    2017-02-19

    Obesity stigma largely remains a socially acceptable bias with harmful outcomes for its victims. While many accounts have been put forward to explain the bias, the role of obesity etiology beliefs has received little scrutiny. The research examined the effect that beliefs about the psychological etiology of obesity have on the expression of obesity stigma and the mechanisms underpinning this effect. Participants (N = 463) were asked to evaluate a target person with obesity after reading one of three possible etiologies: psychological, genetic, or behavioral. The presentation of a psychological etiology of obesity elicited less prejudice compared to behavioral causes but greater prejudice compared to genetic causes; observed differences were found to be a function of the agency ascribed to the target's obesity and empathy expressed for the target. The findings highlight the impact that communicating obesity in terms of psychological causes can have for the expression of obesity stigma.

  6. [Vision problems causing and not causing visual impairment in a working population of Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisasola, Laura; Tresserras, Ricard; Rius, Anna; López-Dóriga, Adriana; Purtí, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the distribution of visual problems which cause and do not cause visual impairment in a working population, and their relation to social class. This was a cross-sectional study of 86,831 employed workers (59,397 men, and 27,421 women) in Catalonia ages 16 to 65 years who, in 2009, underwent health surveillance exams at the Asepeyo Health Prevention. The prevalence of visual problems that cause and do not cause visual impairment was calculated by age, sex and occupational social class, and associations were analyzed using logistic regression. 2.2% (95% CI 2.1-2.3) of the active working population studied had vision problems that cause visual impairment, even while wearing corrective lenses. After adjusting for age, workers in Class V show a 2.4-fold greater risk of visual impairment than those in Class I. Women, older workers and disadvantaged social groups showed the highest prevalence and risk of visual impairment. Conversely, problems resolved by vision correction that do not cause visual impairment are concentrated in non-manual workers.

  7. Recurrent Respiratory Infections and Psychological Problems in Junior School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recurrent respiratory infections (RRI) are among most common diseases in school-aged children. Little is known about possible associations between RRI and children psychological well-being. Aim: To study possible associations between RRI in junior school pupils and their emotional/behavioural characteristics. Methods: The RRI group…

  8. Note on "History of psychology in India: Problems and prospects".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Chetan; Fox Lee, Shayna

    2017-02-01

    Discusses the indigenization movement of psychology in India, which attempts to develop a context sensitive discipline that can understand the concept of mind and human behavior from the cultural perspective. It emphasizes the culturally bound aspects of human nature and uses methods to explore the ways in which culture emerges from history. Given the directions of scientific research, it is not absurd to engage with Western theories. Nevertheless, some Indian psychologists have resisted what they consider the intrusion of modern psychology. They have forwarded premises about human nature in the philosophical roots of traditional Indian thought which look tautological and feed back to our oppressive social structures; for example, the patriarchy and caste systems. The scope of social change is limited under the garb of indigenization, unless the movement of indigenization calls for social change. Several points are made, of which Indian psychological approaches should become cognizant to better understand the relevant contexts for social responsibility. In addition, several recommendations are suggested for a new wave of psychological research in India. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Moral Psychology and the Problem of Moral Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article is intended as an initial investigation into the foundations of moral psychology. I primarily examine a recent work in moral education, Daniel Lapsley's and Darcia Narvaez"s "Character education", whose authors seem to assume at points that criteria for discerning moral actions and moral traits can be derived apart from ethics or…

  10. What Causes Care Coordination Problems? A Case for Microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, Wayne; Maulitz, Russell Charles; Zachary, Drew A

    2016-01-01

    Care coordination (CC) is an important fulcrum for pursuing a range of health care goals. Current research and policy analyses have focused on aggregated data rather than on understanding what happens within individual cases. At the case level, CC emerges as a complex network of communications among providers over time, crossing and recrossing many organizational boundaries. Micro-level analysis is needed to understand where and how CC fails, as well as to identify best practices and root causes of problems. Coordination Process Diagramming (CPD) is a new framework for representing and analyzing CC arcs at the micro level, separating an arc into its participants and roles, communication structure, organizational structures, and transitions of care, all on a common time line. Comparative CPD analysis across a sample of CC arcs identifies common CC problems and potential root causes, showing the potential value of the framework. The analyses also suggest intervention strategies that could be applied to attack the root causes of CC problems, including organizational changes, education and training, and additional health information technology development.

  11. Examining Linkages between Psychological Health Problems, Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Workplace Stressors in Pakistan's Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md; Isa, Khairunesa Binti

    2016-01-01

    Scholarly work and research are globally known as stressful and challenging. Teachers may develop different psychological health problems once they are exposed to workplace stressors. Considering it as a serious issue of education sector, this study has examined the linkages between prevalent workplace stressors and psychological health problems…

  12. Supervision in School Psychology: The Developmental/Ecological/Problem-Solving Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Dennis J.; Cruise, Tracy K.; Huber, Brenda J.; Swerdlik, Mark E.; Newman, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Effective supervision models guide the supervisory relationship and supervisory tasks leading to reflective and purposeful practice. The Developmental/Ecological/Problem-Solving (DEP) Model provides a contemporary framework for supervision specific to school psychology. Designed for the school psychology internship, the DEP Model is also…

  13. Parental Psychological Abuse toward children and Mental Health Problems in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram Rizvi, Syeda Fariha; Najam, Najma

    2014-03-01

    Present study was conducted to explore the relationship between parental psychological abuse toward their children and mental health problems in adolescence. Three hundred participants age range 13-17 years, (57% boys and 43% girls) participated in the study from both public and private high schools of Lahore. Psychological maltreatment experience scale (PMES) and Youth Self-Report(YSR) were used for assessment and diagnosis. Findings revealed that psychological abuse by parents significantly related with mental health problems in adolescents, for mother abuse (r= .24 to.67, p< .05) and father abuse (r= .20 to.70, p< .05). Adolescents who perceived their parents as more abusive exhibited greater problems. Regression analysis indicated that hypothesized factors of parental psychological abuse predicted the mental health problems in adolescents (contributed from 10% to 49% of variance). Psychological abuse by parents is related with mental health problems in adolescents. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of non-injurious psychological abuse and its impact on adolescents. Findings of the study can be used to bring the attention of parents, public and professionals' towards damaging effects of psychological abuse on adolescents.

  14. Students' Perception of Causes and Effect of Teachers' Psychological Abuse in Senior Secondary Schools in Borno State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pur, Hamsatu Joseph; Liman, Mukhtar Alhaji; Ali, Domiya G.

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out on the students' perception of the causes and effect of teachers' psychological abuse in senior secondary schools in Borno State, Nigeria. Different forms of psychological abuse, perceptions, causes and effect of psychological abuse were discussed. The main objective of the study is to determine the perception of…

  15. [Psychological and psychiatric problems in cancer patients: relationship to the localization of the disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussas, G I; Papadopoulou, A G; Christodoulaki, A G; Karkanias, A P

    2012-01-01

    Cancer may be localized in a variety of areas in the human body. This localization is associated with significant issues concerning not only therapy and prognosis but also psychological and psychiatric problems that the patient may be confronted with. The psychic impact on the patient is determined to a significant degree by the symbolism the affected organ carries. The symbolic significance of a sick body area triggers emotions and sets in motion self-defence mechanisms. In this way, patients deal with the new psychic reality that cancer creates. Therapeutic choices may include interventions, involving mutilation, which cause disfigurement and major consequences in the body image which result in narcissistic injuries. The phenomenology of anxiety and depressive disorders is connected to the affected body area. The appearance of cancer not only in sexual organs but also in other body areas, may disturb sexual function and therefore lead to sexual disorders. Especially, head and neck are connected with vital functions. This area of the body has had a major impact on psychic reality since early life. Complicated psychic functions have developed in relation to organs of the head and neck. Therefore, localization of cancer in this area leads to individual psychological and psychiatric problems, since eating and breathing are harmed, verbal communication becomes difficult and body image alters. Also, increased incidence of alcohol and nicotine abuse in these patients reflects special aspects of psychic structure and personality. Because of severe somatic symptoms and poor prognosis, lung cancer patients feel hopelessness and helplessness. Patients with gynaecological cancer are confronted with a disease that affects organs like breast and internal female sexual organs associated with femininity, attractiveness and fertility. Dietary habits are often a source of guilt for patients who suffer from cancer of the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, stomas, as colostomy

  16. Excel 2016 for educational and psychological statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This book shows the capabilities of Microsoft Excel in teaching educational and psychological statistics effectively. Similar to the previously published Excel 2013 for Educational and Psychological Statistics, this book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical education and psychology problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in education and psychology courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2016 for Educational and Psychological Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and man...

  17. Psychological problems in Iranian adolescents: application of the self report form of strengths and difficulties questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Arman, Soroor; Khoshhal Dastjerdi, Javad; Salmanian, Maryam; Ahmadi, Nastaran; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Alavi, Ali; Malek, Ayyoub; Fathzadeh Gharibeh, Heydar; Moharreri, Fatemeh; Hebrani, Paria; Motavallian, Ali

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychological problems in adolescents in five provinces of Tehran, Khorasan Razavi, Isfahan, East Azerbaijan and Fars in Iran. In the present cross-sectional and descriptive - analytical study, 5171 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were selected through multistage cluster sampling method from Tehran, Isfahan, Fars, Khorasan Razavi and East Azarbaijan provinces. The self-report form of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to obtain the demographic data of each adolescent. Descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval were used to investigate the relationship between scores of the SDQ questionnaire and demographic factors. Based on the results, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems (24%), and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems (5.76%). Also, comparison of 95% confidence interval of prevalence of psychological problems between the two genders suggested a significant difference only in emotional problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two genders. The result revealed no significant difference in the psychological problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two age's groups and between the middle and high school graduates (p≤0.05). Among the 5 provinces, Fars allocated the highest rates of conduct problems (28.4), hyperactivity problems (21.5%) and overall criterion problems (17.3%); Esfahan had the highest rates of emotional problems (9.1%) and problems with peers (8.1%); and Khorasan Razavi had the highest rates of social problems (7.6%). In this study, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems. It was determined that girls have more emotional problems than boys. Also, no significant difference was found in the psychological problems of 12 to 14

  18. Psychological problems in Iranian adolescents: application of the self report form of strengths and difficulties questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychological problems in adolescents in five provinces of Tehran, Khorasan Razavi, Isfahan, East Azerbaijan and Fars in Iran.In the present cross-sectional and descriptive - analytical study, 5171 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were selected through multistage cluster sampling method from Tehran, Isfahan, Fars, Khorasan Razavi and East Azarbaijan provinces. The self-report form of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ was used to obtain the demographic data of each adolescent. Descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval were used to investigate the relationship between scores of the SDQ questionnaire and demographic factors.Based on the results, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems (24%, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems (5.76%. Also, comparison of 95% confidence interval of prevalence of psychological problems between the two genders suggested a significant difference only in emotional problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two genders. The result revealed no significant difference in the psychological problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two age's groups and between the middle and high school graduates (p≤0.05. Among the 5 provinces, Fars allocated the highest rates of conduct problems (28.4, hyperactivity problems (21.5% and overall criterion problems (17.3%; Esfahan had the highest rates of emotional problems (9.1% and problems with peers (8.1%; and Khorasan Razavi had the highest rates of social problems (7.6%.In this study, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems. It was determined that girls have more emotional problems than boys. Also, no significant difference was found in the psychological problems of 12

  19. Psychological problems of Iranian children and adolescents: parent report form of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Alavi, Ali; Malek, Ayyoub; Fathzadeh, Heidar; Moharreri, Fatemeh; Hebrani, Paria; Arman, Soror; Khoshhal Dastjerdi, Javad; Motavallian, Abbas

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of psychological problems Iranian children and adolescents have, using parent report form of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In a community-based study, 9636 children and adolescents aged 6-17 years were selected using the multistage cluster random sampling method from five provinces of Iran: Tehran, Isfahan, Fars, Razavi Khorasan and East Azerbaijan. The parents completed the SDQ, which consisted of five subscales including emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems and prosocial behaviors. The results revealed 21.4% of emotional problems, 32.9% of conduct problems, 20% of hyperactivity, 25.6% of peer problems, 7.6% of problems in prosocial behaviors and 16.7% of total difficulties among Iranian children and adolescents. We found that emotional problems were more prevalent among girls, while conduct problems, hyperactivity, total difficulties and problems in prosocial behaviors were more prevalent among boys. High educational level of parents was a protective factor against some psychological problems. Considering the proportion of psychological problems in Iranian children and adolescents, we need to develop and implement special policies and programs to provide appropriate mental health services.

  20. CONCEPTUALIZATION OF IDEAS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY IN SPORTS: PROBLEMS OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Vladimirovna Vardanyan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the research of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. On the basis of analysis of ideas about psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form the necessity of overcoming the fragmentation and lack of system is substantiated. The authors state that one and the same sports situation can constructively or destructively affect the psychological safety of direct or indirect participants of sports events. In this context, it is important to create the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports. Great attention is paid to systematization of the content of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. The created models of words and expressions that convey ideas about this phenomenon are of particular value. In the structure of the concept the dominant meanings, expressed in the nucleus, and additional meanings, related to the periphery of the concept are distinguished.Purpose: to explore the ideas of psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form; to determine ways of overcoming the conceptual psycholinguistic problems in the process of experimental research of psychological safety in sports; to create the model of words and expressions which are used to verbalize the concept “psychological safety in sports”.Methodology: theoretical analysis of psychological and linguistic literature, creation of the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research, modeling of the conceptual ideas of psychological safety in sports.Results: psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports, the model of content and structure of the corresponding concept.Practical implications: Pedagogical Psychology, Sports Psychology, Philology, Psycholinguistics.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-11

  1. Treatment planning for the problem patient: restorative, ethical, legal and psychological perspectives. Case 4: Mr Lester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, A M; Mellor, A C; Crossley, M L; Shearer, A C

    2001-10-01

    'Mr Lester' is the final case study in a series of four articles that aims to look at some of the problems patients may present with when they visit their dentist. Each article starts with a brief scenario about the hypothetical patient and his/her clinical problems. As well as the clinical problem, each case also raises ethical, legal or psychological problems. All of these issues are discussed and possible management strategies and treatment options investigated.

  2. Psychological needs, purpose in life, and problem video game playing among Chinese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Lei, Lamis L M; Ku, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    The negative impacts of excessive and problematic video game playing on both children and adults are attracting increasing concern. Based on self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000), this study hypothesized that the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness are positively associated with purpose in life, which in turn acts as a protective factor against problem video game playing among Chinese young adult players. Through a questionnaire survey with a sample of 165 Chinese adults aged between 18 and 30 years (mean age = 22.7 years), we found that perceived autonomy, competence, relatedness, and purpose in life were all negatively correlated with problem game playing. The demographic and psychological factors explained 38% of the variances of problem game playing. Specifically, gender, perceived relatedness, and purpose in life emerged as the three most salient predictors of problem game playing among the Chinese young adults. The mediating role of purpose in life was evidenced and it was found that purpose in life mediated the influences of the psychological needs proposed by SDT on problem game playing. Moreover, young men were significantly more susceptible to problem game playing than their female counterparts. To conclude, psychological needs and purpose in life influenced Chinese young adults' vulnerability to problem game playing directly or indirectly. Intervention programs that encourage social involvement and voluntary work, as well as counseling service that helps clients to search for life purpose, are suggested for intervening in problem game playing among Chinese young adults.

  3. Risk factors for psychological and physical health problems after a man-made disaster.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Grievink, L.; Velden, P.G. van der; Yzermans, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few prospective studies on risk factors for health problems after disasters in which actual pre-disaster health data are available. AIMS: To examine whether survivors' personal characteristics, and pre-disaster psychological problems, and disaster-related variables, are related

  4. Risk factors for psychological and physical health problems after a man-made disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Grievink, Linda; Velden, Peter G van der; Yzermans, C Joris

    2006-01-01

    Background There are few prospective studies on risk factors for health problems after disasters in which actual pre-disaster health data are available. Aims To examine whether survivors' personal characteristics, and pre-disaster psychological problems, and disaster-related variables, are related

  5. Psychological problems sequalae in adolescents after artificial abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulčić-Nakić, Vesna; Pajević, Izet; Hasanović, Mevludin; Pavlović, Slobodan; Ljuca, Dženita

    2012-08-01

    STUDY AND OBJECTIVES: Controversy exists over psychological risks associated with unwanted pregnancy and consecutive abortion. The aim of this study was to assess the psychological health of female adolescents following artificial abortion up to 12(th) week of pregnancy. The control case study. The study was carried out in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Clinical Center Tuzla, in Bosnia-Herzegovina. We assessed 120 female adolescents. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 17.7 (1.5) years experiencing sexual intercourse in the age of 14-19 years for trauma experiences, presence of posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression and anxiety as state, and anxiety as trait. Sixty adolescents had intentional artificial abortion and 60 had sexual intercourse but did not become pregnant. We used the PTSD Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y) for assessment of anxiety in adolescents. Basic socio-demographic data were also collected. PTSD presented significantly more often in adolescents who aborted pregnancy (30%), than in adolescents who did not abort (13.3%) (odds ratio = 4.91 (95%CI 0.142-0.907) P = 0.03). Anxiety as state and as trait were significantly higher in the abortion group, as the mean (SD) anxiety score of patients was 59.8 (8.9), 57.9 (9.7) respectively, than in non-abortion group 49.5 (8.8), 47.3 (9.9) respectively (t = 6.392, P aborted pregnancy had significantly higher depression symptoms severity 29.2 (5.6) than controls 15.2 (3.3) (t = 8.322, P abort (10%) (χ(2) = 53.279, P abortion and experience of life threatening(s) reliably predicted depression. Adolescents who aborted pregnancy presented significantly greater prevalence of PTSD and depression, and significantly greater depression severity and anxiety as state and trait than those who did not abort. Abortion predicted depression only, and did not predict PTSD. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for

  6. The psychology of the Monty Hall problem: discovering psychological mechanisms for solving a tenacious brain teaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Stefan; Wang, X T

    2003-03-01

    The Monty Hall problem (or three-door problem) is a famous example of a "cognitive illusion," often used to demonstrate people's resistance and deficiency in dealing with uncertainty. The authors formulated the problem using manipulations in 4 cognitive aspects, namely, natural frequencies, mental models, perspective change, and the less-is-more effect. These manipulations combined led to a significant increase in the proportion of correct answers given by novice participants, largely because of the synergy of frequency-based formulation and perspective change (Experiments 1, 2). In a raining study (Experiment 3) frequency formulation and mental models, but not Bayes's rule training, showed significant positive transfer in solving related problems.

  7. Current problems of foreign practice-related educational psychology

    OpenAIRE

    A.D. Andreeva; E.E. Danilova; A.M. Prihozhan

    2012-01-01

    The article regards the questions of scientific-methodological provision of psychologist’s activity in an educational settlement which are urgent for the activity of practical educational psychologist in Russia as well. The presented information concerns the psychologist’s particular strands of work which can be both developing (development of ABM) and psycho-correcting (reasons and forms of school phobias, bullying displays, lying). The ethical problems of psychologist’s work with families ...

  8. Structural dialectical approach in psychology: problems and research results

    OpenAIRE

    Veraksa, Nikolay; Belolutskaya, Anastasiya; Vorobyeva, Irina; Krasheninnikov, Eugene; Rachkova, Elena; Shiyan, Igor; Shiyan, Olga

    2013-01-01

    In this article dialectical thinking is regarded as one of the central cognitive processes. Because of this cognitive function we can analyze the development of processes and objects. It also determines the possibilities for the creative transformation of some content and for solving problems. The article presents a description and the results of experimental studies. This evidence proves that dialectical thinking is a specific line of cognitive development in children and adults. This line c...

  9. Psychology and culturology: A means of cooperating and problems associated with cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaks L.A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the main potential aspects of cooperation between psychology and culturology, which are connected through their mutual determination of the psyche (psychic reality and culture. The paper acknowledges the key importance of the cultural-historical traditions initiated by Lev Vygotsky and his successors as well as the idea that their potential has yet to be realized by contemporary psychology. A new vision of culture is given to culturology (in comparison with traditional cultural studies and its significance in conducting modern psychological research: a novel problematization of psychology’s subject matter and its methodological support. Different aspects of the psyche’s cultural determination, the experience with cultural psychology (historical psychology in researching historical mental types (“Annals school” are reviewed alongside with the role of culture knowledge in analyzing the psychological results of this determination. The consistency of culture and its components represented and internalized by mental structures is announced as a fundamental cultural basis of psychological research. The return influence of psychological phenomena on culture’s various aspects, as well as related cultural and psychological problems, are determined by the fundamental place and role of the psyche in any given cultural system as well as the contradictions that exist between a culture and the psyche. All this requires further examination. One of the most vital contemporary challenges facing psychology is the problem of the mental peculiarities of the consciousness, which can be principally explained in terms of a consistent culturological approach. Interrelationships between the psyche’s properties and conscious cultural functions are shown through example of aesthetic attitude.

  10. Ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrstrøm, Peter; Dyhrberg, Johan

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with certain ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information. Section 1 contains an analysis of research on Internet debates. In particular, it takes into account a famous example of deception for psychology research purposes. In section 2, the focus is on research on personal data in texts published on the Internet. Section 3 includes an attempt to formulate some ethical principles and guidelines, which should be regarded as fundamental in research on stored information.

  11. Ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Dyhrberg, Johan

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with certain ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information. Section 1 contains an analysis of research on Internet debates. In particular, it takes into account a famous example of deception for psychology research...... purposes. In section 2, the focus is on research on personal data in texts published on the Internet. Section 3 includes an attempt to formulate some ethical principles and guidelines, which should be regarded as fundamental in research on stored information....

  12. Parent psychological functioning and communication predict externalizing behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Stacey P; Wade, Shari L; Cassedy, Amy; Taylor, H Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Brown, Tanya M; Kirkwood, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents sustaining traumatic brain injury (TBI) show increased prevalence of behavior problems. This study investigated the associations of parent mental health, family functioning, and parent-adolescent interaction with adolescent externalizing behavior problems in the initial months after TBI, and examined whether injury severity moderated these associations. 117 parent-adolescent dyads completed measures of family functioning, adolescent behavior, and parent mental health an average of 108 days post-TBI. Dyads also engaged in a 10-min video-recorded problem-solving activity coded for parent behavior and tone of interaction. Overall, higher ratings of effective parent communication were associated with fewer externalizing behavior problems, whereas poorer caregiver psychological functioning was associated with greater adolescent externalizing behaviors. Results failed to reveal moderating effects of TBI severity on the relationship between socio-environmental factors and behavior problems. Interventions targeting parent communication and/or improving caregiver psychological health may ameliorate potential externalizing behavior problems after adolescent TBI.

  13. Beyond Kinsey: The committee for research on problems of sex and American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Peter

    2012-08-01

    This introduction to the Special Section of History of Psychology argues for greater attention to psychological research on sex in the decades before the publication of the Kinsey volumes. Drawing on scholarship by Adele Clarke, Donna Haraway and Wade Pickren, this introduction argues for the centrality of the psychological research projects funded by the Committee for Research on Problems of Sex (CRPS), chaired by psychologist Robert Yerkes after 1921. The three individual papers all speak to opposition to the functionalist approach to sex often attributed to Yerkes' CRPS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, ps...

  15. Structural dialectical approach in psychology: problems and research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veraksa, Nikolay E.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article dialectical thinking is regarded as one of the central cognitive processes. Because of this cognitive function we can analyze the development of processes and objects. It also determines the possibilities for the creative transformation of some content and for solving problems. The article presents a description and the results of experimental studies. This evidence proves that dialectical thinking is a specific line of cognitive development in children and adults. This line can degrade during school time if the educational program follows formal logical principles, or it can become significantly stronger if the pedagogy is based on dialectical methodology.

  16. Current problems of foreign practice-related educational psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Andreeva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article regards the questions of scientific-methodological provision of psychologist’s activity in an educational settlement which are urgent for the activity of practical educational psychologist in Russia as well. The presented information concerns the psychologist’s particular strands of work which can be both developing (development of ABM and psycho-correcting (reasons and forms of school phobias, bullying displays, lying. The ethical problems of psychologist’s work with families namely in case of the parent-child conflicts is also reviewed in the article.

  17. Psychological and Social Problems of Adult Female Victims After Sexual Assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Belma Gölge

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychological and social problems faced by female victims after rape and additionally the impact of also being a victim of childhood sexual abuse in Turkey, where opportunity of getting medical and psychological support for sexual assault for victims is limited and legal process lasts for years. Method: Participants consisted of 93 female rape victims who were examined by the Second Specialization Board of State Council of Forensic Medicine.  An interview form, which is developed in order to investigate socio-demographic features, assault charactersitics, psychological and social problems of victim, Post Traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PTDS  and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were applied for the investigation. Results:  61.3 % of victims were diagnosed with post traumatic stres disorder (PTSD and 54.8% of victims had sexual dysfunctions caused by the sexual assault. 68.8 % of victims reported that they were exposed to negative social reactions. 70,3% of victims who were exposed to negative social reactions met diagnostic criteria for PTSD while only 41,4% of people who were not exposed to negative social reactions met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Difference between groups was analyzed with chi squre method and there is significant difference between them ( X2:7.04, df:1, p<0.01. Self-mutilation and suicide attempts were high in victims of adult rape who were also sexually abused in childhood. Discussion:  Considering duration between the sexual assault and interview, in our research findings the ratio of the people who have PTSD and sexual issues, is more than the other studies consequences. On the other hand, the victims which reported that incident occured more than three years ago, are fitted to the diagnosis criterias of PTSD, with the ratio of 58.8%. It’s been thought that, studying with the victims who has been sent for physical examination and the continuation of judicial

  18. Psychological Vulnerability and Problem Gambling: The Mediational Role of Cognitive Distortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, David; Sévigny, Serge; Giroux, Isabelle; Jacques, Christian

    2018-01-03

    Despite numerous studies demonstrating the influence of cognitive distortions on gambling problem severity, empirical data regarding the role of psychological vulnerability on the latter is limited. Hence, this study assesses the mediating effect of cognitive distortions between psychological vulnerability (personality and mood), and gambling problem severity. It also verifies whether the relationships between these variables differs according to the preferred gambling activity. The sample is composed of 272 male gamblers [191 poker players; 81 video lottery terminal (VLT) players] aged between 18 and 82 years (M = 35.2). Bootstrap analysis results revealed that cognitive distortions mediate the effect of narcissism on gambling problem severity for both groups. The level of depression for VLT players significantly predicted gambling problem severity, both directly and indirectly via the mediating effect of cognitive distortions. Mediation analyses also indicated that narcissism had an indirect impact on problem gambling through cognitive distortions for both groups. These findings suggest that certain vulnerabilities related to personality and mood may influence cognitive distortion intensity and gambling problem severity. In addition, psychological vulnerabilities could differ based on preferred gambling activity. These results may be useful for prevention policies, identifying high risk gamblers and planning psychological interventions.

  19. Problem of development of Gestalt perception in developmental psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuhutova G.L.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of studies devoted to child visual perception suggest that child spontaneous orientation at an integral form of an object emerges at about 6–7 years of age and gradually strengthens up to adolescence. Simultaneously their capacity to perceive local parts also grows within the childhood. Parallel and heterochronic maturation of these relatively independent mechanisms leads to great data scatter in behavioral studies of child integral perception. Besides, it brings forth the acute problem of content and ecology validity of experimental methods of its study. The genuine authors’ study suggests the non-directive approach to evidence of child tendency to integral perception in available activity in preschool age, based on analyses of quality of their mistakes in recognizing the fragmented images of real objects. Mechanisms of age-related development of Gestalt perception are discussed in regard to maturation of association cortex of the right hemisphere and inhibitory interhemispheric links through callosum.

  20. Hartmann's "Ego Psychology and the Problem of Adaptation".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, L

    1989-10-01

    Hartmann's monograph is an argument for the problem-solving value of all aspects of the mind and for the subordination of intelligence to the organism's larger, primarily social purposes. Hartmann proposed that, in psychoanalytic treatment, intelligent reflection serves one's largest purposes by taking respectful account of non-rational but adaptive ways of appraising reality, with a view toward making the best use of non-rational as well as rational propensities. He regarded it as the kind of thinking that the sociologist, Karl Mannheim, had recommended to government planners faced with immensely complicated, incompletely masterable forces. Hartmann's view of the role of the intellect in analytic treatment suggests that therapists should maintain both their demand for intelligent reflection and their hopefulness about other kinds of work that may be going on sub rosa.

  1. Mind the level: problems with two recent nation-level analyses in psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Kuppens, Toon; Pollet, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Two recent articles (both published in Psychological Science) rely on nation-level data to address questions about psychological processes: Oishi and Diener (2014), referred to here as “OD,” and Hershfield et al. (2014), referred to as “HBW.” In our opinion, both articles contain problems with regard to the use and interpretation of nation-level data. The problems are (1) the failure to account for the statistical dependence of countries within regions, (2) the use of nation-level data with q...

  2. Presbyastasis: a multifactorial cause of balance problems in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have detrimental consequences and are associated with falls, loss of quality of life and psychological sequelae such as anxiety, depression and panic. Healthcare practitioners need increased awareness of the pathophysiology of presbyastasis and its possible impact. Keywords: dizziness; elderly; presbyastasis; vestibular ...

  3. Psychological and adjustment problems due to acquired brain lesions in pre-school-aged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Valentina; Colombo, Katia; Villa, Federica; Galbiati, Susanna; Adduci, Annarita; Poggi, Geraldina; Massimino, Maura; Recla, Monica; Liscio, Mariarosaria; Strazzer, Sandra

    2013-06-01

    To describe and compare psychological, behavioural and adjustment problems in pre-school patients with acquired brain lesions of different aetiology. Three groups of patients with acquired brain lesions (14 patients post-TBI, 18 brain tumour survivors and 23 patients with vascular or infectious brain lesions), ranging in age between 24-47 months, received a psychological evaluation, including the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 2-3 (CBCL) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). About half of the total sample (47.2%) showed psychological and behavioural problems. Difficulties vary according to the aetiology of the brain lesions. Brain tumour survivors showed more marked internalizing problems, whereas children with vascular or infectious brain lesions scored higher on the CBCL externalizing scales. Children with traumatic brain injury reported intermediate scores on most of the CBCL scales. Psychological and behavioural difficulties are very common, not only among school-aged children and adolescents, but also among pre-schoolers with acquired brain lesions. The relevance and the impact of these difficulties must necessarily be considered when developing psychological treatment and rehabilitation plans and planning for social re-entry.

  4. From childhood adversity to problem behaviors: Role of psychological and structural social integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Lo-Hsin; Tsai, Meng-Che; Liang, Ya-Lun; Strong, Carol; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) is associated with problem behaviors in adolescence, but the mediators, that is, those factors that help build resilience and prevent some children who experience CA from engaging in problem behaviors, await more exploration, including social integration. The aim of this study was to identify the association between CA and adolescent problem behaviors, and to further examine the mediating role of social integration distinctly as psychological and structural integration. Data used were from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey, a core panel of 4,261 students (age 13) surveyed in 2001 and followed for three more waves until age 18. For psychological integration, an average score was calculated to represent adolescents' feelings about their school. Structural integration was constructed using several items about adolescents' school and extracurricular activities. We used structural equation modeling with the diagonally weighted least squares method to examine the effect of CA on the primary outcome: adolescent problem behaviors via social integration. The hypothesized structural equation model specifying the path from CA to adolescent problem behavior had good fit. Respondents with one CA were indirectly linked to problem behaviors via psychological but not structural integration (e.g. the level of participation in school and non-school activities). On mediation analysis, psychological integration significantly mediated the paths from one CA to all six problem behaviors (all P integration; two or more CA were not associated with significant paths to problem behaviors. The contribution of social integration is crucial to an adolescent's development from CA to problem behaviors. To form supportive social relationships to achieve better health, we suggest that those adolescents who have been exposed to CA should be helped to join more teams and take part in more activities, thereby increasing their opportunities for social interaction, and improving

  5. Change in psychological problems of adolescents with and without visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P

    2014-07-01

    The present study analyzed change in psychological problems of German adolescents with and without visual impairment across a 2-year interval. A total of 182 adolescents with severe visual impairment and 560 sighted adolescents provided longitudinal data. At the start of the study, adolescents with visual impairment had, on average, elevated scores on all difficulties scales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (Goodman R, J Child Psychol Psychiat 38:581-586), 1997 and about 39 % of them scored in the abnormal range of one or more scales as compared to 30.5 % of their sighted peers (p visual impairment and with early onset of visual impairment in particular, may benefit from psychological interventions aimed at preventing and reducing psychological problems and increasing the ability to cope with stressors associated with vision loss.

  6. Excel 2013 for educational and psychological statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    This is the first book to show the capabilities of Microsoft Excel to teach educational and psychological statistics effectively. It is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical problems in education and psychology. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and practitioners, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in statistics courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2013 for Educational and Psychological Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and practitioners how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work. E...

  7. Reproducibility of Psychological Experiments as a Problem of Post-Nonclassical Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vachkov I.V.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental project on reproducibility carried out in the USA by Brian Nosek in 2015 (the Reproducibility Project revealed a serious methodological problem in psychology: the issue of replication of psycho- logical experiments. Reproducibility has been traditionally perceived as one of the basic principles of the scientific method. However, methodological analysis of the modern post-nonclassical stage in the development of science suggests that this might be a bit too uncompromising as applied to psychology. It seems that the very criteria of scientific research need to be reconsidered with regard to the specifics of post-nonclassical science, and, as the authors put it, as a result, reproducibility might lose its key status or even be excluded at all. The reviewed problem and the proposed ways of coping with it are of high importance to research and practice in psychology as they define the strategies for organizing, conducting and evaluating experimental research.

  8. Post Trauma Aspects of Disasters: Causes, Effects and Challenges: A Psychological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Philip

    2017-01-01

    A disaster, natural or human instigated, leaves in its wake shocking disarray and destruction. The loss brought about by a disaster is generally classified into the compartments – human, societal, economic and infrastructural. The economic and infrastructural aspects receive immediate attention as they as considered to be actual damages. However, the loss caused by a disaster does not end there. The psychological distress and anxiety that the victims of a disaster suffer is extremely damaging...

  9. Parenting stress among mothers of children with different physical, mental, and psychological problems

    OpenAIRE

    Awat Feizi; Badroddin Najmi; Aseih Salesi; Maryam Chorami; Rezvan Hoveidafar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with developmental problems are always bearing a load of stress. The aim of this study is to compare the stress in mothers of children with different disabilities to each other, considering their demographic background. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran during 2012 on 285 mothers of 6-12 years old children with chronic physical disease, psychological disorder, and sensory-motor and mental problems. Abedin′s paren...

  10. Antecedents and Behavior-Problem Outcomes of Parental Monitoring and Psychological Control in Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Pettit, Gregory S.; Laird, Robert D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Criss, Michael M.

    2001-01-01

    The early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control were examined in this prospective, longitudinal, multi-informant study. Parenting data were collected during home visit interviews with 440 mothers and their 13-year-old children. Behavior problems (anxiety/depression and delinquent behavior) were assessed via mother, teacher, and/or adolescent reports at ages 8 through 10 years and again at ages 13 through 14. Home-interview data collected...

  11. Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence: a review of psychological research

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. Zhilinskaya,

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed psychological research that consider the Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence. Based on the understanding of self-consciousness as a central adolescence new formation, we formulated a set of tasks of adolescence. It is shown that for the successful solution of age problems by teenagers on the Internet, specialized environments should be designed. Internet as a medium of teenagers’ socialization is characterized by a high degree of variety and uncontrollab...

  12. Multisystemic Therapy for Child Non-Externalizing Psychological and Health Problems: A Preliminary Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, Heather T.; White, Rachel S.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    Multisystemic therapy (MST) is effective for decreasing or preventing delinquency and other externalizing behaviors and increasing prosocial or adaptive behaviors. The purpose of this project was to review the literature examining the efficacy of MST for other child psychological and health problems reflecting non-externalizing behaviors,…

  13. Psychological Maltreatment in Relation to Substance Use Problem Severity among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Susan E.; Muller, Robert T.; Henderson, Joanna L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Research has demonstrated that experiences of childhood maltreatment are prevalent in the life histories of youth with substance use problems; however, most of this research has focused on sexual or physical abuse. The purpose of the current study was to extend the scope of previous investigations to include psychological maltreatment…

  14. Creativity, Problem Solving and Innovative Science: Insights from History, Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldous, Carol R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the intersection between creativity, problem solving, cognitive psychology and neuroscience in a discussion surrounding the genesis of new ideas and innovative science. Three creative activities are considered. These are (a) the interaction between visual-spatial and analytical or verbal reasoning, (b) attending to feeling in…

  15. Using Problem-Based Learning for the Acquisition of Psychological Knowledge and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the introduction of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) into a final-year option module in psychology. The background and rationale for the changes introduced are discussed and the experience of PBL is considered from the point of view of tutor and students. The introduction of PBL considerably increased student attainment in the…

  16. Psychological Help-Seeking Intention among College Students across Three Problem Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Timothy R.; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to understand psychological help-seeking intention for 3 common concerns: anxiety or depression, career choice concerns, and alcohol or drug use. Eight hundred eighty-nine university students completed surveys for the TPB variables plus belief in personal efficacy and control to solve the problems.…

  17. Self-Reported Life Events, Social Support and Psychological Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Hastings, Richard P.; Crowe, Rachel; Pemberton, Jemma

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported relationships between life events and psychological problems in people with intellectual disabilities. In contrast to the general literature, data have consistently been collected via proxy informants and putative moderator variables such as social support have not been examined. Materials and Methods:…

  18. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  19. Addressing psychological aspects of physical problems through sandplay: a grounded theory study of therapists' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagutina, Larissa; Sperlinger, David; Esterhuyzen, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to explore therapists' understanding of how people with a wide range of physical problems address the psychological aspects of these problems through sandplay, what happens for them in the process, what changes they experience and what sandplay can contribute to working with such people. This exploratory qualitative study used grounded theory to systematically analyse the data and construct a substantive theory of therapists' understanding of the processes and themes involved in sandplay therapy with people with physical problems. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with nine sandplay therapists with the participants asked about their experiences of using sandplay to address physical problems. The participants offered evidence of their clients' ability to address their physical problems and the corresponding psychological issues through symbolic expression in the sand. The emergent theory suggested that such symbolic expression could facilitate access to feelings and experiences that can be difficult to address through verbal therapy alone, thus facilitating the process of integration and recovery. The theory suggests how therapists thought that clients may address their physical problems through sandplay and what is important in that process. There was also a suggestion that the focus and themes unfolding in sandplay process may vary depending on whether the clients present with somatisation, chronic illness, or terminal illness. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Psychological maltreatment, emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents: The mediating role of resilience and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Gökmen

    2016-02-01

    In this study, structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating role of resilience and self-esteem in the relationships between psychological maltreatment-emotional problems and psychological maltreatment-behavioral problems in adolescents. Participants were 937 adolescents from different high schools in Turkey. The sample included 502 female (53.6%) and 435 male (46.4%) students, 14-19 years old (mean age=16.51, SD=1.15). Results indicated that psychological maltreatment was negatively correlated with resilience and self-esteem, and positively correlated with behavioral problems and emotional problems. Resilience and self-esteem also predicted behavioral problems and emotional problems. Finally, psychological maltreatment predicted emotional and behavioral problems mediated by resilience and self-esteem. Resilience and self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between psychological maltreatment-behavioral and psychological maltreatment-emotional problems in adolescents. Thus, resilience and self-esteem appear to play a protective role in emotional problems and behavioral problems in psychologically maltreated individuals. Implications are discussed and suggestions for psychological counselors and other mental health professionals are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Parental Physical Force and Alcohol Use in Emerging Adults: Mediation by Psychological Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Mary Ward; McKinney, Cliff

    2016-07-25

    Research has indicated that negative parenting practices, such as physical punishment, are associated with negative outcomes in children. These negative outcomes can present during childhood and during emerging adulthood. One negative consequence can be excessive alcohol use, a problematic outcome with its own myriad consequences. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of parental physical force on emerging adult functioning, specifically alcohol and psychological problems. A sample of 488 young adults completed questionnaires on current perceptions related to alcohol-related problems, physical and psychological aggression by their parents experienced during the previous year, and current emotional and behavioral functioning. Results showed full mediation between paternal physical force and emerging adult alcohol problems by emerging adult psychological problems. Emerging adult psychological problems partially mediated the effect of maternal physical force on emerging adult alcohol problem. Gender did not moderate these effects. The results support existing literature suggesting that the use of parental physical force may lead to a chain reaction of problems, even during emerging adulthood. These results also reveal that emerging adults report currently receiving physical force from their parents, which brings to light a concerning lack of literature on the use of parental physical force on emerging adult children. These results advocate for positive parenting practives and efforts to teach them, even for emerging adult children. The results may also clinically suggest that paying attention to parental force in emerging adult clients could yield a better understanding of their current functioning, especially including excessive alcohol use. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Challenging factors for enuresis treatment: Psychological problems and non-adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herzeele, Charlotte; De Bruyne, Pauline; De Bruyne, Elke; Walle, Johan Vande

    2015-12-01

    The evidence for organic pathogenetic factors in enuresis and the discovery of effective therapies targeting the bladder and/or nocturnal diuresis have overwhelmed every potential role of psychological factors in pathogenesis and treatment. However, psychopathology is still important in enuresis because according to the document of the International Children's Continence Society (ICCS) 20-30% of the children with enuresis have at least one psychological/psychiatric disorder at rates two times higher than non-wetting children. The most common comorbid disorder with enuresis is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The aim of this review is to translate the existing evidence on the importance of a psychological screening into daily clinical practice of the medical practitioner. The use of the minimal psychological screening tool should be considered mandatory in each primary setting. If psychological problems are indicated, referral of the patient to a multidisciplinary setting should be considered, not only to allow psychological assessment to screen for a possible psychopathology, but also since therapy resistance might be expected. This review concentrates on two items from psychopathology/psychotherapy that might predict insufficient treatment response: the psychological comorbidities as described according to the DSM-5 criteria and the underestimated importance of therapy adherence. Adherence is a cornerstone of effective therapy in enuresis. It is a problem involving the doctor, the patient, and the parents. Increasing adherence takes effort and is time-consuming. But it is worthwhile knowing that several studies have demonstrated that high adherence is associated with high therapy success of enuresis. Eventually, this is the ultimate goal of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Relationship Between Psychological Distress, Negative Cognitions, and Expectancies on Problem Drinking: Exploring a Growing Problem Among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, Ezemenari M; Brooks, Jessica J; Cavanagh, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have sought to understand the concurrent relationship between cognitive and affective processes on alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences, despite both being identified as predictive risk factors in the college population. More research is needed to understand the relationships between identified factors of problem drinking among this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to test if the relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking among university students (N = 284; M-age = 19.77) was mediated by negative affect regulation strategies and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Two latent mediation models of problem drinking were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The parsimonious three-path mediated latent model was supported by the data, as evidenced by several model fit indices. Furthermore, the alternate saturated model provided similar fit to the data, but contained several direct relationships that were not statistically significant. The relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking was mediated by an extended contributory chain, including negative affect regulation and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Implications for prevention and treatment, as well as future directions, are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Prevalence of Psychological Problems Amongst Iranian Immigrant Children and Adolescents In UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to estimate prevalence rates of psychological problems in immigrant Iranian children in the UK and to evaluate the associated characteristics. Methods: A group of 244 children and adolescents, 111 boys and 133 girls between the ages 6 to 15 was selected. The children were categorised into groups with different psychological problems by their teachers on the Teacher’s Report Form (TRF. Also, the parents and The children completed the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL and the Youth Self-Report (YSR for the ages 11 to 15 years, respectively. Results: Two-way ANOVAs using gender and age groups as factors showed that there were significant effects of gender in these subscales. Attention problems (p<0.001, delinquent behaviour (p<0.001, aggressive behaviour (p<0.01, externalising (p<0.001 and total problems (p<0.02. Two-way ANOVAs using age-group and gender as factors showed that there were no significant effects of age in the eight subscales of the CBCL; although a trend toward significance was observed for the withdrawn subscale. The interactions between gender and age for all subscales were not significant. Conclusion: The results show that the level of psychological problems in this group is as high as their counterparts in Iran and Achenbach's US normative samples, if not higher. This might result from immigration stressors and the pressure of bilingual education.

  5. Medical and psychological problems in diagnosing and treating a patient with chronic complex regional pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota E. Ortenburger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present the medical and psychological problems which occurred while diagnosing and treating a 42-year-old woman with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. It presents a description of somatic and emotional symptoms, social problems, and problems in diagnosis and treatment (left lower limb. Based on the described symptoms, it must be stated that there are specific premises to claim that the studied case fulfils the criteria of complex regional pain syndrome. Data concerning the patient’s psycho-emotional state were taken from a semi-structured interview, the degree of intensity of automatic negative thoughts, and psychological manifestations of hyperactivity by deep limbic system, developed by D. Amen. The patient had symptoms from a few categories, including sensation, reduced mobility, and trophic symptoms (skin lesions. Due to the complex nature of the formation of CRPS pain and associated disorders that are difficult to treat, multidisciplinary therapy was recommended.

  6. Parenting stress among mothers of children with different physical, mental, and psychological problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Awat; Najmi, Badroddin; Salesi, Aseih; Chorami, Maryam; Hoveidafar, Rezvan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with developmental problems are always bearing a load of stress. The aim of this study is to compare the stress in mothers of children with different disabilities to each other, considering their demographic background. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran during 2012 on 285 mothers of 6-12 years old children with chronic physical disease, psychological disorder, and sensory-motor and mental problems. Abedin's parenting stress questionnaire was used and obtained data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance or covariance as appropriate. Results: Mothers of children with sensory-motor mental and chronic physical problems experience more stress than mothers of children with psychological disorders (P < 0.05). The stress score of mothers of children with psychological disorders was lower than the other two groups. Also there was a significant difference between the score of mothers of children with chronic physical problems and mothers of children with psychological disorders regarding parent-child dysfunctional interaction (P < 0.01). A significant difference was observed in terms of stress among mothers of children with sensory-motor mental problems with different number of children (P < 0.05); also mothers of children with chronic physical problems in different levels of education have experienced different levels of parenting stress (P < 0.05) Conclusion: Due to high level of parenting stress among our studied samples, special education and early intervention are needed for parents in our study population in order to deepening their diagnostic knowledge and professional consultation on stress management PMID:24778669

  7. Parenting stress among mothers of children with different physical, mental, and psychological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awat Feizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children with developmental problems are always bearing a load of stress. The aim of this study is to compare the stress in mothers of children with different disabilities to each other, considering their demographic background. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran during 2012 on 285 mothers of 6-12 years old children with chronic physical disease, psychological disorder, and sensory-motor and mental problems. Abedin′s parenting stress questionnaire was used and obtained data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance or covariance as appropriate. Results: Mothers of children with sensory-motor mental and chronic physical problems experience more stress than mothers of children with psychological disorders (P < 0.05. The stress score of mothers of children with psychological disorders was lower than the other two groups. Also there was a significant difference between the score of mothers of children with chronic physical problems and mothers of children with psychological disorders regarding parent-child dysfunctional interaction (P < 0.01. A significant difference was observed in terms of stress among mothers of children with sensory-motor mental problems with different number of children (P < 0.05; also mothers of children with chronic physical problems in different levels of education have experienced different levels of parenting stress (P < 0.05 Conclusion: Due to high level of parenting stress among our studied samples, special education and early intervention are needed for parents in our study population in order to deepening their diagnostic knowledge and professional consultation on stress management

  8. Mental health problems of men attending district-level clinical psychology services in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dylan J; Pillay, Anthony L

    2009-06-01

    Over a 1-yr. period, 70 men attended district level clinical psychology services in Msunduzi, South Africa. The mean age was 35.9 yr., and 80% had secondary education. Only 65.7% attended of their own accord. 51% were unemployed, 71.4% had financial problems, 44.3% admitted to substance abuse, 74.3% reported relationship problems, and 14.3% admitted to being violent toward their partners. Suicidal ideation was the commonest referral problem, while mood disorder was the most frequent diagnosis. Clinicians estimated that 75.7% of these men had low self-esteem. 45.8% (34) perceived their partner as disengaged, enmeshed, or oppressive.

  9. The Proposal for Solution of Interference Problems Caused By Drugs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jovanović, Slobodan DJ; Birinji, Klara

    2007-01-01

    .... Drugs are responsable for more than 90% of exogenous interference. The aim of the investigation was to find a rather simple and economic way in solution of every day existing problem in clinical biochemistry...

  10. Problem gambling subtypes based on psychological distress, alcohol abuse and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomi, Aino; Dowling, Nicki A; Jackson, Alun C

    2014-12-01

    The notion of comorbidities within problem gambling populations has important clinical implications, particularly for appropriate treatment matching. The comorbidities most commonly cited in problem gambling literature include depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse and impulsivity. Previous research shows evidence of patterns in multiple co-occurring comorbidities and that there may be different subtypes of gamblers based on these patterns. To further the current understanding of gambling subtypes, the aim of our study was to identify subtypes of gamblers currently in treatment. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis yielded four mutually exclusive groups of 202 gamblers: (1) gamblers with comorbid psychological problems (35%); (2) 'pure' gamblers without other comorbidities (27%); (3) gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse (25%); and (4) 'multimorbid' gamblers (13%). The four groups differed on demographic information, drug use and gambling behaviours including gambling activity and problem gambling severity. Gamblers with comorbid psychological problems were more likely to be older women on low income, more likely to report a family history of psychological problems and were more often electronic gaming machine players. As expected, 'pure' gamblers had lower problem gambling severity and were more likely to report current abstinence. Gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse were more likely to be young men who used stimulant drugs, endorsed a higher quality of life and worked full-time. 'Multimorbid' gamblers were elevated on all comorbidities, had general problems related to their health and wellbeing and reported high rates of hostility and aggression. These groups combine elements of existing conceptual models of gambling subtypes and may require different treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychological problems in children with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional European study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkes, Jackie; White-Koning, Melanie; Dickinson, Heather O

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe psychological symptoms in 8-12-year-old children with cerebral palsy; to investigate predictors of these symptoms and their impact on the child and family. DESIGN: A cross-sectional multi-centre survey. PARTICIPANTS: Eight hundred and eighteen children with cerebral palsy....../borderline (TDS 16). STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression to relate the presence of psychological symptoms to child and family characteristics. RESULTS: About a quarter of the children had TDS > 16 indicating significant psychological symptoms, most...... commonly in the domain Peer Problems. Better gross motor function, poorer intellect, more pain, having a disabled or ill sibling and living in a town were independently associated with TDS > 16. The risk of TDS > 16 was odds ratio (OR) = .2 (95% CI: .1 to .3) comparing children with the most and least...

  12. Phenazepam abuse in the UK: an emerging problem causing serious adverse health problems, including death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkery, John Martin; Schifano, Fabrizio; Ghodse, Abdol Hamid

    2012-05-01

    Phenazepam (fenazepam; 7-bromo-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one; PNZ, 'Bonsai') is a benzodiazepine developed in the former Soviet Union during the 1970s to treat neurological disorders, epilepsy, and alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Its recreational use appears to have increased over recent years. Because of the lack of accessible data on this substance, it is important that information is made available to health professionals. A literature search was conducted in relevant databases (Medline, Toxbase, PsychInfo, etc.), grey literature (using Google Scholar) and Internet sites to identify key data on phenazepam, including epidemiology such as availability, price, supply sources, confiscations, and health-related problems. Information from these sources indicates the potential for serious adverse health consequences for this drug when taken recreationally and that its use is spreading in the USA and Europe. Although first use was reported in the UK in October 2009, major concerns in the UK arose in summer 2010 when individuals across Britain were admitted to hospital following overdose. Nine UK fatalities were reported in which phenazepam was detected in post mortem toxicology but not implicated in death. The first UK death directly involving phenazepam was notified in July and the second in November 2011. This paper summarises the key information about phenazepam abuse and health problems of which health professionals, especially those in Emergency Departments, should be aware and presents new information in respect of fatalities caused by the drug. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. GPs' role in the detection of psychological problems of young people: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauerhofer, Aurélie; Berchtold, André; Michaud, Pierre-André; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2009-09-01

    Among young people, about one in three females and one in five males report experiencing emotional distress but 65-95% of them do not receive help from health professionals. To assess the differences among young people who seek help and those who do not seek help for their psychological problems, considering the frequency of consultations to their GP and their social resources. School survey. Post-mandatory school. Among a Swiss national representative sample of 7429 students and apprentices (45.6% females) aged 16-20 years, 1931 young people reported needing help for a problem of depression/sadness (26%) and were included in the study. They were divided into those who sought help (n = 256) and those who did not (n = 1675), and differences between them were assessed. Only 13% of young people needing help for psychological problems consulted for that reason and this rate was positively associated with the frequency of consultations to the GP. However, 80% of young people who did not consult for psychological problems visited their GP at least once during the previous year. Being older or a student, having a higher depression score, or a history of suicide attempt were linked with a higher rate of help seeking. Moreover, confiding in adults positively influenced the rate of help seeking. The large majority of young people reporting psychological problems do not seek help, although they regularly consult their GP. While young people have difficulties in tackling issues about mental health, GPs could improve the situation by systematically inquiring about this issue.

  14. Problems of the organizational providing of psychological work in divisions of the state traffic Inspectorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrov V. E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the problems of the organizational providing of psychological work in divisions of the state traffic Inspectorate. Detailed the range of tasks that need to be implemented to psychologists, and specifics of the state traffic Inspectorate. The features of carrying out of activities of professional psychological selection of candidates for service, psychological training, prevention and other support activities. Potentially conflicting interaction of inspectors of traffic police with the participants of traffic, the inability to predict traffic situations and the psycho drivers necessitate treatment to psychological knowledge and the application of the constant efforts of specialists-psychologists. It is shown that the replacement of tenured psychologists psychologists state traffic Inspectorate of the territorial body of internal Affairs will not amount to nor the volume of work nor its quality. Psychological work with the personnel of the state traffic Inspectorate should only be carried out by psychologists of this unit. Eventually psychologist in the state traffic Inspectorate has expressed prospects and can not be replaced by the activities of other specialists.

  15. The psychology of thinking before the cognitive revolution: Otto Selz on problems, schemas, and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Hark, Michel

    2010-02-01

    Otto Selz has been hailed as one of the most important precursors of the cognitive revolution, yet surprisingly few studies of his work exist. He is often mentioned in the context of the Würzburg School of the psychology of thinking and sometimes in the context of Gestalt psychology. In this paper, it is argued that Selz's emphasis on the role of problems and schemas in the direction of thought processes and creativity sets him apart from the program of the Würzburg School. On the other hand, by developing a theory of thinking that is exclusively at the intentional level, Selz also differs from psychologists that take physics as a model for psychology, such as the Gestalt psychology of Wolfgang Kihler. Special emphasis is given in this paper to Selz's use of the concept of problem or task and the concept of the schema. It is further argued that the concept of the schema is the result of Selz's adaptation of the theory of relations as developed by the philosopher Meinong. The paper begins with a sketch of Selz's life that ended so tragically.

  16. Somatic Expression of Psychological Problems (Somatization: Examination with Structural Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Seda Çolak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the research is to define which psychological symptoms (somatization, depression, obsessive ‐ compulsive, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism cause somatic reactions at most. Total effect of these psychological symptoms on somatic symptoms had been investigated. Study was carried out with structural equation model to research the relation between the psychological symptoms and somatization. The main material of the research is formed by the data obtained from 492 people. SCL‐90‐R scale was used in order to obtain the data. As a result of the structural equation analysis, it has been found that 1Psychoticism, phobic anxiety, and paranoid ideation do not predict somatic symptoms.2There is a negative relation between interpersonal sensitivity level mand somatic reactions.3Anxiety symptoms had been found as causative to occur the highest level of somatic reactions.

  17. Happy software developers solve problems better: psychological measurements in empirical software engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Graziotin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For more than thirty years, it has been claimed that a way to improve software developers’ productivity and software quality is to focus on people and to provide incentives to make developers satisfied and happy. This claim has rarely been verified in software engineering research, which faces an additional challenge in comparison to more traditional engineering fields: software development is an intellectual activity and is dominated by often-neglected human factors (called human aspects in software engineering research. Among the many skills required for software development, developers must possess high analytical problem-solving skills and creativity for the software construction process. According to psychology research, affective states—emotions and moods—deeply influence the cognitive processing abilities and performance of workers, including creativity and analytical problem solving. Nonetheless, little research has investigated the correlation between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving performance of programmers. This article echoes the call to employ psychological measurements in software engineering research. We report a study with 42 participants to investigate the relationship between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving skills of software developers. The results offer support for the claim that happy developers are indeed better problem solvers in terms of their analytical abilities. The following contributions are made by this study: (1 providing a better understanding of the impact of affective states on the creativity and analytical problem-solving capacities of developers, (2 introducing and validating psychological measurements, theories, and concepts of affective states, creativity, and analytical-problem-solving skills in empirical software engineering, and (3 raising the need for studying the human factors of software engineering by employing a

  18. Happy software developers solve problems better: psychological measurements in empirical software engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziotin, Daniel; Wang, Xiaofeng; Abrahamsson, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    For more than thirty years, it has been claimed that a way to improve software developers' productivity and software quality is to focus on people and to provide incentives to make developers satisfied and happy. This claim has rarely been verified in software engineering research, which faces an additional challenge in comparison to more traditional engineering fields: software development is an intellectual activity and is dominated by often-neglected human factors (called human aspects in software engineering research). Among the many skills required for software development, developers must possess high analytical problem-solving skills and creativity for the software construction process. According to psychology research, affective states-emotions and moods-deeply influence the cognitive processing abilities and performance of workers, including creativity and analytical problem solving. Nonetheless, little research has investigated the correlation between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving performance of programmers. This article echoes the call to employ psychological measurements in software engineering research. We report a study with 42 participants to investigate the relationship between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving skills of software developers. The results offer support for the claim that happy developers are indeed better problem solvers in terms of their analytical abilities. The following contributions are made by this study: (1) providing a better understanding of the impact of affective states on the creativity and analytical problem-solving capacities of developers, (2) introducing and validating psychological measurements, theories, and concepts of affective states, creativity, and analytical-problem-solving skills in empirical software engineering, and (3) raising the need for studying the human factors of software engineering by employing a multidisciplinary viewpoint.

  19. Medical and psychological problems faced by young Australian gap year travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Mills, Deborah; Sheridan, Sarah; Lau, Colleen

    2017-09-01

    Gap year travellers can potentially be exposed to many infectious diseases and other travel-related health problems including injuries and psychological problems. Currently, there is little information on health and wellbeing of this particular group of travellers. Participants were recruited from an organization that specialized in organising international gap year placements. Gap year travellers were asked to complete a pre-departure survey on demographics, placement destination and duration, previous travel experience, hobbies, risk taking behaviour, anticipated problems during the placement, and pre-travel preparations. After the placement, participants were asked to complete a post-trip survey on their experiences, problems, health issues, and medical treatment required. The 88 and 34 gap year travellers aged 17-23 years completed pre- and post-placement surveys respectively. The duration of placements ranged from 3 to 12 months. Psychological stressors were frequently reported [ n = 26 (76.5%) felt home sick; n = 18 (52.9%) experienced culture shock; n = 17 (50.0%) had difficulty communicating with the locals]. The majority of participants (91.2%) tried to work out a solution for the stressor on their own. Twenty-eight (82.4%) participants reported medical problems during their placement; the most common problems were sunburn ( n = 19; 55.9%), respiratory infections ( n = 15; 44.1%), weight change ( n = 14; 41.2%), and diarrhoea/food poisoning ( n = 13; 38.2%). Three participants (3.4%) were admitted to hospital; for a muscle injury, head injury and skin infection after getting a tribal tattoo. Psychological stressors were common, but most did not seek help. Some medical problems encountered during their placement may have been preventable with improved pre-departure preparation. Gap year, pre-departure, preparation.

  20. Commonalities in the psychological factors associated with problem gambling and Internet dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Brown, M

    2010-08-01

    The most commonly applied conceptual approach for excessive Internet use has been as a behavioral addiction, similar to pathological or problem gambling. In order to contribute to the understanding of Internet dependence as a disorder resembling problem gambling, the current study aimed to examine the relationship between problem gambling and Internet dependence and the degree to which psychological factors associated with problem gambling are relevant to the study of Internet dependence. The factors of depression, anxiety, student stressors, loneliness, and social support were examined in a sample of university students from several Australian universities. The findings revealed that there is no overlap between the populations reporting problem gambling and Internet dependence, but that individuals with these disorders report similar psychological profiles. Although requiring replication with larger community samples and longitudinal designs, these preliminary findings suggest that problem gambling and Internet dependence may be separate disorders with common underlying etiologies or consequences. The implications of the findings in relation to the conceptualization and management of these disorders are briefly discussed.

  1. Parent Psychological Functioning and Communication Predict Externalizing Behavior Problems After Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Stacey P.; Cassedy, Amy; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Brown, Tanya M.; Kirkwood, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Adolescents sustaining traumatic brain injury (TBI) show increased prevalence of behavior problems. This study investigated the associations of parent mental health, family functioning, and parent–adolescent interaction with adolescent externalizing behavior problems in the initial months after TBI, and examined whether injury severity moderated these associations. Methods 117 parent–adolescent dyads completed measures of family functioning, adolescent behavior, and parent mental health an average of 108 days post-TBI. Dyads also engaged in a 10-min video-recorded problem-solving activity coded for parent behavior and tone of interaction. Results Overall, higher ratings of effective parent communication were associated with fewer externalizing behavior problems, whereas poorer caregiver psychological functioning was associated with greater adolescent externalizing behaviors. Results failed to reveal moderating effects of TBI severity on the relationship between socio-environmental factors and behavior problems. Conclusions Interventions targeting parent communication and/or improving caregiver psychological health may ameliorate potential externalizing behavior problems after adolescent TBI. PMID:24065551

  2. Environmental Problems, Causes, and Solutions: An Open Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negev, Maya; Garb, Yaakov; Biller, Roni; Sagy, Gonen; Tal, Alon

    2010-01-01

    In a national evaluation of environmental literacy in Israel, (Negev, Sagy, Garb, Salzberg, & Tal, 2008), the authors included both multiple choice questions and open questions. In this article the authors describe the qualitative analysis of the answers to an open question regarding a local environmental problem. Most participants specified…

  3. Ending versus controlling versus employing addiction in the tobacco-caused disease endgame: moral psychological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2013-05-01

    Even though interest in reducing or eliminating tobacco-caused diseases is a common goal in tobacco control, many experts hold different views on addiction as a target of intervention. Some consider tobacco-caused addiction as a tobacco-caused disease to be eliminated alongside the other diseases. Some consider tobacco-caused addiction as a much lower priority disease to be eliminated, and a subset of this group is prepared to employ addiction to tobacco (nicotine) as a tool to reduce other tobacco-caused disease. These varying attitudes towards ending, controlling or employing tobacco addiction to reduce damage from tobacco use constitute quite different approaches to tobacco control and cause conflict among those in tobacco control. Moral psychological analyses argue that there is more than scientific evidence involved in supporting this continuum of approaches. Divergent values also influence positions in tobacco control. Attention to these values as well as the scientific evidence should be included in policy and practice in tobacco control. It is not that one constellation of values is necessarily superior, but debates need to be informed by and engage discussions of these values as well as the scientific evidence.

  4. Assessment of Psychological and Psycho-physiological Problems Among Visually Impaired Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswari, Mohanraj; Immanuel Selvaraj, Chinnadurai; Selvaraj, Balakrishnan; Srinivasan, Thiruvengadam

    2016-03-01

    Visual impairment tends to evoke more discomfiture than any other disability. Primarily, the biggest issue may be that blindness is visible. Furthermore, visual impairment develops serious medical, psychological, social and economic problems. The focus of the current study was to investigate the psychological and psycho physiological problems of visually impaired adolescent students. Purposive sampling was adopted to select 150 visually impaired students (71 males and 72 females) from five schools in Coimbatore city of the Tamil Nadu state, India. Anxiety, frustration, aggression and social and personal adjustment levels of the visually impaired students were measured in this study using Taylor's manifest anxiety scale, frustration test, aggression scale and the adolescent adjustment inventory, respectively. Anxiety (χ(2) = 185.66, P = 0 at P adjustment among visually impaired students. The adjustment score had a significant positive correlation with anxiety (r = 0.919, P = 0 at P adjustment among visually impaired students. Visually impaired students exhibited significant levels of psychological and psycho-physiological problems.

  5. Psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, psychological distress, symptom severity, most problematic gambling form, stigma coping mechanisms, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results All variables significantly correlated with self-stigma were considered for inclusion in a regression model. A multivariate linear regression indicated that higher levels of self-stigma were associated with: being female, being older, lower self-esteem, higher problem gambling severity score, and greater use of secrecy (standardized coefficients: 0.16, 0.14, -0.33, 0.23, and 0.15, respectively). Strongest predictors in the model were self-esteem, followed by symptom severity score. Together, predictors in the model accounted for 38.9% of the variance in self-stigma. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that the self-stigma of problem gambling may be driven by similar mechanisms as the self-stigma of other mental health disorders, and impact similarly on self-esteem and coping. Thus, self-stigma reduction initiatives used for other mental health conditions may be effective for problem gambling. In contrast, however, the self-stigma of problem gambling increased with female gender and older age, which are associated with gaming machine problems. This group should, therefore, be a target population for efforts to reduce or better cope with the self-stigma of problem gambling.

  6. Psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, psychological distress, symptom severity, most problematic gambling form, stigma coping mechanisms, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results All variables significantly correlated with self-stigma were considered for inclusion in a regression model. A multivariate linear regression indicated that higher levels of self-stigma were associated with: being female, being older, lower self-esteem, higher problem gambling severity score, and greater use of secrecy (standardized coefficients: 0.16, 0.14, −0.33, 0.23, and 0.15, respectively). Strongest predictors in the model were self-esteem, followed by symptom severity score. Together, predictors in the model accounted for 38.9% of the variance in self-stigma. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that the self-stigma of problem gambling may be driven by similar mechanisms as the self-stigma of other mental health disorders, and impact similarly on self-esteem and coping. Thus, self-stigma reduction initiatives used for other mental health conditions may be effective for problem gambling. In contrast, however, the self-stigma of problem gambling increased with female gender and older age, which are associated with gaming machine problems. This group should, therefore, be a target population for efforts to reduce or better cope with the self-stigma of problem gambling. PMID:28849669

  7. New trends in «Traffic Psychology»: foreign experience , problems and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    T.V. Kochetova

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years the so-called «Traffic psychology» became a very popular object of research among foreign scientists.Economical and social development of the modern world and substantial affect of technological devices on human behavior, enhanced interest to the problem of subjects’ interaction in societal and «hand-made» environment. One of the subject matters connected with the study of this interaction is a special interest to the problems of road and traffic environment of a contemp...

  8. The Pervasive Problem With Placebos in Psychology: Why Active Control Groups Are Not Sufficient to Rule Out Placebo Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Walter R; Simons, Daniel J; Stothart, Cary; Stutts, Cassie

    2013-07-01

    To draw causal conclusions about the efficacy of a psychological intervention, researchers must compare the treatment condition with a control group that accounts for improvements caused by factors other than the treatment. Using an active control helps to control for the possibility that improvement by the experimental group resulted from a placebo effect. Although active control groups are superior to "no-contact" controls, only when the active control group has the same expectation of improvement as the experimental group can we attribute differential improvements to the potency of the treatment. Despite the need to match expectations between treatment and control groups, almost no psychological interventions do so. This failure to control for expectations is not a minor omission-it is a fundamental design flaw that potentially undermines any causal inference. We illustrate these principles with a detailed example from the video-game-training literature showing how the use of an active control group does not eliminate expectation differences. The problem permeates other interventions as well, including those targeting mental health, cognition, and educational achievement. Fortunately, measuring expectations and adopting alternative experimental designs makes it possible to control for placebo effects, thereby increasing confidence in the causal efficacy of psychological interventions. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Psychological Acceptance Mediates the Impact of the Behaviour Problems of Children with Intellectual Disability on Fathers' Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Elaine E.; Hastings, Richard P.; Fitzsimons, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous research with mothers of children with intellectual disabilities has shown that psychological acceptance is related to maternal psychological well-being. The present research extended this line of enquiry to fathers and explored the potential for psychological acceptance to mediate the impact of children's behaviour problems…

  10. The course of post-disaster health problems of victims with pre-disaster psychological problems as presented in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeteman, R.J.H.; Yzermans, C.J.; Kerssens, J.J.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Donker, G.A.; Bosch, W.J.H.M. van den; Zee, J. van der

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Survivors of disaster with pre-disaster psychological problems are believed to be at risk for presenting post-disaster psychological and physical morbidity. Up till now this statement is based on cross-sectional studies with self-reported data and without pre-disaster measurement.

  11. MEDIA: CAUSES AND STRATEGIES TO OVERCOME ISLAMOPHOBIA (PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Istriyani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A stereotype appears and describes that Islam is the cause of a series of terror. Therefore, some states are worried and suspicious toward Muslims (Islamophobia up to the present. Islamophobia associated with negative prejudices against Muslims and Islam, and lead to construction of anti-Islam. Prejudice is based on a claim that Islam is an inferior religion and can threat the dominant values in society. The phenomenon of Islamophobia can be assessed by two perspectives: sociological and psychological. In the case of Islamophobia, media became the object of analysis because it has the dichotomy function. They become the cause for the outbreak of Islamophobia symptoms (latent functions. On the other hand, the media is an information agent which has role to provide education and social change effects (manifest functions. Thus, the media can be an instrument or strategy to overcome the turmoil of Islamophobia by involving a synergy of government, Islamic organizations, and institutions of higher education.

  12. 49 CFR 40.199 - What problems always cause a drug test to be cancelled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems always cause a drug test to be... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.199 What problems always cause a drug test to be cancelled? (a) As the MRO, when the laboratory discovers a “fatal flaw” during...

  13. The psychological problems and related influential factors of left-behind adolescents (LBA) in Hunan, China: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Ye; Mengmeng, Lv; Lezhi, Li; Ting, Mao; Jingping, Zhang

    2017-09-02

    Due to lack of companionship of parents, compared with non left behind children, left behind children (LBC) suffer from more psychological problems compared with children live with their parents. The aim of this study was to explore the mental health status and the relationship among psychological problems and the related factors of LBC. Adopting delaminating-random-group sampling and using region, county, village (town) as sampling framework, we utilized Demographic Data Recording Form, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List, Scale of APGAR, Perceived Social Support Scale, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Self-Esteem Scale and Scale of Mental Health for Chinese Middle-school Student to assess 1309 left behind child in junior middle school students' mental health in Hunan. Statistic description, Structural equation model was adopted to analyze the data. There was a significant difference in score of psychological problems between LBC and non-LBC(F = 18.224, Pself-esteem (PC = 0.10); social support (PC = -0.02), passive coping (PC =0.07) and active coping PC = -0.04) affected psychological problems directly. Psychoticism (P) (PC = 0.11), Neuroticism (N) influenced psychological problems of LBC both directly (PC = 0.04) and indirectly through affecting self-esteem (PC: P:-1.87; N: -0.83), while Extraversion/Introversion (E) (PC = 0.21) only impact psychological problems indirectly through self-esteem. Altogether, these variables accounted for 50.2% of total variance of psychological problems (F = 130.470, P = 0.000) for LBC. In this research we proved that LBC have more sever psychological problems than non-LBC. We also identified the direct and indirect influential factors of psychological problems of LBC. The findings had important implications for prevention policies and interventions to promote mental health of LBC.

  14. Mother–Adolescent Conflict as a Mediator Between Adolescent Problem Behaviors and Maternal Psychological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeger, Christine M.; Gondoli, Dawn M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined mother–adolescent conflict as a mediator of longitudinal reciprocal relations between adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control. Motivated by family systems theory and the transactions that occur between individual and dyadic levels of the family system, we examined the connections among these variables during a developmental period when children and parents experience significant psychosocial changes. Three years of self-report data were collected from 168 mother–adolescent dyads, beginning when the adolescents (55.4% girls) were in 6th grade. Models were tested using longitudinal path analysis. Results indicated that the connection between adolescent aggression (and depressive symptoms) and maternal psychological control was best characterized as adolescent-driven, indirect, and mediated by mother–adolescent conflict; there were no indications of parent-driven indirect effects. That is, prior adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms were associated with increased conflict. In turn, conflict was associated with increased psychological control. Within our mediation models, reciprocal direct effects between both problem behaviors and conflict and between conflict and psychological control were also found. Additionally, exploratory analyses regarding the role of adolescent gender as a moderator of variable relations were conducted. These analyses revealed no gender-related patterns of moderation, whether moderated mediation or specific path tests for moderation were considered. This study corroborates prior research finding support for child effects on parenting behaviors during early adolescence. PMID:22612432

  15. Effects of type of instruction on solution of psychological self-help problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, Z; Forest, J J

    1992-06-01

    Information in self-help books is typically presented in one of three formats: didactic information, examples, or practice problems. The present study examined the effects of information format on the solution of personal problems. Four test problems were given to 200 subjects recruited from introductory psychology classes. Each of ten groups received a different type of information immediately prior to solving each test problem. Three of the groups received information in Didactic (D), Example (E), and Practice Problem (P) formats, respectively, while a control group received no information (NI). Six other groups (DD, DE, DP, EE, EP, and PP) received combinations of two sets of information prior to each test problem. The letters that designate each of these groups represent the formats in which the two sets of information were presented. A Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple-range analysis indicated that groups EE, DP, EP, and DE obtained significantly higher scores than NI. Examples were effective as instructional material when presented with other information and when presented in pairs. Practice problems were effective when combined with other types of information but not when presented with other practice problems.

  16. Solving the Supreme Problem: 100 years of selection and recruitment at the Journal of Applied Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ployhart, Robert E; Schmitt, Neal; Tippins, Nancy T

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews 100 years of research on recruitment and selection published in the Journal of Applied Psychology. Recruitment and selection research has been present in the Journal from the very first issue, where Hall (1917) suggested that the challenge of recruitment and selection was the Supreme Problem facing the field of applied psychology. As this article shows, the various topics related to recruitment and selection have ebbed and flowed over the years in response to business, legal, and societal changes, but this Supreme Problem has captivated the attention of scientist-practitioners for a century. Our review starts by identifying the practical challenges and macro forces that shaped the sciences of recruitment and selection and helped to define the research questions the field has addressed. We then describe the evolution of recruitment and selection research and the ways the resulting scientific advancements have contributed to staffing practices. We conclude with speculations on how recruitment and selection research may proceed in the future. Supplemental material posted online provides additional depth by including a summary of practice challenges and scientific advancements that affected the direction of selection and recruitment research and an outline of seminal articles published in the Journal and corresponding time line. The 100-year anniversary of the Journal of Applied Psychology is very much the celebration of recruitment and selection research, although predictions about the future suggest there is still much exciting work to be done. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Psychological and mental health problems in patients with thalidomide embryopathy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Koubun; Iida, Toshiharu; Yamamoto, Maki; Komatsu, Kensuke; Nukui, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Atsuto

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the presence of psychological and mental health problems in patients with thalidomide embryopathy in Japan in order to develop and build future support systems. The present study examined the presence/absence of electroencephalographic abnormalities, intellectual/cognitive functions, and mental health problems in 22 participants (nine men, 13 women) with thalidomide embryopathy. Participants completed the electroencephalograph instrument. Participants were also assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III; the Autism-Spectrum Quotient; the General Health Questionnaire-28, and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The results suggest the following: (i) electroencephalographic abnormality observed in several thalidomide embryopathy participants is unlikely to be the direct result of thalidomide; (ii) the cognitive functions of working memory and processing speed are lower in thalidomide embryopathy patients than in healthy individuals; and (iii) 40.9% of the thalidomide embryopathy participants have possible mental disorders, with more mental problems observed than in healthy individuals. Deterioration of mental health in patients with thalidomide embryopathy is indicated. Anxiety, insomnia, and physical symptoms were especially remarkable and may have resulted in restriction of social activities. Therefore, careful examination and active support of patients' psychological and mental problems is essential. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  18. Section detachment in immunohistochemistry: causes, troubleshooting, and problem-solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambella, Alessandro; Porro, Lucia; Pigozzi, Simona; Fiocca, Roberto; Grillo, Federica; Mastracci, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Section detachment in immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a common phenomenon, increasing times and costs of diagnosis and research. However, it has poorly been investigated. The aim of this study was to identify the causes of section detachment, with the purpose of defining a quality assured laboratory procedure to minimize detachment frequency. We screened 3349 IHC sections from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, identifying 177 cases with section detachment (5.3% of the sample). Detachment regarded mainly samples of surgical breast tissue and IHC procedures in which heat pretreatment was used. Focusing on pre-analytical factors, we investigated seven main critical issues: (1) section aging; (2) section thickness; (3) slide contamination; (4) slide aging; (5) slide brand; (6) "human" influence; and (7) sample size and fixation. Each of these issues was individually investigated to establish their influence on detachment. Targeted experiments were performed by varying section age, thickness, cleanliness, slide brand and age, and sample size and fixation. Finally, to investigate operator-dependent causes, sections were cut by different operators blinded to aim. The most important factors influencing section detachment were demonstrated to be: section thickness, slide aging, slide brand, "human" influence, and size and fixation of samples. The pre-analytical phase, including all the aforementioned issues, should be standardized within a quality assurance program. By adopting these recommendations, we obtained a 34% drop in section detachment. Although section detachment remains difficult to eradicate completely, many other influences can be addressed and corrected in any laboratory leading to an increase in efficiency and cost saving.

  19. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems always cause an alcohol test to be... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.267 What problems... alcohol test if any of the following problems occur. These are “fatal flaws.” You must inform the DER that...

  20. Mexico-US relations: big initiatives can cause big problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcell, S.K.

    Mexico and the US have lacked the special relationship that could have helped Mexico in the past, but initiatives for a North American Common Market on the part of the US now that Mexico has discovered oil could be a disservice unless they transcend the short-sighted goals of a nearby oil supply. The next few years will determine whether Mexico's economy can develop into one enhanced by oil resources, or whether it becomes another oil economy. Daily commerce between the two countries generally takes place at the local and state level, but the personal attraction between Presidents Reagan and Lopez Portillo eases some problems at the national level and may prove more effective than the consultive mechanisms of the Carter years. Past experiences with the US make Mexico wary of a special relationship because Mexico wants maximum control over economic and political decision making and the opportunity to expand its presence in world markets. It would be better for the US to back off and let Mexico take the initiative, thereby signalling feasibility on the Mexican side and confidence in US intentions. (DCK)

  1. The Problem of Self-identity in Terms of Cultural-Historical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchukina M.A.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibilities of solving the key problems of psychology of self-identity (its psychological nature and mechanisms by the means of cultural-historical methodology. Through the category of "culture", the essence of self-development as a process of culture adequate self-transformation is revealed, carried out with the help of specifically human higher mental functions and having the attributes of arbitrariness, sociality, mediation, and awareness. We denoted the line of personal development as a process of cultural production of the means by which a person will change, create, cultivate environment: external and internal. We reveal the mechanism of ontogenetic transition from development to self-development as the history of the transition from the position of culture agent to the creativity and self-creation of the personality. We show the role of the personality as an organizing, managing, directing functional center, providing self-determined nature of self-development.

  2. PROBLEM OF RESEARCH OF EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN IN FOREIGN PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Valentinovna Shipova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The review of psychology and pedagogical researches of the mentally retarded children devoted to studying of a problem of emotional development in foreign science and practice is presented in article. Various approaches to an assessment of the importance of violations of the emotional sphere of the personality at mentally retarded children for all mental development of the child are considered, need of the accounting of emotional frustration of mentally retarded children for their education and education, and also social adaptation and integration into sociocultural and educational space is discussed. Research of emotional development of mentally retarded children in the course of training is important for development of programs of psychology and pedagogical diagnostics and correction of emotional violations at this category of school students, formation of their self-control, development of the emotional relations.

  3. Obesity and internalized weight stigma: a formulation model for an emerging psychological problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Denise; Ellison, Nell

    2015-03-01

    Obese individuals frequently experience weight stigma and this is associated with psychological distress and difficulties. The process of external devaluation can lead to negative self-perception and evaluation and some obese individuals develop "internalized weight stigma". The prevalence of weight stigma is well established but there is a lack of information about the interplay between external and internal weight stigma. To synthesize the literature on the psychological effects of weight stigma into a formulation model that addresses the maintenance of internalized weight stigma. Current research on the psychological impact of weight stigma was reviewed. We identify cognitive, behavioural and attentional processes that maintain psychological conditions where self-evaluation plays a central role. A model was developed based on clinical utility. The model focuses on identifying factors that influence and maintain internalized weight stigma. We highlight the impact of negative societal and interpersonal experiences of weight stigma on how individuals view themselves as an obese person. Processing the self as a stigmatized individual is at the core of the model. Maintenance factors include negative self-judgements about the meaning of being an obese individual, attentional and mood shifts, and avoidance and safety behaviours. In addition, eating and weight management behaviours become deregulated and maintain both obesity and weight stigma. As obesity increases, weight stigma and the associated psychological effects are likely to increase. We provide a framework for formulating and intervening with internalized weight stigma as well as making therapists aware of the applicability and transferability of strategies that they may already use with other presenting problems.

  4. [Role of psychological factors in pathogenesis of disturbances of voice caused with vocal nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Jan; Grzywacz, Krzysztof; Wojdas, Andrzej; Rapiejko, Piotr; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2008-01-01

    Hoarseness is most frequent complaint notified by ill in phoniatric outpatient clinics. Looking of causes notified of disturbances of voice often we ascertain in larynx existence of vocal nodules. Changes these come into being in consequence of excessive or irregular phonations. Single incident of disturbances of voice caused with oedema changes nascent of in consequence of inappropriate work with voice does not wake of our trouble, instead returns this of type of complaint provoke to other researches coexisting of etiological factors this diseases. Estimation of influence of individual personality trait of ill on formation of vocal nodules. One examined 20 patients with vocal nodules classified to treatments operating and 20 without disturbances of voice. All patients were subjected to otolaryngological and stroboscopic examinations. Character created of voice one examined at help of scale GRBAS, instead influence of disturbances of voice on quality of life ill at help of test VHI. Psychological examinations one executed using questionnaire State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory (STAI), questionnaire NEO-FFI and questionnaire of aggression Buss-Perry. Obtained results showed, that persons with returning vocal nodules, both during of research as in different situations everyday lives characterizes with higher level of fear and have greater inclination to worry oneself. Ill from groups examined in greater degree are extroverts, show greater activity and more are contagious socially in comparison to persons of comparative group. Attitude this in situations extorting rivalry will be able to be ruthless, are well organized guided, scrupulous and consistently endeavour to aim. Wanting efficiently to treat persons with returning vocal nodules we should subject to ill psychological examination and in once of ascertainment of irregularity to correct it, what at simultaneous correct treatment of organic changes should diminish frequency or to eliminate returns of disease. Skill

  5. The PROblem Gambling RESearch Study (PROGRESS) research protocol: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of psychological interventions for problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shane A; Merkouris, Stephanie S; Browning, Colette J; Radermacher, Harriet; Feldman, Susan; Enticott, Joanne; Jackson, Alun C

    2015-11-24

    International prevalence rates for problem gambling are estimated at 2.3%. Problem gambling is a serious global public health concern due to adverse personal and social consequences. Previous research evaluating the effectiveness of psychological interventions for the treatment of problem gambling has been compromised by methodological limitations, including small sample sizes and the use of waitlist control groups. This article describes the study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), behaviour therapy (BT), motivational interviewing (MI) against a non-directive supportive therapy (NDST) control, in treating problem gambling. This study was a mixed-methods design, with a parallel group, pragmatic RCT as the primary component, and embedded qualitative studies conducted alongside. A total of 297 participants were recruited from the community in Victoria, Australia. Individuals aged 18 years and over, could communicate in English and wished to receive treatment for a gambling problem were eligible. Participants were randomly allocated in to 1 of the 4 psychological interventions: CBT, BT, MI and NDST. Repeated measures were conducted at pretreatment and post-treatment, and 6 and 12 months post-treatment. The statistical analysis will use an intention-to-treat approach. Multilevel mixed modelling will be used to examine changes in the primary outcome measures: gambling symptom severity, using the Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale, and gambling behaviours (frequency, time and expenditure). Secondary outcomes are depression, anxiety, stress and alcohol use. Individual semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted at pretreatment and post-treatment and 12 months post-treatment for a subset of participants (n=66). This study was approved by the Victorian Department of Justice, Monash University and the University of Melbourne Human Research Ethics Committees. Findings

  6. Does parental psychological control relate to internalizing and externalizing problems in early childhood? An examination using the Berkeley puppet interview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, L.L.; Otten, R.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Soenens, B.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Parental psychological control has been linked to symptoms of psychopathology in adolescence, yet less is known about its correlates in childhood. The current study is among the first to address whether psychological control is related to internalizing and externalizing problems in early childhood.

  7. Does Parental Psychological Control Relate to Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Early Childhood? An Examination Using the Berkeley Puppet Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lisanne L.; Otten, Roy; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Soenens, Bart; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Parental psychological control has been linked to symptoms of psychopathology in adolescence, yet less is known about its correlates in childhood. The current study is among the first to address whether psychological control is related to internalizing and externalizing problems in early childhood. A community sample of 298 children aged 7.04…

  8. Relationship between psychological inflexibility and experiential avoidance and internet addiction: Mediating effects of mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wei-Po; Lee, Kun-Hua; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hsiao, Ray C; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-11-01

    Internet addiction became a major mental health problem in college student. Our objective was to examine the relationship between psychological inflexibility and experiential avoidance (PIEA) and Internet addiction (IA) and the mediating effects of mental health problem indicators. 500 college students (238 men and 262 women) participated in this study. The level of PIEA was examined using the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II. The severity of IA was assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. The levels of depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility were evaluated using the Symptom Checklist-90 item-Revised Scale. The relationship among PIEA, mental health problems, and IA was examined using structural equation modeling. The severity of PIEA was positively associated with the severity of IA as well as positively associated with the severity of mental health problems. In addition, the severity of mental health problem indicators was positively associated with the severity of IA. These results provide the severity of PIEA is directly related to the severity of IA and indirectly related to the severity of IA through increasing the severity of mental health problems. The PIEA should be one of the target objectives when administer cognitive-behavioral therapy to college students with IA and mental health problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AND STRESS FACED BY SOLDIERS WHO OPERATE IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE ENVIRONMENTS: EXPERIENCES IN THE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of anxiety, stress and psychological discomfort that can affect soldiers sent on asymmetric warfare operations. It is based on secondary analysis of the data of two important field researches whose results have recently (2013 been published. Although the two researches adopted different methodologies, the testimonies are fully comparable and show that soldiers from different countries and cultures display common or similar reactions when they are placed in the stress conditions that the asymmetric environment involves. The approach of the paper is drawn up in such a way as to make the reader a participating observer of the reality of such missions. It is therefore centered on the personal testimonies of the soldiers interviewed in the two researches, testimonies reported just as they are, in their simplicity and, often, drama, with comments by the author kept to a minimum in order to give readers ample opportunity to evaluate and interpret the reported texts on their own. The research data, drawn from the declarations of those directly concerned, reveal the existence of a problem of psychological distress resulting from deployment in asymmetric warfare situations that is in part different in the causes of the problems resulting from deployment in traditional combat and affects percentages of participating soldiers that are not high but definitely significant. The highest incidence appears to be constituted by problems relating to reintegration into normal social and working life upon returning from the mission. This is followed in percentage terms by anxiety situations relating to life far from the family, due in large part to a sense of powerlessness for the scant possibility of managing family situations that may have cropped up or already existed beforehand.

  10. Assessment of Psychological and Psycho-physiological Problems Among Visually Impaired Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswari, Mohanraj; Immanuel Selvaraj, Chinnadurai; Selvaraj, Balakrishnan; Srinivasan, Thiruvengadam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Visual impairment tends to evoke more discomfiture than any other disability. Primarily, the biggest issue may be that blindness is visible. Furthermore, visual impairment develops serious medical, psychological, social and economic problems. Objectives: The focus of the current study was to investigate the psychological and psycho physiological problems of visually impaired adolescent students. Patients and Methods: Purposive sampling was adopted to select 150 visually impaired students (71 males and 72 females) from five schools in Coimbatore city of the Tamil Nadu state, India. Anxiety, frustration, aggression and social and personal adjustment levels of the visually impaired students were measured in this study using Taylor’s manifest anxiety scale, frustration test, aggression scale and the adolescent adjustment inventory, respectively. Results: Anxiety (χ2 = 185.66, P = 0 at P < 0.01), frustration (χ2 = 167.23, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression (χ2 = 57.66, P = 0 at P < 0.01) were significantly related to adjustment among visually impaired students. The adjustment score had a significant positive correlation with anxiety (r = 0.919, P = 0 at P < 0.01), frustration (r = 0.887, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression levels (r = 0.664, P = 0 at P < 0.01), anxiety was significantly correlated with frustration (r = 0. 961, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression levels (r = 0.727, P < 0.01) and frustration was significantly correlated with aggression level (r = 0. 637, P = 0 at P < 0.01) of visually impaired adolescents. There was a positive relationship between psycho-physiological disorders and anxiety frustration, aggression and adjustment among visually impaired students. Conclusions: Visually impaired students exhibited significant levels of psychological and psycho-physiological problems. PMID:27284280

  11. Adolescents' viewing of suicide-related web-content and psychological problems: differentiating the roles of cyberbullying involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Görzig, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Possible links of cyberbullying with suicide and psychological problems have recently received considerable attention. Suicide-related behaviours have also been linked with viewing of associated web-content. Studies on traditional bullying indicate that the roles of bullying involvement (bullies, victims and bully-victims) matter in terms of associations with specific suicide-related behaviours and psychological problems. Yet, related research in the area of cyberbullying is lacking. The curr...

  12. Patients with psychological ICPC codes in primary care; a case-control study investigating the decade before presenting with problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidding, Luc G; Spigt, Mark G; Dinant, Geert-Jan

    2017-12-01

    Recognizing patients with psychological problems can be difficult for general practitioners (GPs). Use of information collected in electronic medical records (EMR) could facilitate recognition. To assess relevant EMR parameters in the decade before patients present with psychological problems. Exploratory case-control study assessing EMR parameters of 58 228 patients recorded between 2013 and 2015 by 54 GPs. We compared EMR parameters recorded before 2014 of patients who presented with psychological problems in 2014 with those who did not. In 2014, 2406 patients presented with psychological problems. Logistic regression analyses indicated that having registrations of the following statistically significant parameters increased the chances of presenting with psychological problems in 2014: prior administration of a depression severity questionnaire (odds ratio (OR): 3.3); fatigue/sleeping (OR: 1.6), neurological (OR: 1.5), rheumatic (OR: 1.5) and substance abuse problems (OR: 1.5); prescriptions of opioids (OR: 1.3), antimigraine preparations (OR: 1.5), antipsychotics (OR: 1.7), anxiolytics (OR: 1.4), hypnotics and sedatives (OR: 1.4), antidepressants (OR: 1.7), and antidementia drugs (OR: 2.1); treatment with minimal interventions (OR: 2.2) and physical exercise (OR: 3.3), referrals to psychology (OR: 1.5), psychiatry (OR: 1.6), and psychosocial care (OR: 2.1); double consultations (OR: 1.2), telephone consultations (OR: 1.1), and home visits (OR: 1.1). This study demonstrates that possible indications of psychological problems can be identified in EMR. Many EMR parameters of patients presenting with psychological problems were different compared with patients who did not.

  13. Mutual Influences Between Parental Psychological Distress and Alcohol Use and Child Problem Behavior in a Cohort of Urban African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Green, Kerry M.

    2014-01-01

    Parental psychological distress, parental alcohol involvement, and child/adolescent behavior problems frequently occur together with deleterious effects on individuals and families. Extant evidence suggests that parental and child problems are related; however, less is known about the patterns and directions of their relationships over time, particularly among African Americans. This study examined mutual influences between parental psychological distress and alcohol use, and child/adolescent...

  14. Psychology of development of moral reasoning: Problem-oriented overview of the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Jovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available First and foremost, this paper provides a short historical reminder of the emergence of the field of psychology of development of moral reasoning. In the second part of the paper, the author offers a problem-oriented overview of the field, that is, one possible classification of particular groups of problems for empirical research. This overview does not only point out to the problems that were more and that were less studied (e.g.. evaluative moral judgment and reasoning, distinguishing between moral and extra-moral rules and norms and to those that were relatively neglected (i.e. understanding moral situations, but also to the problems that psychologists did not even recognize as research problems. Such are the problems of development of moral concepts, meaning of moral words etc. Finally, the author also points out to the fact that this classification could be taken as one way to define the field, that is, the way to determine the boundaries of its subject of studying.

  15. LONELINESS IN THE AGE OF ADOLESCENCE AS A SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Y. V. Zheleznyakova

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the research ?ndings of the contemporary Russian and Ukrainian authors shows  that  there  is  no  consensus  in  interpreting  the  nature  of  loneliness,  its  origin,  speci?c aspects of manifestation in the publications of foreign and native scholars. This allows to outline the problem ?eld of the investigation of loneliness as a social and psychological phenomenon. A teenager acquires social experience in the course of establishing various social relations. The  devel...

  16. On the Problem of the Development of Patristic Psychology in the Context of Modern Psychological Research: Christmas Meeting at the Psychological Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serova O.E

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Provides an overview of meaningful moments of discussion that took place at the round table "Patristic psychology – the basis of self-Orthodox civilization" – the scientific and practical measures aimed at deepening the discussion of the methodological foundations of the analysis of the psychological aspects of the patristic heritage as an important factor in the formation of moral-oriented tendencies of modern psychology and teaching practice, jointly prepared by the staff of the Psychological Institute of RAO and the Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

  17. Technology Addiction among Treatment Seekers for Psychological Problems: Implication for Screening in Mental Health Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aswathy; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Thamilselvan, P; Marimuthu, P

    2017-01-01

    Technology usage has seen an increase among users. The usage varies from social, personal, and psychological reasons. Users are frequently using to overcome mood states as well as to manage the other psychological states. This work is going to explore the information technology use among subjects with a psychiatric disorder. A total of 75 subjects were assessed using background data sheet, internet addiction impairment index, video game use pattern, pornography addiction screening tool and screening for mobile phone use, from in-patient and out-patient setting of tertiary mental health setting. It showed the presence of addiction to mobile, internet, video game, and pornography. Age was found to be negatively correlated with this addiction. Average usage time had been associated with management of mood states. The addiction to information technology had been associated with a delay in initiation of sleep. This work has implication for screening technology addiction among subjects seeking treatment for psychological problems and motivate them to develop the healthy use of technology.

  18. The Formation of Russian Christian Psychology: Problems and Prospects for Future Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodchikov, Viktor Ivanovich

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with the place of Christian psychology in the system of psychological knowledge. The author points to the need to distinguish between the two systems of knowledge: the psychology of the mind and the psychology of the person. The psychology of the mind is the science devoted to the process of the formation of a particular mental…

  19. The association of parental characteristics and psychological problems in obese youngsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaluwé, V; Braet, C; Moens, E; Van Vlierberghe, L

    2006-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine to what extent parental psychological characteristics and parental behavior are related to psychological problems in obese youngsters. Data were collected from 196 families having an overweight youngster (range 10-16 years old) (mean body mass index (BMI)=31.2; s.d.=5.3) seeking weight-loss treatment and compared with data from normal weight samples. Behavior problems were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist; the Child version of the Eating Disorder Examination was used to assess eating disorder psychopathology. Parental psychopathology was measured using the Symptom Checklist-90; parenting behavior was assessed with the Ghent Parental Behavior Scale. Parental psychopathology was prevalent in 59.6% of mothers and 35.7% of fathers. Youngsters exceeding the cutoff for problem behavior ranged between 41.4 and 53.1%. Children's problem behavior was most associated with psychopathology in the mother (r=0.40 for Internalizing and r=0.37 for Externalizing; both Pdiscipline, although the effect was stronger for Externalizing behavior (explained variance: 10%) than for Internalizing behavior (explained variance: 4%). No evidence was found for a mediator effect from parenting behavior on the eating disorder symptoms of the obese youngsters. However, several direct relations emerged, suggesting a negative association between a child's eating disorder symptoms and Positive parenting behavior by the mother (r= -0.20 for Eating concern; r= -0.18 for Restraint eating; r= -0.16 for Shape concern; all Pstyle, namely inconsistent discipline on the part of the mother. Pediatric obesity treatments should focus more on parenting behaviors and parental characteristics.

  20. Parental Beliefs about the Causes of Child Problems: Exploring Racial/ethnic Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, May; Hough, Richard L.; McCabe, Kristen; Lau, Anna; Garland, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine racial/ethnic patterns of parental beliefs about etiological explanations for youth problems. Method: The parents of 1,338 youths with identified mental health problems were asked about their beliefs about the causes for their children's problems from a questionnaire with 11 etiological categories. Results: Parents of African…

  1. Understanding the Causes and Management of Problem Behaviour in Zimbabwean Schools: Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitiyo, Morgan; Chitiyo, George; Chitiyo, Jonathan; Oyedele, Victoria; Makoni, Richard; Fonnah, Davidson; Chipangure, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Problem behaviour continues to present a challenge for school-teachers worldwide. Since school-teachers around the globe have different conceptualisations of what constitutes problem behaviour, the purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of Zimbabwean school-teachers about their perceived causes of problem behaviour among students in…

  2. Drug trajectories among youth undergoing treatment: the influence of psychological problems and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Natacha; Bertrand, Karine; Beaudoin, Isabelle; Ledoux, Cinthia; Gendron, Annie; Arseneault, Catherine

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has documented associations of addiction with delinquency and psychological problems. However, few studies have evaluated their influence on adolescent's drug use trajectories. The current study aims to examine the influence of these factors on the recovery trajectories of 199 youths aged 15.6 years on average admitted to inpatient and outpatient addiction treatment centers, followed up three and six months later. Results indicate that youth who show higher severity of drug abuse exhibit greater improvement than youth with a lower severity of drug abuse at the onset of treatment. Although psychological problems were associated with baseline drug use, they did not influence drug use trajectory over time. Only delinquency influenced the recovery trajectories of these youth. Results suggest that a high level of delinquency can have a significant effect on the drug recovery process of adolescents and that interventions should attempt to reduce both drug use and delinquency. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The combined association of psychological distress and socioeconomic status with all-cause mortality: a national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarino, Antonio Ivan; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-01-14

    Psychological distress and low socioeconomic status (SES) are recognized risk factors for mortality. The aim of this study was to test whether lower SES amplifies the effect of psychological distress on all-cause mortality. We selected 66 518 participants from the Health Survey for England who were 35 years or older, free of cancer and cardiovascular disease at baseline, and living in private households in England from 1994 to 2004. Selection used stratified random sampling, and participants were linked prospectively to mortality records from the Office of National Statistics (mean follow-up, 8.2 years). Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, and SES was indexed by occupational class. The crude incidence rate of death was 14.49 (95% CI, 14.17-14.81) per 1000 person-years. After adjustment for age and sex, psychological distress and low SES category were associated with increased mortality rates. In a stratified analysis, the association of psychological distress with mortality differed with SES (likelihood ratio test-adjusted P < .001), with the strongest associations being observed in the lowest SES categories. The detrimental effect of psychological distress on mortality is amplified by low SES category. People in higher SES categories have lower mortality rates even when they report high levels of psychological distress.

  4. [Reliability and validity of warning signs checklist for screening psychological, behavioral and developmental problems of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X N; Zhang, Y; Feng, W W; Wang, H S; Cao, B; Zhang, B; Yang, Y F; Wang, H M; Zheng, Y; Jin, X M; Jia, M X; Zou, X B; Zhao, C X; Robert, J; Jing, Jin

    2017-06-02

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability and validity of warning signs checklist developed by the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China (NHFPC), so as to determine the screening effectiveness of warning signs on developmental problems of early childhood. Method: Stratified random sampling method was used to assess the reliability and validity of checklist of warning sign and 2 110 children 0 to 6 years of age(1 513 low-risk subjects and 597 high-risk subjects) were recruited from 11 provinces of China. The reliability evaluation for the warning signs included the test-retest reliability and interrater reliability. With the use of Age and Stage Questionnaire (ASQ) and Gesell Development Diagnosis Scale (GESELL) as the criterion scales, criterion validity was assessed by determining the correlation and consistency between the screening results of warning signs and the criterion scales. Result: In terms of the warning signs, the screening positive rates at different ages ranged from 10.8%(21/141) to 26.2%(51/137). The median (interquartile) testing time for each subject was 1(0.6) minute. Both the test-retest reliability and interrater reliability of warning signs reached 0.7 or above, indicating that the stability was good. In terms of validity assessment, there was remarkable consistency between ASQ and warning signs, with the Kappa value of 0.63. With the use of GESELL as criterion, it was determined that the sensitivity of warning signs in children with suspected developmental delay was 82.2%, and the specificity was 77.7%. The overall Youden index was 0.6. Conclusion: The reliability and validity of warning signs checklist for screening early childhood developmental problems have met the basic requirements of psychological screening scales, with the characteristics of short testing time and easy operation. Thus, this warning signs checklist can be used for screening psychological and behavioral problems of early childhood

  5. Understanding the Change Process Involved in Solving Psychological Problems: A Model-based Approach to Understanding How Psychotherapy Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marken, Richard S; Carey, Timothy A

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature on psychotherapy suggests that improvements in effectiveness, efficiency and accessibility have been hampered by a lack of understanding of how psychotherapy works. Central to gaining such understanding is an accurate description of the change process that occurs when someone solves a psychological problem. We describe the Perceptual Control Theory (PCT) model of human functioning, which can be used to understand the nature of psychological problems and how they are solved. PCT suggests that problems can be broadly grouped into two categories: those that can be solved using existing skills and those that require the generation of new skills. In general, psychological problems belong in the second category. PCT describes a fundamental form of learning in which existing structures and systems are reorganized to create new skills, perspective and insights. Psychotherapy based on PCT is aimed at directing reorganization to the source of the problem. Understanding the phenomenon of control is central to understanding how psychotherapy works. Conflict could be considered a general formulation for psychological distress. Therapy will be efficient when the reorganization process is focused at the right level of the client's control hierarchy. Therapy will be effective only when the client's reorganization system-not the therapist-has managed to come up with a solution to the client's problem. What the client says about the nature and reason for their problem is less important than the point of view from which these problems are being discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Involvement in Intimate Partner Psychological Abuse and Suicide Proneness in College Women: Alcohol Related Problems as a Potential Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations among involvement in intimate partner psychological abuse, alcohol-related problems, and suicide proneness as measured by the Life Attitudes Schedule – Short Form (LAS-SF) in college women (N = 709). Results revealed that, as expected, being involved in a psychologically abusive relationship was significantly and positively correlated with alcohol-related problems and alcohol-related problems were significantly and positively correlated with suicide proneness. Additionally, the intimate partner psychological abuse involvement-suicide proneness link was significantly mediated by alcohol-related problems. Implications are offered for the improved identification and treatment of young women at risk for suicidal and health-diminishing behaviors. PMID:20544000

  7. The Study on the Psychological Problems and Countermeasures of the Full-Time Professional Masters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Tang; Liang, Ma

    2012-01-01

    Mental health education is one of the most important tasks in postgraduate education. Professional master, as a graduate of an emerging group, its mental health education cannot be ignored. This paper focuses on the existence of some mental health problems of Chinese full-time professional master, explores and analyzes their causes and finally…

  8. Role of psychological trauma in the cause and treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugharne, Jonathan; Lillee, Alyssa; Janca, Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    The role of traumatic events in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder is well established but their importance in the other anxiety disorders and in depression is less clear. We have reviewed recent publications in the medical literature which add to current knowledge regarding the possible causative role of trauma and the efficacy of trauma-focused treatments in these disorders. A number of recent studies add further support to the notion that traumatic events increase vulnerability to a range of psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, pretrauma risk factors are shared across different anxiety and depressive disorders. Patients with partial rather than full post-traumatic stress disorder often have their post-traumatic symptoms subsumed within another anxiety or depressive diagnosis. There is very little data relating to trauma-focused treatment of disorders other than post-traumatic stress disorder. There is increasing evidence that clinicians should be cognizant of the possible role of traumatic experience in the cause of patients with diagnoses other than post-traumatic stress disorder. There is, however, a paucity of data for the efficacy of trauma-focused psychological interventions for disorders other than post-traumatic stress disorder and further research is therefore needed.

  9. Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence: a review of psychological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Zhilinskaya,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed psychological research that consider the Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence. Based on the understanding of self-consciousness as a central adolescence new formation, we formulated a set of tasks of adolescence. It is shown that for the successful solution of age problems by teenagers on the Internet, specialized environments should be designed. Internet as a medium of teenagers’ socialization is characterized by a high degree of variety and uncontrollability. Behavior of adolescents on the Internet depends on the social and cultural context in which they live. The emergence of the Internet makes new demands on media competence of the teenager and his environment. Adolescents face online with a variety of risks. An essential resource for successful adolescent development is the presence of a person whom he trusts, with whom he can consult in difficult situations. The research plan involves the creation of Internet resources, contributing to the solution of teenagers’ problems age, as well as the mapping of the Internet in terms of its developmental potential.

  10. Bach Flower Remedies for psychological problems and pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langley Tessa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bach Flower Remedies are thought to help balance emotional state and are commonly recommended by practitioners for psychological problems and pain. We assessed whether Bach Flower Remedies (BFRs are safe and efficacious for these indications by performing a systematic review of the literature. Methods We searched MEDLINE®, Embase, AMED, and the Cochrane Library from inception until June 2008 and performed a hand-search of references from relevant key articles. For efficacy, we included all prospective studies with a control group. For safety, we also included retrospective, observational studies with more than 30 subjects. Two authors abstracted data and determined risk of bias using a recognised rating system of trial quality. Results Four randomised controlled trials (RCTs and two additional retrospective, observational studies were identified and included in the review. Three RCTs of BFRs for students with examination anxiety, and one RCT of BFRs for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD showed no overall benefit in comparison to placebo. Due to the number and quality of the studies the strength of the evidence is low or very low. We did not find any controlled prospective studies regarding the efficacy of BFRs for pain. Only four of the six studies included for safety explicitly reported adverse events. Conclusion Most of the available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of BFRs has a high risk of bias. We conclude that, based on the reported adverse events in these six trials, BFRs are probably safe. Few controlled prospective trials of BFRs for psychological problems and pain exist. Our analysis of the four controlled trials of BFRs for examination anxiety and ADHD indicates that there is no evidence of benefit compared with a placebo intervention.

  11. Environmental problems caused by Istanbul subway excavation and suggestions for remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Ibrahim

    2009-10-01

    Many environmental problems caused by subway excavations have inevitably become an important point in city life. These problems can be categorized as transporting and stocking of excavated material, traffic jams, noise, vibrations, piles of dust mud and lack of supplies. Although these problems cause many difficulties, the most pressing for a big city like Istanbul is excavation, since other listed difficulties result from it. Moreover, these problems are environmentally and regionally restricted to the period over which construction projects are underway and disappear when construction is finished. Currently, in Istanbul, there are nine subway construction projects in operation, covering approximately 73 km in length; over 200 km to be constructed in the near future. The amount of material excavated from ongoing construction projects covers approximately 12 million m3. In this study, problems—primarily, the problem with excavation waste (EW)—caused by subway excavation are analyzed and suggestions for remediation are offered.

  12. Do causes of stress differ in their association with problem drinking by sex in Korean adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Woo; Park, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, So-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have focused mainly on whether stress causes present drinking or excessive drinking. However, few studies have been conducted on the relationship between stress and problem drinking in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the stress level and the cause of stress related to problem drinking behavior according to sex among Korean youth. Data for this study were pooled from cross-sectional data collected annually from 2007 through 2012 from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. A representative sample of 442,113 students from 800 randomly selected middle and high schools in Korea were included. Multiple logistic regression models were used in the analysis. Both male and female students with extremely high stress were more likely to engage in problem drinking than were students with no stress (odds ratios [OR], 1.73 in males and 1.41 in females). The major causes of stress in male students that were associated with problem drinking were conflict with a teacher, trouble with parents, and peer relationships (ORs, 2.47, 1.72, and 1.71, respectively), whereas there are no statistically significant association between causes of stress and problem drinking among female students. Considering stress level, Male students with extremely high stress level were associated with problem drinking regardless of causes of stress, while Female students who felt extremely high levels of stress were more likely to engage in problem drinking due to stress from a conflict with parents, peer relationships, appearance, and financial difficulty (ORs, 1.53, 1.53, 1.46, and 1.47, respectively). Adolescents who engage in problem drinking may be affected by different causes of stress according to sex. Thus, appropriate approaches that reflect sex differences will be helpful to alleviate problem drinking in adolescents and educational authorities need to arrange more effective education program for drinking given positive associations between drinking

  13. Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Yirgalem

    2014-01-01

    The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

  14. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

    Understanding the primary causes of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and how controllable factors--proper heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert problems may help all building owners, operators, and…

  15. Investigation of the Perceived Causes of Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Problems Encountered in School Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Körhasan, Nilüfer; Didiş, M. Gözde

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates a group of pre-service physics teachers' perceptions about the causes of problems in school experience through the attribution theory. The participants were thirteen pre-service physics teachers from a public university in Turkey. Data were collected through the interviews by requesting the participants to reflect their own problems encountered during school experience, and discuss the reasons for these problems. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and code...

  16. Feeding behaivour problems in infants born preterm: a psychological perspective. Preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmita, Grażyna; Urmańska, Wanda; Kiepura, Eliza; Polak, Krystyna

    2011-01-01

    The study was aimed at exploring feeding behaviour problems reported by parents of premature infants during the first 12 months corrected age. A subsample of families enrolled in a larger, prospective project on psychological and biological predictors of self-regulation in preterm children participated in the study. The material consisted of data collected from 40 families of preterm infants in the first and fourth and then at six and twelve months corrected age. The children were divided into two groups according to their gestational age: group 1 - 22 children born before 29th week (mean gestational age 26 Hbd and mean birth weight 905 g) and group 2 - 18 children born between 29th and 34th week (mean gestational age 31 Hbd and mean birth weight 1531 g). Semi-structured interviews and daily activity diaries were used. Qualitative, exploratory analysis of parental descriptions of child's feeding behaviour was performed. No feeding behaviour problems were reported in 31.8% infants in group 1 and 44.4% in group 2, whereas chronic feeding behaviour problems - in the case of 5 infants in group 1 (22.7%) and just in one child in group 2 (5.6%). There was a significant association between "gastrointestinal complications of prematurity" and parental reports of feeding behaviour problems at two and more evaluation times. No relationship was found with such variables as: group, child's gender, method of feeding, mother's postnatal depression, or other complications of prematurity. Six major categories of feeding problems were identified: 1) early regulatory problems, 2) pain and/ or excessive spitting, 3) insufficient weight gain, 4) poor eater, 5) difficulties introducing new taste or consistency, and 6) difficulties with introducing self-feeding. These categories occurred with varying frequencies depending on the child's gestational age and the assessment time. The results point to an interesting diversity and dynamics of feeding behaviour difficulties in babies born

  17. Mutual Influences Between Parental Psychological Distress and Alcohol Use and Child Problem Behavior in a Cohort of Urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrak, Katarzyna A; Green, Kerry M

    2016-10-01

    Parental psychological distress, parental alcohol involvement, and child/adolescent behavior problems frequently occur together with deleterious effects on individuals and families. Extant evidence suggests that parental and child problems are related; however, less is known about the patterns and directions of their relationships over time, particularly among African Americans. This study examined mutual influences between parental psychological distress and alcohol use, and child/adolescent problem behavior over a 10-year period (N = 459), using data from a prospective cohort study of urban African Americans. Using structural equation modeling, we found statistically significant effects between young adult parents' alcohol use and later adolescent problem behavior, as well as child problem behavior and parental alcohol use 10 years later, even after taking into account potential extraneous influences. Findings also demonstrated continuity in parental and child behaviors over time, and several contemporaneous associations. These findings have potential implications for intervention planning among African American families.

  18. [Children's and adolescent's use of medicine for aches and psychological problems: secular trends from 1988 to 2006.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn; Andersen, Anette; Due, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Medicine use for aches and psychological problems is common among adolescents. Medicines are toxic and may have harmful side effects. It is therefore important to study change over time and patterns of medicine use. The objective of this paper is to describe self-reported medicine use......: There was a significant increase in 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old student's use of medicine for aches and psychological problems from 1988 to 2006. In the same period, there was a decrease in the prevalence of students who reported pains monthly. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-5...

  19. Does high tobacco consumption cause psychological distress? A mendelian randomization study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise S.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Petersen, Christina B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence suggests that smoking influences mental health negatively. This study investigated whether high tobacco consumption is causally related to psychological distress in a Mendelian randomization design, using a variant in the nicotine acetylcholine receptor gene CHRNA3...... variable for tobacco consumption. Three dimensions of psychological distress were studied: Stress, fatigue, and hopelessness. Analyses with the CHRNA3 genotype were stratified by smoking status. Results: Self-reported amount of smoking was associated with all three dimensions of psychological distress......, homozygotes and heterozygotes for the CHRNA3 genotype had higher tobacco consumption than noncarriers. Nevertheless, the CHRNA3 genotype was not associated with psychological distress neither in current nor in former or never-smokers. For instance among current smokers, the OR for stress was 1.02 (95% CI 0...

  20. “Asia's Missing Women” as a Problem in Applied Evolutionary Psychology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brooks

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, women and children are so undervalued, neglected, abused, and so often killed, that sex ratios are now strongly male biased. In recent decades, sex-biased abortion has exacerbated the problem. In this article I highlight several important insights from evolutionary biology into both the origin and the severe societal consequences of “Asia's missing women”, paying particular attention to interactions between evolution, economics and culture. Son preferences and associated cultural practices like patrilineal inheritance, patrilocality and the Indian Hindu dowry system arise among the wealthy and powerful elites for reasons consistent with models of sex-biased parental investment. Those practices then spread via imitation as technology gets cheaper and economic development allows the middle class to grow rapidly. I will consider evidence from India, China and elsewhere that grossly male-biased sex ratios lead to increased crime, violence, local warfare, political instability, drug abuse, prostitution and trafficking of women. The problem of Asia's missing women presents a challenge for applied evolutionary psychology to help us understand and ameliorate sex ratio biases and their most severe consequences.

  1. Socio-cultural and psychological problems of foreign students adaptation in a higher school

    OpenAIRE

    Rudenko, N.

    2016-01-01

    The issues related to socio-cultural and cross-cultural adaptation of foreign students have been analysed, the indicators of psychological adaptation have been identified, some aspects of their psychological adjustment have been studied, the concept of «culture shock» in the process of psychological adaptation to the cultural differences between countries has been analysed.

  2. ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN EFFICACY OF TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE STIMU-LATION IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM CHRONIC PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Mirzamani

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients afflicted with chronic pain have both physical and psychological problems. This research investigated the impact of the psychological factors in the treatment results of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS in the patients afflicted with chronic diseases. The subjects were 37 individuals (20 males and 17 females with the mean age of 46 who had referred to two centers of physiotherapy treatment to receive TENS treatment process. Subjects were suffering from chronic pain in upper part of their body, hands and legs. The subjects were tested and screened psychologically by PDQ4+, MPQ, MPI, and BDI questionnaires. On the basis of the personality disorder and the intensity of the depression, they were divided into two groups: 1 patients with psychological symptoms (n = 14; and 2 patients without psychological symptoms (n = 23. In order to study the rate of the pain intensity reduction in both groups, the MPQ questionnaire was used in three stages (before beginning, in the middle and at the end of the treatment. Also, the MPI questionnaire was used in order to review the inter-personal problems, the interference of the pain in life, daily performance and the rate of social support. Results showed that in each group, the pain intensity had significantly reduced as a result of the impact of TENS treatment and the psychological factors did not have meaningful impacts. Also there was statistically significant correlation between the rate of social support of the family members and the reduction of pain intensity.

  3. Adolescents' Viewing of Suicide-Related Web Content and Psychological Problems: Differentiating the Roles of Cyberbullying Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görzig, Anke

    2016-08-01

    Possible links of cyberbullying with suicide and psychological problems have recently received considerable attention. Suicide-related behaviors have also been linked with viewing of associated web content. Studies on traditional bullying indicate that the roles of bullying involvement (bullies, victims, and bully-victims) matter in terms of associations with specific suicide-related behaviors and psychological problems. Yet, related research in the area of cyberbullying is lacking. The current study investigates the association of cyberbullying roles with viewing of specific suicide-related web content and psychological problems. Data from N = 19,406 (50 percent girls) 11-16-year-olds (M = 13.54, SD = 1.68) of a representative sample of Internet-using children in Europe were analyzed. Self-reports were obtained for cyberbullying role, viewing of web content related to self-harm, and suicide, as well as the emotional, peer, and conduct problem subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that compared with those not involved in cyberbullying, viewing of web content related to suicide was higher for cybervictims and cyberbully-victims, but not for cyberbullies. Viewing of web content related to self-harm was higher for all cyberbullying roles, especially for cyberbully-victims. Rates of emotional problems were higher among cybervictims and cyberbully-victims, rates of peer problems were higher for cybervictims, and rates of conduct problems were higher for all cyberbullying roles. Moreover, the links between cyberbullying role and viewing of suicide-related web content were independent of psychological problems. The results can be useful to more precisely target efforts toward the specific problems of each cyberbullying role. The outcomes on viewing of web content also indicate an opportunity to enhance the presence of health service providers on Internet platforms.

  4. The Assessment of 21st Century Skills in Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Complex and Collaborative Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Neubert, Jonas; Mainert, Jakob; Kretzschmar, André; Greiff, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    In the current paper, we highlight why and how industrial and organizational psychology can take advantage of research on 21st century skills and their assessment. We present vital theoretical perspectives, a suitable framework for assessment, and exemplary instruments with a focus on advances in the assessment of Human Capital. Specifically, Complex Problem Solving (CPS) and Collaborative Problem Solving (ColPS) are two transversal skills (i.e., skills that span multiple domains) that are...

  5. Educational differences in continuing or restarting drinking in early and late pregnancy: role of psychological and physical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfinder, Manuela; Kunst, Anton E; Feldmann, Reinhold; van Eijsden, Manon; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2014-01-01

    Many women continue drinking alcohol during pregnancy. This study aimed to describe educational differences in continued drinking in early and late pregnancy and to examine the contribution of psychological and physical factors to the explanation of educational differences. We examined 4,885 women enrolled in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study. Information on alcohol intake during pregnancy was based on self-reports at the 16th week of gestation and at 3 months postpartum. Only women who reported alcohol intake before pregnancy were included. Explanatory factors were alcohol intake before pregnancy, psychological problems, and physical problems. The risk of continued drinking in early pregnancy was increased in higher educated women (odds ratio [OR] = 1.41, 95% CI [1.25, 1.60]); in addition, in late pregnancy, higher educated women had an increased risk of restarting (OR = 1.67, 95% CI [1.37, 2.04]) and continuing drinking (OR = 1.77, 95% CI [1.36, 2.30]). The intensity of alcohol intake before pregnancy and all physical and psychological problems together explained 17.1% and 8.8% of the educational differences in continued drinking in early pregnancy, respectively. Higher educated women are more likely to continue drinking during pregnancy. The intensity of alcohol intake before pregnancy and physical and psychological problems contributed to the explanation of continued drinking. However, other factors may play a greater role, such as cultural factors and social norms.

  6. Attitudes and stigma in relation to help-seeking intentions for psychological problems in low and high suicide rate regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynders, A.; Kerkhof, A.; Molenberghs, G.; Van Audenhove, C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Accessibility and availability of mental health care services are necessary but not sufficient for people to seek help for psychological problems. Attitudes and stigma related to help seeking also determine help seeking intentions. The aim of this study is to investigate how cross-national

  7. Promoting work participation of non-permanent workers with psychological problems: An evidence-based approach to occupational health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audhoe, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Unemployed and temporary agency workers and workers with expired fixed-term contracts are a particularly vulnerable group, at risk for sickness absence and prolonged work disability due to psychological problems. These workers who are without an employment contract, are also known as non-permanent

  8. Anxious and depressive components of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in maternal postpartum psychological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrozzi, Angela; Gagliardi, Luigi

    2013-07-01

    The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a widely used instrument for screening for postpartum depression, but it might also detect anxiety symptoms. To investigate the factor structure of the EPDS administered immediately after delivery and to understand which factors predict a high EPDS score 3 months later. A cohort of 594 Italian mothers delivering a healthy baby at Versilia Hospital completed the EPDS at two points in time: 2 days after delivery (T0) and 3 months later (T1) by telephone interview. EPDS scores were higher at T0 than at T1. Overall, 15.7% of women at 2 days postpartum and 7.6% at 3 months later reported a score >9. The factor analysis of EPDS at T0 indicated a three-factor structure: "depression" (items 7-10), "anxiety" (items 3-6) and "anhedonia" (items 1-2). Anxious symptoms were quantitatively more important than depressive ones (mean 3.9 vs. 1.2) but tended to spontaneously ameliorate at T1, whereas total EPDS score at T1 was better predicted by depressive symptoms at T0 (discriminative ability 0.75 vs. 0.68). This study suggests that EPDS subscales immediately after delivery help understand the spectrum of maternal postpartum psychological problems. Anxious symptoms immediately after delivery are frequent but transient, linked probably to maternity blues or atypical depression, whereas the presence of depressive symptomatology at T0 suggests higher risk of later depressive disorders.

  9. The Historic Importance of L. S. Vygotsky’s “The Psychology of Art” and Some Problems of Modern Psychological and Pedagogical Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Khinkanina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the importance of L. S. Vygotsky’s paper “The Psychology of Art” in the present time. The shortage of ideal values is the reality of this time that in a certain way arises the issues of children and young people’s cultural evolution. Cultural and historic theory of L. S. Vygotsky touches this problem in a special way. It is the influence of art and culture, psychological and pedagogical processes that is a key element of the personality’s evolution. L. S. Vygotsky’s approach that appeared at a historic period of disturbances in the Soviet state is a fructiferous tree. This tree has a special branch that is an ethical choice between the good and evil.

  10. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THINKING BEFORE THE COGNITIVE REVOLUTION : Otto Selz on Problems, Schemas, and Creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hark, Michel

    Otto Selz has been hailed as one of the most important precursors of the cognitive revolution, yet surprisingly few studies of his work exist. He is often mentioned in the context of the Wurzburg School of the psychology of thinking and sometimes in the context of Gestalt psychology. In this paper,

  11. Psychosocial safety climate as a precursor to conducive work environments, psychological health problems, and employee engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Dollard (Maureen); A.B. Bakker (Arnold)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe constructed a model of workplace psychosocial safety climate (PSC) to explain the origins of job demands and resources, worker psychological health, and employee engagement. PSC refers to policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety.

  12. Psychological effects of environmental noise: Current problems; Psychische Auswirkungen von Umweltlaerm: Aktuelle Fragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guski, R. [Ruhruniversitaet Bochum (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Psychologie

    1995-03-01

    The text presents and discusses psychological effects of environmental noise. Psychological effects are gone into, as well as data that can be recorded psychophysiologically and the social effects of noise. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im vorliegenden Text werden psychische Auswirkungen von Umweltlaerm aufgezeigt und diskutiert. Es wird auf die psychologisch und psychophysiologisch erfassbaren, sowie auf die soziale Auswirkungen des Laerms eingegangen. (orig.)

  13. Examining Differences in Psychological Adjustment Problems among Children Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Boivin, Jacky; Hay, Dale; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.; Rice, Frances J.; Harold, Gordon T.; Thapar, Anita

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether there was variation in levels of psychological adjustment among children conceived through Assisted Reproductive Technologies using the parents' gametes (homologous), sperm donation, egg donation, embryo donation and surrogacy. Information was provided by parents about the psychological functioning of…

  14. Racial disparity: substance dependency and psychological health problems among welfare recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Hines, Lisa D

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the racial disparity of substance dependency and psychological health among White, African American, and Hispanic Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) recipients as well as the relationship between substance dependency and psychological health. It analyzed 1,286 TANF recipients from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data. Analysis of variance indicated that Whites were experiencing more nicotine and alcohol dependency and psychological distress than others, but African Americans and Hispanics were experiencing more cocaine dependency than Whites. Ordinary least squares regression revealed that nicotine dependency is significantly related to the psychological distress of Whites. Alcohol dependency is significantly associated with the psychological distress of three groups. Culturally competent programs are suggested.

  15. Investigation of the Perceived Causes of Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Problems Encountered in School Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis; Didis, M. Gözde

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates a group of pre-service physics teachers' perceptions about the causes of problems in school experience through the attribution theory. The participants were thirteen pre-service physics teachers from a public university in Turkey. Data were collected through the interviews by requesting the participants to reflect their own…

  16. Psychological stress exposure to aged mice causes abnormal feeding patterns with changes in the bout number

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Chihiro; Mogami, Sachiko; Hattori, Tomohisa

    2017-01-01

    Stress responses are affected by aging. However, studies on stress-related changes in feeding patterns with aging subject are minimal. We investigated feeding patterns induced by two psychological stress models, revealing characteristics of stress-induced feeding patterns as “meal” and “bout” (defined as the minimum feeding behavior parameters) in aged mice. Feeding behaviors of C57BL/6J mice were monitored for 24 h by an automatic monitoring device. Novelty stress reduced the meal amount ove...

  17. The Impact of Adolescent Stuttering and Other Speech Problems on Psychological Well-Being in Adulthood: Evidence from a Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline; Shepstone, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Developmental stuttering is associated with increased risk of psychological distress and mental health difficulties. Less is known about the impact of other developmental speech problems on psychological outcomes, or the impact of stuttering and speech problems once other predictors have been adjusted for. Aims: To determine the impact…

  18. Prevalence of Mental Health Problems and Factors Associated with Psychological Distress in Mountain Exercisers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Niedermeier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about potential protective factors against mental health problems is highly needed. Regular physical activity (PA in an outdoor environment, like mountain exercising, might reduce psychological distress. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of mental health problems in mountain exercisers and to detect factors associated with psychological distress. In a cross-sectional design, we collected self-reported data of 1,536 Austrian mountain exercisers. The prevalence of mental health problems and psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, the level of PA International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and affective valence during PA (Feeling Scale were obtained. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to assess factors influencing psychological distress. The prevalence of mental health problems in Austrian mountain exercisers was 14%. Health-enhancing PA level and higher affective valence during PA were significantly associated with lower psychological distress. Minimal PA level was not significantly associated with lower psychological distress compared to inactive PA level. Marital status, education, alpine association membership, and body mass index did not show a significant influence on psychological distress. The prevalence of mental health problems seems to be lower in Austrian mountain exercisers compared to the European population. A health-enhancing PA level and affective valence increasing forms of PA were shown to be associated with lower psychological distress. Results might lead to interventional studies focusing on the potential of outdoor PA, e.g., mountain exercise, as an adjunct treatment in people at risk or with mental health problems.

  19. Developing an integrated framework of problem-based learning and coaching psychology for medical education: a participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Li, Huiping; Pang, Weiguo; Liang, Shuo; Su, Yiliang

    2016-01-05

    Medical schools have been making efforts to develop their own problem-based learning (PBL) approaches based on their educational conditions, human resources and existing curriculum structures. This study aimed to explore a new framework by integrating the essential features of PBL and coaching psychology applicable to the undergraduate medical education context. A participatory research design was employed. Four educational psychology researchers, eight undergraduate medical school students and two accredited PBL tutors participated in a four-month research programme. Data were collected through participatory observation, focus groups, semi-structured interviews, workshop documents and feedback surveys and then subjected to thematic content analysis. The triangulation of sources and member checking were used to ensure the credibility and trustworthiness of the research process. Five themes emerged from the analysis: current experience of PBL curriculum; the roles of and relationships between tutors and students; student group dynamics; development of self-directed learning; and coaching in PBL facilitation. On the basis of this empirical data, a systematic model of PBL and coaching psychology was developed. The findings highlighted that coaching psychology could be incorporated into the facilitation system in PBL. The integrated framework of PBL and coaching psychology in undergraduate medical education has the potential to promote the development of the learning goals of cultivating clinical reasoning ability, lifelong learning capacities and medical humanity. Challenges, benefits and future directions for implementing the framework are discussed in this paper.

  20. Psychological problems relating to the educated elite in some Pacific peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J; Eastwell, H D

    1980-09-01

    The educated elite of many Pacific peoples are exposed both to traditional cultural influences on the one hand and to a Western mode of education and an urban life style on the other. Examples are given of the problems that arise among the Melanesians of Fiji, the Polynesians of Tonga, Western Samoa and the Cook Islands and the Aborigines of Australia from the existence of these two sets of values. Conflict areas include money, property ownership, health care, family boundaries and adoption. The content and form of the conflicts are shaped by the original culture but the basic cause in each case is differential rates of modernization among members of the same ethnic group.

  1. Financial problems and psychological distress: Investigating reciprocal effects among business owners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorgievski, M.J.; Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Veen, van der H.B.; Giesen, C.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Building on conservation of resources theory and the dynamic equilibrium model, this three-wave longitudinal study among 260 Dutch agricultural business owners (1-year time intervals) investigated reciprocal relationships between the financial situation of the business and psychological distress.

  2. Problems of regulatory diapason exposure of law enforcement authorities’ employees psychological adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia K. Deinekina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article, using theory and experiment, justifies the necessity of regulatory diapason exposure of psychological health of law enforcement authorities’ employees according to neurotization, psychotization, aggression and emotional stability signs.

  3. Technology Addiction among Treatment Seekers for Psychological Problems: Implication for Screening in Mental Health Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Aswathy; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Thamilselvan, P.; Marimuthu, P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Technology usage has seen an increase among users. The usage varies from social, personal, and psychological reasons. Users are frequently using to overcome mood states as well as to manage the other psychological states. This work is going to explore the information technology use among subjects with a psychiatric disorder. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 subjects were assessed using background data sheet, internet addiction impairment index, video game use pattern, pornogra...

  4. Didactics and its Relation to Educational Psychology: Problems in Translating a Key Concept Across Research Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansanen, Pertti

    2002-11-01

    Didactics, meaning the systematic study of the instructional process, has a long tradition in many European countries. In Anglo-American literature, however, didactics is largely absent. Instead, it is often dealt with under the heading of educational psychology, curriculum theory or some other heading. In this article the author clarifies the distinction between educational psychology and didactics, and argues that didactics is a valuable concept whose absence in the Anglo-American tradition of educational studies is a disadvantage.

  5. Family environment and adolescent psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior: a pioneer study in a Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1997-03-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents.

  6. Survey of editors and reviewers of high-impact psychology journals: statistical and research design problems in submitted manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alex; Reeder, Rachelle; Hyun, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    The authors surveyed 21 editors and reviewers from major psychology journals to identify and describe the statistical and design errors they encounter most often and to get their advice regarding prevention of these problems. Content analysis of the text responses revealed themes in 3 major areas: (a) problems with research design and reporting (e.g., lack of an a priori power analysis, lack of congruence between research questions and study design/analysis, failure to adequately describe statistical procedures); (b) inappropriate data analysis (e.g., improper use of analysis of variance, too many statistical tests without adjustments, inadequate strategy for addressing missing data); and (c) misinterpretation of results. If researchers attended to these common methodological and analytic issues, the scientific quality of manuscripts submitted to high-impact psychology journals might be significantly improved.

  7. Circumstances and underlying causes of suicidal attempts in teen patients of mental health facilities – a psychological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Stradomska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper brings together and summarizes the results of a study carried out in 2011–2015, aimed at analysing circumstances and reasons underlying adolescent suicidal attempts. Material and methods: The studied group comprised 115 patients hospitalised due to having attempted suicide, aged 13–19 years old, based in 3 voivodeships, namely the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Lubelskie Voivodeship, and Podkarpackie Voivodeship. The results of the study have been subject to quantitative and qualitative analysis. Results: Our analysis has demonstrated that in the opinion of 95% of the patients another suicide previously committed in their environment inspired their own suicidal attempt. A significant proportion of the participants of the study (88% claims suicidal behaviours in a person’s environment to be conducive to similar behaviours not only in adolescents, but across all age groups alike. A majority of participants have admitted possessing a lack of sufficient knowledge concerning mental health and wellbeing. Nor do they receive effective help, feeling emotional distress, yet failing to meet with any response on the part of their relatives and friends, who seem not to take teenagers’ psychological condition seriously. Suicidal and depressive disposition is commonly regarded as a sign of mere moodiness, fanciness, being spoilt, or being prone to playing practical jokes. According to the majority of the participants (71%, their relatives had directly influenced their decision to attempt suicide. As much as 88% of the responses provided in the study indicated causes stemming from inadequate communication. Teenagers’ attempts to talk about death-related issues (suicidal issues failed, not being met with understanding on the part of their parents and other caregivers. Conclusions: There is a need for education, prophylaxis, and raising social awareness concerning the problem of suicides. Education on a broad scale

  8. Public Acceptability of E-Mental Health Treatment Services for Psychological Problems: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinário-Hagen, Jennifer; Kemper, Jessica; Stürmer, Carolina

    2017-04-03

    Over the past decades, the deficient provision of evidence-based interventions for the prevention and treatment of mental health problems has become a global challenge across health care systems. In view of the ongoing diffusion of new media and mobile technologies into everyday life, Web-delivered electronic mental health (e-mental health) treatment services have been suggested to expand the access to professional help. However, the large-scale dissemination and adoption of innovative e-mental health services is progressing slowly. This discrepancy between potential and actual impact in public health makes it essential to explore public acceptability of e-mental health treatment services across health care systems. This scoping review aimed to identify and evaluate recent empirical evidence for public acceptability, service preferences, and attitudes toward e-mental health treatments. On the basis of both frameworks for technology adoption and previous research, we defined (1) perceived helpfulness and (2) intentions to use e-mental health treatment services as indicators for public acceptability in the respective general population of reviewed studies. This mapping should reduce heterogeneity and help derive implications for systematic reviews and public health strategies. We systematically searched electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, Psyndex, PsycARTICLES, and Cochrane Library, using reference management software for parallel searches) to identify surveys published in English in peer-reviewed journals between January 2010 and December 2015, focusing on public perceptions about e-mental health treatments outside the context of clinical, psychosocial, or diagnostic interventions. Both indicators were obtained from previous review. Exclusion criteria further involved studies targeting specific groups or programs. The simultaneous database search identified 76 nonduplicate records. Four articles from Europe and Australia were included in this scoping

  9. Sleep Problems as Consequence, Contributor, and Comorbidity: Introduction to the Special Issue on Sleep, Published in Coordination With Special Issues in Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology and Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Dean W

    2016-07-01

    Despite long-standing public and scientific interest in the phenomenon of sleep, the current decade has shown tremendous growth in our understanding of the sleep of children who have medical or developmental conditions. To accommodate, promote, and guide that growth, Journal of Pediatric Psychology, Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology, and Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics have published coordinated special issues, encompassing >30 relevant articles. This article introduces the special issue in Journal of Pediatric Psychology, highlighting papers that illustrate how sleep problems are not only commonly comorbid with childhood medical and developmental conditions; they are also likely caused by and contribute to these conditions. In doing so, these coordinated special issues guide clinical care and reveal opportunities for future research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Impact of psychological problems in chemical warfare survivors with severe ophthalmologic complication, a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaedi Gholamhosein

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfur mustard (SM has been used as a chemical warfare agent since the early twentieth century. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated SM induced ocular injuries, few of those studies have also focused on the psychological health status of victims. This study has evaluated the most prominent influences on the psychological health status of patients with severe SM induced ocular injuries. Methods This descriptive study was conducted on 149 Iranian war veterans with severe SM induced eye injuries. The psychological health status of all patients was assessed using the Iranian standardized Symptom Check List 90-Revised (SCL90-R questionnaire. The results of patients' Global Severity Index (GSI were compared with the optimal cut-off point of 0.4 that has previously been calculated for GSI in Iranian community. The Mann-Whitney U test, T tests and effect sizes (using Cohen's d were employed as statistical methods. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results The mean age of patients was 44.86 (SD = 8.7 and mean duration of disease was 21.58 (SD = 1.20 years. Rate of exposure was once in 99 (66.4% cases. The mean GSI (1.46 of the study group was higher compared to standardized cut off point (0.4 of the Iranian community. The results of this study showed that the mean of total GSI score was higher in participants with lower educational levels (effect size = 0.507, unemployment (effect size = 0.464 and having more than 3 children (effect size = 0.62. Among the participants, 87 (58.4% cases had a positive psychological history for hospitalization or receiving outpatient cares previously and 62 (41.6% cases had a negative psychological history. In addition, the mean of GSI in participants with negative psychological history was lower than those with positive psychological history (Mean Change Difference = -0.621 with SD = 0.120. There was a significant difference between positive and negative psychological history

  11. Mechanisms linking violence exposure and school engagement among african american adolescents: examining the roles of psychological problem behaviors and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R; Neilands, Torsten B; Hunnicutt, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether the relationship between violence exposure and school engagement is mediated by psychological problem behaviors and whether such relationships are gendered. Five hundred and sixty-three high school African American adolescents (ages 13-19 years) completed questionnaires that assessed two types of violence exposure (community violence and marital conflict), psychological problem behaviors (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, anxiety, withdrawal, and aggressive behaviors), and school engagement (i.e., student-teacher connectedness and grade point average [GPA] obtained from school records). For male adolescents, psychological problem behaviors collectively mediated the relationship between community violence exposure and student-teacher connectedness. For female adolescents, both community violence and marital conflict exposure were negatively related to both GPA and student-teacher connectedness via aggressive behavior. Findings suggest that the differential impact of type of violence exposure and its sequela based on gender should be considered when addressing low school engagement among African American youth. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  12. Changes in psychological distress and psychosocial functioning in young people visiting headspace centres for mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickwood, Debra J; Mazzer, Kelly R; Telford, Nic R; Parker, Alexandra G; Tanti, Chris J; McGorry, Patrick D

    2015-06-01

    To examine changes in psychological distress and psychosocial functioning in young people presenting to headspace centres across Australia for mental health problems. Analysis of routine data collected from headspace clients who had commenced an episode of care between 1 April 2013 and 31 March 2014, and at 90-day follow-up. A total of 24 034 people aged 12-25 years who had first presented to one of the 55 fully established headspace centres for mental health problems during the data collection period. Main reason for presentation, types of therapeutic services provided, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) scores, and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) scores. Most headspace mental health clients presented with symptoms of depression and anxiety and were likely to receive cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). Younger males were more likely than other age- and sex-defined groups to present for anger and behavioural problems, while younger females were more likely to present for deliberate self-harm. From presentation to last assessment, over one-third of clients had significant improvements in psychological distress (K10) and a similar proportion in psychosocial functioning (SOFAS). Sixty per cent of clients showed significant improvement on one or both measures. Data regarding outcomes for young people using mental health care services similar to headspace centres are scarce, but the current results compare favourably with those reported overseas, and show positive outcomes for young people using headspace centres.

  13. The Effect of Yoga Nidra on Psychological Problems of Woman with Menstrual Disorders: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushbu Rani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Menstrual disorders are common problems among women in the reproductive age group. Yuga interventions may decrease the physical and psychological problems related to menstrual disorders. The present study was aimed to assess the effect of Yoga Nidra on psychological problems in patients with menstrual disorders. Methods: A total number of 100 women recruited from the department of obstetrics and gynecology and were then randomly allocated into two groups: a intervention received yogic intervention and medication for 6 month, and b control group received no yogic intervention and they only received prescribed medication. Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI and hormonal profile were assessed at the time of before and after six months on both groups. Results: The mean score of anxiety, depression, positive well-being, general health, and vitality scores, as well as hormonal levels, in posttest were significantly different in intervention group as compared with pretest. But there was no significant difference in control group. Conclusion: Yoga Nidra can be a successful therapy to overcome the psychiatric morbidity associated with menstrual irregularities. Therefore, Yogic relaxation training (Yoga Nidra could be prescribed as an adjunct to conventional drug therapy for menstrual dysfunction.

  14. 49 CFR 40.269 - What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems cause an alcohol test to be... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.269 What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected? As a BAT...

  15. 49 CFR 40.203 - What problems cause a drug test to be cancelled unless they are corrected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems cause a drug test to be cancelled... PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.203 What problems cause a drug test to be cancelled unless they are corrected? (a) As the MRO, when a...

  16. Finding the Most Uniform Changes in Vowel Polygon Caused by Psychological Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stanek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using vowel polygons, exactly their parameters, is chosen as the criterion for achievement of differences between normal state of speaker and relevant speech under real psychological stress. All results were experimentally obtained by created software for vowel polygon analysis applied on ExamStress database. Selected 6 methods based on cross-correlation of different features were classified by the coefficient of variation and for each individual vowel polygon, the efficiency coefficient marking the most significant and uniform differences between stressed and normal speech were calculated. As the best method for observing generated differences resulted method considered mean of cross correlation values received for difference area value with vector length and angle parameter couples. Generally, best results for stress detection are achieved by vowel triangles created by /i/-/o/-/u/ and /a/-/i/-/o/ vowel triangles in formant planes containing the fifth formant F5 combined with other formants.

  17. A multiple indicator, multiple cause method for representing social capital with an application to psychological distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Peter

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes a structural equation methodology for obtaining social capital scores for survey subjects from multiple indicators of social support, neighbourhood and trust perceptions, and memberships of organizations. It adjusts for variation that is likely to occur in levels of social capital according to geographic context (e.g. level of area deprivation, geographic region, level of urbanity) and demographic group. Social capital is used as an explanatory factor for psychological distress using data from the 2006 Health Survey for England. A highly significant effect of social capital in reducing the chance of psychiatric caseness is obtained after controlling for other individual and geographic risk factors. Allowing for social capital has considerable effects on the impacts on psychiatric health of other risk factors. In particular, the impact of area deprivation category is much reduced. There is also evidence of significant differentiation in social capital between population categories and geographic contexts.

  18. Psychological Support for Young Adults with Down Syndrome: Dohsa-Hou Program for Maladaptive Behaviors and Internalizing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruo Fujino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychological and psychiatric dysfunction is a major problem in a substantial proportion of young adults with Down syndrome. Some patients develop psychiatric issues, such as depressive, obsessive-compulsive, or psychotic-like disorders, in their late adolescence or young adulthood. Furthermore, these individuals may experience moderate to severe emotional and psychological distress. Development of a psychosocial treatment to address these issues is needed in addition to psychotropic medication. The current study reports two cases of young adults with Down syndrome, who presented psychiatric symptoms and marked disruption in their daily lives. These individuals participated in a Dohsa-hou treatment program. Following treatment, adaptive levels, maladaptive behaviors, and internalizing problems were evaluated by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II. Participants showed improvement in maladaptive behaviors and internalizing problems; however, improvement in these areas may be influenced by baseline severity of the problems. This case report suggests that Dohsa-hou could be an effective therapeutic approach for maladaptive and internalizing problems in adults with Down syndrome.

  19. Psychological problems in children of war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder in Bosnia and Herzegovina: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarić, Miro; Francisković, Tanja; Klarić, Branka; Kvesić, Ante; Kastelan, Ana; Graovac, Mirjana; Lisica, Ines Diminić

    2008-08-01

    To assess psychological problems in children as reported by their veteran fathers with war-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study group consisted of 154 veterans with war-related PTSD who were treated at the Mostar University Hospital. The control group consisted of 77 veterans without war-related PTSD who were selected from veteran associations by the snowball method. General Demographic Questionnaire, the first and fourth module of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-Bosnia and Herzegovina version, and the Questionnaire on Developmental, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems in Children, created specifically for the needs of this study, were used to collect data on veterans' perception of psychological problems in their children. In comparison with veterans without PTSD, veterans with PTSD reported significantly more developmental (odds ratio [OR], 2.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51-3.73), behavioral (OR, 3.92; 95% CI, 1.53-10.03), and emotional problems (OR, 17.74; 95% CI, 2.40-131.10) in their children. Veterans with war-related PTSD more often reported developmental problems in their children. Father's PTSD may have long-term and long-lasting consequences on the child's personality.

  20. The problem group? Psychological wellbeing of unmarried people living alone in the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hwa Ho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of unmarried one-person households has increased rapidly among young adults living in the Republic of Korea since 2000. How this rise in solo living is related to psychological wellbeing is of importance to both individuals and society as a whole. Objective: This study examined how living alone is related to psychological wellbeing and how this association differs across attitudes toward marriage among young adults aged 25-39. Methods: We relied on repeated cross-sectional data from the Korea Social Survey (2010 and 2012 to compare unmarried solo residents to both unmarried and married individuals living with family members. Psychological wellbeing was measured in terms of life satisfaction and suicidal ideation over the past twelve months. Results: In general, unmarried solo residents experienced greater life satisfaction than did unmarried family coresidents. Of those with a positive attitude toward marriage, unmarried solo residents had lower life satisfaction than did married family coresidents. For those with a non-positive attitude toward marriage, however, there was no difference in the level of life satisfaction between unmarried solo residents and married family coresidents. Suicidal ideation did not differ by living arrangement. Conclusions: Unmarried solo living does not necessarily relate to lower psychological wellbeing among young adults in Korea. Life stage and attitudes toward marriage should be considered when examining the association between living arrangements and psychological wellbeing.

  1. Dealing with wicked problems: conducting a causal layered analysis of complex social psychological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Brian J; Dzidic, Peta L

    2014-03-01

    Causal layered analysis (CLA) is an emerging qualitative methodology adopted in the discipline of planning as an approach to deconstruct complex social issues. With psychologists increasingly confronted with complex, and "wicked" social and community issues, we argue that the discipline of psychology would benefit from adopting CLA as an analytical method. Until now, the application of CLA for data interpretation has generally been poorly defined and overwhelming for the novice. In this paper we propose an approach to CLA that provides a method for the deconstruction and analysis of complex social psychological issues. We introduce CLA as a qualitative methodology well suited for psychology, introduce the epistemological foundations of CLA, define a space for it adoption within the discipline, and, outline the steps for conducting a CLA using an applied example.

  2. THE MODEL OF IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM MAIN CAUSE SET OF VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Miric

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The term Lean has been widely used in today's product manufacturing and service delivery environments. In its fundamental nature the Lean Philosophy continuously strives for elimination of any kind of waste that exists in such environments. There are six basic strategies [1] related to the Lean Philosophy: Workplace Safety & Order & Cleanliness, JIT production, Six Sigma Quality, Empowered Teams, Visual Management and Pursuit of Perfection. On the journey of sustaining the lean supporting strategies there are many problems, or opportunities as Lean Practitioners call them. The value of some strategies highly depends on the efficiency of the problem solving techniques used to overcome the emerging issues. JIT production is difficult to imagine without a system that supports a high level of operational readiness with equipment uptime above 98%. Six Sigma level of quality, even when built into a product or system design, still undergoes the challenges of day to day operations and the variability brought with it. This variability is the source of waste and lean systems culture strives for continuous reduction of it. Empowered Teams properly trained to recognize the real cause of the problems and their Pursuit of Perfection culture are one of the corner stones of Lean Philosophy sustainability. Their ability to work with Problem Solvers and understand the difference between the "cure of the symptoms" approach versus "problem root cause identification" is one of the distinctions between Lean and Mass operations. Among the series of Statistical Engineering To ols this paper will show one of the techniques that proved to be powerful in the identification of the Set of Variation that contains the Main Cause of the new problems that arise in daily operations. This technique is called Multi - Vari. Multi - Vari is th e statistical engineering method used to analyze the set of data acquired in an organized manner. The set could be analyzed graphically or

  3. Psychological stress exposure to aged mice causes abnormal feeding patterns with changes in the bout number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chihiro; Mogami, Sachiko; Hattori, Tomohisa

    2017-11-09

    Stress responses are affected by aging. However, studies on stress-related changes in feeding patterns with aging subject are minimal. We investigated feeding patterns induced by two psychological stress models, revealing characteristics of stress-induced feeding patterns as "meal" and "bout" (defined as the minimum feeding behavior parameters) in aged mice. Feeding behaviors of C57BL/6J mice were monitored for 24 h by an automatic monitoring device. Novelty stress reduced the meal amount over the 24 h in both young and aged mice, but as a result of a time course study it was persistent in aged mice. In addition, the decreased bout number was more pronounced in aged mice than in young mice. The 24-h meal and bout parameters did not change in either the young or aged mice following water avoidance stress (WAS). However, the meal amount and bout number increased in aged mice for 0-6 h after WAS exposure but remained unchanged in young mice. Our findings suggest that changes in bout number may lead to abnormal stress-related feeding patterns and may be one tool for evaluating eating abnormality in aged mice.

  4. Childhood trauma as a cause of psychosis: linking genes, psychology, and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Winkel, Ruud; van Nierop, Martine; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have provided robust evidence for an association between childhood trauma (CT) and psychosis. Meta-analyses have quantified the association, pointing to odds ratios in the order of around 3, and prospective studies have shown that reverse causation is unlikely to explain the association. However, more work is needed to address the possibility of a gene-environment correlation, that is, whether genetic risk for psychosis predicts exposure to CT. Nevertheless, multiple studies have convincingly shown that the association between CT and psychosis remains strong and significant when controlling for genetic risk, in agreement with a possible causal association. In addition, several studies have shown plausible psychological and neurobiological mechanisms linking adverse experiences to psychosis, including induction of social defeat and reduced self-value, sensitization of the mesolimbic dopamine system, changes in the stress and immune system, and concomitant changes in stress-related brain structures, such as the hippocampus and the amygdala, findings that should be integrated, however, in more complex models of vulnerability. It is currently unclear whether genetic vulnerability plays a role in conferring the mental consequences of adversity, and which genes are likely to be involved. The current, limited evidence points to genes that are not specifically involved in psychosis but more generally in regulating mood (serotonin transporter gene), neuroplasticity (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), and the stress-response system (FKBP5), in line with a general effect of CT on a range of mental disorders, rather than suggesting specificity for psychosis.

  5. Methodology and Psychological Knowledge Issues in the Procedural Differentiation Sphere and the Evidence Doctrine: Problems of Theory and Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey S. Tsyganenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to actual problems of the theory and legislation of the modern criminal trial based on provisions of differentiation of a procedural form. Its basic provisions belong also to questions of evidentiary activity. Characteristics of knowledge on criminal case will claim the psychological knowledge and categories included in the mechanism of legal regulation of criminal procedure activity. Key role is allocated for the principle of freedom of an assessment of proofs. In this case the assessment of proofs is carried out on internal belief. Historically it is connected with institute of jury trial and competitiveness. Both the principle of freedom of assessment of proofs, and many other provisions of the procedural theory and the legislation need interpretation and an explanation with use of modern psychological knowledge. At the same time in modern Russian criminal procedure as well as in foreign types of criminal trial the reduced summary or special procedural jurisdictions are actively applied. It means formation of the differentiated model of criminal legal proceedings at which there is a summary process. Simplification of an order of proof on a criminal case through a wide range of exceptions is characteristic of them that constitutes a theoretical and practical problem. At their decision it is necessary to use a modern arsenal of methodology and the theory, including new achievements in the field of psychological knowledge.

  6. Is it time to act? The potential of acceptance and commitment therapy for psychological problems following acquired brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Maria; McDonald, Skye

    2011-01-01

    Behaviour therapies have a well-established, useful tradition in psychological treatments and have undergone several major revisions. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and mindfulness-based approaches are considered a third wave of behavioural therapies. Emerging evidence for ACT has demonstrated that this paradigm has promising effectiveness in improving functionality and well-being in a variety of populations that have psychological disturbances and/or medical problems. In this review we first evaluate traditional cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions used to manage psychological problems in distressed individuals who have sustained an acquired brain injury (ABI). We provide an overview of the ACT paradigm and the existent evidence base for this intervention. A rationale is outlined for why ACT-based interventions may have potential utility in assisting distressed individuals who have sustained a mild to moderate ABI to move forward with their lives. We also review emerging evidence that lends preliminary support to the implementation of acceptance and mindfulness-based interventions in the rehabilitation of ABI patient groups. On the basis of existent literature, we recommend that it is an opportune time for forthcoming research to rigorously test the efficacy of ACT-based interventions in facilitating ABI patient groups to re-engage in living a valued and meaningful life, in spite of their neurocognitive and physical limitations. The promising utility of testing the efficacy of the ACT paradigm in the context of multimodal rehabilitation programmes for ABI populations is also addressed. PMID:21246445

  7. LONELINESS IN THE AGE OF ADOLESCENCE AS A SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Zheleznyakova

    2013-03-01

    A teenager acquires social experience in the course of establishing various social relations. The  development  of  individualization,  weakening  of  relationships  with  the  primary  group, intensi?cation of the social mobility within a society and the general instability provoke the growth of the subjective loneliness. The number of teenagers suffering from subjective loneliness grows in the contemporary society. This feeling, as a rule, leads to deviations in behavior and brings about such dangerous consequences as depression, abuse of drugs and alcohol, gambling addiction  and  even  suicide  attempts.  Thus,  loneliness  results  in  serious  problems.  Parental neglect and lack of parental support seem to be the main reasons which stimulate the feelings of loneliness in teenagers. Positive feedback in the families where teenagers experience the lack of parental support is very weak and inadequate, which cause the stagnation of the subsequent socialization of teenagers.

  8. All-Russian Сonference “Methodological and Applied Problems of Clinical Psychology. Polyakov Readings to the 90th Anniversary of Yu.F. Polyakov”

    OpenAIRE

    none

    2018-01-01

    Moscow State University of Psychology & Education and Mental Health Research Center invites to take part in the All-Russian scientific & practical conference with international participation Methodological and Applied Problems of Clinical Psychology. Polyakov Readings to the 90th Anniversary of Yu. F. Polyakov. Conference will be held on March 15–16, 2018. Conference Venue: March 15 – Mental Health Research Center (Moscow, Kashirskoe sh., 34) March 16 – Moscow State University of Psychology &...

  9. Psychological Development and Educational Problems of Left-Behind Children in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojun; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Yongxin; Xie, Xiaochun; Heath, Melissa A.; Zhou, Zongkui

    2015-01-01

    With China's rapidly developing economy and increasing urbanization, many adults from rural areas migrate to urban areas for better paid jobs. A side effect of this migration is that parents frequently leave their children behind (left-behind children). This research investigated left-behind children's and non-left-behind children's psychological,…

  10. Psychological Problems in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Cross-Sectional European Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Jackie; White-Koning, Melanie; Dickinson, Heather O.; Thyen, Ute; Arnaud, Catherine; Beckung, Eva; Fauconnier, Jerome; Marcelli, Marco; McManus, Vicki; Michelsen, Susan I.; Parkinson, Kathryn; Colver, Allan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To describe psychological symptoms in 8-12-year-old children with cerebral palsy; to investigate predictors of these symptoms and their impact on the child and family. Design: A cross-sectional multi-centre survey. Participants: Eight hundred and eighteen children with cerebral palsy, aged 8-12 years, identified from population-based…

  11. The Relationship between Communication Problems and Psychological Difficulties in Persons with Profound Acquired Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, John F.; Lansing, Charissa R.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-seven adults with postlingually acquired profound deafness were administered the Communication Profile for the Hearing Impaired and several tests of psychological functioning and adjustment. Inadequate communication strategies and poor accommodations to deafness were associated with depression, social introversion, loneliness, and social…

  12. Problems in place: Using discursive social psychology to investigate the meanings of seasonal homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan R. Van Patten; Daniel R. Williams

    2008-01-01

    Researchers continue to explore the nature of place meanings and especially how these meanings are created, disseminated and contested. This paper uses the conceptual framework of discursive social psychology to identify varying interpretive frames homeowners use to characterize the meaning and significance of their seasonal homes as vacation and recreation residences...

  13. Social Psychology, Social Science, and Economics: Twentieth Century Progress and Problems, Twenty-First Century Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James S.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…

  14. What Are the Long-Term Economic Costs of Psychological Problems during Childhood? Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has established evidence of a strong link between poor physical health during childhood (and even in utero) and health and economic outcomes much later in adulthood. But much less is known about the long-term economic consequences of psychological conditions experienced during childhood, although childhood psychological…

  15. The Asymmetrical Quality of Psychological Internet Resources for Addressing Common versus Rare Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Matt; Simonin, Danielle; Morse, Laura; Smith, Allyson; Maloney, Colleen; Wright, Cara; Underwood, Michelle; Hoppel, Andrea; O'Donnell, Shannon; Chambliss, Catherine

    The Internet provides a new means of obtaining psychological health care, but Internet site quality varies widely. To help in the search for reliable information in cyberspace, a ratings scale, which assesses six dimensions of site quality (accuracy, practicality, normalization, sense of belonging, referral, and feedback mechanisms) is offered…

  16. The Problem of Socio-Psychological Adjustment of Personality in the Scientists' Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryakova, ?atyana A.; Morozova, Lyudmila B.; Kochneva, Elena M.; Zharova, Darya V.; Skitnevskaya, Larisa V.; Kostina, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    Instability and unpredictability of the present stage of social development make the study of social and psychological adjustment of personality to the social environment a highly topical issue. The article presents the results of an empirical research on social personality adaptation. Evident is the close relations between social and…

  17. Feminist Psychology and the "Body Problem": Sexuality, Physical Appearance, and Women's Physical and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    2011-01-01

    Reductionistic, misogynistic, and heterosexist views of women's bodies have been often expressed and widely shared, and psychology has not been immune to those views. Second-wave feminist psychologists had plenty of work to do to normalize and destigmatize women's bodies and to point out that cultural pressures, social constructions, and…

  18. The psychological aspects of intensive care units

    OpenAIRE

    G. Dannenfeldt

    1982-01-01

    The technical and physical care of the critically ill patient has been perfected, but the psychological aspects of intensive nursing care have to a greater or lesser extent been neglected. The objective of this article is to highlight the causes of psychological problems in an intensive care unit, how to recognise these problems and above all how to prevent or correct them.

  19. What Patterns of Postpartum Psychological Distress Are Associated with Maternal Concerns about Their Children's Emotional and Behavioural Problems at the Age of Three Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks…

  20. Vocal problems among teachers: a review of prevalence, causes, prevention, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiske, J A; Oates, J M; Greenwood, K M

    1998-12-01

    Voice disorders are thought to be one of the major occupational hazards of school teaching. The resulting symptoms can affect teachers' ability to function in the classroom and prevent them from developing effective working relationships with other staff and students. Sick leave, speech pathology management, and surgical intervention can be costly. Severe voice problems can also result in a teacher permanently leaving the classroom. Despite the significant implications of voice disorders for teachers, this review of published research demonstrates that findings concerning the prevalence of voice problems in teachers and the causes and contributing factors of those voice problems are inconclusive. Similarly, previous research on the efficacy of prevention programs and treatment of voice problems in teachers provide few firm conclusions. Further research based on sound empirical data is needed, as many past studies have relied on anecdotal or self-report data. More operational definitions of what constitutes a voice disorder and the associated contributing factors should be adopted, along with the use of more instrumental measures and careful attention to methodology and appropriate statistical analyses. Only then will we have a sound basis for the development of effective prevention and education programs for teachers.

  1. Sorting and recycling of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O; Ebbehøj, N

    1995-01-01

    In order to reduce the strain on the environment from the deposition of waste in landfills and combustion at incineration plants, several governments throughout the industrialized world have planned greatly increased recycling of domestic waste by the turn of the millennium. To implement the plans......, new waste recycling facilities are to be built and the number of workers involved in waste sorting and recycling will increase steadily during the next decade. Several studies have reinforced the hypothesis that exposure to airborne microorganisms and the toxic products thereof are important factors...... causing a multitude of health problems among workers at waste sorting and recycling plants. Workers at transfer stations, landfills and incineration plants may experience an increased risk of pulmonary disorders and gastrointestinal problems. High concentrations of total airborne dust, bacteria, faecal...

  2. Research Review: What we have learned about the causes of eating disorders - a synthesis of sociocultural, psychological, and biological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Kristen M; Racine, Sarah E; Klump, Kelly L

    2015-11-01

    Eating disorders are severe psychiatric disorders with a complex etiology involving transactions among sociocultural, psychological, and biological influences. Most research and reviews, however, focus on only one level of analysis. To address this gap, we provide a qualitative review and summary using an integrative biopsychosocial approach. We selected variables for which there were available data using integrative methodologies (e.g., twin studies, gene-environment interactions) and/or data at the biological and behavioral level (e.g., neuroimaging). Factors that met these inclusion criteria were idealization of thinness, negative emotionality, perfectionism, negative urgency, inhibitory control, cognitive inflexibility, serotonin, dopamine, ovarian hormones. Literature searches were conducted using PubMed. Variables were classified as risk factors or correlates of eating disorder diagnoses and disordered eating symptoms using Kraemer et al.'s (1997) criteria. Sociocultural idealization of thinness variables (media exposure, pressures for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, thinness expectancies) and personality traits (negative emotionality, perfectionism, negative urgency) attained 'risk status' for eating disorders and/or disordered eating symptoms. Other factors were identified as correlates of eating pathology or were not classified given limited data. Effect sizes for risk factors and correlates were generally small-to-moderate in magnitude. Multiple biopsychosocial influences are implicated in eating disorders and/or disordered eating symptoms and several can now be considered established risk factors. Data suggest that psychological and environmental factors interact with and influence the expression of genetic risk to cause eating pathology. Additional studies that examine risk variables across multiple levels of analysis and that consider specific transactional processes amongst variables are needed to further elucidate the intersection of

  3. Shiftwork-Mediated Disruptions of Circadian Rhythms and Sleep Homeostasis Cause Serious Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman Khan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiftwork became common during the last few decades with the growing demands of human life. Despite the social inactivity and irregularity in habits, working in continuous irregular shifts causes serious health issues including sleep disorders, psychiatric disorders, cancer, and metabolic disorders. These health problems arise due to the disruption in circadian clock system, which is associated with alterations in genetic expressions. Alteration in clock controlling genes further affects genes linked with disorders including major depression disorder, bipolar disorder, phase delay and phase advance sleep syndromes, breast cancer, and colon cancer. A diverse research work is needed focusing on broad spectrum changes caused by jet lag in brain and neuronal system. This review is an attempt to motivate the researchers to conduct advanced studies in this area to identify the risk factors and mechanisms. Its goal is extended to make the shift workers aware about the risks associated with shiftwork.

  4. The Effect of Psychological Suzhi on Problem Behaviors in Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Subjective Social Status and Self-esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzeng Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined subjective social status (SSS and self-esteem as potential mediators between the association of psychological suzhi and problem behaviors in a sample of 1271 Chinese adolescents (44.5% male, grades 7–12. The results showed that SSS and self-esteem were fully mediating the relationship between psychological suzhi and problem behaviors. Moreover, the indirect effect was stronger via self-esteem than via SSS. These findings perhaps provide insight into the preliminary effect that SSS and self-esteem underlie psychological suzhi’s effect on adolescents’ problem behaviors, and also are important in helping school-teachers and administrators to develop a better understanding of problem behaviors in their schools as a pre-requisite to the development of more effective behaviors management practices from the perspective of psychological suzhi. Implications and limitations in the present study have also been discussed.

  5. The Effect of Psychological Suzhi on Problem Behaviors in Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Subjective Social Status and Self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangzeng; Zhang, Dajun; Pan, Yangu; Ma, Yuanxiao; Lu, Xingyue

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined subjective social status (SSS) and self-esteem as potential mediators between the association of psychological suzhi and problem behaviors in a sample of 1271 Chinese adolescents (44.5% male, grades 7-12). The results showed that SSS and self-esteem were fully mediating the relationship between psychological suzhi and problem behaviors. Moreover, the indirect effect was stronger via self-esteem than via SSS. These findings perhaps provide insight into the preliminary effect that SSS and self-esteem underlie psychological suzhi's effect on adolescents' problem behaviors, and also are important in helping school-teachers and administrators to develop a better understanding of problem behaviors in their schools as a pre-requisite to the development of more effective behaviors management practices from the perspective of psychological suzhi. Implications and limitations in the present study have also been discussed.

  6. Psychological Distress during Ovarian Cancer Treatment: Improving Quality by Examining Patient Problems and Advanced Practice Nursing Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Kline O'Sullivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Significance. Ovarian cancer patients are prone to psychological distress. The clinical significance and best practices for distress among this population are poorly understood. Method. Secondary analysis of research records from a six month randomized control trial included 32 women with primary ovarian cancer. All received 18 advanced practice nurse (APN visits over six months. Three sub-samples were determined by distress level (high/low and mental health service consent for high distress. Demographic, clinical factors, patient problems and APN interventions obtained through content analysis and categorized via the Omaha System were compared. Results. Clinically-significant psychiatric conditions were identified in 8/18 (44% high distress subjects consenting to mental health intervention. High distress subjects who refused mental health intervention had more income and housing problems than the other subjects, received the fewest interventions at baseline, and progressively more throughout the study, exceeding the other sub-samples by study completion. Conclusions. Highly-distressed women not psychologically ready to work through emotional consequences of cancer at treatment onset may obtain support from APNs to manage cancer problems as they arise. Additional studies may identify best practices for all highly-distressed women with cancer, particularly those who do not accept mental health services for distress, but suffer from its effects.

  7. Effects of lifetime tobacco, alcohol and drug use on psychological and behavioral problems among 10th grade students in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Cuneyt; Evren, Bilge; Bozkurt, Muge; Ciftci-Demirci, Arzu

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of life-time tobacco, alcohol, and substance use on psychological and behavioral variables among 10th grade students in Istanbul/Turkey. This study employed a cross-sectional online self-report survey conducted in 45 schools from the 15 districts in Istanbul. The questionnaire featured a section about use of substances, including tobacco, alcohol, and drugs. The depression, anxiety, anger, assertiveness, sensation seeking and impulsiveness subscales of the Psychological Screening Test for Adolescents (PSTA) were used. The analyses were conducted based on 4957 subjects. Logistic regression analyses were conducted with each school with the related and behavioral variables as the dependent variables. Gender, tobacco, alcohol, and drug use being the independent variables. All four independent variables predicted the dependent variables. Lifetime tobacco and drug use had significant effects on all the subscale score, whereas lifetime alcohol use had significant effects on all the subscale scores other than lack of assertiveness, and male gender was a significant covariant for all the subscale scores. Drug use showed the highest effect on dependent variables. Interaction was found between effects of tobacco and alcohol on anxiety, whereas interactions were found between effects of tobacco and drugs on lack of assertiveness and impulsiveness. The findings suggested that male students with lifetime tobacco, alcohol or drug use have particularly high risk of psychological and behavioral problems. The unique effects of substance clusters on these problems may be useful in developing secondary preventive practices for substance use and abuse problems in Istanbul.

  8. The Effect of Psychological Suzhi on Problem Behaviors in Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Subjective Social Status and Self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Guangzeng Liu; Dajun Zhang; Yangu Pan; Yuanxiao Ma; Xingyue Lu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined subjective social status (SSS) and self-esteem as potential mediators between the association of psychological suzhi and problem behaviors in a sample of 1271 Chinese adolescents (44.5% male, grades 7–12). The results showed that SSS and self-esteem were fully mediating the relationship between psychological suzhi and problem behaviors. Moreover, the indirect effect was stronger via self-esteem than via SSS. These findings perhaps provide insight into the preliminar...

  9. ASSESSMENT OF THE GENERAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CAUSED BY VIBRATIONS AT DRIVERS OF HEAVY MOTOR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanela Čajlaković Kurtalić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presented a research that estimates general psychological and functional characteristics of motor vehicle drivers, with the goal of determining the adverse effects of noise and vibration on the drivers. The study was conducted on a sample of 56 participants, professional drivers of motor vehicles, randomly chosen from companies of various types operating in transport of passengers and goods. For the evaluation of the results,we used descriptive and correlational analysis. The results showed that there were significant negative side effects caused by the nature of work of drivers, especially those under the influence of noise and vibration, which are even more significant in older participants and those with more years of service and those who spend more time driving during the interval of 24 hours , as well as those who drive heavier vehicles.

  10. The role of paternal drinking problems in the psychological characteristics of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jong Sung; Jung, Jin Gyu; Ryou, Young Il; Kim, Young Seok; Uh, Won Chul

    2013-11-01

    It has been reported that children with parental drinking problems are at increased risk of drinking problems or psychiatric diseases in adulthood. The present study was conducted to examine the psychiatric characteristics of high school students according to paternal drinking problems. The subjects were 950 high school students (390 male and 560 female). The paternal drinking problems were assessed by using the Father-Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Beck's depression inventory, and Beck's anxiety inventory were used to evaluate the drinking behavior, depression, and anxiety of high school students. While male students with paternal drinking problems showed significantly increased risk of anxiety (odds ratio [OR], 2.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 4.63), female students with paternal drinking problems showed significantly increased risk of depression (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.74) according to the results of logistic regression analysis with adjustments for participants' age, whether they live together with parents, their religion, club activities, and smoking habits on the basis of students without paternal drinking problems. The above results suggest that paternal drinking problems lead to unstable mentalities in both male and female students, and that a family physician should address the mental state of teenagers with paternal drinking problems during clinical encounters.

  11. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  12. Internet-Based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Psychological Distress Experienced by People With Hearing Problems: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molander, Peter; Hesser, Hugo; Weineland, Sandra; Bergwall, Kajsa; Buck, Sonia; Hansson-Malmlöf, Johan; Lantz, Henning; Lunner, Thomas; Andersson, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    Psychological distress and psychiatric symptoms are prevalent among people with hearing loss or other audiological conditions, but psychological interventions for these groups are rare. This article describes the study protocol for a randomized controlled trial for evaluating the effect of a psychological treatment delivered over the Internet for individuals with hearing problems and concurrent psychological distress. Participants who are significantly distressed will be randomized to either an 8-week Internet-delivered acceptance-based cognitive behavioral therapy (i.e., acceptance and commitment therapy [ACT]), or wa it-list control. We aim to include measures of distress associated with hearing difficulties, anxiety, and depression. In addition, we aim to measure acceptance associated with hearing difficulties as well as quality of life. The results of the trial may further our understanding of how to best treat people who present problems with both psychological distress and hearing in using the Internet.

  13. Virtual reality in the psychological treatment for mental health problems: An systematic review of recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valmaggia, Lucia R; Latif, Leila; Kempton, Matthew J; Rus-Calafell, Maria

    2016-02-28

    The aim of this paper is to provide a review of controlled studies of the use of Virtual Reality in psychological treatment (VRT). Medline, PsychInfo, Embase and Web of Science were searched. Only studies comparing immersive virtual reality to a control condition were included. The search resulted in 1180 articles published between 2012 and 2015, of these, 24 were controlled studies. The reviewed studies confirm the effectiveness of VRT compared to treatment as usual, and show similar effectiveness when VRT is compared to conventional treatments. Current developments and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in Sleep Problems and Psychological Flexibility Following Interdisciplinary Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Chronic Pain: An Observational Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling Daly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Cognitive and behavioral treatments (CBT for sleep problems and chronic pain have shown good results, although these results could improve. More recent developments based on the psychological flexibility model, the model underlying Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT may offer a useful addition to traditional CBT. The aim of this study was to examine whether an ACT-based treatment for chronic pain is associated with improved sleep. Secondly, we examined the associations between changes on measures of psychological flexibility and sleep-related outcomes.Methods: The study used an observational cohort methodology. Participants were 252 patients (73.8% female attending a four-week, interdisciplinary, pain management program in London, United Kingdom. Participants completed standard self-report measures of pain and functioning, sleep outcomes, and processes of psychological flexibility. Pre- to post-treatment, and pre-treatment to follow-up measures were examined for statistically significant differences using paired samples t-tests. Secondarily, hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine change in process measures in relation to change in treatment outcome.Results: Participants showed statistically significant improvements (all p<.001 at post-treatment on measures of insomnia severity (d=.45, sleep interference (d=61, and sleep efficiency (d=.32. Significant improvements in insomnia severity and sleep interference were also observed at nine-month follow up. Small to medium effect sizes were observed across the sleep outcomes. Statistically significant changes were also observed on measures of psychological flexibility, and these improvements were significantly associated with improvements on sleep-related outcomes, independently contributing up to 19% of unique variance. Conclusion: This study supports the potential usefulness of ACT-based treatments for chronic pain for addressing co-occurring sleep difficulties

  15. “It's Your Problem. Deal with It.” Performers' Experiences of Psychological Challenges in Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Pecen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Musicians need to deal with a range of challenges during their performance career and in response to these have reported a number of conditions that impact on their performance. Although social support from peers and teachers has been identified as part of the process of dealing with these challenges, little is understood about musicians' coping methods, beliefs and their attitudes toward support. Therefore, this study aimed to explore (a performers' previous experiences of psychological challenges, (b the types of support they used and, (c how this might inform future support programs in learning environments. Fifteen interviews were conducted with pre-elite (n = 5 transitioning elite (n = 3 and established elite performers (n = 7 in order to elicit data on psychological challenges, coping, beliefs and preferences for support. Inductive content analysis suggested that elite performers in this sample reported positive health habits, philosophical views of performance, health and life, positive anxiety reappraisal, and use of various psychological strategies, albeit without being explicitly aware of it. The need for various professional skills (e.g., communication, business, self-management, and organizational skills was emphasized by all participants. Transition into conservatoire was marked by severe psychological challenges, disorders and trauma. Primary sources of support included friends, family and self-help literature. Professional help was predominantly sought for physical problems. The impact of teachers was paramount, yet securing good teachers was considered a matter of “luck.” The most negative aspects recounted included abusive teachers, unsupportive environments, social comparison, competition, and disillusionment after entering the profession. Participants believed that talent could be developed and also valued wellbeing in relation to performance. Positive effects of late specialization on social development and professional

  16. Is sadness blue? The problem of using figurative language for emotions on psychological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchard, Kimberly A; Grob, Kelly E; Roe, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    Psychological tests sometimes include figurative language like I feel blue. However, figurative language may not mean the same thing cross-culturally. Previous research found cross-cultural evidence for 14 conceptual metaphors and metonymies for emotions (e.g., sadness is blue). Our two studies asked participants (total n = 795) in the USA and India whether happiness, sadness, anger, and fear are associated with certain descriptors (blue, down, bright, etc.). Most participants in both countries endorsed ten of the 14 hypothesized associations; however, the percentage of participants endorsing an association was often far from 100 %. For example, in the USA, only 71.7 % associated hot with anger and only 65.9 % associated blue with sadness. Moreover, descriptors were often associated with more than one emotion. Furthermore, only two associations (happiness is up and bright) were endorsed by more than 90 % of participants in both countries and had descriptors that were not associated with additional emotions. We conclude that figurative language is often ambiguous and should be used with caution on psychological tests unless there is evidence the language is understood cross-culturally. Advice to this effect is currently lacking from psychometrics textbooks and should be added.

  17. [The psychological dynamics of Kurt Lewin. The problem of the relation between mechanics and phenomenology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    By reviewing especially Lewin's researches from his German period - which are important insofar as they exhibit the epistemological grounds of his whole work, as well as his fundamental insights into the "structure of mind" - the Author points out a series of difficulties inherent in Lewin's original approach. Such difficulties also explain why Lewin's grandiose program to develop a scientific psychology, more mathematico-galilaeiano, was after his time abandoned. Indeed, if on the one hand a rereading of Lewin's epistemology reveals the unexpected debt he pays to the mechanical model of thought, yet, on the other hand, a careful analysis of his notion of "field," otherwise fruitful, shows that he can neither consistently exploit his phenomenological view of the field as a "space of life," nor adequately deal with the human subject by the mere experimental method. As a matter of fact, the brave effort to join the two patterns together - the phenomenological and the experimental-objectivistic-mathematical one - produces a basic ambiguity, owing not so much to Lewin's limitations as to the epochal clash between two patterns that are actual gnoseological and methodological archetypes. Nevertheless, some weakness in Lewin's "dynamic" approach does not seem by itself to prejudge his later social psychology; rather, also in the light of recent historiography, the question of the link between these different moments of his work should be reconsidered.

  18. [Problems of early detection of HIV infection, medical and psychological support of HIV-infected soldiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliukin, I M; Bolekhan, V N; Iusupov, V V; Bulan'kov, Iu I; Orlova, E S

    2015-01-01

    The article contains the analysis of materials about HIV infection and the status of work on its early detection among soldiers. Currently, the figures have a tendency to stabilization, but there is an increase in the persantage of HIV-infected persons performing military service under the contract, as well as the actualization sexual way of infection. The insufficient effectiveness of the barrier screening during the laboratory examination of recruits may contribute the increase in the incidence of HIV infection. Have been reviewed the questions medical-diagnostic and medical-psychological support of HIV-infected soldiers. Been analyzed the social consequences of delays in seeking medical help of patients in this group, the opportunities and challenges of their dispensary observation. It was noted that early detection of HIV infection and proper medical and psychological support in the dynamics of pathological process helps to reduce the number of new cases and improve their outcomes and to reduce the period of efficiency recovery of military personnel.

  19. Problem of Understanding in the Psychology Science Studies of Ukrainian and Russian Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko Natalia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the phenomenon ‘understanding’ from the position of psychological science. The paper also examines the relationship between the categories of ‘understanding’, ‘knowledge’, ‘perception’, ‘sense’, in particular the relationship (interdependence in dyads ‘understanding–knowledge’, ‘understanding–perception’, ‘understanding–sense’. The article also covers the functions of understanding (cognitive, regulatory, ideological, levels of understanding (depth, clarity and completeness, forms of understanding (understanding–recognition, understanding–hypothesis (prediction, understanding–unification, stages of understanding (pre-understanding, a vague understanding, insufficiently clear understanding, a clear understanding, a complete understanding, types of understanding (natural, cultural, creative. The analysis of scientific literature made it possible to draw conclusions that understanding is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon, which can act as a natural and social, conscious and unconscious, objective and subjective, as the process and as the result. Understanding as a psychological phenomenon covers all mental processes: thinking, memory, representation, creative imagination, emotional and volitional processes, properties and abilities of the individual and pervades and mediates cognitive procedures (observation, description, prediction, explanation, etc.. Understanding is the target process, motivated, active, emotional and volitional, productive and individually personal.

  20. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, C.W.

    2001-02-22

    In the modern urban setting, most individuals spend about 80% of their time indoors and are therefore exposed to the indoor environment to a much greater extent than to the outdoors (Lebowitz 1992). Concomitant with this increased habitation in urban buildings, there have been numerous reports of adverse health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) (sick buildings). Most of these buildings were built in the last two decades and were constructed to be energy-efficient. The quality of air in the indoor environment can be altered by a number of factors: release of volatile compounds from furnishings, floor and wall coverings, and other finishing materials or machinery; inadequate ventilation; poor temperature and humidity control; re-entrainment of outdoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and the contamination of the indoor environment by microbes (particularly fungi). Armstrong Laboratory (1992) found that the three most frequent causes of IAQ are (1) inadequate design and/or maintenance of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, (2) a shortage of fresh air, and (3) lack of humidity control. A similar study by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH 1989) recognized inadequate ventilation as the most frequent source of IAQ problems in the work environment (52% of the time). Poor IAQ due to microbial contamination can be the result of the complex interactions of physical, chemical, and biological factors. Harmful fungal populations, once established in the HVAC system or occupied space of a modern building, may episodically produce or intensify what is known as sick building syndrome (SBS) (Cummings and Withers 1998). Indeed, SBS caused by fungi may be more enduring and recalcitrant to treatment than SBS from multiple chemical exposures (Andrae 1988). An understanding of the microbial ecology of the indoor environment is crucial to ultimately resolving many IAQ problems. The incidence of SBS related to multiple

  1. Maternal acceptance and consistency of discipline as buffers of divorce stressors on children's psychological adjustment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolchik, S A; Wilcox, K L; Tein, J Y; Sandler, I N

    2000-02-01

    This study examines whether two aspects of mothering--acceptance and consistency of discipline--buffer the effect of divorce stressors on adjustment problems in 678 children, ages 8 to 15, whose families had divorced within the past 2 years. Children reported on divorce stressors; both mothers and children reported on mothering and internalizing and externalizing problems. Multiple regressions indicate that for maternal report of mothering, acceptance interacted with divorce stressors in predicting both dimensions of adjustment problems, with the pattern of findings supporting a stress-buffering effect. For child report of mothering, acceptance, consistency of discipline, and divorce stressors interacted in predicting adjustment problems. The relation between divorce stressors and internalizing and externalizing problems is stronger for children who report low acceptance and low consistency of discipline than for children who report either low acceptance and high consistency of discipline or high acceptance and low consistency of discipline. Children reporting high acceptance and high consistency of discipline have the lowest levels of adjustment problems. Implications of these results for understanding variability in children's postdivorce adjustment and interventions for divorced families are discussed.

  2. Psychological distress among postpartum mothers of preterm infants and associated factors: a neglected public health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of psychological distress, depression, anxiety, and stress among postpartum Arab mothers of preterm or low birth weight (LBW infants and to identify maternal characteristics that can predict psychological distress among mothers of preterm infants. Methods: A hospital-based study was conducted. A representative sample of 2,091 postpartum mothers was surveyed and 1,659 women (79.3% gave their consent to participate in the study. The study was based on a face-to-face interview with a designed questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measures, medical history, and maternal characteristics. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21. Results: In the study sample, 10.2% of the postpartum mothers had preterm/LBW infants. Depression (29.4 vs. 17.3% and anxiety (26.5 vs. 11.6% were significantly more common among mothers of preterm births compared to mothers of full term infants (p < 0.001. The risk of depression in mothers of preterm/LBW infants was two times the risk in mothers of full term infants, while the risk of anxiety was 2.7 times in mothers of preterm/LBW infants than in mothers of full term infants. Young mothers and those who had less than secondary education (42.0 vs. 21.7%; p = 0.007 and lower monthly household income (72.0 vs. 53.3%; p = 0.024 were more depressed and anxious after the preterm birth when compared with mothers of full term infants. Psychological distress was higher in mothers with history of preterm birth (30.0 vs. 21.7% and delivery complications (52.0 vs. 33.3%. Conclusions: We found a greater risk of depression and anxiety in mothers of preterm births than in mothers of full term infants. Our analysis revealed that depressed and anxious women of preterm infants were younger, less educated, had a lower body weight and low household income than non-depressed and non

  3. Millisecond precision psychological research in a world of commodity computers: new hardware, new problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Richard R; Turner, Garry

    2009-08-01

    Since the publication of Plant, Hammond, and Turner (2004), which highlighted a pressing need for researchers to pay more attention to sources of error in computer-based experiments, the landscape has undoubtedly changed, but not necessarily for the better. Readily available hardware has improved in terms of raw speed; multi core processors abound; graphics cards now have hundreds of megabytes of RAM; main memory is measured in gigabytes; drive space is measured in terabytes; ever larger thin film transistor displays capable of single-digit response times, together with newer Digital Light Processing multimedia projectors, enable much greater graphic complexity; and new 64-bit operating systems, such as Microsoft Vista, are now commonplace. However, have millisecond-accurate presentation and response timing improved, and will they ever be available in commodity computers and peripherals? In the present article, we used a Black Box ToolKit to measure the variability in timing characteristics of hardware used commonly in psychological research.

  4. Risk and safety problem of game environment in studies of foreign psychologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheina E.G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to investigation of playgrounds’ safety, which has recently become a matter of special debates in modern foreign psychology and pedagogy. Under this approach, a reasonable risk is seen as a necessary condition of mental development and as a subject of psycho-pedagogical analysis. The article discusses some of the most topical issues related to risk and safety issues of a game environment. It shows the difference in concepts of risk and danger. Specificity of a risky game draws special attention of scholars. The article provides some research evidence, concerning child behavior on the playgrounds, risky behavior and the approaches to the development of risk assessment techniques in the game environments.

  5. Locational Pricing to Mitigate Voltage Problems Caused by High PV Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Weckx

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a locational marginal pricing algorithm is proposed to control the voltage in unbalanced distribution grids. The increasing amount of photovoltaic (PV generation installed in the grid may cause the voltage to rise to unacceptable levels during periods of low consumption. With locational prices, the distribution system operator can steer the reactive power consumption and active power curtailment of PV panels to guarantee a safe network operation. Flexible loads also respond to these prices. A distributed gradient algorithm automatically defines the locational prices that avoid voltage problems. Using these locational prices results in a minimum cost for the distribution operator to control the voltage. Locational prices can differ between the three phases in unbalanced grids. This is caused by a higher consumption or production in one of the phases compared to the other phases and provides the opportunity for arbitrage, where power is transferred from a phase with a low price to a phase with a high price. The effect of arbitrage is analyzed. The proposed algorithm is applied to an existing three-phase four-wire radial grid. Several simulations with realistic data are performed.

  6. The psychological problems of north korean adolescent refugees living in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Mun; Shin, Ok Ja; Lim, Myung Ho

    2012-09-01

    As the number of North Korean adolescent refugees drastically increased in South Korea, there is a growing interest in them. Our study was conducted to evaluate the mental health of the North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea. The subjects of this study were 102 North Korean adolescent refugees in Hangyeore middle and high School, the public educational institution for the North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea, and 766 general adolescents in the same region. The Korean version of Child Behavior Check List (K-CBCL) standardized in South Korea was employed as the mental health evaluation tool. The adolescent refugees group showed a significantly different score with that of the normal control group in the K-CBCL subscales for sociality (t=29.67, p=0.000), academic performance (t=17.79, p=0.000), total social function (t=35.52, p=0.000), social withdrawal (t=18.01, p=0.000), somatic symptoms (t=28.85, p=0.000), depression/anxiety (t=13.08, p=0.000), thought problems (t=6.24, p=0.013), attention problems (t=4.14, p=0.042), internalized problems (t=26.54, p=0.000) and total problems (t=5.23, p=0.022). The mental health of the North Korean adolescent refugees was severe particularly in internalized problems when compared with that of the general adolescents in South Korea. This result indicates the need for interest in not only the behavior of the North Korean adolescent refugees but also their emotional problem.

  7. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Psychological Therapy in reducing general psychological distress for Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions and Comorbid Mental Health Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Blainey, Sarah Heidi; Rumball, Freya; Mercer, Louise; Evans, Lauren; Beck, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of psychological therapy in reducing psychological distress for adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and co-morbid mental health conditions in routine clinical practice. To explore the effect of individual characteristics and service factors on change in general distress. Method: In a specialist psychological therapies service for adults with ASC, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) self-report questionnai...

  8. The non-problem of free will in forensic psychiatry and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    This article demonstrates that there is no free will problem in forensic psychiatry by showing that free will or its lack is not a criterion for any legal doctrine and it is not an underlying general foundation for legal responsibility doctrines and practices. There is a genuine metaphysical free will problem, but the article explains why it is not relevant to forensic practice. Forensic practitioners are urged to avoid all usage of free will in their forensic thinking and work product because it is irrelevant and spawns confusion. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The contribution of psychological distress to socio-economic differences in cause-specific mortality: a population-based follow-up of 28 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostamo Aini I

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors associated with low social status have been proposed as one possible explanation for the socio-economic gradient in health. The aim of this study is to explore whether different indicators of psychological distress contribute to socio-economic differences in cause-specific mortality. Methods The data source is a nationally representative, repeated cross-sectional survey, "Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population" (AVTK. The survey results were linked with socio-economic register data from Statistics Finland (from the years 1979-2002 and mortality follow-up data up to 2006 from the Finnish National Cause of Death Register. The data included 32451 men and 35420 women (response rate 73.5%. Self-reported measures of depression, insomnia and stress were used as indicators of psychological distress. Socio-economic factors included education, employment status and household income. Mortality data consisted of unnatural causes of death (suicide, accidents and violence, and alcohol-related mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios were calculated using the Cox regression model. Results In unnatural mortality, psychological distress accounted for some of the employment status (11-31% and income level (4-16% differences among both men and women, and for the differences related to the educational level (5-12% among men; the educational level was associated statistically significantly with unnatural mortality only among men. Psychological distress had minor or no contribution to socio-economic differences in CHD mortality. Conclusions Psychological distress partly accounted for socio-economic disparities in unnatural mortality. Further studies are needed to explore the role and mechanisms of psychological distress associated with socio-economic differences in cause-specific mortality.

  10. Psychological and social problems in primary care patients - general practitioners' assessment and classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Marianne; Vedsted, Peter; Christensen, Kaj Sparle

    2013-01-01

    I almen praksis får 11 % af patienterne en diagnose, der vedrører psykisk sygdom. Heraf har halvdelen en depression eller en belastningstilstand. Kun 18 af de 43 tilgængelige diagnoser i ICPC anvendes regelmæssigt. Sociale problemer angives sjældent som primær problemstilling (0,5 %). Uafhængigt ...

  11. Transformational Leadership and Creative Problem-Solving: The Mediating Role of Psychological Safety and Reflexivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeli, Abraham; Sheaffer, Zachary; Binyamin, Galy; Reiter-Palmon, Roni; Shimoni, Tali

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has pointed to the importance of transformational leadership in facilitating employees' creative outcomes. However, the mechanism by which transformational leadership cultivates employees' creative problem-solving capacity is not well understood. Drawing on theories of leadership, information processing and creativity,…

  12. Problem-Based Learning in the Educational Psychology Classroom: Bahraini Teacher Candidates' Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Nina Abdul

    2012-01-01

    There was a concern from faculty at Bahrain Teachers' College that undergraduate Bahraini students lack the necessary competencies needed for success in educational contexts that are conducive to active, student-centered learning. It was decided that the students be introduced to a problem-based learning (PBL) strategy in one of their educational…

  13. Heisenberg, Kandinsky, and the heteromethod convergence problem: lessons from within and beyond psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    During the past 100 years, advances in personality assessment have paralleled key events in art and physics; but for the most part, these parallels have gone unrecognized. In this article, I discuss the ways in which 2 movements in 20th-century art (cubism and nonrepresentational painting) and 2 principles from 20th-century physics (the uncertainty principle and the observer effect) combined to create an intellectual context for the process dissociation approach to personality assessment, a research strategy wherein naturally occurring influences on test scores are deliberately manipulated to illuminate underlying response processes. I discuss core elements of a process-focused paradigm for 21st-century personality assessment including (a) the need for researchers to explore test score divergences as well as convergences, (b) a view of the assessor as active shaper (rather than dispassionate observer) of testee behavior, and (c) the importance of integrating personality assessment concepts and methods with ideas and findings from disciplines within and outside psychology.

  14. Construing contexts: problems and prospects of George Kelly's personal construct psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowers, G H; O'Connor, K P

    1995-02-01

    Kelly's concept of man is that of a scientist formulating hypotheses about the world and revising them in the light of their predictive utility. His position is one of subjective realism by which each of us interprets the world according to personal dimensions termed constructs. Establishing knowledge about how others construe the world is made possible in clinical situations by recourse to two Kellyan methods: the character sketch and the role construct repertory test. The former relies on clinical observation, the latter on statistical sophistication. This divergence in methods has led to an ideological split in the following that Kelly spawned, which need not, however, be a barrier to clinical research in this field. Although not all cognitive therapists are constructivists, they share with the latter the desire to look for core patterns underlying individual maladaptive thoughts and actions. Kelly's methods can be applied to the functional analysis favoured by cognitive behaviourists, with clinical gains resulting from the quicker access this provides to personal meaning. But cognitive psychology's schematic approach to organization is a challenge to Kelly's, which conceives of everyday experience solely in terms of the logical nature of construing. Some constraints and assumptions of Kelly's dialectical logic may be avoided by adopting a more phenomenological approach to construing.

  15. Psychological well-being of parents and family caregivers of children with hearing impairment in south India: influence of behavioural problems in children and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driessche, Anne; Jotheeswaran, A T; Murthy, G V S; Pilot, Eva; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pant, Hira; Singh, Vivek; Dpk, Babu

    2014-08-01

    Parents of children with hearing impairment are at increased risk of mental health morbidities. We examined the predictive factors associated with caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities in parents and family caregivers of children with hearing impairment. In total, n = 201 parents and family caregivers of children with and without hearing impairment aged 3 to 16 years were recruited. Caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities were measured using the Zarit Burden scale and the World Health Organization's Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Presence of behavioural problems in children was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. After adjustment, low educational attainment and domestic violence were found to be associated with caregiving strain, whereas dissatisfaction with social support from family, behavioural problems in children, and domestic violence strongly predicted psychological morbidities. Addressing the mental healthcare needs of parents may help in downsizing the impact of psychological morbidities on the well-being of children with hearing impairment.

  16. Students Relationships and Teacher's Authority as Axiological, Ethical, Pedagogical, Social and Psychological Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Silvester

    2011-01-01

    The paper is focused on the research into the problems of education regarding the relations between students (bullying, competiveness and cooperation) and the decreasing teacher's authority in schools and society. We found that relations between pupils and students of elementary and secondary schools show several negative tendencies including harming each other, reduced rate of mutual sensitivity and preference of rivality to cooperation. Authority of teachers is permanently decreasing not only with pupils and students, but with parents and society, too. Society, parents and students much less value study results and wisdom, and these issues consequently influence the decreasing teacher's status. On the other hand, this behavior leads to decreasing the interest in semantic learning. The roots of these problems can be found in the postmodern crisis of Western culture, associated with severe deficiencies of the political system and market economy as well as one-sided rational orientation of Western society at the expense of the spiritual needs of man.

  17. Propranolol treatment of infantile hemangioma is not associated with psychological problems at 7 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyakine, Andre Vadimovich; Spillekom-van Koulil, Saskia; van der Vleuten, Catharina Joanna Maria

    2017-07-01

    Concern has been raised about the potential long-term effects of propranolol treatment for infantile hemangioma (IH). We sought to assess psychologic (social, emotional, behavioral, and executive) functioning in children treated with propranolol for IH. Twenty-seven patients with IH (6.1-7.6 years of age) treated with propranolol for ≥6 months during infancy, and without other developmental risk factors, were recruited. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Social Emotional Questionnaire, Child Behavior Checklist, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. For each questionnaire, the number of patients with abnormal scores, based on established cutoff points, was calculated. Only 1 child (3.7%) scored outside the normal range. The Hemangioma Severity Scale did not correlate with psychologic problems in these patients. Longer treatment duration was found to correlate with less attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) characteristics (ρ = -0.476; P = .012) and better executive functioning (ρ = -0.466; P = .014). Exclusion of children born at gestational age propranolol. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A holistic approach to psychological sexual problems in women with diabetic husbands

    OpenAIRE

    Anahita Khodabakhshi Koolaee; Edalat Asadi; Ladan Mansoor; Leili Mosalanejad; Ali FathAbadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of negative and influential factor to chronic diseases is creation of sexual problems in the couple's sexual relationship. Sexual health is one of the most important factor in Sexual and marital satisfaction. Objective: This study aims to compare the relationship between couple burnout, sexual assertiveness, and sexual dysfunctional beliefs in women with diabetic and non-diabetic husbands. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was a causal comparative o...

  19. Psychological development and education in the socio-cultural approach: New directions for an old problem

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Baquero

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces some central issues addressing the relationship between educational practices and developmental processes in the context of socio-cultural approaches. It shows the peculiarities of the specific weight of school practices and their impact on development and its differential valuation under what Wertsch has called the problem of “genetic hierarchies” in the characterization of development. The question about the increasingly decontextualized use of semiotic tools, consider...

  20. Emotional reactivity and exposure to household stress in childhood predict psychological problems in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, research has examined the role of heightened emotional reactivity and poor regulation on maladjustment during childhood and adolescence. Although much of this research has shown a direct link between high emotional reactivity and maladjustment, there is less research on the ways in which reactivity interacts with contextual factors. Using data from the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), the current study asks how emotional reactivity in childhood, household chaos, and household income impact changes in emotional and behavioral problems between childhood and adolescence. Participants in the SECCYD were followed from birth until adolescence. Of these, 958 youth (52 % male; 80 % Caucasian, 13 % African American, 2 % Asian, and 5 % Other) who completed measures at age 15 were included in the current study. Results indicate that emotional reactivity and low household income during childhood directly predict higher levels of emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. In contrast, the impact of household chaos on adolescent mental health depends on the child's emotional reactivity. Specifically, the adverse impact of household chaos on emotional problems was observed among adolescents who were highly emotionally reactive as children, but not among their less reactive counterparts. Taken together, the relationship between an individual's childhood context and temperament are important aspects in the prediction of outcomes in adolescents.

  1. A multi-model evaluation of aerosols over South Asia: common problems and possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, X.; Chin, M.; Gautam, R.; Bian, H.; Kim, D.; Colarco, P. R.; Diehl, T. L.; Takemura, T.; Pozzoli, L.; Tsigaridis, K.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric pollution over South Asia attracts special attention due to its effects on regional climate, water cycle and human health. These effects are potentially growing owing to rising trends of anthropogenic aerosol emissions. In this study, the spatio-temporal aerosol distributions over South Asia from seven global aerosol models are evaluated against aerosol retrievals from NASA satellite sensors and ground-based measurements for the period of 2000-2007. Overall, substantial underestimations of aerosol loading over South Asia are found systematically in most model simulations. Averaged over the entire South Asia, the annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) is underestimated by a range 15 to 44% across models compared to MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer), which is the lowest bound among various satellite AOD retrievals (from MISR, SeaWiFS (Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Aqua and Terra). In particular during the post-monsoon and wintertime periods (i.e., October-January), when agricultural waste burning and anthropogenic emissions dominate, models fail to capture AOD and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) compared to ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometer measurements. The underestimations of aerosol loading in models generally occur in the lower troposphere (below 2 km) based on the comparisons of aerosol extinction profiles calculated by the models with those from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) data. Furthermore, surface concentrations of all aerosol components (sulfate, nitrate, organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC)) from the models are found much lower than in situ measurements in winter. Several possible causes for these common problems of underestimating aerosols in models during the post-monsoon and wintertime periods are identified: the aerosol hygroscopic growth and formation of

  2. Co-Occurring Trajectory of Mothers' Substance Use and Psychological Control and Children's Behavior Problems: The Effects of a Family Systems Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Slesnick, Natasha; Feng, Xin

    2017-02-19

    This study examined the effects of a family systems therapy (Ecologically-Based Family Therapy [EBFT]) on the co-occurring trajectory of mothers' substance use and psychological control, and its association with children's problem behaviors. Participants included 183 mothers with a substance use disorder who had at least one biological child in their care. Mothers were randomly assigned to one of the three intervention conditions: EBFT-home, n = 62; EBFT-office, n = 61; or Women's Health Education, n = 60. Participants were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months post-baseline. A dual-trajectory class growth analysis identified three groups of mothers in regard to their change trajectories. The majority of the mothers exhibited a synchronous decrease in substance use and psychological control (n = 107). In all, 46 mothers exhibited a synchronous increase in substance use and psychological control. For the remaining 30 mothers, substance use and psychological control remained stable. Mothers in the family therapy condition were more likely to show reduced substance use and psychological control compared to mothers in the control condition. Moreover, children with mothers who showed decreased substance use and psychological control exhibited lower levels of problem behaviors compared to children with mothers showing increased substance use and psychological control. The findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of family systems therapy, EBFT, in treating mothers' substance use, improving parenting behaviors, and subsequently improving child behavioral outcomes. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  3. Physical, Financial, and Psychological Abuse Committed Against Older Women by Relatives With Psychiatric Disorders: Extent of the Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrum, Travis; Solomon, Phyllis L; Bressi, Sara K

    2015-01-01

    Persons with psychiatric disorders (PD) are known to be at an increased risk of committing elder abuse, with much of this abuse occurring toward women. However, there is no evidence available speaking to the extent of this problem. The objective of the present study is to explore rates of abuse committed against older women by a relative with PD. In conjunction with the University of Pennsylvania, 217 women residing across the United States who are at least 55 years of age and who have a relative with PD completed an online survey. Analyses found that in the past 6 months 15% of survey respondents experienced physical abuse committed by their relative with PD, 20% experienced financial abuse, and 42% experienced psychological abuse. Given these high rates of abuse it is imperative that research into factors predicting abuse be conducted, as such information would help target and determine the nature of interventions.

  4. POOR PROGRESS STUDENTS IN LEARNING MATHEMATICS AS SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL-PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Tatochenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical substantiation of modern methodical system of Mathematics teaching of poor progressing secondary school pupils. A systematic approach to the study of psycho-pedagogical determinants of poor progress of pupils in math was implemented. The dynamic of interfunctional relationship of structure of educational and informative sphere of poor progressing pupils in mathematics was disclosed and scientific understanding of this process was expanded. The introduction in the educational process of didactic methodical and psychologically balanced methodical control system and correction of poor progressing students’ in Maths improves quality indicators of their permanent knowledge and skills. It allows you to discover the fullness, depth and durability of learning at different stages and levels of education, it contributes to correction, management and partly self-management learning process of poor progressing students in Mathematics, excites them to an active mental activity promotes the development of a conscious attitude to their systematic academic work. The essence of “poor progress” phenomena is observed as well as “educational retardation” of school students during teaching mathematics. Target orientation, the resource potential of the real educational process of poor progressing pupils in Mathematics are determined. Contradictions are singled out and pedagogical conditions of results control of learning outcomes of comprehensive school pupils are proved. An attempt to consider the academic failure of schoolchildren in Mathematics in connection with the main categories of didactics – the content and the learning process was made. Certain shortcomings of teaching and learning activities of students in the study of Mathematics are highlighted as poor progressing elements and gaps. The process and content, enriched with the use of NIT, ensuring the formation of key competencies of lagging behind and

  5. Psychological well-being of interns in Hong Kong: what causes them stress and what helps them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, T P; Wong, J G W S; Ip, Mary S M; Lam, K F; Pang, S L

    2010-01-01

    Many doctors experience psychological ill health. Interns are known to be particularly vulnerable. To examine the level of depression, anxiety and stress in interns in Hong Kong, as well as the causes and how they cope. A questionnaire was designed based on the themes identified in three focus groups of medical graduates of Year 2004 of the University of Hong Kong. The 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS 21) was also administered. All 155 graduates of the same year were invited to participate with a response rate of 63%. Percentages of respondents with abnormal levels of depression, anxiety and stress were 35.8%, 35.4% and 29.2%, respectively. Frequent calls during night shift, long working hours and heavy workload constituted the most significant stressors. Factor analysis of the stressors showed that seven factors could explain 68% of the total variance: multidisciplinary team working issues, clinical difficulties, job seeking and employment, workload issues, ethical and interpersonal issues, adjustment to job rotation and performance appraisal. Holidays, peers and sleep offered the most significant relief. Interns experience considerable depression, anxiety and stress. The source of stress is multi-faceted, but workload is the most significant stressor. Peer support groups may relief stress.

  6. Psychological development and education in the socio-cultural approach: New directions for an old problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Baquero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces some central issues addressing the relationship between educational practices and developmental processes in the context of socio-cultural approaches. It shows the peculiarities of the specific weight of school practices and their impact on development and its differential valuation under what Wertsch has called the problem of “genetic hierarchies” in the characterization of development. The question about the increasingly decontextualized use of semiotic tools, considered one of the central vectors in development occurred in school settings, is discussed. Finally, we examine some practical implications that these discussions yield for the intervention in the so-called massive “school failure”

  7. Knowledge and information on psychological, physiological and gynaecological problems among adolescent schoolgirls of eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sabyasachi; Ghosh, Tarapada; Mondal, Probodh Chandra; Basak, Subhadeep; Alauddin, Md; Choudhury, Sujata Maiti; Bisai, Samiran

    2011-11-01

    Sex education aims to reduce the risks of potentially negative outcome from sexual behavior such as fear and stigma of menstruation, unwanted and unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections including HIV. Hence, this study was conducted to determine sex education knowledge level of school going adolescents in semi urban area of Midnapore, West Bengal, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two selected premier secondary school of girls in the Midnapore Town from September - October 2007. A total of 521 adolescent aged 10-19 years were selected randomly from two secondary schools of girls. However, schools were selected purposively. All information was collected by using open-ended pre-tested questionnaire. Of the total subjects 94.2% of them were in the age of 13-16 years. Nearly, 94% respondents reported their age at menarche and maximum i.e. 54% respondents experienced in the age of 11 - 13 years. It was observed that 18%, 60.7% and 21.3% of the respondents had good knowledge, moderate or some knowledge and very poor knowledge of puberty, pubertal problems and their prevention. Thirty three percent said that they had faced one or some other kind of physical problems and out of them 60% indicated that they had visited to a doctor for their problems. The suffering of any gynecological problems had 2.48 (95% CI: 1.42 - 4.36) and 1.94 (95% CI: 1.01 - 3.73) times greater among subjects with little or some knowledge and minimum or no knowledge compare to subjects with good knowledge of sex education. Thus, the results show that not only knowledge regarding sex education was poor among the subjects but also their knowledge regarding sexual infections including AIDS was not satisfactory. School based sex education programs are particularly good at providing information, skills development and attitude clarification in more formal way through lesson within the curriculum. Therefore, appropriate sex education program should be initiated from the

  8. Association of Stressful Life Events with Psychological Problems: A Large-Scale Community-Based Study Using Grouped Outcomes Latent Factor Regression with Latent Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Hassanzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The current study is aimed at investigating the association between stressful life events and psychological problems in a large sample of Iranian adults. Method. In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4763 Iranian adults, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Grouped outcomes latent factor regression on latent predictors was used for modeling the association of psychological problems (depression, anxiety, and psychological distress, measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, as the grouped outcomes, and stressful life events, measured by a self-administered stressful life events (SLEs questionnaire, as the latent predictors. Results. The results showed that the personal stressors domain has significant positive association with psychological distress (β=0.19, anxiety (β=0.25, depression (β=0.15, and their collective profile score (β=0.20, with greater associations in females (β=0.28 than in males (β=0.13 (all P<0.001. In addition, in the adjusted models, the regression coefficients for the association of social stressors domain and psychological problems profile score were 0.37, 0.35, and 0.46 in total sample, males, and females, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion. Results of our study indicated that different stressors, particularly those socioeconomic related, have an effective impact on psychological problems. It is important to consider the social and cultural background of a population for managing the stressors as an effective approach for preventing and reducing the destructive burden of psychological problems.

  9. Psychology of computer use: X. Effect of learning Logo on children's problem-solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, D; McGilly, C A; Shultz, T R

    1989-06-01

    A natural experiment was used to determine whether learning the computer language Logo improves children's problem-solving strategies outside of the Logo context. 8-yr.-olds who learned Logo in school were found to use both debugging techniques and procedurality in their computer programming. They and a group of control children of the same age were pre- and posttested on a game requiring debugging skills (Mastermind) and another game requiring procedural skills (Tower of Hanoi). Boys, but not girls, trained in Logo showed an improvement in debugging skills relative to the control children. Improvement in procedural skills was not related to training in Logo. The results were discussed in terms of distance of transfer, degree of expertise, and the basis of sex differences in computer programming.

  10. Psychological and emotional concomitants of infertility diagnosis in women with diminished ovarian reserve or anatomical cause of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoloro-SantaBarbara, Jennifer M; Lobel, Marci; Bocca, Silvina; Stelling, James R; Pastore, Lisa M

    2017-07-01

    To examine the magnitude and predictors of emotional reactions to an infertility diagnosis in two groups of women: those with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), and those clinically diagnosed with an anatomical cause of infertility (ACI). Cross-sectional study. Academic and private fertility clinics. Women diagnosed with DOR (n = 51) and women diagnosed with ACI (n = 51). Not applicable. Fertility Problem Inventory (infertility distress), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Health Orientation Scale (emotional reactions to receiving a diagnosis). Women with DOR had statistically significantly higher infertility distress scores than women with ACI and higher scores on subscales assessing distress from social concerns, sexual concerns, and a need for parenthood. In both groups, higher self-esteem was associated with lower infertility distress. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that for women with DOR and those with ACI lower infertility distress but not self-esteem predicted a more positive emotional reaction toward receiving a fertility diagnosis. Women diagnosed with DOR have greater infertility distress but similar self-esteem and emotional reactions to their diagnosis compared with women who have an anatomical cause of infertility. These results suggest that for both groups distress surrounding infertility itself may influence the way women respond to learning the cause of their infertility. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychological vulnerability and problem gambling: an application of Durand Jacobs' general theory of addictions to electronic gaming machine playing in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Jessica; Delfabbro, Paul; Denson, Linley A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an empirical investigation of the validity of Jacobs' (in J Gambl Behav 2:15-31, 1986) general theory of addictions in relation to gambling problems associated with electronic gaming machines (EGM). Regular EGM gamblers (n = 190) completed a series of standardised measures relating to psychological and physiological vulnerability, substance use, dissociative experiences, early childhood trauma and abuse and problem gambling (the Problem Gambling Severity Index). Statistical analysis using structural equation modelling revealed clear relationships between childhood trauma and life stressors and psychological vulnerability, dissociative-like experiences and problem gambling. These findings confirm and extend a previous model validated by Gupta and Derevensky (in J Gambl Stud 14: 17-49, 1998) using an adolescent population. The significance of these findings are discussed for existing pathway models of problem gambling, for Jacobs' theory, and for clinicians engaged in assessment and intervention.

  12. Towards a new procedure for identifying causes of health and comfort problems in office buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Fossati, S.; Mandin, C.; Cattaneo, A.; Carrer, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the European project OFFICAIR a procedure has been prepared for the inventory and identification of associations between possible characteristics of European modern offices (building, sources and events) and health and comfort of office workers, via a questionnaire and a checklist including environmental, physiological, psychological and social aspects. This procedure was applied in circa 160 office buildings in eight European countries (Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, France, Hungary, The...

  13. Psychological problems, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction in a sample of adolescents with brain lesions: A comparison with a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Valentina; Colombo, Katia; Maestroni, Deborah; Galbiati, Susanna; Villa, Federica; Recla, Monica; Locatelli, Federica; Strazzer, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to describe psychological problems, self-esteem difficulties and body dissatisfaction in a sample of adolescents with acquired brain lesions and to compare them with an age- and gender-matched control group. In an experimental design, the psychological profile of 26 adolescents with brain lesions of traumatic or vascular aetiology, aged 12-18 years, was compared with that of 18 typically-developing subjects. Moreover, within the clinical group, patients with TBI were compared with patients with vascular lesions. The psychological and adaptive profile of the adolescents was assessed by a specific protocol, including CBCL, VABS, RSES, EDI-2 and BES. Adolescents with brain lesions showed more marked psychological problems than their healthy peers; they also presented with a greater impairment of adaptive skills and a lower self-esteem. No significant differences were found between patients with traumatic lesions and patients with vascular lesions. Adolescents with acquired brain lesions were at higher risk to develop psychological and behavioural difficulties. Furthermore, in the clinical sample, some variables such as the long hospitalization and isolation from family and peers were associated to a greater psychological burden than the aetiology of the brain damage.

  14. A holistic approach to psychological sexual problems in women with diabetic husbands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Asadi, Edalat; Mansoor, Ladan; Mosalanejad, Leili; Fathabadi, Ali

    2014-03-01

    One of negative and influential factor to chronic diseases is creation of sexual problems in the couple's sexual relationship. Sexual health is one of the most important factor in Sexual and marital satisfaction. This study aims to compare the relationship between couple burnout, sexual assertiveness, and sexual dysfunctional beliefs in women with diabetic and non-diabetic husbands. This cross sectional descriptive study was a causal comparative one. The research plan was derived from the master's dissertation for family counseling in Shahid Beheshti University which was done during 2011-2012 in Tehran, Iran. Totally 200 participants were included in this study; 100 participants were women with diabetic husbands and the others were women with non-diabetic husbands. These participants were selected by purposeful sampling method. Data were collected using personality traits and demographic characteristics' questionnaire, couple burnout Measure, Hulbert index of sexual assertiveness and sexual dysfunctional beliefs Questionnaire. RESULTS of the multi-variable analysis of variance indicated that there was a significant difference between couple burnout, sexual assertiveness, and sexual dysfunctional beliefs in women with diabetic and non-diabetic husbands. Women with non-diabetic husbands had a higher mean score in sexual assertiveness factor compared to women with diabetic husbands, whereas in couple burnout and sexual dysfunctional beliefs factors, women with diabetic husbands had a higher mean score. It seems that one of the most important factors which influences and increases couple burnout, increases wrong sexual beliefs regarding sexual function, and decreases sexual assertiveness in women is their husbands' sexual dysfunction. In fact, women whose husbands suffer from chronic diseases such as diabetes (which results in sexual dysfunction) have lower sexual assertiveness and higher couple burnout and sexual dysfunctional beliefs compared with other women. This

  15. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat.

  16. Moderating effects of coping styles on anxiety and depressive symptoms caused by psychological stress in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C-X; Tse, L-A; Ye, X-Q; Lin, F-Y; Chen, Y-M; Chen, W-Q

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to assess possible interactive effects of coping styles and psychological stress on depression and anxiety symptoms in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes. Three hundred and four patients with Type 2 diabetes underwent a face-to-face interview by trained research staff according to a standardized questionnaire including information on socio-demographic characteristics, psychological stress, coping styles and anxiety and depressive symptoms. The interactive effects of coping styles and psychological stress on depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed by hierarchical multiple regression analyses. There were significant associations of the four domains of psychological stress with anxiety and depressive symptoms, except for the relationship between 'reduced economic condition' and depressive symptoms. 'Negative coping style' significantly increased the level of both anxiety and depressive symptoms; whereas, 'active coping style' and 'avoidant coping style' decreased the risk of depressive symptoms. The interactions of 'negative coping style' with 'worrying about decline in body/physical function' and 'reduced economic condition' significantly increased the risk of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and the interaction of 'social/family crisis caused by the disease' with 'avoidance coping style' and 'worrying about decline in body/physical function' with 'active coping style' significantly decreased the risk of depressive symptoms. The results of this study suggest that certain coping styles might moderate the association of psychological stress with anxiety and depressive symptoms in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes.

  17. An evaluation of the effectiveness of psychological therapy in reducing general psychological distress for adults with autism spectrum conditions and comorbid mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blainey, Sarah H; Rumball, Freya; Mercer, Louise; Evans, Lauren Jayne; Beck, Alison

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of psychological therapy in reducing psychological distress for adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) and co-morbid mental health conditions in routine clinical practice. To explore the effect of individual characteristics and service factors on change in general distress. In a specialist psychological therapies service for adults with ASC, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) self-report questionnaire of psychological distress is completed by clients at start and end of therapy. Change over time and reliable and clinical change was assessed for 81 of a total of 122 clients (66.4%). Factors which may influence change over time were explored using available clinical information. Overall, there was a significant reduction in CORE-OM score during therapy with a small effect size. Most clients showed an improvement in psychological distress over therapy (75.4% improved, with 36.9% of these showing reliable changes). Significant and comparable reductions from pre-therapy to post-therapy were seen across the sample, showing that individual differences did not mediate therapy effectiveness. CORE-OM scores mediate the association between age of ASD diagnosis and hours of therapeutic input required, with greater age at diagnosis and higher distress associated with longer therapy duration. Our preliminary findings suggest that psychological therapy may be effective in reducing general distress for clients with ASC and co-morbid mental health conditions and should be routinely offered. Individuals who are diagnosed with ASD in adulthood are likely to require a longer course of therapy when their general distress scores are high. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A transdisciplinary approach to understanding the causes of wicked problems such as the violent conflict in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Velthuizen, A

    2012-01-01

    The paper is presented against a background of many wicked problems that confront us in the world today such as violent crime, conflict that emanates from political power seeking, contests for scarce resources, the increasing reaction all over the world to the deterioration of socio-economic conditions and the devastation caused by natural disasters. This article will argue that the challenge of violent conflict requires an innovative approach to research and problem solving an...

  19. The Academic, Administrative, Economic, Social, and Psychological Problems Faced by Students of Textile and Clothing Major at King Abdul-Aziz University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubyani, Noor Abdulhadi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the academic, administrative, economic, social, and psychological problems faced by students of Textile and fabric major at King Abdul-Aziz University. To achieve this purpose, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to a sample of students in the Textile and fabric major, after the use of…

  20. Socio-economic differences in use of prescribed and over-the-counter medicine for pain and psychological problems among Danish adolescents—a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Mette Jørgine; Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2014-01-01

    The objective for this study was to investigate socio-economic status (SES) differentials in the use of overthe- counter and prescribed medicine for pain and psychological problems among adolescents. Data consisted of questionnaire data on medicine use and health status, collected from 17- to 18...

  1. Optimizing and Validating a Brief Assessment for Identifying Children of Service Members at Risk for Psychological Health Problems Following Parent Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    conflict may also contribute to increased child difficulties and therefore serve as predictive role in the model as well. Parent -Child relationship...symptomatology or behavior. Child adjustment from parent , teacher , and child perspectives are one of the key outcomes of the study. Child developmental...Psychological Health Problems Following Parent Deployment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Julie Wargo Aikins, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Wayne State

  2. Psychological Problems, Protective Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Youth Affected by Violence: The Burden of the Multiply Victimised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…

  3. The Role of Culture in Relational Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems in Japanese and US School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate psychometric properties that assess forms of aggression (i.e., relational and physical aggression) across cultures (i.e., Japan and the United States) and (2) to investigate the role of culture in the associations between forms of aggression and social-psychological adjustment problems such as…

  4. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  5. Why the (dis)agreement? Family context and child-parent perspectives on health-related quality of life and psychological problems in paediatric asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N; Crespo, C; Carona, C; Bullinger, M; Canavarro, M C

    2015-01-01

    Children's health-related quality of life (HrQoL) and psychological problems are important outcomes to consider in clinical decision making in paediatric asthma. However, children's and parents' reports often differ. The present study aimed to examine the levels of agreement/disagreement between children's and parents' reports of HrQoL and psychological problems and to identify socio-demographic, clinical and family variables associated with the extent and direction of (dis)agreement. The sample comprised 279 dyads of Portuguese children with asthma who were between 8 and 18 years of age (M = 12.13; SD = 2.56) and one of their parents. The participants completed self- and proxy-reported questionnaires on paediatric generic HrQoL (KIDSCREEN-10), chronic-generic HrQoL (DISABKIDS-37) and psychological problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Children's and parents' perceptions of family relationships were measured with the Family Environment Scale and the caregiving burden was assessed using the Revised Burden Measure. The child-parent agreement on reported HrQoL and psychological problems was poor to moderate (intraclass correlation coefficients between 0.32 and 0.47). The rates of child-parent discrepancies ranged between 52.7% (psychological problems) and 68.8% (generic HrQoL), with 50.5% and 31.5% of the parents reporting worse generic and chronic-generic HrQoL, respectively, and 33.3% reporting more psychological problems than their children. The extent and direction of disagreement were better explained by family factors than by socio-demographic and clinical variables: a greater caregiving burden was associated with increased discrepancies in both directions and children's and parents' perceptions of less positive family relationships were associated with discrepancies in different directions. Routine assessment of paediatric HrQoL and psychological problems in healthcare and research contexts should include self- and parent-reported data as

  6. Collection of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O; Ebbehøj, N

    1995-01-01

    waste which has been separated at source. However, only limited information exists on possible occupational health problems related to such new systems. Occupational accidents are very frequent among waste collectors. Based on current knowledge, it appears that the risk factors should be considered...... have been performed, and the causality of work-related pulmonary problems among waste collectors is unknown. Recent studies have indicated that implementation of some new waste collection systems may result in an increased risk of occupational health problems. High incidence rates of gastrointestinal...

  7. Illuminating the Dark Matter of Social Neuroscience: Considering the Problem of Social Interaction from Philosophical, Psychological, and Neuroscientific Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa ePrzyrembel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful human social interaction depends on our capacity to understand other people’s mental states and to anticipate how they will react to our actions. Despites its importance to the human condition, there are still quite a few debates about how we actually solve the problem of understanding other peoples’ actions, feelings and thoughts. Here we consider this problem from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives. In a critical review we show that attempts to draw parallels across these complementary levels of analysis are premature: The second-person perspective does not map directly to simulation theories, online social cognition or shared neural networks underlying action observation or empathy. Nor does the third-person perspective map onto theory-theory accounts of other agents mental states, offline social cognition or the neural networks that support Theory of Mind. We further propose that important qualities of social interaction emerge through the reciprocal interaction of two independent agents whose unpredictable behaviour requires a continual updating of models of their partner internal state. This analysis draws attention to the need for paradigms that allow two individuals to interact in a spontaneous and natural manner and to adapt their behaviour and cognitions in a response contingent fashion due to the unpredictability of their partners behaviour. Even if such paradigms were implemented, it is possible that the specific neural correlates supporting such reciprocal interaction would not reflect the processes unique to social interaction because much real social behaviour may reflect the use of basic cognitive and emotional process in a novel and unique manner. Given the role of social interaction in human evolution, ontogeny and every-day social life, a more theoretically and methodologically nuanced approach to the study of social interaction will help to shed new light on the dark matter of social

  8. How the causes, consequences and solutions for problem gambling are reported in Australian newspapers: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Helen E; Thomas, Samantha L; Robinson, Priscilla; Daube, Mike

    2014-12-01

    To inform public health approaches to problem gambling by examining how the news media covers problem gambling, with a particular focus on the causes, consequences and solutions to problem gambling, and the 'actors' and sources who influence media coverage. A qualitative content analysis guided by framing theory analysed coverage of problem gambling in Australian newspapers in the period 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012. Solutions to problem gambling were more frequently discussed than causes and consequences. A focus on the responsibility of individuals was preferred to reporting that focused on broader social, ecological, and industry determinants of problem gambling. Reporting was highly politicised, with politicians frequently quoted and political issues frequently discussed. In contrast, the community sector, health professionals and problem gamblers were rarely quoted. This analysis has revealed the need for a more proactive, coordinated approach to the media by both public health researchers and health groups. The establishment of a gambling-specific coalition to push for evidence-based reform is recommended. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. An investigation into the causes of speaking problems experienced by learners of English at tertiary level

    OpenAIRE

    Güney, İpek

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate reasons of students for not speaking in English speaking classes as well as solutions suggested by students to overcome problems in speaking classes. This study also tried to find out the influence of individual differences such as gender, marks, self- perceived success, and field of study on speaking problems experienced by participants. The study was conducted at Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University with 235 participants in the spring...

  10. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  11. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  12. Types, Problems and Their Causes, and Solutions to the Offences against the Environmental Laws by Probationers in Maha Sarakham Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlu, Somchai; Singseewo, Adisak; Suksringarm, Paitool

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore types, problems and their causes, and solutions to the offences against the environmental laws of probationers in Maha Sarakham Province. The study comprised 2 phases: Phase 1 was a study of types of the offences against the environmental laws: and phase 2 was an interview with 25 people directly dealing with the…

  13. Severe Psychological Distress of Evacuees in Evacuation Zone Caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, Yasuto; Suzuki, Yuriko; Shiga, Tetsuya; Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Maeda, Masaharu; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Otsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has continued to affect the mental health status of residents in the evacuation zone. To examine the mental health status of evacuee after the nuclear accident, we conducted the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey as part of the ongoing Fukushima Health Management Survey. We measured mental health status using the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K6) in a total of 73,569 (response rate: 40.7%) evacuees aged 15 and over who lived in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. We then dichotomized responders using a 12/13 cutoff on the K6, and compared the proportion of K6 scores ≥13 and ≤12 in each risk factor including demographic information, socioeconomic variables, and disaster-related variables. We also performed bivariate analyses between mental health status and possible risk factors using the chi-square test. Furthermore, we performed multivariate regression analysis using modified Poisson regression models. The median K6 score was 5 (interquartile range: 1-10). The number of psychological distress was 8,717 (14.6%). We found that significant differences in the prevalence of psychological distress by almost all survey items, including disaster-related risk factors, most of which were also associated with increased Prevalence ratios (PRs). Additionally, we found that psychological distress in each evacuation zone was significantly positively associated with the radiation levels in their environment (r = 0.768, p = 0.002). The earthquake, tsunami and subsequent nuclear accident likely caused severe psychological distress among residents in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. The close association between psychological distress and the radiation levels shows that the nuclear accident seriously influenced the mental health of the residents, which might be exacerbated by increased risk perception. To provide

  14. Severe Psychological Distress of Evacuees in Evacuation Zone Caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuto Kunii

    Full Text Available Following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has continued to affect the mental health status of residents in the evacuation zone. To examine the mental health status of evacuee after the nuclear accident, we conducted the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey as part of the ongoing Fukushima Health Management Survey.We measured mental health status using the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K6 in a total of 73,569 (response rate: 40.7% evacuees aged 15 and over who lived in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. We then dichotomized responders using a 12/13 cutoff on the K6, and compared the proportion of K6 scores ≥13 and ≤12 in each risk factor including demographic information, socioeconomic variables, and disaster-related variables. We also performed bivariate analyses between mental health status and possible risk factors using the chi-square test. Furthermore, we performed multivariate regression analysis using modified Poisson regression models.The median K6 score was 5 (interquartile range: 1-10. The number of psychological distress was 8,717 (14.6%. We found that significant differences in the prevalence of psychological distress by almost all survey items, including disaster-related risk factors, most of which were also associated with increased Prevalence ratios (PRs. Additionally, we found that psychological distress in each evacuation zone was significantly positively associated with the radiation levels in their environment (r = 0.768, p = 0.002.The earthquake, tsunami and subsequent nuclear accident likely caused severe psychological distress among residents in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. The close association between psychological distress and the radiation levels shows that the nuclear accident seriously influenced the mental health of the residents, which might be exacerbated by increased risk perception. To

  15. Mothers' mental illness and child behavior problems: cause-effect association or observation bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najman, J M; Williams, G M; Nikles, J; Spence, S; Bor, W; O'Callaghan, M; Le Brocque, R; Andersen, M J

    2000-05-01

    A number of studies have consistently found that a mother's mental health (particularly her level of depression) is a strong predictor of mental health problems experienced by her child(ren). However, the validity of this finding is in doubt because the majority of these studies have relied on maternal reports as indicators of children's behavior. This prospective, longitudinal study examines data on the mental health of the mother from prior to the birth of her child to when the child reaches 14 years of age. Child behavior is measured at 14 years of age using reports from mother and child. Mother and child responses are compared to provide an indication of the possible magnitude of maternal observation bias in the reporting of child behavior problems. Anxious and/or depressed mothers tend to report more cases of child behavior problems than do their mentally healthy counterparts or children themselves. Differences between mothers and youths in reporting behavior problems appear to be related to the mothers' mental health. Current maternal mental health impairment appears to have a substantial effect on the reporting of child behavior problems by the mother, thereby raising questions about the validity of reports of child behavior by persons who are currently emotionally distressed.

  16. The Meaning of Collective Terrorist Threat: Understanding the Subjective Causes of Terrorism Reduces Its Negative Psychological Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of…

  17. Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Interpersonal Problems and Psychological Flexibility in Female High School Students With Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadeh, Sayedeh Monireh; Kazemi-Zahrani, Hamid; Besharat, Mohammad Ali

    2015-07-12

    Social anxiety is a psychological disorder which has devastative and pernicious effects on interpersonal relationships and one's psychological flexibility. The aim of this research was to determine the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on interpersonal problems and psychological flexibility in female high school students with social anxiety disorder. With a semi-experimental design, the subjects were assessed using the Social Anxiety Scale and clinical interview. The statistical population of the research was high school female students studying in 5 areas of Isfahan. 30 individuals were purposively selected as the sample. The subjects of the research were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy was given in 10 sessions of 90 minutes in the experimental group and the control group did not receive any treatment. Pre-test and post-test scores of Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance & the results showed that after the intervention, there was a significant difference between the scores of the subjects in the experimental and control groups. This means that Acceptance and Commitment Therapy can influence interpersonal problems and their six dimensions and psychological flexibility as well.

  18. The psychological aspects of intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dannenfeldt

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available The technical and physical care of the critically ill patient has been perfected, but the psychological aspects of intensive nursing care have to a greater or lesser extent been neglected. The objective of this article is to highlight the causes of psychological problems in an intensive care unit, how to recognise these problems and above all how to prevent or correct them.

  19. PROBLEMS ARE CAUSED TO CHANGE TYPICAL TEMPORARY LOADS AC FOR BRIDGES CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Salamakhin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of new temporal normative loads of high-way bridges, the determination of dynamic coefficient and the problems of the using these loads in calculation of endurance and determination of remaining resource of elements of bridge structures.

  20. What causes addiction problems? Environmental, biological and constitutional explanations in press portrayals from four European welfare societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Matilda; Majamäki, Maija; Rolando, Sara; Bujalski, Michał; Lemmens, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Press items (N = 1327) about addiction related problems were collected from politically independent daily newspapers in Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, and Poland from 1991, 1998, and 2011. A synchronized qualitative coding was performed for discerning the descriptions of the genesis to the problems in terms of described causes to and reasons for why they occur. Environmental explanations were by far the most common and they varied most between the materials. The analysis documents how the portrayals include traces of their contextual origin, relating to different media tasks and welfare cultural traditions. Meaning-based differences were also assigned to the kind of problems that held the most salience in the press reporting. A general worry over societal change is tied into the explanations of accumulating addiction problems and underpins the press reporting in all countries.

  1. Illuminating the dark matter of social neuroscience: Considering the problem of social interaction from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyrembel, Marisa; Smallwood, Jonathan; Pauen, Michael; Singer, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Successful human social interaction depends on our capacity to understand other people's mental states and to anticipate how they will react to our actions. Despite its importance to the human condition, the exact mechanisms underlying our ability to understand another's actions, feelings, and thoughts are still a matter of conjecture. Here, we consider this problem from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives. In a critical review, we demonstrate that attempts to draw parallels across these complementary disciplines is premature: The second-person perspective does not map directly to Interaction or Simulation theories, online social cognition, or shared neural network accounts underlying action observation or empathy. Nor does the third-person perspective map onto Theory-Theory (TT), offline social cognition, or the neural networks that support Theory of Mind (ToM). Moreover, we argue that important qualities of social interaction emerge through the reciprocal interplay of two independent agents whose unpredictable behavior requires that models of their partner's internal state be continually updated. This analysis draws attention to the need for paradigms in social neuroscience that allow two individuals to interact in a spontaneous and natural manner and to adapt their behavior and cognitions in a response contingent fashion due to the inherent unpredictability in another person's behavior. Even if such paradigms were implemented, it is possible that the specific neural correlates supporting such reciprocal interaction would not reflect computation unique to social interaction but rather the use of basic cognitive and emotional processes combined in a unique manner. Finally, we argue that given the crucial role of social interaction in human evolution, ontogeny, and every-day social life, a more theoretically and methodologically nuanced approach to the study of real social interaction will nevertheless help the field of social cognition

  2. Male genital injuries caused by ritual attacks in Nigeria: Problems of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports of genital injury and loss from attacks allegedly perpetrated for ritual purposes are often reported in the media and discussed in social circles in Nigeria, but such reports are rare in the medical literature. We report three cases of genital injuries caused by attacks, allegedly for ritual purposes, so as to document the ...

  3. Tinnitus and other auditory problems - occupational noise exposure below risk limits may cause inner ear dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Ann-Cathrine; Rosenhall, Ulf; Olofsson, Åke; Hagerman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal = 193. The following hearing tests were used: - pure tone audiometry with Békésy technique, - transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; - psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, - forward masking, - speech recognition in noise, - tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group exposed to noise

  4. Tinnitus and other auditory problems - occupational noise exposure below risk limits may cause inner ear dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Cathrine Lindblad

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal = 193. The following hearing tests were used: - pure tone audiometry with Békésy technique, - transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; - psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, - forward masking, - speech recognition in noise, - tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group

  5. The meaning of collective terrorist threat: understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-05-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of intellectual meaning (induced by providing additional information about potential economic, cultural, and historical reasons for the terrorist attack) on perceived terrorist threat and associated emotional well-being. Study 1 revealed that pictures of terrorist attacks elicited less experienced terrorist threat when they were presented with background information about the terrorists' motives (meaning provided) rather than without additional background information (no meaning provided). Study 2 replicated this effect with a different manipulation of terrorist threat (i.e., newspaper article) and clarified the underlying psychological process: Participants in the high terror salience condition with meaning provided experienced less terrorist threat and thus more emotional well-being in the face of crisis than participants in the high terror salience condition without meaning provided. Theoretical and practical implications in the context of psychological health and mass media effects are discussed.

  6. Examining impacts of allergic diseases on psychological problems and tobacco use in Korean adolescents: the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hong Chun

    Full Text Available Asthma during adolescence can induce social, psychological, and behavioral problems. We examined the impact of asthma and other allergic diseases on psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors among South Korean adolescents.In this population-based cross-sectional study, 3192 adolescents (10-18 years of age participating in the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were enrolled. Psychological problems associated with clinically diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis were assessed using questionnaires and surveys. Data was analyzed using logistic regression to determine the association of depression with allergic disease while controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking experience, and alcohol use.Asthma and atopic dermatitis were associated with a higher prevalence of depression (17.2% and 13%, respectively. After adjusting for the covariates, asthma patients were approximately two times as likely to have depression as non-allergic participants (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-2.68. Psychosocial stress significantly increased in the following order: no allergy, any allergy without asthma, asthma only, and asthma with any allergy (p for linear trend = 0.01. The asthma without other allergies group showed the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking (p = 0.007.In this study, asthma with or without other allergies was significantly related to increases in depression, psychosocial stress, and smoking experience. Thus, care should be taken to adjust treatment to account for the psychological symptoms and health risk behaviors common among asthmatic adolescents.

  7. The persistent problem of malaria: addressing the fundamental causes of a global killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Leeanne; O'Neill, Marie S; Kruk, Margaret E; Bell, Michelle L

    2008-09-01

    Despite decades of global eradication and control efforts and explosive global economic development, malaria is the most important vector-borne disease of our day, killing more people today than 40 years ago and affecting millions worldwide, particularly poor residents of tropical regions. Global eradication efforts from the 1950s through the 1980s largely failed, leaving vector and parasite resistance in their wake. The persistence of malaria and the magnitude of its effects call for an action paradigm that links the traditional proximal arenas of intervention with malaria's fundamental causes by addressing the environmental, economic, and political dimensions of risk. We explore the more distal determinants of malaria burden that create underlying vulnerabilities, evaluating malaria risk as a function of socioeconomic context, environmental conditions, global inequality, systems of health care provision, and research. We recommend that future action to combat malaria be directed by a broad-spectrum approach that meaningfully addresses both the proximal and fundamental causes of this disease.

  8. Locational Pricing to Mitigate Voltage Problems Caused by High PV Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Weckx; Reinhilde D'hulst; Johan Driesen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a locational marginal pricing algorithm is proposed to control the voltage in unbalanced distribution grids. The increasing amount of photovoltaic (PV) generation installed in the grid may cause the voltage to rise to unacceptable levels during periods of low consumption. With locational prices, the distribution system operator can steer the reactive power consumption and active power curtailment of PV panels to guarantee a safe network operation. Flexible loads also respond to...

  9. Problem definition study of subsidence caused by geopressured geothermal resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The environmental and socio-economic settings of four environmentally representative Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal fairways were inventoried. Subsidence predictions were prepared using feasible development scenarios for the four representative subsidence sites. Based on the results of the subsidence estimates, an assessment of the associated potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts was prepared. An inventory of mitigation measures was also compiled. Results of the subsidence estimates and impact assessments are presented, as well as conclusions as to what are the major uncertainties, problems, and issues concerning the future study of geopressured geothermal subsidence.

  10. A comprehensive model for diagnosing the causes of individual medical performance problems: skills, knowledge, internal, past and external factors (SKIPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfolk, Tim; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2013-01-01

    This discussion paper describes a new and comprehensive model for diagnosing the causes of individual medical performance problems: SKIPE (skills, knowledge, internal, past and external factors). This builds on a previous paper describing a unifying theory of clinical practice, the RDM-p model, which captures the primary skill sets required for effective medical performance (relationship, diagnostics and management), and the professionalism that needs to underpin them. The SKIPE model is currently being used, in conjunction with the RDM-p model, for the in-depth assessment and management of doctors whose performance is a cause for concern.

  11. 49 CFR 40.201 - What problems always cause a drug test to be cancelled and may result in a requirement for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems always cause a drug test to be... Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.201 What problems always cause a drug test to be cancelled...

  12. Nurse safety outcomes: old problem, new solution - the differentiating roles of nurses' psychological capital and managerial support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetto, Yvonne; Xerri, Matthew; Farr-Wharton, Ben; Shacklock, Kate; Farr-Wharton, Rod; Trinchero, Elisabetta

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of nurses' psychological capital and managerial support, plus specific safety interventions (managerial safety priorities, safety training satisfaction), on nurses' in-role safety performance. Most hospitals in industrialized countries have adopted selective (often the least costly) aspects of safety, usually related to safety policies. However, patient safety remains a challenge in many countries. Research shows that training can be used to upskill employees in psychological capital, with statistically significant organizational and employee benefits, but this area is under-researched in nursing. Data were collected using a survey-based, self-report strategy. The emerging patterns of data were then compared with the findings of previous research. Quantitative survey data were collected during 2014 from 242 nurses working in six Australian hospitals. Two models were tested and analysed using covariance-based Structural Equation Modelling. Psychological capital and safety training satisfaction were important predictors of nurses' in-role safety performance and as predictors of nurses' perceptions of whether management implements what it espouses about safety ('managerial safety priorities'). Managerial support accounted for just under a third of psychological capital and together, psychological capital and managerial support, plus satisfaction with safety training, were important to nurses' perceptions of in-role safety performance. Organizations are likely to benefit from upskilling nurses and their managers to increase nurses' psychological capital and managerial support, which then will enhance nurses' satisfaction with training and in-role safety performance perceptions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Causes, diagnosis and treatment of neurogenic dysphagia as an interdisciplinary clinical problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Jurek

    2006-01-01

    The intricate mechanism of swallowing can be divided into three phases: oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal. Dysphagia is a disruption in the swallowing process, which include difficulty in transporting (or a lack of transporting) a food or liquid bolus from the mouth through the pharynx and esophagus into the stomach. Causes of disruptions in the swallowing process can be divided into superior (oropharyngeal) and inferior (esophageal) according to Paradowski et al. Neurlologic dysphagia may be caused by a disruption in different parts of the central nervous system (supranuclear level, level of motor and sensory nuclei taking part in swallowing process, peripherial nerves level and a pathology of muscle cells and spindles) or neuromuscular and muscular disorders. Neuromuscular disorders causes according to Waśko-Czopnik et al. are: stroke, brain tumors, brain injury, bulbar and pseudobulbar paralysis, neurodegenerative diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis), tabes dorsalis, multisystem degenerations, Parkinson's disease, delayed dyskineses, Huntington's disease, myasthenia and myasthenic syndromes, myopathies and peripherial neuropathies. The correct diagnosis evaluation include history taking, physical examination with palpation and consultations (laryngological, gastrological and neurological). According to Halama radiological esophagogram, videofluoroscopy, flexible endoscopic examination, ultrasound examination, manometry, electromyography, scintigraphy and 24 hour pH monitoring are main diagnostic procedures of dysphagia. Some of the reasons for the neurologic dysphagia may be treated by surgical and pharmacological methods. Neurologic dysphagia rehabilitation is difficult, long-lasting and often falling far short of expected results. Primary it should include neurologic cause treatment if it is possible. According to WHO International Classification of Functioning and Health in 2001 non-invasive methods of dysphagia treatment may be

  14. Demographic and psychological predictors of Grade Point Average (GPA) in North-Norway: A particular analysis of cognitive/school-related and literacy problems

    OpenAIRE

    Sæle, Rannveig Grøm; Sørlie, Tore; Nergård-Nilssen, Trude; Ottosen, Karl-Ottar; Goll, Charlotte; Friborg, Oddgeir

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 % of students drop out from Norwegian upper secondary schools. Academic achievement, as indexed by Grade Point Average (GPA) is one of the strongest predictors of dropout. The present study aimed to examine the role of cognitive, school-related and affective/psychological predictors of GPA. In addition, we examined the psychometric properties of a new scale for literacy problems (LP), as well as its role for GPA. Analyses showed that the scale had favourable psychometric prop...

  15. [Drug interaction caused by communication problems. Rhabdomyolysis due to a combination of itraconazole and simvastatin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiessen, Renger G; Lagerwey, Hendrik Jan G; Jager, Gea J; Sprenger, Herman G

    2010-01-01

    A 58-year-old man, who spoke very little Dutch, had various symptoms and used several drugs including simvastatin. He was prescribed itraconazole for onychomycosis. Simvastatin was concurrently replaced with pravastatin to prevent drug interactions. However, the interaction still occurred when the pravastatin ran out, and the patient resumed taking simvastatin on his own initiative. Myalgia and muscle weakness developed after one week. The general practitioner found a strongly elevated creatine kinase level in the blood. The patient required hospitalisation for severe rhabdomyolysis. He was treated with an infusion of an ample quantity of physiological saline solution and made a full recovery. Due to the elevated risk of toxic interactions, doctors should beware of communication problems in complex patients and avoid new prescriptions not strictly required.

  16. [The relationship between a sense of security and psychological problems in adolescents living in boarding schools and youth-welfare institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Corinna; Rau, Thea; Allroggen, Marc

    2017-10-11

    The willingness to participate and a sense of security are important aspects to be fostered in the institutional care of adolescents. Although these aspects are increasingly being examined from the perspective of the affected adolescents, it has yet to be considered whether psychological problems can be attributed to their experiences with the above-mentioned aspects. A total of 216 adolescents aged 14 to 18 years answered an online questionnaire the sense of security in their institution and their perception of the institution. Their willingness to participate was also examined. Psychological symptoms were assessed with the Strengths and Diffi culties Questionnaire Self-Report (SDQ-S). There is a significant correlation between sense of security and the overall SDQ score, with prosocial behavior, and with the positive perception of the institution. In addition, sense of security had a significant influence on the SDQ factors, the positive perception of the institution, and the items on the willingness to participate of the adolescents. The subsequent t-tests also showed significant results. Among other things, it was shown that the factor problems of adolescents is related to sense of security. The results provide an initial indication that there is a link between sense of security and psychological symptoms as well as willingness to participate and perception of the institution. Especially problems of adolescents in dealing with peers must be taken into account.in the development of protective concepts to increase the sense of security and their willingness to participate.

  17. Crisis in the idea of the university and its causes. Selected problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seweryn Leszczyński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the three phenomena of the crisis in the idea of the university: the fashion of postmodernism, re-evaluation of the values, link between science and the economy. The author tried to show that these processes lead to irreversible changes in thinking about the idea of university. The changes include social processes in the long period of time. In this way we can say that these phenomena can be considered as causes of this crisis. The author does not decide whether this is the fact. But it seems to be true. Anyway, we have to be careful in consideration of the crisis in the idea of the university: here nothing is certain. The article stays open to new ideas which may explain this topic

  18. Complexity of matrix organization and problems caused by its inadequate implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix organization model is a sophisticated structure intended to combine both the efficiency and effectiveness of the functional and the product/service/customer/area dimensions. From the moment it was introduced in practice, this organizational architecture was accepted with enthusiasm, because it represented a complex organizational response adequate to the conditions which most of the companies in the world have been facing since 1970s. Although matrix organization is not a novelty, it is still a controversial model of organization design. The aim of this paper is to provide a deeper insight into the causes and effects of organizational misfits which appear in the implementation phase of three-dimensional matrix organization, as well as to offer some practical recommendations for managers on how to improve their capacities for successful management of complex matrix organization architecture in their organizations.

  19. The Youth Employment Problem--Dimensions, Causes and Consequences. Research on Youth Employment and Employability Development. Youth Knowledge Development Report 2.9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Richard B.; And Others

    This collection of papers on the youth employment problem consists of 15 papers that cover the dimensions, causes, and consequences of youth unemployment and that also focus on problems in measuring the extent of the problem, the dynamic aspects of youth labor force participation, and problems associated with adequately assessing the consequences…

  20. Problem Gambling Among Urban and Rural Gamblers in Limpopo Province, South Africa: Associations with Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use and Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaal, Linda; Sinclair, Heidi; Stein, Dan J; Myers, Bronwyn

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the mental health correlates of problem gambling in low- and-middle-income countries such as South Africa and whether these correlates vary by urbanicity. To address this gap, we examined mental health factors associated with problem gambling among gamblers in Limpopo Province, South Africa disaggregated by rural, peri-urban and urban location. A survey of gambling behaviour and mental health was conducted among 900 gamblers. Overall, 28.3 % were at high risk and 38.1 % were at moderate risk for problem gambling. For the entire sample, hazardous/harmful alcohol use was associated with almost twofold increased chance of being at moderate risk (AOR 1.83; 95 % CI 1.08, 3.11) and almost sevenfold greater odds (AOR 6.93; 95 % CI 4.03-11.93) of being at high risk for problem gambling. Psychological distress was associated with being at high risk for problem gambling only (AOR 1.18; 95 % CI 1.14-1.22). After stratifying by urbanicity, hazardous/harmful alcohol use and psychological distress remained associated with high risk gambling across all locations. We found little knowledge of a free gambling helpline and other gambling services-particularly in less urbanised environments [χ(2) (2), 900 = 40.4; p gamblers and to ensure gambling services include screening and treatment for common mental disorders.

  1. Health behaviours & problems among young people in India: Cause for concern & call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sunitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The young people in the age group of 10-24 yr in India constitutes one of the precious resources of India characterized by growth and development and is a phase of vulnerability often influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect their health and safety. Nearly 10-30 per cent of young people suffer from health impacting behaviours and conditions that need urgent attention of policy makers and public health professionals. Nutritional disorders (both malnutrition and over-nutrition, tobacco use, harmful alcohol use, other substance use, high risk sexual behaviours, stress, common mental disorders, and injuries (road traffic injuries, suicides, violence of different types specifically affect this population and have long lasting impact. Multiple behaviours and conditions often coexist in the same individual adding a cumulative risk for their poor health. Many of these being precursors and determinants of non communicable diseases (NCDs including mental and neurological disorders and injuries place a heavy burden on Indian society in terms of mortality, morbidity, disability and socio-economic losses. Many health policies and programmes have focused on prioritized individual health problems and integrated (both vertical and horizontal coordinated approaches are found lacking. Healthy life-style and health promotion policies and programmes that are central for health of youth, driven by robust population-based studies are required in India which will also address the growing tide of NCDs and injuries.

  2. Health behaviours & problems among young people in India: cause for concern & call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, Singh; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna

    2014-08-01

    The young people in the age group of 10-24 yr in India constitutes one of the precious resources of India characterized by growth and development and is a phase of vulnerability often influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect their health and safety. Nearly 10-30 per cent of young people suffer from health impacting behaviours and conditions that need urgent attention of policy makers and public health professionals. Nutritional disorders (both malnutrition and over-nutrition), tobacco use, harmful alcohol use, other substance use, high risk sexual behaviours, stress, common mental disorders, and injuries (road traffic injuries, suicides, violence of different types) specifically affect this population and have long lasting impact. Multiple behaviours and conditions often coexist in the same individual adding a cumulative risk for their poor health. Many of these being precursors and determinants of non communicable diseases (NCDs) including mental and neurological disorders and injuries place a heavy burden on Indian society in terms of mortality, morbidity, disability and socio-economic losses. Many health policies and programmes have focused on prioritized individual health problems and integrated (both vertical and horizontal) coordinated approaches are found lacking. Healthy life-style and health promotion policies and programmes that are central for health of youth, driven by robust population-based studies are required in India which will also address the growing tide of NCDs and injuries.

  3. [Transfusion problems in surgery and anesthesiology. The causes, consequences, prevention and treatment of perioperative anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    István, Pénzes; Regöly-Mérei, János; Telek, Géza; Madách, Krisztina

    2003-10-26

    The classical indication for blood transfusion is the correction of oxygen delivery failure, and the elimination of tissue ischaemia. Such indications in the surgical and anesthesiological practice are the acute haemorrhagic states (trauma, acute gastrointestinal bleeding, intraoperative hemorrhage), as well as diseases associated with chronic blood loss (occult bleeding caused by malignancies, and ulcerating processes etc.). The traditional surgical and anesthesiological viewpoint has adopted a remarkably liberal approach to the indication of blood transfusion, and a whole range of its subtle, medium-long term adverse effects has been taken into account only recently. The purpose of this review was to analyze the causes and pathophysiological consequences of perioperative anemia and blood loss, as well as to reconsider the proper indications of blood transfusion in the view of immunological sequela. The most recent data on the transfusion related immuno-depression and immunomodulation are summarized. The authors wish to provide clues for the definition of "transfusion trigger", in addition, methods available for the clinical practice to reduce blood demand and to restore oxygen transport capacity during surgical and anesthesiological interventions are revisited. Based on the review of the literature and the personal experience of the authors the practical recommendations concerning the administration of blood and blood products should be summarized as follows: 1. Blood transfusion is rarely indicated if the hemoglobin level is above 10 g/dl, and in fact always necessary if it is less than 6 g/dl, especially, if the anemia developed acutely. 2. The "transfusion trigger" is subject to continued debate, and whether a particular patient with intermediary (6-10 g/dl) Hb levels should be transfused or not must be assessed in the perspective of the potential complications initiated by the inadequate oxygenation. 3. If major co-morbidity (e.g. emphysema, ischaemic heart

  4. Effizienter Lernen durch Multimedia? Probleme der empirischen Feststellung von Ursachen des Lernerfolgs (Learning More Efficiently through Multi-Media? Problems of the Empirical Assessment of the Causes of Successful Learning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Ute; Martens, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    States that the efficiency of computer-supported learning cannot be substantiated without difficulty. Explores basic problems of the measurement of school achievement from a theory of (1) measurement and (2) the psychology of learning. Examines the form of "achievement" as a construct of measurement and the consequences of developing a design of…

  5. Development and qualitative evaluation of an adapted return to work guideline for the sick-listed unemployed and temporary agency workers with minor psychological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audhoe Selwin S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the working population, unemployed and temporary agency workers with psychological problems are a particularly vulnerable group, at risk for sickness absence and prolonged work disability. There is a need for the development of a new protocol for this group, because the existing return to work (RTW interventions, including practice guidelines, do not address the situation when there is no workplace to return to. The purpose of this study was to (1 describe the adaptations needed in the practice guideline for employed workers to enable its use by insurance physicians (IPs for counselling of sick-listed unemployed and temporary agency workers with minor psychological problems; and (2 evaluate the experiences of IPs when using the new guidance document for minor psychological problems (MPP guidance document. Methods The MPP guidance document for unemployed and temporary agency workers was developed through discussions with nine IPs and with the help of an expert. Semi-structured interviews with five IPs were then held to evaluate the IPs’ field experience using the MPP guidance document, in terms of (a feasibility and (b perceived usefulness of the MPP guidance document. Results The main adaptation introduced in the guideline is that interaction with the workplace, which is absent in this population, needed to be established in an alternative way, i.e., through the involvement of vocational rehabilitation agencies and labour experts. Overall, the guideline required minimal changes. In total, nineteen sick-listed workers were counselled using the MPP guidance document. The overall experience of the IPs was that the MPP guidance document was feasible and useful for the IP, while they had mixed responses on its usefulness for the sick-listed worker, in part due to the follow-up period of this study. Conclusions An existing practice guideline for employed workers was adapted for use as a guidance document for unemployed and

  6. Development and qualitative evaluation of an adapted return to work guideline for the sick-listed unemployed and temporary agency workers with minor psychological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audhoe, Selwin S; Hoving, Jan L; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2012-09-26

    Among the working population, unemployed and temporary agency workers with psychological problems are a particularly vulnerable group, at risk for sickness absence and prolonged work disability. There is a need for the development of a new protocol for this group, because the existing return to work (RTW) interventions, including practice guidelines, do not address the situation when there is no workplace to return to. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the adaptations needed in the practice guideline for employed workers to enable its use by insurance physicians (IPs) for counselling of sick-listed unemployed and temporary agency workers with minor psychological problems; and (2) evaluate the experiences of IPs when using the new guidance document for minor psychological problems (MPP guidance document). The MPP guidance document for unemployed and temporary agency workers was developed through discussions with nine IPs and with the help of an expert. Semi-structured interviews with five IPs were then held to evaluate the IPs' field experience using the MPP guidance document, in terms of (a) feasibility and (b) perceived usefulness of the MPP guidance document. The main adaptation introduced in the guideline is that interaction with the workplace, which is absent in this population, needed to be established in an alternative way, i.e., through the involvement of vocational rehabilitation agencies and labour experts. Overall, the guideline required minimal changes. In total, nineteen sick-listed workers were counselled using the MPP guidance document. The overall experience of the IPs was that the MPP guidance document was feasible and useful for the IP, while they had mixed responses on its usefulness for the sick-listed worker, in part due to the follow-up period of this study. An existing practice guideline for employed workers was adapted for use as a guidance document for unemployed and temporary agency workers with minor psychological problems. IPs

  7. A meta-analysis of hypnosis for chronic pain problems: a comparison between hypnosis, standard care, and other psychological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Tomonori; Fujino, Haruo; Nakae, Aya; Mashimo, Takashi; Sasaki, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hypnosis is regarded as an effective treatment for psychological and physical ailments. However, its efficacy as a strategy for managing chronic pain has not been assessed through meta-analytical methods. The objective of the current study was to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of hypnosis for managing chronic pain. When compared with standard care, hypnosis provided moderate treatment benefit. Hypnosis also showed a moderate superior effect as compared to other psychological interventions for a nonheadache group. The results suggest that hypnosis is efficacious for managing chronic pain. Given that large heterogeneity among the included studies was identified, the nature of hypnosis treatment is further discussed.

  8. A STUDY OF HIATAL LEVEL IN SACRUM: IS THIS THE CAUSE OF BACK PROBLEMS IN INDIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelu Prasad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The sacrum on the other hand is also a vertebra. It actually is formed by the fusion of the five sacral vertebrae. The lateral mass is nothing but the fused transverse processes, similarly the body is also because of the fusion of the bodies of the five sacral vertebrae. The sacral foramen is a result of the fusion of all the five vertebral foramen. The spines of the vertebra fuse posteriorly but the hiatus at the lower end lamina of the fifth sacral vertebra may be due to incomplete fusion of laminas at this level. Posteriorly, the hiatus is seen in a vast majority of cases also at the fourth sacral vertebra due to incomplete fusion of the laminas at this level. In rare incidences, there might be complete non-fusion of the median crest. Back pain is the most common complaint in the modern life. In some posterior sacra, malformations (Anatomical seem to be the most common cause for backache. Clinically, the hiatus is very important because it is used for epidural analgesia. But if these kinds of anatomical defects are encountered, then they might lead to the total failure of epidural analgesia procedures. In fact the success of these procedures depends on the anatomical normalcy of these bones. All these conditions may result in chronic backache. A sincere effort has been put in this study to understand the hiatal openings of the sacrum. This study is intended to help the clinicians, orthopaedicians and the general practitioners to understand and if possible intervene before the natural progression of the disease sets in. It is also important anthropologically as there might be anthropological and racial variations. This might spark an interest in the world of Forensic sciences as well as it can be used in identification. Papers have been presented and it has been ruled that in diabetic mothers, the caudal malformations are common. The link between diabetic mothers and chronic lower backache has still not been established. This study

  9. Informing future research priorities into the psychological and social problems faced by cancer survivors: a rapid review and synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, N; Scott, I; Addington-Hall, J; Amir, Z; Brearley, S; Hodges, L; Richardson, A; Sharpe, M; Stamataki, Z; Stark, D; Siller, C; Ziegler, L; Foster, C

    2013-10-01

    To establish what is known regarding the psychological and social problems faced by adult cancer survivors (people who are living with and beyond a diagnosis of cancer) and identify areas future research should address. A rapid search of published literature reviews held in electronic data bases was under taken. Inclusion and exclusion criteria, and removal of duplicated papers, reduced the initial number of papers from 4051 to 38. Twenty-two review papers were excluded on grounds of quality and 16 review papers were selected for appraisal. The psychological and social problems for cancer survivors are identified as depression, anxiety, distress, fear of recurrence, social support/function, relationships and impact on family, and quality of life. A substantial minority of people surviving cancer experience depression, anxiety, and distress or fear associated with recurrence or follow up. There is some indication that social support is positively associated with better outcomes. Quality of life for survivors of cancer appears generally good for most people, but an important minority experience a reduction in quality of life, especially those with more advanced disease and reduced social and economic resources. The majority of research knowledge is based on women with breast cancer. The longer term implications of cancer survival have not been adequately explored. Focussing well designed research in the identified areas where less is already known about the psychological and social impact of cancer survival is likely to have the greatest impact on the wellbeing of people surviving cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Predictors of psychological distress among cancer patients receiving care at a safety-net institution: the role of younger age and psychosocial problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined prevalence and predictors of psychological distress among cancer patients receiving care at a safety-net institution during the first year of implementation of a distress screening protocol. Differences between screened and unscreened patients were also analyzed. Data on 182 breast and lung cancer patients who were treated at a NCI-designated Academic Comprehensive Cancer Center (ACAD) were abstracted from the patients' medical charts for a period of 1 year. Among the patients screened for distress, 66.2% reported a score higher than 4 (the established cut-off for distress) on the Distress Thermometer. Results from multiple regression analysis indicated that younger age, practical, and emotional problems were significant predictors of higher self-reported scores of psychological distress. There were no significant differences on socio-demographic and clinical variables between patients screened and those who were not screened. However, patients who were receiving more than one treatment modality were more likely to be screened. The occurrence of psychological distress in this setting was higher than the percentages reported in other similar studies. Furthermore, younger cancer patients and those presenting psychosocial problems were at risk for higher distress, which requires referral to psychosocial providers and the implementation of services able to meet these areas of need.

  11. Mindfulness Training Improves Problem-Focused Coping in Psychology and Medical Students: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halland, E.; De Vibe, M.; Solhaug, I.; Friborg, O.; Rosenvinge, J. H.; Tyssen, R.; Sørlie, T.; Bjørndal, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Students of clinical psychology and medicine experience high levels of mental distress and low levels of life satisfaction. Using adaptive coping strategies can modify the negative effect of stressors on health. Mindfulness, it has been claimed, more adaptive coping with stress, yet few studies have investigated whether mindfulness…

  12. Has the Association between Parental Divorce and Young Adults' Psychological Problems Changed over Time? Evidence from Sweden, 1968-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahler, Michael; Garriga, Anna

    2013-01-01

    A large number of studies have shown that parental divorce is associated with psychological maladjustment in children. Less is known about whether the magnitude of this association has changed over time. This is mainly because of the lack of repeated data, containing identical measures over time. In the present article, the authors use data from…

  13. An Investigation of Comorbid Psychological Disorders, Sleep Problems, Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Epilepsy in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Arlene; Leader, Geraldine; Healy, Olive

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated comorbidity in eighty-nine children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Ireland. Comorbidity is the presence of one or more disorders in addition to a primary disorder. The prevalence of comorbid psychological disorders, behaviours associated with comorbid psychopathology, epilepsy, gastrointestinal…

  14. A transdisciplinary approach to understanding the causes of wicked problems such as the violent conflict in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Velthuizen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is presented against a background of many wicked problems that confront us in the world today such as violent crime, conflict that emanates from political power seeking, contests for scarce resources, the increasing reaction all over the world to the deterioration of socio-economic conditions and the devastation caused by natural disasters. This article will argue that the challenge of violent conflict requires an innovative approach to research and problem solving and proposes a research methodology that follows a transdisciplinary approach. The argument is informed by field research during 2006 on the management of knowledge in the Great Lakes region of Africa, including research on how knowledge on the 1994 genocide in Rwanda is managed. The paper will make recommendations on how transdisciplinary research is required to determine the causes of violent conflict in an African context and how practitioners and academics should engage in transdisciplinarity. It was found that trans- disciplinary research is required to gain better insight into the causes of violent conflict in an African context. It requires from the researcher to recognise the many levels of reality that has to be integrated towards a synthesis to reveal new insights into the causes of violent conflict, including recognising the existence of a normative-spiritual realm that informs the epistemology of Africa. It furthermore requires a methodology that allows us to break out of the stifling constraints of systems thinking and linear processes into the inner space at the juncture where disciplines meet (the diversity of African communities. Keywords: Africa, conflict, Rwanda, crime, genocide, violence, transdisciplinary Disciplines: politics, education, law, epistemology, sociology, theology, management science

  15. Positive Psychology: Considerations and Implications for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…

  16. Factors and root causes of corporal punishment within home and family environment and how to tackle the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Niknami

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Corporal punishment is one way of disciplining children which has been used by parents and child care takers over long centuries and there are still children who experience and fear violence. Studies indicate that corporal punishment is an important factor in the development of violent attitudes and actions and it has a devastating impact on an individual’s childhood and life. As a result, it has a detrimental effect on development of children and formation of proper norms of discipline. Furthermore, beating children as a factor involving risks can cause physical and psychological harms and even lead to a child‘s death. Thus, it violates the child fundamental rights such as inherent dignity. Nevertheless, corporal punishment is a legal and common practice in many countries and sometimes religion is used to justify its validity. Therefore, to tackle this concern and global problem, we need to identify its root causes and then take measures to eliminate all forms of it. This article is an attempt to explore the causes and consequences of corporal punishment of children and to offer solutions regarding how to tackle this problem. raise some misconceptions regarding the contradiction between domestic law and religious opinions on the matter with international law and may cast doubt on its international commitments. In addition to describing the legal status of corporal punishment of children, this study will reveal the position of the legal system of the Islamic Republic of Iran towards this important international document more than before. طرز رفتار بزرگسالان اثر عمیقی بر شخصیت کودکان و عادات کسب شده توسط آنها دارد. تنبیه بدنی به معنای استفاده از نیروی فیزیکی جهت ایجاد درد بدون صدمه، به منظور تربیت «تصحیح یا کنترل رفتار» کودک می‌باشد. تنبیه‌بدنی دارای اثرات

  17. Parent Beliefs about the Causes of Learning and Developmental Problems among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Katharine E.; Lindly, Olivia J.; Sinche, Brianna

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess variation in parent beliefs about causes of learning and developmental problems in U.S. children with autism spectrum disorder, using data from a nationally representative survey. Results showed that beliefs about a genetic/hereditary cause of learning/developmental problems were most common, but nearly as many parents…

  18. Sensitivity to reinforcement and family factors as predictors of psychological health problems in different age groups of children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kuznetsova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The follow-up study was designed to assess and to compare the effects of sensitivity to reward, sensitivity to punishment and family environment on internalizing and externalizing problems in a community sample of 477 children and adolescents aged 3-18 (50% female. The level of problem behavior at Time 1 in all age groups was the best predictor of corresponding type of problem level at Time 2; the residual variance in problem behavior was also predicted by sensitivity to reinforcement. Family factors contributed for change in externalizing problems and hyperactivity in preschool and middle childhood children; living in the urban environment was significant factor for peer problem. The study showed that individual differences interact with the family factors in the process of development, and family environment could strengthen or mitigate the influence of biological factors on children and adolescents’ adjustment.

  19. Portraits of PBL : Students' experiences of the characteristics of problem-based learning in physiotherapy, computer engineering and psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine; Dahlgren, Lars-Ove

    2002-01-01

    The present study is part of a comprehensive research project with the general aims of comparing how problem-based learning is realised in three different professional educational programmes. The specific aims of this study are to describe and analyse how students in the three different programmes conceive of the meaning of problem-based learning and how they experience their studies within a problem-based learning programme. The PBL programmes are a Bachelor's programme in Physiotherapy, a M...

  20. Parent Beliefs about the Causes of Learning and Developmental Problems among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results from a National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Zuckerman, Katharine E.; Lindly, Olivia J.; Sinche, Brianna

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess variation in parent beliefs about causes of learning and developmental problems in U.S. children with autism spectrum disorder, using data from a nationally-representative survey. Results showed that beliefs about a genetic/hereditary cause of learning/developmental problems were most common, but nearly as many parents believed in exposure causes. 40% of parents had no definite causal beliefs. On multivariate analysis, parents who were non-white, p...

  1. The importance of social support in the associations between psychological distress and somatic health problems and socio-economic factors among older adults living at home: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bøen Hege

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known of the importance of social support in the associations between psychological distress and somatic health problems and socio-economic factors among older adults living at home. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the associations of social support, somatic health problems and socio-economic factors with psychological distress. We also examined changes in the association of somatic health problems and socio-economic factors with psychological distress after adjusting for social support. Methods A random sample of 4,000 persons aged 65 years or more living at home in Oslo was drawn. Questionnaires were sent by post, and the total response was 2,387 (64%. Psychological distress was assessed using Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-10 and social support with the Oslo-3 Social Support Scale (OSS-3. A principal component analysis (PCA included all items of social support and psychological distress. Partial correlations were used, while associations were studied by logistic regression. Results After adjusting for socio-demographics and somatic health problems, we reported a statistically significant association between psychological distress and social support: “Number of close friends”, OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.47-0.80; “Concern and interest”, OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.55-0.84. A strong association between lack of social support and psychological distress, irrespective of variables adjusted for, indicated a direct effect. The associations between psychological distress and physical impairments were somewhat reduced when adjusted for social support, particularly for hearing, whereas the associations between somatic diagnoses and psychological distress were more or less eliminated. Income was found to be an independent determinant for psychological distress. Conclusions Lack of social support and somatic health problems were associated with psychological distress in elders. Social support acted as a

  2. Ear Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women Hair Loss Hand/Wrist/Arm Problems Headaches Hearing Problems Hip Problems Knee Problems Leg Problems Lower Back ... have ear pain or redness but is having problems hearing?YesNo Back to Questions Step 3 Possible Causes ...

  3. Portraits of PBL: Students' Experiences of the Characteristics of Problem-Based Learning in Physiotherapy, Computer Engineering and Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, M. Abrandt; Dahlgren, L. O.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that analyzed how students in three different Swedish university programs conceived of the meaning of problem-based learning and how they experienced their studies within a problem-based learning program. Discusses learning in context, social interaction, meta-cognitive reasoning and self-directed learning, and academic cultures.…

  4. THE APPLICATION'S WAYS OF PROBLEM-ORIENTED TASKS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS IN THE DISTANCE COURSE "EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Salyuk

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Some principles on which it is expedient to lean in the process of the development of materials of distant educational courses are considered: support on multiplicity of form of representation of information in consciousness; an account of conformity to law of maintenance of information in semantic memory of man; integration of educational information in the personal experience; orientation on the future real professional activity at the design of base of executive knowledge. Application of principles is illustrated by the examples of tasks in the distance educational course «Experimental psychology».

  5. Educational psychology in medical learning: a randomised controlled trial of two aide memoires for the recall of causes of electromechanical dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, E; Voisey, S; Hughes, S; Higgins, B; McQuillan, P J

    2004-07-01

    Although mnemonics are commonly used in medical education there are few data on their effectiveness. A RCT was undertaken to test the hypothesis that a new aide memoire, "EMD-aide", would be superior to the conventional "4Hs+4Ts" mnemonic in facilitating recall of causes of electromechanical dissociation (EMD) among house officers. "EMD-aide", organises causes of EMD by frequency of occurrence and ease of reversibility: four groups organised by shape, colour, position, numbering, clockwise sequence, and use of arrows. Eight hospitals were randomised in a controlled trial and 149 house officers were then recruited by telephone. Baseline ability to recall causes of EMD was recorded at one minute and overall. House officers were then sent a copy of either "4Hs+4Ts" or "EMD-aide" according to randomisation group. Recall ability was retested at one month. 68 of 80 and 51 of 69 house officers completed the study in the "4Hs+4Ts" and "EMD-aide" groups respectively (NS) with similar baseline recall. After intervention median number of recalled causes was greater in the "EMD-aide" group, eight compared with seven at one minute (p = 0.034) and eight compared with seven overall, p = 0.067. Recall of all eight causes was more common in "EMD-aide" group, 54% compared with 35%, p = 0.054, and these house officers spent longer examining their aide memoire, pEducational psychology of medical learning and the use of aide memoires in general are worthy of further study.

  6. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  7. School Psychology in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Anders

    1987-01-01

    Describes education system of Denmark and reviews background and development of school psychology in that country. Discusses organization of school psychology work and practice. Explains qualifications and training of school psychologists and describes professional organizations, wages, and problems in school psychology. (NB)

  8. Psychological stress in aged female mice causes acute hypophagia independent of central serotonin 2C receptor activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinami Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Sex differences exist in the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis following exposure to stress, and the stress response is further affected by aging. This study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism of hypophagia in aged female mice exposed to stress. Immediately after a stress load, aged female mice exhibited acute hypophagia and a rise in plasma corticosterone levels. The administration of a serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR antagonist suppressed plasma corticosterone but did not affect the reduction in food intake. In contrast, an endogenous ghrelin enhancer, rikkunshito (RKT, significantly inhibited the reduction in food intake. An increase in peripheral acylated ghrelin levels during fasting, which occurs in young mice, was not observed in aged female mice. Moreover, in these mice, significantly increased levels of ghrelin and gastric preproghrelin mRNA expression were observed in the fed status. Moreover, plasma ghrelin levels were elevated by RKT and not by the 5-HT2CR antagonist. In female mice, the hypothalamic non-edited (INI and partially edited mRNA 5-HT2CR isoforms (VNV, VNI, VSV or VSI decreased with age, while in male mice, the editing isoform was unchanged by aging or stress. Estrogen receptor α (ERα-positive cell counts in the arcuate nucleus of young male mice exposed to stress and control aged male mice were increased compared with those in young control mice. In aged male mice exposed to stress, the number of ERα-expressing cells in the paraventricular nucleus were significantly increased compared with those in aged control mice; in female mice, there was no increase in the number of ERα-positive cells. Hypophagia in aged female mice exposed to stress may be independent of 5-HT2CR activation. It seems likely that the mechanisms may be caused by sex dependent, differential regulation in 5-HT2CR mRNA expression, peripheral acylated ghrelin secretion and/or hypothalamic ERα expression.

  9. Psychological stress in aged female mice causes acute hypophagia independent of central serotonin 2C receptor activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Chinami; Yamada, Chihiro; Sadakane, Chiharu; Nahata, Miwa; Hattori, Tomohisa; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Sex differences exist in the activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis following exposure to stress, and the stress response is further affected by aging. This study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism of hypophagia in aged female mice exposed to stress. Immediately after a stress load, aged female mice exhibited acute hypophagia and a rise in plasma corticosterone levels. The administration of a serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) antagonist suppressed plasma corticosterone but did not affect the reduction in food intake. In contrast, an endogenous ghrelin enhancer, rikkunshito (RKT), significantly inhibited the reduction in food intake. An increase in peripheral acylated ghrelin levels during fasting, which occurs in young mice, was not observed in aged female mice. Moreover, in these mice, significantly increased levels of ghrelin and gastric preproghrelin mRNA expression were observed in the fed status. Moreover, plasma ghrelin levels were elevated by RKT and not by the 5-HT2CR antagonist. In female mice, the hypothalamic non-edited (INI) and partially edited mRNA 5-HT2CR isoforms (VNV, VNI, VSV or VSI) decreased with age, while in male mice, the editing isoform was unchanged by aging or stress. Estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive cell counts in the arcuate nucleus of young male mice exposed to stress and control aged male mice were increased compared with those in young control mice. In aged male mice exposed to stress, the number of ERα-expressing cells in the paraventricular nucleus were significantly increased compared with those in aged control mice; in female mice, there was no increase in the number of ERα-positive cells. Hypophagia in aged female mice exposed to stress may be independent of 5-HT2CR activation. It seems likely that the mechanisms may be caused by sex dependent, differential regulation in 5-HT2CR mRNA expression, peripheral acylated ghrelin secretion and/or hypothalamic ERα expression. PMID:29125864

  10. Post-conflict struggles as networks of problems: A network analysis of trauma, daily stressors and psychological distress among Sri Lankan war survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawickreme, Nuwan; Mootoo, Candace; Fountain, Christine; Rasmussen, Andrew; Jayawickreme, Eranda; Bertuccio, Rebecca F

    2017-10-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that the mental distress experienced by survivors of war is a function of both experienced trauma and stressful life events. However, the majority of these studies are limited in that they 1) employ models of psychological distress that emphasize underlying latent constructs and do not allow researchers to examine the unique associations between particular symptoms and various stressors; and 2) use one or more measures that were not developed for that particular context and thus may exclude key traumas, stressful life events and symptoms of psychopathology. The current study addresses both these limitations by 1) using a novel conceptual model, network analysis, which assumes that symptoms covary with each other not because they stem from a latent construct, but rather because they represent meaningful relationships between the symptoms; and 2) employing a locally developed measure of experienced trauma, stressful life problems and symptoms of psychopathology. Over the course of 2009-2011, 337 survivors of the Sri Lankan civil war were administered the Penn-RESIST-Peradeniya War Problems Questionnaire (PRPWPQ). Network analysis revealed that symptoms of psychopathology, problems pertaining to lack of basic needs, and social problems were central to the network relative to experienced trauma and other types of problems. After controlling for shared associations, social problems in particular were the most central, significantly more so than traumatic events and family problems. Several particular traumatic events, stressful life events and symptoms of psychopathology that were central to the network were also identified. Discussion emphasizes the utility of such network models to researchers and practitioners determining how to spend limited resources in the most impactful way possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. THE BASIC APPROACH IN THE STUDY OF PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT PSYCHOLOGICAL EDUCATION HIGHER PEDAGOGICAL SCHOOL IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Iskjandjarovna Bezuglaya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the presentation of scientific theories and concepts that became the methodological basis of ongoing research. In a hierarchical system approaches highlighted the following:˗      first level - the general philosophical approach submitted humanities - anthropological approach;˗      second level - general scientific represented by two approaches: systemic-holistic approach and culturalist approach;˗      third level - specifically scientific represented by two approaches: competency approach and biographical (personal approach;˗      fourth level - methodical (technological designated in the study two approaches: personality - activity approach and situational - contextual approach.Dedicated approaches can serve as the basis of conducting  research and identification of directions and components teaching techniques of psychological knowledge in higher pedagogical education.

  12. Loneliness and its association with psychological and somatic health problems among Czech, Russian and U.S. adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Koposov, Roman; Blatný, Marek; Hrdlička, Michal; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2016-05-04

    Loneliness is common in adolescence and has been linked to various negative outcomes. Until now, however, there has been little cross-country research on this phenomenon. The aim of the present study was to examine which factors are associated with adolescent loneliness in three countries that differ historically and culturally-the Czech Republic, Russia and the United States, and to determine whether adolescent loneliness is associated with poorer psychological and somatic health. Data from a school survey, the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), were used to examine these relations among 2205 Czech, 1995 Russian, and 2050 U.S. male and female adolescents aged 13 to 15 years old. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine if specific demographic, parenting, personal or school-based factors were linked to feeling lonely and whether lonely adolescents were more likely to report psychological (depression and anxiety) or somatic symptoms (e.g. headaches, pain). Inconsistent parenting, shyness, and peer victimisation were associated with higher odds for loneliness in at least 4 of the 6 country- and sex-wise subgroups (i.e. Czech, Russian, U.S. boys and girls). Parental warmth was a protective factor against feeling lonely among Czech and U.S. girls. Adolescents who were lonely had higher odds for reporting headaches, anxiety and depressive symptoms across all subgroups. Loneliness was associated with other somatic symptoms in at least half of the adolescent subgroups. Loneliness is associated with worse adolescent health across countries. The finding that variables from different domains are important for loneliness highlights the necessity of interventions in different settings in order to reduce loneliness and its detrimental effects on adolescent health.

  13. Physical activity is associated with the physical, psychological, social and environmental quality of life in people with mental health problems in a low resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Van Damme, Tine; Probst, Michel; Firth, Joseph; Stubbs, Brendon; Basangwa, David; Mugisha, James

    2017-12-01

    There is a growing recognition of the importance of encouraging patients with mental health problems to become more active as an efficacious strategy to reduce the disability-associated burden. The aim of the current study was to investigate if there are differences in quality of life (QoL) outcomes between people with mental health problems that do and do not meet the recommendations of 150min per week of physical activity. 109 (36♀) Ugandan in- and outpatients (mean age = 34.2 ± 10.2 years) (depression = 7, bipolar disorder = 31, schizophrenia = 21, alcohol use disorder = 50) completed the Physical Activity Vital Sign (PAVS) method and World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment brief version. Those who did not achieve the minimum physical activity recommendations as assessed by the PAVS (n = 63) had a lower physical, psychological, social and environmental QoL. The current data offer further evidence that the PAVS method might be an important risk identification tool in people with mental health problems. The feasibility and acceptability of the PAVS may help promote the importance of physical activity assessment and prescription as a core part of the treatment of mental health problems in LMICs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reabilitação psicológica de pacientes com seqüelas da encefalite por arbovirus Psychological rehabilitation of patients with sequelae due to encephalitis caused by arbovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anency Giannotti Hallage

    1981-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigado o possível comprometimento psíquico de pacientes com seqüelas da encefalite por arbovirus, do litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, com a finalidade de definir o papel do psicólogo, em um programa de reabilitação física e psicossocial. A presença das seqüelas era encarada de forma depreciativa e observou-se que essa percepção comprometeu fundamentalmente a identidade do paciente como ser humano, trazendo uma série de respostas emocionais desadaptadas e impossibibilitando a convivência satisfatória consigo e com o próximo. Os resultados analisados, em seu aspecto psicossociológico, revelaram que as dificuldades psíquicas observadas eram originárias da maneira como a deficiência física é encarada no meio social.The possibility of psychological damage in patients with sequelae from encephalitis caused by arbovirus in the southern section of the coastal area of the State of S. Paulo (Brazil was investigated for the purpose of defining the role of the psychologist in a programme of physical and psychosocial rehabilitation. The presence of the sequelae was regarded depreciatively by the patients and this attitude affected their self-regard as human beings. The result was a series of emotional maladjustments which made it impossible for the patients to live with themselves or maintain a satisfactory relationship with others. The results analyzed from a psychosocial standpoint revealed that the psychological problems observed arose from the way in which the physical deficiency is regarded within the social context.

  15. Practitioner Review: Psychological treatments for children and adolescents with conduct disorder problems - a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker-Huvenaars, M.J.; Greven, C.U.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Glennon, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis evaluates the efficacy of nonpharmacological treatments for conduct disorder (CD) problems in children and adolescents, based on child, parent and teacher report. METHODS: PubMed, PsycINFO and EMBASE were searched for peer-reviewed articles published between January

  16. Using guided self-help to treat common mental health problems: The Westminster Primary Care Psychology Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbe-Hansen, Louise; Le Huray, Corin; Phull, Brendar; Shakespeare, Clare

    2009-01-01

    We describe a new service offering cognitive behavioural therapy in the form of guided self-help to patients experiencing mild mental health problems. The referral pathway is outlined and the various treatment options are illustrated with case descriptions of depression and panic disorder. Patients' responses to this new service are reported and discussed. PMID:26042170

  17. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Treatment of Physical Health Problems Without a Known Cause, Exemplified by Hypertension and Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the medical clinic, we often face health problems that have no known cause, even after a thorough examination. Biomedicine is often unable to find a cure in these situations, leaving the problem unsolved or leaving the patient on a palliative pharmaceutical cure, which is often for a lifetime. In this case, consciousness-based, holistic medicine could be an alternative. Using the theories and tools of holistic medicine wisely, the physician can often provide treatment for the patient. The toolbox of holistic medicine makes it possible to work on everybody because there is always something related to the patients quality of life that can be improved: his love, his purpose of life, and the way he uses his talents, his mind, his feelings, his body, and his sexuality. For treatment in holistic medicine, it really does not matter as much that you cannot give the patient a precise medical diagnosis, because you can always work on the patient with the intention of healing his or her whole life and existence. It is quite a paradox that many of these diseases can be understood on the level of the individual patient at the same moment that the patient is cured; many of these diseases seem to be clearly related to the repression of the individual character, as stressed already by Hippocrates. So if you simply start working with the patient to help him confront old existential pain and coach him in his personal development of his life by intensifying its meaning and purpose, the symptoms very often simply disappear. The toolbox of holistic medicine also seems relevant to even difficult, neurotic, psychosomatic, and hypochondriac patients. Believing in the treatment and not giving up on your patient, and moving forward in the treatment with the patient himself is the ultimate goal, even when you yourself do not understand the mechanism fully. This will force you to develop your own competence and is, in essence, what makes an outstanding holistic

  18. Analysis of structural relationship among the occupational dysfunction on the psychological problem in healthcare workers: a study using structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsumi Teraoka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the hypothetical model based on structural relationship with the occupational dysfunction on psychological problems (stress response, burnout syndrome, and depression in healthcare workers.Method. Three cross sectional studies were conducted to assess the following relations: (1 occupational dysfunction on stress response (n = 468, (2 occupational dysfunction on burnout syndrome (n = 1,142, and (3 occupational dysfunction on depression (n = 687. Personal characteristics were collected through a questionnaire (such as age, gender, and job category, opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure activities, and work relationships as well as the Classification and Assessment of Occupational Dysfunction (CAOD. Furthermore, study 1 included the Stress Response Scale-18 (SRS-18, study 2 used the Japanese Burnout Scale (JBS, and study 3 employed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, exploratory factor analysis (EFA, and path analysis of structural equation modeling (SEM analysis were used in all of the studies. EFA and CFA were used to measure structural validity of four assessments; CAOD, SRS-18, JBS, and CES-D. For examination of a potential covariate, we assessed the correlation of the total and factor score of CAOD and personal factors in all studies. Moreover, direct and indirect effects of occupational dysfunction on stress response (Study 1, burnout syndrome (Study 2, and depression (Study 3 were also analyzed.Results. In study 1, CAOD had 16 items and 4 factors. In Study 2 and 3, CAOD had 16 items and 5 factors. SRS-18 had 18 items and 3 factors, JBS had 17 items and 3 factors, and CES-D had 20 items and 4 factors. All studies found that there were significant correlations between the CAOD total score and the personal factor that included opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure

  19. Clinical problems of colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer cases with unknown cause of tumor mismatch repair deficiency (suspected Lynch syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchanan DD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel D Buchanan,1,2 Christophe Rosty,1,3,4 Mark Clendenning,1 Amanda B Spurdle,5 Aung Ko Win2 1Oncogenomics Group, Genetic Epidemiology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia; 2Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia; 3Envoi Specialist Pathologists, Herston, QLD, Australia; 4School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Herston, QLD, Australia; 5Molecular Cancer Epidemiology Laboratory, Genetics and Computational Biology Division, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, QLD, AustraliaAbstract: Carriers of a germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes have a high risk of developing numerous different cancers, predominantly colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer (known as Lynch syndrome. MMR gene mutation carriers develop tumors with MMR deficiency identified by tumor microsatellite instability or immunohistochemical loss of MMR protein expression. Tumor MMR deficiency is used to identify individuals most likely to carry an MMR gene mutation. However, MMR deficiency can also result from somatic inactivation, most commonly methylation of the MLH1 gene promoter. As tumor MMR testing of all incident colorectal and endometrial cancers (universal screening is becoming increasingly adopted, a growing clinical problem is emerging for individuals who have tumors that show MMR deficiency who are subsequently found not to carry an MMR gene mutation after genetic testing using the current diagnostic approaches (Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and who also show no evidence of MLH1 methylation. The inability to determine the underlying cause of tumor MMR deficiency in these "Lynch-like" or "suspected Lynch syndrome" cases has significant implications on the clinical management of these individuals and their relatives. When the

  20. Why Bother with Beliefs? Examining Relationships between Race/Ethnicity, Parental Beliefs about Causes of Child Problems, and Mental Health Service Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, May; McCabe, Kristen; Hough, Richard L.; Lau, Anna; Fakhry, Fatme; Garland, Ann

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the role of parental beliefs about the causes of child problems in predicting later mental health service use in a large, diverse population of at-risk youths. Study hypotheses were that parental beliefs consistent with biopsychosocial causes would be associated with later mental health service use;…

  1. Dynamics of psychological crisis experience with psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrutdinova, Liliya Raifovna; Nugmanova, Dzhamilia Renatovna

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of experience as such and its corporeal, emotional and cognitive elements in the situation of psychological consulting provisioning is covered. The aim of research was to study psychological crisis experience dynamics in the situation when psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods is provided. Theoretical analysis of the problem of crisis situations, phenomenon and structural, and dynamic organization of experience of the subject of consulting have been carried out. To fulfill research project test subjects experience crisis situation have been selected, studied in the situation when they provided psychological consulting by methods of gestalt therapy, and methodology of study of crisis situations experience has been prepared. Specifics of psychological crisis experience have been revealed and its elements in different stages of psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods. Dynamics of experience of psychological crisis and its structural elements have been revealed and reliable changes in it have been revealed. Dynamics of psychological crisis experience and its structural elements have been revealed and reliable changes in it have been revealed. "Desiccation" of experience is being observed, releasing its substantiality of negative impression to the end of consulting and development of the new experience of control over crisis situation. Interrelations of structural elements of experience in the process of psychological consulting have been shown. Effecting one structure causes reliable changes in all others structural elements of experience. Giving actual psychological help to clients in crisis situation by methods of gestalt therapy is possible as it was shown in psychological consulting sessions. Structure of client's request has been revealed - problems of personal sense are fixed as the most frequent cause of clients' applications, as well as absence of choices, obtrusiveness of negative thoughts, tend to getting stuck on events

  2. Psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life in youth affected by violence: the burden of the multiply victimised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n=6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent victimisation and violence perpetration were contrasted with non-involved comparisons. The results show that even low levels of violence involvement were associated with more problems, fewer protective factors and impaired HRQOL. Multiply victimised youth - not perpetrating victims - stood out with internalising, peer and hyperactivity/inattention problems. Discriminant function analysis separated non-involved from violence-affected youth, and multiply victimised from not multiply victimised youth. Externalising behaviours, family issues, male sex and school functioning predicted group separation on the first function (proportion variance explained 80.0%), while internalising and peer issues were predictive for the second function (PVE 14.2%). Implications for prevention, intervention and research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of psychological problems and adverse life events on suicidal ideation among adolescents using nationwide data of a school-based mental health screening test in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dayoung; Jung, Song; Park, Seongjun; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2018-02-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for suicidal ideation in adolescents by gender and age. This study used 2013 nationwide school-based mental health screening test data from 591,303 seventh grade students and 618,271 tenth grade students in Korea. Suicidal ideation, four psychological problems, and three adverse life events were evaluated using the Adolescents Mental Health and Problem Behavior Screening Questionnaire-II. Of all students, 12.9-14.7% of the boys and 17.1-23.2% of the girls had suicidal ideation. Mood had the greatest impact on the risk for suicidal ideation and other factors also significantly increased the risk of suicidal ideation. Distractibility was positively related to suicidal ideation only in seventh grade students and behavioral problems increased suicidal ideation more in girls than in boys. Violence constituted the most powerful factor for suicidal ideation among the events; however, bullying constituted the most important event that increased suicidal ideation in seventh grade girls. All factors except 'Distractibility' increased the risk of severe suicidal ideation. The risk factors for suicidal ideation in adolescents differed by gender and age. Interventions should be made according to these characteristics to reduce suicidal ideation in adolescents.

  4. Internet-based acceptance and commitment therapy for psychological distress experienced by people with hearing problems: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molander, Peter; Hesser, Hugo; Weineland, Sandra; Bergwall, Kajsa; Buck, Sonia; Jäder Malmlöf, Johan; Lantz, Henning; Lunner, Thomas; Andersson, Gerhard

    2017-09-12

    Psychological distress is common among people with hearing problems, but treatments that specifically target this aspect have been almost non-existent. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, an eight-week long Internet-based treatment, informed by Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, was administered to explore the feasibility and efficacy of such a treatment. Included participants were randomized to either treatment (n = 31) or wait-list control (n = 30) condition. All participants were measured prior to randomization and immediately after treatment ended using standardized self-report instruments measuring hearing-related emotional and social adjustment (Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly - S, HHIE-S), quality of life (Quality of Life Inventory, QOLI), and symptoms of depression and anxiety (Patient health Questionnaire, PHQ-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, GAD-7). Linear mixed effects regression analysis using the full intention-to-treat sample demonstrated that the treatment had superior outcomes on the main outcome measure as compared with the control group, Cohen's d = 0.93, 95% CI [0.24, 1.63]. The benefits of treatment over control were also evident in scores of depression, Cohen's d = 0.61, 95% CI [0.04, 1.19], and quality of life, Cohen's d = 0.88, 95% CI [0.14, 1.61]. The results provide preliminary support for Internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy as a potentially effective treatment of psychological symptoms associated with hearing problems.

  5. Human development I: Twenty Fundamental Problems of Biology, Medicine, and Neuro-Psychology Related to Biological Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyge Dahl Hermansen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a new series of papers, we address a number of unsolved problems in biology today. First of all, the unsolved enigma concerning how the differentiation from a single zygote to an adult individual happens has been object for severe research for decades. By uncovering a new holistic biological paradigm that introduces an energetic-informational interpretation of reality as a new way to experience biology, these papers will try to solve the problems connected with the events of biological ontogenesis involving a fractal hierarchy, from a single cell to the function of the human brain. The problems discussed are interpreted within the frames of a universe of roomy fractal structures containing energetic patterns that are able to deliver biological information. We think biological organization is guided by energetic changes on the level of quantum mechanics, interacting with the intention that again guides the energetic conformation of the fractal structures to gain disorders or healthiness. Furthermore, we introduce two new concepts: “metamorphous top down” evolution and “adult human metamorphosis”. The first is a new evolutionary theory involving metamorphosis as a main concept of evolution. The last is tightly linked to the evolutionary principle and explains how human self-recovery is governed. Other subjects of special interest that we shall look deeper into are the immunological self-nonself discrimination, the structure and function of the human brain, the etiology and salutogenesis of mental and somatic diseases, and the structure of the consciousness of a human being. We shall criticize Szentagothai’s model for the modulated structure of the human cerebral cortex and Jerne’s theory of the immunological regulatory anti-idiotypic network.

  6. Human development I: twenty fundamental problems of biology, medicine, and neuro-psychology related to biological information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, Tyge Dahl; Ventegodt, Søren; Rald, Erik; Clausen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Maj Lyck; Merrick, Joav

    2006-07-06

    In a new series of papers, we address a number of unsolved problems in biology today. First of all, the unsolved enigma concerning how the differentiation from a single zygote to an adult individual happens has been object for severe research for decades. By uncovering a new holistic biological paradigm that introduces an energetic-informational interpretation of reality as a new way to experience biology, these papers will try to solve the problems connected with the events of biological ontogenesis involving a fractal hierarchy, from a single cell to the function of the human brain. The problems discussed are interpreted within the frames of a universe of roomy fractal structures containing energetic patterns that are able to deliver biological information. We think biological organization is guided by energetic changes on the level of quantum mechanics, interacting with the intention that again guides the energetic conformation of the fractal structures to gain disorders or healthiness. Furthermore, we introduce two new concepts: "metamorphous top down" evolution and "adult human metamorphosis". The first is a new evolutionary theory involving metamorphosis as a main concept of evolution. The last is tightly linked to the evolutionary principle and explains how human self-recovery is governed. Other subjects of special interest that we shall look deeper into are the immunological self-nonself discrimination, the structure and function of the human brain, the etiology and salutogenesis of mental and somatic diseases, and the structure of the consciousness of a human being. We shall criticize Szentagothai's model for the modulated structure of the human cerebral cortex and Jerne's theory of the immunological regulatory anti-idiotypic network.

  7. Perspectives on Computerized Psychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, James N.

    1985-01-01

    Psychological assessment, a subspecialty of psychology has served as one of the earliest proving grounds of automated technology. This Special Series highlights some of the advances in computerized psychological assessment methods and discusses some of the lingering issues and contemporary problems with automated psychological assessment…

  8. РОЗВ’ЯЗАННЯ ПРОБЛЕМИ ЦІЛІСНОСТІ В ГЕШТАЛЬТПСИХОЛОГІЇ / Upon to the Solving of the Problem of Integrity in Gestalt Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Зорій Ніна

    2014-01-01

    Upon to the Solving of the Problem of Integrity in Gestalt Psychology. The article reveals peculiarities of solving the problem of integrity in Gestalt psychology in accordance with its basic scientific categories and historical stage of development; there have been grounded on philosophical and psychological aspects of the conceptual integrity in Gestalt therapy.Key words: Gestalt, Gestalt psychology, Gestalt, the integrity, the phenomenological method, existentialism...

  9. Psychological Outcomes of Bullying Among Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli Onur Celik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bullying may lead to multiple consequences including academic, social and psychological problems. Bullying, like with in many other branches, has been a major problem in sports. Every form of bullying is described in sports. The competitive nature of sports might unconsciously support bullying. The studies showed that victimization caused by bullying may lead to psychological and physical medical problems as well as unplesant results such as drug abuse and predisposition to crime. In this review we explained the differences between the terms bullying and mobbing and then tried to draw attention to psychological consequences of being exposed to bullying among athletes. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(2.000: 152-162

  10. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.

  11. The use of steroids by gym athletes: an attempt to diagnose the problem scale and possible causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Brzęk, Anna; Bąk-Sosnowska, Monika; Dittfeld, Anna; Knapik, Andrzej; Ziaja, Damian

    2017-06-08

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are said to be frequently used by both professional and amateur athletes. In addition to having a negative impact on health, steroids defy the concept of fair play. observational study. other - Gyms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the scale of the problem related to using anabolic- androgenic steroids (AAS) by gym athletes and to analyze possible causes. The study involved 435 participants aged between 18-66 (mean age= x=27.49±7.48). Out of them, 61.4% were male and 38.6% were female. The subjects were divided into two groups: Group A included 154 (35.4%) amateur and recreational athletes and group B included 281 (64.6%) professional athletes concerned with fitness, bodybuilding and powerlifting. A survey prepared by the authors was conducted in the study, and it consisted of 23 closed questions about AAS use, body confidence, and exercise dependence. In addition, a stadiometer and a body composition analyzer were utilized to take necessary measurements. Between 1-23% of group A participants admitted to using AAS. For group B, it was between 7-30%. Males were reported to use AAS more frequently than females in both groups. With regard to group A, differences in body confidence and exercise dependence were found between males using and not using AAS. Exercise dependence was reported to be different between group A and group B participants. This was true for both males and females. Also, it was shown that group A and group B females differed in terms of metabolic age, body mass and body composition (fat mass, fat-free mass, muscle mass, and total body water). Most gym athletes do not use AAS. Amateur athletes tend to use AAS more frequently than professional athletes. Factors that contribute to AAS use are: male gender, low body confidence, young age, and long training.

  12. Professional psychology in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagulha, T; Dana, R H

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the history and current status of professional psychology in Portugal where a unique perspective combines training, research, and practical contributions from Europe and the Americas with their own history of psychological tradition and expertise. Training in professional psychology includes Social Psychology and Educational and Vocational Guidance specializations in addition to Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy and Counseling for the professional degree, Licenciatura. Advanced degrees are offered in Environmental Psychology, Career Development, Social Cognition, and other areas, primarily for academic positions. Research in all of these areas is expected to have applied outcomes that contribute to individual well being and an improved quality of life for the entire population. The result has been a rapid development of an indigenous professional psychology to address mental health, social, and environmental concerns that compel psychological attention and resources worldwide as well as those problems of local and national origins.

  13. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  14. Physical fitness and perceived psychological pressure at work: 30-year ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen Male Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Investigate if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality from regular psychological work pressure.......Investigate if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality from regular psychological work pressure....

  15. The psychological impact of a dual-disaster caused by earthquakes and radioactive contamination in Ichinoseki after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsu, Tomihisa; Takaoka, Kota; Uemura, Saho; Kono, Akiko; Saito, Akihiko; Kawakami, Norito; Nakazato, Michiko; Shimizu, Eiji

    2014-05-20

    The psychological impact of dual-disasters (earthquakes and a nuclear accident), on affected communities is unknown. This study investigated the impact of a dual-disaster (earthquakes and radioactive contamination) on the prevalence of psychological distress in a landlocked city within the Tohoku area, Japan. A cross-sectional mail-in survey with a random sample of inhabitants from Ichinoseki city was conducted eleven months after the disasters, and data from 902 respondents were analyzed by logistic regression models, with multiple imputation methodology. The K6 was used to determine psychological distress. The estimated prevalence of psychological distress was 48.0 percent. House damage due to earthquakes and anxiety about radioactive contamination were significantly associated with psychological distress (p earthquake and radioactive contamination appeared additive.

  16. The effectiveness of simple psychological and exercise interventions for high prevalence mental health problems in young people: a factorial randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moller Bridget

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of mental illness in young people is the highest of any age group, with the onset of depression, anxiety and substance use peaking between 18 and 24 years. Effective treatments that target sub-threshold or mild to moderate levels of disorder in young people are required to reduce the risk of persistence and recurrence. The aims of this study are to evaluate whether treatments that are less intensive than cognitive-behaviour therapy, such as problem solving therapy and exercise treatments, are acceptable and effective in managing depression and anxiety symptoms in young people and to identify possible attributes in those who are likely to respond to these treatments. Methods/design This is a factorial randomised controlled trial conducted at a large, metropolitan youth mental health service. Participants are young help-seekers aged 15-25 years with sub-threshold or mild to moderate levels of depression and anxiety (with or without comorbid substance use. The interventions comprise 4 treatment combinations delivered by psychologists over 6 sessions on a weekly basis: a psychological intervention (problem solving therapy versus supportive counselling and an exercise intervention (behavioural exercise versus psychoeducation. Structured assessments occur at baseline, mid-point, end-point (6 weeks and at a 6- and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcomes are depression and anxiety symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Secondary outcomes include remission (defined as no longer meeting the diagnostic criteria for a disorder if threshold level was reached at baseline, or no longer scoring in the clinical range on scale scores if sub-threshold at baseline, substance use, and functioning. Discussion The effectiveness of less complex psychological and exercise interventions in young help-seekers with sub-threshold or mild to moderate presentations of high prevalence disorders is yet to be

  17. The effectiveness of simple psychological and exercise interventions for high prevalence mental health problems in young people: a factorial randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alexandra G; Hetrick, Sarah E; Jorm, Anthony F; Yung, Alison R; McGorry, Patrick D; Mackinnon, Andrew; Moller, Bridget; Purcell, Rosemary

    2011-03-13

    The prevalence of mental illness in young people is the highest of any age group, with the onset of depression, anxiety and substance use peaking between 18 and 24 years. Effective treatments that target sub-threshold or mild to moderate levels of disorder in young people are required to reduce the risk of persistence and recurrence. The aims of this study are to evaluate whether treatments that are less intensive than cognitive-behaviour therapy, such as problem solving therapy and exercise treatments, are acceptable and effective in managing depression and anxiety symptoms in young people and to identify possible attributes in those who are likely to respond to these treatments. This is a factorial randomised controlled trial conducted at a large, metropolitan youth mental health service. Participants are young help-seekers aged 15-25 years with sub-threshold or mild to moderate levels of depression and anxiety (with or without comorbid substance use). The interventions comprise 4 treatment combinations delivered by psychologists over 6 sessions on a weekly basis: a psychological intervention (problem solving therapy versus supportive counselling) and an exercise intervention (behavioural exercise versus psychoeducation). Structured assessments occur at baseline, mid-point, end-point (6 weeks) and at a 6- and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcomes are depression and anxiety symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Secondary outcomes include remission (defined as no longer meeting the diagnostic criteria for a disorder if threshold level was reached at baseline, or no longer scoring in the clinical range on scale scores if sub-threshold at baseline), substance use, and functioning. The effectiveness of less complex psychological and exercise interventions in young help-seekers with sub-threshold or mild to moderate presentations of high prevalence disorders is yet to be explored. This study has been designed to examine the

  18. Psychosocial Problems during Infertility Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Kirca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is a complex situation crisis which is often psychologically-threatening and emotionally stressful for both partners as well as economically expensive and causes physical pain due to the operations performed for diagnosis and treatment purposes. Infertility has physical, psychological, social, emotional and financial impacts. Infertile couples are under a great social pressure, and need to conceal the problem as it is exceptionally private for them. Infertile individuals are destitute of support when they do not share their pregnancy problems with their families and relatives. Couples define their infertility experience as the most stressful experience of their lives.

  19. Mapping Causes and Implications of India’s Skewed Sex Ratio and Poverty problem using Fuzzy & Neutrosophic Relational Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav; Kanika Bhutani; Megha Kumar; Swati Aggarwal

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies by different researchers have confirmed that skewed sex ratio is a critical social problem in India. This enduring problem of gender imbalance is the collective result of factors like sex selective abortion, gender discrimination, son preference for the preservation of tribe, emergence of new technologies in medical field and many more factors. Another severe problem to be addressed in India is poverty. Many factors contribute to the perpetuation of poverty such as illiteracy...

  20. "Everybody knows psychology is not a real science": Public perceptions of psychology and how we can improve our relationship with policymakers, the scientific community, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    In a recent seminal article, Lilienfeld (2012) argued that psychological science is experiencing a public perception problem that has been caused by both public misconceptions about psychology, as well as the psychological science community's failure to distinguish itself from pop psychology and questionable therapeutic practices. Lilienfeld's analysis is an important and cogent synopsis of external problems that have limited psychological science's penetration into public knowledge. The current article expands upon this by examining internal problems, or problems within psychological science that have potentially limited its impact with policymakers, other scientists, and the public. These problems range from the replication crisis and defensive reactions to it, overuse of politicized policy statements by professional advocacy groups such as the American Psychological Association (APA), and continued overreliance on mechanistic models of human behavior. It is concluded that considerable problems arise from psychological science's tendency to overcommunicate mechanistic concepts based on weak and often unreplicated (or unreplicable) data that do not resonate with the everyday experiences of the general public or the rigor of other scholarly fields. It is argued that a way forward can be seen by, on one hand, improving the rigor and transparency of psychological science, and making theoretical innovations that better acknowledge the complexities of the human experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Children with bronchial asthma assessed for psychosocial problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Paediatric bronchial asthma causes respiratory related mortality and morbidity globally and elevates the risk of psychological and social problems (psychosocial problems); which may result in poorer asthma control. The rate of and associated factors for psychosocial problems among our asthmatic children ...

  2. Mapping Causes and Implications of India’s Skewed Sex Ratio and Poverty problem using Fuzzy & Neutrosophic Relational Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies by different researchers have confirmed that skewed sex ratio is a critical social problem in India. This enduring problem of gender imbalance is the collective result of factors like sex selective abortion, gender discrimination, son preference for the preservation of tribe, emergence of new technologies in medical field and many more factors. Another severe problem to be addressed in India is poverty. Many factors contribute to the perpetuation of poverty such as illiteracy, bad governance, under employment and various other reasons. Despite of India's accelerated growth rate, poverty in India is still prevalent.

  3. Ground-water hydrology of the Punjab region of West Pakistan, with emphasis on problems caused by canal irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, D.W.; Swarzenski, W.V.; Bennett, G.D.

    1967-01-01

    Rising water tables and the salinization of land as the result of canal irrigation threaten the agricultural economy of the Punjab. Since 1954 the Water and Soils Investigation Division of the West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority has inventoried the water and soils resources of the Punjab and investigated the relations between irrigation activities, the natural hydrologic factors, and the incidence of waterlogging and subsurface-drainage problems. This report summarizes the findings of the investigation, which was carried out under a cooperative agreement between the Government of Pakistan and the U.S. Agency for International Development, and its predecessor, the U.S. International Cooperation Administration. Leakage from the canal systems, some of which have been in operation for more than 100 years, is the principal cause of rising water levels and constitutes the major component of ground-water recharge in the Punjab. Geologic studies have shown that virtually the entire Punjab is underlain to depths of 1,000 feet or more by unconsolidated alluvium, which is saturated to within a few feet of land surface. The alluvium varies in texture from medium sand to silty clay, but sandy sediments predominate. Large capacity wells, yielding 4 cfs or more, can be developed almost everywhere. Ground water occurring within a depth of 500 feet below the surface averages less than 1,000 ppm of dissolved solids throughout approximately two-thirds of the Punjab. It is estimated that the volume of usable ground water in storage in this part of the alluvial aquifer is on the order of 2 billion acre-feet. In the other one-third of the Punjab, total dissolved solids range from 1,000 to about 20,000 ppm. In about one-half of this area (one-sixth of the area of the Punjab) some ground water can be utilized by diluting with surface water from canals. The ground-water reservoir underlying the Punjab is an unexploited resource of enormous economic value. It is recognized

  4. [From gene to disease; genetic causes of hearing loss and visual impairment sometimes accompanied by vestibular problems (Usher syndrome)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, R.J.E.; Kremer, J.M.J.; Deutman, A.F.; Kimberling, W.J.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessively inherited disease, characterised by sensorineural hearing loss, tapetoretinal degeneration and in some cases vestibular problems. Based on the clinical heterogeneity, the disease can be classified into three clinical types (I, II and III), which have their

  5. Training in positivity for stroke? A qualitative study of acceptability of use of Positive Mental Training (PosMT) as a tool to assist stroke survivors with post-stroke psychological problems and in coping with rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavaddat, Nahal; Ross, Sheila; Dobbin, Alastair; Williams, Kate; Graffy, Jonathan; Mant, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Post-stroke psychological problems predict poor recovery, while positive affect enables patients to focus on rehabilitation and may improve functional outcomes. Positive Mental Training (PosMT), a guided self-help audio shows promise as a tool in promoting positivity, optimism and resilience. To assess acceptability of training in positivity with PosMT for prevention and management of post-stroke psychological problems and to help with coping with rehabilitation. A modified PosMT tool consisted of 12 audio tracks each lasting 18 minutes, one listened to every day for a week. Survivors and carers were asked to listen for 4 weeks, but could volunteer to listen for more. Interviews took place about experiences of the tool after 4 and 12 weeks. 10 stroke survivors and 5 carers from Stroke Support Groups in the UK. Three stroke survivors did not engage with the tool. The remainder reported positive physical and psychological benefits including improved relaxation, better sleep and reduced anxiety after four weeks. Survivors who completed the programme gained a positive outlook on the future, increased motivation, confidence and ability to cope with rehabilitation. No adverse effects were reported. The PosMT shows potential as a tool for coping with rehabilitation and overcoming post-stroke psychological problems including anxiety and depression.

  6. Preventing enduring behavioural problems in young children through early psychological intervention (Healthy Start, Happy Start): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandani, Paul G; O'Farrelly, Christine; Babalis, Daphne; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Byford, Sarah; Grimas, Ellen S R; Iles, Jane E; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; McGinley, Julia; Phillips, Charlotte M; Stein, Alan; Warwick, Jane; Watt, Hillary C; Scott, Stephen

    2017-11-15

    Behavioural problems are common in early childhood, and can result in enduring costs to the individual and society, including an increased risk of mental and physical illness, criminality, educational failure and drug and alcohol misuse. Most previous research has examined the impact of interventions targeting older children when difficulties are more established and harder to change, and have rarely included fathers. We are conducting a trial of a psychological intervention delivered to families with very young children, engaging both parents where possible. This study is a two-arm, parallel group, researcher-blind, randomized controlled trial, to test the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a parenting intervention, Video Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) for parents of young children (12-36 months) at risk of behavioural difficulties. VIPP-SD is an evidence-based parenting intervention developed at Leiden University in the Netherlands which uses a video-feedback approach to support parents, particularly by enhancing parental sensitivity and sensitive discipline in caring for children. The trial will involve 300 families, who will be randomly allocated into either an intervention group, who will receive the video-feedback intervention (n = 150), or a control group, who will receive treatment as usual (n = 150). The trial will evaluate whether VIPP-SD, compared to treatment as usual, leads to lower levels of behavioural problems in young children who are at high risk of developing these difficulties. Assessments will be conducted at baseline, and 5 and 24 months post-randomization. The primary outcome measure is a modified version of the Preschool Parental Account of Child Symptoms (Pre-PACS), a structured clinical interview of behavioural symptoms. Secondary outcomes include caregiver-reported behavioural difficulties, parenting behaviours, parental sensitivity, parental mood and anxiety

  7. The systematic development and pilot randomized evaluation of counselling for alcohol problems, a lay counselor-delivered psychological treatment for harmful drinking in primary care in India: the PREMIUM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Abhijit; Velleman, Richard; Dabholkar, Hamid; Shinde, Sachin; Bhat, Bhargav; McCambridge, Jim; Murthy, Pratima; Wilson, Terry; Weobong, Benedict; Patel, Vikram

    2015-03-01

    Despite harmful drinking causing a significant burden on global health, there is a large treatment gap, especially in low- and middle-income countries. A major barrier to care is the lack of adequately skilled human resources to deliver contextually appropriate treatments. This paper describes the systematic process used to develop Counselling for Alcohol Problems (CAP), a brief psychological treatment (PT) for delivery by lay counselors in routine primary care settings to men with harmful drinking in India. CAP was developed using a methodology involving 3 sequential steps: (i) identifying potential treatment strategies; (ii) developing a theoretical framework for the treatment; and (iii) evaluating the acceptability and feasibility of the treatment. CAP is a 3-phase treatment delivered over 1 to 4 sessions based on a motivational interviewing (MI) stance and involves the following strategies: assessment and personalized feedback, family engagement, drink refusal skills, skills to address drinking urges, problem-solving skills and handling difficult emotions, and relapse prevention and management. Data from a case series were used to inform several adaptations to enhance the acceptability of CAP to the recipients and feasibility of delivery by lay counselors of the treatment, for example expansion of the target group to include alcohol-dependent patients and the extension of the delivery settings to include home-based delivery. There was preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of CAP. CAP is an acceptable brief PT for harmful drinking delivered by lay counselors in primary care whose effectiveness is currently being tested in a randomized controlled trial based in primary care in Goa, India. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. [Space physiology and psychology: long missions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazorthes, G

    1989-06-01

    Until now spatial physiology and medicine concern mainly disturbances caused by life in microgravity during short stay (days, weeks). Neuro-sensorial, cardiovascular, osteo-muscular manifestations are well known; their prophylaxis is in great part established. It is shortly speak of them. Consequence of long stay (months or years) are not so well known; they are physiologic and psychologic. These long flights are now rare but they would probably be more numerous in next future. Authors present successively physics dangers: radiations, meteorites, composition of screw, number and selective tests, alimentation, fry time, habitation, biologic rhythms, psychism... We meet the same psychologic problems as great explorations have known.

  9. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  10. Five-year surveillance of human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in Bologna, Italy: an underestimated problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, G; Botti, I; Pacciarini, M L; Boniotti, M B; Roncarati, G; Dal Monte, P

    2017-10-01

    Human tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis surveillance is affected by a lack of data. The aims of the present study were: (i) to estimate the proportion of human TB caused by M. bovis over a period of 5 years in Bologna, Northern Italy, which, like most Western European countries, has been declared bovine TB-free; (ii) to compare the genetic profiles of M. bovis strains identified in humans with those circulating in cattle in the last 15 years in Italy. Among 511 TB patients, the proportion of human TB caused by M. bovis was 1·76%, significantly associated to extra-pulmonary localization (P = 0·004) and to being elderly (P Italy-born (P = 0·036). The molecular epidemiology analysis by spoligotyping and Multilocus Variable Tandem Repeat Analysis confirmed that most M. bovis strains from Italy-born patients matched those circulating in cattle herds in Italy between 2001 and 2016. Two cases of Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection were also characterized. In conclusion, the rate of human TB caused by M. bovis was not negligible, highlighting the relevance of molecular typing in evaluating the effectiveness of programmes designed to eradicate TB in cattle in Italy.

  11. Tinnitus and Other Auditory Problems – Occupational Noise Exposure below Risk Limits May Cause Inner Ear Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Ann-Cathrine; Rosenhall, Ulf; Olofsson, Åke; Hagerman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal = 193. The following hearing tests were used: − pure tone audiometry with Békésy technique, − transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; − psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, − forward masking, − speech recognition in noise, − tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group exposed

  12. Does poor school performance cause later psychosocial problems among children in foster care? Evidence from national longitudinal registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Hilma; Brännström, Lars; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders

    2016-07-01

    Research has shown that children in foster care are a high-risk group for adverse economic, social and health related outcomes in young adulthood. Children's poor school performance has been identified as a major risk factor for these poor later life outcomes. Aiming to support the design of effective intervention strategies, this study examines the hypothesized causal effect of foster children's poor school performance on subsequent psychosocial problems, here conceptualized as economic hardship, illicit drug use, and mental health problems, in young adulthood. Using the potential outcomes approach, longitudinal register data on more than 7500 Swedish foster children born 1973-1978 were analyzed by means of doubly robust treatment-effect estimators. The results show that poor school performance has a negative impact on later psychosocial problems net of observed background attributes and potential selection on unobservables, suggesting that the estimated effects allow for causal interpretations. Promotion of school performance may thus be a viable intervention path for policymakers and practitioners interested in improving foster children's overall life chances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR

  14. Methodological Foundations of Military Psychology and Psychological Security

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey V. Leonov; Veraksa, Aleksander N.; Yuri P. Zinchenko

    2011-01-01

    The article is devoted to the history of development of military psychology from psychological and philosophical positions. The transition stage in development of military psychology from classical to postclassical type of rationality is focused. Analysis of combat activity as self-regulation system is presented. The latest technologies in solving key problems of military science are discussed.

  15. Methodological Foundations of Military Psychology and Psychological Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Leonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of development of military psychology from psychological and philosophical positions. The transition stage in development of military psychology from classical to postclassical type of rationality is focused. Analysis of combat activity as self-regulation system is presented. The latest technologies in solving key problems of military science are discussed.

  16. Military Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS...TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS.

  17. Recommendations of the Spanish Working Group on Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis (GETECCU) and the Association of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Patients (ACCU) in the management of psychological problems in Inflammatory Bowel Disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; Marín-Jiménez, Ignacio; Panadero, Abel; Guardiola, Jordi; Cañas, Mercedes; Gobbo Montoya, Milena; Modino, Yolanda; Alcaín, Guillermo; Bosca-Watts, Marta Maia; Calvet, Xavier; Casellas, Francesc; Chaparro, María; Fernández Salazar, Luis; Ferreiro-Iglesias, Rocío; Ginard, Daniel; Iborra, Marisa; Manceñido, Noemí; Mañosa, Miriam; Merino, Olga; Rivero, Montserrat; Roncero, Oscar; Sempere, Laura; Vega, Pablo; Zabana, Yamile; Mínguez, Miguel; Nos, Pilar; Gisbert, Javier P

    2018-02-01

    To establish recommendations for the management of psychological problems affecting patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A meeting of a group of IBD experts made up of doctors, psychologists, nurses and patient representatives was held. The following were presented: 1) Results of a previous focal group, 2) Results of doctor and patient surveys, 3) Results of a systematic review of tools for detecting anxiety and depression. A guided discussion was then held about the most important psychological and emotional problems associated with IBD, appropriate referral criteria and situations to be avoided. The validated instrument most applicable to clinical practice was selected. A recommendations document and a Delphi survey were designed. The survey was sent to the group and to a scientific committee of the GETECCU group in order to establish the level of agreement with these recommendations. Fifteen recommendations were established linked to 3 key processes: 1) What steps should be taken to identify psychological problems at an IBD appointment; 2) What are the criteria for referring patients to a mental health specialist; 3) How to approach psychological problems. Resources should be made available to healthcare professionals so that they can treat these problems during consultations, identify the disorders which could affect the clinical course of the disease and determine their impact on the patient's life in order that these can be treated and followed up by the most suitable professional. These recommendations could serve as a basis for redesigning IBD services or processes and as justification for the training of healthcare personnel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Speech Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plan Hot Topics Flu Facts Arrhythmias Abuse Speech Problems KidsHealth > For Teens > Speech Problems Print A A ... form speech sounds into words. What Causes Speech Problems? Normal speech might seem effortless, but it's actually ...

  19. Strategy to identify the causes and to solve a sludge granulation problem in methanogenic reactors: application to a full-scale plant treating cheese wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarie, Hervé; Esquivel, Maricela; Laguna, Acela; Baron, Olivier; El Mamouni, Rachid; Guiot, Serge R; Monroy, Oscar

    2017-08-26

    Granulation of biomass is at the basis of the operation of the most successful anaerobic systems (UASB, EGSB and IC reactors) applied worldwide for wastewater treatment. Despite of decades of studies of the biomass granulation process, it is still not fully understood and controlled. "Degranulation/lack of granulation" is a problem that occurs sometimes in anaerobic systems resulting often in heavy loss of biomass and poor treatment efficiencies or even complete reactor failure. Such a problem occurred in Mexico in two full-scale UASB reactors treating cheese wastewater. A close follow-up of the plant was performed to try to identify the factors responsible for the phenomenon. Basically, the list of possible causes to a granulation problem that were investigated can be classified amongst nutritional, i.e. related to wastewater composition (e.g. deficiency or excess of macronutrients or micronutrients, too high COD proportion due to proteins or volatile fatty acids, high ammonium, sulphate or fat concentrations), operational (excessive loading rate, sub- or over-optimal water upflow velocity) and structural (poor hydraulic design of the plant). Despite of an intensive search, the causes of the granulation problems could not be identified. The present case remains however an example of the strategy that must be followed to identify these causes and could be used as a guide for plant operators or consultants who are confronted with a similar situation independently of the type of wastewater. According to a large literature based on successful experiments at lab scale, an attempt to artificially granulate the industrial reactor biomass through the dosage of a cationic polymer was also tested but equally failed. Instead of promoting granulation, the dosage caused a heavy sludge flotation. This shows that the scaling of such a procedure from lab to real scale cannot be advised right away unless its operability at such a scale can be demonstrated.

  20. Why did the UV-A-induced photoluminescent blue-green glow in trilobite eyes and exoskeletons not cause problems for trilobites?

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenemann, Brigitte; Clarkson, Euan N. K.; Horváth, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    The calcitic lenses in the eyes of Palaeozoic trilobites are unique in the animal kingdom, although the use of calcite would have conveyed great advantages for vision in aquatic systems. Calcite lenses are transparent, and due to their high refractive index they would facilitate the focusing of light. In some respects, however, calcite lenses bear evident disadvantages. Birefringence would cause double images at different depths, but this is not a problem for trilobites since the difference i...

  1. Why did the UV-A-induced photoluminescent blue–green glow in trilobite eyes and exoskeletons not cause problems for trilobites?

    OpenAIRE

    Brigitte Schoenemann; Clarkson, Euan N. K.; Gábor Horváth

    2015-01-01

    The calcitic lenses in the eyes of Palaeozoic trilobites are unique in the animal kingdom, although the use of calcite would have conveyed great advantages for vision in aquatic systems. Calcite lenses are transparent, and due to their high refractive index they would facilitate the focusing of light. In some respects, however, calcite lenses bear evident disadvantages. Birefringence would cause double images at different depths, but this is not a problem for trilobites since the difference i...

  2. DNA as patentable subject matter and a narrow framework for addressing the perceived problems caused by gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Stephen H

    2011-12-01

    Concerns about the alleged harmful effects of gene patents--including hindered research and innovation and impeded patient access to high-quality genetic diagnostic tests--have resulted in overreactions from the public and throughout the legal profession. These overreactions are exemplified by Association for Molecular Pathology v. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, a 2010 case in the Southern District of New York that held that isolated DNA is unpatentable subject matter under 35 U.S.C. § 101. The problem with these responses is that they fail to adequately consider the role that gene patents and patents on similar biomolecules play in facilitating investment in the costly and risky developmental processes required to transform the underlying inventions into marketable products. Accordingly, a more precisely refined solution is advisable. This Note proposes a narrowly tailored set of solutions to address the concerns about gene patents without destroying the incentives for companies to create and commercialize inventions derived from these and similar patents.

  3. PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anida Fazlagić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, postpartum depression may include any nonpsychotic depressive disorder during the first four weeks of postpartum, according to research criteria during the first year after birth. The exact cause of postpartum depression is not yet known, and most researchers believe that postpartum depression is a bio-psycho-social problem. So far, the biological aspect of the disease is explained by changing the levels of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy, and by decrease of hormone levels after birth. Psychological correlates are often associated with low selfesteem, pessimism as a personality trait, bad strategies of coping with stress, mood swings and emotional reactions. The social aspect of the disease is associated with the existential conditions of pregnant woman, support of partners and education level. This paper will include issues like hereditary causes and possible psychological factors of postpartum depression prevention. Nowadays, it is estimated that on average 15% of women, regardless of the pregnancy outcome, are suffering from postpartum depression. However, this information includes only those women who were diagnosed with postpartum depression and who themselves reported about it. Almost every woman receives basic care during pregnancy to prevent complications in the physiological level. This paper has shown possible psychological factors of postpartum depression prevention, the impact of optimism, self-esteem and coping skills.

  4. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  5. Severe psychological disturbance resulting from abuse of nasal decongestants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, G W

    1982-04-01

    A case is reported in which a lady suffered long-term personality change, a paranoid psychosis of several months duration, and an acute delirium, secondary to abuse of Vicks Sinex Nasal Spray and Vicks Vaporub. The problems were reversible on withdrawal of these well used products which have not previously been reported to cause psychological disturbance.

  6. Current Economic and Financial Crisis – New Issues or Returning to the Old Problems? Paradigms, Causes, Effects and Solutions Adopted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix TOTIR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the ideological level, the current crisis, as the others in history, has triggered an intellectual debate among several applicable ideas: ultra-liberal theory of the "invisible hand" of Adam Smith, Keynes's theory of state interventionism and even neo-Marxist theories. Globalization, with all its core components, generates a chain reaction when the phenomenon occurs, either positive or negative. The origin of the current financial crisis should be sought in the effects of massive cross-border capital flows and the use of more complex derivatives. Reaching the saturation of the three engines of economic growth worldwide in the period after the collapse of the socialist bloc is another important cause of all the failures that currently exist worldwide. Acquisition of toxic assets from bank balance sheets, their recapitalization and takeover by the state, but also the reinforcement of the prudential supervision of capitalization, liquidity and risk management system, improved transparency and speed the process of evaluating or reinforcing authorities' response to risk, can be considered short or long term anti-crisis measures, as appropriate.

  7. Plate fixation of extra-articular fractures of the proximal phalanx: do new implants cause less problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei-Thoma, Pascale; Vögelin, Esther; Franz, Torsten

    2015-03-01

    Limited range of finger motion is a frequent complication after plate fixation of phalangeal fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of plate fixation of extra-articular fractures of the proximal phalanx using current low-profile mini-fragment-systems. From 2006 to 2012, 32 patients with 36 extra-articular fractures of the proximal phalanx of the triphalangeal fingers were treated with open reduction and plate fixation (ORPF) using 1.2 and 1.5 mm mini-fragment systems. Patients presenting with open fractures grade 2 and 3 or relevant laceration of adjacent structures were excluded from the study. We retrospectively evaluated the rate of mal-union or non-union after ORPF, the need for revision surgery, for plate removal, and for tenolysis. Data were analyzed for further complications with regard to infections or complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). No infections were noted. Five patients developed transient symptoms of CRPS. Six weeks postoperatively, total active finger motion (TAM) averaged 183°, and all 32 patients underwent formal hand therapy. At the latest follow-up or at the time of plate removal, respectively, the mean TAM improved to 213°. Extension lag of proximal interphalangeal joints was found in 67 % of all fractured fingers. Secondary surgery was necessary in 14 of 32 patients (2 corrective osteotomies, 12 plate removals including 7 procedures explicitly because of reduced mobility). Despite of new implant designs significant problems persist. Adhesions of extensor tendons leading to limited range of finger motion are still the most frequent complications after ORPF of proximal phalangeal fractures, even in absence of significant soft-tissue damage. Therapeutic, Retrospective, Level IV.

  8. Situations matter: teaching the Lewinian link between social psychology and rehabilitation psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dana S

    2011-11-01

    A little-recognized fact is that social psychology and rehabilitation psychology share a common theoretical ancestry in the situation perspective of Kurt Lewin. Theory and research in both fields assumes that situational influences often override the impact of personal factors, including dispositions. Situational analyses led to the development of a variety of cognitive explanations capturing people's phenomenal accounts for the causes of behavior and concomitant interpretation of social problems. Teachers can explore reasons why, despite the fields' having a shared theoretical perspective and topics of common interest (e.g., attitudes, prejudice, discrimination), little scholarly intradisciplinary contact currently occurs between them.

  9. Psychological dimensions of Energy Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Tonello, Graciela; Jakovcevic, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious current environmental problems is the depletion of non renewable natural resources. The vast majority of our daily actions involve the consumption of energy and they increase the problem. Environmental psychology studies the psychological motivations that determine pro-ecological behaviour. In this context the aim of this review was to determine which psychological models and variables are better descriptors of residential energy conservation, comparing the predictive ...

  10. Disappearing Teachers: An Exploration of a Variety of Views as to the Causes of the Problems Affecting Teacher Recruitment and Retention in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian L. S. Hilton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the causes of the difficulties experienced in recruiting and retaining teachers to work in schools in England. The analysis begins with a report by the National Audit Office which blamed the Department of Education’s actions as the main reason for the difficulties, then using other documented sources, reports, press articles, parliamentary committee information and news channels the paper explores the problem from a wider perspective. Despite the criticism of the Department for Education it appears that though its actions have exacerbated the problem and it has been slow to acknowledge that we are facing a crisis, the main concern it appears is the tremendous work load faced by teachers in England. This, combined with other concerns is not only making teachers think seriously about leaving the profession, but also preventing potential recruits applying to train.

  11. The problem of the content of the recognition of the testimony of the informers towards the concept of just cause for the regular exercise of the criminal action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Barbosa Bittar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the conceptual problems regarding the legal nature of the plea bargaining and the just cause, seeking to establish limits regarding the recognition of the content of the version presented by the informers, with greater attention to the probative value, as seen in the Brazilian legal system, seeking if it is possible to include the content of what can be understood as accepted just cause, or not, as a legitimate requirement for the criminal action procedure. To fulfill this objective, we sought to establish existence and validity requirements for the beginning of a valid criminal prosecution procedure, highlighting the criminal political aspects that end up influencing in the conclusion of the inherent contours of the object of the analysis of the present study.

  12. Psychological distress: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridner, Sheila H

    2004-03-01

    The term 'distress' is frequently used in nursing literature to describe patient discomfort related to signs and symptoms of acute or chronic illness, pre- or post-treatment anxiety or compromised status of fetuses or the respiratory system. 'Psychological distress' may more accurately describe the patient condition to which nurses respond than does the term 'distress'. Psychological distress is seldom defined as a distinct concept and is often embedded in the context of strain, stress and distress. This creates confusion for nurses attempting to manage the care of people experiencing psychological distress. This paper is a concept analysis of psychological distress based on Walker and Avant's (1995) criteria that identifies the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of psychological distress based upon the findings of the literature review. In addition, empirical references are identified and constructed cases presented. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, CINAHL, Ovid, PsychINFO, and Cancer Lit databases over the last 50 years. The purposes of this concept analysis were: (1) to establish the concept of psychological distress as a clear and distinct concept, separate from strain, stress and distress, and (2) to provide nurses with a base of knowledge from which to plan effective clinical interventions. Content analysis of the literature revealed that, although used frequently in health care literature, the origin of the concept of psychological distress has not been clearly articulated and is ill-defined. Psychological distress is a serious problem faced by many of the people whom nurses encounter on a daily basis. An understanding of the concept of psychological distress will help nurses ameliorate this problem in patients. Nursing research related to the exploration of psychological distress is also needed.

  13. The decade 1989-1998 in Spanish psychology: an analysis of research in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, A; de la Corte, L

    2001-11-01

    In this study, a detailed exploration is carried out of the production of research and theory in social psychology in the Spanish context. The main research areas are: Work and organizational psychology, social health psychology, community and social services psychology, environmental research, judicial and political psychology, psychosocial theory and meta-theory, social psychology of language, research on emotion, group processes and social identity. The growing importance of social psychology within the framework of Spanish psychology is emphasized, and the relation with specific social problems from the national context, and the paradoxically scarce originality of the theoretical perspectives and the leading research, strongly influenced by Anglo Saxon social psychology, is commented upon.

  14. A study in a hospital setting in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies, on the psychological factors that cause road traffic collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopaul CD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chavin D Gopaul,1 Aruna Singh-Gopaul,2 Edison D Haqq1 1Department of Para-clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The University of the West Indies, St Augustine, 2North West Regional Health Authority, St George Central, Barataria, Trinidad and Tobago Abstract: The following research paper aims to examine the psychological factors that have led to road traffic collisions (RTCs by conducting research on drivers who had been admitted to the Accident and Emergency department at four major hospitals in Trinidad as RTC cases. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four major hospitals in Trinidad. Sample size was 900 participants admitted to the hospital as RTC cases, and the sample was selected using Daniel’s formula. All 900 participants were drivers involved in an RTC and were mostly male, and majority of drivers involved in an RTC were within the age group of 30–39 years. The survey was conducted in a 3-month window between March and June 2013. The results of the survey indicated that there was a significant relationship between most of the factors and RTCs, that is, p<0.05. This indicated that the null hypotheses did not hold. Thus, there was an positive correlation. The study revealed that attitude of drivers, real driving practice and the driving knowledge possessed by the driver were associated factors for RTCs. The survey also established that factors such as stress, the lack of sleep and fatigue were also likely to be associated with RTC. Keywords: road traffic collision, psychological factors, Trinidad, accident and emergency, stress, depressive symptoms 

  15. Demographic and Psychological Predictors of Grade Point Average (GPA) in North-Norway: A Particular Analysis of Cognitive/School-Related and Literacy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saele, Rannveig Grøm; Sørlie, Tore; Nergård-Nilssen, Trude; Ottosen, Karl-Ottar; Goll, Charlotte Bjørnskov; Friborg, Oddgeir

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30% of students drop out from Norwegian upper secondary schools. Academic achievement, as indexed by grade point average (GPA), is one of the strongest predictors of dropout. The present study aimed to examine the role of cognitive, school-related and affective/psychological predictors of GPA. In addition, we examined the…

  16. Physical and Psychological Maltreatment in Childhood and Later Health Problems in Women: An Exploratory Investigation of the Roles of Perceived Stress and Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Alanna D.; Runtz, Marsha G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This retrospective, cross-sectional study investigated the association between childhood physical and psychological maltreatment and self-reported physical health concerns in adult women. The mediating roles of perceived stress and coping strategies were examined. Methods: Participants were 235 women (aged 18-59 years) recruited from…

  17. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ...

  18. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  19. Psychological parameters of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, A; Platsidaki, E; Kouskoukis, C; Christodoulou, C

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory scaling dermatosis. The marked visible appearance of the lesions have a negative impact on body image that leads to decreased self-esteem, hence seriously compromising the patient's quality of life. The clinical picture critically affects the social well-being of the patient since the disease is commonly misunderstood and feared by the social environment as being contagious. The patient feels stigmatized and this further intensifies their lack of self-confidence and self-esteem. Feelings of shame and guilt increase the tendency toward suicidal ideation. The poor quality of life of psoriatic patients has been associated with excessive alcohol consumption, increased smoking and greater use of tranquilizers, sedatives and antidepressants. As far as mental impairment is concerned, a correlation has been found between psychological stress and the clinical severity of symptoms: the more mentally affected the patient, the more severe the dermatologic lesions. Similarly, stressful life events constitute a major risk for the occurrence and recurrence, exacerbating the severity and duration of the symptoms. Depression and anxiety can worsen the disease or cause resistance to treatment or patient's indifference, which in turn can lead to expensive and prolonged treatment. Not least, the disease itself contributes to anxiety, depression and psychological stress, thus creating a "vicious circle" that is difficult to manage. Given that women seem to invest more in their personal appearance than men, it is hardly surprising that female psoriatic patients report higher levels of depression. Similarly, the risk of mental disorders is also higher in younger patients for whom body image plays an equally significant role. The severity of the disease, side effects of therapy and mental disorders are among the causes that have been attributed to sexual dysfunction reported by some psoriatic patients. At the social level, stigma, social rejection

  20. Walking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your legs or feet Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease Diseases such as arthritis or multiple sclerosis Vision or balance problems Treatment of walking problems depends on the cause. Physical therapy, surgery, or mobility aids may help.

  1. What are some of the cognitive, psychological, and social factors that facilitate or hinder licensed vocational nursing students' acquisition of problem-solving skills involved with medication-dosage calculations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Arthur William

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive and psychological factors that either enhanced or inhibited Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN) students' abilities to solve medication-dosage calculation problems. A causal-comparative approach was adopted for use in this study which encompassed aspects of both qualitative and quantitative data collection. A purposive, maximum-variation sample of 20 LVN students was chosen from among a self-selected population of junior college LVN students. The participants' views and feelings concerning their training and clinical experiences in medication administration was explored using a semi-structured interview. In addition, data revealing the students' actual competence at solving sample medication-dosage calculation problems was gathered using a talk-aloud protocol. Results indicated that few participants anticipated difficulty with medication-dosage calculations, yet many participants reported being lost during much of the medication-dosage problem solving instruction in class. While many participants (65%) were able to solve the medication-dosage problems, some (35%) of the participants were unable to correctly solve the problems. Successful students usually spent time analyzing the problem and planning a solution path, and they tended to solve the problem faster than did unsuccessful participants. Successful participants relied on a formula or a proportional statement to solve the problem. They recognized conversion problems as a two-step process and solved the problems in that fashion. Unsuccessful participants often went directly from reading the problem statement to attempts at implementing vague plans. Some unsuccessful participants finished quickly because they just gave up. Others spent considerable time backtracking by rereading the problem and participating in aimless exploration of the problem space. When unsuccessful participants tried to use a formula or a proportion, they were unsure of the formula's or

  2. Psychological and psycho-vegetative technologies of diagnostics and correction the behavior of professionals working in extreme conditions (state of problem and prospective studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulygina V.G.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to promising areas of research regulatory processes (self-control оf the professionals working in special and extreme conditions of professional activity. The actuality of creation a comprehensive compact of the selection methods, adaptation the technologies to professional tasks, methods of psychological assistance of the specialists of hazardous occupations was shown. It was done an overview of foreign studies of the features of psychological regulation and self-control in stressful situations, neurophysiological correlates of self-control and aggressive behavior. The results of trainings of the development of the capacity for self-control, increasing resistance to the negative effects of mental exhaustion, were described. There were expounded the results of domestic investigations of the association between the self-regulation of behavior and profile of reactivity among mentally healthy and ill persons. The necessity of the development of psychodiagnostic and psychological programs for specialists in the professions of risk, aimed to improve the efficiency of regulatory processes for the adaptation to the conditions of professional activity.

  3. Influencing the psychological well-being of beginning teachers across three years of teaching : Self-efficacy, stress causes, job tension and job discontent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Maulana, Ridwan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the path of influence of support programmes for beginning teachers (BTs) is examined. Longitudinal relationships between self-efficacy and stress causes experienced by BTs and their job tension and discontent are investigated. Differential effects are explored in the relationships

  4. Does screening high school students for psychological distress, deliberate self-harm, or suicidal ideation cause distress--and is it acceptable? An Australian-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jo; Pan Yuen, Hok; Martin, Cathy; Hughes, Ally; Baksheev, Gennady N; Dodd, Simon; Bapat, Swagata; Schwass, Wayne; McGorry, Patrick; Yung, Alison R

    2011-01-01

    Programs designed to detect students at risk of depression and suicidality have shown success (Shaffer et al., 2004). The current study sought to examine whether or not such a program was acceptable to participants and whether or not it caused distress. Participants were boys aged 14 to 16. Participants were assessed using an on-line questionnaire; acceptability was measured via postal questionnaire. Of 272 participants, 31 (11.4%) were considered at-risk; 13 required ongoing support, 8 of whom had not previously sought help. Overall screening did not appear to cause significant undue distress, although some differences were evident between at-risk and not at-risk students. All participants found the program acceptable. When conducted carefully, early detection programs can be an effective and acceptable method of identifying at-risk adolescents.

  5. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  6. Discursive psychology and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Ann

    2012-09-01

    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  8. German cross-cultural psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Trommsdorff, Gisela

    1986-01-01

    The present study deals with German-language cross-cultural research in different fields of psychology which attempts to achieve one Or more goals of cross-cultural psychology. First, methodological problems are discussed, followed by a selective presentation of cross-cultural research in personality, clinical, ethological, developmental, and social psychology. The theoretical and methodological advancement of these studies is investigated with respect to four approaches - universals in cross...

  9. Chagas disease as a cause of heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias in patients long removed from endemic areas: an emerging problem in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, Vieri; Tomberli, Benedetta; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Fornaro, Alessandra; Castelli, Gabriele; Pieralli, Filippo; Berni, Andrea; Yacoub, Sophie; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Olivotto, Iacopo

    2015-12-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. In endemic areas (South and Central America), Chagas disease represents a relevant public health issue, and is the most frequent cause of cardiomyopathy. In nonendemic areas, such as Europe, Chagas disease represents an emerging problem following the establishment of sizeable communities from Brazil and Bolivia. Chagas cardiomyopathy represents the most frequent and serious complication of chronic Chagas disease, affecting about 20-30% of patients, potentially leading to heart failure, arrhythmias, thromboembolism, stroke and sudden death. Because late complications of Chagas disease may develop several years or even decades after the acute infection, it may be extremely challenging to reach the correct diagnosis in patients long removed from the countries of origin. We report two examples of Chagas cardiomyopathy in South American women permanently residing in Italy for more than 20 years, presenting with cardiac manifestations ranging from left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure to isolated ventricular arrhythmias. The present review emphasizes that Chagas disease should be considered as a potential diagnosis in patients from endemic areas presenting with 'idiopathic' cardiac manifestations, even when long removed from their country of origin, with potential implications for treatment and control of Chagas disease transmission.

  10. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  11. From Charles Darwin to Sherlock Holmes: contributions of evolutionary psychology in forensic science investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Fontanesi, Lilybeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Evolutionary psychology (EP) is a discipline born between evolutionary biology, cognitive science, and physical anthropology. It's both a theoretical and practical scientific discipline which principal purpose is to study human behavior, in order to understand the biological and evolutionary causes that generated it. Evolutionary psychology finds its roots in the Darwinian theory, considering human behavior as the product of adaptations to recurring problems in the ancestra...

  12. Treating stimuli as a random factor in social psychology: a new and comprehensive solution to a pervasive but largely ignored problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Charles M; Westfall, Jacob; Kenny, David A

    2012-07-01

    Throughout social and cognitive psychology, participants are routinely asked to respond in some way to experimental stimuli that are thought to represent categories of theoretical interest. For instance, in measures of implicit attitudes, participants are primed with pictures of specific African American and White stimulus persons sampled in some way from possible stimuli that might have been used. Yet seldom is the sampling of stimuli taken into account in the analysis of the resulting data, in spite of numerous warnings about the perils of ignoring stimulus variation (Clark, 1973; Kenny, 1985; Wells & Windschitl, 1999). Part of this failure to attend to stimulus variation is due to the demands imposed by traditional analysis of variance procedures for the analysis of data when both participants and stimuli are treated as random factors. In this article, we present a comprehensive solution using mixed models for the analysis of data with crossed random factors (e.g., participants and stimuli). We show the substantial biases inherent in analyses that ignore one or the other of the random factors, and we illustrate the substantial advantages of the mixed models approach with both hypothetical and actual, well-known data sets in social psychology (Bem, 2011; Blair, Chapleau, & Judd, 2005; Correll, Park, Judd, & Wittenbrink, 2002). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Research methods for economic psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranyard, Rob; Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of possible avenues for research in relation to various key economic-psychological problems. Theoretical research mainly comprises (mathematical) modelling of economic psychological processes. The starting point for theoretical research often is literature search

  14. Sports Psychology and the Coach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Greta L., Ed.

    This monograph documents the speeches presented at the 1988 Symposium on Sports Psychology and the Coach. Presentations ranged from empirical research studies to anecdotal methodologies for coping with problems of anxiety. The following presentations are included: (1) "The Coach as Psychologist: When and How" (Robert Rotella); (2) "Psychology for…

  15. Developing orphan children in adoption family and institutionalizing. Book review of: “The problem of orphanhood in modern Russia: The psychological aspect”. A.V. Makhnach, A.M. Prikhozhan, N.N. Tolstykh (Eds.. Moscow: Institute of Psychology RAS Publishing House, 2015. 670 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisenkova N.S.,

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The review contains detailed and full analysis of the study , which helps to understand some possibilities of psychological development of children who remained with- out parents, in situation of socializing and in adoption family, as well as to understand challenges for such families. This work deals with various aspects of development and upbringing of children in early ages: preschool, elementary school and teenagers. Anal- ysis of important contemporary issues has been done, such as international adoption, professional approach of adoption families, its status, difficulties and problem solving suggested by Russian, Italian and Spanish scientists.

  16. Psychological Impact of Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jennifer; Meng, Chelsea; Eng, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The causes of severe obesity are multifactorial and include metabolic, dietary, physical, and psychological aspects. Additionally, the impact of severe obesity affects more than one's physical health. This article attempts to explore the psychological impact of severe obesity specifically in the areas of mood, eating disorders, sleep disturbance, chronic pain, and quality of life. Additionally, obesity treatment options of lifestyle modification and bariatric surgery that include psychological assessment and/or cognitive behavioral intervention are discussed.

  17. System as metaphor in the psychology and biology of shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, R

    1996-01-01

    Biological theories of brain and psychological theories of mind are two systems of explanation that seem related to one another. The nature of the relationship is problematic and constitutes the age-old mind-body problem. The most prominent solutions currently are variations of materialism. While psychological theories can be consistent with materialism, there remains a difficulty in comprehending nonphysical (social, psychological) causes of physical effects. This difficulty is an obstacle to integration in psychiatry, where we routinely assume that illnesses that include or depend on biological dysfunction are caused multifactorially by causal agents such as perceived parental warmth, parental loss, stressful life events, genetics, and personality (Hammen et al. 1992; Kendler et al. 1993). Unity theory adopts the stance that neurobiological theories and psychological theories are essentially disparate explanations of the same psychobiological events; thus the relationship of mind to brain is one of shared reference (Goodman 1991; Maunder 1995). In Goodman's model the gap between biological and psychological systems is not bridgeable. Different conceptual categories refer to the same referents but cannot interact with each other. Stepping into the breach, systems theory has been presented as offering a language that can bridge the gap between psychological and biological theories of causation (Schwartz 1981; Weiner 1989). Thus, there is a controversy about the applicability of systems theory for integration in psychiatry.

  18. German Military Psychology 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, *WEST GERMANY, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, APTITUDE TESTS, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHIATRY, MILITARY PROCUREMENT, CLASSIFICATION, SELECTION, PILOTS, AVIATION MEDICINE.

  19. Crisis interventions in online psychological counseling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    da Silva, Juliana Amaral Medeiros; Siegmund, Gerson; Bredemeier, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    .... Psychological crises, such as suicide attempts, represent a growing problem in mental health. When faced with such scenarios, specific strategies of crisis intervention are both appropriate and necessary...

  20. On the psychology of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haushofer, Johannes; Fehr, Ernst

    2014-05-23

    Poverty remains one of the most pressing problems facing the world; the mechanisms through which poverty arises and perpetuates itself, however, are not well understood. Here, we examine the evidence for the hypothesis that poverty may have particular psychological consequences that can lead to economic behaviors that make it difficult to escape poverty. The evidence indicates that poverty causes stress and negative affective states which in turn may lead to short-sighted and risk-averse decision-making, possibly by limiting attention and favoring habitual behaviors at the expense of goal-directed ones. Together, these relationships may constitute a feedback loop that contributes to the perpetuation of poverty. We conclude by pointing toward specific gaps in our knowledge and outlining poverty alleviation programs that this mechanism suggests. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Psychological distress among women with newly diagnosed breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Birgitte; Bistrup, Pernille Envold; Johansen, Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Psychological distress is common in the cancer continuum. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of distress and to investigate the related problems and the characteristics of women with breast cancer who experienced psychological distress at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: We...... thermometer' to measure psychological distress and the accompanying 'problem list' to identify related problems. Logistic regression models with 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the associations between psychological distress, age, social support and domains on the problem list. RESULTS...

  2. Why did the UV-A-induced photoluminescent blue-green glow in trilobite eyes and exoskeletons not cause problems for trilobites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenemann, Brigitte; Clarkson, Euan N K; Horváth, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    The calcitic lenses in the eyes of Palaeozoic trilobites are unique in the animal kingdom, although the use of calcite would have conveyed great advantages for vision in aquatic systems. Calcite lenses are transparent, and due to their high refractive index they would facilitate the focusing of light. In some respects, however, calcite lenses bear evident disadvantages. Birefringence would cause double images at different depths, but this is not a problem for trilobites since the difference in the paths of the ordinary and extraordinary rays is less than the diameter of the receptor cells. Another point, not discussed hitherto, is that calcite fluoresces when illuminated with UV-A. Here we show experimentally that calcite lenses fluoresce, and we discuss why fluorescence does not diminish the optical quality of these lenses and the image formed by them. In the environments in which the trilobites lived, UV-A would not have been a relevant factor, and thus fluorescence would not have disturbed or confused their visual system. We also argue that whatever the reason that calcite was never again used successfully in the visual systems of aquatic arthropods, it was not fluorescence.

  3. Why did the UV-A-induced photoluminescent blue–green glow in trilobite eyes and exoskeletons not cause problems for trilobites?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Schoenemann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The calcitic lenses in the eyes of Palaeozoic trilobites are unique in the animal kingdom, although the use of calcite would have conveyed great advantages for vision in aquatic systems. Calcite lenses are transparent, and due to their high refractive index they would facilitate the focusing of light. In some respects, however, calcite lenses bear evident disadvantages. Birefringence would cause double images at different depths, but this is not a problem for trilobites since the difference in the paths of the ordinary and extraordinary rays is less than the diameter of the receptor cells. Another point, not discussed hitherto, is that calcite fluoresces when illuminated with UV-A. Here we show experimentally that calcite lenses fluoresce, and we discuss why fluorescence does not diminish the optical quality of these lenses and the image formed by them. In the environments in which the trilobites lived, UV-A would not have been a relevant factor, and thus fluorescence would not have disturbed or confused their visual system. We also argue that whatever the reason that calcite was never again used successfully in the visual systems of aquatic arthropods, it was not fluorescence.

  4. Relationship of Non-Structural Forms of Social Interaction with Problems of Social and Psychological Adaptation of Students Prone to Chemical Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilemkhanova, Elvira N.

    2016-01-01

    The changes in contemporary social and cultural environment determine the necessity to increase the efficiency of adaptive mechanisms, especially for those categories of people who are subject to social risks. One of those categories is students prone to chemical addictions. To study the relationship of forms of social interaction with problems of…

  5. Integrating Best Practices in Positive Behavior Support and Clinical Psychology for a Child with Autism and Anxiety-Related Problem Behavior: A Clinical Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Vanessa; Law, Kimberley C. Y.; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for a child with autism and anxiety-related problem behavior that integrated components of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with positive behavior support (PBS). One child with autism and his family participated. The dependent variable was the number of steps…

  6. Desiderata: Towards Indigenous Models of Vocational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pearce, Marina

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing…

  7. The Nature of Psychology: The Great Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Ruben

    2007-01-01

    Research about the nature of psychology, its subject matter, its level of analysis, its scientific laws, its relationship with other disciplines, and its social relevance has been a matter of great concern and interest during the development of psychology. This problem can be analyzed in terms of the dilemmas of the psychological discipline, which…

  8. Three-year trend survey of psychological distress, post-traumatic stress, and problem drinking among residents in the evacuation zone after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident [The Fukushima Health Management Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oe, Misari; Fujii, Senta; Maeda, Masaharu; Nagai, Masato; Harigane, Mayumi; Miura, Itaru; Yabe, Hirooki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Suzuki, Yuriko; Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-06-01

    Prolonged periods of instability in terms of living environment can lead to a serious increase in mental health issues among disaster-affected individuals. The aim of this study was to assess long-term trends in mental health among adult residents in a nuclear-disaster-affected area. Mail-based, self-administered questionnaire surveys were conducted three times (T1-T3), targeting all residents registered with the municipalities in the evacuation zone in Fukushima prefecture at the time of the disaster. Age-adjusted prevalences of the following were analyzed by sex: risk of psychological distress by the Kessler 6-item Scale, post-traumatic stress by the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, and problem drinking by CAGE. The numbers of respondents and response rates were: 73 568, 40.7% (T1); 55 076, 29.9% (T2); and 46 386, 25.0% (T3). Compared with normal Japanese levels in non-disaster settings (4.7%), the prevalence of general psychological distress by Kessler 6-item Scale ≥ 13 was still high 3 years after the event in both men (11.4%) and women (15.8%). Although the age-adjusted prevalence of psychological distress and post-traumatic stress (Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist ≥ 44) had decreased over time (from 19.0% [T1] to 17.8% [T3] for men, and from 25.3% [T1] to 23.3% [T3] for women), the age-adjusted prevalence of problem drinking (CAGE ≥ 2) remained steady in both men (20.7% [T2] and 20.4% [T3]; P = 0.18) and women (10.5% [T2] and 10.5% [T3]; P = 0.91). Our results suggest that long-term interventions focused on post-traumatic stress as well as other mental health problems are strongly needed for disaster-affected individuals. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  9. Humilhação social - um problema político em psicologia Social Humiliation - a Political problem into psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moura Gonçalves Filho

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo opera com resultados de uma pesquisa de psicologia social desenvolvida em regime participante e envolvendo mulheres que na Vila Joanisa - SP assumiram comunitariamente o trabalho de Centros de Juventude. Dedicamo-nos aqui ao exame de um problema político e psicológico, a humilhação social, uma modalidade de angústia disparada pelo impacto traumático da desigualdade de classes: para assim caracterizá-lo, recorremos à investigação marxista e à psicanálise.This paper is based upon participant research carried out in Vila Joanisa, a desinfranchised and poor district of São Paulo. As a social psychologist, the author has worked in Youth Centers, community-based groups both organized and coordinated by women. The aim of this paper is to discribe and discuss social humiliation, defined as a singular kind of anguish triggered by class inequality trauma. The psychological and political concepts of social humiliation were integrated into a theoretical framework informed by marxism and psychoanalisis.

  10. Sport Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  11. [Clinical psychology in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdy, E

    1998-11-08

    What is health- and clinical psychology? How do they fit into the healthcare system as disciplines and branches of professional practice? This overviews presents the theoretical sources of the profession, its components and interdisciplinary relations. Outlined are the criteria of being a profession, within the framework of the developmental history of clinical psychology in Hungary and abroad. Also discussed are specific aspects of practical care, both within and beyond healthcare as primary prevention (mental hygiene). In addition, we deal with the current problems of clinical psychology, international and specifically Hungarian, as well as its potential for development. Our main message is that the answer to present day challenges is activity based upon on integrated care model. This uses the framework of primary care and is capable of bringing about the reconciliation and integration of biological and psycho-social interventions. A crucial aspect of this is the role of team-work and, above all, that of the clinical psychologist.

  12. Uma abordagem fenomenológico-existencial para a questão do conhecimento em psicologia An existential-phenomenological approach to the problem of psychological knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vial Roehe

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Partindo da analítica existencial do filósofo Martin Heidegger, o artigo propõe que o conhecimento é um correlato ontológico do modo de ser humano e que a tradição científica comete um erro ontológico quando, por meio de uma suposta assepsia metodológica, separa o conhecedor do conhecido. Sendo assim, argumenta-se que qualquer empreendimento científico está vinculado às características do ser humano, que qualquer que seja o foco de uma investigação científica, este já estará sempre submetido às possibilidades perspectivas humanas. Portanto, a objetividade que a tradição científica preconiza, de modo algum se realiza. Propõe-se também que a psicologia não necessita adotar o modelo naturalista tradicional, a fim de adquirir credibilidade científica.Based on German philosopher Martin Heidegger's existential analytic, this article proposes that knowledge is an ontological counterpart to man's mode of being, and the scientific tradition incurs in ontological error when, through the use of a so-called methodological asepsis, it separates who-knows (the "subject" of knowledge from what-is-known (the "object" of knowledge. Thus, it can be argued that any scientific enterprise is linked to the characteristics of human beings, and whatever focus a scientific investigation might have, this focus will always be limited by human perceptive capabilities and, therefore, the objectivity proclaimed by the scientific tradition is never achieved at all. The article also proposes that psychology does not need to adopt the traditional naturalistic model in order to achieve scientific credibility.

  13. Three-dimensional, virtual reality vestibular rehabilitation for chronic imbalance problem caused by Ménière's disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Su-Yi; Fang, Te-Yung; Yeh, Shih-Ching; Su, Mu-Chun; Wang, Pa-Chun; Wang, Victoria Y

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a three-dimensional, virtual reality system for vestibular rehabilitation in patients with intractable Ménière's disease and chronic vestibular dysfunction. We included 70 patients (36 for study, 34 as control) with a chronic imbalance problem caused by uncompensated Ménière's disease. The virtual reality vestibular rehabilitation comprised four training tasks (modified Cawthorne-Cooksey exercises: eye, head, extension, and coordination exercises) performed in six training sessions (in 4 weeks). Measurements of the task scores and balance parameters obtained at the baseline and after final training sessions were compared. A significant improvement was observed in extension and coordination scores. Patients in the early stages of Ménière's disease had a significantly greater improvement in the center of gravity sway and trajectory excursion in the mediolateral direction than did patients in the late stages of Ménière's disease. Mild functional disability attributable to Ménière's disease was a predictor of improvement in the statokinesigram and maximum trajectory excursion in the anteroposterior direction after rehabilitation. The control group showed no significant improvement in almost all parameters. Virtual reality vestibular rehabilitation may be useful in patients with Ménière's disease, particular those in the early stages or having mild functional disability. Implication for rehabilitation Chronic imbalance caused by uncompensated Ménière's disease is an indication for vestibular rehabilitation. The interactive virtual reality video game, when integrated into vestibular rehabilitation exercise protocol, may assist patients who have mild disability Ménière's disease and who cannot benefit from treatment with drugs or surgery. The initial data from this study support the applicability of three-dimensional virtual reality technology in vestibular rehabilitation programs. The technology gives

  14. Exploring individual differences in online and face-to-face help-seeking intentions in case of impending mental health problems: The role of adult attachment, perceived social support, psychological distress and self-stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Apolinário-Hagen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Even though common mental health problems such as depression are a global burden calling for efficient prevention strategies, still many distressed individuals face hurdles to access public mental healthcare. Thus, computerized Internet-based psychological services have been suggested as viable approach to overcome barriers, such as self-stigma, and to inform the access to professional support on a large scale. However, little research has targeted predictors of online and face-to-face help-seeking intentions. Objective: This study aimed at determining whether associations between attachment insecurity and the willingness to seek online versus face-to-face counselling in case of impending emotional problems are mediated by both perceived social support and psychological distress and moderated by self-stigma. Methods: Data was collected from 301 adults from the German-speaking general population (age: M = 34.42, SD = 11.23; range: 18 - 65 years; 72.1% female through an anonymous online survey. Determinants of seeking help were assessed with the self-report measures Experiences in Close Relationship-Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, ENRICHD-Social Support Inventory and an adapted version of the General Help Seeking Questionnaire (i.e. case vignette. Mediation analyses were performed with the SPSS-macro PROCESS by Hayes. Results: About half of the sample indicated being not aware of online counselling. As expected, insecure attachment was associated with less perceived social support and increased psychological distress. Mediational analyses revealed negative relationships between both attachment avoidance and self-stigma with face-to-face help-seeking intentions. Moreover, the relationship between attachment anxiety and the willingness to seek face-to-face counselling was mediated by social support. In contrast, none of the predictors of online counselling was statistically significant. Conclusions: Overall, this study identified

  15. The psychological present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, L J

    1992-01-01

    The present paper compares behavior-analytic and cognitive treatments of the concept of psychological history with regard to its role in current action. Both treatments take the position that the past bears some responsibility for the present, and are thereby obligated to find a means of actualizing the past in the present. Both do so by arguing that the past is brought to bear in the present via the organism. Although the arguments of the two positions differ on this issue, neither provides a complete account. An unconventional treatment of psychological history is proposed, the logic of which is exemplified in anthropological, biological, and psychological perspectives. The unconventional treatment in psychological perspective holds that (a) the organism's interaction with its environment, not the organism itself, changes with experience; and (b) the past interactions of an organism exist as, and only as, the present interactions of that organism. This solution to the problem of psychological history provides obligations and opportunities for analysis that are not available when the more conventional positions of cognitivism and behavior analysis are adopted.

  16. Problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Sofie; Kirschner, Paul A.; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Loyens, S. M. M., Kirschner, P. A., & Paas, F. (2011). Problem-based learning. In S. Graham (Editor-in-Chief), A. Bus, S. Major, & L. Swanson (Associate Editors), APA educational psychology handbook: Vol. 3. Application to learning and teaching (pp. 403-425). Washington, DC: American Psychological

  17. Literature and art therapy in post-stroke psychological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, Yeongcheol; Yim, Jongeun

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and long-term disability worldwide, and post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common and serious psychiatric complication of stroke. PSD makes patients have more severe deficits in activities of daily living, a worse functional outcome, more severe cognitive deficits and increased mortality as compared to stroke patients without depression. Therefore, to reduce or prevent mental problems of stroke patients, psychological treatment should be recommended. Literature and art therapy are highly effective psychological treatment for stroke patients. Literature therapy divided into poetry and story therapy is an assistive tool that treats neurosis as well as emotional or behavioral disorders. Poetry can add impression to the lethargic life of a patient with PSD, thereby acting as a natural treatment. Story therapy can change the gloomy psychological state of patients into a bright and healthy story, and therefore can help stroke patients to overcome their emotional disabilities. Art therapy is one form of psychological therapy that can treat depression and anxiety in stroke patients. Stroke patients can express their internal conflicts, emotions, and psychological status through art works or processes and it would be a healing process of mental problems. Music therapy can relieve the suppressed emotions of patients and add vitality to the body, while giving them the energy to share their feelings with others. In conclusion, literature and art therapy can identify the emotional status of patients and serve as a useful auxiliary tool to help stroke patients in their rehabilitation process.

  18. Psychological Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Gideon Conway

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.

  19. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Psicologia e inclusão escolar: novas possibilidades de intervir preventivamente sobre problemas comportamentais Psychology and school inclusion: new ways of intervening to prevent behavioral problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Maira da Silva

    2012-03-01

    the effects of a preventive intervention program, based on the principles of the Collaborative Consultation in Schools and the Positive Behavior Support models, designed to prevent and minimize behavior problems. The study was conducted in three 1st grade classrooms in a public elementary school located in the state of São Paulo, involving participation of three teachers of these classrooms and their fifty-five pupils. The study was carried out in four phases. In Phase 1, the ethical procedures were carried out. In Phase 2, teachers were requested to complete the Child and Youth Behavior Inventory (6-18 years/Teacher Report Form (TRF. In Phase 3, the preventive intervention program was implemented, targeting and focusing on teachers and pupils. Finally, in Phase 4, the TRF instrument was repeated. In order to assess the impact of the intervention, the MANOVA test was applied to the results. Regarding student behavior, there was a statistically significant decrease in internalizing, externalizing problems, and in total problems. Besides indicating that the implementation of the Collaborative Consultation in Schools and the Positive Behavior Support models can be effective, this result points to the fact that these models can be used by educational psychologists in preventive interventions that target preventing and minimizing behavior problems in school.