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Sample records for psychological personal stress

  1. Personal determinants of positive states and stress in psychology students

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    G.S. Kozhukhar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report study results of personality characteristics as predictors of positive states (active, optimistic, emotional, subjective comfort and stress experience in adults with one higher education and ongoing training in Psychology. The respondents were 107 people aged 23 to 52 years. Diagnostic methods we used were: "SMIL" (L. Sobchik, Optimism and Activity Scale (adapted by E. Vodopyanova, C. Izard Differential Emotions Scale (adapted by A. Leonova, Subjective Comfort Scale (adapted by A. Leonova, PSM-25 Scale by Lemyr-Tessier-Fillion. The regression analysis revealed that in subjects ongoing training in Psychology, basic predictor of positive emotions and stress experience is anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed three types of subjects by their positive states experiences, which differ primarily by the level of baseline anxiety and related personality characteristics. The group of risk comprised Psychology students with a tendency to depression and negative emotions and specific personality profile.

  2. Personality and physiological reactions to acute psychological stress.

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    Bibbey, Adam; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2013-10-01

    Stable personality traits have long been presumed to have biological substrates, although the evidence relating personality to biological stress reactivity is inconclusive. The present study examined, in a large middle aged cohort (N=352), the relationship between key personality traits and both cortisol and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Salivary cortisol and cardiovascular activity were measured at rest and in response to a psychological stress protocol comprising 5min each of a Stroop task, mirror tracing, and a speech task. Participants subsequently completed the Big Five Inventory to assess neuroticism, agreeableness, openness to experience, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Those with higher neuroticism scores exhibited smaller cortisol and cardiovascular stress reactions, whereas participants who were less agreeable and less open had smaller cortisol and cardiac reactions to stress. These associations remained statistically significant following adjustment for a range of potential confounding variables. Thus, a negative personality disposition would appear to be linked to diminished stress reactivity. These findings further support a growing body of evidence which suggests that blunted stress reactivity may be maladaptive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Personality, psychological stress, and self-reported influenza symptomatology

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    Croon Marcel A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress and negative mood have been related to increased vulnerability to influenza-like illness (ILI. This prospective study re-evaluated the predictive value of perceived stress for self-reported ILI. We additionally explored the role of the negative affectivity and social inhibition traits. Methods In this study, 5,404 respondents from the general population were assessed in terms of perceived stress, personality, and control variables (vaccination, vitamin use, exercise, etc.. ILI were registered weekly using self-report measures during a follow-up period of four weeks. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis on ILI was performed to test the predictive power of stress and personality. In this model, negative affectivity (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009, social inhibition (OR = 0.97, p = 0.011, and perceived stress (OR = 1.03, p = 0.048 predicted ILI reporting. Having a history of asthma (OR = 2.33, p = Conclusion Elderly and socially inhibited persons tend to report less ILI as compared to their younger and less socially inhibited counterparts. In contrast, asthma, trait negative affectivity, and perceived stress were associated with higher self-report of ILI. Our results demonstrate the importance of including trait markers in future studies examining the relation between stress and self-report symptom measures.

  4. The relationship between personality and the response to acute psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jianhui; Yao, Zhuxi; Guan, Qing; Aleman, Andre; Luo, Yuejia

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). The stress response was measured with a combination of cardiovascular

  5. [Relationship of personality with job burnout and psychological stress risk in clinicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Zhou, Dinglun; Yao, Yongcheng; Lan, Yajia

    2015-02-01

    To analyze the job burnout and mental health status of clinicians and the relationship of personality with job burnout and psychological stress, and to investigate the direct or indirect effects of personality on psychological stress. Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Scale (EPQ-RSC), and Kessler 10 Scale were administered to 775 clinicians. Of all clinicians, 29.5% had mild burnout, with a score of 22.7 ± 8.18 for psychological stress risk. The effect of personality on emotional exhaustion and cynicism was greater than that on personal accomplishment. Clinicians with a personality of introversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism suffered a higher risk of psychological stress. Personality had both direct and indirect effects on psychological stress. Neuroticism had the strongest effect on psychological stress, with an effect size of 0.55. Clinicians have a high level of both job burnout and mental psychological stress risk. Personality is significantly correlated with job burnout and psychological stress risk. Measures depending on personality should be taken for effective intervention.

  6. Personality and physiological reactions to acute psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bibbey, Adam; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Phillips, Anna C.; de Rooij, Susanne R.

    2013-01-01

    Stable personality traits have long been presumed to have biological substrates, although the evidence relating personality to biological stress reactivity is inconclusive. The present study examined, in a large middle aged cohort (N=352), the relationship between key personality traits and both

  7. The relationship between personality and the response to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jianhui; Yao, Zhuxi; Guan, Qing; Aleman, André; Luo, Yuejia

    2017-12-04

    The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). The stress response was measured with a combination of cardiovascular reactivity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity, and subjective affect (including positive affect, negative affect and subjective controllability) in healthy individuals. The Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) approach was applied to account for the relationship between personality traits and stress responses. Results suggested that higher neuroticism predicted lower heart rate stress reactivity, lower cortisol stress response, more decline of positive affect and lower subjective controllability. Individuals higher in extraversion showed smaller cortisol activation to stress and less increase of negative affect. In addition, higher openness score was associated with lower cortisol stress response. These findings elucidate that neuroticism, extraversion and openness are important variables associated with the stress response and different dimensions of personality trait are associated with different aspects of the stress response.

  8. Post-inflammatory fatigue in sarcoidosis: personality profiles, psychological symptoms and stress hormones.

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    Korenromp, Ingrid H E; Grutters, Jan C; van den Bosch, Jules M M; Heijnen, Cobi J

    2012-02-01

    Chronic fatigue following inflammatory diseases has been well documented. However, little is known about possible risk factors of chronic post-inflammatory fatigue. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic post-inflammatory fatigue after clinical remission of the disease sarcoidosis is associated with specific dimensions of personality, psychological symptoms and baseline levels of stress hormones. Thirty-seven non-fatigued and 33 fatigued patients in clinical remission of sarcoidosis were evaluated with the Temperament and Character Inventory-short form (TCI); the Symptom CheckList-90 (SCL), and the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). Baseline levels of ACTH and cortisol were measured in plasma. Principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation (varimax) was conducted on all personality, psychological and stress hormone data in order to obtain a smaller set of components. Logistic regression was performed to associate these components with chronic post-inflammatory fatigue. Principal component analyses identified 5 components, of which two components were significantly associated with chronic post-inflammatory fatigue. The first component comprised the personality trait Harm Avoidance and all SCL-subscales except Sleep. The second component consisted of baseline levels ACTH and cortisol, and showed an inverse association with chronic post-inflammatory fatigue. The 3 other components, consisting of respectively SCL-Sleep, TCI-Novelty Seeking-Reward Dependence-Self Transcendence, and TCI-Persistence, were not significantly associated with chronic fatigue. Chronic post-inflammatory fatigue after clinical remission of sarcoidosis is associated with a triad of risk factors: a specific personality profile with profound neurotic characteristics in combination with high levels of psychological distress, and decreased baseline ACTH/cortisol levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sociogenomic Personality Psychology

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    Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657

  10. [Two scales for job stress and psychological health investigation: type-A personality and job satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batigün, Ayşegül Durak; Sahin, Nesrin H

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the psychometric properties of two instruments developed to measure Type-A behaviors and job satisfaction, two important variables mentioned in the stress literature. The data were collected from two different samples, one composed of 426 bank personnel, the other composed of 94 adults working in a private company. The findings are presented separately under the titles Study I and Study II. In both of the studies the assessment instruments used were: Stress Audit (Symptoms), Stress Audit (Vulnerability), Stress Coping Behaviors, Job Satisfaction Scale, and Type-A Behaviors Inventory. For both of the instruments, the studies were based on factor analyses. For Type-A Behaviors Inventory the analyses revealed 4 factors, while for Job Satisfaction Scale they revealed 6 factors. The factor subscales developed from these factors were found to have satisfactory Cronbach's alphas. For Type-A Behaviors Inventory they ranged between .40 and .90; whereas for Job Satisfaction Inventory these values were between .53 and .94. Both studies also included correlational analyses to specify the criterion validity values of the two instruments. The findings revealed that both of the instruments had satisfactory psychometric values, indicating that they can be reliably used in health psychology and job stress studies.

  11. From psychology of personality to psychology of persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojnov Dušan B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers diverse approaches to human subjectivity conceptualization. On the one hand, a summary is made of an established psychological view of personality as an intrinsic psychological entity responsible for stylistic differences in the behavior of isolated individuals, founded on the traditional Cartesian view. On the other hand more recent views are presented, which take human subjectivity as personhood i.e. responsible action of moral subjects, placed within amongst-people space, and implying allied activity of persons in a social community. In addition, consideration is given to new methodological demands for psychologists who want to research the domain of human personhood as well as to deviations of a "new paradigm" of psychological investigations from scientific tradition in viewing methods that has prevailed in psychology until recently. Clarification of demands for studying personhood is a new trend in psychology, so it should be stressed that such orientation, despite its long-lasting past, virtually has a very short history.

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and perceived needs for psychological care in older persons affected by Hurricane Ike

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    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Southwick, Steven M.; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro; Norris, Fran H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence and correlates of disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and needs for psychological care in older persons affected by Hurricane Ike. Method A total of 193 adults age 60 or older who resided in the Galveston Bay area were interviewed 2–5 months following Hurricane Ike. Pre-, peri-, and post-disaster variables hypothesized to be related to PTSD and depressive symptoms, and perceived needs for psychological care were assessed. Results Weighted prevalences of past-month Ike-related PTSD and depression were 7.6% and 8.6%, respectively. Risk factors for Ike-related PTSD symptoms were predominantly peri-disaster in nature, with greater hurricane exposure, and peri-event dissociative and autonomic activation symptoms associated positively with these symptoms. Risk factors for depressive symptoms were predominantly pre-disaster in nature, with being married/living with partner associated negatively, and prior disaster exposure and pre-disaster PTSD or depression associated positively with these symptoms. 27.2% of the sample endorsed at least one of the perceived needs for psychological care assessed. A history of PTSD or depression, greater peri-event autonomic activation, and Ike-related PTSD and depressive symptoms were associated with greater need for psychological care. Limitations This study is limited by its cross-sectional design and employment of psychiatric screening instruments. Conclusions A substantial proportion of older adults may have PTSD and depression, as well as perceived needs for psychological care, after a disaster. Assessment of disaster exposures, and peri-event dissociative and autonomic symptoms may help identify older adults at risk for disaster-related psychopathology. Older adults with a history of PTSD or depression, and greater peri-event autonomic activation and PTSD symptoms may be more likely to have needs for psychological care. PMID:22285792

  13. A New Stress-Based Model of Political Extremism: Personal Exposure to Terrorism, Psychological Distress, and Exclusionist Political Attitudes

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    Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; Sharvit, Keren; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2009-01-01

    Does exposure to terrorism lead to hostility toward minorities? Drawing on theories from clinical and social psychology, we propose a stress-based model of political extremism in which psychological distress--which is largely overlooked in political scholarship--and threat perceptions mediate the relationship between exposure to terrorism and…

  14. Psychological Stress and Cancer

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    ... on or fail to adhere to potentially helpful therapy, engage in risky behaviors such as drug use, or do not maintain a healthy lifestyle, resulting in premature death. How can people who have cancer learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients ...

  15. Stress and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecic-Tosevski, D; Vukovic, O; Stepanovic, J

    2011-01-01

    Stress is an adaptation reaction of living organisms in response to internal or external threats to homeostasis. It is considered as a complex defence mechanism representing the final endpoint of numerous dynamic and interconnected factors of biological, psychological and social nature. Stress is not a simple, stimulus-response reaction, but the interaction between an individual and the environment, involving subjective perception and assessment of stressors, thus constituting a highly personalized process. Specific inherited characteristics, early experience in life, and particular, learned cognitive predispositions make individuals more or less susceptible to the effects of stressors. Resilience and vulnerability to stressors as well as intensity of stress response are greatly dependable on age, gender, intelligence, and numerous characteristics of personality, such as hardiness,locus of control, self-efficacy, self-esteem, optimism, hostility (component of type A personality)and type D traits (negative affectivity and social inhibition). To understand the relation between personality and stress, it is essential to recognize the impact of individual differences in the following four aspects: (1) choice or avoidance of environments that are associated with specific stressors, challenges or benefits, (2) way of interpreting a stressful situation and evaluating one's own abilities and capacities for proactive behaviour so as to confront or avoid it, (3) intensity of response to a stressor,and (4) coping strategies employed by the individual facing a stressful situation. Studies have recorded considerable consistency in coping strategies employed to confront stressful situations, independentlyof situational factors and in connection with permanent personality and temperamental traits,such as neuroticism, extraversion, sense of humour, persistence, fatalism, conscientiousness, andopenness to experience. Positive affect has been associated with positive reappraisal

  16. Acculturation, personality, and psychological adjustment.

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    Ahadi, Stephan A; Puente-Díaz, Rogelio

    2011-12-01

    Two studies investigated relationships between traditional indicators of acculturation, cultural distance, acculturation strategies, and basic dimensions of personality as they pertain to psychological adjustment among Hispanic students. Although personality characteristics have been shown to be important determinants of psychological well-being, acculturation research has put less emphasis on the role of personality in the well-being of immigrants. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that basic dimensions of personality such as extraversion and neuroticism were strongly related to psychological adjustment. Acculturation strategies did not mediate the effect of personality variables, but cultural resistance made a small, independent contribution to the explanation of some aspects of negative psychological adjustment. The implications of the results were discussed.

  17. [Psychological stress and sudden death].

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    Pignalberi, Carlo; Ricci, Renato; Santini, Massimo

    2002-10-01

    Recent studies provide relevant evidence that psychological stress significantly influences the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac death. Psychological stress expresses a situation of imbalance, derived from a real or perceived disparity between environmental demands and the individual's ability to cope with these demands. A situation of psychological stress may include different components: personality factors and character traits, anxiety and depression, social isolation and acute or chronic adverse life events. In particular, it has been documented that a sudden extremely hard event, such as an earthquake or a war strike, can significantly increase the incidence of sudden death. Nevertheless, each one of these factors, if not present, can balance a partially unfavorable situation; this overview suggests a multifactorial situation where almost all elements are present and in which the relative influence of each one varies according to the individual examined. Sudden death occurs when a transient disruption (such as acute myocardial ischemia, platelet activation or neuroendocrine variations), occurring in a patient with a diseased myocardium (such as one with a post-necrotic scar or hypertrophy), triggers a malignant arrhythmia. Psychological stress acts at both levels: by means of a "chronic" action it contributes to create the myocardial background, while by means of an acute action it can create the transient trigger precipitating sudden death. In the chronic action two possible mechanisms can be detected: the first is a direct interaction, which contributes to cause a hypertension status or to exacerbate coronary atherosclerosis consequent to endothelial dysfunction; the second one acts through adverse health behaviors, such as a poor diet, alcohol consumption or smoking. In case of acute psychological stress, the mechanisms involved are mainly the ability to trigger myocardial ischemia, to promote arrhythmogenesis, to stimulate platelet function, and to increase

  18. Personality Psychology and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Almlund, Mathilde; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; Kautz, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the power of personality traits both as predictors and as causes of academic and economic success, health, and criminal activity. Measured personality is interpreted as a construct derived from an economic model of preferences, constraints, and information. Evidence is reviewed about the "situational specificity" of personality traits and preferences. An extreme version of the situationist view claims that there are no stable personality traits or preference parameters tha...

  19. [Psychological features of body integrity identity disorder (BIID): personality traits, interpersonal aspects, coping mechanisms regarding stress and conflicts, body perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, S; Möller, J; Skoruppa, S; Stirn, A

    2014-05-01

    In BIID a disorder of body identity, concerned subjects desire an amputation of a healthy limb. So far, no psychiatric comorbidity was found in the few studies on BIID-subjects. This study explored clinical symptoms, personality characteristics, interpersonal aspects and coping strategies in 15 BIID persons. Psychometric testing on the topics (1) clinical symptoms, (2) personality and interpersonal aspects, (3) coping strategies, (4) attitudes towards the body were used and statistically evaluated with the T-test for one sample. Some psychopathologies such as depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) could be excluded although an increased tendency of depressiveness was found. BIID subjects showed specific personality and interpersonal characteristics: high agreeableness, autonomy, autarky and restrained behaviour towards others. Stress and conflicts are managed by self-control and self-affirmation. Their subjective physical attractiveness was low. BIID persons do not exhibit psychopathological characteristics (such as anxiety, depression or OCD), but do show specifics in personality, relationships and coping mechanisms. In the future, further personality traits and personality disorders should be investigated to shed more light on the categorisation and treatment of BIID. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Psychological stress in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsher, Margaret L

    2012-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic illness associated with emotional and physical consequences which impact on quality of life. Although the impact of fatigue is well understood, emotional impacts of sarcoidosis are less commonly recognized and addressed in routine clinical practice. The purpose of this review is to highlight that sarcoidosis can result in considerable psychological distress. Not only is there a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in sarcoidosis, but clinical depressive and anxiety disorders are more common than seen in the general population. Patients with sarcoidosis have perceptions and beliefs about their disease that may impact on their willingness to engage in recommended therapies. They may also exhibit a disordered perception of their disease and a personality profile of neuroticism. Understanding the minimally important clinical difference in the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) and validation of the Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire (SHQ) across different populations supports the use of these tools in routine clinical practice and clinical trials. Understanding the global impact of sarcoidosis is important for patients and clinicians, and use of validated instruments, such as the SHQ and FAS, allows for more comprehensive assessment of the disease and the impact of any interventions.

  1. The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Borghans, Lex; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; Weel, Bas ter

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research.

  2. Psychological Type of Person-Centered Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Mandy; Turley, Joanne

    2016-02-01

    There are various models and approaches to counseling and psychotherapy. Important characteristics of therapists include psychological type. This study aimed to investigate the psychological type profile of person-centered counselors. The psychological type of 85 counselors (63 women, 22 men) was measured with the Francis Psychological Type Scales (FPTS). Results indicate that the FPTS can reliably measure psychological type among counselors, and the most common psychological type was introvert, intuitive, feeling, and judging (INFJ). The relation of these psychological types with a person-centered approach is further discussed.

  3. Psychological stress and multimorbidity in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Anders

    2017-01-01

    . Additionally, stress is a common reason for contacting the general practitioner (GP), and yet no guidelines for management and treatment exist. Aims The aim of this thesis was to investigate the consequences of psychological stress on the health while taking into account mental‐physical multimorbidity, i...... found to be associated with adverse health outcomes and potentially suboptimal healthcare. The link between stress and multimorbidity could substantiate the efforts to develop management guidelines for primary care, stress‐targeted interventions, and to accommodate the healthcare system to better...... and poor prognosis of physical diseases, including increased mortality. However, little is known on the physical consequences of sub‐threshold psychological stress, which is more common than psychiatric disorders in the background population and is highly prevalent in persons with multimorbidity...

  4. Psychological stress and testicular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkap, Loa; Jensen, Tina Kold; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between self-reported psychological stress, semen quality, and serum reproductive hormones among young Danish men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital-based research center. PARTICIPANT(S): Danish men (median age 19 years) from the gene......OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between self-reported psychological stress, semen quality, and serum reproductive hormones among young Danish men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital-based research center. PARTICIPANT(S): Danish men (median age 19 years) from...... the general population were investigated from 2008 to 2012. INTERVENTION(S): Participants completed a questionnaire on health and lifestyle, including a four-item questionnaire about self-rated stress, had a physical examination performed, delivered a semen sample, and had a blood sample drawn. MAIN OUTCOME...

  5. Occupational stress, burnout and personality in anesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Raymond A B; Wallage, Jacqueline; Bucx, Martin J L

    2018-06-01

    There is a growing awareness of the problem of occupational stress and burnout among anesthesiologists. Occupational stress was found to be related to burnout, a process that is supposed to be moderated by personality. This article will discuss the topic of stress and burnout in relationship to anesthesiologists' personality based on recent literature. Studies among anesthesiologists are in concordance with the broader body of literature on this topic. Personality consistently influences stress appraisal and coping and consequently the development of burnout. Neuroticism, negative affectivity and cooperativeness all contribute to burnout. Strategies to alleviate stress and hence the development of burnout should not only be directed at adapting occupational or organizational factors but also at equipping anesthesiologists with psychological tools to deal with occupational stress. Furthermore, personality traits that predispose for development of burnout could be taken into consideration in resident selection procedures.

  6. An investigation into psychological stress and its determinants in Xinjiang desert oil workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li; Guan, Suzhen; Liu, Jiwen

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The present study aims to investigate psychological stress and its determinants in Xinjiang field oil workers. Specifically, we aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying psychological stress by comprehensively and quantitatively evaluating the processes involved in psychological stress, the factors which influence it, and their relationship. The participants were 1200 field oil workers in Xinjiang who had been in service for at least 1 year. A structural equation model based on data from the symptom checklist, social support research scale, personality questionnaire, occupational burnout questionnaire, and occupational stress questionnaire was constructed to investigate the social (environmental) factors that influence physiological stress and the interplay among these factors. The positive incidence of psychological stress in the field oil workers in Xinjiang was 12.54%. The structural equation model indicated that the main factors that influenced psychological stress in these workers included social support (0.077), occupational role (0.165), personal strain response (0.139), personality (0.189), and occupational burnout (0.380). Among these factors, occupational role, personality, and occupational burnout had a relatively strong predictive power for psychological stress reactions. The cortisol level in workers with positive psychological stress was significantly higher than that in workers with negative psychological stress. Occupational stress, personality, and occupational burnout exert an impact on psychological stress in field oil workers. Therefore, interventions to address these factors should be taken to reduce the incidence of psychological stress. PMID:29642166

  7. Oxidative stress and psychological functioning among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress has gained attention recently in behavioral medicine and has been reported to be associated with various psychological disturbances and their prognoses. Objectives: Study aims to evaluate the oxidative stress (malonylaldehyde (MDA levels and its relation with psychological factors (dimensions of personality, levels of anxiety, stress, and depression among medical/paramedical students of 1 st and 3 rd year. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 students; 75 from 1 st year (2010-2011 and75 from 3 rd year (2009-2010; of medical and paramedical background were assessed on level of MDA (oxidative stress and personality variables, that is, level of anxiety, stress, and depression. These psychological variables were correlated with the level of their oxidative stress. Results: Findings revealed that both groups are influenced by oxidative stress and their psychological variables are also compatible in order to confirm their vulnerabilities to stress. Conclusions: Stress in 3 rd year students was significantly higher and it was noted that it adversely affects the psychological parameters. Hence, special attention on mental health aspect in these students may be given.

  8. Psychological and Personality Profiles of Political Extremists

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Meysam; Weber, Ingmar; Cioffi-Revilla, Claudio; Fortunato, Santo; Macy, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Global recruitment into radical Islamic movements has spurred renewed interest in the appeal of political extremism. Is the appeal a rational response to material conditions or is it the expression of psychological and personality disorders associated with aggressive behavior, intolerance, conspiratorial imagination, and paranoia? Empirical answers using surveys have been limited by lack of access to extremist groups, while field studies have lacked psychological measures and failed to compar...

  9. Sources of stress and psychological morbidity among undergraduate physiotherapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J M; Feeney, C; Hussey, J; Donnellan, C

    2010-09-01

    Professional education can be a stressful experience for some individuals, and may impact negatively on emotional well-being and academic performance. Psychological morbidity and associated sources of stress have not been investigated extensively in physiotherapy students. This study explored sources of stress, psychological morbidity and possible associations between these variables in undergraduate physiotherapy students. A questionnaire-based survey. The Undergraduate Sources of Stress Questionnaire was used to identify sources of stress, and the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) was used to rate the prevalence of psychological morbidity, using a conservative GHQ threshold of 3 to 4 to determine probable 'cases'. Uni- and multivariate tests of correlation were used to analyse the data. An Irish educational institution. One hundred and twenty-five physiotherapy undergraduate students. More than one-quarter of all students (27%) scored above the GHQ threshold, indicating probable psychological morbidity. This is higher than the level of psychological morbidity reported by the general population. Regression analysis showed that academic (beta=0.31, Pphysiotherapy students, with academic and personal issues being the greatest concern. While personal causes of stress such as stressful events and mood are more difficult to control, manipulation of curricular factors may have positive effects on academic sources of stress. Copyright 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing the Psychological Effects of Different Psychiatric Labels: Borderline, Paranoid, and Antisocial Personality Disorder; Major Depression; Anxiety Disorder; and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Celaire, Sarah; McDermott, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    The psychological effects of six Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) psychiatric labels on respondents were evaluated, three of them being variants of "personality disorder" (PD). Self-selecting students from a university in London, United Kingdom, were invited to take part in a repeated-measures questionnaire study delivered online. One hundred and seventy-three participants completed the questionnaire, responding to 16 items for each of the six mental heal...

  11. Psychological Mindedness, Personality and Creative Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoutillier, Nicholas; Barry, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Research into psychological mindedness (PM) has focuses on its beneficial role in improving physical and mental well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of two PM measures and personality in predicting creative cognition performance. Following the completion of a battery of questionnaires, 176 participants from the general…

  12. Psychology or semiotics: persons or subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Cultural studies and especially semiological theory has recently sought to re-conceptualise classical problems considered in academic psychology such as perception, identity, and "subjectivity". It is argued that these theorizations are reductionist and/or theoretically incoherent without an adequate epistemology. Yet they have become for many students of the human sciences the conventional modes of analyzing such questions as personal identity.

  13. Personal Values: Psychological Determinants of Retirement Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, William F.

    With the trend toward early retirement and the fact that people are living to an older average age, more years of an individual's life will be spent in retirement. To examine personal values as psychological determinants of the retirement preparation process, 206 classified university employees, between the ages of 50 and 65 years of age,…

  14. Capturing the psychologic-personal perspective in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyh, Szilvia; Müller, Rachel; Peter, Claudio; Bickenbach, Jerome E; Post, Marcel W M; Stucki, Gerold; Cieza, Alarcos

    2011-11-01

    The overall objective of this study was to illustrate a systematic approach for capturing the psychologic-personal perspective in International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-based comprehensive research on spinal cord injury (SCI) in terms of what and how to measure. The specific aims were to identify (1) relevant areas of research for capturing the psychologic-personal factors in a study that is planned and conceptualized according to the comprehensive context of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, using SCI as a case in point; (2) a set of domains relevant for SCI research from a psychologic-personal perspective; and (3) suitable measurement instruments that can be considered for the assessment of those identified domains based on a set of predefined guiding principles. The psychologic-personal factor structure was developed based on an item pool of 1246 entries from secondary analyses of available data from SCI studies. The domain set for psychologic-personal factors was identified through reviewing the scientific literature in PubMed and PsycInfo. The set of measurement instruments was collected using available measurement reviews, searches in the literature, instrument databases, and further sources and was selected using guiding principles. Forty specific psychologic-personal factors, subdivided into seven areas of research, were identified: (1) sociodemographic personal characteristics, (2) the position in the immediate social and physical context, (3) personal history and biography, (4) feelings, (5) thoughts and beliefs, (6) motives, and (7) patterns of experience and behavior. The psychologic-personal factors domain set contains both cross-cutting outcome domains, namely quality-of-life, life satisfaction, subjective well-being, and sociodemographic personal characteristics, life events, positive and negative affect, perceived stress, locus of control, self-efficacy, purpose in life, coping

  15. [Methods and Applications of Psychological Stress State Assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yang, Yadan; Hou, Yongjie; Chen, Zetao

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the response of individual's physiological system under psychological stress state is discussed, and the theoretical support for psychological stress assessment research is provided. The two methods, i.e., the psychological stress assessment of questionnaire and physiological parameter assessment used for current psychological stress assessment are summarized. Then, the future trend of development of psychological stress assessment research is pointed out. We hope that this work could do and provide further support and help to psychological stress assessment studies.

  16. Psychological stress associated with cardiogenetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayatallah, Nadia; Silverstein, Louise B; Stolerman, Marina; McDonald, Thomas; Walsh, Christine A; Paljevic, Esma; Cohen, Lilian L; Marion, Robert W; Wasserman, David; Hreyo, Sarah; Dolan, Siobhan M

    2014-09-01

    Genetic testing now makes it possible to identify specific mutations that may lead to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. This article presents data from a qualitative research study that explored the subjective experiences of individuals and families with cardiogenetic conditions. We focus on describing patients' experiences of psychological stresses associated with having a cardiogenetic condition, illustrating the importance of integrating psychological and medical care. This integration of care is particularly important as personalized genomic medicine continues to evolve and the implications of genetic testing have a profound effect on individuals and families. The researchers interviewed 50 participants from 32 families. The research team used a systematic, grounded theory procedure to code and analyze interview and focus group transcripts, incorporating multiple coders at several stages of the data analysis process. Three major themes emerged: a bereavement trajectory associated with sudden death in the absence of prior symptoms; high anxiety about transmitting a genetic mutation; and resilience reflected in positive lifestyle changes and participation in support groups. This article identifies patient perspectives on personalized genomic medicine in cardiogenetics that can improve clinical care, including: specialized bereavement counseling; improving education about cardiogenetic conditions for medical professionals; parent guidelines for discussing cardiogenetic conditions with their children; information about support groups; and the routine inclusion of clinical psychologists in interdisciplinary treatment teams. Given recent advances in technology and decreasing costs, whole-genome sequencing is likely to become common practice in the near future. Therefore, these recommendations are likely to be relevant for other genetic conditions, as well as the entire field of personalized genomic medicine.

  17. Personality, preterm labor contractions, and psychological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelzalts, Jonathan E; Krissi, Haim; Levy, Sigal; Freund, Yael; Carmiel, Naama; Ashwal, Eran; Peled, Yoav

    2016-03-01

    Research of psychological factors associated with imminent preterm labor (PTL) is sparse, compared with considerable research of preterm birth. We explored state and trait psychological variables associated with PTL, both pre- and postpartum. During 2012-2014, 56 women hospitalized due to PTL, and 33 pregnant women without PTL, responded during gestational week 20-33, to a demographic questionnaire, the Big-Five Inventory (BFI), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Fear of Childbirth Questionnaire, and the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Inventory (MFAS). At 4-6 weeks postpartum, 35 and 23 of the women in the respective groups responded online to the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Mother to Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS). Compared to women without PTL, women with PTL scored higher on neuroticism, openness to experience, and MFAS (p personality variables, but not with psychological consequences, other than elevated prepartum attachment to the fetus.

  18. Risk factors for psychological stress among international business travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, J; Luippold, R S; Nagy, L; Liese, B; Bigelow, C; Mundt, K A

    1999-04-01

    This study investigated sources of self reported psychological stress among international business travellers at the World Bank, following up on a previous study showing that travellers submitted more insurance claims for psychological disorders. Hypotheses were that work, personal, family, and health concerns, as well as time zone travel, contribute to travel stress. A travel survey was developed from focus groups and consisted of questions about these potential sources of travel stress. Surveys were sent to a random sample of staff, stratified by number of travel missions, age range, and sex. Canonical correlation analyses estimated the association between key survey items on sources of stress and two measures of travel stress. 498 staff completed the survey. More than a third reported high to very high travel stress. Correlations between predictors and travel stress showed that social and emotional concerns (such as impact of travel on family and sense of isolation) contributed the most to such stress, followed by health concerns, and workload upon return from travel. Surprisingly, time zone travel did not contribute to the self reported stress of these travellers. There were few modifiers of stress, although respondents suggested that a day of rest after travel and reduced workloads would help. The current study confirms clinical impressions about several correlates of travel stress. Similar research with travellers in other organisations could help to determine whether the findings from this study are valid and what measures can be taken to reduce the psychological health risks to travellers.

  19. Risk factors for psychological stress among international business travellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, J.; Luippold, R. S.; Nagy, L.; Liese, B.; Bigelow, C.; Mundt, K. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated sources of self reported psychological stress among international business travellers at the World Bank, following up on a previous study showing that travellers submitted more insurance claims for psychological disorders. Hypotheses were that work, personal, family, and health concerns, as well as time zone travel, contribute to travel stress. METHODS: A travel survey was developed from focus groups and consisted of questions about these potential sources of travel stress. Surveys were sent to a random sample of staff, stratified by number of travel missions, age range, and sex. Canonical correlation analyses estimated the association between key survey items on sources of stress and two measures of travel stress. RESULTS: 498 staff completed the survey. More than a third reported high to very high travel stress. Correlations between predictors and travel stress showed that social and emotional concerns (such as impact of travel on family and sense of isolation) contributed the most to such stress, followed by health concerns, and workload upon return from travel. Surprisingly, time zone travel did not contribute to the self reported stress of these travellers. There were few modifiers of stress, although respondents suggested that a day of rest after travel and reduced workloads would help. CONCLUSIONS: The current study confirms clinical impressions about several correlates of travel stress. Similar research with travellers in other organisations could help to determine whether the findings from this study are valid and what measures can be taken to reduce the psychological health risks to travellers.   PMID:10450241

  20. How Psychological Stress Affects Emotional Prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmann, Silke; Furnes, Desire; Bøkenes, Anne Ming; Cozzolino, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    We explored how experimentally induced psychological stress affects the production and recognition of vocal emotions. In Study 1a, we demonstrate that sentences spoken by stressed speakers are judged by naïve listeners as sounding more stressed than sentences uttered by non-stressed speakers. In Study 1b, negative emotions produced by stressed speakers are generally less well recognized than the same emotions produced by non-stressed speakers. Multiple mediation analyses suggest this poorer recognition of negative stimuli was due to a mismatch between the variation of volume voiced by speakers and the range of volume expected by listeners. Together, this suggests that the stress level of the speaker affects judgments made by the receiver. In Study 2, we demonstrate that participants who were induced with a feeling of stress before carrying out an emotional prosody recognition task performed worse than non-stressed participants. Overall, findings suggest detrimental effects of induced stress on interpersonal sensitivity.

  1. How Psychological Stress Affects Emotional Prosody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmann, Silke; Furnes, Desire; Bøkenes, Anne Ming; Cozzolino, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    We explored how experimentally induced psychological stress affects the production and recognition of vocal emotions. In Study 1a, we demonstrate that sentences spoken by stressed speakers are judged by naïve listeners as sounding more stressed than sentences uttered by non-stressed speakers. In Study 1b, negative emotions produced by stressed speakers are generally less well recognized than the same emotions produced by non-stressed speakers. Multiple mediation analyses suggest this poorer recognition of negative stimuli was due to a mismatch between the variation of volume voiced by speakers and the range of volume expected by listeners. Together, this suggests that the stress level of the speaker affects judgments made by the receiver. In Study 2, we demonstrate that participants who were induced with a feeling of stress before carrying out an emotional prosody recognition task performed worse than non-stressed participants. Overall, findings suggest detrimental effects of induced stress on interpersonal sensitivity. PMID:27802287

  2. Psychological Stress and Mitochondria: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Martin; McEwen, Bruce S

    Mitochondria are multifunctional life-sustaining organelles that represent a potential intersection point between psychosocial experiences and biological stress responses. This article provides a systematic review of the effects of psychological stress on mitochondrial structure and function. A systematic review of the literature investigating the effects of psychological stress on mitochondrial function was conducted. The review focused on experimentally controlled studies allowing us to draw causal inference about the effect of induced psychological stress on mitochondria. A total of 23 studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies involved male laboratory animals, and most demonstrated that acute and chronic stressors influenced specific facets of mitochondrial function, particularly within the brain. Nineteen studies showed significant adverse effects of psychological stress on mitochondria and four found increases in function or size after stress. In humans, only six observational studies were available, none with experimental designs, and most only measured biological markers that do not directly reflect mitochondrial function, such as mitochondrial DNA copy number. Overall, evidence supports the notion that acute and chronic stressors influence various aspects of mitochondrial biology, and that chronic stress exposure can lead to molecular and functional recalibrations among mitochondria. Limitations of current animal and human studies are discussed. Maladaptive mitochondrial changes that characterize this subcellular state of stress are termed mitochondrial allostatic load. Prospective studies with sensitive measures of specific mitochondrial outcomes will be needed to establish the link between psychosocial stressors, emotional states, the resulting neuroendocrine and immune processes, and mitochondrial energetics relevant to mind-body research in humans.

  3. Quantitative analysis of psychological personality for NPP operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jia; Huang Xiangrui

    1998-01-01

    The author introduces the relevant personality quantitative psychological research work carried out by 'Prognoz' Laboratory and Taiwan, and presents the primary results of the research for Chinese Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operator's psychological personality assessment, which based on the survey of MMPI, and presents the main contents for the personality quantitative psychological research in NPP of China. And emphasizes the need to carry out psychological selection and training in nuclear industry

  4. Personality traits modulate emotional and physiological responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Emma; White, Tara L; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-09-01

    An individual's susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure, for example, cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined the relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardized laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease.

  5. Political Diversity in Social and Personality Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Yoel; Lammers, Joris

    2012-09-01

    A lack of political diversity in psychology is said to lead to a number of pernicious outcomes, including biased research and active discrimination against conservatives. We surveyed a large number (combined N = 800) of social and personality psychologists and discovered several interesting facts. First, although only 6% described themselves as conservative "overall," there was more diversity of political opinion on economic issues and foreign policy. Second, respondents significantly underestimated the proportion of conservatives among their colleagues. Third, conservatives fear negative consequences of revealing their political beliefs to their colleagues. Finally, they are right to do so: In decisions ranging from paper reviews to hiring, many social and personality psychologists said that they would discriminate against openly conservative colleagues. The more liberal respondents were, the more they said they would discriminate. © The Author(s) 2012.

  6. Psychological profile: the problem of modeling the unknown criminal personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. М. Гетьман

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the problem of modeling an unknown person in the preparation of criminal psychological profile. Some approaches to the concept of "psychological profile" and "psychological portrait", in particular the proposed delineation of these terms. We consider the system steps in the development of the psychological profile of an unknown perpetrator.

  7. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Objective: This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential

  8. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential patterns

  9. Psychologic stress related to injury and impact on sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippert, Angela H; Smith, Aynsley M

    2008-05-01

    Injury rates are high among children and adolescent athletes. Psychosocial stressors, such as personality, history of stressors, and life event stress can influence injury occurrence. After injury, those same factors plus athletic identity, self-esteem, and significant others-such as parents, coaches, and teammates-can affect injury response, recovery and subsequent sport performance. Goal setting, positive self-talk, attribution theory, and relaxation or mental imagery are psychologic interventions that can help injured athletes cope with psychosocial stressors. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential influence that psychosocial stressors and psychologic interventions can have on injury occurrence, injury recovery, and sport performance.

  10. Vygotsky’s Hamlet: the dialectic method and personality psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Bayanova L.F.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of Vygotsky’s work on the psychology of art and his use of the image of Hamlet in the psychological analysis of personality. It also describes the capabilities of the dialectic method for assessing psychological problems. Reference to three dialectical oppositions—of the story and the plot, of the main character’s spinelessness and his insanity, and of subject and personality—allows the development of a theoretical analysis of the psychology of personality in...

  11. Habit in Personality and Social Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy

    2017-11-01

    Habits are largely absent from modern social and personality psychology. This is due to outdated perspectives that placed habits in conflict with goals. In modern theorizing, habits are represented in memory as implicit context-response associations, and they guide responding in conjunction with goals. Habits thus have important implications for our field. Emerging research shows that habits are an important mechanism by which people self-regulate and achieve long-term goals. Also, habits change through specific interventions, such as changes in context cues. I speculate that understanding of habits also holds promise for reducing intergroup discrimination and for understanding lay theories of the causes for action. In short, by recognizing habit, the field gains understanding of a central mechanism by which actions persist in daily life.

  12. Left ventricular performance during psychological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.Z.; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Dimsdale, J.E.; Moore, R.H.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Fifer, M.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction, systolic blood pressure and plasma norepinephrine were measured in six normotensive and six mildly hypertensive subjects during rest and psychological stress. Compared with rest, 8 of the 12 subjects developed significant changes in ejection fraction (increase in 6, decrease in 2); 10 of 12 subjects developed significant elevations of plasma norepinephrine; and all developed significant increases in systolic blood pressure. When the stress effects were examined for the total group, as opposed to within subjects, there were significant increases in plasma norepinephrine and systolic blood pressure but, interestingly, mean ejection fraction and stroke volume remained unchanged, implying stress led to increased left ventricular contractility. (orig.)

  13. Psychological interventions for antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Simon; Duggan, Conor; Stoffers, Jutta; Huband, Nick; Völlm, Birgit A; Ferriter, Michael; Lieb, Klaus

    2010-06-16

    Antisocial personality disorder (AsPD) is associated with a wide range of disturbance including persistent rule-breaking, criminality, substance use, unemployment, homelessness and relationship difficulties. To evaluate the potential beneficial and adverse effects of psychological interventions for people with AsPD. Our search included CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA, BIOSIS and COPAC. Prospective, controlled trials in which participants with AsPD were randomly allocated to a psychological intervention and a control condition (either treatment as usual, waiting list or no treatment). Three authors independently selected studies. Two authors independently extracted data. We calculated mean differences, with odds ratios for dichotomous data. Eleven studies involving 471 participants with AsPD met the inclusion criteria, although data were available from only five studies involving 276 participants with AsPD. Only two studies focused solely on an AsPD sample. Eleven different psychological interventions were examined. Only two studies reported on reconviction, and only one on aggression. Compared to the control condition, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) plus standard maintenance was superior for outpatients with cocaine dependence in one study, but CBT plus treatment as usual was not superior for male outpatients with recent verbal/physical violence in another. Contingency management plus standard maintenance was superior for drug misuse for outpatients with cocaine dependence in one study but not in another, possibly because of differences in the behavioural intervention. However, contingency management was superior in social functioning and counselling session attendance in the latter. A multi-component intervention utilising motivational interviewing principles, the 'Driving Whilst Intoxicated program', plus incarceration was superior to incarceration alone for imprisoned drink-driving offenders. Results suggest

  14. Psychological interventions for antisocial personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Simon; Duggan, Conor; Stoffers, Jutta; Huband, Nick; Völlm, Birgit A; Ferriter, Michael; Lieb, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background Antisocial personality disorder (AsPD) is associated with a wide range of disturbance including persistent rule-breaking, criminality, substance use, unemployment, homelessness and relationship difficulties. Objectives To evaluate the potential beneficial and adverse effects of psychological interventions for people with AsPD. Search methods Our search included CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA, BIOSIS and COPAC. Selection criteria Prospective, controlled trials in which participants with AsPD were randomly allocated to a psychological intervention and a control condition (either treatment as usual, waiting list or no treatment). Data collection and analysis Three authors independently selected studies. Two authors independently extracted data. We calculated mean differences, with odds ratios for dichotomous data. Main results Eleven studies involving 471 participants with AsPD met the inclusion criteria, although data were available from only five studies involving 276 participants with AsPD. Only two studies focused solely on an AsPD sample. Eleven different psychological interventions were examined. Only two studies reported on reconviction, and only one on aggression. Compared to the control condition, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) plus standard maintenance was superior for outpatients with cocaine dependence in one study, but CBT plus treatment as usual was not superior for male outpatients with recent verbal/physical violence in another. Contingency management plus standard maintenance was superior for drug misuse for outpatients with cocaine dependence in one study but not in another, possibly because of differences in the behavioural intervention. However, contingency management was superior in social functioning and counselling session attendance in the latter. A multi-component intervention utilising motivational interviewing principles, the ‘Driving Whilst Intoxicated program’, plus

  15. Should economic psychology care about personality structure?

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstätter, Hermann

    1993-01-01

    Since economic psychology is primarily interested in (a) how people in general react to the economic aspects of their environment, and (b) how these reactions change the economic components of their environment, as yet individual differences are not an important issue in economic-psychological research. After a brief look at how economic psychology used to deal with individual differences in the past, some suggestions are given, based on literature from social psychology, economic psychology,...

  16. PERSONALITY AS SUBJECT OF THE RELATION TO THE STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Aleksandrovna Klenova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this scientific article results of the empirical research devoted to studying of the personality as the subject of the relation to a stress are presented. The understanding of a phenomenon of a stress not only taking into account social and psychological features of the personality, but also with inclusion of such category as representations of a stress and the relation towards him for the first time is considered by authors. In empirical research it is established that there are five types of the personality, as subjects of the relation to a stress according to their social and psychological features and ideas of a stress. «Destructive persons» – differ in the reduced level of social and psychological adaptation, they are motivated on failure, and the stress is perceived by them as emotional excitement. «Constructive persons» possess the high level of social and psychological adaptation, are focused on success, for them emotional burning out isn’t characteristic, and their representations and the relation to a stress is based on acceptance of existence of eustressor. «Emotional and intense persons» differ in uneasiness, high level of emotional burning out, and their ideas of a stress are based only on negative characteristics. «Sensitive persons» are characterized by the high level of sensitivity, and their relation to a stress can be defined as «mental anguish». For «rational persons» cognitive approach to a situation of a stress and idea of it as about response of an organism to negative emotions is peculiar. Thus, this scientific article represents results of original research of the personality from a position of its relation to a stress.Purpose: to study social and psychological features of the personality with inclusion of such category as «representations and the relation to a stress».Method or methodology of research it is based on the concept of social representations of S.Moskovichi, and also on the subject

  17. Association between prenatal psychological stress and oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Stephanie M; Barrett, Emily S; van 't Erve, Thomas J; Nguyen, Ruby H N; Bush, Nicole R; Milne, Ginger; Swan, Shanna H; Ferguson, Kelly K

    2018-03-30

    Prenatal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. A growing animal literature supports an association between psychological stress and oxidative stress. We assessed this relationship in pregnant women, hypothesising that psychological stress is associated with higher concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers during pregnancy. Psychosocial status and stressful life events (SLE) were self-reported. 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α (8-iso-PGF 2α ) was measured as a biomarker of oxidative stress in urine samples at median 32 weeks' gestation. We examined SLEs individually (ever vs never) and in summary (any vs none) and psychosocial status as measured by individual subscales and in summary (poor vs good). Linear models estimated associations between these parameters and urinary 8-iso-PGF 2α concentrations after adjusting for covariates. The geometric mean of 8-iso-PGF 2α was significantly higher among pregnant women who were non-White, smokers, had less than a college education, higher pre-pregnancy BMI and were unmarried. Having ever had a death in the family (n = 39) during pregnancy was associated with a 22.9% increase in 8-iso-PGF 2α in unadjusted models (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50, 48.8). Poor psychosocial status was associated with a 13.1% (95% CI 2.43, 25.0) greater mean 8-iso-PGF 2α in unadjusted analyses. Associations were attenuated, but remained suggestive, after covariate adjustment. These data suggest that 8-iso-PGF 2α is elevated in pregnant women with who are at a sociodemographic disadvantage and who have higher psychological stress in pregnancy. Previous studies have observed that 8-iso-PGF 2α levels are associated with adverse birth outcomes, oxidative stress could be a mediator in these relationships. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Borderline Personality Disorder in an Intermediate Psychological Therapies Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Seamus; Danquah, Adam N.; Berry, Katherine; Hopper, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The intermediate psychological therapies service is provided for individuals referred with common mental health problems within the primary care psychological therapies service, but whose difficulties are longstanding and/or complex. The prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in intermediate psychological therapy services has not been…

  19. A Sport and Exercise Psychology Perspective on Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L.

    1994-01-01

    Introduces psychological perspectives on stress, noting conceptual models that guide sport and exercise psychology. After presenting key aspects of Lazarus' stress model, the paper reviews major lines of research related to stress within sport and exercise psychology. Lazarus suggests more information can be gained by considering emotion along…

  20. Perseverative Cognitions and Stress Exposure: Comparing Relationships With Psychological Health Across a Diverse Adult Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Matthew J; Sliwinski, Martin J; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-03-29

    Both exposure to stress and perseverative cognitions (PCs)-repetitive cognitive representations of real or imagined stressors-are linked with poor psychological health. Yet, stress exposure and PCs are correlated, thus potentially obscuring any unique effects. The purpose of this paper is to concurrently test associations between stress exposure and PCs and psychological health to examine the independent relationship of each with psychological health. Moreover, we examined whether these relationships are similar across sex, age, and race. An adult community sample (n = 302) completed a measure of stress exposure, three PCs scales, and questionnaires assessing self-reported psychological health, including emotional well-being, vitality, social functioning, role limitations due to personal problems, subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and poor sleep quality. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which both stress exposure and PCs predict psychological health. PCs consistently predicted all the psychological health outcomes, but stress was largely unrelated to the outcomes despite bivariate correlations suggesting a relationship. A follow-up model identified indirect effects of stress exposure on psychological health via PCs. Results were fairly consistent regardless of one's sex, age, or race. PCs robustly predicted all of the psychological health outcomes, intimating PCs as a common pathway to poor psychological health. Results have implications for stress interventions, including the need to address PCs after experiencing stress.

  1. Stress and Cognition: A Cognitive Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Lyle E., Jr.; Yaroush, Rita A.

    2003-01-01

    Research in cognitive psychology has made a significant contribution to our understanding of how acute and chronic stress affect performance. It has done so by identifying some of the factors that contribute to operator error and by suggesting how operators might be trained to respond more effectively in a variety of circumstances. The major purpose of this paper was to review the literature of cognitive psychology as it relates to these questions and issues. Based on the existence of earlier reviews (e.g., Hamilton, & Warburton, 1979; Hockey, 1983) the following investigation was limited to the last 15 years (1988-2002) and restricted to a review of the primary peer-reviewed literature. The results of this examination revealed that while cognitive psychology has contributed in a substantive way to our understanding of stress impact on various cognitive processes, it has also left many questions unanswered. Concerns about how we define and use the term stress and the gaps that remain in our knowledge about the specific effects of stressors on cognitive processes are discussed in the text.

  2. Growth Following Adversity: Positive Psychological Perspectives on Posttraumatic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Joseph

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of traumatic events is well documented within the clinical psychology literature where it is recognized that people who experience traumatic events may go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. At first glance one might ask what the relevance of positive psychology is to the study of trauma. But a number of literatures and philosophies throughout human history have conveyed the idea that there is personal gain to be found in suffering. The observation that stressful and traumatic events can provoke positive psychological changes is also contained in the major religions of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism. Within existential philosophy and humanistic psychology it has also been recognized that positive changes can come about as a result of suffering. But it is only within the last decade that the topic of growth following adversity has become a focus for empirical work. In this paper I will provide an overview of the subject and the research we have conducted at the Centre for Trauma, Resilience, and Growth (CTRG.

  3. Psychological Characteristics of Personality in Students with Learning Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Shilova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research of the psychological characteristics of the personality of a student with learning difficulties from the position of the mismatch of mental development in operational sphere. The article considers the system of methods of research with the personality-oriented approach. The influence of certain psychological characteristics of a personality on the outcome of the study is revealed. The ways of building correctional-developing programmes for psychological preparation of junior schoolchildren for successful learning are shown.

  4. Evolutionary Theory's Increasing Role in Personality and Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Webster

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Has the emergence of evolutionary psychology had an increasing impact on personality and social psychological research published over the past two decades? If so, is its growing influence substantially different from that of other emerging psychological areas? These questions were addressed in the present study by conducting a content analysis of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP from 1985 to 2004 using the PsycINFO online abstract database. Specifically, keyword searches for “evol*” or “Darwin*” revealed that the percentage of JPSP articles drawing on evolutionary theory was modest, but increased significantly between 1985 and 2004. To compare the growing impact of evolutionary psychology with other psychological areas, similar keywords searches were performed in JPSP for emotion and motivation, judgment and decision making, neuroscience and psychophysiology, stereotyping and prejudice, and terror management theory. The increase in evolutionary theory in JPSP over time was practically equal to the mean increase over time for the other five areas. Thus, evolutionary psychology has played an increasing role in shaping personality and social psychological research over the past 20 years, and is growing at a rate consistent with other emerging psychological areas.

  5. Dual Minority Stress and Asian American Gay Men's Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…

  6. Stress, positive psychology and the National Student Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to explore the predictive ability of sources of stress and a range of dispositional and coping behaviours on student satisfaction and motivation. Most research exploring sources of stress and coping in students construes stress as psychological distress, with little attempt to consider positive experiences of stress. A questionnaire was administered to 120 first-year UK psychology students. Questions were asked which measured sources of stress when rated as likely to contribute to...

  7. Influence of Personality on Perception of Psychological Contract Breach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Jafri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to investigate the influence of personality (Five-Factor Model on Psychological Contract Breach. Using random sampling procedure, data were collected from 90 faculties of colleges of Royal University of Bhutan. Personality scales by John, Naumann, and Soto (2008 and Robinson and Morrison’s (2000 Psychological Contract Breach scale were used in this study. Correlation and regression analysis were carried out to analyze the obtained data. Results revealed that Extraversion and Neuroticism dimensions of the personality model have been found to be positively associated with the perception of breach. Employees who are by nature Agreeable and Conscientiousness are less likely to perceive breach in their psychological contract. Organization should look into the personality aspect while recruiting employees. If employees are hired with certain personality traits, they may focus on their performance and organizational growth.

  8. CONCEPTS OF ENVY IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Викторовна Бескова

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the foreign and Russian theorists of personality, representing different psychological directions in which there is a reference to the problem of envy. The problem of envy is discussed in the framework of classical psychoanalysis (S. Freud, M. Klein, individual psychology (A. Adler, analytical psychology (C.G. Jung, concept ofhumanistic psychoanalysis (E. Fromm, social-cultural theory (K. Horney, ego-theory (E. Erikson, A. Peeters, dispositional direction (G. Allport, R. Cattell, humanistic psychology (A. Maslow, existential psychology (V. Frankl. It is shown that in Russian theories of personality the problem of envy is reflected in the works of A.A. Bodalev, V.N. Myasishchev, V.N. Panferov, A.V. Petrovsky.Purpose.To carry out the analysis of psychological theories of the personality to identify the specific of ideas of psychological essence and envy sources.Methodology.Theoretical analysis and systematization of scientific data.Results.Separation and heterogeneity of scientific ideas of envy is revealed, that, on the one hand, allows looking at it from different points of view, and with another – counteracts the integration of knowledge of envy into uniform theoretical system.Practical implications. Research results can be used in the practice of psychological consultation, the psycho-correction of the envious relation, the outreach activity of psychologists.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-68

  9. Lactation and Reactivity to Physical and Psychological Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, C

    1997-01-01

    .... Findings to date include lack of changes in attention and memory functions during pregnancy and lactation, lack of difference in hormonal and anxiety responses to psychological stress, enhanced...

  10. Mental health, stress and risk perception: insights from psychological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, Ortwin

    1997-01-01

    Risk perceptions are only slightly correlated with the expected values of a probability distribution for negative health impacts. Psychometric studies have documented that context variables such as dread or personal control are important predictors for the perceived seriousness of risk. Studies about cultural patterns of risk perceptions emphasize different response set to risk information, depending on cultural priorities such as social justice versus personal freedom. This chapter reports the major psychological research pertaining to the factors that govern individual risk perception and discusses the psychometric effects due to people's risk perception and the experience of severe stress. The relative importance of the psychometric content variables, the signals pertaining to each health risks and symbolic beliefs are explained. (Author)

  11. Personality psychology : Domains of knowledge about human nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, Randy J.; Buss, David M.; Wismeijer, Andreas; Song, John; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine

    Using a unique organizational framework that emphasizes six domains of knowledge about human nature, Personality Psychology presents an accessible, contemporary look at personality as a collection of interrelated topics and themes. The book focuses on the scientific basis of our knowledge about

  12. The Practice of Psychological Science: Searching for Cronbach's Two Streams in Social-Personality Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy, JL; Robins, RW; Sherman, JW

    2009-01-01

    The present research surveyed a group of editors and editorial board members of personality and social psychology journals to examine the practice of psychological science in their field. Findings demonstrate that (a) although personality and social researchers tend to use many of the same approaches, methods, and procedures, they nonetheless show average differences in each of these domains, as well as in their overarching theoretical aims and perspectives; (b) these average differences larg...

  13. Subjective stress reactivity in psoriasis - a cross sectional study of associated psychological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remröd, Charlotta; Sjöström, Karin; Svensson, Åke

    2015-05-02

    Stress or psychological distress is often described as a causative or maintaining factor in psoriasis. Psychological traits may influence the appraisal, interpretation and coping ability regarding stressful situations. Detailed investigations of psychological traits in relation to stress reactivity in psoriasis are rare. The aim of this study was to examine whether patients with psoriasis who report an association between psychological distress and exacerbation, "stress reactors" (SRs), differ psychologically from those with no stress reactivity "non-stress reactors" (NSRs). This cross-sectional study was conducted among 101 consecutively recruited outpatients with plaque psoriasis. A psychosocial interview was performed including questions concerning stress reactivity in relation to onset and exacerbation. Three validated self-rating scales were used: Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Form-Y), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Swedish Universities Scales of Personality (SSP). Independent samples t-tests, Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVA analyses were used for group comparisons when appropriate. A logistic regression model was designed with SR as the dependent variable. Sixty-four patients (63%) reported a subjective association between disease exacerbation and stress (SRs). Patients defined as SRs reported significantly higher mean scores regarding state and trait anxiety, depression, and also five SSP scale personality traits, i.e. somatic trait anxiety, psychic trait anxiety, stress susceptibility, lack of assertiveness and mistrust, compared with NSRs. In multivariate analysis, SSP-stress susceptibility was the strongest explanatory variable for SR, i.e. OR (95% CI)=1.13 (1.02 - 1.24), p=0.018. According to our results, patients who perceive stress as a causal factor in their psoriasis might have a more vulnerable psychological constitution. This finding suggests important opportunities for clinicians to identify patients who may benefit

  14. On the genetic modification of psychology, personality, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzke, Alex B

    2012-12-01

    I argue that the use of heritable modifications for psychology, personality, and behavior should be limited to the reversal or prevention of relatively unambiguous instances of pathology or likely harm (e.g. sociopathy). Most of the likely modifications of psychological personality would not be of this nature, however, and parents therefore should not have the freedom to make such modifications to future children. I argue by examining the viewpoints of both the individual and society. For individuals, modifications would interfere with their capacity for self-determination in a way that undermines the very concept of self-determination. I argue that modification of psychology and personality is unlike present parenting in morally significant ways. For society, modification offers a medium for power to manipulate the makeup of persons and populations, possibly causing biological harm to the species and altering our conceptions of social responsibility.

  15. Subjective Population of Personality: Socio-Psychological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadym Zavatskyi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at identifying the influence of socio-psychological factors on the formation of subjective wellbeing of a married person. The following methods were used: questionnaire, psycho diagnostic techniques for investigating satisfaction with marriage, personal self-fulfillment in the family (on the operational level and the level of values and role sets, socio-psychological adaptation, conformity of family values and role expectations in marriage. The data about the content, structural components (cognitive and evaluation, value and motivational, emotional and behavioral and functions (regulatory, prognostic, developmental of subjective well-being of a married person have been presented. Socio-psychological factors of subjective well-being of a married person have been specified.

  16. Assessment of job satisfaction, job stress and psychological health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological ... on the work-health balance of journalists in. Nigeria. ..... Life. New York: Basic Books,1990. 15. Lu L. Work Motivation, Job Stress and.

  17. Psychological and hormonal stress reactions during a blood donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, Maurits; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; Merz, E.M.; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal

  18. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, M. D.; Veldhuizen, I. J. T.; Merz, E.-M.; de Kort, W. L. A. M.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and ObjectivesDonating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal

  19. [Measurement of unemployment-related psychological stress: Validation of the Unemployment Stress (USS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabóné Kapuvári, Virág; Martos, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays the theme of unemployment and the given answers of it are up to date questions in psychology. In spite of this fact, the psychological methods measuring this phenomenon are often missing. That is why the Unemployment Stress Scale (USS) is presented in this article. The aim of our study is to develop a scale called USS and test it's validity and reliability. There were 287 adult unemployed persons asked in this study. Besides the USS we used the Beck Depression Scale, the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT), the Sense of Coherence Scale (Hungarian version) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. According to our results, USS has showed an excellent criterion and construct validity. A useful scale has been formed according to test-retest results. (Cronbach-alfa: 0.88 and 0.86 according to the samples). Moreover our scale has a strong correlation with the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT) and the Beck Depression Scale. These chracteristics of the new scale proved that we fond a factor, independent from the self esteem and the sense of coherence, which represents the stress level in the situation of unemployment. This scale is a professional construction to measure stress contributed to unemployment. The USS can be a useful scale in clinical practice because after measuring with this scale we can protect the personality of the unemployed by representing the actual unemployment stress level. That is why professionals can help earlier in a crisis like this.

  20. Piping stress analysis with personal computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revesz, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The growing market of the personal computers is providing an increasing number of professionals with unprecedented and surprisingly inexpensive computing capacity, which if using with powerful software, can enhance immensely the engineers capabilities. This paper focuses on the possibilities which opened in piping stress analysis by the widespread distribution of personal computers, on the necessary changes in the software and on the limitations of using personal computers for engineering design and analysis. Reliability and quality assurance aspects of using personal computers for nuclear applications are also mentioned. The paper resumes with personal views of the author and experiences gained during interactive graphic piping software development for personal computers. (orig./GL)

  1. Burnout, psychological morbidity, job stress, and job satisfaction in Chinese neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyu; Pu, Juncai; Zhong, Xiaoni; Zhu, Dan; Yin, Dinghong; Yang, Lining; Zhang, Yuqing; Fu, Yuying; Wang, Haiyang; Xie, Peng

    2017-05-02

    To investigate the prevalence of and personal and professional characteristics associated with burnout, psychological morbidity, job stress, and job satisfaction in Chinese neurologists. The China Neurologist Association conducted a national cross-sectional study from September 2014 to March 2015. A questionnaire including the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, the Consultants' Mental Health Questionnaire, and questions assessing personal and professional characteristics, career satisfaction, and current doctor-patient relationships was administered. A total of 693 directors of neurology departments and 6,111 neurologists in 30 Chinese provinces returned surveys. Overall, 53.2% of responding neurologists experienced burnout, 37.8% had psychological morbidity, 50.7% had high levels of job stress, 25.7% had low levels of job satisfaction, 76.9% had poor doctor-patient relationships, and 58.1% regretted becoming a doctor. Factors independently associated with burnout were lower income, more hours worked per week, more nights on call per month, working in public hospitals, psychological morbidity, high levels of job stress, low levels of job satisfaction, and poor doctor-patient relationships. Factors independently associated with psychological morbidity included lower income, more nights on call per month, working in enterprise-owned hospitals, burnout, high levels of job stress, and low levels of job satisfaction. Burnout and psychological morbidity are common in Chinese neurologists. Burnout is the single greatest predictor of neurologists' psychological morbidity, high job stress, and low job satisfaction. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Psychological Stress, Cocaine and Natural Reward Each Induce Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Genes in Rat Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovsky, Ashly A.; Boehning, Darren; Li, Dingge; Zhang, Yafang; Fan, Xiuzhen; Green, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Our prior research has shown that the transcription of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transcription factors Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3) and ATF4 are induced by amphetamine and restraint stress in rat striatum. However, presently it is unknown the full extent of ER stress responses to psychological stress or cocaine, and which of the three ER stress pathways is activated. The current study examines transcriptional responses of key ER stress target genes subsequent to psychologi...

  3. Identifying blood biomarkers and physiological processes that distinguish humans with superior performance under psychological stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Cooksey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Attrition of students from aviation training is a serious financial and operational concern for the U.S. Navy. Each late stage navy aviator training failure costs the taxpayer over $1,000,000 and ultimately results in decreased operational readiness of the fleet. Currently, potential aviators are selected based on the Aviation Selection Test Battery (ASTB, which is a series of multiple-choice tests that evaluate basic and aviation-related knowledge and ability. However, the ASTB does not evaluate a person's response to stress. This is important because operating sophisticated aircraft demands exceptional performance and causes high psychological stress. Some people are more resistant to this type of stress, and consequently better able to cope with the demands of naval aviation, than others.Although many psychological studies have examined psychological stress resistance none have taken advantage of the human genome sequence. Here we use high-throughput -omic biology methods and a novel statistical data normalization method to identify plasma proteins associated with human performance under psychological stress. We identified proteins involved in four basic physiological processes: innate immunity, cardiac function, coagulation and plasma lipid physiology.The proteins identified here further elucidate the physiological response to psychological stress and suggest a hypothesis that stress-susceptible pilots may be more prone to shock. This work also provides potential biomarkers for screening humans for capability of superior performance under stress.

  4. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during worry forecasts stress-related increases in psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Deschênes, Sonya S; Dugas, Michel J

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been conceptualized as an index of emotion regulation abilities. Although resting RSA has been associated with both concurrent and prospective affective responses to stress, the impact of RSA reactivity on emotional responses to stress is inconsistent across studies. The type of emotional stimuli used to elicit these phasic RSA responses may influence the adaptive value of RSA reactivity. We propose that RSA reactivity to a personally relevant worry-based stressor might forecast future affective responses to stress. To evaluate whether resting RSA and RSA reactivity to worry inductions predict stress-related increases in psychological distress, an academic stress model was used to prospectively examine changes in psychological distress from the well-defined low- and high-stress periods. During the low-stress period, 76 participants completed self-report mood measures and had their RSA assessed during a resting baseline, free worry period and worry catastrophizing interview. Participants completed another mood assessment during the high-stress period. Results indicated that baseline psychological distress predicted larger decreases in RSA during the worry inductions. Lower resting RSA and greater RSA suppression to the worry inductions at baseline prospectively predicted larger increases in psychological distress from the low- to high-stress period, even after accounting for the impact of baseline distress on RSA. These results provide further evidence that RSA may represent a unique index of emotion regulation abilities in times of stress.

  5. Personal Approaches to Stress Reduction: A Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Rory

    1984-01-01

    Seven topic areas which may be variously combined to comprise a workshop in personal stress reduction are outlined. They include definitions and types of stress, life style planning, nutrition, exercise, networking/social support system, relaxation and other trophotropic interventions, and communication skills. Suggestions are included for…

  6. Origins of Early Adolescents' Hope: Personality, Parental Attachment, and Stressful Life Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Kristin L.; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2016-01-01

    Psychology has recently increased attention to identifying psychological qualities in individuals that indicate positive mental health, such as hope. In an effort to understand further the origins of hope, we examined the relations among parental attachment, stressful life events, personality variables, and hope in a sample of 647 middle school…

  7. 'Post-deployment appraisal' and the relationship with stress and psychological health in Australian veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Breanna; Forbes, Andrew; Kelsall, Helen; Clarke, David; Ikin, Jill; Sim, Malcolm

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how veterans appraise their post-deployment experiences could provide insight into better assisting their deployment transitions. We aimed to assess the factor structure of positive and negative post-deployment appraisals in Australian veterans and to examine the resultant factors in their relationship with military stress and psychological health. Questions capturing post-deployment attitudes were developed by the researchers in collaboration with veterans. The questions were administered to 1938 veterans and the results factor analysed. The relationships between post-deployment appraisal, military stress and psychological health were examined using Structural Equation Modelling. A three-factor solution was found for the post-deployment appraisal questions; representing personal development, lack of recognition, and appreciation of life and country. Military stress was associated with the three factors and psychological health. The three factors were weakly to moderately associated with psychological health. Mediation between military stress and psychological health by any post-deployment appraisal factor was minimal. Post-deployment appraisal measures three important attitudes and concerns of veterans after deployment. Military stress is associated with the post-deployment appraisal factors. However, the factors did not mediate the relationship between military stress and psychological health. These factors provide insight into how veterans appraise their complex array of post-deployment experiences, and may provide useful in regard to transitions and integration into civilian life.

  8. The influence of psychological stress on upper respiratory infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Zachariae, Robert; Bovberg, Dana

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the available evidence for the hypothesis that reduced resistance caused by psychological stress may influence the development of clinical disease in those exposed to an infectious agent. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 27 prospective studies...... examining the association between psychological stress and subsequent upper respiratory infection (URI). RESULTS: The results revealed a significant overall main effect of psychological stress on the risk of developing URI (effect size correlation coefficient, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.......15-0.27). Further analyses showed that effect sizes for the association did not vary according to type of stress, how URI was assessed, or whether the studies had controlled for preexposure. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analytical findings confirmed the hypothesis that psychological stress is associated with increased...

  9. Personality and Examination Score Correlates of Abnormal Psychology Course Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauker, Jerome D.

    The relationship between the ratings students assigned to an evening undergraduate abnormal psychology class and their scores on objective personality tests and course examinations was investigated. Students (N=70) completed the MMPI and made global ratings of the course; these scores were correlated separately by sex with the T scores of 13 MMPI…

  10. Personality Traits and Psychological Symptoms of Music and Art Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yöndem, Sadik; Yöndem, Zeynep Deniz; Per, Meral

    2017-01-01

    The qualities of artists and musicians have attracted the attention of personality psychologists and researchers studying creativity. Artistic activities are considered by some to be therapeutic, and may offer a buffer effect on psychological health. On the other hand, research has occasionally revealed a positive relationship between creativity…

  11. A study of personality And psychological distress among delusional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of personality and psychological distress of people living with delusional halitosis attending Oral Wellness Centre (OWC) at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City over a six-month period was undertaken. Five (5) patients with age range of 18-30 years and a mean age of 24 years (SD = 4.47) ...

  12. Personality and psychological factors: Effects on dental beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhi Hathiwala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental treatment can be highly unpleasant for anxious patients. Despite all advancements, dental anxiety continues to upset the dentist-patient relationship. The psychological factors like individual personality and familial and peer influence may alter the dental beliefs of a patient. Aim: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among young adolescents to investigate the relationship among various psychological factors and the dental beliefs of an individual. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among higher secondary school children, aged 15−17 years in Udupi district. The dental anxiety of the participants was measured using Modified Dental Beliefs scale and the personality traits were assessed using the Ten-Item Personality Inventory. Pearson′s correlation and chi-square analysis were performed among these scales. Independent t-test was performed to compare dental anxiety scores with different socio-demographic and psychological characteristics. Results: In all 198 students, with a mean age of 16.6 years, completed the questionnaire. A majority of the participants had lower MDBS scores. The personality traits like Emotional Stability and Openness to New Experiences showed a negative correlation with the Dental Belief scores. Apart from these, the experience at first dental visit and peer support also affected the dental beliefs of the adolescents. Conclusion: Various psychological traits of adolescents influence their dental anxiety.

  13. Mediating and moderating effects of work-home interference upon farm stresses and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Connar Jo; Quirk, Frances

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated whether work-home (WHI) or home-work interference (HWI) explained or affected the strength of the relationship between farmers' stresses and reported psychological distress. Distribution of questionnaire package; included Work-Home Conflict Scale, Farm Stress Survey, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Participants recruited via advertising in newsletters and newspapers, and distribution through businesses and meetings. The majority of farmers (N = 51, male = 45, female = 5) were recruited from the one district. Farmers were individuals who identified their occupation as a farm owner, farm manager, or farm hand. It was predicted farmers would report higher levels of WHI than HWI; time, a determinant of interference, would mediate the relationship between farmers' stresses and psychological distress; WHI and HWI would moderate farmers' stresses and their psychological distress; overall reported level of psychological distress would be in normal to mild range because of positive general economic conditions. Farmers reported significantly higher levels of WHI than HWI (M = 3.21, M = 2.76, P stresses and psychological distress, particularly anxiety. WHI, time and strain, determinants of WHI mediated personal finances and subcomponents of psychological distress (stress, anxiety, depression). Time-based HWI mediated personal finances and stress. No moderating effects were found for WHI (r = -0.02, P = 0.882) or HWI (r = 0.15, P = 0.306). Farmers of this specific sample presented a unique work-home interface. Limitations include the small sample size, recruitment methods, and culturally irrelevant measures as well as only assessing work-related stresses. Future research should aim to develop measures appropriate for farmers of Australia.

  14. Racism-Related Stress, General Life Stress, and Psychological Functioning among Black American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…

  15. Psychological distress, burnout and personality traits in Dutch anaesthesiologists: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Raymond A B; Bucx, Martin J L; Hendriks, Jan C M; Scheffer, Gert-Jan; Prins, Judith B

    2016-03-01

    The practice of anaesthesia comes with stress. If the demands of a stressful job exceed the resources of an individual, that person may develop burnout. Burnout poses a threat to the mental and physical health of the anaesthesiologist and therefore also to patient safety. Individual differences in stress appraisal (perceived demands) are an important factor in the risk of developing burnout. To explore this possible relationship, we assessed the prevalence of psychological distress and burnout in the Dutch anaesthesiologist population and investigated the influence of personality traits. Survey study. Data were collected in the Netherlands from July 2012 until December 2012. We sent electronic surveys to all 1955 practising resident and consultant members of the Dutch Anaesthesia Society. Of these, 655 (33.5%) were returned and could be used for analysis. Psychological distress, burnout and general personality traits were assessed using validated Dutch versions of the General Health Questionnaire (cut-off point ≥2), the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Big Five Inventory. Sociodemographic variables and personality traits were entered into regression models as predictors for burnout and psychological distress. Respectively, psychological distress and burnout were prevalent in 39.4 and 18% of all respondents. The prevalence of burnout was significantly different in resident and consultant anaesthesiologists: 11.3% vs. 19.8% (χ 5.4; P personality trait influencing psychological distress and burnout was neuroticism: adjusted odds ratio 6.22 (95% confidence interval 4.35 to 8.90) and 6.40 (95% confidence interval 3.98 to 10.3), respectively. The results of this study show that psychological distress and burnout have a high prevalence in residents and consultant anaesthesiologists and that both are strongly related to personality traits, especially the trait of neuroticism. This suggests that strategies to address the problem of burnout would do well to focus on

  16. Personality and methods of coping with stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Cieślik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Good health and well-being are the natural desires of every human being. However, people have to cope with various kinds of stress in everyday life. Most people are under stress due to: the situation in the world, unemployment, traffic jam, their manager’s opinion, illness, divorce, etc. The level of stress increases particularly in situ ations when people sense danger of physical, social or psychological risks. This phenomenon is very common, and many people have come to think that this is something normal in modern life. Stress can cause depression and frustration, and it does not help in achieving goals and being successful. Ordinary people have a negative concept of stress, but stress response also helps one to rise to meet challenges. Some level of stress is recommended because it helps people to solve problems. While under stress one can function better and work faster, it sharpens concentration and increases brain efficiency. At the beginning of the third millennium, stress has become the people’s enemy, so they should learn how to cope with it. It is common knowledge that one cannot avoid stress, so it is important to learn how to control and deal with it.

  17. Association among stress, personality traits, and sleep bruxism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Negra, Junia M; Paiva, Saul M; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen E; Ramos-Jorge, Maria L; Pordeus, Isabela A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association among stress levels, personality traits, and sleep bruxism in children. A population-based case control study (proportion=1:2) was conducted involving 120 7- to 11-year-olds with sleep bruxism and 240 children without sleep bruxism. The sample was randomly selected from schools in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following instruments were used for data collection: questionnaire administered to parents; child stress scale; and neuroticism and responsibility scales of the big five questionnaire for children. Psychological tests were administered and evaluated by psychologists. Sleep bruxism was diagnosed from parents' reports. The chi-square test, as well as binary and multivariate logistic regression, was applied for statistical analysis. In the adjusted logistic model, children with a high level of stress, due to psychological reactions (odds ratio=1.8; confidence interval=1.1-2.9) and a high sense of responsibility (OR=1.6; CI=1.0-2.5) vs those with low levels of these psychological traits, presented a nearly 2-fold greater chance of exhibiting the habit of sleep bruxism. High levels of stress and responsibility are key factors in the development of sleep bruxism among children.

  18. Operational decisionmaking and action selection under psychological stress in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, D.I.; Haney, L.N.; Jenkins, J.P.; Blackman, H.S.

    1985-05-01

    An extensive review of literature on individual and group performance and decisionmaking under psychological stress was conducted and summarized. Specific stress-related variables relevant to reactor operation were pinpointed and incorporated in an experiment to assess the performance of reactor operators under psychological stress. The decisionmaking performance of 24 reactor operators under differing levels of workload, conflicting information, and detail of available written procedures was assessed in terms of selecting immediate, subsequent, and nonapplicable actions in response to 12 emergency scenarios resulting from a severe seismic event at a pressurized water reactor. Specific personality characteristics of the operators suggested by the literature to be related to performance under stress were assessed and correlated to decisionmaking under stress. The experimental results were statistically analyzed, and findings indicated that operator decisionmaking under stress was more accurate under lower levels of workload, with the availability of detailed procedures, and in the presence of high conflicting information

  19. Oxidative stress associated with exercise, psychological stress and life-style factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Wallin, H; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1996-01-01

    generation. Here, we review the effect of alcohol, air pollution, cigarette smoke, diet, exercise, non-ionizing radiation (UV and microwaves) and psychological stress on the development of oxidative stress. Regular exercise and carbohydrate-rich diets seem to increase the resistance against oxidative stress....... Air pollution, alcohol, cigarette smoke, non-ionizing radiation and psychological stress seem to increase oxidative stress. Alcohol in lower doses may act as an antioxidant on low density lipoproteins and thereby have an anti-atherosclerotic property....

  20. Oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage in psychological stress states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    age-related somatic disorders. The overall aim of the PhD project was to investigate the relation between psychopathology, psychological stress, stress hormone secretion and oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage, as measured by the urinary excretion of markers of whole-body DNA/RNA oxidation (8...... between the 24 h urinary cortisol excretion and the excretion of 8-oxodG/8-oxoGuo, determined in the same samples. Collectively, the studies could not confirm an association between psychological stress and oxidative stress on nucleic acids. Systemic oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage was increased......Both non-pathological psychological stress states and mental disorders are associated with molecular, cellular and epidemiological signs of accelerated aging. Oxidative stress on nucleic acids is a critical component of cellular and organismal aging, and a suggested pathogenic mechanism in several...

  1. Psychological stress in sports coaches: a review of concepts, research, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, David; Scott, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Sports coaches operate within a complex, ever-changing environment that imposes many pressures on them. Here, we address the psychological impact of these demands via a critical review of the literature pertaining to stress in sport coaches. The narrative is divided into three main sections: (1) conceptual and definitional issues, (2) theoretical and empirical issues, and (3) implications for applied practice. The review focuses on the environmental stressors that coaches encounter, their appraisals of and responses to these demands, and the impact this has on their personal well-being and job performance. The influence of various personal and situational characteristics is also discussed. A key message to emerge from this review is that the potential health and performance costs of psychological stress to sports coaches are significant. The rapid rate of change in contemporary sport and the dynamic nature of stress mean that stress in coaches is an ongoing problem that needs to be monitored and addressed.

  2. The practice of psychological science: searching for Cronbach's two streams in social-personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Jessica L; Robins, Richard W; Sherman, Jeffrey W

    2009-06-01

    The present research surveyed a group of editors and editorial board members of personality and social psychology journals to examine the practice of psychological science in their field. Findings demonstrate that (a) although personality and social researchers tend to use many of the same approaches, methods, and procedures, they nonetheless show average differences in each of these domains, as well as in their overarching theoretical aims and perspectives; (b) these average differences largely conform to social and personality researchers' stereotypes about each subgroup; (c) despite their methodological and philosophical differences, the 2 subgroups study many of the same research topics; and (d) the structure of social-personality research practices can be characterized as having 2 independent factors, which closely correspond to L. J. Cronbach's (1957) correlational and experimental "streams of research."

  3. Psychological distress, cortisol stress response and subclinical coronary calcification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, A.; Hamer, M.; Lahiri, A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Steptoe, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Poor mental health has been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). One hypothesized underlying mechanism is hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis dysfunction. We examined the associations between psychological distress, cortisol response to laboratory-induced mental stress and

  4. Interaction effect study on stress reaction and job burnout, personality, self-esteem in radiological medical personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Linlin; Feng Liyun; Yang Yanyan; Wu Di

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore interaction effect between stress reaction and job burnout, personality, self-esteem in radiological medical personnel with path analysis. Methods: 728 radiological medical personnels were investigated with Maslach burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), Chinese Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and Self-esteem Scale. Results: Multiple regression and path analysis revealed that there were statistically significant relation between stress reaction and job burnout, Personality and self-esteem. Conclusion: Psychological stress is a complicated and multiple interaction of psychological stress related factors. (authors)

  5. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Merz, E-M; de Kort, W L A M; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2017-11-01

    Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal stress during the course of a blood donation, and whether responses differed between men and women, first-time and experienced donors and donors with high or low non-acute stress. In 363 donors, psychological (donation-stress and arousal) and hormonal (cortisol) stress were measured by questionnaire and salivary sample at seven key moments during a routine donation. Non-acute stress was assessed by a questionnaire. Repeated measurement analyses were performed, using the last measurement (leaving the donation center) as reference value. Levels of donation-stress, arousal and cortisol were significantly higher during donation than when leaving the donation center. When compared with men, women reported higher levels of donation-stress and cortisol in the first part of the visit. When compared with first-time donors, experienced donors reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and higher levels of arousal but less reactivity throughout the visit. When compared to donors high on non-acute stress, donors low on non-acute stress reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and showed less cortisol reactivity throughout the visit. Donating blood influences psychological and hormonal stress response patterns. The response patterns differ between women and men, first-time and experienced donors and between donors high and low on non-acute stress. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  6. A person in a closed environment as a psychological problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YuliyaV. Klochko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses an ethically weighted problem which is related to modern psychology: when a person lives in a closed environment. A new approach to solving this problem is being examined. It is based on the finding of substantial new functional aspects of the cognitive processes of making and losing meaning. The study of this sub-discipline started with O.K. Tikhomirov’s theory of thinking. The phenomenon of “adaptability to changes in lifestyle” is being analyzed. The substantial characteristics of the notion of a “closed environment” as well as the psychological manifestations which appear when one is forced to live in a closed environment or choses to live in one of his or her own volition are being revealed. According to the author, the new approach will allow us to come closer to understanding and being able to explain the psychological mechanisms of the mental upheaval which prisoners in solitary confinement experience.

  7. Stress alters personal moral decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Farid F; Dookeeram, Karine; Basdeo, Vasant; Francis, Emmanuel; Doman, Mekaeel; Mamed, Danielle; Maloo, Stefan; Degannes, Joel; Dobo, Linda; Ditshotlo, Phatsimo; Legall, George

    2012-04-01

    While early studies of moral decision making highlighted the role of rational, conscious executive processes involving frontal lobe activation more recent work has suggested that emotions and gut reactions have a key part to play in moral reasoning. Given that stress can activate many of the same brain regions that are important for and connected to brain centres involved in emotional processing we sought to evaluate if stress could influence moral decision making. Sixty-five undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to control (n=33) and experimental groups (n=32). The latter underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and induction of stress was assessed by measurement of salivary cortisol levels. Subjects were then required to provide a response to thirty moral dilemmas via a computer interface that recorded both their decision and reaction time. Three types of dilemmas were used: non-moral, impersonal moral and personal moral. Using a binary logistic model there were no significant predicators of utilitarian response in non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas. However the stressed group and females were found to predict utilitarian responses to personal moral dilemmas. When comparing percentage utilitarian responses there were no significant differences noted for the non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas but the stressed group showed significantly less utilitarian responses compared to control subjects. The stress response was significantly negatively correlated with utilitarian responses. Females also showed significantly less utilitarian responses than males. We conclude that activation of the stress response predisposed participants to less utilitarian responses when faced with high conflict personal moral dilemmas and suggest that this offers further support for dual process theory of moral judgment. We also conclude that females tend to make less utilitarian personal moral decisions compared to males, providing further evidence that there are

  8. Ideology: Its Resurgence in Social, Personality, and Political Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T; Nosek, Brian A; Gosling, Samuel D

    2008-03-01

    We trace the rise, fall, and resurgence of political ideology as a topic of research in social, personality, and political psychology. For over 200 years, political belief systems have been classified usefully according to a single left-right (or liberal-conservative) dimension that, we believe, possesses two core aspects: (a) advocating versus resisting social change and (b) rejecting versus accepting inequality. There have been many skeptics of the notion that most people are ideologically inclined, but recent psychological evidence suggests that left-right differences are pronounced in many life domains. Implicit as well as explicit preferences for tradition, conformity, order, stability, traditional values, and hierarchy-versus those for progress, rebelliousness, chaos, flexibility, feminism, and equality-are associated with conservatism and liberalism, respectively. Conservatives score consistently higher than liberals on measures of system justification. Furthermore, there are personality and lifestyle differences between liberals and conservatives as well as situational variables that induce either liberal or conservative shifts in political opinions. Our thesis is that ideological belief systems may be structured according to a left-right dimension for largely psychological reasons linked to variability in the needs to reduce uncertainty and threat. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  9. [Effects of job content on psychological stress in young recruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J J; Tao, N; Jia, J M; Qin, X; Tian, H; Qiu, E C; Liu, J W

    2016-04-20

    To explore the effects of job content on psychological stress in young recruits. In October 2014, 625 young recruits enrolled in one troop of Xinjiang Military Command in 2014 were chosen as subjects by multi-stage stratified random sampling. The Chinese version of the job content questionnaire (JCQ)and the psychological stress self evaluation test (PEST)were used to investigate the subjects. The subjects were divided into two groups with scores higher and lower than the mean score of three subscales (job requirement, degree of autonomy, and social support)of JCQ to explore the effects of job content on psychological stress in young recruits. The correlation of psychological stress with three subscales of job content was evaluated using the Pearson' s correlation analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the influencing factors for psychological stress. The PEST score of young recruits was 49.98±9.98. Forty-five (7.68%)out of them had scores of ≥70 points and were diagnosed with high levels of psychological stress. When the subjects were grouped based on socio-demographic characteristics, a high level of psychological stress was significantly more frequent in subjects less than 20 years of age than in those not less than 20 years of age, in smoking subjects than in non-smoking subjects, and in urban residents than in rural residents (10.42% vs 5.03%, P0.05). In various job content domains that had impacts on psychological stress, subjects with a low score of social support had significantly higher PEST scores than those with a high score of social support (50.96±10.35 vs 48.49±9.22, Pautonomy and social support (r=-0.103, Pjob requirement and social support were influencing factors for psychological stress (OR=0.718, 95% CI= 0.718 (0.607~0.851), Pjob requirement subscale and social support subscale may be potential protective factor and risk factor for psychological stress, respectively.

  10. Problems and opportunity of personality inventories in clinical - psychological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Benedik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with possibilities and problems of usage of personality inventories in psychological diagnostic of persons with "heavy pathology", from aspect of validity and applicability in the first place. Personality inventories are usually designed for health population. By their usage in clinical psychology we often meet problems like specific tendencies when answering defined questions. This could be the result of situational factors but also the impact of their disorders and personality. The possibilities of classical interpretation of results are in this way limited. Do we have the opportunity of development of the diagnostic instruments that we could, not only recognise, but use such deformations (which represent cognitive style or defence of person in diagnostic purpose? The MMPI-2, most famous inventory in this field, offer us great aid, especially because its items are selected empirically. By the analysis of its items from aspect of sensing and localisation of subjects problems, we found differences between clinical scales which represent patients of different clinical groups. These differences are in accordance with psychoanalytical assumptions about characteristics of sensing self and other people.

  11. Psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth: prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisborg, K.; Barklin, A.; Hedegaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    habits, alcohol and caffeine intake during pregnancy, education and cohabitation failed to change the result. The results remained essentially unchanged after exclusion of preterm deliveries. Exclusion of women with complications during pregnancy such as diabetes, hypertension, vaginal bleeding......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark,1989-98. POPULATION: A total of 19 282 singleton pregnancies in women with valid information about...... psychological stress during pregnancy. METHODS: Information about psychological stress during pregnancy was obtained from questionnaires and measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaires (GHQ). A score was generated by the sum of all the answers, each contributing a value between 0 (low psychological...

  12. Assessment of job satisfaction, job stress and psychological health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... employees, feels a tension of anxiety caused by their jobs.[4] ... [13] High job stress creates negative psychological effects ... where product quality is largely dependent ... on the work-health balance of journalists in. Nigeria. ..... Life. New York: Basic Books,1990. 15. Lu L. Work Motivation, Job Stress and.

  13. Insulin resistance and its possible personal stress moderators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg G. Motovilin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, insulin resistance (IR has been actively investigated by experts in various fields. Here we aim to study the effect of stress on the development of IR. Objective. To study the associations between IR and personal stress moderators (self-attitude, locus of control and coping strategies as well as the related performance lifestyles. Methods. The study included 63 patients (16 men; mean age, 48.2 ± 11.7 years. Of these participants, 26 were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 10 with impaired glucose tolerance, 6 with impaired fasting glucose and 21 with normal glucose tolerance. The levels of HbA1c and IR ratio were determined using HOMA. Well-known psychological assessment questionnaires were used to assess the effect of personal stress moderators. Results. There was a significant relationship between IR and personal stress moderators. A positive self-attitude was associated with a lower risk of IR (p < 0.05, which can be explained by a decrease in the risk of developing stress. Assertive coping strategies were most pronounced in subjects with a low level of IR (p < 0.05. Personal characteristics also determined an individual’s lifestyle, which may have an impact on the increase in IR. There was an association between high levels of IR and unhealthy alimentary preferences (p < 0.05. Such preferences were also associated with personal characteristics, such as external locus of control, less positive self-attitude and passive coping strategies (p < 0.05. People with high IR rarely engage in a regular physical activity; there was a direct correlation between the frequency of physical activity and assertive coping strategies (p < 0.01. Married participants had high levels of IR (p < 0.05. Conclusion. There were significant relationships between IR and personal stress moderators, such as self-attitude and coping strategies. Besides the direct effects on stress levels, personality traits may also indirectly increase the

  14. The Structural Model of Spirituality and Psychological Well-Being for Pregnancy-Specific Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatian, Mahrokh; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Dilgony, Taibeh; Shams, Jamal; Zaeri, Farid

    2017-12-01

    Women experience different types of stress in their lifetime. The present study was conducted to examine the structural model of spirituality and psychological well-being for pregnancy-specific stress. The present descriptive correlational study was conducted on 450 pregnant Iranian women (150 women from each trimester) in Dehdasht city in 2015. Data were collected using the personal-social questionnaire, the pregnancy-specific stress questionnaire, the spirituality questionnaire and the psychological well-being questionnaire and were then analyzed in SPSS-16 and Lisrel-8.8 for carrying out a path analysis. The fit indices of the model indicate the good fit and high compatibility of the model and rational relationships between the variables (GFI = 0.94, NFI = 0.85, CFI = 0.94 and RMSEA = 0.048). Of the variables that affected pregnancy-specific stress through both paths, spirituality had a positive effect (B = 0.11) and the personal-social variable a negative effect (B = -0.37). Psychological well-being affected pregnancy-specific stress negatively and directly and through one path only (B = -0.59). The results obtained through the model confirm the effect of spirituality and psychological well-being in reducing pregnancy-specific stress. Given that handling stress has a major role in the quality of daily life in pregnant women, stress management skills are recommended to be promoted among pregnant women so as to mitigate stress and its negative consequences.

  15. Postgraduate Clinical Psychology Students' Perceptions of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Stress Management Intervention and Clinical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakenham, Kenneth I.; Stafford-Brown, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research into stress management interventions for clinical psychology trainees (CPTs) is limited, despite evidence indicating that these individuals are at risk for elevated stress, which can negatively impact personal and professional functioning. This study explored: (1) CPTs' perceptions of a previously evaluated Acceptance and…

  16. To Be or Not to Be (Stressed): The Critical Role of a Psychologically Healthy Workplace in Effective Stress Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawitch, Matthew J; Ballard, David W; Erb, Kaitlyn R

    2015-10-01

    This article explains how key practices pertaining to the psychologically healthy workplace can be used to develop a comprehensive approach to stress management in contemporary organizations. Specifically, we demonstrate the ways in which employee involvement, recognition, work-life balance, health and safety, and growth and development practices can be used to assist in the reduction of work stress and the proactive management of strain. Although many organizations strive to establish a positive environment conducive to work and well-being, identifying where to begin can often seem like a daunting task. Currently, many stress management efforts emphasize individual-level interventions that are simply implemented alongside existing organizational practices. We propose that a broader perspective allows for a better understanding of the stress process, resulting in the ability to consider a wider range of changes to organizational processes. Combining knowledge regarding psychologically healthy workplace practices, stress management intervention levels and the personal resource allocation framework, we present a comprehensive framework for approaching workplace stress management, which can be tailored to the unique needs of various organizations, departments and employees. By adopting this broader perspective, we believe organizations can more strategically address employee stress, resulting in more effective stress management and a profound impact on stress-related outcomes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Mindfulness as a personal resource to reduce work stress in the job demands-resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Steven L; Teo, Stephen T T; Pick, David; Roche, Maree

    2017-10-01

    Based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, this study examines the different ways that the personal resource of mindfulness reduces stress. Structural equation modeling based on data from 415 Australian nurses shows that mindfulness relates directly and negatively to work stress and perceptions of emotional demands as well as buffering the relation of emotional demands on psychological stress. This study contributes to the literature by employing empirical analysis to the task of unravelling how personal resources function within the JD-R model. It also introduces mindfulness as a personal resource in the JD-R model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Psychological stress as a risk factor for postoperative keloid recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabianne; Hochman, Bernardo; Farber, Paulo Luiz; Muller, Marisa Campio; Hayashi, Lilian Fukusima; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2012-04-01

    To investigate psychological stress on the prognosis of the postoperative recurrence of keloids. Patients with keloids (n=25), candidates for surgical resection and postoperative radiotherapy, had their psychological stress evaluated on the day before the surgical procedure. The parameters evaluated were pain and itching (Visual Numerical Scale), quality of life (Questionnaire QualiFibro/Cirurgia Plástica-UNIFESP), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), depression and anxiety (Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale), salivary cortisol and minimum and maximum galvanic skin responses (GSR) at rest and under stress (i.e., while the questionnaires were being filled out). Patients were evaluated during the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th months of postoperative care. During each return visit, two experts classified the lesions as non-recurrent and recurrent. The recurrence group presented the greatest values in GSR during a stressful situation. The chance of recurrence increased by 34% at each increase of 1000 arbitrary units in maximum GSR during stress. Psychological stress influenced the recurrence of keloids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of psychological stress on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hong-Yan; Cheng, Chung-Wah; Tang, Xu-Dong; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2014-10-21

    Psychological stress is an important factor for the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). More and more clinical and experimental evidence showed that IBS is a combination of irritable bowel and irritable brain. In the present review we discuss the potential role of psychological stress in the pathogenesis of IBS and provide comprehensive approaches in clinical treatment. Evidence from clinical and experimental studies showed that psychological stresses have marked impact on intestinal sensitivity, motility, secretion and permeability, and the underlying mechanism has a close correlation with mucosal immune activation, alterations in central nervous system, peripheral neurons and gastrointestinal microbiota. Stress-induced alterations in neuro-endocrine-immune pathways acts on the gut-brain axis and microbiota-gut-brain axis, and cause symptom flare-ups or exaggeration in IBS. IBS is a stress-sensitive disorder, therefore, the treatment of IBS should focus on managing stress and stress-induced responses. Now, non-pharmacological approaches and pharmacological strategies that target on stress-related alterations, such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, miscellaneous agents, 5-HT synthesis inhibitors, selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, and specific 5-HT receptor antagonists or agonists have shown a critical role in IBS management. A integrative approach for IBS management is a necessary.

  20. Spiritual Transcendence and Psychological Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Personality in Burn Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibeen, Tahira; Mahfooz, Musferah; Fatima, Shamem

    2017-08-30

    The current study examined the moderating role of personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) on the relationship between spiritual transcendence and positive change, and spiritual transcendence and distress in burn patients. The sample (N = 98) comprised adult burn patients (age = 25-50) admitted to three hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. They were assessed according to a demographic information sheet, the NEO Personality Inventory (McCrae and Costa in J Personal Soc Psychol 52:81-90, 1987), the Spiritual Transcendence Index (Seidlitz et al. in J Sci Study Relig 41:439-453, 2002), the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales-21 (Lovibond and Lovibond in Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress scales, Psychology Foundation, Sydney, 1995), and the Perceived Benefit Scales (McMillen and Fisher in Soc Work Res 22(3):173-186, 1998). Stepwise moderated regression analysis showed that both personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) played a moderating role in the relationship between spiritual transcendence and positive change, and spiritual transcendence and distress in burn patients. The findings highlight the potential role spiritual transcendence may have in understanding and improving the psychological adjustment of burn patients.

  1. Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality and psychological distress in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Fontanals, Alba; García-Blanco, Susanna; Portell, Mariona; Pujol, Jesús; Poca-Dias, Violant; García-Fructuoso, Ferran; López-Ruiz, Marina; Gutiérrez-Rosado, Teresa; Gomà-I-Freixanet, Montserrat; Deus, Joan

    2016-09-01

    Personality can play an important role in the clinical symptoms of fibromyalgia (FM). The aim of this study is to identify personality profiles in FM patients and the possible presence of personality disorder (PD) from the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), and to assess whether personality dimensions are related to psychological distress in FM. The sample consisted of 42 patients with FM and 38 healthy controls. The TCI-R, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Short-Form-36 Health Survey, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and McGill Pain Questionnaire were administered. The personality profile of the FM group based on the TCI-R is defined by high Harm Avoidance (HA), low Novelty Seeking (NS), and low Self-Directedness (SD). Only one-third of patients with FM present a possible psychometric PD, principally from Cluster C. In the FM group, HA and SD are associated positively and negatively, respectively, with indicators of emotional distress. Patients with higher HA present higher perceived pain intensity rated via a verbal-numerical scale while Determination (SD2) reduced the perceived level of pain induced by the stimulus. NS is negatively related to the number of work absences caused by FM. The study suggests that HA and SD play an important role in psychological distress in FM. The fact that SD is prone to modification and has a regulatory effect on emotional impulses is a key aspect to consider from the psychotherapeutic point of view. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. [Association between occupational psychological stress and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Herong; Song, Hui; Tian, Rulong; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Qiang, Yan

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the association between occupational psychological stress and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Hui and Han populations in Ningxia, China. A 1:1 matched case-control study was performed. A total of 600 unrelated patients aged from 20 to 60 years who were clearly diagnosed with MS in General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University and Wuzhong People's Hospital from October 2011 to October 2012 were collected as the case group (MS group). A total of 600 healthy people who underwent a regular health examination in the same hospital during the same period were selected as the control group with matched gender, nationality, and age (≤ ± 3 years). The self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the general situations and do the physical examination, and the fasting venous blood samples were collected for laboratory biochemical blood tests. The Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) was used to investigate the subjects' occupational stress factors and stress levels. With the increase in stress levels, the levels of WC, FPG, TG, AST, and UA were increased, WHR, SBP, and DBP first increased and then decreased, and the level of HDL-C increased. There were statistically significant differences in these parameters between the two groups (P occupational psychological stress test results showed that the total score of stress factors (t = 6.676, P 0.05). There were no significant differences in the total score of stress factors and the score of each factor between Hui and Han groups (P>0.05). The relative risks of MS in the people with moderate stress exposure were 2.325 and 2.331 times those in the people with mild stress exposure before and after adjustment for age, gender, education level, marriage status, smoking, and drinking, and the relative risks for MS in the people with severe stress exposure were 3.000 and 3.126 times those in the people with mild stress exposure. There were significant differences in the detection rates of abdominal obesity, high TG

  3. Psychological stress and its relationship with persistent allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hennawi, Diaa El Din Mohamed; Ahmed, Mohamed Rifaat; Farid, Alaa Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis is considered to be a major health problem that impairs quality of life. A possible relationship with psychological stress may exist. The aim of this study is to verify the relationship between persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) and psychological stress aiming to improve treatment and thereby quality of life (QOL) of patients. Patients with PAR (166) were diagnosed then analyzed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Patients with allergic rhinitis and who were positive on the Kessler scale (122) were randomly divided equally into a control group which received levocetirizine and a study group which received levocetirizine and imipramine. Nasal symptom assessment and QOL assessment were performed in all patients after treatment. Of the 166 patients with PAR, 122 (73.5 %) were positive on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. There was a marked improvement in the study group compared with the control group as regards nasal symptoms with better QOL in the study group (6.93) compared with the control group (2.13). Psychological stress has a strong impact on persistent allergic rhinitis. When stress is controlled by a combined treatment of imipramine and levocetirizine, allergic rhinitis symptoms improved and a better QOL was obtained. 3b.

  4. Person-Environment Mergence and Separation: Otto Rank's Psychology of Emotion, Personality, and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Between 1924 and 1939 Otto Rank put forward three major elements of a comprehensive theoretical edifice that has yet to be fully articulated. These are conceptually linked by the fundamental importance of person-environment mergence and separation. Rank's theory of emotions highlights anxiety as the affect of separation, and guilt as the feeling that binds the individual to others. His personality theory distinguishes between the partialist, who responds to life fear with identification, and the totalist, who responds to death fear with projection. His cultural psychology contrasts primal collectivism with contemporary individualism, which orients the person toward individual immortality striving. Individualism has produced problematic self-consciousness and neuroticism, in the face of which Rank struggled to find a new psychology.

  5. Integrative Medicine Patients Have High Stress, Pain, and Psychological Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Ruth Q; Goel, Nikita S; Roberts, Rhonda S; Caldwell, Karen; Kligler, Benjamin; Dusek, Jeffery A; Perlman, Adam; Dolor, Rowena; Abrams, Donald I

    2015-01-01

    Integrative medicine (IM) is a rapidly growing field whose providers report clinical success in treating significant stress, chronic pain, and depressive and anxiety symptoms. While IM therapies have demonstrated efficacy for numerous medical conditions, IM for psychological symptoms has been slower to gain recognition in the medical community. This large, cross-sectional study is the first of its kind to document the psychosocial profiles of 4182 patients at 9 IM clinics that form the BraveNet Practice-Based Research Network (PBRN). IM patients reported higher levels of perceived stress, pain, and depressive symptoms, and lower levels of quality of life compared with national norms. Per provider reports, 60% of patients had at least one of the following: stress (9.3%), fatigue (10.2%), anxiety (7.7%), depression (7.2%), and/or sleep disorders (4.8%). Pain, having both physiological and psychological components, was also included and is the most common condition treated at IM clinics. Those with high stress, psychological conditions, and pain were most frequently treated with acupuncture, IM physician consultation, exercise, chiropractic services, diet/nutrition counseling, and massage. With baseline information on clinical presentation and service utilization, future PBRN studies can examine promising interventions delivered at the clinic to treat stress and psychological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Time-use, personality psychology, and social suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Meinert

    . In this paper, I will discuss how studies of persons’ time-use and their experience of everyday life can illuminate contemporary social problems. The study of what people “actually do” in their everyday lives mirrors the theoretical debate in current Personality Psychology about the importance of “behavior......” for understanding personality – and problems in the latter debate can thus shed light on how to understand the former. I will draw on empirical material from my PhD-project, where I’ve carried out a survey study, combining time-use and diary methods. The empirical material contains information about not only......-related) responsibilities. Much social pathology is related to or manifests itself as time-use problems. And in addition, the understanding of such problems is often confined to the private sphere of the individual’s life – often without considering the societal structures within which the individual lives her life...

  7. Association of psychological stress with skin symptoms among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada A. Bin Saif

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the association between psychological stress and skin symptoms among medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and June 2015. Electronic survey consists of Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ and Self-Reported Skin Complaints Questionnaire were distributed to all 1435 undergraduate students at College of Medicine, King Saud University (KSU, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results: Final analysis was performed on data from 529 (36.9% students. Students were divided into three groups: least stressed students, n=135, PSQ index less than 0.39; highly stressed students, n=136, PSQ index greater than 0.61; and moderately stressed students, n=258. Older age, female gender, during exam weeks, and fourth and fifth years of medical school (all p less than 0.01 were associated with the highest perceived stress levels. When compared to least stressed students, highly stressed students suffered from more oily, waxy patches or flakes on scalp (p≤0.0001, dry/sore rash (p≤0.0001, warts (p≤0.0001, pimples (p≤0.0001, itchy skin (p≤0.0001, hands itchy rash (p≤0.0001, hair loss (p≤0.0001, pull-out own hair (p=0.008, scaly skin (p=0.012, troublesome sweating (p=0.016, nails biting (p=0.028, and other rashes on face (p= 0.028. Conclusion: Various common skin conditions could appear in context of psychological stress among medical students.

  8. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  9. Relationship between cyberbullying roles, cortisol secretion and psychological stress

    OpenAIRE

    González-Cabrera, Joaquín (UNIR); Calvete, Esther; León-Mejía, Ana (UNIR); Pérez-Sancho, Carlota; Peinado, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Although cyberbullying is associated with different psychological problems, the role of biological markers of stress in cyberbullying has been relatively neglected. The aims of this study were: 1) to analyze the profile of cortisol secretion along the day in subjects involved in cyberbullying and 2) to investigate whether the predictive relationship between cyberbullying victimization and subjective symptoms of stress and anxiety are accounted for by cortisol reactivity. A longitudinal study ...

  10. Irritable bowel syndrome and psychological stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S Bayne

    1999-10-01

    Die doel van die studie was tweeledig. Eerstens is daar gepoog om duidelikheid te kry oor die verband tussen sielkundige stres en Prikkelbare Dermsindroom (PDS, deur te bepaal of individue wat aan PDS ly geringe stres anders ervaar as gesonde individue in terme van gereeldheid of intensiteit. Die tweede doelwit was meer algemeen en spreek die kwessie van teorie ontwikkeling aan in 'n veld gevul met dubbelsinningheid en verwarring. Twee groepe, een bestaande uit PDS lyers en die ander 'n gesonde kontrolegroep, het die "Daily Stress Inventory'' en die "Occupational Stress Inventory" voltooi. Die vraelyste is ontwerp om onderskeidelik daaglikse stres en werkstres te meet. Die resultate dui daarop dat PDS lyers nie meer stres ervaar as die gesonde individue nie, maar dat hulle wel die stressors ervaar met groter intensiteit.

  11. [Psychological stress and quality of life in patients with persistent asthma in Manzanillo, Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, María; Rodríguez Sánchez, Pedro Manuel; Brocard Arencibia, Ileana; Menéndez Porto, Lourdes

    2014-07-30

    Psychological stress is part of people's lives and can sometimes contribute to exacerbation of allergic diseases such as asthma. Asthma is prevalent in all age groups. Acute asthma attacks can be triggered by stress, thus impacting control of the disease and overall quality of life in these patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the presence of psychological stress as a trigger in poorly controlled asthma patients and its implications in their quality of life. A descriptive study was conducted in the city of Manzanillo, Cuba, in the course of one year, from January to December, 2010, which included 33 patients with persistent asthma. They were grouped according to severity as suffering from moderate or severe asthma, and all of them met the criteria for poorly controlled disease. They were surveyed to gather data about family and personal history of atopy, age of first asthma crisis, and environmental as well as other factors. Two surveys were used: a list of indicators of vulnerability to stress and the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). Most patients with poorly controlled asthma were in their forties. Female patients were more frequently affected than men were (28 females or 84.8%, and 5 males or 15.1%), and most patients had a family history of atopic disease. Almost all patients had high vulnerability to stress as well as low overall quality of life in all the areas surveyed. Psychological counseling is advised for asthma patients in order to reduce their stress levels.

  12. Cardiovascular reactivity to acute psychological stress following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Peter L; Gianaros, Peter J; Marsland, Anna L; Hall, Martica H; Siegle, Greg J; Dahl, Ronald E; Buysse, Daniel J

    2011-10-01

    Psychological stress and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent and are both implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases. Given the common co-occurrence of psychological distress and sleep disturbances including short sleep duration, this study examined the combined effects of these two factors on blood pressure reactivity to immediate mental challenge tasks after well-rested and sleep-deprived experimental conditions. Participants (n = 20) were healthy young adults free from current or past sleep, psychiatric, or major medical disorders. Using a within-subjects crossover design, we examined acute stress reactivity under two experimental conditions: after a night of normal sleep in the laboratory and after a night of total sleep deprivation. Two standardized psychological stress tasks were administered, a Stroop color-word naming interference task and a speech task, which were preceded by a prestress baseline period and followed by a poststress recovery period. Each period was 10 minutes in duration, and blood pressure recordings were collected every 2.5 minutes throughout each period. Mean blood pressure responses during stress and recovery periods were examined with a mixed-effects analysis of covariance, controlling for baseline blood pressure. There was a significant interaction between sleep deprivation and stress on systolic blood pressure (F(2,82.7) = 4.05, p = .02). Systolic blood pressure was higher in the sleep deprivation condition compared with the normal sleep condition during the speech task and during the two baseline periods. Sleep deprivation amplified systolic blood pressure increases to psychological stress. Sleep loss may increase cardiovascular risk by dysregulating stress physiology.

  13. [Personal resources relevant to psychological well-being in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, O; Pérez-García, A M; Aparicio-Zaldívar, E G

    2016-01-01

    To determine differences in social support, resilience, coping, and psychological well-being (PWB) among intensive care nursing and nursing staff of other hospital services, as well as to establish a structural model in these professionals where relevant personal resources to PWB were included. Correlational and cross-sectional study. A sample of 208 nursing professionals from University Hospital of Fuenlabrada (Madrid) took part in the study. This sample consisted of nurses (n=133), nursing assistants (n=61), and midwives (n=14), of whom 44 worked in intensive care unit, 50 in other special units, and 114 in wards. Social Support Subscale, 10-Item CD-RISC (resilience), Brief-Cope (coping), Scales of PWB, and sociodemographic variables. No differences were found in any assessed psychological variables as regards hospital service worked in. A structural model was found and showed that social support, resilience, and coping determined PWB of nursing professionals. The most important personal resource was coping strategies, which determined PWB directly (β=0.68). Social support influenced PWB directly (β=0.33), and indirectly (β=0.32), whereas resilience influenced it indirectly (β=0.57). Differences in PWB, coping, social support and resilience are not determined by hospital service. Coping strategies focused on engagement (or adaptive), social support, and resilience, constitute three relevant personal resources that determine the PWB of nursing staff, which can be developed and improved by specific programs. The most important PWB dimensions are self-acceptance and environment mastery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychological Properties and Stress Tolerance of High-Qualified Athletes Specializing in Athletic Walking

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    Vasyl Vasylyuk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the field of sports, there is a strong interest in the behavioral strategies of professional athletes, thus the study of the psychological characteristics of highly skilled athletes is a very topical issue. The article raises the question of the characteristics of the sports environment and the manifestations of stress among athletes. In the paper the psychological features of the personalities of highly qualified athletes who specialize in athletic walking on a scale of neuroticism and extraversion are investigated and the level of neuro-psychological stability of highly skilled athletes specializing in athletic walking is revealed. The main factors of stress in sports activities are: intense competition during a sporting contestation aimed at establishing a record or achieving victory over the rival; maximum physical and psychological stress during the contestation; systematic, long and intense training, which significantly affect the daily regime and everyday life. Two types of stress among athletes are singled out: social-emotional and training. A study of 12 highly qualified athletes who specialize in athletic walking showed that most of them (50 % have ambivert abilities. They are concordants and normostenics that are characterized by significant emotional stability, good adaptability, resistance to external influences. However, among the respondents there were some with low and below average neuropsychic stability.

  15. Essence of psychological approach application to personal sales in the context of relationship marketing paradigm

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    Kiseleva Elena Stanislavovna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the essence of psychological approach application to personal sales in conditions of relationship marketing domination. Defintions of global relationship marketing, marketing of client relations and personal sale are given. New element of marketing system is proposed as well as universal model of competence for personal agents. Technique for psychological image of the client has been developed.

  16. Essence of psychological approach application to personal sales in the context of relationship marketing paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Kiseleva Elena Stanislavovna

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes the essence of psychological approach application to personal sales in conditions of relationship marketing domination. Defintions of global relationship marketing, marketing of client relations and personal sale are given. New element of marketing system is proposed as well as universal model of competence for personal agents. Technique for psychological image of the client has been developed.

  17. Interreality for the management and training of psychological stress: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological stress occurs when an individual perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. Its association with severe health and emotional diseases, points out the necessity to find new efficient strategies to treat it. Moreover, psychological stress is a very personal problem and requires training focused on the specific needs of individuals. To overcome the above limitations, the INTERSTRESS project suggests the adoption of a new paradigm for e-health - Interreality - that integrates contextualized assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, bridging the physical and the virtual worlds. According to this premise, the aim of this study is to investigate the advantages of using advanced technologies, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), based on a protocol for reducing psychological stress. Methods/Design The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial. It includes three groups of approximately 50 subjects each who suffer from psychological stress: (1) the experimental group, (2) the control group, (3) the waiting list group. Participants included in the experimental group will receive a treatment based on cognitive behavioral techniques combined with virtual reality, biofeedback and mobile phone, while the control group will receive traditional stress management CBT-based training, without the use of new technologies. The wait-list group will be reassessed and compared with the two other groups five weeks after the initial evaluation. After the reassessment, the wait-list patients will randomly receive one of the two other treatments. Psychometric and physiological outcomes will serve as quantitative dependent variables, while subjective reports of participants will be used as the qualitative dependent variable. Discussion What we would like to show with the present trial is that bridging virtual experiences, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation, with real

  18. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: Attitudes and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Shinobu

    2017-03-01

    In this editorial, the new incoming editor for the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology ( JPSP )addresses the upcoming challenges and the issue of replicability. Although people vary (often dramatically) in their views on the nature and extent of this issue, that we have an issue to address is something that the new editor thinks most scholars would agree on. It is her hope that engaging in these efforts will return our community to a place that young talent willingly and safely bets their futures on. It is with this sense of mission that she feel honored to serve in this role over the next five years. As Editor, she would like to address the current challenges by actively promoting three principles: rigor, innovation, and inclusiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Ethical issues in personality assessment in forensic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, S; VandeCreek, L

    2001-10-01

    In this article we address several ethical issues of concern for psychologists who are engaged in personality assessment in forensic settings such as for courts or attorneys. The ethical issues reviewed include the role of the psychologist as an expert witness, matters of competence, informed consent, confidentiality, multiple relationships, and special issues related to billing. Emphasis is placed on how psychologists can provide useful information to the courts in a manner consistent with the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, the Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologist's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists, and the APA's Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce Proceedings. The practical recommendations made in this article are consistent with the APA's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.

  20. The psychological effects of providing personal care to a partner: a multidimensional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hansen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The expected increasing demand for informal care in aging societies underscores the importance of understanding the psychological implications of caregiving. This study explores the effect of providing regular help with personal care to a partner on different aspects of psychological well-being. We use cross-sectional data from the Norwegian Life Course, Ageing and Generation study (n. ~15,000; age 40-84 and two-wave panel data from the Norwegian study on Life Course, Ageing and Generation (n. ~3000; age 40-84. To separate the effects of providing care from those of the partner’s disability, caregivers are contrasted with non-caregivers with both disabled and nondisabled partners. We separate outcomes into cognitive well-being (life satisfaction, psychological functioning (self-esteem, mastery, and affective well-being (happiness, depression, loneliness. Findings show that caregiving has important cross-sectional and longitudinal detrimental psychological effects. These effects are fairly consistent across all aspects of well-being, demonstrating that caregiving has a broad-based negative impact. Among women, however, these effects are similar to if not weaker than the effects of a partner’s disability. Caregiving effects are constant by age, education, and employment status, but stronger among caregivers with health problems. Providing personal care to a partner is associated with marked adverse psychological effects for men and women irrespective of age and socio-economic status. Hence, no socio-demographic group is immune from caregiving stress, so programs should be targeted generally. The results also suggest that the health needs of caregivers demand more attention.

  1. EMOTIONAL MATURITY OF PERSONALITY: THE PRACTICAL PROBLEM OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Afonina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the dif?cult conditions of the contemporary society which are far from being favorable to maintain one’s emotional and physical health the problem of development and achievement of emotional maturity as a factor of the well-being is getting more signi?cant. Based on the theoretical concepts of different scientists who de?ned the construct of emotional maturity three groups of psychological methods for assessing emotional maturity are analyzed. The ?rst group includes the methods that are used to assess emotional maturity explicitly and have a theoretical or empirical veri?cation. The second group includes the methods that are intended to assess emotional maturity as a separate scale complimented by other scales, related to evaluating other aspects of emotionality in  the  structure  of  the  personality.  The  third  group  includes  the  methods  in  which  emotional maturity is mentioned in the description of other psychic phenomena, or in the interpretation of certain factors (scales. Psychodiagnostic methods studying different parameters depending on the theoretical concepts of the authors about the structure and content of the emotional maturity of the personality make references to concepts of emotional development, consciousness, cognitive and volitional capacities of the personality and the coping strategies the individual prefer to use. The problem of developing valid and reliable psychodiagnostic methods of studying emotional maturity of the adult personality as a holistic phenomenon still awaits attention and retains its signi?cance.

  2. Psychological stress, cocaine and natural reward each induce endoplasmic reticulum stress genes in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovsky, A A; Boehning, D; Li, D; Zhang, Y; Fan, X; Green, T A

    2013-08-29

    Our prior research has shown that the transcription of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transcription factors activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and ATF4 are induced by amphetamine and restraint stress in rat striatum. However, presently the full extent of ER stress responses to psychological stress or cocaine, and which of the three ER stress pathways is activated is unknown. The current study examines transcriptional responses of key ER stress target genes subsequent to psychological stress or cocaine. Rats were subjected to acute or repeated restraint stress or cocaine treatment and mRNA was isolated from dorsal striatum, medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens brain tissue. ER stress gene mRNA expression was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and RNA sequencing. Restraint stress and cocaine-induced transcription of the classic ER stress-induced genes (BIP, CHOP, ATF3 and GADD34) and of two other ER stress components x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and ATF6. In addition, rats living in an enriched environment (large group cage with novel toys changed daily) exhibited rapid induction of GADD34 and ATF3 after 30 min of exploring novel toys, suggesting these genes are also involved in normal non-pathological signaling. However, environmental enrichment, a paradigm that produces protective addiction and depression phenotypes in rats, attenuated the rapid induction of ATF3 and GADD34 after restraint stress. These experiments provide a sensitive measure of ER stress and, more importantly, these results offer good evidence of the activation of ER stress mechanisms from psychological stress, cocaine and natural reward. Thus, ER stress genes may be targets for novel therapeutic targets for depression and addiction. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Military psychology and police psychology: mutual contributions to crisis intervention and stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Like siblings separated at birth, military psychology and police psychology have each independently addressed the cognitive, perceptual, emotional, and behavioral aspects of men and women performing extreme service in defense of their neighborhood or their country. This article reviews the major areas of commonality in the work of military and police psychologists in the areas of crisis intervention and stress management, and provides practical strategies for handling these operational and clinical challenges. The article makes specific recommendations for how police and military psychologists can cross-contribute to each other's fields for the overall enhanced provision of services to the men and women who wear uniforms of all kinds.

  4. Chronic stress affects immunologic but not cardiovascular responsiveness to acute psychological stress in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, R. J.; Brosschot, J. F.; Godaert, G. L.; de Smet, M. B.; Geenen, R.; Olff, M.; Heijnen, C. J.; Ballieux, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    This study deals with the effect of chronic stress on physiological responsiveness to an acute psychological stressor in male high school teachers. Chronic stress was operationalized as the self-reported number of everyday problems. Twenty-seven subjects reporting extremely low or high numbers of

  5. Penal stress and its manifestations in the convicts, suspects and accused persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikova D.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to penal stress and its manifestations at the convicts, suspects and accused persons. This topic has been poorly studied. It is necessary to identify the groups of people especially most in need of prevention and correction of stress state and to define the target effects. The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the concepts of biological and psychological stress. Our theoretical work is mainly devoted to phenomenon of penal stress and factors affecting its formation. We suggested the definition of penal stress concept on the basis of the analyzed literature. The sample included 69 male persons (31 from predetention center, 38 from penal colony, aged 19 to 47 years old. Experimental psychological method of research was mainly used. In the practical part of the paper presents data on the prevalence of the penal stress in predetention centers and penal colonies. In addition, we have studied the relationship of penal stress with punishment stage, the crime characteristics of subjects, individual psychological characteristics, current state. The study allows us to reveal the groups of people in need of the prevention and correction of the penal stress state. We identified some target corrective action also.

  6. Psychological stress during exercise: immunoendocrine and oxidative responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E; Evans, Ronald K; McCleod, Kelly A; Tangsilsat, Supatchara E; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in catecholamines (epinephrine [EPI] and norepinephrine [NE]), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and a biomarker of oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) in healthy individuals who were exposed to a dual challenge (physical and psychological stress). Furthermore, this study also examined the possible relationships between catecholamines (NE and EPI) and 8-isoprostane and between IL-2 and 8-isoprostane following a combined physical and psychological challenge. Seven healthy male subjects completed two experimental conditions. The exercise-alone condition (EAC) consisted of cycling at 60% VO(2max) for 37 min, while the dual-stress condition (DSC) included 20 min of a mental challenge while cycling. DSC showed greater EPI and 8-isoprostane levels (significant condition by time interaction). NE and IL-2 revealed significant change across time in both conditions. In addition, following dual stress, EPI area-under-the-curve (AUC) demonstrated a positive correlation with NE AUC and IL-2 AUC. NE AUC was positively correlated with IL-2 AUC and peak 8-isoprostane, and peak IL-2 was positively correlated with peak 8-isoprostane in response to a dual stress. The potential explanation for elevated oxidative stress during dual stress may be through the effects of the release of catecholamines and IL-2. These findings may further provide the potential explanation that dual stress alters physiological homeostasis in many occupations including firefighting, military operations and law enforcement. A greater understanding of these responses to stress can assist in finding strategies (e.g. exercise training) to overcome the inherent psychobiological challenges associated with physically and mentally demanding professions.

  7. Disability, Health Insurance and Psychological Distress among US Adults: An Application of the Stress Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alang, Sirry M; McAlpine, Donna D; Henning-Smith, Carrie E

    2014-11-01

    Structural resources, including access to health insurance, are understudied in relation to the stress process. Disability increases the likelihood of mental health problems, but health insurance may moderate this relationship. We explore health insurance coverage as a moderator of the relationship between disability and psychological distress. A pooled sample from 2008-2010 (N=57,958) was obtained from the Integrated Health Interview Series. Chow tests were performed to assess insurance group differences in the association between disability and distress. Results indicated higher levels of distress associated with disability among uninsured adults compared to their peers with public or private insurance. The strength of the relationship between disability and distress was weaker for persons with public compared to private insurance. As the Affordable Care Act is implemented, decision-makers should be aware of the potential for insurance coverage, especially public, to ameliorate secondary conditions such as psychological distress among persons who report a physical disability.

  8. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Segato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  9. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Segato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  10. Is Political Activism on Social Media an initiator of Psychological Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisam, Aliya; Safoor, Iqra; Khurshid, Nawal; Aslam, Aakash; Zaid, Farhan; Muzaffar, Ayesha

    2017-01-01

    To find out the association of psychological stress with political activism on social networking sites (SNS) in adults. To find association of psychological stress and political activism with age, gender and occupational status. A descriptive cross-sectional study of 8 months (Aug 2014 to March 2015) was conducted on young adults between age group of 20-40 years of different universities of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Closed ended standardized questionnaires (i.e. Cohen Perceived Stress-10) were distributed via non-probability convenient sampling among a total sample size of 237. Sample size was calculated using WHO sample size calculator and data was analyzed in STATA version 12. The mean age of participants was 21.06±1.425 years. Out of the 237 participants, 150 (63.3%) were males and 87 (36.7%) females. Regarding their occupation, 13 (51.9%) were military cadets, 8 (3.4%) were consultant, 47 (19.8%) medical officer, 3 (1.3%) PG students and 56 (23.6%) MBBS students. Significant association of occupation was established with both political activism and psychological stress (p=0.4 and p=0.002 respectively). Among 237 individuals, 91 (38.4%) were stressed out and 146 (61.6%) were not. Among whole sample, political activists on SNS were found to be 23 (9.7%). Out of these 23 individuals who were politically active, 15 (65.2%) were stressed out and 8 (34.7%) were not. A significant association between stress and political activism was established (p=0.005). Political activism via social networking sites is playing significant role on adult person's mental health in terms of stress among different occupation.

  11. Estimation of psychological stress in humans: a combination of theory and practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Sood

    Full Text Available Stress has long been known to increase susceptibility to health disorders. In 2009, American Psychological Association further established association of stress to serious health problems. However, a quantitative and accurate way to evaluate and estimate stress status of individuals is still a big challenge. It has been shown, in large animal models using cattle, that psychological stress can be quantified as well as disease susceptibility could be predicted through biomarker discovery. Taking cue from those studies, we have evaluated and estimated psychological stress level of individuals theoretically and validated experimentally. Various biomarkers have also been identified which can be associated to psychological stress to predict stress status of unknown individuals.

  12. The relation between specialty choice of psychology students and their interests, personality, and cognitive abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate differences in interests, personality, and cognitive abilities between students majoring in the six specialties of psychology at the University of Amsterdam. Results show that students at Social Psychology and Work and Organizational Psychology

  13. The Relation between Specialty Choice of Psychology Students and Their Interests, Personality, and Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Vorst, Harrie C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate differences in interests, personality, and cognitive abilities between students majoring in the six specialties of psychology at the University of Amsterdam. Results show that students at Social Psychology and Work and Organizational Psychology were on average more extraverted than students of…

  14. A physical/psychological and biological stress combine to enhance endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Emeny, Rebecca T.; Gao, Donghong; Ault, Jeffrey G.; Kasten-Jolly, Jane; Lawrence, David A., E-mail: david.lawrence@health.ny.gov

    2015-12-01

    The generation of an immune response against infectious and other foreign agents is substantially modified by allostatic load, which is increased with chemical, physical and/or psychological stressors. The physical/psychological stress from cold-restraint (CR) inhibits host defense against Listeria monocytogenes (LM), due to early effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerves on β1-adrenoceptors (β1AR) of immune cells. Although CR activates innate immunity within 2 h, host defenses against bacterial growth are suppressed 2–3 days after infection (Cao and Lawrence 2002). CR enhances inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production. The early innate activation leads to cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) changes of immune cells. Lymphocytes from CR-treated mice express fewer surface thiols. Splenic and hepatic immune cells also have fewer proteins with free thiols after CR and/or LM, and macrophages have less glutathione after the in vivo CR exposure or exposure to NE in vitro. The early induction of CR-induced oxidative stress elevates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which could interfere with keeping phagocytized LM within the phagosome or re-encapsuling LM by autophagy once they escape from the phagosome. ER stress-related proteins, such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), have elevated expression with CR and LM. The results indicate that CR enhances the unfolded protein response (UPR), which interferes with host defenses against LM. Thus, it is postulated that increased stress, as exists with living conditions at low socioeconomic conditions, can lower host defenses against pathogens because of oxidative and ER stress processes. - Highlights: • Cold-restraint (physical/psychological stress) induces early oxidative stress. • The oxidative stress relates to catecholamine signaling beta-adrenoceptors. • Physical/psychological stress combines infection enhancing inflammation. • Endoplasmic reticulum

  15. Lack of political diversity and the framing of findings in personality and clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2015-01-01

    I extend the arguments of Duarte et al. by examining the implications of political uniformity for the framing of findings in personality and clinical psychology. I argue that the one-sided framing of psychological research on political ideology has limited our understanding of the personality correlates of liberalism and conservatism.

  16. Past personal history of dysphoria, social support, and psychological distress following conjugal bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, J C; Kasl, S; Jacobs, S

    1994-07-01

    This study describe the course and risk factors of psychological distress following bereavement, controlling for factors often omitted from studies of grief: psychiatric history, social support, and coping choices of the bereaved. Spouses of patients hospitalized for serious illness or elective surgery were systematically screened and followed longitudinally through the recovery or death of the hospitalized patient. Of 440 respondents, 154 were bereaved within 2 months. Spouses were interviewed in their homes by trained interviewers at intake and 2, 6, 13, and 25 months postintake. Dependent variables were measured with the CES-D (depressive symptoms) and the PERI (general anxiety and hopelessness/helplessness) scales. Independent variables were measured with the SADS-L (past personal history of dysphoria) and the Lazarus' Ways of Coping scale as well as sociodemographic measures. Lifetime prevalence of a brief period of dysphoric mood among spouses before the patient's illness was 22%; past personal history of dysphoric mood was related to female sex, smaller networks, and more depression and anxiety during the hospitalization of their spouses. Newly widowed persons with a past history of dysphoria perceived their networks to be relatively nonsupportive, but devoted similar amounts of coping effort to seeking social support and reported similar amounts of social interaction compared with persons with no history of dysphoria. Persons with a past history of dysphoria reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, general anxiety, and hopelessness/helplessness through 25 months postbereavement, yet their recovery trajectory was similar to those without a past history of dysphoria. It was concluded that a past history of subsyndromal symptomatology in conjunction with a stressful life event such as bereavement increases one's vulnerability to excess psychological distress.

  17. Interreality in the management of psychological stress: a clinical scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Raspelli, Simona; Pallavicini, Federica; Grassi, Alessandra; Algeri, Davide; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The term "psychological stress" describes a situation in which a subject perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. According to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the best validated approach covering both stress management and stress treatment is the Cognitive Behavioral (CBT) approach. We aim to design, develop and test an advanced ICT based solution for the assessment and treatment of psychological stress that is able to improve the actual CBT approach. To reach this goal we will use the "interreality" paradigm integrating assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, that creates a bridge between the physical and virtual worlds. Our claim is that bridging virtual experiences (fully controlled by the therapist, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation) with real experiences (allowing both the identification of any critical stressors and the assessment of what has been learned) using advanced technologies (virtual worlds, advanced sensors and PDA/mobile phones) is the best way to address the above limitations. To illustrate the proposed concept, a clinical scenario is also presented and discussed: Paola, a 45 years old nurse, with a mother affected by progressive senile dementia.

  18. Organizational stress and individual strain: A social-psychological study of risk factors in coronary heart disease among administrators, engineers, and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    It is hypothesized that organizational stresses, such as high quantitative work load, responsibility for persons, poor relations with role senders, and contact with alien organizational territories, may be associated with high levels of psychological and physiological strain which are risk factors in coronary heart disease. It is further hypothesized that persons with coronary-prone Type A personality characteristics are most likely to exhibit strain under conditions of organizational stress. Measures of these stresses, personality traits, and strains were obtained from 205 male NASA administrators, engineers, and scientists. Type A personality measures included sense of time urgency, persistence, involved striving, leadership, and preference for competitive and environmentally overburdening situations.

  19. The Comparison between Conceived Stress and Personality traits, in People Suffering from Migraine and Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Peymannia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Migraine is a common familial disease and is diagnosed with recurring throbbing headache. Investigation of biological and psychological factors in the initiation and aggravation of migraine headaches have shown that there is a relationship between the psychological factors, personality, and migraine headache. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the conceived stress and Personality traits between ill persons suffering from Migraine and healthy people. Methods: This is an analytical cross-sectional study which involves a sample including 30 migrainours and 30 healthy people. The migraine-suffering participants were chosen among the people who referred to specialized clinic of migraine in Ardabil in the first half of 2012. The study participants filled the Eysenck's personality questionnaire and Kohen' s Perceived stress scale. Descriptive statistics as well as MANOVA were utilized to analyze the research data. Results: The results showed that migraine-suffering participants conceived the stress negatively (P<0.01, F=11 compared to healthy participants. Moreover, migrainours scored significantly higher in regard to Neuroticism score compared to healthy people (P<0.05, F=5.91. Also, there was a significant difference between migrainours and healthy people in their extroversion score (P<0.05, F=6.57. Conclusion: According to the study findings, it appears that migraine patients are more vulnerable to the neurotic disease. Therefore, considering the psychological and personality characteristics may impact on the prognosis of disease.

  20. The Big Five personality factors and psychological well-being following stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwan, Toni; Ownsworth, Tamara

    2017-12-22

    To identify and appraise studies investigating the relationship between the Big Five personality factors and psychological well-being following stroke and evidence for personality change. Systematic searches of six databases (PsychINFO, CINAHL, Ovid Medline, Cochrane, PubMed, and Web of Science) were conducted from inception to June 2017. Studies involving adult stroke samples that employed a validated measure of at least one of the Big Five personality factors were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of studies. Eleven studies were identified that assessed associations between personality and psychological well-being after stroke (nine studies) or post-stroke personality change (two studies). A consistent finding was that higher neuroticism was significantly related to poorer psychological well-being. The evidence for the other Big Five factors was mixed. In terms of personality change, two cross-sectional studies reported high rates of elevated neuroticism (38-48%) and low extraversion (33-40%) relative to normative data. Different questionnaires and approaches to measuring personality (i.e., self vs. informant ratings, premorbid personality vs. current personality) complicated comparisons between studies. People high on neuroticism are at increased risk of poor psychological well-being after stroke. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to address the limited research on post-stroke personality change. Implications for rehabilitation High neuroticism is associated with poorer psychological well-being after stroke. Assessing personality characteristics early after stroke may help to identify those at risk of poor psychological outcomes.

  1. Stress and Psychological Support in Modern Military Operations (Stress et aide psychologique dans les operations militaires modernes)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    NATO Task Group HFM-081/RTG on "Stress and Psychological Support in Modern Military Operations" has produced, in the form of a Military Leaders Guide, a series of guidelines for psychological support...

  2. Physical work load and psychological stress of daily activities as predictors of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropponen, Annina; Svedberg, Pia; Koskenvuo, Markku; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-06-01

    Physical work loading and psychological stress commonly co-occur in working life, hence potentially having an interrelationship that may affect work incapacity. This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the effect of stability and change in physical work loading and stress on the risk of disability pension (DP) due to musculoskeletal diagnoses (MSD), while accounting for familial confounding in these associations. Data on 12,455 twins born before 1958 were surveyed of their physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities in 1975 and 1981. The follow-up data was collected from pension registers until 2004. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. During the follow up, 893 participants were granted DP due to MSD. Stable high (hazard ratio, HR, 2.21), but also increased physical work loading (HR 2.05) and high psychological stress (HR 2.22) were associated with increased risk for DP, and had significant interaction (p=0.032). The associations were confirmed when accounting for several confounding factors. Stable high but also increased physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities between two timepoints with 6 years apart confirms their predictive role for an increased risk of DP. Both physical work loading and psychological stress seem to be independent from various confounding factors hence suggesting direct effect on risk for DP providing potential for occupational health care to early identification of persons at risk. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  3. Coping as a mediator of the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress response: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Aoki, Shuntaro; Yoneda, Kenichiro; Sawaguchi, Yusuke

    2018-01-01

    Coping, the cognitive and behavioral effort required to manage the effects of stressors, is important in determining psychological stress responses (ie, the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive responses to stressors). Coping was classified into categories of emotional expression (eg, negative feelings and thoughts), emotional support seeking (eg, approaching loved ones to request encouragement), cognitive reinterpretation (eg, reframing a problem positively), and problem solving (eg, working to solve the problem). Stress mindset refers to the belief that stress has enhancing (stress-is-enhancing mindset) or debilitating consequences (stress-is-debilitating mindset). This study examined whether coping mediated the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress responses. Psychological stress responses were conceptualized as depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness. The following two hypotheses were tested: 1) a stronger stress-is-enhancing mindset is associated with less frequent use of emotional expression, emotional support seeking, and problem solving, which in turn is associated with lower levels of depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness; 2) a stronger stress-is-debilitating mindset is associated with more frequent use of these coping strategies, which in turn is associated with higher levels of these psychological stress responses. The participants were 30 male and 94 female undergraduate and graduate students (mean age =20.4 years). Stress mindset, coping, and psychological stress responses were measured using self-report questionnaires. Six mediation analyses were performed with stress-is-enhancing mindset or stress-is-debilitating mindset as the independent variable, one of the psychological stress responses as the dependent variable, and the four coping strategies as mediators. Emotional expression partially mediated the relationship between a strong stress-is-debilitating mindset and higher irritability

  4. Identification of Psychological Stresses for Astronauts and Cosmonauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Melinda

    As humans continue to explore and expand in the solar system, psychological problems brought about by high stress of living in the space environment will continue to increase. Unfortunately, due to many reasons, including relative difficulties with gaining access to astronauts and cosmonauts and to gather psychological data from them regarding stressors, this area is not very well known and discussed. Five astronauts and cosmonauts from three space agencies: ESA, RSA, and JAXA were unoffi- cially surveyed regarding their experiences with ten general categories of psychological stressors as well as eight subcategories of interpersonal conflict stressors accepted in space related community of psychologists. The two subjects in space for longer periods of time reported more stressors and were likely to rate stressors as having a greater effect on the chance of mission failure. Shorter duration flyers reported nearly all general stressors were likely to increase in the event of a longer duration space flight. With the increased interest in long duration spaceflight, psychological stressors are more likely to affect mission success.

  5. Insecure Attachment, Maladaptive Personality Traits, and the Perpetration of In-Person and Cyber Psychological Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Nghi H; Pasalich, Dave S

    2018-02-01

    Although past findings show that insecure attachment and maladaptive personality traits confer risk for perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV), little is known about how these factors may underpin psychological abuse (PA) committed in-person and via technology. This study examined whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits and psychopathic traits account for indirect effects of insecure attachment on the perpetration of face-to-face and cyber PA. Participants included a community-based sample ( N = 200; M age = 22.28 years) in Australia who completed a battery of online questionnaires. Results from bivariate correlations showed that elevated levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance, and higher scores on BPD traits and psychopathic traits, were significantly associated with the perpetration of both face-to-face and cyber PA. Findings from mediation analysis indicated that attachment anxiety was indirectly linked with the perpetration of both forms of PA via elevated scores on BPD traits and psychopathic traits. High levels of psychopathic traits accounted for the indirect effects of attachment avoidance on both forms of PA. Results support the theory that insecure attachment and maladaptive personality functioning might be involved in the development and/or maintenance of the perpetration of PA. These findings have implications for preventive and treatment programs for the perpetration of IPV in terms of shedding new light on potential risk factors for engagement in face-to-face and technology-based PA.

  6. Fear of failure, psychological stress, and burnout among adolescent athletes competing in high level sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, H; Sagar, S S; Stenling, A

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fear of failure in highly competitive junior athletes and the association with psychological stress and burnout. In total 258 athletes (152 males and 108 females) ranged in age from 15 to 19 years (M = 17.4 years, SD = 1.08) participated. Athletes competed in variety of sports including both team and individual sports. Results showed in a variable-oriented approach using regression analyses that one dimension, fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment had a statistically significant effect on perceived psychological stress and one dimension of burnout, reduced sense of accomplishment. However, adopting a person-oriented approach using latent class analysis, we found that athletes with high levels of fear failure on all dimensions scored high on burnout. We also found another class with high scores on burnout. These athletes had high scores on the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure and low scores on the other oriented fear of failure dimensions. The findings indicate that fear of failure is related to burnout and psychological stress in athletes and that this association is mainly associated with the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The effect of psychological stress on iron absorption in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Min

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress (PS is recognized as an important pathogenic factor which leads to metabolism disorder in many diseases. Previous studies have shown that systemic iron homeostasis in mammalians was changed under specific stress conditions. Methods In present study, we used communication box to create psychological stress model and investigated the iron apparent absorption, iron accumulation in the apical poles of villous enterocytes and protein expressions of ferroportin 1 (FPN1, ferritin, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1. Results Our study showed that iron apparent absorption decreased and iron significantly accumulated in the apical poles of villous enterocytes in 3 d and 7 d PS groups. The expression of intestinal FPN1 in 3 d and 7 d PS groups was lower than that of control, while the change of intestinal ferritin was opposite. However, the expression of DMT1 did not change. Conclusion These results demonstrate that PS can decrease iron absorption in rats, which might be related to regulation expression of iron transporters.

  8. Coping as a mediator of the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress response: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horiuchi S

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Horiuchi,1 Akira Tsuda,2 Shuntaro Aoki,3,4 Kenichiro Yoneda,5 Yusuke Sawaguchi6 1Faculty of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, 2Department of Psychology, Kurume University, Fukuoka, 3Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, 4Graduate School of Psychological Science, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Hokkaido, 5Graduate School of Psychology, Kurume University, Fukuoka, 6Graduate School of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, Japan Background: Coping, the cognitive and behavioral effort required to manage the effects of stressors, is important in determining psychological stress responses (ie, the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive responses to stressors. Coping was classified into categories of emotional expression (eg, negative feelings and thoughts, emotional support seeking (eg, approaching loved ones to request encouragement, cognitive reinterpretation (eg, reframing a problem positively, and problem solving (eg, working to solve the problem. Stress mindset refers to the belief that stress has enhancing (stress-is-enhancing mindset or debilitating consequences (stress-is-debilitating mindset. This study examined whether coping mediated the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress responses. Psychological stress responses were conceptualized as depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness. The following two hypotheses were tested: 1 a stronger stress-is-enhancing mindset is associated with less frequent use of emotional expression, emotional support seeking, and problem solving, which in turn is associated with lower levels of depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness; 2 a stronger stress-is-debilitating mindset is associated with more frequent use of these coping strategies, which in turn is associated with higher levels of these psychological stress responses. Materials and methods: The participants were 30 male and

  9. Personality affects aspects of health-related quality of life in parkinson's disease via psychological coping strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitworth, Stephanie R.; Loftus, Andrea M.; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    , choice of coping strategy, and their subsequent effect on HRQoL remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine whether personality (neuroticism and extraversion) indirectly affects HRQoL through the use of specific psychological coping strategies. Methods: One hundred and forty......Background: Personality traits influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Further, an individual's personality traits can influence the strategies they use to cope with a particular stressful situation. However, in PD, the interplay between personality traits...... for gender, age at diagnosis, and age at testing, the emotion-focused coping strategy of escape-avoidance was significantly correlated with neuroticism and certain aspects of HRQoL (cognitive impairment and social support). This suggests that neurotic personality traits may negatively impact on some aspects...

  10. The mediating role of psychological capital on the association between occupational stress and job burnout among bank employees in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xirui; Kan, Dan; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie; Wu, Hui

    2015-03-10

    Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women). Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank employees.

  11. The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital on the Association between Occupational Stress and Job Burnout among Bank Employees in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xirui Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women. Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank

  12. Biological and psychological markers of stress in humans: focus on the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Kennedy, Paul J; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Validated biological and psychological markers of acute stress in humans are an important tool in translational research. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), involving public interview and mental arithmetic performance, is among the most popular methods of inducing acute stress in experimental settings, and reliably increases hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. However, although much research has focused on HPA axis activity, the TSST also affects the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, the immune system, cardiovascular outputs, gastric function and cognition. We critically assess the utility of different biological and psychological markers, with guidance for future research, and discuss factors which can moderate TSST effects. We outline the effects of the TSST in stress-related disorders, and if these responses can be abrogated by pharmacological and psychological treatments. Modified TSST protocols are discussed, and the TSST is compared to alternative methods of inducing acute stress. Our analysis suggests that multiple readouts are necessary to derive maximum information; this strategy will enhance our understanding of the psychobiology of stress and provide the means to assess novel therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Infertility Stress: The Role of Coping Strategies, Personality Trait, and Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Rashidi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of coping strategies, personality trait and social support as the main social and psychological factors on infertility stress.Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 201 infertile Iranian women referred to the Vali-e-Asr Reproductive health Research Center, and completed the following questionnaires: The fertility problem inventory, measuring perceived infertility related stress (Newton CR, 1999, big five factor personality questionnaire (Farahani, 2009, multidimensional scale of perceived social support MSPS (Zimmet 1988, and multidimensional assessment of coping (Endler, 1990.The results were then analyzed using the Pearson Correlation and stepwise regression.Results: Infertility stress has negative and significant relation with emotion-oriented coping method, perceived social support and bring extrovert. It has a positive, significant relation with emotion-oriented coping method, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. The results of the stepwise regression showed that emotion-oriented coping method, OCD and being extrovert are suitable predictors of infertility stress.Conclusion: About 22% of the infertility stress variance was explained by coping strategies and personality trait. Therefore our result demonstrates the importance of social and psychological factors on experiencing the infertility stress.

  14. Teacher Stress and Personal Values. An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachkirova, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the first stage of a small-scale research project into the relationship between teacher stress and personal values. It starts by outlining the problem of teacher stress and an overview of the literature investigating the sources of it. A particular combination of factors related to personal values that may increase…

  15. Personality Traits and Psychological Health Concerns: The Search for Psychology Student Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Michael S.; Lymburner, Jocelyn A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study explored whether an affliction similar to Medical Student Syndrome occurs in psychology students (i.e., Psychology Student Syndrome) by examining the relationship between self ratings of psychological health and the number of psychopathology courses taken. Undergraduate participants rated their level of concern about suffering…

  16. Peculiarities of Coping and Mechanisms of Psychological Defense in Persons with Alcohol Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тинатин Владимировна Чхиквадзе

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the features of the defensive-coping behavior of alcohol dependent personality in the context of the necessity to optimize addiction therapy methods. An analysis of the range of coping strategies and mechanisms of psychological defense in alcoholism was conducted. The study involved 120 men and women between the ages of 30 and 60; 62 of them are patients with alcohol dependence, registered with the narcological clinic, and 58 people who do not have alcohol dependence. The following psychodiagnostic methods were used: “Strategic Approach to Coping Scale - SACS” (S. Hofball, “Life Style Index - LSI” (R. Plutchik, H. Kellerman & H.R. Conte. In the course of the analysis, it was found that behavioral pattern “aggressive actions” is expressed at a higher level in individuals with alcohol dependence. The leading coping strategies for both dependent respondents and the control sample are “seeking social support”, “cautious actions”, “coming into contact”. When assessing the gender characteristics of coping behavior, it was revealed that alcohol-dependent women use coping “avoidance” and “impulsive actions” more often than alcohol-dependent men. The dominant mechanisms of psychological defense for both dependent respondents and the control sample are “projection”, “intellectualization” and “negation”. There are differences between the group of respondents with alcohol dependence and the control group in the degree of tension of the defense mechanisms “substitution” and “compensation”: higher rates are observed in patients with alcoholism. The mechanism of defense “intellectualization” is more often and more intensively manifested in alcohol-dependent men, “reactive formations” - in alcoholdependent women. Identified in the course of the empirical study, the features are considered as possible “targets” for the psychological correction of an alcohol

  17. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on platelet aggregation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Fumikazu; Kitamura, Nobuo; Satoh, Eiki

    2014-03-01

    Although psychological stress has long been known to alter cardiovascular function, there have been few studies on the effect of psychological stress on platelets, which play a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on the aggregation of platelets and platelet cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Mice were subjected to both transportation stress (exposure to novel environment, psychological stress) and restraint stress (psychological stress) for 2 h (acute stress) or 3 weeks (2 h/day) (chronic stress). In addition, adrenalectomized mice were subjected to similar chronic stress (both transportation and restraint stress for 3 weeks). The aggregation of platelets from mice and [Ca(2+)]i was determined by light transmission assay and fura-2 fluorescence assay, respectively. Although acute stress had no effect on agonist-induced platelet aggregation, chronic stress enhanced the ability of the platelet agonists thrombin and ADP to stimulate platelet aggregation. However, chronic stress failed to enhance agonist-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Adrenalectomy blocked chronic stress-induced enhancement of platelet aggregation. These results suggest that chronic, but not acute, psychological stress enhances agonist-stimulated platelet aggregation independently of [Ca(2+)]i increase, and the enhancement may be mediated by stress hormones secreted from the adrenal glands.

  18. «Psychology is becoming a truly efficient science of studying a person»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Asmolov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The author emphasizes the increasing role of psychology in the life of modern society, entering into the social life in a variety of forms. Psychology is a truly «effective» science of studying a person. The most significant achievements of modern psychology are considered: the development of practical educational psychology, the creation of system activity approach to cognition, the occurrence of psychology in the world of cognitive science, psychology of emergencies, etc. Psychology has become a reality and its various areas are treated as «the architect» of mental and economic life throughout the world, including Russia, psychology turns into a efficient reconstructing science that can be observed not only in the construction program standards of modern education, but also in the programs of tolerance development in the society as a support of diversity standards. Considerable attention is paid to the activities of the Department of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, as a center of psychological science with all its increasing diversity and development. On the eve of the 50th anniversary of the Department of Psychology, A.G. Asmolov, whose life was closely connected with the educational and research center, examines successes and accomplishments of the Department, contribution to the world of psychology. A.G. Asmolov lists the names of the most outstanding graduates of the Department who have achieved impressive results in various branches of psychology and are now in different parts of the Russian Federation and of the world working in the sphere of psychology. The Department is said to be a «trendsetter» in psychology. Such interesting areas as psychology of uncertainty, psychology of complexity, psychology of diversity, etc. are being developed. The ideas that emerge at the Department of psychology are becoming the ideas known in the whole world.

  19. Socioeconomic status, labour market connection, and self-rated psychological health: the role of social capital and economic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin; Ali, Sadiq M; Rosvall, Maria

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the association between socioeconomic status, unemployment and self-rated psychological health, taking economic stress and horizontal trust into account. The 2008 public health survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study with a 55% participation rate. A random sample was invited and 28,198 persons aged 18-80 participated. Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between socioeconomic status by occupation (SES), labour market connection and self-rated psychological health (GHQ12). The multiple regression analyses included age, country of birth, education, economic stress and generalized (horizontal) trust. 13.8% of the men and 18.2% of the women had poor psychological health. Poor psychological health was more common among the young, among those born abroad, among those with lower education, with economic stress, and low horizontal trust. There were no significant differences between the employed and self-employed groups. However, the people who had retired early, the unemployed and those on long-term sick leave had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health than higher non-manual employees throughout the analyses. There were no differences in psychological health between non-manual employees in higher positions and other employed and self-employed SES groups among men or women. In contrast, the early retired, the unemployed and the category on long-term sick leave had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health among both men and women throughout the multiple analyses. Both economic stress and trust affected this association (i.e., lowered the odds ratios of poor psychological health), but affected by economic stress to a somewhat higher extent.

  20. A folk-psychological ranking of personality facets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Roivainen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Which personality facets should a general personality test measure? No consensus exists on the facet structure of personality, the nature of facets, or the correct method of identifying the most significant facets. However, it can be hypothesized (the lexical hypothesis that high frequency personality describing words more likely represent important personality facets and rarely used words refer to less significant aspects of personality. Participants and procedure A ranking of personality facets was performed by studying the frequency of the use of popular personality adjectives in causal clauses (because he is a kind person on the Internet and in books as attributes of the word person (kind person. Results In Study 1, the 40 most frequently used adjectives had a cumulative usage frequency equal to that of the rest of the 295 terms studied. When terms with a higher-ranking dictionary synonym or antonym were eliminated, 23 terms remained, which represent 23 different facets. In Study 2, clusters of synonymous terms were examined. Within the top 30 clusters, personality terms were used 855 times compared to 240 for the 70 lower-ranking clusters. Conclusions It is hypothesized that personality facets represented by the top-ranking terms and clusters of terms are important and impactful independent of their correlation with abstract underlying personality factors (five/six factor models. Compared to hierarchical personality models, lists of important facets probably better cover those aspects of personality that are situated between the five or six major domains.

  1. Using First-Person Accounts To Teach Students about Psychological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Victoria L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes instructional use of brief first-person accounts of mental disorders. Explores the benefits of using first-person, autobiographical accounts as required reading in a course on abnormal psychology. Finds that first-person accounts were more helpful in increasing student appreciation of the experience of having a disorder and empathy for…

  2. The Role of Psychological Stress Reactions in the Longitudinal Relation Between Workplace Bullying and Turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Conway, Paul Maurice; Clausen, Thomas; Bonde, Jens Peter; Garde, Anne Helene; Hogh, Annie; Kaerlev, Linda; Török, Eszter; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the association between workplace bullying and change of job/unemployment, and to investigate whether psychological stress reactions constitute a potential pathway linking workplace bullying and change of job/unemployment. We used questionnaire data on workplace bullying and psychological stress reactions and register data on change of job/unemployment. We applied a multiple pathway approach to estimate the proportion of the association between workplace bullying and subsequent change of job/unemployment that was potentially mediated by psychological stress reactions. Workplace bullying was associated with risk of change of job (odds ratio [OR] = 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.72; 24% potentially mediated by psychological stress reactions) and unemployment (OR = 4.90; 95% CI: 3.18-7.55; 19% potentially mediated by psychological stress reactions). Workplace bullying has important consequences for labor market outcomes. Psychological stress reactions may play a vital role in this process.

  3. The relationship between personal growth and psychological functioning in individuals treated in a partial hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danitz, Sara B; Orsillo, Susan M; Beard, Courtney; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2018-04-26

    We examined whether current level of personal growth and changes in personal growth predicted treatment response among participants in a partial hospital setting. Patients (N = 269; aged 18-70 years, M = 33.6; 52.4% female) completed measures of personal growth initiative (PGI), valuing personal growth (VPG), and psychological functioning measures at treatment admission and discharge from a partial hospital. PGI and VPG were negatively associated with depression and positively associated with psychological well-being. Baseline PGI and VPG did not predict changes in psychological functioning at discharge. PGI and VPG significantly increased following treatment, and increases were associated with decreases in depression and increases in well-being over and above previously established predictors. Valuing personal growth for intrinsic reasons and active engagement in the personal growth process may be important characteristics to cultivate in psychotherapy as they are malleable and negatively related to depression. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. What are the effects of psychological stress and physical work on blood lipid profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Seyedeh Negar

    2017-05-01

    Blood lipids disorders are prevalent in the world. Some of their risk factors are modifiable such as mental and physical stress which existed in some places such as work environment.Objective of this study was to determine the effects of psychological and physical stress on the lipid profiles. It was a historical cohort study. The people who were employed as general worker were participated. The study was conducted with flexible interview for getting history, lipid profile examination, and a checklist including occupational and nonoccupational risk factors and using the health issues. According to the type of stress exposures, the study population was divided into 5 groups. Groups were followed for lipid profiles. These groups were exposed to psychological stress, physical stress or both of them; mild psychological stress (group 1), mild physical work without psychological stress (group 2), mild psychological stress and mild physical work (group 3), moderate physical work without psychological stress (group 4), and heavy physical work without psychological stress (group 5). Data were analyzed with SPSS 16. ANOVA, χ, and exact test were calculated with considering P less than 45 mg/dL was 14.61 (8.31-25.68) in group 1 and 16.00 (8.30-30.83) in group 3. After multinomial logistic regression they had significant differences. Psychological stress was a risk factor for lipid disorders, and suitable physical activity was protective in this situation.

  5. Psychological distress and personality factors in takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeijers, L; Szabó, B M; Kop, W J

    2016-01-01

    Background Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCC) is a transient condition characterised by severe left ventricular dysfunction combined with symptoms and signs mimicking myocardial infarction. Emotional triggers are common, but little is known about the psychological background characteristics of TCC. This

  6. Psychological functioning of adolescent transsexuals: personality and psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, L.; de Ruiter, C.; Ringelberg, H.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    1997-01-01

    Adolescent transsexuals were compared with adolescent psychiatric out-patients and first-year university students to determine the extent to which other psychopathology is a necessary condition for the development of transsexualism. Three areas of psychological functioning associated with

  7. Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Harry T.; Judd, Charles M.

    2000-03-01

    This volume provides an overview of research methods in contemporary social psychology. Coverage includes conceptual issues in research design, methods of research, and statistical approaches. Because the range of research methods available for social psychology have expanded extensively in the past decade, both traditional and innovative methods are presented. The goal is to introduce new and established researchers alike to new methodological developments in the field.

  8. Stress and Psychological Support in Modern Military Operations: A Military Leader's Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cammaert, P. C

    2006-01-01

    ... to provide psychological support to deployed troops. Key factors in Stress Management are realistic training, fostering unit cohesion in arduous environments, communicating and providing time outs...

  9. I Am So Tired… How Fatigue May Exacerbate Stress Reactions to Psychological Contract Breach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achnak, Safâa; Griep, Yannick; Vantilborgh, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Previous research showed that perceptions of psychological contract (PC) breach have undesirable individual and organizational consequences. Surprisingly, the PC literature has paid little to no attention to the relationship between PC breach perceptions and stress. A better understanding of how PC breach may elicit stress seems crucial, given that stress plays a key role in employees' physical and mental well-being. Based on Conservation of Resources Theory, we suggest that PC breach perceptions represent a perceived loss of valued resources, subsequently leading employees to experience higher stress levels resulting from emerging negative emotions. Moreover, we suggest that this mediated relationship is moderated by initial levels of fatigue, due to fatigue lowering the personal resources necessary to cope with breach events. To tests our hypotheses, we analyzed the multilevel data we obtained from two experience sampling designs (Study 1: 51 Belgian employees; Study 2: 53 US employees). Note that the unit of analysis is “observations” rather than “respondents,” resulting in an effective sample size of 730 (Study 1) and 374 (Study 2) observations. In both studies, we found evidence for the mediating role of negative emotions in the PC breach—stress relationship. In the second study, we also found evidence for the moderating role of fatigue in the mediated PC breach—stress relationship. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:29559935

  10. I Am So Tired… How Fatigue May Exacerbate Stress Reactions to Psychological Contract Breach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safâa Achnak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that perceptions of psychological contract (PC breach have undesirable individual and organizational consequences. Surprisingly, the PC literature has paid little to no attention to the relationship between PC breach perceptions and stress. A better understanding of how PC breach may elicit stress seems crucial, given that stress plays a key role in employees' physical and mental well-being. Based on Conservation of Resources Theory, we suggest that PC breach perceptions represent a perceived loss of valued resources, subsequently leading employees to experience higher stress levels resulting from emerging negative emotions. Moreover, we suggest that this mediated relationship is moderated by initial levels of fatigue, due to fatigue lowering the personal resources necessary to cope with breach events. To tests our hypotheses, we analyzed the multilevel data we obtained from two experience sampling designs (Study 1: 51 Belgian employees; Study 2: 53 US employees. Note that the unit of analysis is “observations” rather than “respondents,” resulting in an effective sample size of 730 (Study 1 and 374 (Study 2 observations. In both studies, we found evidence for the mediating role of negative emotions in the PC breach—stress relationship. In the second study, we also found evidence for the moderating role of fatigue in the mediated PC breach—stress relationship. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  11. I Am So Tired… How Fatigue May Exacerbate Stress Reactions to Psychological Contract Breach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achnak, Safâa; Griep, Yannick; Vantilborgh, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Previous research showed that perceptions of psychological contract (PC) breach have undesirable individual and organizational consequences. Surprisingly, the PC literature has paid little to no attention to the relationship between PC breach perceptions and stress. A better understanding of how PC breach may elicit stress seems crucial, given that stress plays a key role in employees' physical and mental well-being. Based on Conservation of Resources Theory, we suggest that PC breach perceptions represent a perceived loss of valued resources, subsequently leading employees to experience higher stress levels resulting from emerging negative emotions. Moreover, we suggest that this mediated relationship is moderated by initial levels of fatigue, due to fatigue lowering the personal resources necessary to cope with breach events. To tests our hypotheses, we analyzed the multilevel data we obtained from two experience sampling designs (Study 1: 51 Belgian employees; Study 2: 53 US employees). Note that the unit of analysis is "observations" rather than "respondents," resulting in an effective sample size of 730 (Study 1) and 374 (Study 2) observations. In both studies, we found evidence for the mediating role of negative emotions in the PC breach-stress relationship. In the second study, we also found evidence for the moderating role of fatigue in the mediated PC breach-stress relationship. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  12. Emotional Intelligence and Personality as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Colin; Bore, Miles; Zito, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have reported elevated rates of psychological distress (e.g., depression) in practicing lawyers yet little research has examined predictors of such problems in law students. Specific personality traits have been shown to be predictors of a range of psychological problems. We administered a battery of tests to a cohort of 1st-year…

  13. Personal Lineages and the Development of Community Psychology: 1965 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Patrick J.; Toro, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine and document the role of personal influence in the history of community psychology, and (b) to measure the field's inclusion of traditionally marginalized populations. In addition to presenting visually the genealogy of community psychology, results suggest that people have mattered in the…

  14. Evaluating the Feminist Challenge to Research in Personality and Social Psychology: 1963-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykes, M. Brinton; Stewart, Abigail J.

    1986-01-01

    Women's involvement in the research process, the types of research methods used, and substantive concerns were examined in selected issues of the "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" between 1963 and 1983. Comparisons with studies published in the "Psychology of Women Quarterly" suggest that the impact of the feminist challenge is more…

  15. The Potential Enrichment of Social/Personality Psychology through Feminist Research, and Vice Versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Bernice

    Although many colleges offer programs in women's studies, research on the psychology of women has very low visibility in professional journals. Feminist research can enrich the discipline of social and personality psychology through its unique orientation and methodology. Gender must be viewed as both a characteristic of participants in a…

  16. Problems of determination of principle of psychological profile of unknown criminal person in investigational activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Getman

    2017-03-01

    By the author of the article of analysis different determinations of «psychological profile of unknown criminal person» were subjected. They are set positive lines and separate positions that in opinion of author are not expedient and important are subjected to criticism. That is why, the author points in conclusions the argued positions in relation to the necessity of the use of psychological profile of  unknown criminal person during investigation of criminal realizations in activity of investigator.

  17. Personality, passion, self-esteem and psychological well-being among junior elite athletes in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bauger, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Personality research among athletes seems to have obtained less interest in recent years after much focus until the 1990s. This decline was obviously a result of ill conducted “personology” research, and a greater focus on psychological state versus trait in the sport psychology community. The present study explored personality dimensions, as measured by the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory, passion, self-esteem, and well-being among junior elite athletes. In addition, the athletes ...

  18. Personality in multiple sclerosis (MS): impact on health, psychological well-being, coping, and overall quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strober, L B

    2017-02-01

    Personality has long been considered a factor that can account for differences in health, well-being, and overall quality of life (QOL). A 'Distressed or Type D Personality' has been studied in medical populations as a predictor of several outcomes. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the presence of Type D Personality in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its role on disease symptoms, disease management, health-related behaviors, coping, psychological well-being, and overall QOL and functioning. Two hundred and thirty (230) individuals with MS completed a survey assessing personality, disease symptoms, disease management, coping, self-efficacy, locus of control (LOC), psychological well-being, and QOL. Thirty-seven (16%) individuals were found to be 'Type D+.' Such individuals reported greater fatigue, pain, depression, and anxiety and worse disease management and adherence. They also reported engaging in maladaptive means of coping. Compared to 'Type D-' they reported lower self-efficacy, LOC, QOL and greater perceived stress. Finally, 'Type D+' individuals were more likely to be considering leaving the workforce. Findings suggest that 'Type D' Personality is associated with various negative outcomes in MS. Consideration of the routine assessment of personality in MS seems warranted and may better inform interventions and ward off poor outcomes.

  19. THE STRESS RESISTANCE OF STUDENTS. THE PARADIGM OF SUBJECT PERSONALITY SELF- ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Dyakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to consider a problem of stress resistance of students in the context of subject self-organization of the personality. Methods. The following methods of research are used: questioning; psychological and diagnostic tests «Tolerance of Uncertainty» (NTN and «Personal Factors of Decisions» (PFD by T. V. Kornilova; original experimental experiences – «Coding», a technique of a self-assessment (scaling and «A locus control». While data processing the methods of mathematical statistics (SPSS 12 package – the correlation analysis of Pearson and the factorial analysis with rotation use a component by «verimax» method are applied. Results and scientific novelty. Types of subjectivity and strategy of stress resistance are allocated. The nature and a role of the emotional and stressful mechanism having information and semantic properties in its basis are disclosed. Communication of irresponsible mechanisms of mentality with the sphere of consciousness in the context of subjectivity of the personality is shown. Mechanisms of emotional and rational self-control of system of mental self-organization of the person are presented. The statistical and qualitative data opening communications between properties of subjectivity and stress resistance of the personality are empirically obtained. Variation of the relations and also types of subjectivity and stress resistance emphasized based on the results of the presented research. Original (author’s methods of studying of subjectivity and factors of stress resistance are presented. Practical significance. The revealed factors of subject self-organization reveal the stress-producing directions of the environment and the relation of the personality to situations of changes and uncertainty: and also indicate subject properties of resistance to stress which need to be developed to increase the level of health of students, to reduce risk of deviance and delinquency of

  20. The contribution of W. James to the understanding of personality as a psychological reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Kapustin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There are more than a dozen of personality theories in psychology currently. However, among psychologists there is no general agreement in understanding personality as a psychological reality, i.e. the agreement of phenomena opened to introspection and the facts established by observing the activity of the subject and his/her products, all together designated by the term «personality». The authors of these theories are dealing with very different phenomena and facts, sometimes not quite compatible ones, making impossible comparative analysis based on the criterion of adequacy, designed to assess the extent to which the scientific theory corresponds to the psychological reality explained by it. Thus, it is useful to turn to the analysis of William James’s works in order to clarify the issue of the psychological reality of the person who according to the author did the most thorough job of identifying the basic phenomena and facts that need be referred to using the term «personality». The results of this study allowed to draw the following conclusions. From James’s point of view, the psychological reality of personality must include the phenomenon of personal ego and the fact of hierarchically organized motivational sphere that has been developed as a result of individual’s self-determination. James’s representations have withstood the test of time, they were in demand by a number of renowned theorists of personality especially those that considered consciousness as a subject matter of scientific psychology. Perpetual interest in James’s concept of personality among theorists turns to be quite durable in time and is a subject matter of psychological reality.

  1. ORGANIZATIONAL AND PERSONALITY FACTORS OF STRESS IN ACCOUNTING AND CONSEQUENCES OF STRESS ON HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Stager

    2017-01-01

    Stress in accounting is popular in the area of research for many researchers in the fields of Psychology, Organizational Behavior, Health and Medicine. A significant part of empirical research has been focused on the analysis of the relationships between different individual and organizational stress factors on the job, including the effects of stress on the job. In the paper, we are showing an overview of the key concepts in the field of stress in accounting, covering organizational and pers...

  2. A personal encounter with psychology (1937-2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, H H

    2002-02-01

    An undergraduate assistantship with Abraham Maslow, research with Solomon Asch, and an indirect exposure to Ernest Nagel's philosophy of science encouraged Howard H. Kendler to become involved with methodological issues in psychology. Graduate training with Kenneth Spence led to an active research career that was initially immersed in the latent learning controversy and later, with the collaboration of his wife Tracy Kendler, in the extension of the Hull-Spence model of cognitive development. Methodological concerns from a variety of sources encouraged Kendler to express his ideas on the methodology and history of psychology as well as its role in ethical and social policy issues. A productive symbiotic relationship is created from the interaction of democracy, natural-science psychology, and moral pluralism.

  3. Stress appraisals and cellular aging: A key role for anticipatory threat in the relationship between psychological stress and telomere length

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Donovan, Aoife; Tomiyama, A. Janet; Lin, Jue; Puterman, Eli; Adler, Nancy E.; Kemeny, Margaret; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Epel, Elissa S.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic psychological stressis a risk factor formultiple diseases of aging. Accelerated cellular aging as indexed by short telomere length has emerged as a potential common biological mechanism linking various forms of psychological stress and diseases of aging. Stress appraisals determine the degree and type of biological stress responses and altered stress appraisals may be a common psychological mechanism linking psychological stress and diseases of aging. However, no previous studies have examined the relationship between stress appraisals and telomere length. We exposed chronically stressed female caregivers and non-caregiving controls (N= 50; M age = 62.14±6.10) to a standardized acute laboratory stressor and measured their anticipatory and retrospective threat and challenge appraisals of the stressor. We hypothesized that threat and challenge appraisals would be associated with shorter and longer telomere length respectively, and that chronic care giving stress would influence telomere length through altered stress appraisals. Higher anticipatory threat appraisals were associated with shorter age-adjusted telomere length (β = −.32, p = .03), but challenge appraisals and retrospective threat appraisals showed no independent association with telomere length. Caregivers reported significantly higher anticipatory (β = −.36, p = .006)and retrospective (β = −.29, p = .03) threat appraisals than controls, but similar challenge appraisals. Although there was no significant main effect of caregiver status on telomere length, care giving had a significant indirect effect on telomere length through anticipatory threat appraisals. Exaggerated anticipatory threat appraisals may be a common and modifiable psychological mechanism of psychological stress effects on cellular aging. PMID:22293459

  4. Psychological stress and musculoskeletal pain: the moderating effect of childhood and adulthood trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, April

    2015-01-01

    The aetiology of widespread musculoskeletal pain is complex. Psychological stress is a robust predictor of symptom onset and persistence but not everyone who experiences stress goes on to develop widespread pain. The aim of the studies presented in this thesis was to ascertain whether individuals with a history of trauma have an increased susceptibility to widespread pain when they experience psychological stress; to identify psychosocial mediators of the stress pain relationship, and ascerta...

  5. Musculoskeletal disorders, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of Chinese coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingming; Wu, Feng; Wang, Jun; Sun, Linyan

    2017-01-01

    Human factors comprise one of the important reasons leading to the casualty accidents in coal mines. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners. There were 1500 Chinese coal miners surveyed in this study. Among these miners, 992 valid samples were obtained. The study surveyed the MSDs, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners with MSDs Likert scale, Eysenck personality questionnaire, Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) scale, and accident proneness questionnaire, respectively. The highest MSDs level was found in the waist. The increasing working age of the miners was connected with increased MSDs and psychological distress. Significant differences in MSDs and psychological distress of miners from different types of work were observed. Coal miners with higher MSDs had higher accident proneness. Coal miners with higher neuroticism dimension of Eysenck personality and more serious psychological distress had higher accident proneness. Phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism dimension of psychological distress were the three most important indicators that had significant positive relationships with accident proneness. The MSDs, neuroticism dimension, and psychological distress of the coal mine workers are important to work safety and require serious attention. Some implications concerning coal mine safety management in China were provided.

  6. personality traits as predictors of stress among female teachers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    that the impact of stress on teachers‟ job performance and on other areas ... secondary schools in Osun State as at the end of the 2007/2008 academic session. ..... factor model of personality in depression: Assessing construct overlap.

  7. The Effect of Personality on Occupational Stress in Veterinary Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Briony F Y; Thompson, Neill J

    Statistics show that veterinary surgeons are in one of the professions with the highest suicide rates. This indicates the sector has significant well-being issues, with high levels of occupational stress and burnout. Previous research has focused on environmental factors in isolation, overlooking the influence of personality. This study aimed to establish that personality is a better predictor of occupational stress than environment. UK veterinary surgeons (n=311) completed an online survey composed of three questionnaires; the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Job Stress Survey. Multiple regression analysis revealed that personality is a better predictor of occupational stress than environment (poccupational stress (pstress are depression (p=.002) and anger hostility (p=.005). Demographic factors such as the number of years the veterinarian has been qualified acted as a mediator between depression and occupational stress (poccupational stress (p=.028). Overall findings suggest that newly qualified veterinarians are at greater risk of suffering from high levels of occupational stress than those well established in the profession, and that veterinarians with higher levels of depression and anger hostility are likely to experience greater levels of occupational stress. Implications highlight the need for greater awareness of potentially susceptible personality traits in the veterinary admissions process. This would allow for the identification of those at risk and the implementation of interventions.

  8. Black Psychology and Black Personality: Some Issues for Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses an emerging body of psychological literature by black behavioral scientists assumed to represent a radical departure in its conceptual orientation from the social pathology tradition advanced primarily by white behavioral scientists; and focuses on the construct of Self-Extension Orientation, a dynamic process which is assumed to…

  9. Teachers' Psychological Contract Perceptions and Person-Environment Fit Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkasimoglu, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Modern management approaches attach great importance to both the informal and the economic aspects of the organizations. Identifying teachers' psychological contract types and fit levels of a work environment in terms of variables such as seniority, educational degree, and school type will lead to discovery of the motivational…

  10. Psychological Model of a Person Dedicated to His Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovaya, Victoriya V.; Korchagina, Galina I.

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneity of the social structure of modern society changes the image of a "working man." Well-established images prevailing in the XX century (an economic man, a functional man, a psychological man) are replaced by a new image--"a self-organizing man." This construct describes a "smart" class. According to…

  11. Effects of Occupational Stress on Psychological Well-being of Police ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    significant effects of work-stress, frustration and depression on ... psychological attributes such as emotional labour, psychological ... explosions, oil spills, accidents and bomb attack can also contribute to ..... indicating a positive overall effect of frustration on psychological ..... symptoms within a country police force. Occup.

  12. The big five personality traits: psychological entities or statistical constructs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franić, S.; Borsboom, D.; Dolan, C.V.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    The present study employed multivariate genetic item-level analyses to examine the ontology and the genetic and environmental etiology of the Big Five personality dimensions, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) [Costa and McCrae, Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R) and

  13. The Big Five Personality Traits: Psychological Entities or Statistical Constructs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franic, S.; Borsboom, D.; Dolan, C.V.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    The present study employed multivariate genetic item-level analyses to examine the ontology and the genetic and environmental etiology of the Big Five personality dimensions, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) [Costa and McCrae, Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R) and

  14. The role of personal protective factors in anchoring psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article I report on a study that focused on the concept of resilience, in order to determine the nature of personal attributes in adolescents with learning difficulties, who were able to rebound from life's onslaughts, and to continue determinedly along the path of self-actualisation. The personal attributes impacting on the ...

  15. Personalized stress management : enabling stress monitoring with LifelogExplorer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocielnik, R.D.; Sidorova, N.

    2015-01-01

    Stress is one of the major triggers for many diseases. Improving stress balance is therefore an important prevention step. With advances in wearable sensors, it becomes possible to continuously monitor and analyse user’s behavior and arousal in an unobtrusive way. In this paper, we report on a case

  16. The national psychological/personality profile of Romanians: An in depth analysis of the regional national psychological/personality profile of Romanians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David, D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we perform an in depth analysis of the national psychological/personality profile of Romanians. Following recent developments in the field (see Rentfrow et al., 2013; 2015, we study the regional national psychological/personality profile of Romanians, based on the Big Five model (i.e., NEO PI/R. Using a representative sample (N1 = 1000, we performed a cluster analysis and identified two bipolar personality profiles in the population: cluster 1, called “Factor X-”, characterized by high neuroticism and low levels of extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and cluster 2, called “Factor X+”, characterized by the opposite configuration in personality traits, low neuroticism and high levels of extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. The same two cluster pattern/solution emerged in other samples (N = 2200, with other Big Five-based instruments, and by using various methods of data (e.g., direct vs. reversed item score, controlling for item desirability and cluster (i.e., with and without “running means” analyses. These two profiles are quite evenly distributed in the overall population, but also across all geographical regions. Moreover, comparing the distribution of the five personality traits, we found just few small differences between the eight geographical divisions that we used for our analysis. These results suggest that the regional national psychological/personality profile of Romania is quite homogenous. Directions for harnessing the potential of both personality profiles are presented to the reader. Other implications based on the bipolar and fractal structure of the personality profile are discussed from an interdisciplinary perspective.

  17. Are premorbid abnormal personality traits associated with behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Jack; Abraham, Rajesh; Nicholas, Helen; Chan, Tom; Vanvlymen, Jeremy; Lovestone, Simon; Boothby, Harry

    2016-09-01

    The study aims to investigate associations between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and abnormal premorbid personality traits. Data were obtained from 217 patients with a diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of late-onset dementia were assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Premorbid personality traits were assessed using the Standardised Assessment of Personality. Abnormal premorbid personality traits were categorised with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-10 diagnostic criteria for personality disorders. Abnormal premorbid personality traits were associated with increased behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia. Cluster A (solitary/paranoid) premorbid personality traits were associated with anxiety, depression and hallucinations. Cluster C (anxious/dependent) traits were associated with a syndrome of depression. The presence of Clusters A (solitary/paranoid) and C (anxious/dependent) abnormal premorbid personality traits seems to affect the expression of certain behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia, depression in particular. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Creating the Multiple Personality: An Experiential Demonstration for an Undergraduate Abnormal Psychology Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Fredric E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a classroom role-playing exercise in which students and teacher re-enact interviewing techniques that cause subjects to assume characteristics of the multiple personality. Demonstrates the social psychological aspects of multiple personality disorder. Considers the pedagogical and ethical implications of creating the multiple personality…

  19. Physical and Psychological Health in Persons with Deafblindness that Is due to Usher Syndrome Type II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Moa; Moller, Claes; Moller, Kerstin; Danermark, Berth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of the study reported here were to describe the physical and psychological health of persons with Usher syndrome Type II (USH2) and to explore any differences in terms of gender. Methods: The participants were recruited from the Swedish Usher database. In the first step, 122 persons received the questionnaire by mail,…

  20. The Problem of Socio-Psychological Adjustment of Personality in the Scientists' Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryakova, ?atyana A.; Morozova, Lyudmila B.; Kochneva, Elena M.; Zharova, Darya V.; Skitnevskaya, Larisa V.; Kostina, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    Instability and unpredictability of the present stage of social development make the study of social and psychological adjustment of personality to the social environment a highly topical issue. The article presents the results of an empirical research on social personality adaptation. Evident is the close relations between social and…

  1. Personality and Graduate Academic Performance among Counselor Education and School Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Laux, John; Salyers, Kathleen; Kozelka, Susan

    2017-01-01

    General personality was assessed of 104 graduate students in school counseling, mental health counseling, and school psychology programs in the United States using the Big Five model of personality domains. The students in three programs reported similarities and differences in their preference and performance in domain knowledge, with more…

  2. Personality and Career Concomitants of Life Stress in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lawrence J.; Dearing, Nancy

    The Psychological Distress Inventory (PDI) has been shown to discriminate between college students seeking help in the college counseling center from non-help seekers, between depressed and non-depressed students, and between students' global self-appraisals of high versus low stress. A study was conducted to investigate concurrent validity for…

  3. Racism and Psychological and Emotional Injury: Recognizing and Assessing Race-Based Traumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the psychological and emotional effects of racism on people of Color. Psychological models and research on racism, discrimination, stress, and trauma will be integrated to promote a model to be used to understand, recognize, and assess race-based traumatic stress to aid counseling and psychological…

  4. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, JHB; de Bruijn-Kofman, AT; de Bruijn, HP; van de Wiel, HBM; Dijkstra, PU

    Objective: To determine to what extent stressful life events and psychological dysfunction play a role in the pathogenesis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS). Design: A comparative study between a CRPS group and a control group. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction

  5. College Stress and Psychological Well-Being: Self-Transcendence Meaning of Life as a Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Li

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this study is to examine the moderating effects of self-transcendence meaning on psychological well-being in respective of college students. The theoretical background of self-transcendence meaning is mainly oriental Buddhism and Taoism philosophy. Measures of stress and psychological well-being are College Stress Scale (CSS)…

  6. Personal traits and a sense of job-related stress in a military aviation crew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Milanko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Accelerated technological and organizational changes in numerous professions lead to increase in jobrelated stress. Since these changes are particularly common in military aviation, this study examined the way military aviation crew experiences job-related stress during a regular aviation drill, depending on particular social-demographic factors and personal traits. Methods. The modified Cooper questionnaire was used to examine the stress related factors at work. The questionnaire was adapted for the aviation crew in the army environment. Personal characteristics were examined using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory. The study included 50 examinees (37 pilots and 13 other crew members employed in the Serbian Army. The studies were performed during routine physical examinations at the Institute for Aviation Medicine during the year 2007. Statistical analysis of the study results contained descriptive analysis, one-way analysis of variance and correlation analysis. Results. It was shown that army aviation crew works under high stress. The highest stress value had the intrinsic factor (AS = 40.94 and role in organisation (AS = 39.92, while the lowest one had the interpersonal relationship factor (AS = 29.98. The results also showed that some social-demographic variables (such as younger examinees, shorter working experience and neuroticism as a personality trait, were in correlation with job-related stress. Conclusion. Stress evaluation and certain personality characteristics examination can be used for the devalopment of the basic anti-stress programs and measures in order to achieve better psychological selection, adaptation career leadership and organization of military pilots and other crew members.

  7. [Personal traits and a sense of job-related stress in a military aviation crew].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabarkapa, Milanko; Korica, Vesna; Rodjenkov, Sanja

    2011-02-01

    Accelerated technological and organizational changes in numerous professions lead to increase in job-related stress. Since these changes are particularly common in military aviation, this study examined the way military aviation crew experiences job-related stress during a regular aviation drill, depending on particular social-demographic factors and personal traits. The modified Cooper questionnaire was used to examine the stress related factors at work. The questionnaire was adapted for the aviation crew in the army environment. Personal characteristics were examined using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory. The study included 50 examinees (37 pilots and 13 other crew members) employed in the Serbian Army. The studies were performed during routine physical examinations at the Institute for Aviation Medicine during the year 2007. Statistical analysis of the study results contained descriptive analysis, one-way analysis of variance and correlation analysis. It was shown that army aviation crew works under high stress. The highest stress value had the intrinsic factor (AS = 40.94) and role in organisation (AS = 39.92), while the lowest one had the interpersonal relationship factor (AS = 29.98). The results also showed that some social-demographic variables (such as younger examinees, shorter working experience) and neuroticism as a personality trait, were in correlation with job-related stress. Stress evaluation and certain personality characteristics examination can be used for the development of the basic anti-stress programs and measures in order to achieve better psychological selection, adaptation career leadership and organization of military pilots and other crew members.

  8. Personality, Stressful Life Events, and Treatment Response in Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmash, Eric; Harkness, Kate L.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether the personality traits of self-criticism or dependency moderated the effect of stressful life events on treatment response. Depressed outpatients (N = 113) were randomized to 16 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, or antidepressant medication (ADM). Stressful life events were…

  9. Personality Traits and Occupational Stress among Chinese Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the predictive power of personality traits for occupational stress among Chinese university academics. Two hundred and forty-six participants responded to the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised. Results indicated that the strongest predictor for occupational…

  10. The effect of occupational stress, psychological stress and burnout on employee performance: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Hashemnia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation on the effects of occupational stress, psychological stress as well as job burnout on women’s employee performance in city of Karaj, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among all female employees who worked for Bank Maskan in this city. In our survey, employee performance consists of three parts of interpersonal performance, job performance as well as organizational performance. Cronbach alpha has been used to verify the overall questionnaire, all components were within acceptable levels, and the implementation of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has indicated that the data were not normally distributed. Using Spearman correlation ratio as well as regression techniques, the study has determined that while psychological stress influenced significantly on all three components of employee performance including interpersonal performance, job performance as well as organizational performance, the effect on job performance was greater than the other components. In addition, occupational stress only influences on organizational as well as interpersonal performance. Finally, employee burnout has no impact on any components of employee performance.

  11. The Role of Psychological Stress Reactions in the Longitudinal Relation Between Workplace Bullying and Turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Conway, Paul Maurice

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between workplace bullying and change of job/unemployment, and to investigate whether psychological stress reactions constitute a potential pathway linking workplace bullying and change of job/unemployment. METHODS: We used questionnaire data on workplace...... bullying and psychological stress reactions and register data on change of job/unemployment. We applied a multiple pathway approach to estimate the proportion of the association between workplace bullying and subsequent change of job/unemployment that was potentially mediated by psychological stress...... reactions. RESULTS: Workplace bullying was associated with risk of change of job (odds ratio [OR] = 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.72; 24% potentially mediated by psychological stress reactions) and unemployment (OR = 4.90; 95% CI: 3.18-7.55; 19% potentially mediated by psychological stress...

  12. [Individual psychological features in patients with computer game addiction suffering and predisposed persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardashian, R A

    2018-01-01

    To study personality characteristics in adolescents with computer game addiction. The study included students of grades 7 to 10 at the age of 12-17 years (14.6±2.4 years), their parents and school teachers. The results of a study showed the following combination in patients: 'genophilic' type of DPT with schizoid personality accentuation and 'projection' type of psychological protection, and 'dignitophilic' type of DPT with labile personality accentuation and 'denial' type of PP.

  13. Strength through adversity: Moderate lifetime stress exposure is associated with psychological resilience in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Larissa N; Slavich, George M; Moreno, Patricia I; Bower, Julienne E

    2017-12-01

    Stress research typically emphasizes the toxic effects of stress, but recent evidence has suggested that stress exposure, in moderation, can facilitate resilience. To test whether moderate stress exposure promotes psychological resilience to cancer, we examined the relationship between lifetime stress exposure prior to cancer diagnosis and postdiagnosis psychological functioning among 122 breast cancer survivors. Lifetime acute and chronic stress was assessed using an interview-based measure, and psychological functioning was assessed using measures of cancer-related intrusive thoughts and positive and negative affect. Results indicated that acute stress exposure was associated with cancer-related intrusive thoughts in a quadratic fashion (p = .016), such that participants with moderate acute stress reported fewer intrusive thoughts compared to those with low or high acute stress. Similarly, a quadratic relationship emerged between acute stress exposure and positive affect (p = .009), such that individuals with moderate acute stress reported the highest levels of positive affect. In contrast, acute and chronic stress were related to negative affect in a positive, linear fashion (ps < .05). In conclusion, moderate stress exposure was associated with indicators of psychological resilience among breast cancer survivors, supporting stress exposure as a key factor influencing adjustment to breast cancer and providing evidence for stress-induced resilience in a novel population. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Differential Effects of Psychological and Physical Stress on the Sleep Pattern in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Ranji; Li, Bingjin; Suemaru, Katsuya; Araki, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the acute effects of 2 different kinds of stress, namely physical stress (foot shock) and psychological stress (non-foot shock) induced by the communication box method, on the sleep patterns of rats. The sleep patterns were recorded for 6 h immediately after 1 h of stress. Physical and psychological stress had almost opposite effects on the sleep patterns: In the physical stress group, hourly total rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and total non-REM sleep we...

  15. Serotonin regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in select brain regions during acute psychological stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-guo Jiang; Shi-li Jin; Gong-ying Li; Qing-qing Li; Zhi-ruo Li; Hong-xia Ma; Chuan-jun Zhuo; Rong-huan Jiang; Min-jie Ye

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that serotonin (5-HT) might interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during the stress response. However, the relationship between 5-HT and BDNF expression under purely psychological stress is unclear. In this study, one hour before psychological stress exposure, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT or antagonist MDL73005, or the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin were administered to rats exposed to psychological stress. Immunohistochemistry andin situ hybridization revealed that after psychological stress, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were higher in the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT2A receptor agonist groups compared with the solvent control no-stress or psychological stress group in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, central amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dentate gyrus, shell of the nucleus accumbens and the midbrain periaqueductal gray. There was no signiifcant difference between the two agonist groups. In contrast, after stress exposure, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were lower in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist groups than in the solvent control non-stress group, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area. Our ifndings suggest that 5-HT regulates BDNF expression in a rat model of acute psychological stress.

  16. Psychological stress in hydro workers of the 1998 ice storm : a longitudinal investigation (Quebec)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzimra, Y.

    2003-07-01

    This thesis examined occupational stress in terms of the stressful transactions that take place between workers and their workplace. In particular, it documented some of the experiences of hydro workers during the ice storm of 1998 which hit eastern Canada. In addition to identifying stressors, this study assessed the worker's levels of psychological stress and distress 5 and 10 months following the storm. It also examined differences in psychological stress and distress levels between workers with different levels of exposure to the storm. The added contribution of appraised extra-organization stressors to the prediction of psychological stress was also assessed along with the added contribution of extra-organizational sources of support to the prediction of psychological stress. The objective was to test an integrative model of workplace stress and overall distress to better understand the relationship between psychological stress and distress levels over time. Two phases of data, 5 months apart, were collected from full-time employees of Hydro-Quebec, including both men and women who filled out questionnaires about perceived social support and other indicators of overall stress. The results revealed different experiences of the recovery effort workers during and after the ice storm. The experiences of different groups of workers varied depending on the type and degree of involvement in the recovery efforts from the storm. The results emphasized the importance of considering appraised organization stressors when predicting psychological stress. The study revealed that psychological stress 5 months following the ice storm did not add significantly to the prediction of psychological distress 5 months later, once the contribution of psychological distress at the first phase was accounted for.

  17. Transactional stress and coping theory in accounting for psychological states measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buško

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a relative predictive value of some stable individual attributes and the processes of cognitive appraisals and coping with stress in accounting for specific components of anxiety state measures. Self-report instruments for the measurement of selected psychological constructs, i.e. perceived incompetence, externality, stress intensity and duration, situation-specific coping strategies, and the two anxiety state components, were taken in a sample of 449 male military basics trainees, ranging in age from 18-27. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the set of predictors employed could account for statistically, as well as theoretically and practically a significant part of variance in cognitive anxiety component (45,5%, and in visceral-emotional component (32,2% of the anxiety state. The extent of anxiety reactions assessed by both scales could primarily be explained by general perception of personal incompetence, as a relatively stable dimension of general self-concept. Of the ways of coping examined, reinterpretation of stressful events was the only strategy contributing to low level, whereas passivization, wishful thinking, and seeking social support contributed to higher levels of anxiety measured by both scales. The results give partial support to the basic hypotheses on the mediating role of coping in the relationships among particular components of the stress and coping models.

  18. EMOTIONAL MATURITY OF PERSONALITY: THE PRACTICAL PROBLEM OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    O. I. Afonina

    2013-01-01

    In the dif?cult conditions of the contemporary society which are far from being favorable to maintain one’s emotional and physical health the problem of development and achievement of emotional maturity as a factor of the well-being is getting more signi?cant. Based on the theoretical concepts of different scientists who de?ned the construct of emotional maturity three groups of psychological methods for assessing emotional maturity are analyzed. The ?rst group includes the methods that are u...

  19. The decade 1989-1998 in Spanish psychology: an analysis of research in personality, assessment, and psychological treatment (clinical and health psychology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, J

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze Spanish research published between 1989 and 1998 in clinical psychology and its most directly related psychological disciplines: personality psychology, psychopathology, differential psychology, health psychology, and psychological assessment. A search was performed in the various databases of the works published in that decade by Spanish university professors who investigate in these areas. Their localization was verified by direct correspondence with the professors, to whom was also sent a questionnaire to evaluate their research field and preferred theoretical approach. The 2,079 works located allowed me to identify 85 different research trends. These research trends are characterized by the predominance of applied studies over basic studies, of empirical research over theoretical research, and of the cognitive-behavioral approach over the rest of the theoretical orientations. In addition, various bibliometrical indicators of production, dissemination, and impact were calculated. They revealed that productivity and dissemination of Spanish research in these areas grew considerably during this 1989-98 period.

  20. The Controversial Role of Personality Traits in Entrepreneurial Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, David J.; Wilson, Kerry M.

    2003-01-01

    The usefulness of personality traits in the explanation and prediction of entrepreneurship is critically evaluated, and both contemporary theory and existing empirical findings are reviewed, emphasizing the need for conceptual clarity and methodological reform. Detailed recommendations for future research are outlined, and this critique is…

  1. The big five personality traits: psychological entities or statistical constructs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franić, Sanja; Borsboom, Denny; Dolan, Conor V; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-11-01

    The present study employed multivariate genetic item-level analyses to examine the ontology and the genetic and environmental etiology of the Big Five personality dimensions, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) [Costa and McCrae, Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R) and NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual, 1992; Hoekstra et al., NEO personality questionnaires NEO-PI-R, NEO-FFI: manual, 1996]. Common and independent pathway model comparison was used to test whether the five personality dimensions fully mediate the genetic and environmental effects on the items, as would be expected under the realist interpretation of the Big Five. In addition, the dimensionalities of the latent genetic and environmental structures were examined. Item scores of a population-based sample of 7,900 adult twins (including 2,805 complete twin pairs; 1,528 MZ and 1,277 DZ) on the Dutch version of the NEO-FFI were analyzed. Although both the genetic and the environmental covariance components display a 5-factor structure, applications of common and independent pathway modeling showed that they do not comply with the collinearity constraints entailed in the common pathway model. Implications for the substantive interpretation of the Big Five are discussed.

  2. Psychological mechanisms and the ups and downs of personal recovery in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, Alyson; Mezes, Barbara; Lobban, Fiona; Jones, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Background: Personal recovery is recognised as an important outcome for individuals with bipolar disorder (BD), and is distinct from symptomatic and functional recovery. Recovery-focused psychological therapies show promise. As with therapies aiming to delay relapse and improve symptoms, research on the psychological mechanisms underlying recovery is crucial to inform effective recovery-focused therapy. However, empirical work is limited. This study investigated whether negative beliefs about...

  3. The levels of psychological functioning of personality and the mechanisms of defense

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez Camacho, Erika; Chávez-León, Enrique; Ontiveros Uribe, Martha Patricia; Yunes Jiménez, Arlette; Náfate López, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Otto Kernberg states three types of personality organizations, also named psychological functional levels. They reflect the patient's predominant psychological characteristics: identity integration grade, defense mechanisms, and reality test. In mental disorders, the predominant defensive influences significantly in the severity and evolution of the suffering. Objectives The objective of the actual study was to determine the usage of defense mechanisms by patients with some mental disorder, g...

  4. Interrelations of stress, optimism and control in older people's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Susan Jane; McLean, Louise Anne

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the influence of perceived stress, optimism and perceived control of internal states on the psychological adjustment of older adults. The sample consisted of 212 older adults, aged between 58 and 103 (M = 80.42 years, SD = 7.31 years), living primarily in retirement villages in Melbourne, Victoria. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised, Perceived Control of Internal States Scale and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life-Bref. Optimism significantly mediated the relationship between older people's perceived stress and psychological health, and perceived control of internal states mediated the relationships among stress, optimism and psychological health. The variables explained 49% of the variance in older people's psychological adjustment. It is suggested that strategies to improve optimism and perceived control may improve the psychological adjustment of older people struggling to adapt to life's stressors. © 2014 ACOTA.

  5. Illness Perception and Psychological Distress in Persons with Porphyria Cutanea Tarda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Janice; Nordin, Karin; Sandberg, Sverre

    2016-06-15

    Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) requires long-term treatment and follow-up, although many patients experience life-long remission. The aim of this cross-sectional postal survey was to describe and investigate the association between illness perception, health complaints, self-reported symptoms and distress in persons with PCT. The participants perceived PCT as a chronic condition with high levels of personal and treatment control. Persons who reported active symptoms scored higher on perceived illness threat, total health complaints and psychological distress compared with those in remission or latent phases. However, a higher perception of illness threat and the total burden of health complaints were more closely associated with psychological distress than were perceived PCT symptoms activity. This has implications for clinical consultation; dermatologists should be attentive to symptoms activity, but also recognize that patients in remission with a high perceived illness threat and multiple health complaints might be especially vulnerable to psychological distress with regards to PCT.

  6. Depression research methodologies in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: a review and critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennen, H; Hall, J A; Affleck, G

    1995-05-01

    Personality and social psychological studies of depression and depressive phenomena have become more methodologically sophisticated in recent years. In response to earlier problems in this literature, investigators have formulated sound suggestions for research designs. Studies of depression published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP) between 1988 and 1993 were reviewed to evaluate how well these recommendations have been followed. Forty-one articles were examined for adherence to 3 suggestions appearing consistently in the literature: (a) multiple assessment periods, (b) multiple assessment methods, and (c) appropriate comparison groups. The studies published in JPSP have not adhered well to these standards. The authors recommend resetting minimum methodological criteria for studies of depression published in the premier journal in personality and social psychology.

  7. Does Social Interaction Matter Psychological Well-Being in Persons With Dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Boltz, Marie; Lee, Hana; Algase, Donna L

    2017-06-01

    Social interaction between residents and staff is an important factor influencing sense of well-being. This study examined the relationship between staff-resident interactions and psychological well-being of persons with dementia. A total of 831 observations of 110 persons with dementia in 17 nursing homes and 6 assisted living facilities were included. Psychological well-being was measured by observed displays of positive and negative emotional expressions. Social interaction was determined by the type of social interaction (ie, verbal interaction, nonverbal interaction, and both verbal and nonverbal interactions) and the quality of interaction (ie, positive, negative, and neutral). Verbal or both verbal and nonverbal interactions showed significant relationship with positive and negative emotional expressions. Positive interaction was significantly associated with more positive emotional expression, whereas negative interaction was not. Staff-resident interactions are important to promote the psychological well-being of persons with dementia in residential care.

  8. Psychological Resources, Personality Traits and Buddhism: A Study of Italian Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Marco; Loscalzo, Yura; Beraldi, Daniela; Gori, Alessio

    2018-04-28

    We aimed to examine whether young adults practicing Buddhism have elevated levels of psychological resources and specific personality traits compared to Catholics and Atheists. We recruited 184 participants: Soka Gakkai Buddhists (n = 60); non-practicing Roman Catholic Church believers (n = 62); Atheists (n = 62). We found that the Buddhists have higher optimism than both Catholics and Atheists. They also have higher self-efficacy and self-esteem than Catholics and higher perceived social support than Atheists. Concerning global personality factors, they are more extraverted than the other groups, and they are less tough-minded than Catholics. Differences also emerged relating some primary personality factors. Since we did not find differences between Catholics and Atheists about psychological resources, we speculate that religion alone does not provide an efficacious source of psychological resources; it could be that religious practice is determinant.

  9. Temperament and Character Personality Profile and Illness-Related Stress in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert Conrad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress is a risk factor as well as a consequence of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC. Impulsiveness, overachievement, emotional instability, and hard-driving competitiveness have been discussed as personality features in CSC patients. We investigated 57 consecutive CSC patients and 57 age- and gender-matched controls by means of the Symptom Checklist 90-R and the Temperament and Character Inventory. Somatic risk factors, illness characteristics, subjective assessment of severity of illness, and illness-related stress in different areas of life (work, private life were evaluated. CSC patients showed significantly higher emotional distress as measured by the Global Severity Index. The CSC personality was characterized by lower scoring on the character dimension cooperativeness and the temperament dimension reward dependence. Cooperativeness as well as subjective assessment of severity of CSC has been recognized as significant predictors of illness-related work stress accounting for 30% of variance. Implicating competitiveness, hostility and emotional detachment, lower level of cooperativeness, and reward dependence support the existence of specific aspects of type A behaviour in CSC patients. Low perceived social support and loss of control may explain the significant contribution of this personality dimension to illness-related work stress. Treatment of CSC should thus incorporate psychoeducation about factors contributing to illness-related stress.

  10. [Evaluation of psychological methods for determining the degree of psychological stress in children in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenin, V V; Ostreĭkov, I F; Vasil'ev, Ia I

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with results of comparative evaluation of system of assessment of children's fear and anxiety in dentistry (SDS test) and other objective and subjective methods for assessing anxiety in pediatric patients. We studied 381 pediatric patients aged from 3 to 7 years. The aim of the study was to prove validity mathematical derived FCD test as a technique of anxiety detection in dentistry. During the study following subjective test were used: MAS, DAS, mYPAS, VAS, STAI, STAIC, EASI, PHBQ, and some history data and stress factors were also considered. Objective data used were vital signs (hemodynamics and respiratory rate). Test SDS has strong correlation with YALE, MAS, DAS, STAIlich, VAS and other parameters such as age, sex, person which is responsible for bringing up a child and so on.

  11. Reduced NK cell IFN-γ secretion and psychological stress are independently associated with herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choon Kwan; Choi, Youn Mi; Bae, Eunsin; Jue, Mihn Sook; So, Hyung Seok; Hwang, Eung-Soo

    2018-01-01

    The pathogenesis of herpes zoster is closely linked to reduced varicella-zoster virus-specific cell-mediated immunity. However, little is known about the interplay between natural killer cells and psychological stress in the pathogenesis of herpes zoster. This study aimed to investigate possible associations among natural killer cells, T cells and psychological stress in herpes zoster. Interferon-gamma secretion from natural killer cell, psychological stress events, stress cognition scale scores and cytomegalovirus-specific cell-mediated immunity were compared between 44 patients with herpes zoster and 44 age- and gender-matched control subjects. A significantly lower median level of interferon-gamma secreted by natural killer cells was observed in patients with a recent diagnosis of herpes zoster than in control subjects (582.7 pg/ml vs. 1783 pg/ml; P = 0.004), whereas cytomegalovirus-specific cell-mediated immunity was not associated with herpes zoster. Psychological stress events and high stress cognition scale scores were significantly associated in patients with herpes zoster (Pherpes zoster display reduced interferon-gamma secretion from natural killer cells and frequent previous psychological stress events compared with controls. However, reduced natural killer cell activity is not an immunological mediator between psychological stress and herpes zoster.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT ON PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS IN OLDER PERSONS: AN EXAMINATION OF INTERACTION PROCESSES IN AUSTRALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpley, Christopher; Hussain, Rafat; Wark, Stuart; Mcevoy, Mark; Attia, John

    2015-12-01

    Social support is proposed as a coping mechanism against anxiety and depression amongst older persons, but few data have examined how this occurs. This study assessed the contributions of two sub-components of social support as mediators against psychological distress-broadly defined as anxiety and depression. 1,560 men and 1,758 women from the Hunter Community Study (Australia) completed the Duke Social Support Scale and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. The Duke Social Support Scale examined the amount of social interaction and satisfaction with social interactions. Significant mediating effects of social support were found in the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale items measuring depression but not anxiety. Satisfaction with social support was a significant predictor of Kessler Psychological Distress Scale total score and Sadness items, but the amount of social support was not a predictor of stress. Social support may assist with symptoms of depression, i.e., specific sadness/depressed mood, but not necessarily with anxiety. Implications for policy and service delivery were discussed.

  13. Bringing the (disabled) body to personality psychology: A case study of Samantha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Jonathan M

    2017-12-09

    Personality psychology has largely ignored the experiences of people with disabilities. This article strives to bring the thriving, interdisciplinary field of disability studies to personality psychology via a case study of Samantha (N = 1). Samantha feels that she grew up as a hearing person who could not hear and is now a deaf person who can hear. Narrative identity provides the theoretical, methodological, and analytical framework for the rich, qualitative examination of Samantha's life story, interwoven with approaches from disability studies and intersectionality theory. Two Life Story Interviews (McAdams, 2008), conducted 2 weeks prior to Samantha's cochlear implant surgery and again 7 weeks after the surgery, provide the foundation for this case study and are interpreted alongside additional self-report measures. Grounded theory methods were used to interpret Samantha's narrative identity. Samantha's story demonstrates the ways in which narrative identity can serve as a foundation for meaning and psychological well-being, as well as a demonstration of the ways in which the study of identity can be enriched by perspectives from disability studies. As an initial effort at integrating personality psychology and disability studies, this article sought to approach this task by privileging ethical representation over generalizability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. History of the treatment of persons with psychological difficulties and the abuse of their civil rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Nikola M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of persons with psychological difficulties varied in different historical periods, but in its essence remained similar until today. It included an inhumane relationship towards these persons, involuntary treatment through torture, and isolation from society as a kind of punishment for their diversity. It was not until the late 19th century that the relationship of society towards these individuals started to improve gradually, but in the 21st century isolation of these individuals still remained the dominant form of acceptable social solution for the “problem”, with a somewhat more humane attitude towards them and less cruel treatment. Serbia has followed the trends of treatment of the persons with psychological difficulties from the rest of Europe for centuries, but is still lagging behind the world in the introduction of new methods of treatment. Indeed the first legal solution to regulate the human rights of these people is currently in the process of implementation. The subject of this paper is the treatment of persons with psychological difficulties and the violation of their civil rights. In a subject specific context the goal of the analysis was the historical review of the treatment towards persons with psychological difficulties by doctors, other practicioners and the community in general, with reference to the current situation regarding their treatment within the psychiatric institutions, as well as the legal regulations and the protection of their civil rights.

  15. Adolescents Coping with Poverty-Related Family Stress: Prospective Predictors of Coping and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Berger, Lauren E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined prospective associations among poverty-related family stress, coping, involuntary stress reactivity, and psychological symptoms in a sample of 79 rural, low-income adolescents. Poverty-related family stress predicted adolescents' anxious/depressed and aggressive behavior 8 months later, controlling for prior symptoms. Coping interacted…

  16. Coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress at work: comparison of hospital nursing staff and salespeople

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsukasa Kato Department of Social Psychology, Toyo University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Hospital nurses frequently experience relationships with patients as stressors in the workplace. Nurses’ coping behavior is one potential buffering factor that can reduce the effects of job stress on their psychological functioning and well-being. In this study, the association between nurses' strategies for coping with interpersonal stress from patients and their psychological distress was examined. Participants included 204 hospital nurses and 142 salespeople, who were used as a comparison group. Participants completed measures of coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress. Hospital nurses reported more psychological distress than did salespeople. Moreover, distancing coping was correlated with high psychological distress in both nurses and salespeople, and reassessing coping was correlated with low psychological distress in nurses. For nurses only, constructive coping appeared to be an effective strategy for reducing psychological distress. It is important for nurses to understand the role of constructive coping in nurse–patient communication and interaction. Keywords: nurse, relationships with patients, interpersonal stress, coping behavior, job stress

  17. The relationship between self-reported childhood adversities, adulthood psychopathology and psychological stress markers in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidenfaden, Dea; Knorr, Ulla; Soendergaard, Mia Greisen

    2017-01-01

    : To compare levels of childhood trauma in schizophrenia patients vs. healthy control persons, and to study the association between childhood adversity and the symptomatology of adulthood schizophrenia, as well as subjective and biological markers of psychological stress.  Methods: Thirty-seven patients...... of the patients was measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and analyzed by a five-factor PANSS model. Measures of perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity (9 AM plasma cortisol and daytime salivary cortisol output) were recorded...... was found (P = 0.009). The high CATS score group showed higher levels of perceived stress (P = 0.02), but there was no difference between the high vs. low CATS group in HPA-axis activity. Conclusion: Although causal inferences cannot be made from this cross-sectional study, the study adds support...

  18. Examining the Associations of Racism, Sexism, and Stressful Life Events on Psychological Distress among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B.

    2013-01-01

    African American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations between racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African American women, and are correlated both with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434

  19. Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B

    2014-10-01

    African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Stress and decision making: the role of impulsive personality

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, Richard Julian

    2017-01-01

    Stress, gender, and impulsive personality traits are each associated with altered decision making, but no studies have yet examined interactions between all of these factors. Impulsive personality can be parsed into five subtypes, consisting of Negative Urgency, the tendency to act rashly in the face of extreme negative emotion; Positive Urgency, the tendency to act rashly in the face of strong positive emotion; Lack of Premeditation, the tendency to insufficiently consider actions prior to t...

  1. Do no more harm: the psychological stress of the medical examination for alleged child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Susan; Lamb, Robyn; Tzioumi, Dimitra

    2009-03-01

    Currently, there is some controversy that the medical examination following allegations of child sexual abuse may further traumatise the child. Access for children to appropriate care may be hindered if decisions about referral are influenced by personal beliefs, rather than by recognition of the potential health and psychological benefits of the assessment. We aimed to study the expectations and emotional responses of children and their parents to the medical examination. We conducted a prospective quantitative and qualitative study at the Children's Hospital at Westmead. Participants completed questionnaires pre-examination and post-examination, including Children's Anxiety and Pain Scales. Clinicians recorded a Genital Examination Distress Scale and a questionnaire about potentially prognostic variables. Parents found the medical examination significantly less stressful than they had anticipated. They highlighted the importance of being involved in the process, the child's reaction, staff attitudes and the doctor's explanations. Although most parents expected that the medical would be stressful for their child, this did not correlate with the children's reports of feeling scared beforehand. Increased parental and child distress were significantly associated with the child being 12 years or older. The type of abuse was not significantly linked to any of the parent or child self-reports. Our findings indicate that the medical examination is not as stressful as expected and support the recommendation that timely medical assessment by appropriately trained professionals should be offered for all children following allegations of sexual abuse.

  2. Discrimination, acculturation, acculturative stress, and Latino psychological distress: a moderated mediational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lucas; Driscoll, Mark W; Voell, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has found that perceived discrimination is associated with adverse mental health outcomes among Latinos. However, the process by which this relationship occurs remains an understudied area. The present study investigated the role of acculturative stress in underlying the relationship between perceived discrimination and Latino psychological distress. Also examined was the ability of acculturation to serve as a moderator between perceived discrimination and acculturative stress. Among a sample of Latino adults (N = 669), moderated mediational analyses revealed that acculturative stress mediated the perceived discrimination-psychological distress relationship, and that the link between perceived discrimination and acculturative stress was moderated by Anglo behavioral orientation but not Latino behavioral orientation. The findings are discussed within a stress and coping perspective that identifies the psychological consequences associated with perceived discrimination and acculturative stress.

  3. The role of psychological distress and personality in the incidence of sciatic pain among working men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietri-Taleb, F; Riihimäki, H; Viikari-Juntura, E; Lindström, K; Moneta, G B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The role of personality characteristics and psychological distress in the incidence of sciatic pain was investigated in a 3-year prospective study. METHODS. The study population consisted of 1149 Finnish men aged 25 through 49 years (387 machine operators, 336 carpenters, and 426 office workers) with no history of sciatic pain at the beginning of follow-up. The psychological distress and personality characteristics were assessed by the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire and the Maudsley Personality Inventory. RESULTS. The 3-year cumulative incidence rate for sciatic pain was 22% among the machine operators, 24% among the carpenters, and 14% among the office workers. The multivariate analysis of psychological factors, taking into account individual and occupational factors, showed that only hysteria was significantly associated with the incidence of sciatic pain among the blue-collar workers. Among the white-collar workers, none of the psychological dimensions were associated with sciatic pain. CONCLUSIONS. These results are in accordance with previous relationships found between hysteria and low-back disorders. Further follow-up investigations are needed to elucidate the role of psychological factors in the occurrence of back problems. PMID:7702119

  4. Individual differences in error monitoring in healthy adults: psychological symptoms and antisocial personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Pin; Davies, Patricia L; Gavin, William J

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and personality traits and error monitoring measured by error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) event-related potential (ERP) components, yet there remains a paucity of studies examining the collective simultaneous effects of psychological symptoms and personality traits on error monitoring. This present study, therefore, examined whether measures of hyperactivity-impulsivity, depression, anxiety and antisocial personality characteristics could collectively account for significant interindividual variability of both ERN and Pe amplitudes, in 29 healthy adults with no known disorders, ages 18-30 years. The bivariate zero-order correlation analyses found that only the anxiety measure was significantly related to both ERN and Pe amplitudes. However, multiple regression analyses that included all four characteristic measures while controlling for number of segments in the ERP average revealed that both depression and antisocial personality characteristics were significant predictors for the ERN amplitudes whereas antisocial personality was the only significant predictor for the Pe amplitude. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms and personality traits are associated with individual variations in error monitoring in healthy adults, and future studies should consider these variables when comparing group difference in error monitoring between adults with and without disabilities. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. A melding of the minds: when primatology meets personality and social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Sarah F; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E; van Vugt, Mark

    2009-05-01

    Social and personality psychology and behavioral primatology both enjoy long histories of research aimed at uncovering the proximate and ultimate determinants of primate-human and nonhuman-social behavior. Although they share research themes, methodologies, and theories, and although their studied species are closely related, there is currently very little interaction between the fields. This separation means that researchers in these disciplines miss out on opportunities to advance understanding by combining insights from both fields. Social and personality psychologists also miss the opportunity for a phylogenetic analysis. The time has come to integrate perspectives on primate social psychology. Here, the authors provide a historical background and document the main similarities and differences in approaches. Next, they present some examples of research programs that may benefit from an integrated primate perspective. Finally, the authors propose a framework for developing a social psychology inclusive of all primates. Such a melding of minds promises to greatly benefit those who undertake the challenge.

  6. The behavioural, cognitive, and neural corollaries of blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, Douglas; Ginty, Annie T; Whittaker, Anna C; Lovallo, William R; de Rooij, Susanne R

    Recent research shows that blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress are associated with adverse behavioural and health outcomes: depression, obesity, bulimia, and addictions. These outcomes may reflect suboptimal functioning of the brain's fronto-limbic systems

  7. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Bourvis, Nadège; Aouidad, Aveline; Cabelguen, Clémence; Cohen, David; Xavier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients’ personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful sit...

  8. Psychological Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Oriented Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Marques

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: In summary, the available studies support cognitive-behavioral psychological treatments as an efficacious intervention in borderline personality disorder. However, the existing scientific literature on this topic is still scarce and there is need for more studies, with higher methodological rigor, that should validate these results.

  9. Big Five Personality Traits as the Predictor of Teachers' Organizational Psychological Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozgeyikli, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    The method of the research was defined as the descriptive survey model since it was aimed to test whether the personality traits of teachers are a significant predictor of their psychological capital levels in this study. 416 teachers (60.3% female, 39.7% male) who were teaching in the schools of Ministry of National Education in Istanbul and were…

  10. Phases of Feminist Re-Vision in the Psychology of Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, Jane W.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews McIntosh's 1983 theory on the five-phase evolution of scholarship required by increasing feminism. Documents the sequence of the five phases using references to scholarly literature on the psychology of personality. Elaborates on Phase III in which investigators study women as inherently different from men and urges further study and…

  11. Personal construct psychology: a theory to help understand professional development, a philosophy to support it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Paul R

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the reader to personal construct psychology as a theory to help understand the process of change in facilitative and mentoring relationships. Continuing professional development is critical if practitioners are to keep up to date with new ideas, techniques, and materials. However, is it important not only to consider what is learnt, it is also important to understand the how of learning in order to develop an approach that leads to lifelong learning. Mentoring, coaching, and appraisal are all facilitative processes that aim to encourage professionals to engage with their own development. This leads to differing degrees of both behavioural and attitudinal change. As a result, it is useful to have a theory that can help an individual to understand these changes and to identify any difficulties that are associated with them. Personal construct psychology has long been recognised as a potential framework for personal development. It has been used extensively in a broad range of domains, including clinical and educational psychology, management, and psychotherapy. Personal construct psychology is a useful theory for understanding the facilitative process because it enables the facilitator to form a conceptual framework to comprehend behavioural and attitudinal change. Its underlying philosophical approach also supports lifelong learning, given its emphasis on an enquiring mind and reflection, both of which are key to continuing professional development.

  12. Personality traits and emotional intelligence as predictors of teachers' psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Avsec

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined predictive validity of the Big Five personality traits and three dimensions of emotional intelligence (EI regarding psychological well-being on the sample of primary and highschool teachers. Notwithstanding relatively high correlations between personality and EI scales, reported by other studies, we predicted that EI still accounts for a significant amount of variability in psychological well-being. This prediction originates in idea that different abilities concerning emotions should help individuals to be more effective in various aspects of positive functioning. One hundred fifty two teachers filled out the Big Five Inventory (BFI, Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ, and the short version of Riff's Psychological Well-Being Scales (RPWB. Results showed good predictive validity of personality traits, for they accounted for 22 to 43% of variability in different psychological well-being scales. Predictive validity of EI is also excellent, but when controlling for personality traits is far worse, since it accounts for only 1 to 3% of variance in well-being scales. Discriminant validity of EI scales measured by ESCQ is therefore unsatisfactory.

  13. Positive Psychology Course and Its Relationship to Well-Being, Depression, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodmon, Leilani B.; Middleditch, Ashlea M.; Childs, Bethany; Pietrasiuk, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a positive psychology course on student well-being, depressive symptoms, and stress in a repeated measure, nonequivalent control design. As hypothesized, the positive psychology students reported higher overall happiness, life satisfaction, routes to happiness, and lower depressive…

  14. Have University Sport Students Higher Scores Depression, Anxiety and Psychological Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Havva

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have now shown that people who maintain appropriate body fitness, using judicious regimens of exercise and weight control, have the additional benefit of prolonged life. In fact, sport or exercise may be also expected to be helpful for psychological health. In the present study, depression, anxiety and psychological stress points…

  15. Associations Between Personality Disorder Characteristics, Psychological Symptoms, and Sexual Functioning in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauvogl, Andrea; Pelzer, Britt; Radder, Veerle; van Lankveld, Jacques

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the etiology of sexual dysfunctions in women has been approached from different angles. In clinical practice and in previous studies, it has been observed that women with sexual problems experience anxiety problems and express more rigid and perfectionistic personality traits than women without these problems. To investigate whether personality disorder characteristics according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and psychological symptoms are associated with sexual problems in women. 188 women 18 to 25 years old participated in this cross-sectional study. Questionnaires measuring sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index), personality disorder characteristics (Assessment of DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders Questionnaire), and psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were used. The main outcome measure used was sexual functioning assessed by self-report. Results, using analysis of variance, indicated that women with sexual problems report significantly more cluster A (specifically schizoid) and C (specifically avoidant and obsessive-compulsive) personality disorder characteristics than women without sexual problems. Furthermore, using multiple regression analyses, higher cluster A (specifically schizoid) and lower cluster B (specifically borderline and antisocial) personality disorder characteristics indicated lower levels of sexual functioning. Psychological symptoms partly mediated the effect of cluster A personality disorder characteristics on sexual functioning. The results of this study indicate that clinical practice should extend its scope by focusing more on improving adaptive personality characteristics, such as extraversion and individualism seen in cluster B personality characteristics, and decreasing the perfectionistic, introvert, and self-doubting characteristics seen in cluster C personality characteristics

  16. Reclaiming the person: intersectionality and dynamic social categories through a psychological lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Kathryn E

    2012-09-01

    Psychology's conventionally treatment of individuals' engagement with and resistance to the societal processes in which they are embedded has come under scrutiny amid the rise of postmodernist and critical feminist perspectives (among many others) in the social sciences. A sample of social psychology's responses to these critiques is presented in the recently published book, Social Categories in Everyday Experience edited by Shaun Wiley et al. (2011). In this essay, the challenges of seriously addressing the critiques of psychology's conventional treatment of social categories, which implicate fundamental assumptions of the discipline, are discussed. Further, it is argued that in order to effectively construct psychological accounts of political activism and social change amid theories that are increasingly cognizant of the complexities and contingencies of social embeddiness, the person must be reclaimed and revisioned. Notions of agency that complement an intersectional and systemic vision of the social world are discussed.

  17. Psychological resilience and the gene regulatory impact of posttraumatic stress in Nepali child soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Worthman, Carol M; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Luitel, Nagendra P; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; McCreath, Heather; Seeman, Teresa E; Crimmins, Eileen M; Cole, Steven W

    2016-07-19

    Adverse social conditions in early life have been linked to increased expression of proinflammatory genes and reduced expression of antiviral genes in circulating immune cells-the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA). However, it remains unclear whether such effects are specific to the Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) cultural environments in which previous research has been conducted. To assess the roles of early adversity and individual psychological resilience in immune system gene regulation within a non-WEIRD population, we evaluated CTRA gene-expression profiles in 254 former child soldiers and matched noncombatant civilians 5 y after the People's War in Nepal. CTRA gene expression was up-regulated in former child soldiers. These effects were linked to the degree of experienced trauma and associated distress-that is, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity-more than to child soldier status per se. Self-perceived psychological resilience was associated with marked buffering of CTRA activation such that PTSD-affected former child soldiers with high levels of personal resilience showed molecular profiles comparable to those of PTSD-free civilians. These results suggest that CTRA responses to early life adversity are not restricted to WEIRD cultural contexts and they underscore the key role of resilience in determining the molecular impact of adverse environments.

  18. Functional gastrointestinal diseases and psychological maladjustment, personality traits and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Nishadi; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Perera, Madusanka S; Nishanthinie, Samudu; Warnakulasuriya, Tania; de Zoysa, Piyanjali Thamesha

    2018-02-27

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common worldwide problem and known to be associated with psychological problems. This study evaluated the association between abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs), psychological maladjustment and personality traits in adolescents. Adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 5 randomly selected schools in Ampara district of Sri Lanka. AP-FGIDs were diagnosed using Rome III criteria. Translated and validated Rome III questionnaire (Child report form), personality questionnaire (PAQ) and PedsQL (Pediatric Quality of Life) inventory were used in data collection. Written consent was obtained from a parent and assent was obtained from every child recruited. The questionnaire was distributed in an examination setting to ensure confidentiality and privacy. Research assistants were present during data collection to assist on any necessary clarifications. A total of 1697 subjects were recruited [males 779 (45.9%), mean age 15.1 years, SD 1.6 years]. AP-FGIDs were present in 202 (11.9%). Those with AP-FGIDs had significantly higher mean scores for all personality traits (hostility and aggression, negative self-esteem, emotional unresponsiveness, emotional instability and negative world view), except dependency. Affected children had lower scores for all 4 domains of HRQoL (physical, emotional, social and school functioning), compared to controls (p PAQ scores within that of psychological maladjustment (p PAQ negatively correlated with scores obtained for HRQoL (r = - 0.52, p PAQ and lower HRQoL scores (p < 0.05). Adolescents with AP-FGIDs have more psychological maladjustment and abnormal personality traits than healthy controls. Affected adolescents with higher psychological maladjustments have lower HRQoL. Greater psychological maladjustment and lower HRQoL are associated with healthcare seeking behaviour in adolescents with AP-FGIDs.

  19. Negative Affect Mediates Effects of Psychological Stress on Disordered Eating in Young Chinese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating...

  20. Teachers' Psychological Functioning in the Workplace: Exploring the Roles of Contextual Beliefs, Need Satisfaction, and Personal Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Rebecca J.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Perry, Nancy E.; Martin, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to provide a greater depth of knowledge about teachers' psychological functioning at work-including the contextual, basic psychological need satisfaction and personal factors relevant to this. We examined the extent to which perceived autonomy support predicts basic psychological need satisfaction and, in turn,…

  1. Personality as Correlate of Perceived Job Stress Among Electoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the relationship of personality (conscientiousness dimension) with electoral officers perceived job stress during election. The survey utilised the expost facto research design. A total of 346 participants responded to the questionnaires. In all, 254 (70.4%) were males and 101 (29.6%) were females.

  2. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis…

  3. Associations between APOE variants and metabolic traits and the impact of psychological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Barefoot, John; Brummett, Berverly H.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all m...... metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress....

  4. Psychological distress, burnout and personality traits in Dutch anaesthesiologists: A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, R.A.B. van der; Bucx, M.J.L.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Scheffer, G.J.; Prins, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The practice of anaesthesia comes with stress. If the demands of a stressful job exceed the resources of an individual, that person may develop burnout. Burnout poses a threat to the mental and physical health of the anaesthesiologist and therefore also to patient safety. OBJECTIVES:

  5. Contingent self-worth moderates the relationship between school stressors and psychological stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizu, Kenichiro

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the moderating role of contingent self-worth on the relationships between school stressors and psychological stress responses among Japanese adolescents. A total of 371 Japanese junior high school students (184 boys and 187 girls, M age  = 12.79 years, SD = 0.71) completed the Japanese version of the Self-Worth Contingency Questionnaire and a mental health checklist at two points separated by a two-month interval. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were then used to determine whether contingent self-worth moderated the relationship between school stressors and psychological stress responses. The results indicated that, when psychological stress responses were controlled for at Time 1, contingent self-worth did not predict the psychological stress responses at Time 2. However, a two-way interaction between contingent self-worth and stressors was found to significantly influence psychological stress responses, thus indicating that stressors had a stronger impact on psychological stress responses among those with high contingent self-worth compared to those with low contingent self-worth. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Forbearance coping, identification with heritage culture, acculturative stress, and psychological distress among Chinese international students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Heppner, Puncky Paul; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Ku, Tsun-Yao

    2012-01-01

    Based on Berry's (1997) theoretical framework for acculturation, our goal in this study was to examine whether the use of a culturally relevant coping strategy (i.e., forbearance coping, a predictor) would be associated with a lower level of psychological distress (a psychological outcome), for whom (i.e., those with weaker vs. stronger identification with heritage culture, a moderator), and under what situations (i.e., lower vs. higher acculturative stress, a moderator). A total of 188 Chinese international students completed an online survey. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated a significant 3-way interaction of forbearance coping, identification with heritage culture, and acculturative stress on psychological distress. For those with a weaker identification with their heritage culture, when acculturative stress was higher, the use of forbearance coping was positively associated with psychological distress. However, this was not the case when acculturative stress was lower. In other words, the use of forbearance coping was not significantly associated with psychological distress when acculturative stress was lower. Moreover, for those with a stronger cultural heritage identification, the use of forbearance coping was not significantly associated with psychological distress regardless of whether acculturative stress was high or low. Future research and implications are discussed. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Psychological stress on female mice diminishes the developmental potential of oocytes: a study using the predatory stress model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xiang Liu

    Full Text Available Although the predatory stress experimental protocol is considered more psychological than the restraint protocol, it has rarely been used to study the effect of psychological stress on reproduction. Few studies exist on the direct effect of psychological stress to a female on developmental competence of her oocytes, and the direct effect of predatory maternal stress on oocytes has not been reported. In this study, a predatory stress system was first established for mice with cats as predators. Beginning 24 h after injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin, female mice were subjected to predatory stress for 24 h. Evaluation of mouse responses showed that the predatory stress system that we established increased anxiety-like behaviors and plasma cortisol concentrations significantly and continuously while not affecting food and water intake of the mice. In vitro experiments showed that whereas oocyte maturation and Sr(2+ activation or fertilization were unaffected by maternal predatory stress, rate of blastocyst formation and number of cells per blastocyst decreased significantly in stressed mice compared to non-stressed controls. In vivo embryo development indicated that both the number of blastocysts recovered per donor mouse and the average number of young per recipient after embryo transfer of blastocysts with similar cell counts were significantly lower in stressed than in unstressed donor mice. It is concluded that the predatory stress system we established was both effective and durative to induce mouse stress responses. Furthermore, predatory stress applied during the oocyte pre-maturation stage significantly impaired oocyte developmental potential while exerting no measurable impact on nuclear maturation, suggesting that cytoplasmic maturation of mouse oocytes was more vulnerable to maternal stress than nuclear maturation.

  8. The Influence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on Treatment Outcomes of Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boritz, Tali; Barnhart, Ryan; McMain, Shelley F

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on treatment outcomes in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Participants were 180 individuals diagnosed with BPD enrolled in a randomized controlled trial that compared the clinical and cost effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and general psychiatric management (GPM). Multilevel linear models and generalized linear models were used to compare clinical outcomes of BPD patients with and without PTSD. BPD patients with comorbid PTSD reported significantly higher levels of global psychological distress at baseline and end of treatment compared to their non-PTSD counterparts. Both groups evidenced comparable rates of change on suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), global psychological distress, and BPD symptoms over the course of treatment and post-treatment follow-up. DBT and GPM were effective for BPD patients with and without PTSD across a broad range of outcomes.

  9. Life stress versus traumatic stress: The impact of life events on psychological functioning in children with and without serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Victoria W; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2016-01-01

    To determine the differential impact of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and other stressful life events on psychological functioning in 2 groups of children: those with cancer and those without history of serious illness. Children with cancer age 8-17 (n = 254) and age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-matched controls (n = 142) completed self-report measures of stressful life events and psychological functioning. Stressful life events included those that may meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) A1 criteria (PTEs; 9 events) and others that would likely not (other events; 21 events). Children with cancer endorsed significantly more PTEs than control children. There were no differences between groups in number of other events experienced. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that number of other events accounted for significant variance in psychological functioning, above and beyond group status, demographic factors (age and socioeconomic status), and number of PTEs. The number of cumulative other events experienced is a significant predictor of psychological functioning in both youth with serious illness and controls. In contrast, cumulative PTEs appear to have a minor (albeit significant) impact on children's psychological functioning. Assessment of psychological functioning would benefit from a thorough history of stressful life events, regardless of their potential traumatic impact. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni Jaiswal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. Aim: To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Results: Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.

  11. Psychological Assessment with the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders: Tradition and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Mark H; Hopwood, Christopher J; Krueger, Robert F; Morey, Leslie C; Pincus, Aaron L; Wright, Aidan G C

    2017-04-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Section III Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD; APA, 2013) represents an innovative system for simultaneous psychiatric classification and psychological assessment of personality disorders (PD). The AMPD combines major paradigms of personality assessment and provides an original, heuristic, flexible, and practical framework that enriches clinical thinking and practice. Origins, emerging research, and clinical application of the AMPD for diagnosis and psychological assessment are reviewed. The AMPD integrates assessment and research traditions, facilitates case conceptualization, is easy to learn and use, and assists in providing patient feedback. New as well as existing tests and psychometric methods may be used to operationalize the AMPD for clinical assessments.

  12. Narcissistic Personality Disorder in Clinical Health Psychology Practice: Case Studies of Comorbid Psychological Distress and Life-Limiting Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacel, Elizabeth L; Ennis, Nicole; Pereira, Deidre B

    2017-01-01

    Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of grandiosity, fantasies of unlimited power or importance, and the need for admiration or special treatment. Individuals with NPD may experience significant psychological distress related to interpersonal conflict and functional impairment. Research suggests core features of the disorder are associated with poor prognosis in therapy, including slow progress to behavioral change, premature patient-initiated termination, and negative therapeutic alliance. The current manuscript will explore challenges of working with NPD within the context of life-limiting illness for two psychotherapy patients seen in a behavioral health clinic at a large academic health science center. The ways in which their personality disorder affected their illness-experience shared significant overlap characterized by resistance to psychotherapeutic change, inconsistent adherence to medical recommendations, and volatile relationships with providers. In this manuscript we will (1) explore the ways in which aspects of narcissistic personality disorder impacted the patients' physical health, emotional well-being, and healthcare utilization; (2) describe psychotherapeutic methods that may be useful for optimizing psychosocial, behavioral, and physical well-being in individuals with co-morbid NPD and life-limiting disease; and (3) review conceptualizations of NPD from the DSM-5 alternative model for assessing personality function via trait domains.

  13. Maternal psychological distress and parenting stress after gastrostomy placement in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitsland, Tone Lise; Faugli, Anne; Pripp, Are Hugo; Malt, Ulrik Fredrik; Bjørnland, Kristin; Emblem, Ragnhild

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate stress in mothers of children with feeding problems before and after gastrostomy placement, and to identify changes in child health and variables affecting maternal stress. Psychological distress and parenting stress in 34 mothers of children referred for gastrostomy were assessed using general health questionnaire (GHQ) (overall psychological distress), impact of event scale (IES) (intrusive stress related to child's feeding problems), and parenting stress index (PSI) (stress related to parenting) before, 6, and 18 months after placement of a gastrostomy. Information of child health and long-term gastrostomy complications were recorded. A semistructured interview constructed for the present study explored maternal preoperative expectations and child's quality of life. Insertion of a gastrostomy did not significantly influence vomiting or the number of children with a low weight-for-height percentile. All of the children experienced peristomal complications. Despite this, mothers' overall psychological distress was significantly reduced after 6 and 18 months, and the majority of mothers (85%) reported that their preoperative expectations were fulfilled and that the child's quality of life was improved after gastrostomy placement. Maternal concerns for the child's feeding problems, measured as intrusive stress, had effect on maternal overall psychological distress. Despite frequent stomal complications the gastrostomy significantly reduced the mothers' psychological distress and improved the child's quality of life as reported by the mother.

  14. PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN AFFECTED BY THALASSEMIA MAJOR: TRAITS AND PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Messina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The reproductive and sexual health issues concerning persons affected by thalassemia major are complex. The study was planned to investigate the psychological attitudes and expectations in a group of thalassemic pregnant women attending hospital for regular blood transfusion. Methods. The study included 20 consecutive thalassemic patients and a control group of 42 healthy pregnant volunteers. We evaluated the personality structure by Rorschach's test and the presence of psychic symptoms by SCL-90-R and STAI. Results. Narcissism and sexual traumas are significantly higher in thalassemic women with respects to the control group. Also the percent of anxiety and depression observed with the SCL-90-R was significantly higher than in control group. The score observed with the STAI shows that the state of anxiety changed significantly between thalassemic pregnant women and the control group, even though the scores values aren’t pathologic in neither group. Conclusions. This study addresses the need for developing, implementing and evaluating proper psychological support for thalassemic pregnant patients. The limit of this study is to analyze just thalassemic women because it doesn’t consider other pathologies; so the results can’t be extended to other pathologies different from thalassemic. Moreover, psychological screening and support prior to, during and following pregnancy would be indicated. Since not there are psychological studies in literature on the pregnancy in the thalassemic patients, the evaluation of the effects of pregnancy on the thalassemic disease will be the aim of future psychological investigations.

  15. Children in Sport: Participation Motives and Psychological Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passer, Michael W.

    1981-01-01

    Research on children's sport participation motives is examined to provide insight about potential sources of stress in organized youth sports. A four-stage model of stress is outlined, and topics that deserve further research are discussed. (CJ)

  16. Personal growth initiative among Industrial Psychology students in a higher education institution in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique de Jager-van Straaten

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Personal growth initiative (PGI is an important characteristic of workplace counsellors. Industrial and organisational (I-O psychologists often assist employees with counselling for work-related and personal problems, and therefore PGI is an important research topic for this profession. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the PGI of I-O psychology students in a higher education institution in South Africa, as well as to explore differences in PGI between demographic groups. Motivation: According to the scope of practice for psychologists, growth and development of employees form part of an I-O psychologist’s responsibilities. PGI is an important characteristic of I-O psychologists as it enables them to efficiently assist employees in growth and development processes. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. A purposive non-probability sample (N = 568 of I-O psychology students was taken from a higher education institution in South Africa. A biographical questionnaire and the personal growth initiative scale (PGIS were used as measuring instruments. Main findings: The results indicated that (1 the PGIS is a valid and reliable measure of PGI, (2 PGI is prevalent amongst I-O psychology students and (3 PGI differs between certain demographic groups. Practical implications: The findings of this study will assist in the future development of a training programme for I-O psychology students to equip them with the counselling skills they need to function in a counselling role. Contribution: This study contributes to knowledge regarding the importance of PGI for I-O psychology students. The study will also assist higher education institutes to adapt their training programmes in order to prepare I-O psychology students for their role as counsellors. More knowledge will also be provided with regard to the functioning of the PGIS.

  17. Translating Personality Psychology to Help Personalize Preventive Medicine for Young-Adult Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Hancox, Robert J.; Poulton, Richie; Roberts, Brent; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom

    2014-01-01

    The rising number of newly insured young adults brought on by healthcare reform will soon increase demands on primary-care physicians. Physicians will face more young-adult patients which presents an opportunity for more prevention-oriented care. In the current study, we evaluated whether brief observer reports of young adults’ personality traits could predict which individuals would be at greater risk for poor health as they entered midlife. Following the Dunedin Study cohort of 1,000 individuals, we show that very brief measures of young adults’ personalities predicted their midlife physical health across multiple domains (metabolic abnormalities, cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function, periodontal disease, and systemic inflammation). Individuals scoring low on the traits of Conscientiousness and Openness-to-Experience went on to develop poorer health even after accounting for preexisting differences in education, socioeconomic status, smoking, obesity, self-reported health, medical conditions, and family medical history. Moreover, personality ratings from peer informants who knew participants well, and from a nurse and receptionist who had just met participants for the first time, predicted health decline from young adulthood to midlife despite striking differences in level of acquaintance. Personality effect sizes were on par with other well-established health-risk factors such as socioeconomic status, smoking, and self-reported health. We discuss the potential utility of personality measurement to function as an inexpensive and accessible tool for healthcare professionals to personalize preventive medicine. Adding personality information to existing healthcare electronic infrastructures could also advance personality theory by generating opportunities to examine how personality processes influence doctor-patient communication, health service use, and patient outcomes. PMID:24588093

  18. Socio-Psychological Predictors of Acculturative Stress among Latino Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Alexis O.; Matheny, Kenneth B.

    2000-01-01

    A random sample (N=197) of two social service agencies completed a questionnaire to assess family cohesion and adaptability, acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping-resources effectiveness among Latino adults. The results suggest that acculturative stress experienced by Latinos relates to the efficacy of stress-coping resources, degree of…

  19. Psychological underpinning of personalized approaches in modern medicine: syndrome analysis of mitral valve prolapsed patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko, Yury P.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to demonstrate a high efficiency of the methodological means suggested by psychological syndrome analysis approach (Vygotsky-Luria school for solving theoretical and applied issues in contemporary person-centered medicine. This is achieved through an example of empirical study meant to construct a psychosomatic syndrome for 290 patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP. Analysis of all collected data was based on psychological syndrome analysis concept (Vygotsky–Luria school and A.R. Luria’s principles for psychological factors (causes selection, which determine the logic and structure of a neuropsychological syndrome. It demonstrated the association between characteristics of emotional experiences and clinical symptoms manifested in MVP patients. This correlation was statistically verified. The results proved that the most important syndrome-establishment factor (radical is a specific emotionality and dysfunction of emotion regulation and emotional control in MVP patients (excessive emotional repression with insufficient reflection of emotional experiences. Features of the motivation sphere of MVP patients appear as a second psychological syndrome-establishment factor: these are domination of the motive of failure avoidance and unsatisfied self-approval need. We argue that psychological syndrome analysis can be used as a means to approach not only diagnostic but also prognostic tasks both in clinical psychology and medicine, as well as for the development and implementation of the person-centered integrative diagnosis model. We maintained that this approach, applied in theoretical and practical fields of clinical psychology and mental health care is highly efficient at the current stage of the science evolution due to prospects revealed by s new methodological context of postnonclassical model of rationality and a comprehensive character of the cultural-historical concept regarding an individual and his mind as a self

  20. Psychological wellbeing of Turkish university students with physical impairments: an evaluation within the stress-vulnerability paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca-Atabey, Mujde; Karanci, A Nuray; Dirik, Gulay; Aydemir, Deniz

    2011-04-01

    Generally, universities in developing countries offer little in the way of provisions and support (material, emotional, etc.) for disabled students. Therefore, disabled students experience considerable burdens and barriers in their educational life. This study investigated the psychological wellbeing of disabled Turkish university students by examining influences on stress-related growth and psychological distress. Disability is defined within the framework of a social model. According to this view, impairment refers to the functional limitation(s) that affect(s) a person's body, whereas disability refers to the loss or limitation of opportunities owing to social, physical or psychological obstacles. Seventy disabled university students with physical impairments were administered a questionnaire package, including a sociodemographic information sheet, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Stress-Related Growth Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Social Support, Life Events Inventory, and Brief Symptom Inventory. Snowball sampling was used and voluntary participation was essential. The results showed that disability burden, daily hassles, and helplessness coping were significant predictors of psychological symptoms. For stress-related growth the only variable that appeared significant was problem-solving coping. The results pointed out that there may be different pathways to distress and growth. In order to decrease psychological distress and enhance growth in disabled university students, disability awareness programs, changes in the barriers in the academic and physical environments of the university campuses, and coping skills training to increase problem-focused coping and to combat helplessness may prove to be effective. Reducing daily hassles for the disabled students is likely to contribute to their wellbeing by decreasing their burdens. Also, a more disability-friendly environment is likely to be empowering for disabled university students.

  1. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Roshni; Shenoy, Nina; Thomas, Biju

    2016-01-01

    Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t -test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation ( P periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.

  2. Psychological adjustment and marital satisfaction following head injury. Which critical personal characteristics should both partners develop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Marie Claude; Boisvert, Jean-Marie

    2007-04-01

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE AND RESEARCH DESIGN: Using a correlational design, this study verifies the relationships between personal characteristics of individuals with TBI and their spouses and their level of psychological and marital adjustment. Seventy individuals with TBI and their spouses in the post-acute rehabilitation phase completed self-report questionnaires assessing the predictive variables (coping and social problem-solving strategies; perceived communication skills) and the criteria variables of psychological and marital adjustment. In the target group, the characteristics most strongly related to adjustment variables were an effective attitude towards problems, infrequent use of avoidance coping strategies, and a positive perception of one's spouse's communication skills. Individuals with TBI and their spouses report significantly lower scores on some of these personal characteristics, compared to those of a matched control group of 70 couples from the general population. Specific personal characteristics are critical for psychological and marital adjustment following TBI. This knowledge may be of relevance for detecting couples at risk for developing difficulties in the post-acute rehabilitation phase. Rehabilitation interventions targeting the personal characteristics identified as critical for the adjustment process could help to prevent these difficulties.

  3. Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress are attenuated in smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginty, Annie T.; Jones, Alexander; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Phillips, Anna C.; Painter, Rebecca; de Rooij, Susanne R.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have now examined the association between smoking and the magnitude of physiological reactions to acute psychological stress. However, no large-scale study has demonstrated this association incorporating neuroendocrine in addition to cardiovascular reactions to stress. The

  4. Stress among School-Going Adolescents in Relation to Psychological Hardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raminder

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the stress among school-going adolescents in relation to psychological hardiness and also to study the gender and locale-wise differences in various dimensions and components of stress. The study was conducted over a sample of 200 (100 rural and 100 urban) adolescents studying in 10+1 and 10+2 classes…

  5. Stressful work, psychological job strain, and turnover: A 2-year prospective cohort study of truck drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, E.M.de; Sluiter, J.K.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Broersen, J.P.J.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a model that combines existing organizational stress theory and job transition theory, this 2-year longitudinal study examined antecedents and consequences of turnover among Dutch truck drivers. For this purpose, self-reported data on stressful work (job demands and control), psychological

  6. [Study on the relationship between occupational stress and psychological health state among oil workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiwen; Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Mianzhen; Lan, Yajia; Zhan, Chenglie; Zhao, Xiaoguo

    2002-02-01

    To study the relationship between occupational stress and psychological health state among oil workers. 1,230 oil workers in 122 work types of oil industry were selected and written occupational stress questionary(OSQ) and symptom check list (SCL-90). Petroleum workers' psychological health states were poor with increasing occupational stress degree. The scores in physical symptoms(1.87 +/- 0.80, 1.72 +/- 0.70), depression(1.74 +/- 0.76, 1.62 +/- 0.67), horror(1.48 +/- 0.65, 1.39 +/- 0.55) in the high and medium stress group were obviously higher than those in low stress group(1.55 +/- 0.61, 1.43 +/- 0.54, 1.28 +/- 0.46, respectively, P < 0.05). The score of mood state in the high and medium stress group was obviously higher than that in low stress group(P < 0.05). Psychological health states and mood state in the petroleum workers with short service length are significantly poorer than that with long service length(P < 0.01). Occupational stress should affect psychological health state of petroleum workers.

  7. Psychological stress and short-term hospitalisations or death in patients with heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrighi, R.; Waters, A.J.; Gottlieb, S.S.; Harris, K.M.; Wawrzyniak, A.J.; Bekkouche, N.S.; Li, Y.; Kop, W.J.; Krantz, D.S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Standard predictors do not fully explain variations in the frequency and timing of heart failure (HF) adverse events (AEs). Psychological stress can trigger acute cardiovascular (CV) events, but it is not known whether stress can precipitate AEs in patients with HF. We investigated

  8. Role of Virtues and Perceived Life Stress in Affecting Psychological Symptoms among Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Siu, Bowie P. Y.; Li, Tingting; Zhang, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship among virtues, self-perceived life stress, and psychological symptoms. Participants: A total of 235 undergraduates participated in the study in March 2013. Methods: The participants were recruited to complete the Life Stress Rating Scale for College Students, the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire that…

  9. Computer-based versus in-person interventions for preventing and reducing stress in workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Anootnara Talkul; Dalsbø, Therese K; Luong Thanh, Bao Yen; Agarwal, Arnav; Durand-Moreau, Quentin V; Kirkehei, Ingvild

    2017-08-30

    Chronic exposure to stress has been linked to several negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. Among employees, stress and its associated effects can also result in productivity losses and higher healthcare costs. In-person (face-to-face) and computer-based (web- and mobile-based) stress management interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing stress in employees compared to no intervention. However, it is unclear if one form of intervention delivery is more effective than the other. It is conceivable that computer-based interventions are more accessible, convenient, and cost-effective. To compare the effects of computer-based interventions versus in-person interventions for preventing and reducing stress in workers. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, NIOSHTIC, NIOSHTIC-2, HSELINE, CISDOC, and two trials registers up to February 2017. We included randomised controlled studies that compared the effectiveness of a computer-based stress management intervention (using any technique) with a face-to-face intervention that had the same content. We included studies that measured stress or burnout as an outcome, and used workers from any occupation as participants. Three authors independently screened and selected 75 unique studies for full-text review from 3431 unique reports identified from the search. We excluded 73 studies based on full-text assessment. We included two studies. Two review authors independently extracted stress outcome data from the two included studies. We contacted study authors to gather additional data. We used standardised mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to report study results. We did not perform meta-analyses due to variability in the primary outcome and considerable statistical heterogeneity. We used the GRADE approach to rate the quality of the evidence. Two studies met the inclusion criteria, including a total of 159 participants in the included arms of the studies

  10. Moving beyond "sticks and stones": chronic psychological trauma predicts posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeter, Whitney K; Brannon, Laura A

    2014-01-01

    To date, trauma research has focused on the impact of physical trauma on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Sometimes psychological trauma is measured with instances of physical trauma; however, less is known about solely psychological trauma. The current study addresses this by examining psychological trauma and PTS symptoms using the chronic relational trauma (CRT) model. The CRT model examines physical and possible concurrent psychological childhood, peer, and intimate partner trauma; however, psychological trauma alone has yet to be tested. A total of 232 female undergraduates (M age = 18.32, SD = 1.60) completed a series of questionnaires. Structural equation modeling indicated that childhood, peer, and intimate partner psychological trauma predict current PTS symptoms. Contributions of these findings are discussed.

  11. 125I-iomazenil-benzodiazepine receptor binding during psychological stress in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Tsuchida, Daisuke; Ogi, Shigeyuki; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the changes in 125 I-iomazenil ( 125 I-IMZ) benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) binding with psychological stress in a rat model. Six male Wistar rats were placed under psychological stress for 1 hour by using a communication box. No physical stress was not received. 1.85 MBq of 125 I-IMZ was injected into the lateral tail vein and the rat was killed 3 hours later. Twenty-micormeter-thick sections of the brain were collected and % injected dose per body weight (% ID/BW) of eleven regions (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital cortices, caudate putamen, accumubens nuclei, globus pallidus, amygdala, thalamus, hippocampus and hypothalamus) were calculated by autoradiography. The %ID/BW of rats which were placed under psychological stress was compared with that of 6 control rats. The %ID/BW of rats which were placed under psychological stress diffusely tended to show a reduction in 125 I-IMZ-BZR binding. A significant decrease in BZR binding was observed in the hippocampus of the rats which were placed under psychological stress. 125 I-IMZ-BZR binding tended to decrease throughout the brain. (author)

  12. {sup 125}I-iomazenil-benzodiazepine receptor binding during psychological stress in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Tsuchida, Daisuke; Ogi, Shigeyuki; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-05-01

    We investigated the changes in {sup 125}I-iomazenil ({sup 125}I-IMZ) benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) binding with psychological stress in a rat model. Six male Wistar rats were placed under psychological stress for 1 hour by using a communication box. No physical stress was not received. 1.85 MBq of {sup 125}I-IMZ was injected into the lateral tail vein and the rat was killed 3 hours later. Twenty-micormeter-thick sections of the brain were collected and % injected dose per body weight (% ID/BW) of eleven regions (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital cortices, caudate putamen, accumubens nuclei, globus pallidus, amygdala, thalamus, hippocampus and hypothalamus) were calculated by autoradiography. The %ID/BW of rats which were placed under psychological stress was compared with that of 6 control rats. The %ID/BW of rats which were placed under psychological stress diffusely tended to show a reduction in {sup 125}I-IMZ-BZR binding. A significant decrease in BZR binding was observed in the hippocampus of the rats which were placed under psychological stress. {sup 125}I-IMZ-BZR binding tended to decrease throughout the brain. (author)

  13. The stress connection : neuroimaging studies of emotion circuits in social stress, personality, and stress-related psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, Ilya Milos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to identify the neural mechanisms that enable a person to adaptively respond to, and recover from stress, which was studied in healthy controls, in people with increased vulnerability or resilience to stress-related disorders, and in people with depression or PTSD, using

  14. Dietary modification of brain function: effects on neuroendocrine and psychological determinants of mental health- and stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waladkhani, A R; Hellhammer, J

    2008-01-01

    Stress is associated with both psychological and biological adaptation. Chronic stress, however, impairs adaptation, and may finally lead to illness, in part through unhealthy changes in nutritional behavior. This chapter shows how physiological and psychological stress responses are affected by different food ingredients, and how stress affects health behavior, for example food choice. It becomes obvious that nutrition is closely linked to food choice and that food ingredients affect a broad range of neuroendocrine and related psychological processes, which regulate adaptation to chronic stress. Thus, dietary modification may become a valuable tool to modify the susceptibility to stress and stress-related disorders.

  15. A classification of psychological factors leading to violent behavior in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J A; Derecho, D V; Leong, G B; Weinstock, R; Ferrari, M M

    2001-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder has long been linked to violent behavior. However, the exact nature of that association remains poorly characterized due to the limitations of knowledge in the area of phenomenology, contextual factors, the biology, and the nature of the aggression involved in the disorder. A clear understanding of the genesis of violence in posttraumatic stress disorder can be helpful to those involved in assessing psychiatric-legal issues relevant to the disorder and in its therapeutic management. In this article, we review the potential psychological links between posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to combat exposure and violent behavior and suggest a tentative classification of the main psychological causes of violence in that syndrome.

  16. Psychological model of ART adherence behaviors in persons living with HIV/AIDS in Mexico: a structural equation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ybarra Sagarduy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE The objective of this study has been to test the ability of variables of a psychological model to predict antiretroviral therapy medication adherence behavior. METHODS We have conducted a cross-sectional study among 172 persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA, who completed four self-administered assessments: 1 the Psychological Variables and Adherence Behaviors Questionnaire, 2 the Stress-Related Situation Scale to assess the variable of Personality, 3 The Zung Depression Scale, and 4 the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to construct a model to predict medication adherence behaviors. RESULTS Out of all the participants, 141 (82% have been considered 100% adherent to antiretroviral therapy. Structural equation modeling has confirmed the direct effect that personality (decision-making and tolerance of frustration has on motives to behave, or act accordingly, which was in turn directly related to medication adherence behaviors. In addition, these behaviors have had a direct and significant effect on viral load, as well as an indirect effect on CD4 cell count. The final model demonstrates the congruence between theory and data (x2/df. = 1.480, goodness of fit index = 0.97, adjusted goodness of fit index = 0.94, comparative fit index = 0.98, root mean square error of approximation = 0.05, accounting for 55.7% of the variance. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study support our theoretical model as a conceptual framework for the prediction of medication adherence behaviors in persons living with HIV/AIDS. Implications for designing, implementing, and evaluating intervention programs based on the model are to be discussed.

  17. Psychological model of ART adherence behaviors in persons living with HIV/AIDS in Mexico: a structural equation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarduy, José Luis Ybarra; López, Julio Alfonso Piña; Ramírez, Mónica Teresa González; Dávila, Luis Enrique Fierros

    2017-09-04

    The objective of this study has been to test the ability of variables of a psychological model to predict antiretroviral therapy medication adherence behavior. We have conducted a cross-sectional study among 172 persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), who completed four self-administered assessments: 1) the Psychological Variables and Adherence Behaviors Questionnaire, 2) the Stress-Related Situation Scale to assess the variable of Personality, 3) The Zung Depression Scale, and 4) the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to construct a model to predict medication adherence behaviors. Out of all the participants, 141 (82%) have been considered 100% adherent to antiretroviral therapy. Structural equation modeling has confirmed the direct effect that personality (decision-making and tolerance of frustration) has on motives to behave, or act accordingly, which was in turn directly related to medication adherence behaviors. In addition, these behaviors have had a direct and significant effect on viral load, as well as an indirect effect on CD4 cell count. The final model demonstrates the congruence between theory and data (x2/df. = 1.480, goodness of fit index = 0.97, adjusted goodness of fit index = 0.94, comparative fit index = 0.98, root mean square error of approximation = 0.05), accounting for 55.7% of the variance. The results of this study support our theoretical model as a conceptual framework for the prediction of medication adherence behaviors in persons living with HIV/AIDS. Implications for designing, implementing, and evaluating intervention programs based on the model are to be discussed.

  18. [Psychological Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Oriented Therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Sofia; Barrocas, Daniel; Rijo, Daniel

    2017-04-28

    Borderline personality disorder is the most common personality disorder, with a global prevalence rate between 1.6% and 6%. It is characterized by affective disturbance and impulsivity, which lead to a high number of self-harm behaviors and great amount of health services use. International guidelines recommend psychotherapy as the primary treatment for borderline personality disorder. This paper reviews evidence about the effects and efficacy of cognitive-behavioral oriented psychological treatments for borderline personality disorder. A literature review was conducted in Medline and PubMed databases, using the following keywords: borderline personality disorder, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and efficacy. Sixteen randomized clinical trials were evaluate in this review, which analyzed the effects of several cognitive-behavioral oriented psychotherapeutic interventions, namely dialectical behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, schema-focused therapy and manual-assisted cognitive therapy. All above stated treatments showed clinical beneficial effects, by reducing borderline personality disorder core pathology and associated general psychopathology, as well as by reducing the severity and frequency of self-harm behaviors, and by improving the overall social, interpersonal and global adjustment. Dialectical behavioral therapy and schema-focused therapy also caused a soaring remission rate of diagnostic borderline personality disorder criteria of 57% and 94%, respectively. Although there were differences between the psychotherapeutic interventions analysed in this review, all showed clinical benefits in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Dialectical behavioral therapy and schema-focused therapy presented the strongest scientific data documenting their efficacy, but both interventions are integrative cognitive-behavioral therapies which deviate from the traditional cognitive-behavioral model. In summary, the available studies support

  19. Research on the psychological gap, personality and achievement of in-school youth based on regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although our society is in rapid development, the psychological problems among in-school university students are increasingly obvious. According to this problem, this thesis applied the Psychological Gap Scale made by Caixia Ma with EPQ and AMS, and made random questionnaire survey among 400 students in a comprehensive university. The survey found out that the average scores of all psychological gap dimensions exceeded the critical value 3, showing most students in that university have psychological gap. Their personality stability, introversion and extroversion are all above the national norm level while their stubbornness is lower than it. Besides, the students’ motivation in pursuing success is stronger than their motivation in avoiding failure. In the last part, this thesis reached the conclusion that personality leaves a great impact in the students’ psychology through regression analysis model and study of the quantitative relations among personality, achievement and psychological gap.

  20. For Whom Does Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Work? Moderating Effects of Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyklíček, Ivan; Irrmischer, Mona

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine potentially moderating effects of personality characteristics regarding changes in anxious and depressed mood associated with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), controlling for socio-demographic factors. Meditation-naïve participants from the general population self-presenting with psychological stress complaints ( n  = 167 participants, 70% women, mean age 45.8 ± 9.3 years) were assessed in a longitudinal investigation of change in mood before and after the intervention and at a 3-month follow-up. Participants initially scoring high on neuroticism showed stronger decreases in both anxious and depressed mood (both p  moderating effects, when controlled for baseline mood. Only neuroticism showed to be associated with delayed benefit. Results are discussed in the context of findings from similar research using more traditional cognitive-behavioral interventions.

  1. Brief mindfulness meditation training alters psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social evaluative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Lindsay, Emily K; Brown, Kirk Warren

    2014-06-01

    To test whether a brief mindfulness meditation training intervention buffers self-reported psychological and neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in young adult volunteers. A second objective evaluates whether pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness moderate the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on stress reactivity. Sixty-six (N=66) participants were randomly assigned to either a brief 3-day (25-min per day) mindfulness meditation training or an analytic cognitive training control program. All participants completed a standardized laboratory social-evaluative stress challenge task (the TSST) following the third mindfulness meditation or cognitive training session. Measures of psychological (stress perceptions) and biological (salivary cortisol, blood pressure) stress reactivity were collected during the social evaluative stress-challenge session. Brief mindfulness meditation training reduced self-reported psychological stress reactivity but increased salivary cortisol reactivity to the TSST, relative to the cognitive training comparison program. Participants who were low in pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness and then received mindfulness meditation training had the greatest cortisol reactivity to the TSST. No significant main or interactive effects were observed for systolic or diastolic blood pressure reactivity to the TSST. The present study provides an initial indication that brief mindfulness meditation training buffers self-reported psychological stress reactivity, but also increases cortisol reactivity to social evaluative stress. This pattern may indicate that initially brief mindfulness meditation training fosters greater active coping efforts, resulting in reduced psychological stress appraisals and greater cortisol reactivity during social evaluative stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Visual and psychological stress during computer work in healthy, young females-physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Randi; Falkenberg, Helle K; Fostervold, Knut Inge; Thorud, Hanne Mari S

    2018-05-30

    Among computer workers, visual complaints, and neck pain are highly prevalent. This study explores how occupational simulated stressors during computer work, like glare and psychosocial stress, affect physiological responses in young females with normal vision. The study was a within-subject laboratory experiment with a counterbalanced, repeated design. Forty-three females performed four 10-min computer-work sessions with different stress exposures: (1) minimal stress; (2) visual stress (direct glare); (3) psychological stress; and (4) combined visual and psychological stress. Muscle activity and muscle blood flow in trapezius, muscle blood flow in orbicularis oculi, heart rate, blood pressure, blink rate and postural angles were continuously recorded. Immediately after each computer-work session, fixation disparity was measured and a questionnaire regarding perceived workstation lighting and stress was completed. Exposure to direct glare resulted in increased trapezius muscle blood flow, increased blink rate, and forward bending of the head. Psychological stress induced a transient increase in trapezius muscle activity and a more forward-bent posture. Bending forward towards the computer screen was correlated with higher productivity (reading speed), indicating a concentration or stress response. Forward bent posture was also associated with changes in fixation disparity. Furthermore, during computer work per se, trapezius muscle activity and blood flow, orbicularis oculi muscle blood flow, and heart rate were increased compared to rest. Exposure to glare and psychological stress during computer work were shown to influence the trapezius muscle, posture, and blink rate in young, healthy females with normal binocular vision, but in different ways. Accordingly, both visual and psychological factors must be taken into account when optimizing computer workstations to reduce physiological responses that may cause excessive eyestrain and musculoskeletal load.

  3. Avoidance / approach motivation: relation with psychological stress and coping

    OpenAIRE

    Grakauskas, Žygimantas

    2006-01-01

    The impact of the BIS/BAS systems on various instances of psychic activities and behaviour (information processing, problem resolution, behaviour, results) is well-researched. However, there is almost no research on how these systems affect human behaviour under stress. Our research aimed to assess the relation between the BIS/BAS motivational systems and emotional reactions under stress, as well as the choice of stress management methods. 225 subjects took part in the research. The following...

  4. Evaluating the interplay between spirituality, personality and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Elise E; Fobes, Ashley

    2010-06-01

    Spirituality and the big five personality traits may be risk or protective factors for coping with stress. We hypothesized young adults who reported higher spirituality ratings would demonstrate lower sympathetic nervous system arousal and better emotional coping when exposed to a laboratory stressor compared to those who rated themselves lower in spirituality. We also compared spirituality groups on trait anger, neuroticism, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and openness to experience. Eighty participants completed trait-state anger, personality and spirituality questionnaires and were grouped into low, average and high spirituality. Participants' physiological responses were monitored before and during a stressful event. Significant differences were found between low, average and high spirituality groups' respiration rate and emotional response to the stressor. Significant differences were also found between spirituality groups in extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, trait anger and neuroticism. Females reported higher levels of spirituality and conscientiousness than males.

  5. Dynamic regulation of cerebral DNA repair genes by psychological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Kristin; Aalling, Nadia; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal genotoxic insults from oxidative stress constitute a putative molecular link between stress and depression on the one hand, and cognitive dysfunction and dementia risk on the other. Oxidative modifications to DNA are repaired by specific enzymes; a process that plays a critical role...... restraint stress (6h/day) or daily handling (controls), and sacrificed after 1, 7 or 21 stress sessions. The mRNA expression of seven genes (Ogg1, Ape1, Ung1, Neil1, Xrcc1, Ercc1, Nudt1) involved in the repair of oxidatively damaged DNA was determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction...

  6. Traumatic stress and psychological functioning in a South African adolescent community sample

    OpenAIRE

    Swain, Karl D.; Pillay, Basil J.; Kliewer, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Traumatic stress may arise from various incidents often leading to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The lifetime prevalence of PTSD is estimated at 1% – 2% in Western Europe, 6% – 9% in North America and at just over 10% in countries exposed to long-term violence. In South Africa, the lifetime prevalence for PTSD in the general population is estimated at 2.3%. Aim: To examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptomatology and related psychological functioning in a ...

  7. Effect of psychological stress on the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway and semen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eskiocak

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that mental stress causes abnormality of spermiogram parameters. We investigated the effect of psychological stress on the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO pathway. Semen samples were collected from 29 healthy fourth semester medical students just before (stress and 3 months after (non-stress the final examinations. Psychological stress was measured by the State Anxiety Inventory questionnaire. After standard semen analysis, arginase activity and NO concentration were measured spectrophotometrically in the seminal plasma. Measurements were made in duplicate. During the stress period, sperm concentration (41.28 ± 3.70 vs 77.62 ± 7.13 x 10(6/mL, rapid progressive motility of spermatozoa (8.79 ± 1.66 vs 20.86 ± 1.63% and seminal plasma arginase activity (0.12 ± 0.01 vs 0.22 ± 0.01 U/mL were significantly lower than in the non-stress situation, whereas seminal plasma NO (17.28 ± 0.56 vs 10.02 ± 0.49 µmol/L was higher compared to the non-stress period (P < 0.001 for all. During stress there was a negative correlation between NO concentration and sperm concentration, the percentage of rapid progressive motility and arginase activity (r = -0.622, P < 0.01; r = -0.425, P < 0.05 and r = -0.445, P < 0.05, respectively. These results indicate that psychological stress causes an increase of NO level and a decrease of arginase activity in the L-arginine-NO pathway. Furthermore, poor sperm quality may be due to excessive production of NO under psychological stress. In the light of these results, we suggest that the arginine-NO pathway, together with arginase and NO synthase, are involved in semen quality under stress conditions.

  8. The effect of various physical exercise modes on perceived psychological stress

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhaes Das Neves, M K; Loots, J M; van Niekerk, R L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stress is an integral part of daily living, but chronic activation of the stress response without the ability to express the physical response results in overloading of the physiological and psychological systems OBJECTIVE: To decrease perceived stress by means of one known and/or one relatively unknown physical activity, namely aerobic exercise and somatic awareness exercise METHODS: This investigation made use of a quantitative, comparative, experimental research design over an ...

  9. Stress from daily hassles in couples: its effects on intradyadic stress, relationship satisfaction, and physical and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconier, Mariana K; Nussbeck, Fridtjof; Bodenmann, Guy; Schneider, Hulka; Bradbury, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    According to the systemic-transactional stress model (STM; G. Bodenmann, European Review of Applied Psychology, 1997; 47: 137), extradyadic stress from daily hassles can have a negative impact on the individual psychological and physical health and the couple's relationship. This study is the first one to test the STM propositions in a model that includes both partners' individual and relational outcomes simultaneously. The model also includes actor and partner effects as well as the interdependence between partners' processes. Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from 110 community couples in Switzerland. Consistent with STM predictions, results from the path model analysis indicate that for actor effects extradyadic stress from daily hassles relates directly to lower psychological (increase in anxiety symptoms) and physical well-being and only indirectly to lower relationship satisfaction through increased intradyadic stress from relationship problems and also through more depressive symptomatology in men. The female extradyadic stress and intradyadic stress had partner effects on the male intradyadic stress and the male relationship satisfaction, respectively. Limitations as well as research and clinical implications for marriage and family therapists are discussed. © 2014 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  10. Emotional mediators of psychological capital on well-being: The role of stress, anxiety, and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Rahimnia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have tried to investigate multiple factors affecting employees' social, emotional, and psychological well-being. In this study particularly, nurses' emotional and psychological well-being is considered. Of most important factors affecting well-being in place of work has known to be busy work and stress, constructive and destructive emotions, and psychological capital which. Present study considered to test a developed model of psychological capital, constructive and destructive emotions, stress, anxiety, and depression as antecedents of well-being. 296 nurses took part in the survey, using path analysis method hypotheses were tested, and the proposed model was evaluated. Results indicated that nurses' high psychological capital increases their constructive emotions, reduces destructive emotions and eventually increase their well-being. The role of destructive emotions was more prominent in increasing wellbeing as well. Furthermore, stress had an incremental influence on well-being. In general, research results emphasize the need for more attention to the components of psychological capital, and intervention and coping strategies. The conclusions of a more detailed is that to improve nurses' well-being the more emphasize should be on decreasing destructive emotions than increasing constructive ones. In addition, keeping an optimal level of stress is necessary for good functioning and improvement of overall well-being.

  11. Longitudinal study on reciprocity between personality traits and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress—including both parents’ feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents—were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis revealed that in case of both mothers and fathers, neuroticism at age 33 predicted high parenting stress, and extraversion at age 33 predicted low paren...

  12. Developing a Personal-Learning-Portfolio (PLP) for 1st year students at Department of Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anna Thit; Beck Hansen, Nina; Andersen, Mette Elmose

    Abstract title: Developing a Personal-Learning-Portfolio (PLP) for 1st year students at Department of Psychology Learning outcome of activity: B01 is the first module of the education in Psychology at University of Southern Denmark (SDU). The aim of B01 is to give the students a ‘map...... different strategies: first the overall framework of the PLP is discussed and second we conduct cognitive interviews evaluating the comprehensibility and relevance of the questions posed in the PLP. The PLP is then adapted based on the comments from the students. The development and initial testing...... be an inspiration to others who wish to develop and implements PLPs. Second, we will show the format of our particular Personal-Learning-Portfolio together with reflections on why it was developed in such a way. This includes the students’ opinions about the PLP and the results of the cognitive interviews....

  13. Theoretical concepts of personal self and the reconstructive psychotherapy problematics in clinical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Serhiyvna Maximenko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a survey on the problem of theoretical conceptions of the “Self” and specific features applying a reconstructive therapy to Clinical Psychology. A dynamics of self-understanding of a patient and self-destructing influence of different diseases are being traced beginning from the works by W.James and up to the modern researches. The aims and targets of therapeutical and psychocorrectional work depending on the primary, secondary etc. personality features are defined more precisely concerning their dependence on the primary, secondary etc. personality features of a patient or on the nozological and etiological roots of the sufferance. Several groups of factors essential for a psychological therapy are being analyzed.

  14. Tinnitus and the prevalence of co-morbid psychological stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three (3.2) patients had both depression and anxiety. Eighty three (90.2%) patients were in the active and productive age group with 13 patients (prevalence of 14.1%) having depression and 20 patients (prevalence of 21.7%) with anxiety. Conclusion: We recommend the screening or assessment for psychological distress ...

  15. Moderating Influence of Critical Psychological States on Work Engagement and Personal Outcomes in the Telecom Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Andrew Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizations want their employees to be engaged with their work, exhibiting proactive behavior, initiative, and responsibility for personal development. Existing literature has a dearth of studies that evaluate all the three key variables that lead to optimal employee performance—critical psychological states (CPSs, work engagement, and personal outcomes. The present study attempts to fill that gap by linking the variable CPSs (which measures experienced meaningfulness, responsibility, and knowledge of results with the other two. The study surveyed 359 sales personnel in the Indian telecom industry and adopted standardized, valid, and reliable instruments to measure their work engagement, CPSs, and personal outcomes. Analysis was done using structural equation modeling (SEM. Findings indicated that CPSs significantly moderate the relationship between personal outcomes and work engagement.

  16. A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO THE PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF THE INVESTIGATOR ON A PERSON BEING INTERROGATED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cherevko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is an interaction with a person being interrogated organized by an investigator with the use of his interests, needs and other individual-mental features, his reinforcement, which must be done through secretive, invisible influence in an organized situation encouraging to do deeds desirable for investigation. The object of the research is interrogation as the most psychologized investigative action. The methodological basis of the research is made by the systematic and logical approach aimed at neutralization of watchfulness of the interrogated, penetration into his inner world influencing both rational and irrational spheres of mental make-up, actualization of the unity of understanding and experience. In this research general scientific and specific scientific methods of cognition are used. General scientific methods of the research are represented by systemic structural, comparative, formal and legal, statistical methods. The approach to the psychological impact on a person being interrogated as a systemic phenomenon has enabled to develop a conceptual model presented in the form of a diagram made up of four blocks reflecting emotional background sources of interrogation procedures, the interrogated case, interaction and basic methods of psychological influence, the leading of which is persuasion. Suggestion is purposeful influence on feelings and volitional pressure acts as pressure maintenance, complementary, used depending on the situational behaviour of the interrogated. Methods of implementation of each of these methods of psychological influence are also considered in this article.

  17. Description of women's personality traits and psychological vulnerability prior to choosing hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loekkegaard, E; Eplov, L F; Køster, A

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Data suggest that women using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) represent a special subgroup of the general population regarding, for instance, cardiovascular risk factors and education. OBJECTIVE: To analyse if women who choose HRT are characterised a priori by high neuroticism sco...... confounders. The study suggests that selection bias among women choosing HRT may also include personality traits....... included Eysencks personality questionnaire concerning intro/extroversion and neuroticism. At the age of 45, the re-examination of the women included a test for psychological vulnerability. The participants reported whether or not they used HRT at the age of 40, 45, 51 and 60 years. The analyses comprised...

  18. The Effect of Psychological Distress and Personality Traits on Cognitive Performances and the Risk of Dementia in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, I.H.G.B.; Honings, S.T.H.; Ponds, R.W.; Aalten, P.; Kohler, S.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Visser, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relation between psychological distress, personality traits, and cognitive decline in cognitively impaired patients remains unclear. Objective: To investigate the effect of psychological distress and personality traits on cognitive functioning in subjects with mild cognitive

  19. Effects of psychological stress on hypertension in middle-aged Chinese: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    Full Text Available We examined the effect and relative contributions of different types of stress on the risk of hypertension. Using cluster sampling, 5,976 community-dwelling individuals aged 40-60 were selected. Hypertension was defined according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee, and general psychological stress was defined as experiencing stress at work or home. Information on known risk factors of hypertension (e.g., physical activity levels, food intake, smoking behavior was collected from participants. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associations between psychological stress and hypertension, calculating population-attributable risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. General stress was significantly related to hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 1.247, 95% CI [1.076, 1.446]. Additionally, after adjustment for all other risk factors, women showed a greater risk of hypertension if they had either stress at work or at home: OR = 1.285, 95% CI (1.027, 1.609 and OR = 1.231, 95% CI (1.001, 1.514, respectively. However, this increased risk for hypertension by stress was not found in men. General stress contributed approximately 9.1% (95% CI [3.1, 15.0] to the risk for hypertension. Thus, psychological stress was associated with an increased risk for hypertension, although this increased risk was not consistent across gender.

  20. Protective effect of low dose caffeine on psychological stress and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Özgür Kasımay; Ellek, Nurfitnat; Salehin, Nabila; Hamamcı, Rabia; Keleş, Hülya; Kayalı, Damla Gökçeoğlu; Akakın, Dilek; Yüksel, Meral; Özbeyli, Dilek

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine is an adrenergic antagonist that enhances neuronal activity. Psychological stress depresses cognitive function. To investigate the effects of acute and chronic low dose caffeine on anxiety-like behavior and cognitive functions of acute or chronic psychological stressed rats. Acute or chronic caffeine (3mg/kg) was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats (200-250g, n=42) before acute (cat odor) and chronic variable psychological stress (restraint overcrowding stress, elevated plus maze, cat odor, forced swimming) induction. Anxiety and cognitive functions were evaluated by hole-board and object recognition tests. The brain glutathione and malondialdehyde assays, myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), luminol and lucigenin activity and histological examination were done. ANOVA and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. The depressed cognitive function with chronic stress exposure and the increased anxiety-like behavior with both stress inductions were improved via both caffeine applications (pcaffeine pretreatments in chronic stressed rats, and chronic caffeine in acute stressed ones reduced the elevated myeloperoxidase activities (pcaffeine (pcaffeine (pcaffeine decreased SOD activity (pcaffeine. The increased anxiety-like behavior and depleted cognitive functions under stress conditions were improved with both acute and predominantly chronic caffeine pretreatments by decreasing oxidative damage parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychosocial job characteristics and psychological distress / well-being: the mediating role of personal goal facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanti, Renato; van der Doef, Margot; Maes, Stan; Violani, Cristiano; Lazzari, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of personal goal facilitation through work (PGFW), defined as perceptions of the extent to which one's job facilitates the attainment of one's personal goals, in the association between psychosocial job characteristics and psychological distress and job-related well-being. Questionnaire data from 217 nurses (84% female, with a mean age of 42.7 years, SD=7.2) were analyzed. Participants completed the following measures: the Leiden Quality of Work Questionnaire for Nurses, Workplace Goal Facilitation Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (short version). A cross-sectional study design was applied. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results indicated that unfavorable psychosocial job characteristics (high demands, low control, and low social support) were associated with lower PGFW. Furthermore, personal goal facilitation through work explained significant additional variance (from 2 to 11%) in psychological distress (somatic complaints and emotional exhaustion) and job-related well-being (personal accomplishment, job satisfaction, and work engagement), controlling for demographic indicators and psychosocial job characteristics. Finally, the results provided support for the mediating effects of PGFW between all psychosocial job characteristics and all outcomes, except in the case of depersonalization. This study suggests that hindered personal goal facilitation may be a mechanism through which psychosocial job characteristics have a negative impact on employees' well-being.

  2. PHIT for Duty, a Personal Health Intervention Tool for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0129 TITLE: PHIT for Duty, a Personal Health Intervention Tool for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury... Brain Injury 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Betty Diamond 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Paul N. Kizakevich 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail...and Google App stores.  ActiSleep. PHIT-based sleep diary for data collection in an adolescent sleep and marijuana study. National Institute on Drug

  3. The association between maternal psychological stress and inflammatory cytokines in allergic young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Tsuji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies have shown that psychological stress is linked to asthma prevalence. Parental psychological stress may potentially influence inflammatory responses in their allergic children. The purpose of this study is to clarify the association between maternal psychological status and inflammatory response of allergic young children.Methods. The study subjects were 152 young allergic children (median age: 13 months who had not shown any allergic symptoms in the past one month. mRNA expression levels of the inflammatory response genes IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-22 were quantified by qRT-PCR. Maternal psychological status was assessed by standardized questionnaires: the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D for depression and the Japanese Perceived Stress Scale (JPSS for perceived stress.Results. A significant positive association was observed between maternal CES-D scores and IL-6 mRNA expression in the children with asthma. The JPSS scores were also positively associated with IL-8 mRNA expression in asthmatic children and IL-6 mRNA expression in children with allergic rhinitis. Similar trends were observed among children positive for house dust mite-specific IgE, but these associations were not significant.Conclusion. This study supports the hypothesis that maternal psychological stress affects the inflammatory response in their allergic children.

  4. The psychological and physiological stress relief effect of the green roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.; Koshimizu, H. [Meiji Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Agriculture

    2007-07-01

    The visual sense influences human psychology and physiology. As such, green gardens in urban environments are touted as being healing gardens that lead to stress relief and improved work efficiency. This paper focused on the visual aspects of such rehabilitation sites. Psychological and physiological experiments were conducted on human response to green roofs in order to quantify the stress relief effect of the green roof scenery. In addition, different green roof designs were tested to determine whether they change the stress relief effect. A 360 degrees panorama photograph of green roofs was shown to 3 male and 3 female students in Meiji University. The experiment was followed by a questionnaire survey based on the semantic differential (SD) method as a psychological evaluation. The SD method is a representative psychological measurement to quantify an image of people for a scene. The changes in heart rate were studied along with blood pressure, and stress degree as a physiological evaluation. The relation between the results of the SD method-based psychological evaluation and the physiological experiment was determined using multiple regression analysis. It was concluded that the stress relief effect can be improved by changing linear scenery to a more curvy one. 15 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  5. How accurately does the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire identify workers with or without potential psychological distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi; Eguchi, Hisashi

    2017-07-27

    The manual for the Japanese Stress Check Program recommends use of the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ) from among the program's instruments and proposes criteria for defining "high-stress" workers. This study aimed to examine how accurately the BJSQ identifies workers with or without potential psychological distress. We used an online survey to administer the BJSQ with a psychological distress scale (K6) to randomly selected workers (n=1,650). We conducted receiver operating characteristics curve analyses to estimate the screening performance of the cutoff points that the Stress Check Program manual recommends for the BJSQ. Prevalence of workers with potential psychological distress defined as K6 score ≥13 was 13%. Prevalence of "high-risk" workers defined using criteria recommended by the program manual was 16.7% for the original version of the BJSQ. The estimated values were as follows: sensitivity, 60.5%; specificity, 88.9%; Youden index, 0.504; positive predictive value, 47.3%; negative predictive value, 93.8%; positive likelihood ratio, 6.0; and negative likelihood ratio, 0.4. Analyses based on the simplified BJSQ indicated lower sensitivity compared with the original version, although we expected roughly the same screening performance for the best scenario using the original version. Our analyses in which psychological distress measured by K6 was set as the target condition indicate less than half of the identified "high-stress" workers warrant consideration for secondary screening for psychological distress.

  6. Anxiety and perceived psychological stress play an important role in the immune response after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jason P; Walsh, Neil P; Diment, Philip C; Roberts, Ross

    2018-01-01

    There are common pathways by which psychological stress and exercise stress alter immunity. However, it remains unknown whether psychological stress plays a role in the in vivo immune response to exercise. We examined the relationship between anxiety and perceived psychological stress reported before exercise and in vivo immunity after exercise using skin sensitisation with Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP). In a randomised design, sixty four, thoroughly familiarised, males completed widely used psychological instruments to assess state-anxiety and perceived psychological stress before exercise, and ran either 30 minutes at 60% (30MI) or 80% (30HI) V . O2peak, 120 minutes at 60% (120MI) V . O2peak or rested (CON) before DPCP sensitisation. Cutaneous recall to DPCP was measured as the dermal thickening response to a low-dose series DPCP challenge 4-weeks after sensitisation. After accounting for exercise (R2 = 0.20; P stress (ΔR2 = 0.13; P stress on in vivo immunity after exercise. Moreover, correlations were of comparable strength for the relationship between physiological stress (heart rate training impulse) and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = -0.37; 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.62; P = 0.01), and state-anxiety and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.63; P stress levels before exercise play animportant role in determining the strength of the in vivo immune response after exercise. These findings indicate a similar strength relationship for the level of state-anxiety prior to exercise and the level of physiological stress during exercise with the in vivo immune response after exercise. Future research is required to investigate exercise-immune responses in athletes, military personnel and others in physically demanding occupations experiencing higher levels of psychological stress than those reported in this study e.g. related to important competition, military operations and major life events. Nevertheless, the present findings support the

  7. The five-factor model of personality, work stress and professional quality of life in neonatal intensive care unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Peter

    2018-06-01

    The study aim was to determine the direct and indirect relations of the five-factor model of personality traits and work stress with professional quality of life in neonatal nurses. Neonatal intensive care nursing has positive and negative effects on neonatal nurses' psychological well-being. Although individual and situational factors interact to influence professional quality of life, there have been few studies of these relationships in neonatal nurses. A cross-sectional study conducted in 2016. Self-report questionnaires were used to measure professional quality of life (burnout, secondary traumatic stress and compassion satisfaction), five-factor model of personality traits (neuroticism, agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness and openness) and work stress (role ambiguity, role conflict and role overload). One hundred and forty (34%) of 405 eligible neonatal nurses provided the data. After controlling for work stress, neuroticism and agreeableness were related to burnout, neuroticism was related to secondary traumatic stress, and extraversion was related to compassion satisfaction. Work stress controlled for personality traits was related to burnout and secondary traumatic stress, but not to compassion satisfaction. Neuroticism moderated the effect of work stress on secondary traumatic stress and agreeableness and openness moderated the effect of work stress on compassion satisfaction. Work stress mediated the effect of neuroticism and extraversion on burnout and the effects of extraversion and conscientiousness on compassion satisfaction. Strategies to reduce work stress may not lessen burnout and secondary traumatic stress or increase compassion satisfaction in neonatal nurses who are prone to high neuroticism, low agreeableness and low extraversion. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The interplay between neuroendocrine activity and psychological stress-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomitsu Miyasaka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress is recognized as a key factor in the exacerbation of allergic asthma, whereby brain responses to stress act as immunomodulators for asthma. In particular, stress-induced enhanced type 2 T-helper (Th2-type lung inflammation is strongly associated with asthma pathogenesis. Psychological stress leads to eosinophilic airway inflammation through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway and autonomic nervous system. This is followed by the secretion of stress hormones into the blood, including glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which enhance Th2 and type 17 T-helper (Th17-type asthma profiles in humans and rodents. Recent evidence has shown that a defect of the μ-opioid receptor in the brain along with a defect of the peripheral glucocorticoid receptor signaling completely disrupted stress-induced airway inflammation in mice. This suggests that the stress response facilitates events in the central nervous and endocrine systems, thus exacerbating asthma. In this review, we outline the recent findings on the interplay between stress and neuroendocrine activities followed by stress-induced enhanced Th2 and Th17 immune responses and attenuated regulatory T (Treg cell responses that are closely linked with asthma exacerbation. We will place a special focus on our own data that has emphasized the continuity from central sensing of psychological stress to enhanced eosinophilic airway inflammation. The mechanism that modulates psychological stress-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma through neuroendocrine activities is thought to involve a series of consecutive pathological events from the brain to the lung, which implies there to be a “neuropsychiatry phenotype” in asthma.

  9. Self-perceived psychological stress and ischemic stroke: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomstrand Christian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of evidence suggests that psychological stress contributes to coronary artery disease. However, associations between stress and stroke are less clear. In this study, we investigated the possible association between ischemic stroke and self-perceived psychological stress, as measured by a single-item questionnaire, previously reported to be associated with myocardial infarction. Methods In the Sahlgrenska Academy Study on Ischemic Stroke (SAHLSIS, 600 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke (aged 18 to 69 years and 600 age-matched and sex-matched population controls were recruited. Ischemic stroke subtype was determined according to Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST criteria. Self-perceived psychological stress preceding stroke was assessed retrospectively using a single-item questionnaire. Results Permanent self-perceived psychological stress during the last year or longer was independently associated with overall ischemic stroke (multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR 3.49, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.06 to 5.93. Analyses by stroke subtype showed that this association was present for large vessel disease (OR 3.91, 95% CI 1.58 to 9.67, small vessel disease (OR 3.20, 95% CI 1.64 to 6.24, and cryptogenic stroke (OR 4.03, 95% CI 2.34 to 6.95, but not for cardioembolic stroke (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.64 to 3.39. Conclusion In this case-control study, we found an independent association between self-perceived psychological stress and ischemic stroke. A novel finding was that this association differed by ischemic stroke subtype. Our results emphasize the need for further prospective studies addressing the potential role for psychological stress as a risk factor for ischemic stroke. In such studies ischemic stroke subtypes should be taken into consideration.

  10. Relationship between Menstrual Profile and Psychological Stress with Dysmenorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam; Mulyanusa Amarullah Ritonga; Istriati

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhea or menstrual cramps is the most common menstrual complaint among reproductive women in developing countries. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea is ranged from 19–91%. Many studies showed that factors associated with dysmenorrhea include a younger age, nulliparity, family history of dysmenorrhea, prolonged menstrual duration, high menstrual flow, psychological factors, and lifestyle. The objective of this study was to compare female medical students with dysmenorrhea and w...

  11. Do all psychological treatments really work the same in posttraumatic stress disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Anke; Bisson, Jonathan; Clark, David M.; Creamer, Mark; Pilling, Steven; Richards, David; Schnurr, Paula P.; Turner, Stuart; Yule, William

    2010-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis by Benish, Imel, and Wampold (2008, Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 746–758) concluded that all bona fide treatments are equally effective in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In contrast, seven other meta-analyses or systematic reviews concluded that there is good evidence that trauma-focused psychological treatments (trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing) are effective in PTSD; but that treatments that do not f...

  12. Physiological and psychological stress limits for astronautics Observations during the Skylab I-III missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    The physiological and psychological factors of manned space flight had a particular significance in the Skylab missions during which astronauts were subjected to a life in a space environment for longer periods of time than on previous space missions. The Skylab missions demonstrated again the great adaptability of human physiology to the environment of man. The results of Skylab have indicated also approaches for enhancing the capability of man to tolerate the physiological and psychological stresses of space flight.

  13. Stress resiliency, psychological empowerment and conflict management styles among baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Eula W; Rauschhuber, Maureen L; Norgan, Gary H; Cook, Jennifer D; Canchola, Leticia; Richardson, Cynthia; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2012-07-01

    This article is a report of a Neuman Systems Model-guided correlational study of the relations of stress resiliency, psychological empowerment, selected demographic characteristics (age, ethnicity, semester in school) and conflict management styles. Emerging evidence suggests that stress resiliency and psychological empowerment can strengthen student nurses in academic achievement and coping with stress. Little is known about conflict management styles of students and the relationship to empowerment, resiliency and the implications for managing workplace conflict. A correlational study was conducted in Spring 2010 with 166 baccalaureate students. Most participants were female, single, Hispanic and 25 years old. The data collection instruments included the Stress Resiliency Profile, the Psychological Empowerment Instrument, the Conflict Mode Instrument and a demographic inventory. Descriptive and inferential correlational statistics were used to analyse the data. Students scored in the high range for focusing on their deficiencies in conflict situations; they scored above the 60th percentile for avoiding and accommodating behaviours and were less likely to use competing or collaborating strategies to manage conflict. Empowerment scores were significantly correlated with stress resiliency scores. Students with high scores on empowerment had high scores on the skill recognition subscale of the Stress Resiliency Profile suggesting more resilience; high scores on empowerment were related to high necessitating subscale scores of the Stress Resiliency Profile suggesting a predisposition to stress. Neuman Systems Model may provide guidance for educators to strengthen student nurses' management of stressors in the workplace. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Psychogenic fever: how psychological stress affects body temperature in the clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takakazu

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic fever is a stress-related, psychosomatic disease especially seen in young women. Some patients develop extremely high core body temperature (Tc) (up to 41°C) when they are exposed to emotional events, whereas others show persistent low-grade high Tc (37-38°C) during situations of chronic stress. The mechanism for psychogenic fever is not yet fully understood. However, clinical case reports demonstrate that psychogenic fever is not attenuated by antipyretic drugs, but by psychotropic drugs that display anxiolytic and sedative properties, or by resolving patients' difficulties via natural means or psychotherapy. Animal studies have demonstrated that psychological stress increases Tc via mechanisms distinct from infectious fever (which requires proinflammatory mediators) and that the sympathetic nervous system, particularly β3-adrenoceptor-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, plays an important role in the development of psychological stress-induced hyperthermia. Acute psychological stress induces a transient, monophasic increase in Tc. In contrast, repeated stress induces anticipatory hyperthermia, reduces diurnal changes in Tc, or slightly increases Tc throughout the day. Chronically stressed animals also display an enhanced hyperthermic response to a novel stress, while past fearful experiences induce conditioned hyperthermia to the fear context. The high Tc that psychogenic fever patients develop may be a complex of these diverse kinds of hyperthermic responses.

  15. Traumatic stress and psychological functioning in a South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PTSD). ... Aim: To examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptomatology and related ... Methods: Home interviews with adolescents and their maternal caregivers were ... The Child Behaviour Checklist was completed by the caregivers.

  16. Psychological adjustment and psychosocial stress among Japanese couples with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagami, M; Maruyama, T; Koizumi, T

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the effects of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) on the psychological adjustment of couples. The aim of this study was to elucidate psychological adjustment and RPL-associated psychosocial stress affecting Japanese couples with a history of RPL, focusing on gender....... CONCLUSIONS Women were significantly more distressed than men. Poor quality of the marital relationship was significantly associated with impaired psychological adjustment among women, but not among men. These gender discrepancies may foster a mutual worsening of psychological adjustment and marital...... relationships in RPL couples. The need to seek help not only in women but also in a substantial portion of men suggests the importance of couple-based psychological care in the management of RPL....

  17. [Psychological processes of stress management and neuroendocrine regulation in incarcerated adolescent offenders: A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillod, L; Habersaat, S; Suter, M; Jeanneret, T; Bertoni, C; Stéphan, P; Urben, S

    2018-04-01

    that were collected during 3 consecutive days (4 samples per day: directly after awakening, at 10 a.m., at 4 a.m., and before going to bed). Adolescent offenders presented maladaptative thinking styles and a particular neuroendocrine regulation in their daily management with stress. In particular, their level of cortisol in the morning was higher than those expected in a general population (20.34 nmol/L while the norm is around 10 nmol/L). They also showed more agressive and delinquent behaviors (CBCL) as well as more psychopathic traits (YPI) than the general population. Moreover, constructive thinking style was associated with personality and behavioral dimensions. Indeed, results indicated positive and significant correlations between categorical thinking style (CTI), psychopathic traits (YPI) (r=0.57, P=0.021) and externalizing behaviors (CBCL) (r=0.55, P=0.028). In other words, the more adolescent offenders used categorical thinking, the more they presented psychopathic traits and externalizing behaviors. With respect to the association between psychological and biological dimensions in stress management, we observed a significant and positive correlation between cortisol regulation and esoteric thinking (r=0.57, P=0.028) and a trend with superstitious thinking (r=0.47, P=0.075). The more adolescent offenders used esoteric and superstitious thinking, the poorer was their cortisol regulation. We also observed a trend between the life style scale of the YPI (i.e., impulsive, irresponsible) and the daily secretion of cortisol (r=0.51; P=0.052) as well as cortisol regulation (r=0.49, P=0.065). The more adolescent offenders presented psychopathic traits, the higher tended to be their daily secretion of cortisol and the poorer their cortisol regulation. Finally, cortisol regulation (r=0.54, P=0.038) and secretion (r=0.73, P=0.002) were significantly correlated with the DEP-Ado score. In other words, a poor cortisol regulation and a high secretion of cortisol seem

  18. Personal involvement as a special style of Department of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takhir Yu. Bazarov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The author, being a former student of the Department of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, and now is teacher, professor, remembers those who created and maintained such traditions of the Department as depth of knowledge and coherence of ideas, methodological clarity and dialogue, holistic view of the issue and using problem solving in teaching, and also the joint work of professors and students in the way of perceiving the truth. According to the author the 50th anniversary of the Department of Psychology is an occasion to both recall the path members of the Department went over the years, including several epochs, and to outline the prospects for further development. Considerable attention is paid to the personality of G.M. Andreeva, who is a gifted teacher, a brilliant scholar, and one of the founders of social psychology in the Russia. Particular attention is drawn to Galina Andreeva collecting the brightest staff of the Chair of Social Psychology, whose key feature was involvement in both the scientific and also collective life of the Department, which contributed to the development of the new important branch of psychology. The author also singles out the figure of the wonderful teacher L.A. Petrovskaya who encouraged the students to cherish their individuality as she believed it to be the main tool of the professional psychologist. With much gratitude the author recalls tips for organizing the teaching process received from A.U. Kharash. The paper characterizes the current state and the importance of the Department, and outlines the prospects for further development. In particular, the author speaks of the need for developing student personal involvement in professional activities, and also of creating favourable conditions at the Deaprtment for a student successful transition from training to real life.

  19. Physical versus psychological social stress in male rats reveals distinct cardiovascular, inflammatory and behavioral consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padi, Akhila R.; Moffitt, Casey M.; Wilson, L. Britt; Wood, Christopher S.; Wood, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Repeated exposure to social stress can precipitate the development of psychosocial disorders including depression and comorbid cardiovascular disease. While a major component of social stress often encompasses physical interactions, purely psychological stressors (i.e. witnessing a traumatic event) also fall under the scope of social stress. The current study determined whether the acute stress response and susceptibility to stress-related consequences differed based on whether the stressor consisted of physical versus purely psychological social stress. Using a modified resident-intruder paradigm, male rats were either directly exposed to repeated social defeat stress (intruder) or witnessed a male rat being defeated. Cardiovascular parameters, behavioral anhedonia, and inflammatory cytokines in plasma and the stress-sensitive locus coeruleus were compared between intruder, witness, and control rats. Surprisingly intruders and witnesses exhibited nearly identical increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate during acute and repeated stress exposures, yet only intruders exhibited stress-induced arrhythmias. Furthermore, re-exposure to the stress environment in the absence of the resident produced robust pressor and tachycardic responses in both stress conditions indicating the robust and enduring nature of social stress. In contrast, the long-term consequences of these stressors were distinct. Intruders were characterized by enhanced inflammatory sensitivity in plasma, while witnesses were characterized by the emergence of depressive-like anhedonia, transient increases in systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. The current study highlights that while the acute cardiovascular responses to stress were identical between intruders and witnesses, these stressors produced distinct differences in the enduring consequences to stress, suggesting that witness stress may be more likely to produce long-term cardiovascular

  20. Personal features of children in client families who receive psychological advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Kapustin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes results of the research, where influence of main parenting styles on developing children’s personality and appearing child-parent problems were considered. It covers client families of psychological advice (with overprotection and over exactingness. It is indicated that the key factor emerging child-parent problems in this families is the abnormality of the parent personality identified through so-called existential criterion, which is displayed in their parenting styles. The parenting styles contribute to shaping child abnormal personality types, also identified through existential criteria are designated as “directed at external assistance”, “directed at complying with the requirements of other people” and “directed at protesting against compliance with the requirements of other people”. Children of such personality types have problems communicating with others as communication is addressed to children with normal personal development and is not relevant for abnormal personal abilities. As the problems mentioned above are connected with maladjustment to social environment requirements they can be classified as problems of social adaptation. There is a connection of a personality type “directed at complying with the requirements of other people” with abnormal personality predisposed to various life problems and mental disorders mentioned in the works of E. Fromm, S. Freud, A. Adler, С. Jung, C. Rogers, and V. Frankl. It suggests the understanding of the personality of this type to be regarded as a classical type of personality which the authors mentioned above were dealing with in their psychotherapeutic practice at different times.

  1. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri

    2014-09-02

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p women should devote themselves to their household duties" those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that "married life without children is favorable" and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.

  2. The impact of psychological stress on immune function in the athletic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, A; Hucklebridge, F

    2001-01-01

    In many ways, the physiological and immune consequences of acute bursts of physical exercise parallel the effect of an acute psychological stressor. Similarly, the net effects of endurance training resemble chronic psychological stress, whereas the physiological milieu associated with overtraining resembles that of melancholic depression. We suggest that the prolonged psychological stress often associated with athletic training and competition may make athletes more vulnerable to the negative health effects of training. Furthermore, a relationship between anxiety and life events on susceptibility to injury is well documented. Individual differences in self-confidence and self-esteem are also known to relate to the occurrence of injury as well as recovery from injury. We suggest that these two observations may be linked. It is the purpose of this paper to review the most recent evidence that psychological stress does impact upon the balance of the immune system in such a way as to be relevant to health outcomes and that the athletic population, in particular those with low self-esteem, may be especially vulnerable due to the probable synergistic effects of both physical and psychological stress.

  3. The effect of surgical and psychological stress on learning and memory function in aged C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Li, C; Xu, Z; Zhao, S; Li, P; Cao, J; Mi, W

    2016-04-21

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is an important complication following major surgery and general anesthesia in older patients. However, the etiology of POCD remains largely to be determined. It is unknown how surgical stress and psychological stress affect the postoperative learning and memory function in geriatric patients. We therefore established a pre-clinical model in aged C57BL/6 mice and aimed to investigate the effects of surgical stress and psychological stress on learning and memory function and the possible roles of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) pathway. The surgical stress was induced by abdominal surgery under local anesthesia, and the psychological stress was induced by a communication box. Cognitive functions and markers of the AKT/mTOR pathway were assessed at 1, 3 and 7 days following the stress. The impairments of learning and memory function existed for up to 7 days following surgical stress and surgical stress plus psychological stress, whereas the psychological stress did not affect the cognitive function alone or combined with surgical stress. Analysis of brain tissue revealed a significant involvement of the AKT/mTOR pathway in the impairment of cognition. These data suggested that surgical stress could induce cognitive impairment in aged mice and perioperative psychological stress is not a constitutive factor of POCD. The AKT/mTOR pathway is likely involved as one of the underlying mechanisms of the development of POCD. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourvis, Nadège; Aouidad, Aveline; Cabelguen, Clémence; Cohen, David; Xavier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients' personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful situations. Such features include transient cognitive distortion, intense anger, uncontrollable impulsivity, and self-harm behavior - including suicide - and contribute to the burden of the disease. In this paper, we review the various aspects (epidemiological, clinical, and physiological) contributing to the relationship between BDP and stress. In particular, we explore the statistical association between stress exposure and the emergence of BPD while taking into account other psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Then, the different aspects of stress responses (namely, the phenomenological, behavioral, hormonal, neuro-vegetative and neural responses) are reviewed in BPD patients. Pathophysiological hypotheses are formulated to explain the differences in responses between BPD patients and healthy subjects and their relation to BPD symptoms. Although the pathogenesis remains uncertain, our conclusions seem to reflect a specific biological and neural pattern of altered stress perception and regulation in BPD.

  5. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Bourvis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder (BPD is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients’ personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful situations. Such features include transient cognitive distortion, intense anger, uncontrollable impulsivity, and self-harm behavior – including suicide – and contribute to the burden of the disease. In this paper, we review the various aspects (epidemiological, clinical, and physiological contributing to the relationship between BDP and stress. In particular, we explore the statistical association between stress exposure and the emergence of BPD while taking into account other psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Then, the different aspects of stress responses (namely, the phenomenological, behavioral, hormonal, neuro-vegetative and neural responses are reviewed in BPD patients. Pathophysiological hypotheses are formulated to explain the differences in responses between BPD patients and healthy subjects and their relation to BPD symptoms. Although the pathogenesis remains uncertain, our conclusions seem to reflect a specific biological and neural pattern of altered stress perception and regulation in BPD.

  6. How Do Stress Exposure and Stress Regulation Relate to Borderline Personality Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourvis, Nadège; Aouidad, Aveline; Cabelguen, Clémence; Cohen, David; Xavier, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients’ personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful situations. Such features include transient cognitive distortion, intense anger, uncontrollable impulsivity, and self-harm behavior – including suicide – and contribute to the burden of the disease. In this paper, we review the various aspects (epidemiological, clinical, and physiological) contributing to the relationship between BDP and stress. In particular, we explore the statistical association between stress exposure and the emergence of BPD while taking into account other psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Then, the different aspects of stress responses (namely, the phenomenological, behavioral, hormonal, neuro-vegetative and neural responses) are reviewed in BPD patients. Pathophysiological hypotheses are formulated to explain the differences in responses between BPD patients and healthy subjects and their relation to BPD symptoms. Although the pathogenesis remains uncertain, our conclusions seem to reflect a specific biological and neural pattern of altered stress perception and regulation in BPD. PMID:29250007

  7. Modulation of attentional inhibition by norepinephrine and cortisol after psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skosnik, P D; Chatterton, R T; Swisher, T; Park, S

    2000-04-01

    Two of the most salient physiological responses to stress are increased norepinephrine (NE) and cortisol (CORT) activities. However, it is unclear how these neurochemical events affect cognition, especially attention. We examined the effects of mild psychological stress on selective attention, as assessed by the negative priming (NP) paradigm. Salivary measures of the stress hormone CORT and alpha-amylase (a correlate of NE) were assayed to probe the relationship between the stress response and attentional inhibition. Healthy subjects (N = 20) engaged in the attention task, which was then followed by 15 min of a stressful video game before a return to the attentional task. Baseline saliva samples were obtained before the experiment began, 1 min after the video-game stressor, and 20 min post-stress. Subjects showed a significant reduction in NP and a decrease in reaction time (RT) after the video game. Moreover, alpha-amylase levels increased significantly after the stressor, indicating the role of NE in the acute stress response. While CORT levels remained unchanged after stress, CORT correlated significantly with both NP scores and RT after the stressor. These results imply that mild psychological stress can significantly alter attentional processes. Given the increase in alpha-amylase and the correlation between attention and CORT after stress, it seems likely that attentional processes are under tight control by brain systems which mediate the fight-or-flight response.

  8. Psychological stress associated with aphthous ulcers and temporomandibular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, A.; Hassan, S.H.; Khan, D.A.; Chaudhary, M.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of stress as an etiological factor for aphthous ulcers and temporomandibular disorders. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry Rawalpindi, from Oct 2015 to May 2016. Material and Methods: Two groups of patients were selected. Group I included 119 patients presenting with Aphthous Ulcers while group II had 64 subjects with complaints of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). After a thorough history, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to assess stress in the patients. AHADS-A score of 7 was taken as significant anxiety while a HADS-D score of 7 depicted significant depression. Both groups were then subjected to laboratory examinations. Serum cortisol levels were assessed for both groups while Serum Folate, Ferritin and Vitamin B12 level for group I only. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 to calculate descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviations as well as frequencies and percentages. Relationship between HADS score and serum cortisol levels was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. A p-value<0.05 was considered significant. Results: For TMDs, 53 (82.8%) patients were found positive for stress while for aphthous ulcers, 61 (51.3%) were positive for stress. The correlation between HADS score and serum cortisol levels was found significant for both groups at a p=<0.001. Conclusions: Patients showed a high prevalence of stress as an etiological factor for aphthous ulcers and temporomandibular disorders in a local setting. (author)

  9. Effect of personal and work stress on burnout, job satisfaction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The majority of studies to date have focused on the effects of work stress in the nursing environment, with the effect of personal stress in nursing being less explored. This study sought to determine whether personal stress is a more significant predictor of burnout, job satisfaction and general health than work stress.

  10. [The Effect of Social-Psychological Factors on the Development of Occupational Stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, S A; Yushkova, O I

    2015-01-01

    The article presents data on social-psychological factors which cause the occupational stress. The results showed that there is a link between the level of work motivation and the physiological cost of work. We observed a number of peculiarities of occupational stress development caused by psychoemotional tension depending on the class of intensity of intellectual labor; we also studied biological age of the subjects. The speed of ageing of the employees who work under conditions of emotional stress (direct or indirect responsibility for the safety of other people) was found to increase. The study suggested promising directions of occupational stress prevention.

  11. A qualitative research on the psychological means of developing one’s personal image and appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya A. Kaminskaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the internal mechanisms of the individual positive and negative attitude towards appearance, the description of which is under-represented in the psychological literature. The process of creating a consistent image of the physical «Self» and maintaining a positive emotional evaluation of the body and appearance particularly seen through the idea of assigning the individual components of appearance, committed throughout the whole course of life, and is understood as a specific psychological problem, addressable only in human personality as integrative unity, preserving and maintaining its integrity. The hypothesis of the study made by the assumption that a positive attitude to their external appearance is ensured, actualization processes semantic and symbolic mediation of the physical and expressive features, and on the contrary, a negative attitude toward the appearance indicates the failure of such processes. The following characteristics of body image were considered: emotional assessment and the nature of the work on the body, the internal means of maintaining a positive attitude to their appearance, and also the broader context of personal characteristics, particularly the motivational sphere, psychological defenses, the general harmony, integration of personality structure. Differences were demonstrated between conscious and unconscious relation to the external appearance among the subjects, presented significant correlations between the non-integration of personal organization and the negative attitude towards appearance, and between the presence of supervaluation group needs and the negative assessment by the subjects of their appearance. The subjects who accept their appearance are characterized by a greater representation of mediation systems as the assignment of funds in the structure of the physical image «Self», as compared to subjects not receiving their physical appearance.

  12. Parenting stress among mothers of children with different physical, mental, and psychological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awat Feizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children with developmental problems are always bearing a load of stress. The aim of this study is to compare the stress in mothers of children with different disabilities to each other, considering their demographic background. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran during 2012 on 285 mothers of 6-12 years old children with chronic physical disease, psychological disorder, and sensory-motor and mental problems. Abedin′s parenting stress questionnaire was used and obtained data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance or covariance as appropriate. Results: Mothers of children with sensory-motor mental and chronic physical problems experience more stress than mothers of children with psychological disorders (P < 0.05. The stress score of mothers of children with psychological disorders was lower than the other two groups. Also there was a significant difference between the score of mothers of children with chronic physical problems and mothers of children with psychological disorders regarding parent-child dysfunctional interaction (P < 0.01. A significant difference was observed in terms of stress among mothers of children with sensory-motor mental problems with different number of children (P < 0.05; also mothers of children with chronic physical problems in different levels of education have experienced different levels of parenting stress (P < 0.05 Conclusion: Due to high level of parenting stress among our studied samples, special education and early intervention are needed for parents in our study population in order to deepening their diagnostic knowledge and professional consultation on stress management

  13. Psychological stress for alternatives of decontamination of TMI-2 reactor building atmosphere. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, A.; Gatchel, R.; Streufert, S.; Baum, C.S.; Fleming, R.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of the report is to consider the nature and level of psychological stress that may be associated with each of several alternatives for decontamination. The report briefly reviews some of the literature on stress, response to major disaster or life stressors, provides opinion on each decontamination alternative, and considers possible mitigative actions to reduce psychological stress. The report concludes that any procedure that is adapted for the decontamination of the reactor building atmosphere will result in some psychological stress. The stress, however, should abate as contamination is reduced and uncertainty is diminished. The advantages of the purge alternative are the rapid completion of the decontamination and the consequent elimination of future uncontrolled release. Severe stress effects are less likely if the duration of stressor exposure is reduced, if the feeling of public control is increased and if the degree of perceived safety is increased. The long delays, continued uncertainty, and possibility of uncontrolled release that characterize the other alternatives may offset the perception that they are safer. In addition, chronic stress could be a consequence of long delays and continued uncertainty

  14. [Effects of psychological stress on performances in open-field test of rats and tyrosine's modulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Qiang; Cheng, Yi-Yong; Li, Shu-Tian; Hong, Yan; Wang, Dong-Lan; Hou, Yue

    2009-02-01

    To explore the effects of different doses of tyrosine modulation on behavioral performances in open field test of psychological stress rats. The animal model of psychological stress was developed by restraint stress for 21 days. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 10) as follows: control group (CT), stress control group (SCT), low, medium and high-doses of tyrosine modulation stress groups (SLT, SMT and SIT). The changes of behavioral performances were examined by open-field test. Serum levels of cortisol, norepinephrine and dopamine were also detected. The levels of serum cortisol were all increased obviously in the four stress groups, and their bodyweight gainings were diminished. The behavioral performances of SCT rats in open-field test were changed significantly in contrast to that of CT rats. However, The behavioral performances of SMT and SHT rats were not different from that of CT rats. In addition, the serum levels of norepinephrine and dopamine were downregulated obviously in SCT and SLT groups, and no differences were observed in other groups. Psychological stress can impair body behavioral performances, and moderate tyrosine modulation may improve these abnormal changes. The related mechanisms may be involved with the changes of norepinephrine and dopamine.

  15. Names in Psychological Science: Investigating the Processes of Thought Development and the Construction of Personal Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglia, Rocco; Longobardi, Claudio; Mendola, Manuela; Prino, Laura Elvira

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the name as an issue of interest in the psychology field. In thinking about the role played by names for some of the most important approaches on the psychology panorama, it has been found that the analysis of names can be used as an instrument for the investigation of thought formation processes, or as an element in the process of constructing personal identity. In the first case, the focus is on the so-called "common" names, which designate objects; in the second case, instead, it is on people's given names and on the way they are perceived by their bearers and those who surround them. We have examined both domains, since it is essential to understand how the psychological concepts related to names develop in children's minds, if we aim to grasp their importance as designators of people's internal and external realities. Lastly, we have proposed our own view of the person's name, linked to the relational systems perspective which essentially sees the name as a signifier or "representative" of the child-parent relationship, while the "relationship" is the signified.

  16. Perceived heart risk factors can predict experienced psychological stress in outpatient cardiac rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was done to investigate the role of perceived heart risk factors (PHRFs in the prediction of psychological symptoms of cardiac rehabilitation (CR patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 124 CR patients referred to Kermanshah Hospital of Imam Ali were assessed during April–July 2015. PHRFs scale and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale-21 used for data collection. The data were analyzed using linear multiple regression analysis. Results: The mean age of samples (69.4% male was 58.9 ± 9.7 years. The results of regression analysis evidenced that there is no significant relationship between any of the PHRFs with depression and anxiety (P > 0.05; however, biological (P = 0.018 and psychological (P = 0.019 risk factors significantly can predict stress. The model generally can explain 6.4% of the stress variance. Conclusion: PHRFs are included some significant predictors for experienced stress among the CR patients. Given that the biological and psychological risk factors are more effective in experienced stress by the patients, it is recommended that specialists pay more attention to the potential psychological outcomes of this group of patients.

  17. Psychological factors and mental health in persons with spinal cord injury: : An exploration of change or stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Christel M. C.; Edelaar-Peeters, Yvette; Peter, Claudio; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Post, Marcel W. M.

    Objectives: To examine the course of mental health and psychological factors over time in persons with a recent spinal cord injury and to determine whether change in psychological factors is associated with change in mental health. Design: Prospective cohort study in the Netherlands with 3

  18. Childhood maltreatment, maladaptive personality types and level and course of psychological distress : A six-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Van Hemert, Albert M.; de Rooij, Mark; Penninx, Brenda W.

    Background: Childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality are both cross-sectionally associated with psychological distress. It is unknown whether childhood maltreatment affects the level and longitudinal course of psychological distress in adults and to what extent this effect is mediated by

  19. Proxemics models for human-aware navigation in robotics: Grounding interaction and personal space models in experimental data from psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Barnaud , Marie-Lou; Morgado , Nicolas; Palluel-Germain , Richard; Diard , Julien; Spalanzani , Anne

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In order to navigate in a social environment, a robot must be aware of social spaces, which include proximity and interaction-based constraints. Previous models of interaction and personal spaces have been inspired by studies in social psychology but not systematically grounded and validated with respect to experimental data. We propose to implement personal and interaction space models in order to replicate a classical psychology experiment. Our robotic simulations ca...

  20. Type D personality is associated with impaired psychological status and unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svansdottir Erla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type D (distressed personality has been associated with adverse cardiac prognosis and poor emotional well-being in cardiac patients, but it is still unclear what mechanisms link Type D personality with poor clinical outcomes in cardiac patients. In the present cohort of Icelandic cardiac patients, we examined potential pathways that may explain this relationship. The objectives were to examine 1 the association between Type D personality and impaired psychological status, and to explore whether this association is independent of disease severity; and 2 the association between Type D personality and an unhealthy lifestyle. Methods A sample of 268 Icelandic coronary angiography patients (74% males (N = 199; mean age 62.9 years (SD 10.5, range 28-85 years completed the Type D Scale (DS14, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS at hospitalization. Health-related behaviors were assessed 4 months following angiography. Clinical data were collected from medical files. Results Type D personality was associated with an increased risk of anxiety (OR 2.97, 95% CI:1.55-5.69, depression (OR 4.01, 95% CI:1.42-11.29, and stress (OR 5.99, 95% CI:3.08-11.63, independent of demographic variables and disease severity. Furthermore, fish consumption was lower among Type Ds, as 21% of Type Ds versus 5% of non-Type Ds consumed fish p p = 0.024 and to use antidepressants (17% versus 9%, p = 0.049 and sleeping pills (49% versus 33%, p = 0.019 compared to non-Type Ds. Type D personality was not associated with other health-related behaviors, aside from trends towards less fruit and vegetable consumption, and more weight gain. Conclusion Type D personality was associated with psychological distress and an unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients. Future studies should further investigate the association between Type D personality and health-related behaviors.

  1. Psychological mechanisms and the ups and downs of personal recovery in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Alyson L; Mezes, Barbara; Lobban, Fiona; Jones, Steven H

    2017-09-01

    Personal recovery is recognized as an important outcome for individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) and is distinct from symptomatic and functional recovery. Recovery-focused psychological therapies show promise. As with therapies aiming to delay relapse and improve symptoms, research on the psychological mechanisms underlying recovery is crucial to inform effective recovery-focused therapy. However, empirical work is limited. This study investigated whether negative beliefs about mood swings and self-referent appraisals of mood-related experiences were negatively associated with personal recovery. Cross-sectional online survey. People with a verified research diagnosis of BD (n = 87), recruited via relevant voluntary sector organizations and social media, completed online measures. Pearson's correlations and multiple regression analysed associations between appraisals, beliefs, and recovery. Normalizing appraisals of mood changes were positively associated with personal recovery. Depression, negative self-appraisals of depression-relevant experiences, extreme positive and negative appraisals of activated states, and negative beliefs about mood swings had negative relationships with recovery. After controlling for current mood symptoms, negative illness models (relating to how controllable, long-term, concerning, and treatable mood swings are; β = -.38), being employed (β = .39), and both current (β = -.53) and recent experience of depression (β = .30) predicted recovery. Due to the cross-sectional design, causality cannot be determined. Participants were a convenience sample primarily recruited online. Power was limited by the sample size. Interventions aiming to empower people to feel able to manage mood and catastrophize less about mood swings could facilitate personal recovery in people with BD, which might be achieved in recovery-focused therapy. Personal recovery is an important outcome for people living with bipolar disorder More positive

  2. Psychological stress during exercise: cardiorespiratory and hormonal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Heather E; Weldy, Michael L; Fabianke-Kadue, Emily C; Orndorff, G R; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiorespiratory (CR) and stress hormone responses to a combined physical and mental stress. Eight participants (VO2(max) = 41.24 +/- 6.20 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed two experimental conditions, a treatment condition including a 37 min ride at 60% of VO2(max) with participants responding to a computerized mental challenge dual stress condition (DSC) and a control condition of the same duration and intensity without the mental challenge exercise alone condition (EAC). Significant interactions across time were found for CR responses, with heart rate, ventilation, and respiration rate demonstrating higher increases in the DSC. Additionally, norepinephrine was significantly greater in the DSC at the end of the combined challenge. Furthermore, cortisol area-under-the-curve (AUC) was also significantly elevated during the DSC. These results demonstrate that a mental challenge during exercise can exacerbate the stress response, including the release of hormones that have been linked to negative health consequences (cardiovascular, metabolic, autoimmune illnesses).

  3. Personality predictors of injury-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauerbach, J A; Lawrence, J W; Schmidt, C W; Munster, A M; Costa, P T

    2000-08-01

    This longitudinal, cohort study examined the effect of personality traits on the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a recently traumatized, civilian, mixed-gender sample with significant injuries. Burn survivors (N = 70) were administered the NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R (SCID) at hospital discharge and readministered the SCID 4 and 12 months later. Overall, the sample of burn survivors scored significantly higher on neuroticism and extraversion and lower on openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness relative to a normative national sample. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of variance revealed that PTSD symptom severity groups (i.e., single symptom, multiple symptoms, subthreshold PTSD, PTSD) were differentially related to neuroticism and extraversion. Planned comparisons indicated that neuroticism was higher and extraversion was lower in those who developed PTSD compared with those who did not develop PTSD.

  4. Nonevent stress contributes to mental health disparities based on sexual orientation: evidence from a personal projects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; LeBlanc, Allen J

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the role of nonevent stress--in the form of frustrated personal project pursuits in the arenas of relationships and work--as a contributing factor to mental health disparities between heterosexual and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. A purposive sample of 431 LGB (55%) and heterosexually identified (45%) individuals living in the United States and Canada completed the Personal Project Inventory by describing and rating core personal projects they were pursuing. The intensity of perceived barriers to the achievement of relationship- and work-related personal projects served as indicators nonevent stress. Hierarchical linear regression models tested the hypothesis that nonevent stress contributes to the association between sexual orientation and two indicators of mental health: depressive symptoms and psychological well-being. LGB individuals had significantly more depressive symptoms and lower levels of psychological well-being than heterosexuals. Indicators of nonevent stress were significantly associated with mental health outcomes and their inclusion in models attenuated sexual orientation differences in mental health. The critical indirect pathway leading from sexual minority status to mental health occurred via barriers to relationship projects from interpersonal sources. This research suggests that nonevent stress because of structural and interpersonal stigma may contribute to mental health disparities between LGB and heterosexual individuals. The findings have important implications for policy reform around same-sex relationship recognition and workplace discrimination. Future research and clinical work will benefit by expanding existing foci on stress to include nonevent stressors to better understand and address mental health problems, particularly in LGB populations.

  5. Money Matters: Recommendations for Financial Stress Research in Occupational Health Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Robert R; Cheung, Janelle H

    2016-08-01

    Money is arguably the most important resource derived from work and the most important source of stress for contemporary employees. A substantial body of research supports the relationship between access to financial resources and health and well-being, both at individual and aggregated (e.g. national) levels of analysis. Yet, surprisingly little occupational health psychology research has paid attention to financial issues experienced specifically by those in the labour force. With these issues in mind, the overarching goal of the present paper was to address conceptual and measurement issues in the study of objective and subjective aspects of financial stress and review several assessment options available to occupational health psychology researchers for both aspects of financial stress. Where appropriate, we offer guidance to researchers about choices among various financial stress measures and identify issues that require further research attention. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Level of physical activity, well-being, stress and self-rated health in persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøll, Lotte Skytte; Hammarlund, Catharina Sjödahl; Westergaard, Maria Lurenda

    2017-01-01

    where questionnaires on physical activity, psychological well-being, perceived stress and self-rated health were completed by 148 persons with migraine and 100 healthy controls matched by sex and average age. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess characteristics of migraine, tension......-existing tension-type headache and neck pain in a clinic-based sample, b) the level of physical activity, psychological well-being, perceived stress and self-rated health in persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain compared to healthy controls, c) the perceived ability of persons...... well-being, higher level of perceived stress and poorer self-rated health compared to healthy controls. They reported reduced ability to perform physical activity owing to migraine (high degree), tension-type headache (moderate degree) and neck pain (low degree). The most burdensome condition...

  7. Usefulness of type D personality in predicting five-year cardiac events above and beyond concurrent symptoms of stress in patients with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Vrints, Christiaan J

    2006-01-01

    Psychological stress and type D personality have been associated with adverse cardiac prognosis, but little is known about their relative effect on the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). "Type D" refers to the tendency to experience negative emotions and to inhibit the expression...... of these emotions in social interactions. We investigated the relative effect of stress and type D personality on prognosis at 5-year follow-up. At baseline, 337 patients with CHD who participated in cardiac rehabilitation filled in the General Health Questionnaire (psychological stress) and the Type D personality.......001) were related to an increased risk of developing a major adverse cardiac event after adjusting for gender, age, and biomedical risk factors. Multivariate analysis yielded left ventricular ejection fraction...

  8. School environments and obesity: The mediating role of personal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Adam J; Jones, Chandria D; Debnam, Katrina J; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2017-01-01

    Youth spend a large amount of time in the school environment. Given the multiple influences of teachers, peers, and food and physical activity options, youth are likely to experience stressors that can influence their weight. This study examines the association between school climate and weight status. Students ( n = 28,582; 58 schools) completed an online, anonymous school climate survey as part of the Maryland Safe and Supportive Schools Project. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to explore the association between school climate, personal stress, and obesity. Analyses were stratified by gender. At the individual level, poor school climate (bullying, physical safety, and lack of whole-school connectedness) was associated with an increased likelihood of being overweight among females ( β =.115, p = .019) but not males ( β = .138; p =.244), after controlling for age, race, and physical activity. There was no association between school climate at the school level and being overweight among males or females. A second model included stress as a potential mediator; stress attenuated the relationship between poor school-related climate and being overweight ( β = .039; p = .048) among females. Findings suggest that stress related to school climate can play a role in the health and weight status of youth.

  9. Effect of Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract (ETAS) on Psychological Stress in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanari, Jun; Nakahigashi, Jun; Sato, Atsuya; Waki, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Shogo; Uebaba, Kazuo; Hisajima, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract (ETAS) on improving stress response. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial was undertaken in healthy volunteers. ETAS (150 mg/d) or a placebo was consumed for 28 d, with a washout period. Psychological parameters were examined using a self-report scale questionnaire and psychological stress was applied using the Uchida-Kraepelin (U-K) test. During the stress load, autonomic nervous function was analyzed. After the stress load, a profile of mood states (POMS) psychological rating was performed, and serum cortisol, plasma catecholamine, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), and salivary cortisol were analyzed. ETAS intake improved the self-reported rating for the items "Feel tired," "Hard to get up," and "Feel heavy" in the psychological questionnaire; ameliorated the self-reported rating for the items "Depression-Dejection" and "Fatigue" in the POMS questionnaire; and increased salivary sIgA levels after the U-K test. In contrast, serum and salivary cortisol levels, and plasma catecholamine did not change. During the U-K test, ETAS significantly upregulated the sympathetic nerve activity. Furthermore, ETAS intake significantly increased the number of answers and the number of correct answers in the U-K test, suggesting that it might improve office work performance with swiftness and accuracy under stressful conditions. In conclusion, ETAS supplementation reduced feelings of dysphoria and fatigue, ameliorated quality of sleep, and enhanced stress-load performance as well as promoted stress response by increasing salivary sIgA levels. These data suggest ETAS intake may exert beneficial effects, resulting from well-controlled stress management, in healthy individuals.

  10. Psychological factors and personality traits associated with patients in chronic foot and ankle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivarathre, Deepak Gubbi; Howard, Nicholas; Krishna, Sowmya; Cowan, Chris; Platt, Simon R

    2014-11-01

    The impact of psychosocial factors and personality traits in chronic pain is well established. However, there has been limited literature analyzing the influence of psychological issues in chronic foot and ankle pain. The aim of our study was to identify the association of certain psychosocial factors and personality traits in individuals with chronic painful foot and ankle disorders. Patients with chronic foot and ankle pain were recruited from the specialist foot and ankle clinic. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R), Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), and Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) scale were administered in the form of questionnaires. An age- and sex-matched cohort of healthy volunteers served as the control group. Sample size was determined after power calculation, and a total of 90 participants were recruited with informed consent with 45 participants in each arm. Results were analyzed and statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. Patients with chronic foot and ankle pain had significantly higher neuroticism scores than the control group (P pain (P pain. Clinicians should recognize the influence of these specific psychological issues to provide a more holistic approach to the clinical problem. Level III, case control study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Immature psychological defense mechanisms are associated with greater personal importance of junk food, alcohol, and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2013-10-30

    Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and rated the personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. Immature defense mechanisms correlated with importance of junk food, alcohol, and television. Importance of PVI correlated with mature defenses, and less use of some component immature defenses. Importance of alcohol correlated with importance of junk food, television, and noncoital sex. Importance of junk food was correlated with importance of television and noncoital sex. The findings are discussed in terms of persons with poorer self-regulatory abilities having more interest in junk food, television, and alcohol, and less interest in PVI. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Healing by Gentle Touch Ameliorates Stress and Other Symptoms in People Suffering with Mental Health Disorders or Psychological Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Weze

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on healing by gentle touch in clients with various illnesses indicated substantial improvements in psychological well-being, suggesting that this form of treatment might be helpful for people with impaired quality of mental health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of healing by gentle touch in subjects with self-reported impairments in their psychological well-being or mental health. One hundred and forty-seven clients who identified themselves as having psychological problems received four treatment sessions. Pre- to post-treatment changes in psychological and physical functioning were assessed by self-completed questionnaires which included visual analogue scales (VAS and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D. Participants recorded reductions in stress, anxiety and depression scores and increases in relaxation and ability to cope scores (all P < 0.0004. Improvements were greatest in those with the most severe symptoms initially. This open study provides strong circumstantial evidence that healing by gentle touch is safe and effective in improving psychological well-being in participants with self-reported psychological problems, and also that it safely complements standard medical treatment. Controlled trials are warranted.

  13. Personality Disorders and Psychological Functioning Among Latina Women with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnick, Alyssa M; Cachelin, Fary M; Durvasula, Ramani S

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about personality disorders (PD) and comorbidities among Latinas with eating disorders (ED). The dysregulation and chronicity of PDs can complicate and augment the symptomatology of EDs. This set of analyses provides a preliminary examination of PD and psychopathology in a sample of Latina women with ED. Participants (N = 34) were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Eating Disorders Examination, and Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III to assess personality pathology, and questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory-II and Brief Symptom Inventory) to assess psychological functioning. Results indicated the most common clinically significant trait in the sample was depressive personality (50% of the sample had a score of 75 or higher on this trait). For Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED), avoidant (41%) and depressive (65%) personalities, respectively, were the most common clinically significant traits. Anxiety disorders were the most common psychiatric diagnoses, and 52.9% of the sample reported both clinically significant PD traits and other major psychopathology. There were no significant differences between the BED and BN groups on prevalence of PD traits and psychopathology. This pilot study highlights the need for further examination of PD and psychopathology in Latinas with ED. Unlike previous research with White women, we found no differences on PD and psychopathology between BED and BN, and the most prevalent PDs among Latinas were different than White women. Personality and psychological functioning should be assessed in all patients with ED, with ongoing research focused on identifying patterns in understudied groups such as Latinas, a practice that may improve treatment for this underserved population.

  14. Person-centered approaches in medicine: clinical tasks, psychological paradigms, and postnonclassic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezzich J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to demonstrate advances in methodological means suggested by Vygotsky’s cultural-historical concept in association with a theoretical model of a Person-centered diagnosis and practical use of the construct for clinical psychology and medicine. This, to a greater extent, arises from the fact that the cultural-historical concept (due to its humanistic nature and epistemological content is closely related to the person-centered integrative approach. But for all that the concept corresponds to the ideals of postnonclassical model of scientific rationality with a number of ‘key’ features. Above all it manifests its “methodological maturity” to cope with open self-developing systems, which is most essential at the modern stage of scientific knowledge.The work gives consideration to ‘defining pillars’ of Person-centered approach in modern medicine, to humanistic traditions of the Russian clinical school, and high prospects in diagnostics of such mental constructs as “subjective pattern of disease” and “social situation of personal development in disease” - within the context of person-centered integrative diagnosis.This article discusses the need for implementation a cross-cultural study of subjective pattern of disease and its correlation with a particular “social situation of personality development under disease conditions”. It aims at development and substantiation of the model of person-centered integrative approach, enhancement of its diagnostic scope and, consequently, improvement of the model of person-centered care in modern psychiatry and medicine.

  15. STRESS AND HEALTH: Psychological, Behavioral, and Biological Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Schneiderman, Neil; Ironson, Gail; Siegel, Scott D.

    2005-01-01

    Stressors have a major influence upon mood, our sense of well-being, behavior, and health. Acute stress responses in young, healthy individuals may be adaptive and typically do not impose a health burden. However, if the threat is unremitting, particularly in older or unhealthy individuals, the long-term effects of stressors can damage health. The relationship between psychosocial stressors and disease is affected by the nature, number, and persistence of the stressors as well as by the indiv...

  16. Psychological stress exerts an adjuvant effect on skin dendritic cell functions in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Mezard, Pierre; Chavagnac, Cyril; Bosset, Sophie; Ionescu, Marius; Peyron, Eric; Kaiserlian, Dominique; Nicolas, Jean-Francois; Bérard, Frédéric

    2003-10-15

    Psychological stress affects the pathophysiology of infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanisms by which stress could modulate immune responses in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, we report that application of a psychological stress before immunization exerts an adjuvant effect on dendritic cell (DC), resulting in increased primary and memory Ag-specific T cell immune responses. Acute stress dramatically enhanced the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to haptens, which is mediated by CD8(+) CTLs. This effect was due to increased migration of skin DCs, resulting in augmented CD8(+) T cell priming in draining lymph nodes and enhanced recruitment of CD8(+) T cell effectors in the skin upon challenge. This adjuvant effect of stress was mediated by norepinephrine (NE), but not corticosteroids, as demonstrated by normalization of the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and DC migratory properties following selective depletion of NE. These results suggest that release of NE by sympathetic nerve termini during a psychological stress exerts an adjuvant effect on DC by promoting enhanced migration to lymph nodes, resulting in increased Ag-specific T cell responses. Our findings may open new ways in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, e.g., psoriasis, allergic contact dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis.

  17. Childhood maltreatment, maladaptive personality types and level and course of psychological distress: A six-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M; Van Hemert, Albert M; de Rooij, Mark; Penninx, Brenda W

    2016-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality are both cross-sectionally associated with psychological distress. It is unknown whether childhood maltreatment affects the level and longitudinal course of psychological distress in adults and to what extent this effect is mediated by maladaptive personality. A sample of 2947 adults aged 18-65, consisting of healthy controls, persons with a prior history or current episode of depressive and/or anxiety disorders according to the Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument were assessed in six waves at baseline (T0) and 1 (T1), 2 (T2), 4 (T4) and 6 years (T6) later. At each wave psychological distress was measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Fear Questionnaire. At T0 childhood maltreatment types were measured with a semi-structured interview (Childhood Trauma Interview) and personality traits with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Using latent variable analyses, we found that severity of childhood maltreatment (emotional neglect and abuse in particular) predicted higher initial levels of psychological distress and that this effect was mediated by maladaptive personality types. Differences in trajectories of distress between persons with varying levels of childhood maltreatment remained significant and stable over time. Childhood maltreatment was assessed retrospectively and maladaptive personality types and level of psychological distress at study entry were assessed concurrently. Routine assessment of maladaptive personality types and possible childhood emotional maltreatment in persons with severe and prolonged psychological distress seems warranted to identify persons who may need a different or more intensive treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Normal personality traits, rumination and stress generation among early adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    Stroud, Catherine B.; Sosoo, Effua E.; Wilson, Sylia

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between personality and stress generation. Expanding upon prior work, we examined (a) the role of Positive Emotionality (PE), Negative Emotionality (NE), and Constraint (CON), and their lower-order facets, as predictors of acute and chronic interpersonal stress generation; (b) whether personality moderated effects of rumination on stress generation; and (c) whether personality increased exposure to independent (uncontrollable) stress. These questions were exam...

  19. Impact of Psychological Stress on Pain Perception in an Animal Model of Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Siomara; Cruz, Myrella L; Seguinot, Inevy I; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; Appleyard, Caroline B

    2017-10-01

    Pain in patients with endometriosis is considered a significant source of stress but does not always correlate with severity of the condition. We have demonstrated that stress can worsen endometriosis in an animal model. Here, we tested the impact of a psychological stress protocol on pain thresholds and pain receptors. Endometriosis was induced in female rats by suturing uterine horn tissue next to the intestinal mesentery. Sham rats had sutures only. Rats were exposed to water avoidance stress for 7 consecutive days or handled for 5 minutes (no stress). Fecal pellets and serum corticosterone (CORT) levels were measured as an index of anxiety. Pain perception was assessed using hot plate and Von Frey tests. Substance P, enkephalin, endomorphin-2, Mu opioid receptor (MOR), and neurokinin-1 receptor expression in the spinal cord were measured by immunohistochemistry. Fecal pellets and CORT were significantly higher in the endo-stress (ES) group than endo-no stress (ENS; P stress groups (SNS; P stress reversed the allodynic effect caused by endo ( P stress develop more severe symptoms but interestingly stress seems to have beneficial effects on abdominal allodynia, which could be a consequence of the stress-induced analgesia phenomenon.

  20. Modulation of immune response to rDNA hepatitis B vaccination by psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Jabaaij (Lea); J. van Hattum (Jan); A.J.J.M. Vingerhoets (Ad); F.G. Oostveen (Frank); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); R.E. Ballieux (Rudy)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn a previous study it was shown that antibody formation after vaccination with a low-dose recombinant DNA (rDNA) hepatitis B vaccine was negatively influenced by psychological stress. The present study was designed to assess whether the same inverse relation between HBs-antibody levels

  1. Systolic blood pressure reactivity during submaximal exercise and acute psychological stress in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Studies in youth show an association between systolic blood-pressure (SBP) reactivity to acute psychological stress and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). However, it has not yet been determined whether SBP reactivity during submaximal exercise is also associated with CIMT i...

  2. Parents of Children with ASD Experience More Psychological Distress, Parenting Stress, and Attachment-Related Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Belinda M.; Newman, Louise K.; Gray, Kylie M.; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2016-01-01

    There has been limited study of the relationship between child attachment and caregiver wellbeing amongst children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined self-reported child attachment quality alongside caregivers' report of their own psychological distress, parenting stress and attachment style, amongst 24 children with…

  3. Management of sleep-time masticatory muscle activity using stabilisation splints affects psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Masaki, C; Makino, M; Yoshida, M; Mukaibo, T; Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Hosokawa, R

    2013-12-01

    To treat sleep bruxism (SB), symptomatic therapy using stabilisation splints (SS) is frequently used. However, their effects on psychological stress and sleep quality have not yet been examined fully. The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of SS use on psychological stress and sleep quality. The subjects (11 men, 12 women) were healthy volunteers. A crossover design was used. Sleep measurements were performed for three consecutive days or longer without (baseline) or with an SS or palatal splint (PS), and data for the final day were evaluated. We measured masseter muscle activity during sleep using portable electromyography to evaluate SB. Furthermore, to compare psychological stress before and after sleep, assessments were made based on STAI-JYZ and the measurement of salivary chromogranin A. To compare each parameter among the three groups (baseline, SS and PS), Friedman's and Dunn's tests were used. From the results of the baseline measurements, eight subjects were identified as high group and 15 as low group. Among the high group, a marked decrease in the number of bruxism events per hour and an increase in the difference in the total STAI Y-1 scores were observed in the SS group compared with those at baseline (P sleep stages. SS use may be effective in reducing the number of SB events, while it may increase psychological stress levels, and SS use did not apparently influence sleep stages. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Role of Communications, Socio-Psychological, and Personality Factors in the Maintenance of Crew Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, H. Clayton

    1982-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that many air transport incidents and accidents are the result of the improper or inadequate utilization of the resources accessible to flight dock crew members. These resources obviously include the hardware and technical information necessary for the safe and efficient conduct of the flight, but they also Include the human resources which must be coordinated effectively. The focus of this paper is upon the human resources, and how communication styles, socio-psychological factors, and personality characteristics can affect crew coordination.

  5. Psychology in an age of ecological crisis: from personal angst to collective action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokols, Daniel; Misra, Shalini; Runnerstrom, Miryha Gould; Hipp, J Aaron

    2009-04-01

    Recent technological, geophysical, and societal forces have fundamentally altered the structure and functioning of human environments. Prominent among these forces are the rise of the Internet; rapid rates of global environmental change; and widening rifts among different socioeconomic, racial, religious, and ethnic groups. The present article traces the influence of these conditions on individuals' cognition, behavior, and well-being. New theoretical questions are raised and conceptual frameworks proposed to understand how global conditions are restructuring people's relationships with their everyday environments. New directions for psychological research and practice aimed at reducing global threats to personal and societal well-being are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Making it in academic psychology: Demographic and personality correlates of eminence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R. L.; Spence, J. T.; Beane, W. E.; Lucker, G. W.; Matthews, K. A.

    1979-01-01

    Citations to published work, personality, and demographic characteristics were examined in a sample of male and female academic psychologists. A large sex difference was found in citations with men receiving significantly more recognition. Reputational rankings of graduate school and current institution were significantly related to citations, as were components of achievement motivation. Mastery and work needs were positively related to citations while competitiveness was negatively associated with the criterion. A model of attainment in psychology is proposed and possible explanations for the differential recognition of women are explored.

  7. Acculturation and Acculturative Stress as Predictors of Psychological Distress and Quality-of-Life Functioning in Hispanic Psychiatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoman, Lisa Vinuesa; Suris, Alina

    2004-01-01

    This study examined acculturation level and type, acculturative stress, and several demographic variables as predictors of psychological distress and health-related quality of life in a sample of 101 Hispanic patients at a community psychiatric clinic. Acculturative stress was predictive of psychological distress beyond the effects of the…

  8. 125I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding and serum corticosterone level during psychological stress in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Ogi, Shigeyuki; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that benzodiazepine receptor density decreases in response to stress, we correlated 125 I-iomazenil ( 125 I-IMZ) binding with serum corticosterone levels in a rat model. Wistar male rats were divided into four groups; control group (CON, 10 rats), no physical or psychological stress; and one-, three-, and five-day stress groups of 12 rats each (1-DAY, 3-DAY, and 5-DAY, respectively), receiving psychological stress for the given number of days. Psychological stress were given to rats with a communication box. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of 125 I-iomazenil of the 3-DAY and 5-DAY showed that 125 I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding was significantly reduced in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen (p 125 I-IMZ is a useful radioligand to reflect received stress and its binding in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen is strongly affected by psychological stress

  9. Salivary kynurenic acid response to psychological stress: inverse relationship to cortical glutamate in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Joshua; Rowland, Laura M; Notarangelo, Francesca M; Wijtenburg, S Andrea; Thomas, Marian A R; Pocivavsek, Ana; Jones, Aaron; Wisner, Krista; Kochunov, Peter; Schwarcz, Robert; Hong, L Elliot

    2018-04-18

    Frontal glutamatergic synapses are thought to be critical for adaptive, long-term stress responses. Prefrontal cortices, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) contribute to stress perception and regulation, and are involved in top-down regulation of peripheral glucocorticoid and inflammatory responses to stress. Levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in saliva increase in response to psychological stress, and this stress-induced effect may be abnormal in people with schizophrenia. Here we test the hypothesis that ACC glutamatergic functioning may contribute to the stress-induced salivary KYNA response in schizophrenia. In 56 patients with schizophrenia and 58 healthy controls, our results confirm that levels of KYNA in saliva increase following psychological stress. The magnitude of the effect correlated negatively with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) glutamate + glutamine (r = -.31, p = .017) and glutamate (r = -0.27, p = .047) levels in the ACC in patients but not in the controls (all p ≥ .45). Although, a causal relationship cannot be ascertained in this cross-sectional study, these findings suggest a potentially meaningful link between central glutamate levels and kynurenine pathway response to stress in individuals with schizophrenia.

  10. Childhood Cancer in Context: Sociodemographic Factors, Stress, and Psychological Distress Among Mothers and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, Heather; Yarboi, Janet; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Desjardins, Leandra; Murphy, Lexa K; Rodriguez, Erin M; Compas, Bruce E

    2015-09-01

    To examine associations between sociodemographic factors (single parenthood, family income, education level, race), stress, and psychological distress among pediatric cancer patients and their mothers. Participants completed measures assessing sociodemographic variables, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, general stress, and cancer-related stress within the first year of the child's (ages 5-17 years) cancer diagnosis or relapse. Mothers (N = 318) provided self-reports and parent report of their children; children aged 10-17 years (N = 151) completed self-reports. Each sociodemographic variable demonstrated unique associations with mothers' and children's stress and distress in bivariate analyses. A cumulative sociodemographic risk measure was positively correlated with all stress and distress variables. In regression analyses predicting mothers' and children's distress, independent and cumulative sociodemographic measures were no longer significant when accounting for levels of stress. Findings highlight the need to consider the ecological context of pediatric cancer, particularly the impact of sociodemographic disadvantage on stress and distress in this population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Sex and stress: Men and women show different cortisol responses to psychological stress induced by the Trier social stress test and the Iowa singing social stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E; Okerstrom, Katrina L; Bowles Edwards, Angela; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-01-02

    Acute psychological stress affects each of us in our daily lives and is increasingly a topic of discussion for its role in mental illness, aging, cognition, and overall health. A better understanding of how such stress affects the body and mind could contribute to the development of more effective clinical interventions and prevention practices. Over the past 3 decades, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) has been widely used to induce acute stress in a laboratory setting based on the principles of social evaluative threat, namely, a judged speech-making task. A comparable alternative task may expand options for examining acute stress in a controlled laboratory setting. This study uses a within-subjects design to examine healthy adult participants' (n = 20 men, n = 20 women) subjective stress and salivary cortisol responses to the standard TSST (involving public speaking and math) and the newly created Iowa Singing Social Stress Test (I-SSST). The I-SSST is similar to the TSST but with a new twist: public singing. Results indicated that men and women reported similarly high levels of subjective stress in response to both tasks. However, men and women demonstrated different cortisol responses; men showed a robust response to both tasks, and women displayed a lesser response. These findings are in line with previous literature and further underscore the importance of examining possible sex differences throughout various phases of research, including design, analysis, and interpretation of results. Furthermore, this nascent examination of the I-SSST suggests a possible alternative for inducing stress in the laboratory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. What determines psychological well-being among Iranian female adolescents? Perceived stress may overshadow all determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleh Heizomi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health problems, as one of the most neglected issues among adolescents,are common during adolescence and emerging adulthood. The aim of present study was to investigate the determinants of psychological well being among female adolescents in Tabriz,Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to recruit 289 female high school students to participate in the study during 2013–2014. A 3-section questionnaire was applied to collect data. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was applied to illustrate the variations in psychological wellbeing score on the basis of socio-demographic and psychological variables.Results: Self-efficacy, hopefulness, happiness and life satisfaction were positively correlated (r> 0.400 and perceived stress was negatively associated with psychological well-being (r =-0.689. In the first model, satisfaction with family lifestyle (β = 0.168, P < 0.001 and perceived stress (β = -0.470, P < 0.001 were the most significant positive and negative predictors for psychological wellbeing, respectively (R2 = 0.595, P < 0.001. In the second model (step 6,physical activity (β = -0.109, P < 0.019, have/had boyfriend (β = 0.237, P < 0.001, hopefulness(β = -0.130, P < 0.05 and happiness (-β = 0.387, P < 0.001 were significant predictors for perceived stress (R2 = 0.453, P < 0.001.Conclusion: Considering the various behavioral, mental and social predictors of psychological wellbeing, it seems that perceived stress has overshadowed the influence of a majority of the other factors. Such influence may be due to the specific cultural and context-based rules enforced for female adolescents in the Iranian community.

  13. Psychological stress-relieving effects of chewing - Relationship between masticatory function-related factors and stress-relieving effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaka, Akinori; Kikuchi, Manaki; Nakanishi, Kousuke; Ueda, Takayuki; Yamashita, Shuichiro; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between masticatory function-related factors (masticatory performance, occlusal contact area, maximum bite force, number of chewing strokes, and muscle activity) and the stress-relieving effects of chewing. A total of 28 healthy male subjects were instructed to rest or chew for 10min after 30min of stress loading with arithmetic calculations. Their stress state was assessed by measuring salivary cortisol levels. Saliva was collected at three time points: before stress loading, immediately after stress loading, and 10min after stress loading. Compared to resting, chewing produced a significantly greater reduction in the rate of change in salivary cortisol levels 10min after stress loading. A negative correlation was observed between the rate of decrease in salivary cortisol levels and the number of chewing strokes. No significant correlation was observed between the rate of decrease in salivary cortisol levels and other measurement items. In healthy dentulous people, the number of chewing strokes has been shown to be a masticatory function-related factor that affects stress relief from chewing, suggesting the possibility that more appropriate chewing would produce a greater effect psychological stress relief. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A high fat diet-induced decrease in hippocampal newly-born neurons of male mice is exacerbated by mild psychological stress using a Communication Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yusuke; Narisawa, Yukiyasu; Shimono, Rima; Ohmori, Hiraku; Mori, Masayoshi; Ohe, Kenji; Mine, Kazunori; Enjoji, Munechika

    2017-02-01

    Obese persons have a higher incidence of depression than healthy-weight persons. Several studies indicated that the exposure to a high fat diet (HFD) results in a decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis, which leads to higher stress response and stress-induced depression. Although stress is a risk factor for obesity and depression, no studies to date have investigated the effect of stress on the hippocampal neurogenesis of HFD-induced obese animals. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether or not obese HFD-fed mice are vulnerable to stress-induced depression by investigating hippocampal neurogenesis. Sixty-four male ICR mice (four weeks of age) were fed a control (N=24) or 45%HFD (N=40) for seven weeks. Of the HFD-fed group, twenty-four mice met the criteria for "diet-induced obesity". The animals were then exposed to three consecutive days of psychological stress using a Communication Box. Half were sacrificed to evaluate the physiological changes, and the other half were perfused to quantify hippocampal neuroblasts/immature neurons by the estimation of doublecortin-immunopositive cells. In the HFD-fed mice, psychological stress resulted in increases in caloric intake and visceral adipose tissue and a significant decrease in doublecortin-positive cells in the dentate gyrus; however, no such differences were found in the control diet-fed group. Limitations Further study using other neurogenic markers to assess the stage-specific changes in hippocampal neurogenesis will be required CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that an HFD-induced decrease in hippocampal newly-born neurons leads to stress vulnerability, which may contribute to a high risk of stress-induced depression for obese persons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal stress and psychological distress preconception: association with offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, S R; Healy, E; Robinson, S M; Harvey, N C; Cooper, C; Inskip, H M; Baird, J; Godfrey, K M

    2017-06-01

    Perinatal maternal stress and low mood have been linked to offspring atopic eczema. To examine the relation of maternal stress/mood with atopic eczema in the offspring, focusing particularly on stress/psychological distress preconception. At recruitment in the UK Southampton Women's Survey, preconception maternal reports of perceived stress in daily living and the effect of stress on health were recorded; in a subsample, psychological distress was assessed (12-item General Health Questionnaire). Infants were followed up at ages 6 (n = 2956) and 12 (n = 2872) months and atopic eczema ascertained (based on UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). At 6 months post-partum, mothers were asked if they had experienced symptoms of low mood since childbirth and completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Preconception perceived stress affecting health [OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.08-1.35), P = 0.001] and stress in daily living [OR 1.16 (1.03-1.30), P = 0.014] were associated with an increased risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months but not at 6 months, robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Findings were similar for maternal psychological distress preconception. Low maternal mood between delivery and 6 months post-partum was associated with an increased risk of infantile atopic eczema at age 12 months, but no significant association between post-natal mood and atopic eczema was seen after taking account of preconception stress. Our data provide novel evidence linking maternal stress at preconception to atopic eczema risk, supporting a developmental contribution to the aetiology of atopic eczema and pointing to potentially modifiable influences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Influence of conditioned psychological stress on immunological recovery in mice exposed to low-dose x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Flood, J.F.; Makinodan, T.

    1984-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine the effects of psychological stress on the immune response in BALB/c mice recovering from exposure to a low dose of ionizing radiation. Mice were first subjected to conditioning training for 12 days, then exposed to 200 R, subjected to psychological stress for 14 days, and assessed for peak anti-sheep RBC response. The seven treatment groups included two unirradiated groups and five irradiated groups. Mice exposed to 200 R and then subjected to conditioned psychological stress responded less vigorously to antigenic stimulation than those of the other irradiated groups. The psychological stress imposed upon these mice did not influence the antibody-forming capacity of unirradiated mice. These results indicate that a psychological stress which did not affect the immunological activity of unirradiated mice can curtail the immunological recovery of mice exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation

  17. Type D personality is associated with impaired psychological status and unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svansdottir, Erla; van den Broek, Krista C; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D; Gudnason, Thorarinn; Denollet, Johan

    2012-01-18

    Type D (distressed) personality has been associated with adverse cardiac prognosis and poor emotional well-being in cardiac patients, but it is still unclear what mechanisms link Type D personality with poor clinical outcomes in cardiac patients. In the present cohort of Icelandic cardiac patients, we examined potential pathways that may explain this relationship. The objectives were to examine 1) the association between Type D personality and impaired psychological status, and to explore whether this association is independent of disease severity; and 2) the association between Type D personality and an unhealthy lifestyle. A sample of 268 Icelandic coronary angiography patients (74% males (N = 199); mean age 62.9 years (SD 10.5), range 28-85 years) completed the Type D Scale (DS14), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) at hospitalization. Health-related behaviors were assessed 4 months following angiography. Clinical data were collected from medical files. Type D personality was associated with an increased risk of anxiety (OR 2.97, 95% CI:1.55-5.69), depression (OR 4.01, 95% CI:1.42-11.29), and stress (OR 5.99, 95% CI:3.08-11.63), independent of demographic variables and disease severity. Furthermore, fish consumption was lower among Type Ds, as 21% of Type Ds versus 5% of non-Type Ds consumed fish unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients. Future studies should further investigate the association between Type D personality and health-related behaviors.

  18. Enriching psychological assessment using a person-specific analysis of interpersonal processes in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Michael J; Pincus, Aaron L; Rebar, Amanda L; Conroy, David E; Ram, Nilam

    2014-10-01

    We present a series of methods and approaches for clinicians interested in tracking their individual patients over time and in the natural settings of their daily lives. The application of person-specific analyses to intensive repeated measurement data can assess some aspects of persons that are distinct from the valuable results obtained from single-occasion assessments. Guided by interpersonal theory, we assess a psychotherapy patient's interpersonal processes as they unfold in his daily life. We highlight specific contexts that change these processes, use an informant report to examine discrepancies in his reported interpersonal processes, and examine how his interpersonal processes differ as a function of varying levels of self-esteem and anger. We advocate for this approach to complement existing psychological assessments and provide a scoring program to facilitate initial implementation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Association of CD4+ T cell subpopulations and psychological stress measures in women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Kristina E; Konkle-Parker, Deborah

    2017-09-01

    Psychological stress is a known immunomodulator. In individuals with HIV, depression, the most common manifestation of increased psychological stress, can affect immune function with lower CD4+ T cell counts correlating with higher levels of depression. It is unknown how other forms of psychological stress can impact immune markers in people living with HIV. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine how CD4+ T cell subpopulations correlated with different forms of psychological stress. We recruited 50 HIV-positive women as part of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. We assessed perceived stress, worry, acute anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression through self-report questionnaires and CD4+ T cell subpopulations using flow cytometry. Our sample was 96% African-American with a mean ± SD age and body mass index of 42 ± 8.8 years and 36.6 ± 11.5 kg/m 2 , respectively. The mean ± SD scores on the psychological measures were as follows: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), 16.5 ± 6.4; Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), 47.7 ± 13.8; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - State (STAIS), 39.1 ± 12.3; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait (STAIT), 40.2 ± 11.4; Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), 15.6 ± 11.4. The mean + SD values for the immune parameters were as follows: regulatory T cells (Treg), 1.25% ± 0.7; T helper 1 (Th1), 14.9% ± 6.1; T helper 2 (Th2), 3.8% ± 2; Th1/Th2 ratio, 4.6 ± 3; and CD4+ T cell count (cells/mm 3 ), 493 ± 251. Treg levels positively correlated with PSS, STAIS, and STAIT. CD4+ T cell count negatively correlated with PSS, PSWQ, STAIS, STAIT, and CES-D. These data suggest that immune function may be impacted by various forms of psychological stress in HIV-positive women. Interventions that target stress reduction may be useful in improving immune parameters and quality of life.

  20. Brexit and the relevance of regional personality traits : more psychological Openness could have swung the regional vote

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garretsen, Harry; Stoker, Janka I.; Soudis, Dimitrios; Martin, Ron; Rentfrow, Peter Jason

    2018-01-01

    This article adds a psychological perspective to help explain the regional Brexit vote. Based on an extensive dataset with personality traits, combined with socio-economic data, our findings suggest that the regional clustering of these personality traits contribute to an understanding of the

  1. The collective past, group psychology and personal narrative: shaping Jewish identity by memoirs of the Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, S; Handelsman, I

    1990-06-01

    Through honing its collective memory, especially after the Holocaust, the Jewish community has attempted to sustain its culture, bolster the Jewish identity of its members, and regain a resolute sense that its narrative is again proceeding. To some degree, all these aims are realized by instilling in its members the Jewish modal character structure: a psychological configuration with two contrastable entities. One chronically discomposed self-structure, defining itself as polluted and helpless, trembles with the appalling imagery of historical and imminent community disasters. The other entity believes in its unmatched capacity for reparative, socially beneficial actions. The paradigm of this psychological organization is found in many children of survivors. The memory of a tragic history abides alongside the community's hopes in the Jewish modal personality. The need to set forth and accommodate these two motifs imprints upon the Jewish "national" character many of its distinctive qualities. The designs of the Jewish community for this particularly Jewish twofold personality formation are augmented by the personal revelations of survivors. Therefore, Holocaustic testimonies are invested with a sacred aura. In measure, these recitals of the disaster with their stark images, plus the clashing affects aroused in the reader toward main characters of the narrative, dictate the way Jews define themselves in the world and the way they live. A confluence of being covertly commissioned by the Jewish community joins with the narrators' more idiosyncratic longings. Together they generate a steady stream of Holocaustic accounts. Complementary vectors drive the reader to peruse these records. The results therefrom, intimate knowledge of the disaster, plus the twofold personality motifs stamp many Jews as scions of the Holocaust.

  2. Workplace ostracism And workplace behaviors: A moderated mediation model of perceived stress and psychological empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yang Woon

    2018-05-01

    Workplace ostracism research has examined numerous underlying mechanisms to understand the link between workplace ostracism and behavioral outcomes. Ostracism has been suggested to be an interpersonal stressor; however, research has not investigated workplace ostracism from a stress perspective. Therefore, the study investigated the mediating effect of perceived stress for the relationships between workplace ostracism and helping behavior, voicing behavior, and task performance. The study also investigated the moderating effect of psychological empowerment for the relationships between perceived stress and behavioral outcomes. The study design was a three-wave self-reported questionnaire. The study sampled 225 full-time employees in South Korea and regression analyses with bootstrapping were conducted to test the moderated mediation models. The bootstrapped 95% CI around the indirect effects did not contain zero; therefore, perceived stress mediated the relationship between workplace ostracism and helping behavior (-.06), voicing behavior (-.07), and task performance (-.07). Further, the moderated mediation analyses found perceived stress mediated the relationships between workplace ostracism and behavioral outcomes only when individuals perceived low levels of psychological empowerment. The findings suggest that workplace ostracism is a stressor and psychological empowerment can mitigate the negative effects of ostracism on behavioral outcomes.

  3. Stress, anxiety, depression, and epilepsy: investigating the relationship between psychological factors and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapar, Ajay; Kerr, Michael; Harold, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the study described here was to examine the interrelationship between psychological factors (anxiety, stress, and depression) and seizures. In this longitudinal cohort study, data on anxiety, depression, perceived stress, and seizure recency (time since last seizure) and frequency were collected at two time points using standard validated questionnaire measures. Empirically based models with psychological factors explaining change in (1) seizure recency and (2) seizure frequency scores across time were specified. We then tested how these psychological factors acted together in predicting seizure recency and frequency. Our data were used to test whether these models were valid for the study population. Latent variable structural equation modeling was used for the analysis. Four hundred thirty-three of the 558 individuals who initially consented to participate provided two waves of data for this analysis. Stress (beta=0.25, Panxiety (beta=0.30, Pdepression (beta=0.30, Pdepression that mediated the relationship of both anxiety and stress with modeled change in seizure recency (beta=0.19, PDepression mediates the relationship between stress and anxiety and change in seizure recency and seizure frequency. These findings highlight the importance of depression management in addition to seizure management in the assessment and treatment of epilepsy in an adult population.

  4. Parenting stress and children's problem behavior in China: the mediating role of parental psychological aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wang, Meifang

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the mediating effect of parents' psychological aggression in the relationship between parenting stress and children's internalizing (anxiety/depression, withdrawal) and externalizing (aggression, delinquency) problem behaviors 1 year later. Using a sample of 311 intact 2-parent Chinese families with preschoolers, findings revealed that maternal parenting stress had direct effects on children's internalizing and externalizing problem behavior and indirect effects through maternal psychological aggression. However, neither direct nor indirect effects of fathers' parenting stress on children's internalizing and externalizing problem behavior were found. The findings highlight the importance of simultaneously studying the effects of both mothers' and fathers' parenting on their children within a family systems framework. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. The Integral Abilities of the Personality as the Subject Matt er of Psychological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Karpov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some key methodological and theoretical issues of the fundamental,common psychological problem of abilities. It shows that there is a lackof modern ideas about the content of the subject matter of the psychology ofabilities and, therefore, a need for enrichment. In this conceptual expansion itis necessary to differentiate a special, qualitatively specific class of abilities – theintegral abilities of the individual. All these abilities are differentiated on the basisof the most promising paradigm in the development of the ability problem– thefunctional-genetic paradigm – and are related to one of the basic classes of mentalprocesses – the integral mental processes (goal formation, anticipation, decisionmaking, programming, prognosis, planning, control, self-control. In the article adetailed psychological characteristic of the basic integral abilities is presented, asa result of which the correspondence of these abilities to all features and criteriaof abilities as such is proved. The necessity of using the structural-level approachin relation to the ability problem is shown, and a holistic, generalized hierarchy ofthe basic ability classes is proposed. This hierarchy has three main levels. At thehighest level the general abilities are located; at the basic level are the specificabilities of a person. The integral abilities are located between these two levelsand thus form a mesolevel in the general hierarchical organization of the abilitiesof the individual.

  6. Associations between APOE variants and metabolic traits and the impact of psychological stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia I Iqbal Kring

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress.Obese young men (n = 475, BMI ≥ 31.0 kg/m(2 and a randomly selected control group (n = 709 identified from a population of 141,800 men were re-examined in two surveys (S-46: mean age 46, S-49: mean age 49 years where anthropometric and biochemical measures were available. Psychological stress factors were assessed by a self-administered 7-item questionnaire. Each item had the possible response categories "yes" and "no" and assessed familial problems and conflicts. Summing positive responses constituted a stress item score, which was then dichotomized into stressed and non-stressed. Logistic regression analysis, applying a recessive genetic model, was used to assess odds ratios (OR of the associations between APOE rs439401 genotypes and adverse levels of metabolic traits.The APOE rs439401 TT-genotype associated positively with BMI (OR = 1.09 [1.01; 1.17], waist circumference (OR = 1.09 [1.02; 1.17] in stressed men at S-46. Positive associations were observed for fasting plasma glucose (OR = 1.42 [1.07; 1.87], serum triglycerides (OR = 1.41 [1.05; 1.91] and with fasting plasma insulin (OR = 1.48 [1.05; 2.08] in stressed men at S-49. Rs439401 TT-genotype also associated positively with surrogate measures of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; OR = 1.21 [1.03; 1.41] and inversely with insulin sensitivity (Stumvoll index; OR = 0.90 [0.82; 0.99], BIGTT-S(I; OR = 0.60 [0.43; 0.85] in stressed men. No significant associations were observed in non-stressed men, albeit the estimates showed similar but weaker trends as in stressed men.The present results suggest that the APOE rs439401

  7. Structure of personality psychology based on cocitation analysis of prominent authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremov Tanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Author Cocitation Analysis was applied in order to map the personality psychology as a research field. A group of 25 authors were selected from the Haggbloom (1999, 2002 lists of the most cited and prominent psychologists, judged to be the main contributors to the field. All of their cocitations identified in the three year volumes of SSCI were downloaded to be analyzed by cluster analysis and MDS. The analysis resulted in four clusters comprising (1 theorists of individual differences amalgamated with authors of biological orientation with R. Cattell positioned centrally, (2 behaviorists joined by socio-cognitive theorists led by M.E.P. Seligman and A. Bandura, and (3 the group of psychoanalytic (dynamic theorists with A. Adler in the middle. In fourth cluster G. Allport, H. Murray, K. Lewin, W. Mischel, and D. Buss were found mixed together to make a rather heterogeneous group. In two-axes representation one of the dimensions was understood as reflecting methodological and the other one content-specific differences among the authors, although this interpretation is not univocal. The same procedure was repeated on citations given to the same authors in SocioFakt - the Serbian Citation Index for Social Sciences, revealing a reduced picture of the domain. At this portrait, some important authors are missing as a result of their low citation rate, suggesting that in the Serbian personality psychology entire research fields don’t exist. .

  8. [Psychological distress and personality characteristics among individuals with primary exercise dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Jenni; Clementi, Cecilia; Grandi, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess both psychological distress and personality characteristics associat with primary exercise dependence. A cross-sectional study was carried out with adult habitual physical exercisers. A total of 79 participants voluntarily completed a package of self-report questionnaires including the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ), the Eating Disorder Inventory II (EDI-2), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Attitude Toward Self scale (ATS), Muscle Dysmorphia Questionnaire (MDQ), and the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ). Significant differences were found in the EDQ exercise for weight control subscale with regard to gender, as well as in the EDI-2 total score and 5 of its subscales, with higher scores for females compared to males. Participants reporting primary exercise dependence (n=32) were more likely to present with disordered eating patterns than controls (n=47). They also showed higher levels of harm avoidance and persistence on the TCI, as well as lower self-directness. Furthermore, primary exercise dependents scored higher on the ATS dysmorphophobia subscale, as well as on the MDQ total score and the anxiety and hostility subscales of the SQ compared to controls. These findings highlight the importance of performing a clinical assessment of psychological symptoms and personality characteristics that might be associated with primary exercise dependence.

  9. Personality characteristics and psychological distress associated with primary exercise dependence: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Silvana; Clementi, Cecilia; Guidi, Jenny; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Tossani, Eliana

    2011-09-30

    The aim of this study was to assess personality characteristics and psychological distress associated with primary exercise dependence (ExeDepI) in a mixed gender sample. A cross-sectional study was carried out with adult habitual physical exercisers. A total of 79 participants voluntarily completed a package of self-report questionnaires including the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ), the Eating Disorder Inventory II (EDI-2), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Attitude Toward Self scale (ATS), and the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ). Significant differences were found on the EDQ exercise for weight control subscale with regard to gender, as well as on the EDI-2 total score and five of its subscales, with higher scores for females compared to males. Participants reporting primary exercise dependence (N=32) were more likely to present with disordered eating patterns than controls (N=47). They also showed higher levels of harm avoidance and persistence on the TCI, but lower self-directness and less mature character. Furthermore, ExeDepI group scored higher on the ATS dysmorphophobia subscale, as well as on the anxiety and hostility subscales of the SQ compared to the control group. These findings provide support to the idea that primary exercise dependence can be considered as a clinical syndrome associated with certain personality characteristics and psychological symptoms that might be accurately assessed in clinical settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Serious psychological distress and health outcomes for persons with epilepsy in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John O; Charyton, Christine; Lu, Bo; Moore, J Layne

    2009-06-01

    Epidemiology literature demonstrates socioeconomic status as an important variable for outcomes in persons with epilepsy. However, no previous studies have analyzed the association between poverty and epilepsy in the United States. Forty-one percent (246/604) of persons with a history of epilepsy (PWHE) in the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (n=43,020) had an annual income Poverty Level (FPL), adjusted lifetime prevalence rate 0.5% [98.33% CI 0.4-0.7]. Four groups are presented in the analyses: (1) those with a history of epilepsy history of epilepsy > or =200% FPL, (3) those not reporting a history of epilepsy history of epilepsy > or =200% FPL. PWHE in poverty reported significantly higher amounts of serious psychological distress, based on the validated Kessler 6 (K6) scale, than both non-epilepsy populations. After adjusting for demographics and other comorbid conditions, logistic regression analyses show PWHE in poverty are significantly more likely to report fair or poor self-rated health status when compared to the PWHE not in poverty and both non-epilepsy populations. PWHE in poverty are also more likely to report > or =14 generally unhealthy days and > or =14 physically unhealthy days in the past 30 days compared to the PWHE not in poverty and both non-epilepsy populations. Psychological well-being needs to be incorporated into any comprehensive treatment strategy for managing epilepsy.

  11. Effect of psychological stress on gastric motility assessed by electrical bio-impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Franco, María Raquel; Vargas-Luna, Miguel; Montes-Frausto, Juana Berenice; Morales-Mata, Ismael; Ramirez-Padilla, Lorena

    2012-09-28

    To evaluate gastric motility using electrical bio-impedance (EBI) and gastric changes as a result of stress induced by psychological tests. A group of 57 healthy women, aged 40-60 years, was recruited, and a clinical history and physical examination were performed. The women were free from severe anxiety, chronic or acute stress, severe depression, mental diseases and conditions that affect gastric activity. The women were evaluated under fasting conditions, and using a four-electrode configuration, the gastric signals were obtained through a BIOPAC MP-150 system. The volunteers were evaluated using the following paradigm: basal state, recording during the Stroop Test, intermediate resting period, recording during the Raven Test, and a final resting period. We analyzed the relative areas of the frequency spectrum: A1 (1-2 cpm), A2 (2-4 cpm), A3 (4-8 cpm), and A4 (8-12 cpm), as well as the median of area A2 + A3. The data were analyzed by an autoregressive method using a Butterworth filter with MatLab and Origin. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Friedman ANOVA (for nonparametric variables) were performed; in addition, pairs of groups were compared using the T dependent and Wilcoxon T tests. The results of the main values of area A2 were not significantly different comparing the five steps of the experimental paradigm. Nevertheless, there was a tendency of this A2 region to decrease during the stress tests, with recuperation at the final resting step. When an extended gastric region was considered (1-4 cpm), significant differences with the psychological stress tests were present (F = 3.85, P = 0.005). The A3 region also showed significant changes when the stress psychological tests were administered (F = 7.25, P stress test showed significant changes (F = 5.5, P stress test (P stress can be evaluated by short-term EBI.

  12. Factors related to health-related quality of life among Chinese psychiatrists: occupational stress and psychological capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Wang, Lie; Zhao, Qun

    2015-01-22

    strategy and should be paid attention to in improving HRQOL of psychiatrists. Proportionate occupational reward (money, esteem, career opportunities) to their high work demands, psychological counseling, and stress management courses should be provided to psychiatrists to improve their QOL. PsyCap, as a personal coping resource open to change, should be managed and developed among psychiatrists.

  13. [Person-organization fit as a mediator of relationship between work environment and stress among social workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkowska, Małlgorzata; Andysz, Aleksandra; Merecz, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Occupational stress of social workers is associated with various psychosocial hazards in the work environment. Some of them affect person-organization fit (P-O fit). The aim of the study was to verify a hypothesis on the mediating role of P-O fit in the relationship between work environment and stress. The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers directly involved in social work. The data were obtained using the Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska, the Work Environment Questionnaire developed by the Department of Occupational Psychology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) by Cohen et al. As revealed by the regression analysis of the 4 analyzed work environment factors, only organizational politics was significantly related with perceived stress. Complementary and supplementary dimensions of P-O fit and identification with organization were the mediators of the relationship between organizational policies and stress, but only complementary fit proved to be a total mediator. The results of the study suggest that person-organization fit, especially its complementary aspect, is an essential determinant of accomplishing the core functions of social work and good practice among social workers.

  14. Person-organization fit as a mediator of relationship between work environment and stress among social workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Waszkowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational stress of social workers is associated with various psychosocial hazards in the work environment. Some of them affect person-organization fit (P-O fit. The aim of the study was to verify a hypothesis on the mediating role of P-O fit in the relationship between work environment and stress. Material and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers directly involved in social work. The data were obtained using the Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska, the Work Environment Questionnaire developed by the Department of Occupational Psychology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 by Cohen et al. Results: As revealed by the regression analysis of the 4 analyzed work environment factors, only organizational politics was significantly related with perceived stress. Complementary and supplementary dimensions of P-O fit and identification with organization were the mediators of the relationship between organizational policies and stress, but only complementary fit proved to be a total mediator. Conclusions: The results of the study suggest that person-organization fit, especially its complementary aspect, is an essential determinant of accomplishing the core functions of social work and good practice among social workers. Med Pr 2014;65(2:219–228

  15. The Role of Personality and Subjective Exposure Experiences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms among Children Following Wenchuan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiacan; Xu, Jiajun; Li, Bin; Li, Na; Guo, Wanjun; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Yanchun; Hu, Junmei

    2017-12-08

    This study aims to investigate the role of personality traits and subjective exposure experiences in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. In Qingchuan, 21,652 children aged 7 to 15 years were assessed using face-to-face interviews one year after the Wenchuan earthquake in China. The Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, a modified earthquake exposure scale, the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (adolescent), and the Adolescent Depression Inventory were used to assess personality characteristics, trauma experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms, respectively. The measurement was completed with 20,749 children. After adjusting for other factors by multinomial logistic regression analysis, neuroticism, having felt unable to escape from the disaster and having been trapped for a longer time were risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. Socialization was a protective factor of them. Having felt extreme panic or fear was a risk factor of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. For depression symptoms, introversion and psychoticism were risk factors, and extraversion was a protective factor. This study was conducted with the largest representative sample of child survivors of a natural, devastating disaster in a developing country. These results could be useful for planning psychological intervention strategies for children and for influencing further research.

  16. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Shankar, Pathiyil R; Binu, V S; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjoy; Ray, Biswabina; Menezes, Ritesh G

    2007-08-02

    In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students). The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. The higher level of psychological morbidity warrants need for interventions like

  17. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Chiranjoy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. Results The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students. The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. Conclusion The higher

  18. Blood pressure reactivity to psychological stress predicts hypertension in the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A; Katholi, Charles R; McCreath, Heather; Whooley, Mary A; Williams, David R; Zhu, Sha; Markovitz, Jerry H

    2004-07-06

    A longstanding but controversial hypothesis is that individuals who exhibit frequent, large increases in blood pressure (BP) during psychological stress are at risk for developing essential hypertension. We tested whether BP changes during psychological stress predict incident hypertension in young adults. We used survival analysis to predict hypertensive status during 13 years of follow-up in a sample of >4100 normotensive black and white men and women (age at entry, 18 to 30 years) enrolled in the CARDIA study. BP responses to 3 psychological challenges--cold pressor, star tracing, and video game tasks--were measured. Hypertensive status was defined as use of antihypertensive medication or measured BP > or =140/90 mm Hg. After adjustment for race, gender, covariates (education, body mass index, age, and resting pressure), and their significant interactions, the larger the BP responses were to each of the 3 tasks, the earlier hypertension occurred (Pvideo game was apparent for men. Young adults who show a large BP response to psychological stress may be at risk for hypertension as they approach midlife.

  19. Personal resilience resources predict post-stem cell transplant cancer survivors' psychological outcomes through reductions in depressive symptoms and meaning-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Rebecca A; Wu, Lisa M; Austin, Jane; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Rini, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether post-transplant cancer survivors (N = 254, 9 months to 3 years after stem cell transplant treatment) with greater personal resilience resources demonstrated better psychological outcomes and whether this could be attributed to reductions in depressive symptoms and/or four meaning-making processes (searching for and finding reasons for one's illness; searching for and finding benefit from illness). Hierarchical linear regression analyses examined associations of survivors' baseline personal resilience resources (composite variable of self-esteem, mastery, and optimism), which occurred an average of 1.7 years after transplant, and 4-month changes in psychological outcomes highly relevant to recovering from this difficult and potentially traumatic treatment: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and purpose in life. Boot-strapped analyses tested mediation. Greater personal resilience resources predicted decreases in PTSD stress symptoms (b = -0.07, p = 0.005), mediated by reductions in depressive symptoms (b = -0.01, 95% CI: -0.027, -0.003) and in searching for a reason for one's illness (b = -0.01, 95% CI: -0.034, -0.0003). In addition, greater resilience resources predicted increases in purpose in life (b = 0.10, p meaning-making (searching for a reason for one's illness) was also important for reducing PTSD symptoms.

  20. Family-Related Opinions and Stressful Situations Associated with Psychological Distress in Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment

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    Jiro Takaki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540 at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%. The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6. The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05 and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that “women should devote themselves to their household duties” those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that “married life without children is favorable” and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.

  1. Rank, job stress, psychological distress and physical activity among military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Lilian Cristina X; Lopes, Claudia S

    2013-08-03

    Physical fitness is one of the most important qualities in armed forces personnel. However, little is known about the association between the military environment and the occupational and leisure-time dimensions of the physical activity practiced there. This study assessed the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity levels (overall and by dimensions). This a cross-sectional study among 506 military service personnel of the Brazilian Army examined the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity through multiple linear regression using a generalized linear model. The adjusted models showed that the rank of lieutenant was associated with most occupational physical activity (β = 0.324; CI 95% 0.167; 0.481); "high effort and low reward" was associated with more occupational physical activity (β = 0.224; CI 95% 0.098; 0.351) and with less physical activity in sports/physical exercise in leisure (β = -0.198; CI 95% -0.384; -0.011); and psychological distress was associated with less physical activity in sports/exercise in leisure (β = -0.184; CI 95% -0.321; -0.046). The results of this study show that job stress and rank were associated with higher levels of occupational physical activity. Moreover job stress and psychological distress were associated with lower levels of physical activity in sports/exercises. In the military context, given the importance of physical activity and the psychosocial environment, both of which are related to health, these findings may offer input to institutional policies directed to identifying psychological distress early and improving work relationships, and to creating an environment more favorable to increasing the practice of leisure-time physical activity.

  2. Investigation of telomere length and psychological stress in rape victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Stefanie; Hemmings, Sian; Kidd, Martin; Martin, Lindi; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-12-21

    Women are at an increased risk of depression and other mental health problems following rape. Various etiological factors for depression, including predisposing genetic factors, have been identified. Telomeres are repetitive nucleoprotein structures located at chromosomal ends that protect them from premature degradation. Telomeres reduce in length with each cell division, resulting in cellular senescence and apoptosis. Relative quantification of telomeric repeats using qPCR was performed to investigate whether shorter relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in a cohort of 64 rape victims was associated with resilience, the development of rape trauma-related major depressive disorder (MDD) or the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after 3 months. Out of the 64 participants, 23 participants were diagnosed with MDD at baseline and 31 after 3 months. Nine participants were diagnosed with PTSD (MDD and PTSD specifically related to the trauma). No significant associations were observed between relative LTL and resilience or the development of MDD at either baseline or after 3 months in this cohort. However, a marginally significant association was evident between relative LTL and PTSD status. The significant association between relative LTL and PTSD suggests that shorter relative LTL might have acted as a predisposing factor in the development of PTSD after a severely traumatic event. The results of this study indicate that telomere shortening may be an important marker of PTSD risk, with implications for early intervention and timely treatment, and as such warrant replication in a larger cohort. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Symptoms of borderline personality disorder predict interpersonal (but not independent) stressful life events in a community sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Abigail D; Gleason, Marci E J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2013-05-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often experience stressful life events at a higher frequency than those without BPD. It is less clear what specific types of events are involved in this effect, and it has not been determined whether some features of BPD are more important than others in accounting for this effect. The latter issue is important in light of the heterogeneous nature of this diagnostic construct. These issues were examined in a large, representative community sample of men and women, ages 55-64. Ten Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev., DSM-IV-TR, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000) personality disorders were assessed at baseline using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality: SIDP-IV (B. Pfohl, N. Blum, & M. Zimmerman, 1997, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press). Life events were measured at three sequential assessments following baseline at 6-month (N = 1,294), 12-month (N = 1,070), and 18-month (N = 837) follow-ups. Stressful life events were identified using a self-report questionnaire (LTE-Q; List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire: A subset of prescribed life events with considerable long-term contextual threat by T. Brugha, C. Bebbington, P. Tennant, and J. Hurry, 1985, Psychological Medicine, Vol. 15, pp. 189-194.) followed by a telephone interview. Only borderline personality pathology was related to an increase in the frequency of interpersonal stressful life events. Three specific symptoms of BPD were largely responsible for this connection: unstable interpersonal relationships, impulsivity, and chronic feelings of emptiness (negative association). Symptoms of avoidant and schizoid personality disorders were associated with a reduced number of stressful life events that are considered to be outside a person's control (e.g., serious illness, injury, or death of a loved one). None of the personality disorders predicted an increase in the number of

  4. Disaggregating Within- and Between-Person Effects of Social Identification on Subjective and Endocrinological Stress Reactions in a Real-Life Stress Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketturat, Charlene; Frisch, Johanna U; Ullrich, Johannes; Häusser, Jan A; van Dick, Rolf; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Several experimental and cross-sectional studies have established the stress-buffering effect of social identification, yet few longitudinal studies have been conducted within this area of research. This study is the first to make use of a multilevel approach to disaggregate between- and within-person effects of social identification on subjective and endocrinological stress reactions. Specifically, we conducted a study with 85 prospective students during their 1-day aptitude test for a university sports program. Ad hoc groups were formed, in which students completed several tests in various disciplines together. At four points in time, salivary cortisol, subjective strain, and identification with their group were measured. Results of multilevel analyses show a significant within-person effect of social identification: The more students identified with their group, the less stress they experienced and the lower their cortisol response was. Between-person effects were not significant. Advantages of using multilevel approaches within this field of research are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  5. Association of Stressful Life Events with Psychological Problems: A Large-Scale Community-Based Study Using Grouped Outcomes Latent Factor Regression with Latent Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Hassanzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The current study is aimed at investigating the association between stressful life events and psychological problems in a large sample of Iranian adults. Method. In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4763 Iranian adults, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Grouped outcomes latent factor regression on latent predictors was used for modeling the association of psychological problems (depression, anxiety, and psychological distress, measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, as the grouped outcomes, and stressful life events, measured by a self-administered stressful life events (SLEs questionnaire, as the latent predictors. Results. The results showed that the personal stressors domain has significant positive association with psychological distress (β=0.19, anxiety (β=0.25, depression (β=0.15, and their collective profile score (β=0.20, with greater associations in females (β=0.28 than in males (β=0.13 (all P<0.001. In addition, in the adjusted models, the regression coefficients for the association of social stressors domain and psychological problems profile score were 0.37, 0.35, and 0.46 in total sample, males, and females, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion. Results of our study indicated that different stressors, particularly those socioeconomic related, have an effective impact on psychological problems. It is important to consider the social and cultural background of a population for managing the stressors as an effective approach for preventing and reducing the destructive burden of psychological problems.

  6. Association of Stressful Life Events with Psychological Problems: A Large-Scale Community-Based Study Using Grouped Outcomes Latent Factor Regression with Latent Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Heidari, Zahra; Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ammar; Afshar, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Objective The current study is aimed at investigating the association between stressful life events and psychological problems in a large sample of Iranian adults. Method In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4763 Iranian adults, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Grouped outcomes latent factor regression on latent predictors was used for modeling the association of psychological problems (depression, anxiety, and psychological distress), measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), as the grouped outcomes, and stressful life events, measured by a self-administered stressful life events (SLEs) questionnaire, as the latent predictors. Results The results showed that the personal stressors domain has significant positive association with psychological distress (β = 0.19), anxiety (β = 0.25), depression (β = 0.15), and their collective profile score (β = 0.20), with greater associations in females (β = 0.28) than in males (β = 0.13) (all P < 0.001). In addition, in the adjusted models, the regression coefficients for the association of social stressors domain and psychological problems profile score were 0.37, 0.35, and 0.46 in total sample, males, and females, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion Results of our study indicated that different stressors, particularly those socioeconomic related, have an effective impact on psychological problems. It is important to consider the social and cultural background of a population for managing the stressors as an effective approach for preventing and reducing the destructive burden of psychological problems. PMID:29312459

  7. Is change bad? Personality change is associated with poorer psychological health and greater metabolic syndrome in midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J.; Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Lachman, Margie E.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Personality change is emerging as an important predictor of health and well-being. Extending previous research, we examined whether two types of personality change, directional and absolute, are associated with both subjective and objective indicators of health. Method Utilizing the longitudinal Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS) data, we examined whether both types of change over 10 years were associated with psychological well-being, self-reported global health, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and diagnosis. Results Socially undesirable personality change (e.g., becoming less conscientious and more neurotic) and absolute personality change were independently associated with worse perceived health and well-being at Time 2. Notably, absolute personality change, regardless of the direction, was also associated with having a greater number of MetS components and a greater probability of diagnosis at Time 2. Conclusions In sum, too much personality change may be bad for one’s health: socially undesirable and absolute personality change were both associated with worse psychological health and worse metabolic profiles over 10 years. These findings suggest that personality change may contribute to psychological and physical health, and provide initial insight into potential intermediate links between personality change and distal outcomes such as mortality. PMID:22924900

  8. Is change bad? Personality change is associated with poorer psychological health and greater metabolic syndrome in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J; Biesanz, Jeremy C; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith; Lachman, Margie E; Seeman, Teresa E

    2013-06-01

    Personality change is emerging as an important predictor of health and well-being. Extending previous research, we examined whether two types of personality change, directional and absolute, are associated with both subjective and objective indicators of health. Utilizing the longitudinal Midlife in the United States survey (MIDUS) data, we examined whether both types of change over 10 years were associated with psychological well-being, self-reported global health, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and diagnosis. Socially undesirable personality change (e.g., becoming less conscientious and more neurotic) and absolute personality change were independently associated with worse perceived health and well-being at Time 2. Notably, absolute personality change, regardless of the direction, was also associated with having a greater number of MetS components and a greater probability of diagnosis at Time 2. In sum, too much personality change may be bad for one's health: Socially undesirable and absolute personality change were both associated with worse psychological health and worse metabolic profiles over 10 years. These findings suggest that personality change may contribute to psychological and physical health, and provide initial insight into potential intermediate links between personality change and distal outcomes such as mortality. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Understanding psychological stress, its biological processes, and impact on primary headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Justin M; Thebarge, Ronald W

    2006-10-01

    Psychological stress is generally acknowledged to be a central contributor to primary headache. Stress results from any challenge or threat, either real or perceived, to normal functioning. The stress response is the body's activation of physiological systems, namely the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, to protect and restore functioning. Chronic activation of the stress response can lead to wear and tear that eventually can predispose an individual to disease. There are multiple ways that stress and headache are closely related. Stress can (a) be a predisposing factor that contributes to headache disorder onset, (b) accelerate the progression of the headache disorder into a chronic condition, and (c) precipitate and exacerbate individual headache episodes. How stress impacts headache is not often understood. However, stress is assumed to affect primary headache by directly impacting pain production and modulation processes at both the peripheral and central levels. Stress can also independently worsen headache-related disability and quality of life. Finally, the headache experience itself can serve as a stressor that compromises an individual's health and well-being. With the prominent role that stress plays in headache, there are implications for the evaluation of stress and the use of stress reduction strategies at the various stages of headache disorder onset and progression. Future directions can help to develop a better empirical understanding of the pattern of the stress and headache connections and the mechanisms that explain the connections. Further research can also examine the interactive effects of stress and other factors that impact headache disorder onset, course, and adjustment.

  10. Striving for LGBTQ rights in Russian psychology and society: A personal narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor I. Lunin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Based on a long personal story of dealing with LGBTQ rights in Russia, the author reviews several transformations in the psychological approach and research to gender and sexual identity. The author describes his professional growth as a psychologist. First his interest was in child sex-role development and then transformed to prevention of sexual crimes, AIDS prevention and sexual education among adolescents. The author shows how his area of expertise in human sexuality brought him to professional ethics for psychologists. Discussion. In the second part of the article the author reviews changes in social attitudes towards same sex- relationships from their criminalization and medicalization to acceptance and respect. The author emphasizes the pioneering role of Professor Igor Kon in changes of mass attitudes towards sexuality and same sex relationships. The author sees Kon’s legacy in his statement that “As long as gays and lesbians are objects of bullying and discrimination, everybody who considers himself/herself as a thinking person must support LGBTQ people’s fight for their human rights.” At the end of this part of the article, the author describes a recent hate crime based in homophobia, and its victim, the talented St. Petersburg journalist, Dmitry Tsilikin. Tsilikin was involved in sex education in the 1990s and published a book about these issues. His murder was not considered by the court to be a hate crime against an LGBTQ person, despite enormous protest from progressive-minded people all over Russia. Conclusion. The author recommends the Russian Psychological Ethics Code as a way to help psychologists support and advocate for people regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity.

  11. Psychological distress and work stress in correctional officers: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Cláudia de Magalhães; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Constantino, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    This article presents a review of literature based on a survey of national and international journals on psychological distress and stress in the work of correctional officers between 2000 and 2014. The databases used were the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Web of Science, and Scopus, and the descriptors were psychological distress, stress and correctional officers. We analyzed 40 articles, mainly about stress. The concept of burnout appeared in several works. The United States is the country that most publishes on the subject. There is little interest about the subject in the journals of Public Health. In Latin America we found only four studies, all Brazilian. The number of publications has gradually intensified over the years, and there was methodological improvement in the development and assessment scales, mainly regarding stress and burnout. Work overload, lack of material and human resources, level of contact with the inmates, overcrowding, perceptions of fear or danger, and the paradox of punish / reeducate were some of the risk factors encountered, among others. The protective factors refer to social support within the prison environment, and the coping strategies are related to the improvement of officer training, stimulating social support, and offering psychological care.

  12. [Influence of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic of patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Zhao, Ping; Chen, Li-Jun; Qin, Hui-Qing; Shi, Wang-Hong; Guo, Wei; Zhen, Ying

    2012-03-01

    To explore the effects of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic of patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia and improve the level of diagnosis and treatment. From August 2009 to April 2010, 231 patients (obtained 217 effective responses) with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia were recruited. Among the patients, there were 123 males and 94 females, with an average age of (38.00 +/- 5.67) years (ranged from 15 to 66 years). Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used to test social support and psychological characteristic and compared the difference of psychological, personality traits and norm, then analyzed the effect of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic. Two hundred and seventeen (93.9%) patients completed the questionnaire. Compared with normal 16PF scores, there were significant differences in factor scores of intelligence, stability, excitability, perseverance,social boldness, vigilance, sophistication, experimental, independence and tonicity (P characteristic between patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia and norms. Improving social support level and optimizing personality traits can improve psychological profile of these patients.

  13. Periodic and chaotic psychological stress variations as predicted by a social support buffered response model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Richard J.; Gallas, Jason A. C.; Schuldberg, David

    2017-08-01

    Recent work has introduced social dynamic models of people's stress-related processes, some including amelioration of stress symptoms by support from others. The effects of support may be ;direct;, depending only on the level of support, or ;buffering;, depending on the product of the level of support and level of stress. We focus here on the nonlinear buffering term and use a model involving three variables (and 12 control parameters), including stress as perceived by the individual, physical and psychological symptoms, and currently active social support. This model is quantified by a set of three nonlinear differential equations governing its stationary-state stability, temporal evolution (sometimes oscillatory), and how each variable affects the others. Chaos may appear with periodic forcing of an environmental stress parameter. Here we explore this model carefully as the strength and amplitude of this forcing, and an important psychological parameter relating to self-kindling in the stress response, are varied. Three significant observations are made: 1. There exist many complex but orderly regions of periodicity and chaos, 2. there are nested regions of increasing number of peaks per cycle that may cascade to chaos, and 3. there are areas where more than one state, e.g., a period-2 oscillation and chaos, coexist for the same parameters; which one is reached depends on initial conditions.

  14. Psychological Stress Delays Periodontitis Healing in Rats: The Involvement of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Juan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effects of psychological stress on periodontitis healing in rats and the contribution of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF expression to the healing process. Methods. Ninety-six rats were randomly distributed into control group, periodontitis group, and periodontitis plus stress group. Then, the rats were sacrificed at baseline and week(s 1, 2, and 4. The periodontitis healing condition was assessed, and the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and bFGF were tested by immunohistochemistry. Results. The stressed rats showed reduced body weight gain, behavioral changes, and increased serum corticosterone and ACTH levels (. The surface of inflammatory infiltrate, alveolar bone loss, attachment loss, and expression of IL-1β and TNF-α in the stress group were higher than those in the periodontitis group at weeks 2 and 4 (. Rats with experimental periodontitis showed decreased bFGF expression (, and the recovery of bFGF expression in the stress group was slower than that in the periodontitis group (. Negative correlations between inflammatory cytokines and bFGF were detected. Conclusion. Psychological stress could delay periodontitis healing in rats, which may be partly mediated by downregulation of the expression of bFGF in the periodontal ligament.

  15. Stress among Student Affairs Administrators: The Relationship of Personal Characteristics and Organizational Variables to Work-Related Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Kathleen R.

    1992-01-01

    Examined possible relationships between reported work-related stress and organizational and personal variables, hardiness of personality, exercise activity, and organizational culture of 240 student affairs administrators within Minnesota. Results revealed that job satisfaction and hardiness of personality were greatest predictors of lowered…

  16. Psychological stress impairs short-term muscular recovery from resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Bartholomew, John B

    2012-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether chronic mental stress moderates recovery of muscular function, perceived energy, fatigue, and soreness in the first hour after a bout of strenuous resistance exercise. Thirty-one undergraduate resistance training students (age = 20.26 ± 1.34 yr) completed the Perceived Stress Scale and Undergraduate Stress Questionnaire (USQ; a measure of life event stress) and completed fitness testing. After 5 to 14 d of recovery, they performed an acute heavy-resistance exercise protocol (10-repetition maximum (RM) leg press test plus six sets: 80%-100% of 10 RM). Maximal isometric force (MIF) was assessed before exercise, after exercise, and at 20, 40, and 60 min postexercise. Participants also reported their levels of perceived energy, fatigue, and soreness. Recovery data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling growth curve analysis. Life event stress significantly moderated linear (P = 0.013) and squared (P = 0.05) recovery of MIF. This relationship held even when the model was adjusted for fitness, workload, and training experience. Likewise, perceived stress moderated linear recovery of MIF (P = 0.023). Neither USQ nor Perceived Stress Scale significantly moderated changes in energy, fatigue, or soreness. Life event stress and perceived stress both moderated the recovery of muscular function, but not psychological responses, in the first hour after strenuous resistance exercise.

  17. Competitiveness of personality as a psychological phenomenon: The content of the construct and its typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klyueva, Olga A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human activity (professional and production-related occurs within the context of explicit or implicit competition and proves to be more or less productive and creative. Operationalization and measurement of the competitiveness of personality without due regard for personal and situational interactions reduces the content of the notion. Competitiveness requires a high degree of personal energy, flexibility, intelligence, and creativity in regulating activity. However, enlarging the domain of psychological studies has necessitated the study of personality in the context of the natural social situations in which it functions. This structural and functional analysis allows expansion of the description of the phenomenology of the competitiveness of personality as well as classification of the strategies of competitive behavior. In this study competitive-behavior strategies (1,064 critical incidents in professional activities were analyzed using the Critical Incident Technique and thematic content analysis. To classify the data set, I used two-step cluster analysis as an exploratory method and analyzed the cross-tables of several categorical variables using the log-linear method of model selection. I applied the Solution Tree method for categorical variables to build a dependent-variable hierarchical model with the relevant predictor values. Through analysis of the results of the cluster analysis, the hierarchical model, and the functional and situational analysis of the context, it is possible to single out and validate three types of competitiveness strategies: the dependent, irrational, destructive, short-term strategy (quasi-competitiveness; the dependent, rational, constructive, short-term strategy; and the free, rational, constructive, long-term strategy. Study of the nature of competition and a subject’s competitive-behavior strategies is required to analyze, predict, and correct destructive strategies for enhancing performance.

  18. The relation of depression, anxiety and stress with personal characteristics of nurses in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Khodadadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current industrialized world and ever advancing technology has changed human life by a significant increase in the level of stress and anxiety. Nurses are among those professionals who experience an overwhelming level of stress, anxiety and depression due to work overload and subsequent burnout. The nature of nursing profession for a vulnerable human character increases the possibility of emotional setbacks. Hence, this study was designed to explore and identify the prevalence of anxiety, stress and depression among the Iranian nurses and investigate how these variables relate to personal characteristics and influence the quality of patient care. Using a correlational descriptive design and random cluster method, 242 nurses who worked at different hospital wards in Tabriz, Iran were assessed for anxiety, stress and depression, while their personal characteristics were identified. Data were collected by using a standard questionnaire for stress, anxiety and depression (DASS-21 and later analyzed by SPSS (ver.17.Results showed that Iranian nurses suffered from a moderate level of anxiety, stress and depression and gender influenced these variable rates (p<0.05. Hospital ward type had a relation with stress level (p<0.05, being interested in nursing had an inverse relation to anxiety, stress and depression (p<0.05, while the education level positively related to depression rate among nurses (p<0.05. Type of work at different shifts influenced stress (p<0.05 and marital status reduced depression among nurses (p<0.05. Prevalence of stress and anxiety among the Iranian nurses were at a significant level with susceptibility to experience psychological disorders and provide lower quality of patient care. Findings of this study can alarm the Iranian authorities in healthcare systems to adopt a new policy and improve the current state of health for nurses and patients.

  19. The Personality Features of Heroin Addicts and Psychological Rehabilitation%海洛因依赖者人格特征及心理康复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘显玲; 严明娟; 周宗敏

    2003-01-01

    Objective To analyze the personality features of heroin addicts and their need for psychological rehabilitationto improve personal integrity. Methods The mental health of 35 heroin addicts and 32 normal subjects were assessed by SCL- 90,Social Support Rating Scale and EPQ. Conclusion Heroin addicts have severe personality problems, which warrant long- term psychological rehabilitation after detoxification.

  20. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  1. The Relationship Between Post-Migration Stress and Psychological Disorders in Refugees and Asylum Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Susan S Y; Liddell, Belinda J; Nickerson, Angela

    2016-09-01

    Refugees demonstrate high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychological disorders. The recent increase in forcible displacement internationally necessitates the understanding of factors associated with refugee mental health. While pre-migration trauma is recognized as a key predictor of mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers, research has increasingly focused on the psychological effects of post-migration stressors in the settlement environment. This article reviews the research evidence linking post-migration factors and mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers. Findings indicate that socioeconomic, social, and interpersonal factors, as well as factors relating to the asylum process and immigration policy affect the psychological functioning of refugees. Limitations of the existing literature and future directions for research are discussed, along with implications for treatment and policy.

  2. Use of Portable Digital Devices to Analyze Autonomic Stress Response in Psychology Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Velasco, Ana Isabel; Bellido-Esteban, Alberto; Ruisoto-Palomera, Pablo; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier

    2018-01-12

    The aim of the present study was to explore changes in the autonomic stress response of Psychology students in a Psychology Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and their relationship with OSCE performance. Variables of autonomic modulation by the analysis of heart rate variability in temporal, frequency and non-linear domains, subjective perception of distress strait and academic performance were measured before and after the two different evaluations that composed the OSCE. A psychology objective structured clinical examination composed by two different evaluation scenarios produced a large anxiety anticipatory response, a habituation response in the first of the evaluation scenarios and a in the entire evaluation, and a no habituation response in the second evaluation scenario. Autonomic modulation parameters do not correlate with academic performance of students.

  3. Contribution of personal and environmental factors on positive psychological functioning in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L Francesca; Meleddu, Mauro

    2015-08-01

    This study examined self-esteem as mediator in the relations of personal (extraversion, neuroticism) and environmental (maternal, paternal, peer-relationships) variables with domains of positive psychological functioning (PPF) in adolescence (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigor, Social Interest, Social Cheerfulness). We compared one-sided and multidimensional models using a sample of 1193 high school students (592 males and 601 females). We examined variations in adolescent PPF as a function of parenting styles via independent examination of maternal and paternal bonding. Results supported the multidimensional models, which indicated direct effects of personality traits, maternal care and peer relationships, as well as indirect effects, mediated by self-esteem, of all predictors on most PPF dimensions. Overall, our study provided a broader picture of personal and environmental predictors on different dimensions of PPF, which supported the mediating role of self-esteem and emphasized the importance of considering multidimensional models to characterize PPF in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The benefits of personal strengths in mental health of stressed students: A longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjie

    2016-11-01

    This study used a two-wave longitudinal research design to explore the role of individual strengths, including interpersonal strength, intellectual strength, and temperance strength, in affecting the mental health of stressed college students. A total of 404 stressed Chinese college students were screened to participate in this 12-month longitudinal study. At the beginning of the study (Time 1), students who had not experienced stressful events within the last 12 months were invited to assess their strengths, psychological well-being, and psychological symptoms. After 12 months (Time 2), 404 students who reported stressful experiences completed the scales again and were retained for the final analyses. Academics-related stressors were the most endorsed life events among college students, whose states of mental health showed downward trends from Time 1 to Time 2. Three strengths had weak to modest correlations to mental health at both Time 1 and Time 2. Although the additional variances of mental health explained by the three strengths were very modest, the mediational roles of the strengths were identified. The perceived stress completely mediated the relationship between the strengths and the psychological symptoms and partly mediated the relationship between the strengths and psychological well-being. Individual strengths may function as a defense against perceived stress and are protective factors of mental health. These strengths maintain mental health by enhancing the psychological well-being and reducing the psychological symptoms of individuals.

  5. The effects of yoga on stress and psychological health among employees: an 8- and 16-week intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Rachel E; Daukantaité, Daiva; Tellhed, Una

    2018-03-01

    The stresses of modern work life necessitate effective coping strategies that are accessible and affordable to the general public. Yoga has been found to reduce stress in clinical samples, but studies are needed to examine standard gym yoga classes among functional individuals. This study investigated the effects of 8- and 16-week gym yoga on stress and psychological health. Ninety individuals reporting moderate-to-high stress were randomly assigned to 16 consecutive weeks of yoga, or to a waitlist crossover group who did not practice yoga for 8 weeks then practiced yoga for 8 weeks. Stress and psychological health variables were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks. Significant reductions in stress and all psychological health measures were found within the Yoga group over 16 weeks. When compared to the control group, yoga practitioners showed significant decreases in stress, anxiety, and general psychological health, and significant increases in well-being. The group who did not practice yoga showed significant decreases in stress, anxiety, depression, and insomnia after they crossed over and practiced yoga for 8 weeks. Gym yoga appears to be effective for stress amelioration and promotion of psychological health among workers experiencing stress.

  6. Identifying the role of different personality traits on the relationship between stress and food choice

    OpenAIRE

    Trew, Marissa

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that high levels of stress correlate with higher consumption of high- fat and high-sugar snack-type foods, particularly amongst women. However, it has been observed that not all individuals are vulnerable to this pattern of ‘stress-related’ eating. Both stress and dietary habits have been strongly correlated with specific personality traits but previous research has neglected to observe whether personality traits significantly affect correlations between perceived stress and ty...

  7. [Work-related stress and psychological distress assessment in urban and suburban public transportation companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, L; Lazzarini, G; Farisè, E; Quintarelli, E; Riolfi, A; Perbellini, L

    2012-01-01

    The risk of work-related stress has been determined in bus drivers and workers employed in the service department of two urban and suburban public transportation companies. The INAIL evaluation method (Check list and HSE indicator tool) was used. The GHQ-12 questionnaire, which is widely used to assess the level of psychological distress, was also employed. 81.9% of workers involved in the survey answered both the HSE indicator tool and the GHQ-12 questionnaire. The Check list evaluation showed an increase in quantifiable company stress indicators while close examination using the HSE indicator tool demonstrated critical situations for all the subscales, with the control subscales more problematic in bus drivers. The demand, manager's support, relationships and change subscales were most associated with psychological distress in bus drivers, while relationships, role, change and demand subscales were negatively related in workers of the service department.

  8. Association of psychological stress response of fatigue with white blood cell count in male daytime workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Naoko; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts.

  9. Parents of Children with ASD Experience More Psychological Distress, Parenting Stress, and Attachment-Related Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Belinda M; Newman, Louise K; Gray, Kylie M; Rinehart, Nicole J

    2016-09-01

    There has been limited study of the relationship between child attachment and caregiver wellbeing amongst children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined self-reported child attachment quality alongside caregivers' report of their own psychological distress, parenting stress and attachment style, amongst 24 children with high-functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (ASD; aged 7-14 years) and 24 typically developing children (aged 7-12 years), and their primary caregiver. Children with ASD were no less secure, but their caregivers were more stressed and reported more attachment-related anxiety, compared to typically developing dyads. Child attachment security was related to caregiver psychological distress and attachment style, but only amongst typically developing children. Impacts of emotion processing impairments on caregiver-child relationships in ASD are discussed.

  10. Mental Toughness and Individual Differences in Learning, Educational and Work Performance, Psychological Well-being, and Personality: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Mutz, Julian; Clough, Peter J; Papageorgiou, Kostas A

    2017-01-01

    Mental toughness (MT) is an umbrella term that entails positive psychological resources, which are crucial across a wide range of achievement contexts and in the domain of mental health. We systematically review empirical studies that explored the associations between the concept of MT and individual differences in learning, educational and work performance, psychological well-being, personality, and other psychological attributes. Studies that explored the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in MT are also reviewed. The findings suggest that MT is associated with various positive psychological traits, more efficient coping strategies and positive outcomes in education and mental health. Approximately 50% of the variation in MT can be accounted for by genetic factors. Furthermore, the associations between MT and psychological traits can be explained mainly by either common genetic or non-shared environmental factors. Taken together, our findings suggest a 'mental toughness advantage' with possible implications for developing interventions to facilitate achievement in a variety of settings.

  11. Happiness matters : exploring the linkages between personality, personal happiness, and work-related psychological health among priests and sisters in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Leslie J.; Crea, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    This study responds to the challenge posed by Rossetti’s work to explore the antecedents and consequences of individual differences in happiness among priests and religious sisters. The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire was completed together with measures of personality and work-related psychological health by 95 priests and 61 religious sisters. Overall the data demonstrated high levels of personal happiness among priests and religious sisters, but also significant signs of vulnerability. Pers...

  12. Locus of control, minority stress, and psychological distress among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Larry W; Mollen, Debra; Smith, Nathan Grant

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of minority stress theory, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are conceptualized as members of a minority group defined by sexual orientation. Two of the component processes of minority stress hypothesized by Meyer (2003), internalized heterosexism and the experience of prejudice events, were examined in the current study. Both internalized heterosexism and the experience of prejudice events have been associated with increased psychological distress in LGB populations. Researchers have also observed a relationship between external locus of control and increased psychological distress in general population samples. The current study explored whether locus of control served as a moderator in the relationship between the overall psychological distress of LGB individuals and both internalized heterosexism and the experience of workplace-based prejudice events (n = 165). Results indicated that locus of control served as a moderator in the relationship between experience of workplace-based prejudice events and overall psychological distress but not for the relationship between internalized heterosexism and distress. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Interaction of social support and psychological stress on anxiety and depressive symptoms in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Gen; Wang, Shu-Sen; Peng, Rou-Jun; Qin, Tao; Shi, Yan-Xia; Teng, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Xi; Chen, Wei-Qing; Yuan, Zhong-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the association of psychological stress and social support with anxiety and depressive symptoms in Chinese newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Four hundred and one patients with breast cancer were recruited. Their demographic characteristics, psychological stress and social support were determined with a structured questionnaire, and their anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Psychological stressors caused by breast cancer diagnosed originated from five major sources, as determined by factor analysis. These included "Worrying about health being harmed, " "Fear of decline of physical function, " "Fear of work being harmed, " "Worry about daily life and social relationship being restricted, " and "Fear of family being harmed. " Hierarchical linear regression analysis indicated that, after adjusting for gender, age, marital status, educational level, and duration of illness, solid social support can alleviate such symptoms. The results of this study suggest that there are strong associations between patients' needs and psychological distress with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Social support might affect these associations in Chinese women with breast cancer.

  14. Finding the Most Uniform Changes in Vowel Polygon Caused by Psychological Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stanek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using vowel polygons, exactly their parameters, is chosen as the criterion for achievement of differences between normal state of speaker and relevant speech under real psychological stress. All results were experimentally obtained by created software for vowel polygon analysis applied on ExamStress database. Selected 6 methods based on cross-correlation of different features were classified by the coefficient of variation and for each individual vowel polygon, the efficiency coefficient marking the most significant and uniform differences between stressed and normal speech were calculated. As the best method for observing generated differences resulted method considered mean of cross correlation values received for difference area value with vector length and angle parameter couples. Generally, best results for stress detection are achieved by vowel triangles created by /i/-/o/-/u/ and /a/-/i/-/o/ vowel triangles in formant planes containing the fifth formant F5 combined with other formants.

  15. Relationship between Personality Traits and Psychological Well-Being with Respect to the Mediating Role of Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Taghvaininia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background and aim: Psychological well-being has been raised in the field of positive psychology and has focused on mental health from an individual's growth and efficiency angle rather than being patient. Identifying the personality building of individuals and adopting appropriate patterns is also of considerable importance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality traits and psychological well-being with mediation as the role of forgiveness. Methods: The present research was a descriptive and causal correlation study. The statistical population consisted of all students of Yasuj University, among which 301 students (171 girls, 130 boys were selected by multi-stage random sampling. The instruments used were Reiff Psychological Well-being Questionnaire (PVBS, NEO Personality Questionnaire (NEO and Hartland Forgiveness Questionnaire (HFS. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and structural equation modeling (SEM. Results: The results showed that there was a significant relationship between personality traits (extraversion = p <0.01, r = 0.32, agreement (p <0.01, r = 0.33, openness to experience (p <0.01, and conscientiousness There was a positive and significant relationship between psychological well-being and psychological well-being (r = 0.41, r = 0.41, r = 0.41, r = 0.41. Also, the results showed that the relationship between forgiveness (forgiveness R = 0.27, r = 0.27, r = 0.27, forgiveness in position (r = 0.20, r = 0.23 was positive and significant with psychological well-being. The results obtained from structural equation modeling also indicated that the path coefficient of features Personality to psychological well-being (β = 0.33 and forgiveness for psychological well-being Β = 258/0 is significant at the level of p≤0.01. Also, the results of indirect relations, the role of forgiveness mediators and the significance of these relationships have been confirmed

  16. Relationship of workplace incivility, stress, and burnout on nurses' turnover intentions and psychological empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeleye, Olubunmi; Hanson, Patricia; O'Connor, Nancy; Dunn, Deborah

    2013-10-01

    This study explored the relationships among perceived workplace incivility, stress, burnout, perceived turnover intentions, and perceived level of psychological empowerment among acute care nurses (medical-surgical and critical care) in community and tertiary hospitals through the lens of complexity science. An exploratory study was conducted, and findings demonstrate significant relationships among workplace incivility, stress, burnout, turnover intentions, total years of nursing experience, and RN education levels. Creating targeted retention strategies and policies that will be sensitive to the needs and interests of nurses at high risk for leaving their organizations is imperative for nurse executives.

  17. Psychological stress-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction: the role of metabolic syndrome and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Steven; Brnayan, Kayla W; DeVallance, Evan; Skinner, Roy; Lemaster, Kent; Sheets, J Whitney; Pitzer, Christopher R; Asano, Shinichi; Bryner, Randall W; Olfert, I Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D

    2018-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? How does chronic stress impact cerebrovascular function and does metabolic syndrome accelerate the cerebrovascular adaptations to stress? What role does exercise training have in preventing cerebrovascular changes to stress and metabolic syndrome? What is the main finding and its importance? Stressful conditions lead to pathological adaptations of the cerebrovasculature via an oxidative nitric oxide pathway, and the presence of metabolic syndrome produces a greater susceptibility to stress-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction. The results also provide insight into the mechanisms that may contribute to the influence of stress and the role of exercise in preventing the negative actions of stress on cerebrovascular function and structure. Chronic unresolvable stress leads to the development of depression and cardiovascular disease. There is a high prevalence of depression with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but to what extent the MetS concurrent with psychological stress affects cerebrovascular function is unknown. We investigated the differential effect of MetS on cerebrovascular structure/function in rats (16-17 weeks old) following 8 weeks of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) and whether exercise training could limit any cerebrovascular dysfunction. In healthy lean Zucker rats (LZR), UCMS decreased (28%, P stress and increased production of nitric oxide in the cerebral vessels. In conclusion, UCMS significantly impaired MCA structure and function, but the effects of UCMS were more substantial in OZR vs. LZR. Importantly, aerobic exercise when combined with UCMS prevented the MCA dysfunction through subtle shifts in nitric oxide and oxidative stress in the cerebral microvasculature. © 2018 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2018 The Physiological Society.

  18. Investigating psychological and physiological responses to the Trier Social Stress Test in young adults with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ivy Y; Jarrin, Denise C; Ivers, Hans; Morin, Charles M

    2017-12-01

    Stress and hyperarousal both contribute to insomnia. Elevated stress-related sleep reactivity is associated with hyperarousal, and might constitute a vulnerability to future insomnia. The present study examined acute stress-induced arousal and its association with nocturnal sleep. Participants were 30 healthy adults (66.7% female, M age  = 26.7 years): 10 with insomnia (INS) and 20 good sleepers with high vulnerability (HV) or low vulnerability (LV) to insomnia. They underwent two consecutive nights of polysomnography. During the evening preceding the second night, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was administered, and psychological and physiological arousal indices were assessed. The TSST elicited an increase in psychological and physiological arousal in all three groups. The INS group showed greater acute cortisol response (p stress reactivity and bedtime hyperarousal might represent a trait-like vulnerability in certain good sleepers. More research is warranted to validate and expand these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Health effects and psychological stress in pregnant women engaged in work outside the home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Ayumi; Shiiba, Michiyo; Sibata, Eiji; Kawamoto, Rieko

    2010-12-01

    Modern society demands working conditions in which pregnant women can successfully deliver children and maintain a professional position. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of work on the health and psychological stress in working women and their newborns. We reviewed twenty-eight publications and found that health problems in working women occur at high rates. However, there is no report investigating the mechanism by which health problems occur, or describing the precise working conditions and symptoms in pregnant women who are engaged in work outside the home. In addition, the literature uses subjective evaluations, including psychological tests, to quantify stress and anxiety, but no biochemical analyses of stress-related substances were conducted. We suggest that a standard index to represent working conditions and job category, as well as an investigation of the workload of house-keeping, is needed to understand the total work effort by pregnant women in modern times. Finally, measurement of stress-related biological markers may be effective in the investigation from various perspectives of occupational stress in pregnant women.

  20. Improving the dependability of research in personality and social psychology: recommendations for research and educational practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, David C; Levine, John M; Mackie, Diane M; Morf, Carolyn C; Sansone, Carol; Vazire, Simine; West, Stephen G

    2014-02-01

    In this article, the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP) Task Force on Publication and Research Practices offers a brief statistical primer and recommendations for improving the dependability of research. Recommendations for research practice include (a) describing and addressing the choice of N (sample size) and consequent issues of statistical power, (b) reporting effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), (c) avoiding "questionable research practices" that can inflate the probability of Type I error, (d) making available research materials necessary to replicate reported results, (e) adhering to SPSP's data sharing policy, (f) encouraging publication of high-quality replication studies, and (g) maintaining flexibility and openness to alternative standards and methods. Recommendations for educational practice include (a) encouraging a culture of "getting it right," (b) teaching and encouraging transparency of data reporting, (c) improving methodological instruction, and (d) modeling sound science and supporting junior researchers who seek to "get it right."

  1. Predicting long-term citation impact of articles in social and personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Nick; Koval, Peter

    2010-06-01

    The citation impact of a comprehensive sample of articles published in social and personality psychology journals in 1998 was evaluated. Potential predictors of the 10-yr. citation impact of 1580 articles from 37 journals were investigated, including number of authors, number of references, journal impact factor, author nationality, and article length, using linear regression. The impact factor of the journal in which articles appeared was the primary predictor of the citations that they accrued, accounting for 30% of the total variance. Articles with greater length, more references, and more authors were cited relatively often, although the citation advantage of longer articles was not proportionate to their length. A citation advantage was also enjoyed by authors from the United States of America, Canada, and the United Kingdom. 37% of the variance in the total number of citations was accounted for by the study variables.

  2. Personality and psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms among male collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Nick; A Petrie, Trent; Greenleaf, Christy; J Reel, Justine; E Carter, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    Despite a proliferation of research on disordered eating in female athletes, few studies have included male athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine which of five personality and psychological variables of interest (i.e., perfectionism, self-esteem, optimism, reasons for exercise, and appearance orientation) best predicted eating disorder status (i.e., symptomatic or asymptomatic) in male athletes. Two hundred three male athletes (Mage=20.29, SD=1.64) from three National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institutions participated. More athletes were asymptomatic (80.8%) than symptomatic (19.2%). None of the variables significantly predicted symptomatic status. These findings contrast the literature on predictors of disordered eating symptomatology among female athletes, and suggest the need for further research to identify other potential predictors of eating disturbance among male athletes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychological treatment of depression and anxiety in patients with co-morbid personality disorder: A scoping study of trial evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, L R M; Turner, K M; Dawson, S; Moran, P

    2017-05-01

    It is unclear what the best psychological treatment is for depression and anxiety in people with co-morbid personality disorder. Trials of different psychological treatment options for this patient group have been conducted, but this evidence has not previously been systematically reviewed or critically appraised. We set out to conduct a scoping review in order to describe which psychological therapies appear most effective in treating depression and/or anxiety in patients with co-morbid personality disorder. PsycINFO, Cochrane library trials, Medline and Embase databases were searched for studies involving randomized, controlled, experimental, parallel-arm comparisons, examining any well-defined, psychotherapeutic intervention for adults, in an outpatient setting, with a clearly defined diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety, and co-morbid personality disorder. A total of 1662 papers were identified. Fifteen met criteria for inclusion and were reviewed. There was weak evidence to support the use of cognitive behavioural therapy as a psychological treatment for depression in patients with co-morbid personality disorder. However, the literature is characterized by considerable methodological heterogeneity, and further research is needed before there is sufficient evidence to indicate which psychological treatment would be most effective in treating anxiety and/or depression in this patient group. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Extending color psychology to the personality realm: interpersonal hostility varies by red preferences and perceptual biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Adam K; Liu, Tianwei; Robinson, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    The color psychology literature has made a convincing case that color is not just about aesthetics, but also about meaning. This work has involved situational manipulations of color, rendering it uncertain as to whether color-meaning associations can be used to characterize how people differ from each other. The present research focuses on the idea that the color red is linked to, or associated with, individual differences in interpersonal hostility. Across four studies (N = 376 undergraduates), red preferences and perceptual biases were measured along with individual differences in interpersonal hostility. It was found that (a) a preference for the color red was higher as interpersonal hostility increased, (b) hostile people were biased to see the color red more frequently than nonhostile people, and (c) there was a relationship between a preference for the color red and hostile social decision making. These studies represent an important extension of the color psychology literature, highlighting the need to attend to person-based, as well as situation-based, factors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. "Great Ideas" in Russian Psychology: Personality Impact on Psychophysiological Functions and Causal Approach to Self- determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Mironenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian psychology has brought into the world science at least two great ideas: the conditioned reflex (Pavlov and the zone of proximal development (Vygotsky. These concepts were formulated before “iron curtain” fell. Since then Russian science dropped out from the view of western colleagues for decades. Now it is challenged to re-join international mainstream. Are we in a position to contribute?A key concept for Russian psychology is personality impact on psycho-physiological functions and causal approach to self-determination. The concept of selfdetermination appeared in Western theories in 1980-es and since then it has been developed in the context of teleological humanitarian approach. In Russian science the concept of self-determination dates back to 1934, when it was defined by Rubinstein as “sub’ekt”. Self-determination of ontogenesis of psycho physiological functions resulting from confluence of ontogenesis and social development was explicated by Russian scientists whose theoretical reasoning and empirical results are compared to Western counterparts.

  6. Footprints in the Sand: Personal, Psychological, and Relational Profiles of Religious, Spiritual, and Atheist LGB Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Aasha B; Brewster, Melanie E; Velez, Brandon L; Eklund, Austin; Keum, Brian T

    2017-01-01

    The present study offers a comparison of the demographic features and lived experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals with religious, spiritual, or atheist (R/S/A) belief systems. In this sample of 212 participants, the relationship of participants' R/S/A beliefs to personal variables (e.g., age, gender, race), mental health variables (e.g., life satisfaction, psychological distress, internalized heterosexism, self-esteem), and relational variables (e.g., outness, connection to LGBTQ communities) were assessed. Correlational analyses indicated that level of R/S/A belief was unrelated to self-esteem, life satisfaction, or psychological distress; however, greater religious belief was correlated positively and significantly with internalized heterosexism and outness as LGB. To test the interactions of R/S/A beliefs and categorical variables of interest (e.g., race), log-linear analyses with follow-up chi-square tests were conducted. Findings suggested more similarities than differences for LGB people across R/S/A systems of belief. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.

  7. SELF - EFFICACY, PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS, FAMILY SUPPORT, AND EATING BEHAVIOR ON TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Wijaya Ridi Putra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the leading causes of death and it is caused by genetics, nutrition, and unhealthy behaviors. Therefore, changes in lifestyle associated with eating behaviors in diabetes mellitus patients greatly impact on their quality of life. There are many factors related with changes in lifestyle of diabetes mellitus patients, especially eating behaviors. Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationships between self-efficacy, psychological stress, family support, and eating behaviors among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in Sidoarjo, Indonesia. Method: A total of 117 T2DM patients from the Sidoarjo Community Health Center were included in the analysis. Using SPSS IBM 21.0 program, Pearson product moment correlation was performed to analyze data. Results: The findings showed that self-efficacy and family support had positive relationship with eating behaviors (r = .692, p < .001; r = .683, p < .001, respectively. Psychological stress had negative relationship with eating behaviors (r = -.327, p < .001. Conclusion: Self-efficacy, family support, and psychological stress had relationship with eating behaviors. Nurses should pay attention to the factors to make T2DM patients into a long-term commitment toward healthy eating behaviors.

  8. The impact of posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic stress cognitions and interpersonal dependency on psychological co-morbidities following relationship dissolution among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Siqi; Chung, Man Cheung; Watson, Clare

    2018-02-13

    Relationship dissolution is a distressing experience which can result in the emergence of posttraumatic stress (i.e. post-dissolution PTSS) and other psychological symptoms among college students. Little is known, however, whether posttraumatic stress cognitions and interpersonal dependency may influence the severity of these distress outcomes. This study examined the interrelationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), posttraumatic stress cognitions, interpersonal dependency and psychological co-morbidities following relationship dissolution. One hundred and eighty college students (M = 69, F = 111) who had experienced relationship dissolution completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Cognition Inventory, Interpersonal Dependency Inventory and General Health Questionnaire-28. Posttraumatic stress symptoms following relationship dissolution (post-dissolution PTSS) were associated with increased psychological co-morbidities. Negative view of oneself and self-blame mediated between PTSS and psychological co-morbidities. Assertion of autonomy moderated the mediational effects of negative cognitions on psychological co-morbidities. People can develop PTSSs and other psychological symptoms following the dissolution of a romantic relationship. Their concept of self and tendency to seek independence and control played a key role in determining the severity of distress symptoms.

  9. Person oder Situation? Umweltpsychologische Interventionen zur Änderung individuellen Verhaltens (Person or situation? Conservation-psychological interventions to change individual behavior)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheuthle, H.; Kaiser, F.G.

    2008-01-01

    Changing a person’s conservation behavior requires determining his or her intentions and aspirations along with the actual behavioral options open to that person. Such an approach provides a basis for deciding whether psychological interventions (such as environmental education, attitude change, and

  10. Clinical, psychophysiological and psychological aspects of risk factors of periodontal disease development in clinically healthy persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Nikulina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to determine risk factors of periodontal disease development, psychophysiological personal types and their interrelations in clinically healthy persons. 47 first-year cadets of St.-Petersburg Military School of radio electronics have been examined. This group of respondents has been chosen by presence of such social stressor as change of place of living (97,9% cadets have arrived in St.-Petersburg from other cities and republics of the Russian Federation and strict disciplinary conditions. The research has revealed a low level of oral hygiene, cases of mild gingivitis in most respondents. The general mental state of group under study is characterized by raised level of personal anxiety and low indices of reactive anxiety. The examined group has demonstrated anxiety, tension, indecision and lowered stress stability. Clinically healthy persons are more liable to develop inflammatory and inflammatory-destructive periodontal diseases. It was possible to determine psychophysiological features correlated with physiological parameters of risk degree of periodontal diseases. It may have a great significance in defining of periodontal disease etiology and pathogenesis

  11. State anxiety, psychological stress and positive well-being responses to yoga and aerobic exercise in people with schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Hert, Marc; Knapen, Jan; Wampers, Martien; Demunter, Hella; Deckx, Seppe; Maurissen, Katrien; Probst, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Worsening of schizophrenia symptoms is related to stress and anxiety. People with schizophrenia often experience difficulties in coping with stress and possess a limited repertoire of coping strategies. A randomised comparative trial was undertaken in patients with schizophrenia to evaluate changes in state anxiety, psychological stress and subjective well-being after single sessions of yoga and aerobic exercise compared with a control condition. Forty participants performed a single 30-min yoga session, 20-min of aerobic exercise on a bicycle ergometre at self-selected intensity and a 20-min no exercise control condition in random order. After single sessions of yoga and aerobic exercise individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder showed significantly decreased state anxiety (p stress (p exercise control condition. Effect sizes ranged from 0.82 for psychological stress after aerobic exercise to 1.01 for state anxiety after yoga. The magnitude of the changes did not differ significantly between yoga and aerobic exercise. People with schizophrenia and physiotherapists can choose either yoga or aerobic exercise in reducing acute stress and anxiety taking into account the personal preference of each individual.

  12. Psychological stress exposure to aged mice causes abnormal feeding patterns with changes in the bout number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chihiro; Mogami, Sachiko; Hattori, Tomohisa

    2017-11-09

    Stress responses are affected by aging. However, studies on stress-related changes in feeding patterns with aging subject are minimal. We investigated feeding patterns induced by two psychological stress models, revealing characteristics of stress-induced feeding patterns as "meal" and "bout" (defined as the minimum feeding behavior parameters) in aged mice. Feeding behaviors of C57BL/6J mice were monitored for 24 h by an automatic monitoring device. Novelty stress reduced the meal amount over the 24 h in both young and aged mice, but as a result of a time course study it was persistent in aged mice. In addition, the decreased bout number was more pronounced in aged mice than in young mice. The 24-h meal and bout parameters did not change in either the young or aged mice following water avoidance stress (WAS). However, the meal amount and bout number increased in aged mice for 0-6 h after WAS exposure but remained unchanged in young mice. Our findings suggest that changes in bout number may lead to abnormal stress-related feeding patterns and may be one tool for evaluating eating abnormality in aged mice.

  13. Prevalence of psychological stress, depression and anxiety among medical students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Mohamed; Hamed, Sherifa A

    2017-09-01

    Poor psychological health in medical students has been reported nationwide. This study estimated the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among medical students who were enrolled in a public university in Upper Egypt and determine the association of these morbidities with the students' basic socio-demographic variables. This cross-sectional study included 700 students. A self-administered, questionnaire for the socio-demographic characteristics, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 21) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire were used for assessment. High frequencies of depression (65%), anxiety (73%) and stress (59.9%) were reported. Stress scores were significantly higher than depression and anxiety (P=0.001). 55.7% were poor sleepers. In univarate analysis, females, those living in the University campus/students' residence facility, in the preclinical years and with lower academic achievement had higher scores of DASS and PSQI compared to their comparative partners. Significant correlations were reported between stress with depression, anxiety and PQSI scores (P=0.0001). In multivariate analysis, stress scores were significantly associated with female sex, depression and anxiety scores. We conclude that depression, anxiety and stress symptoms are common in medical students of Assiut University relative to other schools and female gender was significantly correlated with these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Burnout and Stress Among US Surgery Residents: Psychological Distress and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebares, Carter C; Guvva, Ekaterina V; Ascher, Nancy L; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Harris, Hobart W; Epel, Elissa S

    2018-01-01

    Burnout among physicians affects mental health, performance, and patient outcomes. Surgery residency is a high-risk time for burnout. We examined burnout and the psychological characteristics that can contribute to burnout vulnerability and resilience in a group of surgical trainees. An online survey was distributed in September 2016 to all ACGME-accredited general surgery programs. Burnout was assessed with an abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory. Stress, anxiety, depression, resilience, mindfulness, and alcohol use were assessed and analyzed for prevalence. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to determine the magnitude of presumed risk and resilience factors. Among 566 surgical residents who participated in the survey, prevalence of burnout was 69%, equally driven by emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Perceived stress and distress symptoms (depression, suicidal ideation, and anxiety) were notably high across training levels, but improved during lab years. Higher burnout was associated with high stress (OR 7.8; p burnout (OR 0.24; p stress (OR 0.15; p burnout, severe stress, and distress symptoms are experienced throughout general surgery training, with some improvement during lab years. In this cross-sectional study, trainees with burnout and high stress were at increased risk for depression and suicidal ideation. Higher dispositional mindfulness was associated with lower risk of burnout, severe stress, and distress symptoms, supporting the potential of mindfulness training to promote resilience during surgery residency. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Margot C. W.; Brouwers, Evelien P. M.; van Beurden, Karlijn M.; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Weeghel, Jaap

    Background We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. Methods To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National

  16. Normal personality traits, rumination and stress generation among early adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Catherine B.; Sosoo, Effua E.; Wilson, Sylia

    2017-01-01

    This study examined associations between personality and stress generation. Expanding upon prior work, we examined (a) the role of Positive Emotionality (PE), Negative Emotionality (NE), and Constraint (CON), and their lower-order facets, as predictors of acute and chronic interpersonal stress generation; (b) whether personality moderated effects of rumination on stress generation; and (c) whether personality increased exposure to independent (uncontrollable) stress. These questions were examined in a one-year study of 126 adolescent girls (M age = 12.39 years) using contextual stress interviews. NE predicted increases in acute and chronic interpersonal stress generation, but not independent stress. NE, CON and affiliative PE each moderated the effect of rumination on chronic interpersonal stress generation. These effects were driven by particular lower-order traits. PMID:28845067

  17. Relationship between psychological well-being and perceptions of stress among undergraduate dental students in Bengaluru city: A cross-sectional study