WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychological morbidity sexual

  1. Sexual morbidity associated with poorer psychological adjustment among gynecological cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Anna O; Carpenter, Kristen M; Fowler, Jeffrey M; Brothers, Brittany M; Andersen, Barbara L; Maxwell, G Larry

    2010-04-01

    Sexual morbidity is a distressing and undertreated problem in gynecological cancer survivorship known to occur early and persist well beyond the period of physical recovery. Although often studied as a separate domain, sexuality represents an integral component of psychological adjustment and quality of life (QoL) that is adversely affected by cancer treatments. The present study tests the association between sexual morbidity, and adverse psychological adjustment and QoL outcomes. A cross-sectional design was used. The participants were gynecological (cervical, endometrial, ovarian, and vulvar) cancer survivors who were partnered (N = 186), whose cancer was diagnosed 2 to 10 years previously, and who were at least 6 months post any cancer therapy. Most had been found to have early-stage disease (70%) and were treated with hysterectomy (77%), chemotherapy (43%), and/or radiotherapy (23%). Sexual morbidity was operationalized as a multidimensional construct including sexual behavior, sexual functioning, and subjective sexual satisfaction, assessed by patient self-report. Outcomes included self-reported depressive symptoms, traumatic stress symptoms, cancer-specific stress, stress about body changes, and QoL. Nurse-rated of performance status and disruptive signs/symptoms of treatment toxicity, as well as relevant sociodemographic and disease variables were collected as potential controls. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested sexual morbidity as a predictor of poor outcomes. All statistical models were significant, accounting for 12% to 53% of the variance in psychological adjustment/QoL. Sexual morbidity covaried with worsened depressive symptoms, body change stress, and psychological QoL beyond the negative contributions of (older) age, (poorer) performance status, and (greater) fatigue. Notably, disease and treatment variables were not statistically significant correlates of psychological adjustment or QoL. These findings suggest that prevention or

  2. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  3. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  4. Psychological sequelae of sexual abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, P D

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out in one practice to determine the relationship between sexual abuse in childhood and subsequent psychological morbidity. Out of 418 women who replied (62% response rate), 60 (14%) admitted experiencing some form of sexual abuse as a child. Twenty of these (33%) were found to have a record of some form of psychological problem in adult life, compared with 14% of a sample of the non-abused respondents and 20% of the non-respondents. In particular, 54% of 13 women who had experienced oral, genital or anal penetration or attempted penetration had psychological morbidity recorded. There was no relationship, however, between sexual abuse and psychosexual or marital problems in later life. PMID:2107837

  5. Psychological sequelae of sexual abuse in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, P D

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out in one practice to determine the relationship between sexual abuse in childhood and subsequent psychological morbidity. Out of 418 women who replied (62% response rate), 60 (14%) admitted experiencing some form of sexual abuse as a child. Twenty of these (33%) were found to have a record of some form of psychological problem in adult life, compared with 14% of a sample of the non-abused respondents and 20% of the non-respondents. In particular, 54% of 13...

  6. Clinical psychology, sexuality and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, J.; Zitz, C.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical psychology has an early ignominious past with regard to sexuality and gender. Burns and Zitz provide a history of the perspectives taken on sexuality, gender and their variants through the lens of clinical psychology, moving from an individualist, positivistic perspective to more current positions such as intersectionality and post-modern understandings of distress. Alongside this changing perspective the development of the profession and its therapeutic practices will be charted. Bu...

  7. Child sexual abuse: clinical and psychological perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Etty Indriati, Etty Indriati

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the clinical and psychological effects of children who suffer sexual abuse. Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a forced sexual behavior toward a child, either from the opposite or same sex. The types of child sexual abuse include exhibitionism, vouyerism, kissing, fondling, fellatio and cunnilingus, sexual intercourse, and pornography. The psychological effects of child sexual abuse often last a long time, in the form of anger, anxiety, nightmares, insecure, confused, scared, sa...

  8. Sexual life and dysfunction after maternal morbidity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreucci, Carla B; Bussadori, Jamile C; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C; Chou, Doris; Filippi, Veronique; Say, Lale; Cecatti, Jose G

    2015-11-23

    Because there is a lack of knowledge on the long-term consequences of maternal morbidity/near miss episodes on women's sexual life and function we conducted a systematic review with the purpose of identifying the available evidence on any sexual impairment associated with complications from pregnancy and childbirth. Systematic review on aspects of women sexual life after any maternal morbidity and/or maternal near miss, during different time periods after delivery. The search was carried out until May 22(nd), 2015 including studies published from 1995 to 2015. No language or study design restrictions were applied. Maternal morbidity as exposure was split into general or severe/near miss. Female sexual outcomes evaluated were dyspareunia, Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scores and time to resume sexual activity after childbirth. Qualitative syntheses for outcomes were provided whenever possible. A total of 2,573 studies were initially identified, and 14 were included for analysis after standard selection procedures for systematic review. General morbidity was mainly related to major perineal injury (3(rd) or 4(th) degree laceration, 12 studies). A clear pattern for severity evaluation of maternal morbidity could not be distinguished, unless when a maternal near miss concept was used. Women experiencing maternal morbidity had more frequently dyspareunia and resumed sexual activity later, when compared to women without morbidity. There were no differences in FSFI scores between groups. Meta-analysis could not be performed, since included studies were too heterogeneous regarding study design, evaluation of exposure and/or outcome and time span. Investigation of long-term repercussions on women's sexual life aspects after maternal morbidity has been scarcely performed, however indicating worse outcomes for those experiencing morbidity. Further standardized evaluation of these conditions among maternal morbidity survivors may provide relevant information for clinical

  9. Sources of stress and psychological morbidity among undergraduate physiotherapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J M; Feeney, C; Hussey, J; Donnellan, C

    2010-09-01

    Professional education can be a stressful experience for some individuals, and may impact negatively on emotional well-being and academic performance. Psychological morbidity and associated sources of stress have not been investigated extensively in physiotherapy students. This study explored sources of stress, psychological morbidity and possible associations between these variables in undergraduate physiotherapy students. A questionnaire-based survey. The Undergraduate Sources of Stress Questionnaire was used to identify sources of stress, and the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) was used to rate the prevalence of psychological morbidity, using a conservative GHQ threshold of 3 to 4 to determine probable 'cases'. Uni- and multivariate tests of correlation were used to analyse the data. An Irish educational institution. One hundred and twenty-five physiotherapy undergraduate students. More than one-quarter of all students (27%) scored above the GHQ threshold, indicating probable psychological morbidity. This is higher than the level of psychological morbidity reported by the general population. Regression analysis showed that academic (beta=0.31, Phours spent studying. Individual significant items from these subscales were stressful events (beta=0.24, P=0.004), mood (beta=0.43, Pacademic and personal issues being the greatest concern. While personal causes of stress such as stressful events and mood are more difficult to control, manipulation of curricular factors may have positive effects on academic sources of stress. Copyright 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Postpartum Resumption of Sexual Activity, Sexual Morbidity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Health Sciences, Bingham University, Karu, Jos campus, Jos,. Plateau State, Nigeria. Abstract. Background: Postpartum sexual abstinence ..... traditional practices suggests declining postpartum sexual abstinence after childbirth, which had been deeply rooted in our.

  11. Sexual Activity and Urological Morbidities Among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non‑fistulous urinary incontinence is now being mentioned as a complaint contrary to the widely held view that it is part of the aging process. Therefore, awareness creation on management opportunities should be shared with them. Keywords: Community survey, Menopause, Nigeria, Sexual activity, Urinary incontinence.

  12. Sexual Activity and Urological Morbidities Among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to obtain information on their characteristics, pattern of urological and sexual activities. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariable tests were ... Urge incontinence was the most commonly reported followed by dysuria and stress incontinence. Less than a quarter of them had ...

  13. Psychological distress in morbid obesity in relation to weight history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Maria Letizia; Villanova, Nicola; Avagnina, Sebastiano; Fusco, Maria Antonia; Fatati, Giuseppe; Compare, Angelo; Marchesini, Giulio

    2007-03-01

    Very few data are available on psychological distress in morbidly obese subjects in relation to the history of their weight. In subjects with childhood obesity, psychological distress might be better than in adult-onset obesity, because of progressive adaptation to the social stigma. Psychological distress was tested in relation to BMI at age 20 years (BMI-20), weight history and somatic co-morbidities in 632 treatment-seeking, morbidly obese participants from the QUOVADIS cohort (130 men, 502 women; mean age 45.5 years). The number of dieting attempts/year, BMI increase and cumulative BMI loss since age 20 were calculated as weight cycling parameters. The Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), the Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB), the Binge-Eating Scale, and the ORWELL-97 questionnaire were used to score psychometry and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Complications were quantitatively assessed by a modified Charlson's score. BMI-20 was normal in 35% of cases and >35 kg/m2 in only 14%. Psychometric scores were not different in relation to BMI-20, when corrected for age, with the exception of the General Health scale of PGWB, showing a greater distress in subjects with normal BMI-20. In most cases, the prevalence of pathological results of questionnaires showed a J-shaped curve, with participants with normal BMI-20 or those with Class II-III obesity in early adulthood having the highest prevalence of psychological/psychiatric distress and poor HRQL. Weight cycling was a risk factor for binge-eating, depression and interpersonal sensitivity in SCL-90, whereas somatic co-morbidities adversely affected most SCL-90 and all PGWB scales. Weight cycling and somatic co-morbidities, but not age of onset of obesity, are the main factors negatively influencing psychological health in treatment-seeking, morbidly obese subjects.

  14. Psychological predictors of outcome after gastric banding for morbid obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    Obesity has become a major public health problem in Western societies. Although surgery is considered the treatment of choice in morbid obesity, the outcome is variable and weight regain may occur in the long-term postoperative period. The aim of this thesis was to examine psychological predictors

  15. Tinnitus and the prevalence of co-morbid psychological stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tinnitus is a symptom of unknown pathophysiology with few therapeutic measures and may present with co-morbid psychological stresses necessitating psychiatric treatment. This study aims at determining the prevalence of depression and anxiety in tinnitus sufferers in our environment. Method: This is a one ...

  16. Psychological morbidity among female commercial sex workers with alcohol and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiyan, Kasthuri; Chandrasekhar, H; Madhusudhan, S

    2012-10-01

    Substance abuse may act as precursors and also can form outcomes of sexual behaviors. The confluence of drug use, mental stressors, poverty, sexually transmitted diseases, low self-esteem and high-risk partners forms a fertile ground for psychological morbidity. To assess the psychological morbidity among female commercial sex workers (CSWs) who use alcohol and other substance abuse. One hundred consecutive CSWs with alcohol and drug abuse patients attending the psychiatric OPD at Victoria hospital were assessed clinically. Relevant investigations were also carried out. General health questionnaire and substance use disorder identification tests were administered. A total of 100 cases between 30-40 years of age were taken up for the study. All were abusing alcohol with tobacco chewing or smoking being (64). Eighty-seven were married. Fifty of them being illiterate. Seventy-eight were suffering from physical illness. Two were HIV patient on treatment. Seventy-eight were having psychological morbidity (depression and adjustment disorder). Preventive interventions, targeting substance abuse and stimulating healthier-environments and providing economically independent.

  17. Evaluation of factors affecting psychological morbidity in emergency medicine practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Mehdi; Fahim, Farshid; Vahidi, Elnaz; Nejati, Amir; Saeedi, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Assessing and evaluating mental health status can provide educational planners valuable information to predict the quality of physicians' performance at work. These data can help physicians to practice in the most desired way. The study aimed to evaluate factors affecting psychological morbidity in Iranian emergency medicine practitioners at educational hospitals of Tehran. In this cross sectional study 204 participants (emergency medicine residents and specialists) from educational hospitals of Tehran were recruited and their psychological morbidity was assessed by using a 28-question Goldberg General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Somatization, anxiety and sleep disorders, social dysfunction and depression were evaluated among practitioners and compared to demographic and job related variables. Two hundreds and four participants consisting of 146 (71.6%) males and 58 (28.4%) females were evaluated. Of all participants, 55 (27%) were single and 149 (73%) were married. Most of our participants (40.2%) were between 30-35 years old. By using GHQ-28, 129 (63.2%) were recognized as normal and 75 (36.8%) suffered some mental health disorders. There was a significant gender difference between normal practitioners and practitioners with disorder (P=0.02) while marital status had no significant difference (P=0.2). Only 19 (9.3%) declared having some major mental health issue in the previous month. Females encountered more mental health disorders than male (P=0.02) and the most common disorder observed was somatization (P=0.006).

  18. Sexual Abuse Victimization and Psychological Distress among Adolescent Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Debra L.; Kingree, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    This study focused on sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress among 272 adolescent offenders. Female respondents reported more sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress than did their male counterparts. Furthermore, church attendance moderated the association between sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress…

  19. Preliminary evidence that acute and chronic daily psychological stress affect sexual arousal in sexually functional women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Kuile, Moniek M.; Vigeveno, Daan; Laan, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    It is assumed that psychological stress may inhibit sexual arousal in women. Research on the effect of (acute and chronic) psychological stressors on genital and subjective sexual arousal, however, is scarce. To investigate whether psychological stressors indeed inhibit sexual responding, sexually

  20. Psychological co-morbidity in children with specific learning disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children under 19 years of age constitute over 40% of India′s population and information about their mental health needs is a national imperative. Children with specific learning disorders (SLDs exhibit academic difficulties disproportionate to their intellectual capacities. Prevalence of SLD ranges from 2% to 10%. Dyslexia (developmental reading disorder is the most common type, affecting 80% of all SLD. About 30% of learning disabled children have behavioral and emotional problems, which range from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (most common to depression, anxiety, suicide etc., to substance abuse (least common. Co-occurrence of such problems with SLD further adds to the academic difficulty. In such instances, diagnosis is difficult and tricky; improvement in academics demands comprehensive holistic treatment approach. SLD remains a large public health problem because of under-recognition, inadequate treatment and therefore merits greater effort to understand the co-morbidities, especially in the Indian population. As the literature is scarce regarding co-morbid conditions in learning disability in Indian scenario, the present study has tried to focus on Indian population. The educational concessions (recent most given to such children by Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi are referred to. The issues to be addressed by the family physicians are: Low level of awareness among families and teachers, improper dissemination of accurate information about psychological problems, available help seeking avenues, need to develop service delivery models in rural and urban areas and focus on the integration of mental health and primary care keeping such co-morbidity in mind.

  1. Psychological Factors Involved in Sexual Desire, Sexual Activity, and Sexual Satisfaction: A Multi-factorial Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosch, Alessandra; Rochat, Lucien; Ghisletta, Paolo; Favez, Nicolas; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-11-01

    This study explored the role of psychological trait factors in sexual desire and sexual activity. In particular, it investigated how these factors may contribute to maintaining a balance between motivational aspects and self-control abilities, as both have been considered important in relation to adaptive sexuality. Moreover, the study explored the relationship between sexual desire, activity, and satisfaction. Participants completed questionnaires assessing sexual desire (dyadic, solitary), sexual activity (with a partner, alone), sexual satisfaction, approach and avoidance motivation, attachment, self-control, sensation seeking, and mindfulness. Cluster analyses, based on participants' level of sexual desire and sexual activity, highlighted three distinct profiles for each gender related to different types of psychological functioning: (a) participants with high dyadic sexual desire and activity were the most sexually satisfied, showed optimal psychological functioning, and were characterized by a balance between motivational tendencies to seek positive rewards and self-control abilities (high approach motivation, secure attachment, high self-control, high mindfulness); (b) participants with high dyadic and solitary sexual desire and activity were moderately satisfied and showed a type of psychological functioning predominantly characterized by impulsivity (an overly high motivation to obtain rewards in women, and low self-control in men); (c) participants with low dyadic sexual desire and activity were the least sexually satisfied and were characterized by high motivation to avoid negative consequences and low self-control (high avoidance motivation, insecure attachment, and poor mindfulness). These results shed further light on how fundamental psychological factors contribute to explain the individual variability in sexual desire, activity, and satisfaction.

  2. A psychological morbidity study of patients with major burns seen at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... occurred among the patients that were studied. This psychological morbidity developed by 72 hours after sustaining the injury. The need for specialized multidisciplinary approach in burns is emphasized. Keywords: Burns, psychometric study, psychological morbidity. Nigerian Journal of Plastic Surgery Vol. 4 (2) 2008: pp.

  3. Psychological Morbidity in Students of Medical College and Science and Art College Students - A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Mahawar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of quality of life in medical students we have conducted a cross sectional & descriptive study on screening of mental illness of 60 medical students of prefinal year and comparing it with 60 students of third year of Science and Art College. Students were selected via random sampling. GHQ-12 was used as a screening tool and after obtaining scores students were graded in 3 categories - individuals screened positive for psychological morbidity were of Grades 2 and 3 and individuals screened negative for psychological morbidity were of Grade 1 and they were compared according to college, gender & residence. Students screened positive for psychological morbidity as per GHQ-12 were found higher in medical college (87% as compared to Science and Art College (45% and a statistically significant association was found between psychological morbidity and medical students. Psychological morbidity was not significantly associated with residence and gender.

  4. The mediator role of psychological morbidity on sleep and health behaviors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Silvia Helena Modenesi; Pereira, Maria da Graça

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediation role of psychological morbidity, defined in this study as depression/anxiety, in the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality, and between sleep habits and health behaviors, in adolescents. A total of 272 students, between 12 and 18 years old, underwent a psychological protocol assessing excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, sleep habits, health behavior, and psychological morbidity. Psychological morbidity was not associated with the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality, but was associated, with statistical significance, in the relationship between sleep habits and health behaviors. These results emphasize the role of psychological morbidity in adolescent health behaviors. Analyzing the symptoms of depression and anxiety in pediatric patients may help in a more accurate diagnosis, especially in relation to sleep problems and health behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Pre-morbid predictors of psychological adjustment to cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranchor, AV; Sanderman, R; Steptoe, A; Wardle, J; Miedema, [No Value; Ormel, J; Miedema, I.

    This study examined the potential role of social support, neuroticism, and self-efficacy as predictors of the short-term and long-term adaptation to the diagnosis of cancer. Psychological adjustment was defined in terms of psychological distress. It is argued that these factors may provide insights

  6. A study of a couple with type 2 diabetes: dyadic adjustment and psychological morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Graça Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study assessed dyadic adjustment and psychological morbidity in type 2 diabetic patients and their partners, focusing on the role of gender. Methods: 214 diabetic patients and their partners participated in the cross-sectional study and were assessed on psychological morbidity (HADS and marital adjustment (RDAS. Data was analyzed using dyadic analysis, a statistical process that studies the patient/partner dyads simultaneously. Results: results revealed that the negative relationship between dyadic adjustment and psychological morbidity in female patients was stronger than in male diabetic patients or in partners of male diabetic patients. On the other hand, the relationship between dyadic adjustment and psychological morbidity in partners of diabetic men was stronger than the same relationship in partners of diabetic women. Conclusion: since gender is a moderator, it is important to attend to the different needs of female and male patients and the education of diabetic patients should be centered on the patient/partner dyad.

  7. Medical Students' Stress, Psychological Morbidity, and Coping Strategies: a Cross-Sectional Study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Nazish; Tariq, Khaula Fatima; Pervez, Muhammad Ijaz; Jawaid, Masood; Haider, Imran Ijaz

    2016-02-01

    The authors studied the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stresses, as well as coping strategies in Pakistani medical students. Medical students in Lahore, Pakistan, completed a cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire in 2013 on the sources and severity of various stressors. The General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and Brief COPE assessed the psychological morbidity and coping strategies. Out of 1500 students, 527 responded to the survey. The prevalence of psychological morbidity was 23.3%; 52.3% respondents showed evidence of distress. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-12 caseness was associated with being male and occurrence of health-related stressors. The most common stressors were related to academic concerns. Coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness. The significant psychological morbidity and distress warrants establishing support systems to support students and bringing about evidence-based changes to teaching and evaluation systems. Adequate counseling facilities should be made available and students encouraged to seek help.

  8. Screening for psychological morbidity in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women using community counselors in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranix-Chibanda, Lynda; Chibanda, Dixon; Chingono, Albert; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Wells, Jennifer; Maldonado, Yvonne; Chipato, Tsungai; Shetty, Avinash K

    2005-12-01

    To examine the prevalence of psychological morbidity in HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women seeking antenatal care in Zimbabwe. Pregnant women were screened for psychological morbidity at the initial antenatal care visit using the 14-item Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ) before voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT). The primary outcome measure was "cases," as determined by a SSQ score of >or= 8. Demographic characteristics and HIV status were compared between cases and noncases to determine the risk factors for psychological morbidity. Of the 437 participants, psychological morbidity was detected in 73 (17%) women before undergoing VCT. Risk factors for psychological morbidity included having a spouse older than 35 years of age. HIV infection by itself was not a risk factor for psychological morbidity for women. There is a high burden of psychological morbidity among pregnant women in Zimbabwe. Mental health services should be integrated into antenatal care to improve psychological health for all women in Zimbabwe.

  9. Psychological sexual identity and hemispheric orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, E C

    1983-04-01

    The study examines gender and psychological sexual identity as alternative bases for the development of hemispheric orientation. Hypotheses anticipated that females place greater reliance upon right hemisphere functions, such as imagery and emotion, whereas males place more emphasis upon left hemisphere functions, such as logical reasoning. This was extended to an examination of the roles of masculinity and femininity within genders upon hemispheric orientation. With a sample of 219 male and 221 female adults, it was found that the male-left hemisphere orientation/female-right hemisphere orientation dichotomy was supported in part. However, this relationship appears to be moderated by a second dimension: females appear more internally oriented, males more externally oriented.

  10. Burnout, psychological morbidity, job stress, and job satisfaction in Chinese neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyu; Pu, Juncai; Zhong, Xiaoni; Zhu, Dan; Yin, Dinghong; Yang, Lining; Zhang, Yuqing; Fu, Yuying; Wang, Haiyang; Xie, Peng

    2017-05-02

    To investigate the prevalence of and personal and professional characteristics associated with burnout, psychological morbidity, job stress, and job satisfaction in Chinese neurologists. The China Neurologist Association conducted a national cross-sectional study from September 2014 to March 2015. A questionnaire including the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, the Consultants' Mental Health Questionnaire, and questions assessing personal and professional characteristics, career satisfaction, and current doctor-patient relationships was administered. A total of 693 directors of neurology departments and 6,111 neurologists in 30 Chinese provinces returned surveys. Overall, 53.2% of responding neurologists experienced burnout, 37.8% had psychological morbidity, 50.7% had high levels of job stress, 25.7% had low levels of job satisfaction, 76.9% had poor doctor-patient relationships, and 58.1% regretted becoming a doctor. Factors independently associated with burnout were lower income, more hours worked per week, more nights on call per month, working in public hospitals, psychological morbidity, high levels of job stress, low levels of job satisfaction, and poor doctor-patient relationships. Factors independently associated with psychological morbidity included lower income, more nights on call per month, working in enterprise-owned hospitals, burnout, high levels of job stress, and low levels of job satisfaction. Burnout and psychological morbidity are common in Chinese neurologists. Burnout is the single greatest predictor of neurologists' psychological morbidity, high job stress, and low job satisfaction. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Psychological changes in morbidly obese patients after sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, Yolanda; Ferrer, José Vicente; Sanahuja, Angel; Amador, Lydia; Hernando, Denise

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to observe the psychological changes at one year postop in a group of patients undergoing laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy (GVL) and multidisciplinary follow- up. A total of 46 patients with a BMI-35 or higher, who were selected for GVL, completed psychological testing. After GVL surgery, patients received psychological, nutritional, and medical attention during 12 months, and they retook the same tests. Psychological tests showed an improvement on almost all scales tested, except perfectionism. The most significant change was in the benchmark for Eating Disorders with an improvement of 89% for bulimia (P<.01), and 55% for body dissatisfaction (P<.01) and ineffectiveness (P<.01). In quality of life there was an improvement of 57% in the change in health status (P<.01). During our study, a protocol involving GVL and multidisciplinary follow-ups seems proved to be an effective intervention for improving bulimic symptoms and quality of living. The results of these psychological changes are similar to Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass but different to vertical banded gastroplasty or adjustable gastric band, according to previous studies. However, long-term studies are necessary to confirm this trend. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Rumination, Sexual Orientation Uncertainty, and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Borders, Ashley; Guillén, Luis A; Meyer, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between uncertainty about sexual orientation, rumination, and psychological distress in university students. We hypothesized that increased rumination would mediate associations between higher sexual orientation uncertainty and greater psychological distress. Furthermore, we hypothesized that these associations might differ for self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) versus heterosexual emerging adults. A sample of 207 university students completed qu...

  13. Sex and sexuality teaching in UK clinical psychology courses

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, E; Butler, C A; Marriott, C

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of clinical psychology training courses that measured levels of training in sex and sexuality. Findings suggest there is inconsistent provision in terms of quantity and breadth of coverage.

  14. Psychological correlates and psychiatric morbidity in patients with Dhat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Gupta, Sunil; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine psychological factors in the form of somatosensory amplification, alexithymia and hypochondriasis in patients with Dhat syndrome. Secondary aims of the study were: (1) To evaluate the influence of psychiatric comorbidity on the psychological correlates; (2) to compare the prevalence of psychological correlates in those with Dhat syndrome and in those with depression and somatoform disorders. A total of 106 subjects diagnosed with Dhat syndrome as per International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) criteria were assessed on Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Somatosensory Amplification Scale (SSAS) and Whitely Index (WI). Psychiatric comorbidity was diagnosed as per ICD-10. Data on 50 patients with depression and 119 patients with somatoform disorder was used for comparison. The age at onset of Dhat syndrome was 22.54 (standard deviation [SD] - 7.5) years, and duration of illness was 5.04 (SD - 4.2) years. Depressive disorders were diagnosed in 13.2%, anxiety disorders in 15.1%, erectile dysfunction in 14.2% and premature ejaculation in 17% of cases. The mean SSAS total score was 23.12 (SD - 7.99), mean total TAS-20 score was 63.3 (SD - 13.3) and mean WI score was 8.23 (SD - 2.7). About two third of the patients had alexithymia (n = 67; 63.2%) and hypochondriasis (n = 69; 65.1%). Comparison of the psychological correlates between those with Dhat syndrome alone (n = 59) and those with comorbid psychiatric disorder (n = 47) revealed no significant differences. Patients with only Dhat syndrome had significantly higher scores for somatosensory amplification when compared with those with somatoform disorders, but no difference was seen between those with depression and Dhat syndrome alone. Compared to patients with Dhat syndrome alone, those with depression had higher prevalence of alexithymia and hypochondriasis. There are differences in the prevalence of somatosensory amplification, hypochondriasis and alexithymia between

  15. Psychological and Interpersonal Dimensions of Sexual Function and Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori; Atallah, Sandrine; Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista; Rosenbaum, Talli; Abdo, Carmita; Byers, E Sandra; Graham, Cynthia; Nobre, Pedro; Wylie, Kevan

    2016-04-01

    Psychological, interpersonal, and sociocultural factors play a significant role in making one vulnerable to developing a sexual concern, in triggering the onset of a sexual difficulty, and in maintaining sexual dysfunction in the long term. To focus on psychological and interpersonal aspects of sexual functioning in women and men after a critical review of the literature from 2010 to the present. This report is part 1 of 2 of our collaborative work during the 2015 International Consultation on Sexual Medicine for Committee 2. Systematic review of the literature with a focus on publications since 2010. Our work as sexual medicine clinicians is essentially transdisciplinary, which involves not only the collaboration of multidisciplinary professionals but also the integration and application of new knowledge and evaluation and subsequent revision of our practices to ensure the highest level of care provided. There is scant literature on gender non-conforming children and adolescents to clarify specific developmental factors that shape the development of gender identity, orientation, and sexuality. Conversely, studies consistently have demonstrated the interdependence of sexual function between partners, with dysfunction in one partner often contributing to problems in sexual functioning and/or sexual satisfaction for the other. We recommend that clinicians explore attachment styles of patients, childhood experiences (including sexual abuse), onset of sexual activity, personality, cognitive schemas, infertility concerns, and sexual expectations. Assessment of depression, anxiety, stress, substance use and post-traumatic stress (and their medical treatments) should be carried out as part of the initial evaluation. Clinicians should attempt to ascertain whether the anxiety and/or depression is a consequence or a cause of the sexual complaint, and treatment should be administered accordingly. Cognitive distraction is a significant contributor to sexual response problems

  16. Psychological morbidity among co-residents of older people in rural South India: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M Khurram; Jacob, K S

    2015-03-01

    This study attempted to examine psychological morbidity among co-residents of older people living in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. This cross-sectional study evaluated psychological morbidity among co-residents using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire and psychiatric morbidity among older people using the 10/66 Dementia Research Group's population-based studies protocol. Socio-demographic data were also collected. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Of 807 residents evaluated, 73 (9.0%) had significant psychological morbidity. Such morbidity was associated with being older, female, poorer, illiterate, currently employed and being a spouse of the older person. A diagnosis of depression, neuropsychiatric symptoms and greater disability in older people were also associated with psychological morbidity among co-residents. Co-residents living with older people have significant psychological morbidity, which needs to be recognised and treated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. The mediator role of psychological morbidity in patients with chronic low back pain in differentiated treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Salomé; Pereira,M. Graça

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the mediating role of psychological morbidity and the variables that discriminated low versus high disability, in patients receiving physiotherapy and acupuncture. A total of 203 patients answered measures of illness and medication representations, coping, depression, anxiety, quality of life, and functional disability. Morbidity was a mediator between functional disability and quality of life. Treatment consequences and quality of life, in the acupuncture grou...

  18. Psychological features and teenage sexual behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbatova T.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an empirical study on the personality traits of sexually active teenagers. The research identified the personality traits of teenagers who are inclined to look for sexual relations. The research focused on the following: motivation and values, implicit representations about sexual contacts, parent-child relations, and self-concept. The study comprised 465 individuals including 405 school students aged 14-16 and 60 mothers of the teenagers examined. The results demonstrate that teenagers' refusal to begin sexual life, provided they have this opportunity (i.e. a partner, is linked to their subjective perception of the basic values reflected in their consciousness. The research also focused on the features of teenagers' implicit representations with regard to sexual intercourse. This allowed to identify the role of sexual intercourse in teenagers' life. The factors regulating sexual relations in the age under study have been revealed. The research shows that teenage sexual intercourse is mainly driven by cognitive motives combined with the hedonistic (boys and communicational/social ones (girls. Emotionally distant parents are another factor triggering sexual relations. The negatively critical attitude to sexual partners was also displayed, especially by girls. The attitude was expressed by teenagers even where they initiated sexual intercourse themselves, without been pressured into it by their partners. The study has an applied character and enables effective preventive and corrective work with sexually active teenagers.

  19. [Neurobiological, psychological and sociological approach to sexual desire and sexual satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Ammar, Nadia; Bolmont, Mylène; Dosch, Alessandra; Favez, Nicolas; Van der Linden, Martial; Widmer, Eric

    2016-03-16

    In the last years, University Fund Maurice Chalumeau (FUMC) launched a dynamic of research designed to promote scientific excellence and the development of Sexology with particular interest regarding sexual desire. The FUMC has supported a research project entitled "Neurobiological, psychological and sociological approach to sexual desire and sexual satisfaction". This project, sampled on 600 people (300 men and 300 women) aged between 25 and 46 years, was structured around three studies: a broad sociological study and two more specific ones, focused on some psychological mechanisms and neurobiological factors involved in sexual desire. The results show how the secondary socialization, personal expectations, beliefs and values in sexuality, sexual motivations, body image, as well as the neurobiological foundations and visual patterns, are of vital importance in the dynamics of sexual desire.

  20. Impact of Sexual Orientation Identity on Medical Morbidities in Male-to-Female Transgender Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Thomas W; Awad, Mohannad A; Osterberg, E Charles; Romero, Angelita; Bowers, Marci L; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2017-02-01

    We aim to describe the relationship between sexual orientation identity and medical morbidities in a large sample of male-to-female (MTF) transgender patients. We reviewed medical records of patients presenting for MTF sex reassignment surgery (SRS) by a single, high-volume surgeon from 2011 to 2015. Sexual attraction to men (heterosexual), women (lesbian), or both (bisexual) was asked of each patient. We examined 16 medical morbidities for this analysis. During the study period, 330 MTF transgender patients presented for SRS. The average age at the time of surgery was 38.9 (range 18-76). One hundred and one patients (32%) reported being heterosexual, 110 patients (34%) reported being lesbian, and 108 patients (34%) reported being bisexual. Lesbian patients presented for SRS at older ages (mean = 43 years old) compared with heterosexual patients (mean = 36 years old) and bisexual patients (mean = 37), P orientation identity. Lesbian patients had greater odds of having a history of depression, age-adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-4.40, compared with heterosexual patients. Lesbian patients had higher odds of being married or partnered, aOR = 2.31, 95% CI (1.27-4.19), compared with heterosexual patients. Heterosexual patients had higher odds of having human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), aOR = 9.07, 95% CI (1.08-76.5) compared with lesbian patients. Sexual orientation identity in MTF transgender patients is variable. The majority of medical morbidities are not associated with sexual orientation identity. Although HIV and depression are common morbidities among MTF patients seeking SRS, the prevalence of these morbidities differs by sexual orientation identity, but these findings need replication. Counseling and future research initiatives in transgender care should incorporate sexual orientation identity and associated risk behavior.

  1. Psychological morbidity and return to work after injury: multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Denise; Dhiman, Paula; Kellezi, Blerina; Coupland, Carol; Whitehead, Jessica; Beckett, Kate; Christie, Nicola; Sleney, Judith; Barnes, Jo; Joseph, Stephen; Morriss, Richard

    2017-08-01

    The benefits of work for physical, psychological, and financial wellbeing are well documented. Return to work (RTW) after unintentional injury is often delayed, and psychological morbidity may contribute to this delay. The impact of psychological morbidity on RTW after a wide range of unintentional injuries in the UK has not been adequately quantified. To quantify the role of psychological factors, including anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic distress, on RTW following unintentional injuries. A longitudinal multicentre prospective study was undertaken in Nottingham, Bristol, Leicester, and Guildford, UK. Participants (n = 273) were 16-69-year-olds admitted to hospital following unintentional injury, who were in paid employment prior to injury. They were surveyed at baseline, then at 1, 2, 4, and 12 months following injury; demographic data were collected along with injury characteristics, psychological morbidity, and RTW status. Associations between demographic, injury and psychological factors, and RTW between 2 and 12 months after injury were quantified using random effects logistic regression. The odds of RTW between 2 and 12 months after injury reduced as depression scores early in the recovery period (1 month after injury) increased (odds ratio [OR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.79 to 0.95) and as length of hospital stay increased (OR 0.91, 95% CI] = 0.86 to 0.96). For those experiencing threatening life events following injury (OR 0.27, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.72) and with higher scores on the Crisis Support Scale (OR 0.93, 95% CI] = 0.88 to 0.99), the odds of RTW between 2 and 12 months after injury were lower. Multiple imputation analysis found similar results, but those relating to crisis support did not remain statistically significant. Primary care professionals can identify patients at risk of delayed RTW who may benefit from management of psychological morbidity and support to RTW. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  2. Unethical Intimacy: A Survey of Sexual Contact and Advances Between Psychology Educators and Female Graduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Robert D.; Thorpe, Joseph S.

    1986-01-01

    Assesses the impact of both sexual intimacies and sexual overtures in psychology educator-student relationships. Findings show that 20-25% of female psychology graduate students over the past decade have had sexual relations with psychology educators. Implications for graduate training and clarification of American Psychological Association…

  3. Modernization, Sexual Risk-Taking, and Gynecological Morbidity among Bolivian Forager-Horticulturalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Quispe Gutierrez, Raúl; Cortez Linares, Edhitt; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard

    2012-01-01

    Sexual risk-taking and reproductive morbidity are common among rapidly modernizing populations with little material wealth, limited schooling, minimal access to modern contraception and healthcare, and gendered inequalities in resource access that limit female autonomy in cohabiting relationships. Few studies have examined how modernization influences sexual risk-taking and reproductive health early in demographic transition. Tsimane are a natural fertility population of Bolivian forager-farmers; they are not urbanized, reside in small-scale villages, and lack public health infrastructure. We test whether modernization is associated with greater sexual risk-taking, report prevalence of gynecological morbidity (GM), and test whether modernization, sexual risk-taking and parity are associated with greater risk of GM. Data were collected from 2002–2010 using interviews, clinical exams, and laboratory analysis of cervical cells. We find opposing effects of modernization on both sexual risk-taking and risk of GM. Residential proximity to town and Spanish fluency are associated with greater likelihood of men’s infidelity, and with number of lifetime sexual partners for men and women. However, for women, literacy is associated with delayed sexual debut after controlling for town proximity. Fifty-five percent of women present at least one clinical indicator of GM (n = 377); 48% present inflammation of cervical cells, and in 11% the inflammation results from sexually transmitted infection (trichomoniasis). Despite having easier access to modern healthcare, women residing near town experience greater likelihood of cervical inflammation and trichomoniasis relative to women in remote villages; women who are fluent in Spanish are also more likely to present trichomoniasis relative to women with moderate or no fluency. However, literate women experience lower likelihood of trichomoniasis. Parity has no effect on risk of GM. Our results suggest a net increase in risk of

  4. Modernization, sexual risk-taking, and gynecological morbidity among Bolivian Forager-horticulturalists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Stieglitz

    Full Text Available Sexual risk-taking and reproductive morbidity are common among rapidly modernizing populations with little material wealth, limited schooling, minimal access to modern contraception and healthcare, and gendered inequalities in resource access that limit female autonomy in cohabiting relationships. Few studies have examined how modernization influences sexual risk-taking and reproductive health early in demographic transition. Tsimane are a natural fertility population of Bolivian forager-farmers; they are not urbanized, reside in small-scale villages, and lack public health infrastructure. We test whether modernization is associated with greater sexual risk-taking, report prevalence of gynecological morbidity (GM, and test whether modernization, sexual risk-taking and parity are associated with greater risk of GM. Data were collected from 2002-2010 using interviews, clinical exams, and laboratory analysis of cervical cells. We find opposing effects of modernization on both sexual risk-taking and risk of GM. Residential proximity to town and Spanish fluency are associated with greater likelihood of men's infidelity, and with number of lifetime sexual partners for men and women. However, for women, literacy is associated with delayed sexual debut after controlling for town proximity. Fifty-five percent of women present at least one clinical indicator of GM (n = 377; 48% present inflammation of cervical cells, and in 11% the inflammation results from sexually transmitted infection (trichomoniasis. Despite having easier access to modern healthcare, women residing near town experience greater likelihood of cervical inflammation and trichomoniasis relative to women in remote villages; women who are fluent in Spanish are also more likely to present trichomoniasis relative to women with moderate or no fluency. However, literate women experience lower likelihood of trichomoniasis. Parity has no effect on risk of GM. Our results suggest a net increase

  5. Psychological sex differences. Origins through sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, D M

    1995-03-01

    Men and women clearly differ in some psychological domains. A. H. Eagly (1995) shows that these differences are not artifactual or unstable. Ideally, the next scientific step is to develop a cogent explanatory framework for understanding why the sexes differ in some psychological domains and not in others and for generating accurate predictions about sex differences as yet undiscovered. This article offers a brief outline of an explanatory framework for psychological sex differences--one that is anchored in the new theoretical paradigm of evolutionary psychology. Men and women differ, in this view, in domains in which they have faced different adaptive problems over human evolutionary history. In all other domains, the sexes are predicted to be psychologically similar. Evolutionary psychology jettisons the false dichotomy between biology and environment and provides a powerful metatheory of why sex differences exist, where they exist, and in what contexts they are expressed (D. M. Buss, 1995).

  6. Possibility of psychological correction of sexual anomalies in hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babina S.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the possibilities of psychological correction of sexual anomalies in the hospital. We reviewed modern Russian and foreign literature on the treatment of disorders of sexual preference and singled out the main directions of therapy of disorders of sexual preference. We presents a comparative analysis of three therapeutic approaches for the treatment of sexual anomalies (psychopharmacological treatment, cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychotherapy to determine their effectiveness and assess the relevance of the role of the psychologist in conducting therapy. These approaches are discussed on the following criteria: therapy target, therapy aims, the extent and depth of changes, specific treatments. The positive and negative aspects of different treatments are indicated. The review allows the conclusion on correct organization of maximum effective treatment of sexual disorders and on the role of the psychologist in the creation and implementation of therapeutic schemes. We also replenished some of the gaps in Russian studies on treatment of sexual behavior disorders.

  7. Female Sexual Dysfunction-Medical and Psychological Treatments, Committee 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Althof, Stanley; Simon, James A; Bradford, Andrea; Bitzer, Johannes; Carvalho, Joana; Flynn, Kathryn E; Nappi, Rossella E; Reese, Jennifer B; Rezaee, Roya L; Schover, Leslie; Shifrin, Jan L

    2017-12-01

    Since the millennium we have witnessed significant strides in the science and treatment of female sexual dysfunction (FSD). This forward progress has included (i) the development of new theoretical models to describe healthy and dysfunctional sexual responses in women; (ii) alternative classification strategies of female sexual disorders; (iii) major advances in brain, hormonal, psychological, and interpersonal research focusing on etiologic factors and treatment approaches; (iv) strong and effective public advocacy for FSD; and (v) greater educational awareness of the impact of FSD on the woman and her partner. To review the literature and describe the best practices for assessing and treating women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder, female sexual arousal disorder, and female orgasmic disorders. The committee undertook a comprehensive review of the literature and discussion among themselves to determine the best assessment and treatment methods. Using a biopsychosocial lens, the committee presents recommendations (with levels of evidence) for assessment and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder, female sexual arousal disorder, and female orgasmic disorders. The numerous significant strides in FSD that have occurred since the previous International Consultation of Sexual Medicine publications are reviewed in this article. Although evidence supports an integrated biopsychosocial approach to assessment and treatment of these disorders, the biological and psychological factors are artificially separated for review purposes. We recognize that best outcomes are achieved when all relevant factors are identified and addressed by the clinician and patient working together in concert (the sum is greater than the whole of its parts). Kingsberg SA, Althof S, Simon JA, et al. Female Sexual Dysfunction-Medical and Psychological Treatments, Committee 14. J Sex Med 2017;14:1463-1491. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by

  8. Psychological Sex Differences: Origins through Sexual Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Outlines an explanatory framework for psychological sex differences, one that is anchored in the new theoretical paradigm of evolutionary psychology. This paradigm rejects the dichotomy between biology and environment and provides a new metatheory of why sex differences exist, where they exist, and in what contexts they are expressed. (GR)

  9. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Shankar, Pathiyil R; Binu, VS; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjoy; Ray, Biswabina; Menezes, Ritesh G

    2007-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. Results The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students). The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. Conclusion The higher level of psychological morbidity

  10. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Chiranjoy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. Results The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students. The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. Conclusion The higher

  11. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Shankar, Pathiyil R; Binu, V S; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjoy; Ray, Biswabina; Menezes, Ritesh G

    2007-08-02

    In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students). The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. The higher level of psychological morbidity warrants need for interventions like

  12. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay Chiranjoy; Binu VS; Shankar Pathiyil R; Sreeramareddy Chandrashekhar T; Ray Biswabina; Menezes Ritesh G

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical cur...

  13. Chronic idiopathic urticaria, psychological co-morbidity and posttraumatic stress: the impact of alexithymia and repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunkin, Victoria; Chung, Man Cheung

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the interrelationship between chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU), psychological co-morbidity, posttraumatic stress, repression and alexithymia. 89 participants with CIU and 105 without CIU responded to an online questionnaire. Both groups completed the general health questionnaire-12, the perceived stress scale, the posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale and the Toronto alexithymia scale-20 and were categorised into four defence mechanism groups (repressive, defensive, high-anxious, low-anxious). CIU participants also completed the Skindex-17 and a self-report severity measure. CIU participants reported higher levels of alexithymia than the control group and their defence mechanism was most likely to be categorised as defensive, with conscious self-image management reported alongside high manifest anxiety. Partial least squares analysis revealed significant paths between posttraumatic stress and CIU severity and psychological co-morbidity. Posttraumatic stress was associated with alexithymia and type of defence mechanism. Only being in the high-anxious group partially mediated the relationship between posttraumatic stress and CIU severity. In conclusion, there is evidence for a relationship between CIU and trauma. The severity of posttraumatic symptoms varies depending upon alexithymic traits and defence mechanisms used. Disease severity and psychological co-morbidity are differentially influenced by the relationships between trauma, alexithymic traits and defence mechanisms.

  14. Psychological and physical co-morbidity among urban South African women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Mendenhall

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence for the links between poverty and both physical and mental health; but limited research on the relationship of physical and mental health problems exists in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence and co-morbidity of psychological distress among women with common physical diseases in a socio-economically disadvantaged urban area of South Africa.Women enrolled in the Birth to twenty (Bt20 cohort study were evaluated for this paper. Bt20 was founded in 1990 and has followed more than 3,000 children and their caregivers since birth; this study evaluates the health of the caregivers (average age 44 of these children. Psychological distress was evaluated by administering the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and we evaluated the presence of physical disease by self-report.Forty percent of the sample presented with psychological distress using the GHQ scoring method. More than half of the women who reported a history of a physical disease, including diabetes, heart attack, asthma, arthritis, osteoporosis, epilepsy, and tuberculosis, reported psychological disorder. Presence of one physical disease was not associated with increased rates of psychological distress. However, women who reported two diseases had increased rates of psychological symptoms, and this upward trend continued with each additional physical disease reported (measured to five.These data indicate high prevalence rates of co-morbid psychological distress among women with physical disease. This argues for the need of greater mental health support for women living with physical diseases.

  15. Human sex differences in sexual psychology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okami, P; Shackelford, T K

    2001-01-01

    Because age and sex constitute the only distinct anatomical and physiological morphs (types) of the human species, universal sex differences ought to be expected. According to Darwinian theory, the most numerous sex differences are likely to be found in the domains of sexuality and reproduction. We first briefly review the basic model of the adaptationist program of modern Darwinian psychology. We then present evidence suggesting substantial sex differences in the following domains of sexual behavior: Mate preferences, interest in casual sex, interest in partner variety, jealousy, fantasy, sexual "plasticity," and magnitude of intrinsic sexual motivation. We then propose a program for research and explanation of sex differences that invokes both proximate and ultimate variables where appropriate. This program is based in modern Darwinian theory, neuroendocrinology, human genetics, and social and behavioral sciences. We conclude by considering sociopolitical implications of research on sex differences.

  16. Psychological morbidity and quality of life in women with advanced breast cancer: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabsch, Brenda; Clarke, David M; Love, Anthony; McKenzie, Dean P; Snyder, Raymond D; Bloch, Sidney; Smith, Graeme; Kissane, David W

    2006-03-01

    Our purpose was to determine the frequency of psychiatric morbidity and to assess the quality of life of women with advanced breast cancer. The 227 women in the sample were recruited in Melbourne, Australia, and were interviewed (prior to intervention) for a randomized controlled trial of supportive-expressive group therapy. The main outcome measures were DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses plus quality of life data based on the EORTC QLQ-C30 (core) and QLQ-BR23 (breast module) instruments. Forty-two percent of the women (97/227) had a psychiatric disorder; 35.7% (81) of these had depression or anxiety or both. Specific diagnoses were minor depression in 58 women (25.6%), major depression in 16 (7%), anxiety disorder in 14 (6.2%), and phobic disorder in 9 (4%). Seventeen (7.5%) women had more than one disorder. In terms of quality of life, one-third felt less attractive, one-quarter were dissatisfied with their body image, and, in most, sexual interest had waned. Menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes affected less than one-third, whereas symptoms of lymphedema were experienced by 26 (11.5%). Women with advanced breast cancer have high rates of psychiatric and psychological disturbance. Quality of life is substantially affected. Clinicians need to be vigilant in monitoring psychological adjustment as part of a comprehensive biopsychosocial approach.

  17. Factors that mediate between child sexual abuse and adult psychological outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans, S E; Martin, J L; Anderson, J C; O'Shea, M L; Mullen, P E

    1995-01-01

    The psychological outcome for a random community sample of women who had experienced significant childhood sexual abuse was assessed, using two outcome measures: (i) psychiatric morbidity (measured with the short PSE); (ii) self-esteem. Sexual abused women with a good outcome, i.e. who were not a PSE 'case' or who had high self-esteem were compared with abused women with a poor outcome. This paper describes the post-abuse factors that modified the two outcomes. In general, a range of variables, all correlated with each other in a complex manner, distinguished good outcome subjects from poor outcome subjects. Post-abuse adolescent variables included family factors (poor mother-father and parent-child relationships), high school factors (poor academic, sporting and social performance) and early pregnancy. Women who had a good adolescent relationship with their father did better than expected statistically. Sport emerged as an alternative at secondary school to academic achievement in catalysing a good psychological outcome. Adult factors included the quality of relationship with partner, which was associated with a good outcome on both measures. Current paid employment was linked to high self-esteem but not to lowered psychiatric morbidity, while the converse applied for high socio-economic status. These findings imply that different processes operate for each outcome measure. A clear recognition by the school of childhood sexual abuse may help to provide the opportunity for the girl to experience success in some arena; this in turn may protect her against the likely adult consequences of low self-esteem and increased psychiatric morbidity.

  18. Co-morbidity of depression, anxiety and fatigue in cancer patients receiving psychological care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Ranchor, Adelita V; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Almansa, Josué; Sanderman, Robbert; Schroevers, Maya J

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to examine (1) subgroups of cancer patients with distinct co-morbidity patterns of depression, anxiety and fatigue; (2) how individuals transitioned between these patterns; and (3) whether socio-demographic, clinical and psychological care characteristics distinguished patients' transitions. This naturalistic, longitudinal study focused on 241 cancer patients receiving psycho-oncological care in the Netherlands. Data were collected before initiation of psychological care (T1), 3 months (T2), and 9 months thereafter (T3). Latent transition analysis was performed examining research questions. Three distinct co-morbidity patterns were identified: class 1 ('mood disturbances and fatigue'), class 2 ('mood disturbances') and class 3 ('few symptoms of mood disturbances and fatigue'). Half of those in class 1 remained in this group from T1 to T3, a quarter transitioned to class 2 and another quarter to class 3. Baseline physical symptoms distinguished these transitions: those with more physical symptoms tended to remain stable. Half of patients in class 2 remained stable from T1 to T3, 46% moved into class 3 and 8% into class 1. Baseline physical symptoms and years after cancer diagnosis significantly distinguished these transitions: the 8% moving to class 1 had more physical symptoms and were longer after cancer diagnosis. Most patients in class 3 remained stable from T1 to T3, and predictors of transitions could not be examined. Three distinct co-morbidity patterns of depression, anxiety and fatigue were identified and exhibited different symptom courses longitudinally. Those with poor physical health tended to report elevated mood disturbances and fatigue during psychological care. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. [Sexual physiology and psychology of male college students and their clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Da-xue; Wang, Hong; Luo, Yong-he; Pang, Xiao-min; Zhang, Ya-wei; Shi, Jian-hui; Li, Yu-gang; Lin, Yong; Liu, Juan

    2008-10-01

    To understand the sexual physiology and psychology of male college students and to provide schools, families and the society with reference for the sexual physiological and psychological education among college students as well as for the diagnosis and treatment of their sexual psychological disorders in Jiangsu. An investigation was conducted by using a questionnaire on sexual physiology and psychology among randomly selected 3786 male college students from 18 universities in Jiangsu. As regards sexual education, 5.49% of the subjects were satisfied with their schools, 78.18% wanted it to be strengthened and 68.36% obtained their sexual knowledge from the internet. Concerning sexual physiology, 68.78% experienced their first spermatorrhea at the age of 12-15. As for sexual psychology, 85.79% loved a certain female inwardly, and 70.99% experienced love affairs. With regard to sexual activity, 25.54% had sexual experience. College students nowadays are relatively open in sexual ideology, immature in sexual psychology and lacking in sexual knowledge, while schools are inefficient in sexual education. Their sexual health calls for joint attention from schools, families and the society, particularly schools, which need to establish special offices for research and education on sexual health.

  20. Does Severe Maternal Morbidity Affect Female Sexual Activity and Function? Evidence from a Brazilian Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla B Andreucci

    Full Text Available to assess Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI scores and delay to resume sexual activity associated with a previous severe maternal morbidity.This was a multidimensional retrospective cohort study. Women who gave birth at a Brazilian tertiary maternity between 2008 and 2012 were included, with data extraction from the hospital information system. Those with potentially life-threatening conditions and maternal near miss episodes (severe maternal morbidity were considered the exposed group. The control group was a random sample of women who had had uncomplicated pregnancy. Female sexual function was evaluated through FSFI questionnaire, and general and reproductive aspects were addressed through specific questions. Statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney and Pearson´s Chi-square for bivariate analyses. Logistic regression was used to identify variables independently associated with lower FSFI scores.638 women were included (315 at exposed and 323 at not exposed groups. The majority of women were under 30 years-old in the control group and between 30 and 46 years-old in the exposed group (p = 0.003. Women who experienced severe maternal morbidity (SMM had statistically significant differences regarding cesarean section (82.4% versus 47.1% among deliveries without complications, p<0.001, and some previous pathological conditions. FSFI mean scores were similar among groups ranging from 24.39 to 24.42. It took longer for exposed women to resume sexual activity after index pregnancy (mean 84 days after SMM and 65 days for control group, p = 0.01. Multiple analyses showed no significant association of FSFI below cut-off value with any predictor.FSFI scores were not different in both groups. However, they were lower than expected. SMM delayed resumption of sexual activity after delivery, beyond postpartum period. However, the proportion of women in both groups having sex at 3 months after delivery was similar. Altered sexual response may

  1. Phenomenology of the psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents, depending on various factors

    OpenAIRE

    Nutskova E.V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents. It presents review of domestic and foreign research of psychological injury in minors. The article gives results of complex psychological and psychiatric examination of 183 juvenile victims of sexual abuse. Psychological effects of sexual abuse in children and adolescents are identified and described on the basis of age, gender, clinical characteristics of the mental state of the victim, as well as...

  2. Detecting acute distress and risk of future psychological morbidity in critically ill patients: validation of the intensive care psychological assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Dorothy M; Hankins, Matthew; Smyth, Deborah A; Rhone, Elijah E; Mythen, Michael G; Howell, David C J; Weinman, John A

    2014-09-24

    The psychological impact of critical illness on a patient can be severe, and frequently results in acute distress as well as psychological morbidity after leaving hospital. A UK guideline states that patients should be assessed in critical care units, both for acute distress and risk of future psychological morbidity; but no suitable method for carrying out this assessment exists. The Intensive care psychological assessment tool (IPAT) was developed as a simple, quick screening tool to be used routinely to detect acute distress, and the risk of future psychological morbidity, in critical care units. A validation study of IPAT was conducted in the critical care unit of a London hospital. Once un-sedated, orientated and alert, critical care patients were assessed with the IPAT and validated tools for distress, to determine the IPAT's concurrent validity. Fifty six patients took IPAT again to establish test-retest reliability. Finally, patients completed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety questionnaires at three months, to determine predictive validity of the IPAT. One hundred and sixty six patients completed the IPAT, and 106 completed follow-up questionnaires at 3 months. Scale analysis showed IPAT was a reliable 10-item measure of critical care-related psychological distress. Test-retest reliability was good (r =0.8). There was good concurrent validity with measures of anxiety and depression (r =0.7, P psychological morbidity was good (r =0.4, P psychological morbidity (AUC =0.7). The IPAT was found to have good reliability and validity. Sensitivity and specificity analysis suggest the IPAT could provide a way of allowing staff to assess psychological distress among critical care patients after further replication and validation. Further work is also needed to determine its utility in predicting future psychological morbidity.

  3. Investigating risk factors for psychological morbidity three months after intensive care: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Dorothy M; Howell, David C; Weinman, John A; Hardy, Rebecca J; Mythen, Michael G; Brewin, Chris R; Borja-Boluda, Susana; Matejowsky, Claire F; Raine, Rosalind A

    2012-10-15

    There is growing evidence of poor mental health and quality of life among survivors of intensive care. However, it is not yet clear to what extent the trauma of life-threatening illness, associated drugs and treatments, or patients' psychological reactions during intensive care contribute to poor psychosocial outcomes. Our aim was to investigate the relative contributions of a broader set of risk factors and outcomes than had previously been considered in a single study. A prospective cohort study of 157 mixed-diagnosis highest acuity patients was conducted in a large general intensive care unit (ICU). Data on four groups of risk factors (clinical, acute psychological, socio-demographic and chronic health) were collected during ICU admissions. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety and quality of life were assessed using validated questionnaires at three months (n = 100). Multivariable analysis was used. At follow-up, 55% of patients had psychological morbidity: 27.1% (95% CI: 18.3%, 35.9%) had probable PTSD; 46.3% (95% CI: 36.5%, 56.1%) probable depression, and 44.4% (95% CI: 34.6%, 54.2%) anxiety. The strongest clinical risk factor for PTSD was longer duration of sedation (regression coefficient = 0.69 points (95% CI: 0.12, 1.27) per day, scale = 0 to 51). There was a strong association between depression at three months and receiving benzodiazepines in the ICU (mean difference between groups = 6.73 points (95% CI: 1.42, 12.06), scale = 0 to 60). Use of inotropes or vasopressors was correlated with anxiety, and corticosteroids with better physical quality of life. Strikingly high rates of psychological morbidity were found in this cohort of intensive care survivors. The study's key finding was that acute psychological reactions in the ICU were the strongest modifiable risk factors for developing mental illness in the future. The observation that use of different ICU drugs correlated with different psychological outcomes merits further

  4. Sexual Self-Schema and Sexual Morbidity Among Gynecologic Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Woods, Xichel A.; Copeland, Larry J

    1997-01-01

    Longitudinal research indicates that approximately 50% of women treated for gynecologic cancer have sexual dysfunctions as they recover and become cancer survivors. This outcome occurs in the context of satisfactory quality of life in other domains. This study, comparing gynecologic cancer survivors (n = 61) and gynecologically healthy women (n = 74), documents the reliability of the latter observations with measures of quality of life (general, depressive symptoms, social contacts, and stres...

  5. Sexual dysfunction in epilepsy: identifying the psychological variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOUZA ELISABETE ABIB P. DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the psychological variables that affect sexual dysfunction (SD in epilepsy, where compared 60 epileptics (Group 1 with 60 healthy individuals (Group 2, through the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger et al., 1970, Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, 1974 and Sexual Behavior Interview (Souza, 1995. Sexual dysfunction (SD, anxiety and depression were found more frequently in Group 1 than in Group 2 and were not related to sex. Variables such as the onset duration and frequency of seizures as well as the use to medication were not associated with SD. Temporal lobe epilepsy was related to SD (p = 0.035 but not to anxiety or depression. Anxiety and depression were related to SD in both groups. Perception in controlling the seizures was closely related to anxiety (p = 0 and depression (p = 0.009. We conclude that psychological factors play an important role in the alteration of sexual behavior in epileptics and that suitable attention must be given to the control of these variables.

  6. Psychological morbidity among young adults attending primary care: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Louise; Hannigan, Ailish; O'Regan, Andrew; Khalil, Sherif; Meagher, David; Cullen, Walter

    2015-10-15

    Currently, Ireland has the fourth highest rate of youth suicide in the European Union with psychological morbidity ranging from 21% to 27% in young adults. Primary care is ideally situated to address mental health problems and provide direction and support to young adults. This study investigates the prevalence and management of young adults aged 18-25 presenting to their general practitioner with a psychological problem as part of a larger study on all adults. A random sample of 100 patients aged 18 and over with a consultation in the previous 2 years was selected from the practice management systems of 40 general practices in Ireland. Clinical records of active patients (excluding temporary visitors to the practice) were examined using a standardized reporting tool to extract information on demographics, prevalence, diagnoses and treatments for psychological problems. Of the 3845 active patients sampled aged 18 and over, 479 were in the target age group of 18-25. Of the 479 young adults identified (51% female, 60% fee paying), 57 (12%, 95% CI: 9-15%) had a documented psychological problem within the previous 2 years. Those with psychological problems were more likely to be frequent attenders and eligible for free medical care. Depression (23%) and stress and anxiety (23%) were most commonly identified. The estimated prevalence rate is considerably lower than previous studies which may indicate reluctance among young adults in presenting to primary care or reflect under-identification of psychological problems. Given the high rate of prescribing, enhancing access to non-pharmacological treatments in primary care is a priority. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Gender differences in psychological morbidity and treatment in intensive care survivors--a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schandl, Anna; Bottai, Matteo; Hellgren, Elisabeth; Sundin, Örjan; Sackey, Peter

    2012-05-14

    Many hospitals have initiated follow-up to facilitate rehabilitation after critical illness and intensive care, although the efficacy of such an intervention is uncertain. Studies in trauma research indicate significant differences in psychological reactions to traumatic events between men and women. Our aim, in a quasi-experimental design, was to compare psychological morbidity and treatment effects between men and women enrolled in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU) follow-up programme (follow-up group) and ICU patients not offered such follow-up (control group). Men and women treated more than four days in the ICU in 2006, before ICU follow-up started, were compared with men and women treated in 2007 and 2008, when all patients with an ICU stay of more than four days were offered ICU follow-up at 3, 6 and 12 months post-ICU. Fourteen months after ICU discharge, psychological problems were measured with Impact of Event Scale (IES) for posttraumatic stress and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) for anxiety and depression. Women with no follow-up reported significantly higher IES scores than men. Women in the follow-up group reported significantly lower IES scores compared to women in the control group, both in crude analysis and after adjusting for significant confounders/predictors (age, ICU length of stay and previous psychological problems). Furthermore, the 75th percentile for IES and HADS-Depression scores (high scores and degree of symptoms of psychological problems) in women in the follow-up group was lower than in those without follow-up (IES: -17.4 p, P Psychological problems after critical illness and intensive care appear to be more common in women than in men. A multidisciplinary ICU follow-up may reduce the incidence of long-term symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression for women.

  8. Differences in Psychological Distress and Esteem Based on Sexual Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepler, Dustin; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 791 college students between the ages of 18 and 25 years were administered a series of measures to determine their sexual identity development status, global self-esteem, global psychological distress, sexual-esteem and sexual distress. As hypothesized, results indicated no significant difference in terms of psychological distress,…

  9. Is love blind? Sexual behavior and psychological adjustment of adolescents with blindness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kef, S.; Bos, H.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we examined sexual knowledge, sexual behavior, and psychological adjustment of adolescents with blindness. The sample included 36 Dutch adolescents who are blind, 16 males and 20 females. Results of the interviews revealed no problems regarding sexual knowledge or psychological

  10. Burnout, psychological morbidity and use of coping mechanisms among palliative care practitioners: A multi-centre cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Mervyn Yong Hwang; Chong, Poh Heng; Neo, Patricia Soek Hui; Ong, Yew Jin; Yong, Woon Chai; Ong, Wah Ying; Shen, Mira Li Juan; Hum, Allyn Yin Mei

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of burnout, psychological morbidity and the use of coping mechanisms among palliative care practitioners in Singapore have not been studied. We aimed to study the prevalence of burnout and psychological morbidity among palliative care practitioners in Singapore and its associations with demographic and workplace factors as well as the use of coping mechanisms. This was a multi-centre, cross-sectional study of all the palliative care providers within the public healthcare sector in Singapore. The study was conducted in hospital palliative care services, home hospice and inpatient hospices in Singapore. The participants were doctors, nurses and social workers. The prevalence of burnout among respondents in our study was 91 of 273 (33.3%) and psychological morbidity was 77 (28.2%). Working >60 h per week was significantly associated with burnout (odds ratio: 9.02, 95% confidence interval: 2.3-35.8, p = 0.002) and psychological morbidity (odds ratio: 7.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.8-28.8, p = 0.005). Home hospice care practitioners (41.5%) were more at risk of developing psychological morbidity compared to hospital-based palliative care (17.5%) or hospice inpatient care (26.0%) (p = 0.007). Coping mechanisms like physical well-being, clinical variety, setting boundaries, transcendental (meditation and quiet reflection), passion for one's work, realistic expectations, remembering patients and organisational activities were associated with less burnout. Our results reveal that burnout and psychological morbidity are significant in the palliative care community and demonstrate a need to look at managing long working hours and promoting the use of coping mechanisms to reduce burnout and psychological morbidity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Secondary stressors are associated with probable psychological morbidity after flooding: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempest, Elizabeth L; Carter, Ben; Beck, Charles R; Rubin, G James

    2017-12-01

    The impact of flooding on mental health is exacerbated due to secondary stressors, although the mechanism of action is not understood. We investigated the role of secondary stressors on psychological outcomes through analysis of data collected one-year after flooding, and effect modification by sex. We analysed data from the English National Study on Flooding and Health collected from households flooded, disrupted and unexposed to flooding during 2013-14. Psychological outcomes were probable depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Parsimonious multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to determine the effect of secondary stressors on the psychological outcomes. Sex was tested as an effect modifier using subgroup analyses. A total of 2006 people participated (55.5% women, mean age 60 years old). Participants reporting concerns about their personal health and that of their family (concerns about health) had greater odds of probable depression (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.77, 95% CI 1.17-2.65) and PTSD (aOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.82-3.66). Loss of items of sentimental value was associated with probable anxiety (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.26-2.62). For women, the strongest associations were between concerns about health and probable PTSD (aOR 2.86, 95% CI 1.79-4.57). For men, the strongest associations were between 'relationship problems' and probable depression (aOR 3.25, 95% CI 1.54-6.85). Concerns about health, problems with relationships and loss of sentimental items were consistently associated with poor psychological outcomes. Interventions to reduce the occurrence of these secondary stressors are needed to mitigate the impact of flooding on probable psychological morbidity.

  12. Neuropathic pain and psychological morbidity in patients with treated leprosy: a cross-sectional prevalence study in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasry-Levy, Estrella; Hietaharju, Aki; Pai, Vivek; Ganapati, Ramaswamy; Rice, Andrew S C; Haanpää, Maija; Lockwood, Diana N J

    2011-03-08

    Neuropathic pain has been little studied in leprosy. We assessed the prevalence and clinical characteristics of neuropathic pain and the validity of the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire as a screening tool for neuropathic pain in patients with treated leprosy. The association of neuropathic pain with psychological morbidity was also evaluated. Adult patients who had completed multi-drug therapy for leprosy were recruited from several Bombay Leprosy Project clinics. Clinical neurological examination, assessment of leprosy affected skin and nerves and pain evaluation were performed for all patients. Patients completed the Douleur Neuropathique 4 and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire to identify neuropathic pain and psychological morbidity. One hundred and one patients were recruited, and 22 (21.8%) had neuropathic pain. The main sensory symptoms were numbness (86.4%), tingling (68.2%), hypoesthesia to touch (81.2%) and pinprick (72.7%). Neuropathic pain was associated with nerve enlargement and tenderness, painful skin lesions and with psychological morbidity. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 92% in diagnosing neuropathic pain. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 is a simple tool for the screening of neuropathic pain in leprosy patients. Psychological morbidity was detected in 15% of the patients and 41% of the patients with neuropathic pain had psychological morbidity.

  13. Neuropathic pain and psychological morbidity in patients with treated leprosy: a cross-sectional prevalence study in Mumbai.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Lasry-Levy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain has been little studied in leprosy. We assessed the prevalence and clinical characteristics of neuropathic pain and the validity of the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire as a screening tool for neuropathic pain in patients with treated leprosy. The association of neuropathic pain with psychological morbidity was also evaluated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult patients who had completed multi-drug therapy for leprosy were recruited from several Bombay Leprosy Project clinics. Clinical neurological examination, assessment of leprosy affected skin and nerves and pain evaluation were performed for all patients. Patients completed the Douleur Neuropathique 4 and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire to identify neuropathic pain and psychological morbidity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: One hundred and one patients were recruited, and 22 (21.8% had neuropathic pain. The main sensory symptoms were numbness (86.4%, tingling (68.2%, hypoesthesia to touch (81.2% and pinprick (72.7%. Neuropathic pain was associated with nerve enlargement and tenderness, painful skin lesions and with psychological morbidity. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 92% in diagnosing neuropathic pain. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 is a simple tool for the screening of neuropathic pain in leprosy patients. Psychological morbidity was detected in 15% of the patients and 41% of the patients with neuropathic pain had psychological morbidity.

  14. Neuropathic Pain and Psychological Morbidity in Patients with Treated Leprosy: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in Mumbai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasry-Levy, Estrella; Hietaharju, Aki; Pai, Vivek; Ganapati, Ramaswamy; Rice, Andrew S. C.; Haanpää, Maija; Lockwood, Diana N. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain has been little studied in leprosy. We assessed the prevalence and clinical characteristics of neuropathic pain and the validity of the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire as a screening tool for neuropathic pain in patients with treated leprosy. The association of neuropathic pain with psychological morbidity was also evaluated. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult patients who had completed multi-drug therapy for leprosy were recruited from several Bombay Leprosy Project clinics. Clinical neurological examination, assessment of leprosy affected skin and nerves and pain evaluation were performed for all patients. Patients completed the Douleur Neuropathique 4 and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire to identify neuropathic pain and psychological morbidity. Conclusions/Significance One hundred and one patients were recruited, and 22 (21.8%) had neuropathic pain. The main sensory symptoms were numbness (86.4%), tingling (68.2%), hypoesthesia to touch (81.2%) and pinprick (72.7%). Neuropathic pain was associated with nerve enlargement and tenderness, painful skin lesions and with psychological morbidity. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 92% in diagnosing neuropathic pain. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 is a simple tool for the screening of neuropathic pain in leprosy patients. Psychological morbidity was detected in 15% of the patients and 41% of the patients with neuropathic pain had psychological morbidity. PMID:21408111

  15. Heterogeneous population effects of an alcohol excise tax increase on sexually transmitted infections morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staras, Stephanie A S; Livingston, Melvin D; Christou, Alana M; Jernigan, David H; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol taxes reduce population-level excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality, yet little is known about the distribution of the effects of alcohol taxation across race/ethnicity and age subgroups. We examined the race/ethnicity- and age group-specific effects of an excise alcohol tax increase on a common and routinely collected alcohol-related morbidity indicator, sexually transmitted infections. We used an interrupted time series design to examine the effect of a 2009 alcohol tax increase in Illinois, USA on new cases of two common sexually transmitted infections (chlamydia and gonorrhea) reported to the US National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System from January 2003 to December 2011 (n = 108 repeated monthly observations). We estimated the effects of the tax increase on infection rates in the general population and within specific race/ethnicity and age subgroups using mixed models accounting for temporal trends and median income. Following the Illinois alcohol tax increase, state-wide rates of gonorrhea decreased 21% [95% confidence Interval (CI) = -25.7, -16.7] and chlamydia decreased 11% [95% CI = -17.8, -4.4], resulting in an estimated 3506 fewer gonorrhea infections and 5844 fewer chlamydia infections annually. The null hypothesis of homogenous effects by race/ethnicity and age was rejected (P < 0.0001). Significant reductions were observed among non-Hispanic blacks: gonorrhea rates decreased 25.6% (95% CI = -30.0, -21.0) and chlamydia rates decreased 14.7% (95% CI = -20.9, -8.0). Among non-Hispanics, point estimates suggest decreases were highest among 25-29-year-olds. Increased alcohol taxes appear to reduce sexually transmitted infections, especially among subpopulations with high disease burdens, such as non-Hispanic blacks. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Exploring the experience of psychological morbidity and service access in community dwelling stroke survivors: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jennifer; Dickson, Alexandra; Magin, Parker; Tapley, Amanda; Attia, John; Sturm, John; Carter, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Post-stroke depression occurs in one-third of stroke survivors with a similar risk of development across short, intermediate and long-term recovery stages. Knowledge of factors influencing psychological morbidity beyond the first year post-stroke can inform long-term interventions and improve community service access for stroke survivors. This paper aimed to identify the physical and psycho-social functioning status of stroke survivors beyond 12 months post-stroke. Qualitative processes explored the longer term experiences of psychological morbidity and service access needs. A cross-sectional follow-up of participants from a prospective cohort study. In that study, patients and were followed for 12 months post-stroke. In this study, participants from that cohort study were interviewed up to five years post-stroke. Data generation and analysis were concurrent and were analysed thematically, employing a process of constant comparison. Our sample included 14 participants, aged 58-89 years at an average of three years post-stroke (range 18 months to five years). Our qualitative key themes emerged as follows: physical impacts on post-stroke psychological morbidity, the experience of psychological distress, factors attenuating distress and service delivery implications. The experience of psychological morbidity persists beyond 12 months post-stroke, having a profound impact on community access, and social participation. Clinical implications are a need for long-term psychological monitoring post-stroke and for ongoing rehabilitation that addresses disability, community participation and social support.

  17. Psychological and interpersonal dimensions of sexual function and dysfunction in women: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Althof, Stanley E; Needle, Rachel B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We reviewed the psychological and interpersonal dimensions of female sexual function and dysfunction. Methods We identified articles published in 1970?2013 using the keywords ?female sexual dysfunction?, ?sexual desire?, ?sexual arousal?, ?female orgasmic disorder?, ?sex therapy?, ?psychotherapy?, ?behaviour therapy? and ?Internet therapy?. Over 200 articles were reviewed (Level of evidence 2b). Results and conclusions We identified the major psychological variables affecting fem...

  18. Psychological morbidity of farmers and non-farming population: results from a UK survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounsome, Barry; Edwards, Rhiannon T; Hounsome, Natalia; Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2012-08-01

    The relatively high rate of suicide among UK farmers suggests that they may suffer greater mental health problems than the general population. This paper provides a comparison of the psychological morbidity of farmers and their partners/spouses with non-farmers. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was administered using face-to-face interviews with 784 attendees of agricultural shows in the UK. Results show that GHQ-12 scores for farmers and their partners/spouses were significantly higher (P employed or not in paid employment, having a non-supervisory position and living in a rural area were characterized by higher mean GHQ-12 scores compared to correspondent subgroups from the non-farming population.

  19. Essentialist beliefs, sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing in gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, James S; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Ross, Michael W; Costa, Daniel S J; Dar-Nimrod, Ilan

    2015-07-01

    The present study examined essentialist beliefs about sexual orientation and their implications for sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing in a sample of gay men. A combination of targeted sampling and snowball strategies were used to recruit 639 gay identifying men for a cross-sectional online survey. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing sexual orientation beliefs, sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity, and psychological wellbeing outcomes. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether essentialist beliefs were associated with psychological wellbeing indirectly via their effect on sexual identity uncertainty and internalized homonegativity. A unique pattern of direct and indirect effects was observed in which facets of essentialism predicted sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing. Of note, viewing sexual orientation as immutable/biologically based and as existing in discrete categories, were associated with less sexual identity uncertainty. On the other hand, these beliefs had divergent relationships with internalized homonegativity, with immutability/biological beliefs associated with lower, and discreteness beliefs associated with greater internalized homonegativity. Of interest, although sexual identity uncertainty was associated with poorer psychological wellbeing via its contribution to internalized homophobia, there was no direct relationship between identity uncertainty and psychological wellbeing. Findings indicate that essentializing sexual orientation has mixed implications for sexual identity uncertainty and internalized homonegativity and wellbeing in gay men. Those undertaking educational and clinical interventions with gay men should be aware of the benefits and of caveats of essentialist theories of homosexuality for this population. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Sexual orientation and sexual behavior among Latino and Asian Americans: implications for unfair treatment and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, David H; Ayala, George

    2010-09-01

    Research on the sexuality of Asians and Latinos in the United States has been sparse, and the studies that have been done suffer from a number of limitations. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (2002-2003), this study examined self-identified sexual orientation and self-reported sexual behavior among Latinos (n = 2,554; age: M = 38.1, SE = 0.5) and Asians (n = 2,095; age: M = 41.5, SE = 0.8). This study also investigated implications for unfair treatment and psychological distress among sexual minorities identified in the sample. Results indicated heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior including differences in the adoption of lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) identity by gender, ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic status. LGB sexual minorities reported higher levels of unfair treatment and psychological distress compared to their non-LGB-identified sexual minority counterparts, and unfair treatment was positively associated with psychological distress. Results highlight the need to consider multiple demographic factors in assessing sexuality, and also suggest that measures of both self-identified sexual orientation and sexual behavior should be collected. In addition, findings provide support for the deleterious influence of unfair treatment among Asians and Latinos in the United States.

  1. The threat of untreatable gonorrhoea: implications and consequences for reproductive and sexual morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndowa, Francis; Lusti-Narasimhan, Manjula

    2012-12-01

    Gonorrhoea (caused by the organism Neisseria gonorrhoeae) is one of the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs), with 106 million new cases per year globally, according to 2008 estimates by the World Health Organization (WHO). There is growing global concern about antimicrobial resistance in N. gonorrhoeae. Only third-generation cephalosporins, the last available class of antibiotics to treat this condition, currently remain as the recommended first line treatment. If gonococcal infections become untreatable, they will cause a wide range of reproductive morbidities, including pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and neonatal blindness. Furthermore, infection with N. gonorrhoeae facilitates the transmission of HIV. Thus, there is an urgent need to contain the threat of untreatable gonorrhoea within the framework of WHO's policy package to combat antimicrobial resistance, launched in April 2011. Interventions should take cognisance of sexual networks, international travel and reproductive commodity supplies, e.g. male and female condoms. There is also an urgent need for the identification of alternative effective treatment regimens for gonococcal infections; concerted efforts to prescribe antibiotics appropriately and ensure treatment compliance; strengthened programmes for primary prevention of STIs, including the importance of protected oral sex (fellatio); enhanced screening; development of affordable and accurate screening tests; and better surveillance and monitoring of resistance. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Childhood Sexual Abuse: Long-Term Effects on Psychological and Sexual Functioning in a Nonclinical and Nonstudent Sample of Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Evan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Comparison of psychological and sexual functioning of 54 women sexually abused as children and 54 nonabused women found no differences in self-esteem, but abused women reported more symptoms of distress and psychological symptoms previously associated with sexual abuse. No differences in self-reported sexual satisfaction or dysfunction were found.…

  3. Psychological counseling and accuracy of memory for child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Gail S; Goldfarb, Deborah; Quas, Jodi A; Lyon, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    Tens of thousands of child sexual abuse (CSA) cases are reported to authorities annually. Although some of the child victims obtain psychological counseling or therapy, controversy exists about the potential consequences for the accuracy of victims' memory of CSA, both in childhood and adulthood. Yet, delaying needed therapeutic intervention may have detrimental effects on the victims' well-being and recovery. To address this controversy, this study examined whether psychological counseling during a CSA prosecution predicts accuracy or inaccuracy of long-term memory for CSA. Participants (N = 71) were CSA victims who took part in a longitudinal study of memory and legal involvement. Data regarding participants' counseling attendance during the prosecution and details of their CSA cases were gathered throughout legal involvement and shortly thereafter (Time 1). Ten to 16 years later (Time 2), participants were questioned about a range of topics, including the alleged abuse. Time 1 counseling attendance significantly predicted more correct answers to abuse-related questions and (for corroborated cases) fewer overreporting responses at Time 2. Counseling was unrelated to underreporting responses. These results held even with other potential influences, such as abuse severity, victim-defendant relationship, posttraumatic stress disorder criteria met, testifying in the case, and delay, were statistically controlled. Although further research is needed, this study provides evidence that psychological counseling received by CSA victims during or shortly after prosecutions may improve later memory for abuse-related information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Gender differences in psychological morbidity, burnout, job stress and job satisfaction among Chinese neurologists: a national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Juncai; Zhou, Xinyu; Zhu, Dan; Zhong, Xiaoni; Yang, Lining; Wang, Haiyang; Zhang, Yuqing; Fan, Songhua; Liu, Lanxiang; Xie, Peng

    2017-07-01

    Women are an important part of the medical workforce, yet little is known about gender differences in psychological morbidity, burnout, job stress and job satisfaction among neurologists. This study assessed gender differences in a large national sample of Chinese neurologists. Multivariate analyses were performed to examine associations. A total of 5558 neurologists were included in the analysis. Compared with their male counterparts, female neurologists were generally younger; were less likely to be married or to have children; had higher levels of education; were in practice for a shorter period of time; were less likely to hold senior roles; and had lower incomes. Male and female neurologists worked similar hours and spent a similar number of nights on call. No gender differences were found in psychological morbidity, burnout, and high levels of job stress for female and male, respectively. Women had higher emotional exhaustion scores, while men were more likely to have low levels of job satisfaction. The multivariate analysis showed that factors independently associated with psychological morbidity, burnout, high levels of job stress and low levels of job satisfaction were generally similar for women and men. These findings increase our understanding of gender differences in psychological morbidity, burnout, job stress, and job satisfaction among neurologists. As more women join the medical profession, these differences may be useful in designing medical training and practice.

  5. Internalized Stigma among Sexual Minority Adults: Insights from a Social Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M.; Gillis, J. Roy; Cogan, Jeanine C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a social psychological framework for understanding sexual stigma, and it reports data on sexual minority individuals' stigma-related experiences. The framework distinguishes between stigma's manifestations in society's institutions ("heterosexism") and among individuals. The latter include "enacted sexual stigma" (overt…

  6. Effects of a Sexual Health Education Programme on School Psychological Counsellor Candidates' Sexism Tendencies in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Hanife

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a sexual health curriculum developed for school psychological counsellors in Turkey on the sexual health knowledge of the participating candidates, their beliefs in sexual myths and their tendencies towards ambivalent sexism and sexism in romantic relationships. The study adopted a semi-experimental design. Study…

  7. Sexual dysfunction in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: magnetic resonance imaging, clinical, and psychological correlates.

    OpenAIRE

    Barak, Y; Achiron, A.; Elizur, A; Gabbay, U; Noy, S; Sarova-Pinhas, I

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sexual complaints and severity of sexual dysfunction in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and to correlate them with psychological, neurological, and radiological variables. Frequency and characteristics of sexual disturbances were reported by 41 multiple sclerosis patients (32 females, 9 males; mean age 35.4 +/- 10.2 y). Clinical neurologic variables tested were disease duration, exacerbation rate, and disability; psychological varia...

  8. The Effects of Sexism, Psychological Distress, and Difficult Sexual Situations on U.S. Women’s Sexual Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Bowleg, Lisa; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2011-01-01

    Women represent almost half of the people living with HIV worldwide. Although social discrimination has been recognized as a major obstacle to HIV prevention, few empirical studies have examined the effects of sexism on women’s HIV sexual risk behaviors. We analyzed data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. A majority of respondents reported lifetime experiences of sexism (e.g., 94% reported sexual harassment). Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that experiences of sexism and reports of recent unprotected sex with a primary or a secondary sexual partner were linked through psychological distress and difficult sexual situations. Our results suggest the need to develop HIV prevention strategies for women that address two mechanisms ---psychological distress and difficult sexual situations --- that link social discrimination to women’s sexual risk for HIV. PMID:22010804

  9. Psychological Profile and Quality of Life of Morbid Obese Patients Attending a Cognitive Behavioural Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Marzocchi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The results show that 27% of cases had a BES score ≥ 17, indicative of possible binge eating, and 13% had a BES ≥ 27, largely indicative of binge eating, with a higher prevalence in females. The BDI score was above normal in 30% of males and 45% of females, and 13% of females were in the range of moderate-severe depression. BES and BDI were significantly correlated with each other. Orwell-97 was much higher in females, and similarly the generic PGWB was indicative of a poorer HRQL in females. PGWB was positively associated with age, without any effect of BMI. The association with age was maintained in female, not in males. Both the Orwell-97 and the PGWB were associated with both BES and BDI in both genders. Psychological distress is common and largely variable in patients attending CBT for morbid obesity. This data should be considered for individual treatment protocols, and should be compared with similar series of patients enrolled for bariatric surgery.

  10. Psychological and sexual effects of circumcision in adult males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogmus, Yasin; Semiz, Murat; Er, Okan; Bas, Okan; Atay, Irfan; Kilinc, Muhammet Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to investigate the psychological and sexual effects of circumcision in adult men, and analyze these changes following circumcision. Methods: We included 37 adults who applied to our clinic for circumcision and who did not have any psychiatric or urologic disorders and age-matched 30 controls in our study. Body Cathexis Scale (BCS), Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), and Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) were applied to the study group twice, once before and once three months after circumcision, and only once in the control group. Also, intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) was noted and premature ejaculation (PE) evaluation was done. Intra- and intergroup comparisons were performed. Results: The two groups were similar with regard to demographic data. Comparison of preoperative BCS and LSAS scores with the scores of the control group showed significant differences (p=0.003, p0.05, and p>0.05, respectively). Scores of all scales showed significant improvements postoperatively. Also, PEDT scores and IELT changes before and after circumcision were significant in the study group, but not when compared to the control group. Conclusions: Our results indicated that social anxiety and anxiety levels decreased after circumcision in adult Turkish men, and their body gratification increased. We found that not being circumcised might negatively affect individuals in adulthood when it comes to body image and sexual satisfaction, however, both improve after circumcision. PMID:27790295

  11. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…

  12. Physical and psychological morbidities among selected antenatal females in Kegalle district of Sri Lanka: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, I N S; Balasuriya, A; Sivayogan, S

    2017-10-01

    While motherhood is often a positive and satisfying experience, for some women, it is linked with suffering and ill-health. A woman should be able to feel physically and mentally content during pregnancy. Discomforts in pregnancy may be considered as insignificant by the physician. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine physical and psychological morbidities among primigravid antenatal females in the Kegalle District, Sri Lanka. A sample of 1017 second and third trimester primigravid antenatal females selected by a two-stage probability proportional to size cluster sampling method, were assessed for physical and psychological problems. Data analysis was done using SPSS 16 package and associations were found using Chi square test with p values. The presence of any physical health problem during the preceding 14 days was reported by 75.7% (95% CI 73.0-78.2) of females though each individual physical problem was reported by less than or around one-third. Prevalence of psychological distress and depression was 22.7% (95% CI 20.2-25.4) and 10.4% (95% CI 8.7-12.4), respectively. The self-rated health was very good in 24.7% and good in 55.9%. Older employed females had significantly higher physical problems. It is concluded that although the self-rated wellbeing during pregnancy is high, the presence of physical and psychological ill-health is substantial. Impact statement Pregnancy is a time of intense physical change and is associated with emotional upheaval in many women. Obstetric morbidity is defined as morbidity in a woman who has been pregnant regardless of the site or the duration of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management, but not from accidental or incidental causes. It is classified into three categories namely; direct, indirect and psychological obstetric morbidity. For one maternal death, there can be between 9 and 16 females with obstetric morbidity depending on the level of development

  13. Psychological interventions for adults who have sexually offended or are at risk of offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Jane A; Khan, Omer; Ferriter, Michael; Huband, Nick; Powney, Melanie J; Duggan, Conor

    2012-12-12

    Sexual offending is a legal construct that overlaps, but is not entirely congruent with, clinical constructs of disorders of sexual preference. Sexual offending is both a social and a public health issue. Victim surveys illustrate high incidence and prevalence levels, and it is commonly accepted that there is considerable hidden sexual victimisation. There are significant levels of psychiatric morbidity in survivors of sexual offences.Psychological interventions are generally based on behavioural or psychodynamic theories.Behavioural interventions fall into two main groups: those based on traditional classical conditioning and/or operant learning theory and those based on cognitive behavioural approaches. Approaches may overlap. Interventions associated with traditional classical and operant learning theory are referred to as behaviour modification or behaviour therapy, and focus explicitly on changing behaviour by administering a stimulus and measuring its effect on overt behaviour. Within sex offender treatment, examples include aversion therapy, covert sensitisation or olfactory conditioning. Cognitive behavioural therapies are intended to change internal processes - thoughts, beliefs, emotions, physiological arousal - alongside changing overt behaviour, such as social skills or coping behaviours. They may involve establishing links between offenders' thoughts, feelings and actions about offending behaviour; correction of offenders' misperceptions, irrational beliefs and reasoning biases associated with their offending; teaching offenders to monitor their own thoughts, feelings and behaviours associated with offending; and promoting alternative ways of coping with deviant sexual thoughts and desires.Psychodynamic interventions share a common root in psychoanalytic theory. This posits that sexual offending arises through an imbalance of the three components of mind: the id, the ego and the superego, with sexual offenders having temperamental imbalance of a

  14. Psychological Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Predominantly African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Bina; Mittal, Mona; Schroder, Allison; Ishman, Najah; Quinton, Sylvia; Boekeloo, Bradley

    2017-07-01

    Physical and sexual violence are commonly researched as risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, psychological violence and its relationship with HIV risk behaviors have received limited attention among African American/Black (Black) women. This study examined (a) the frequency of recent (past 3 months) psychological violence, physical violence, and sexual violence and (b) the association of HIV risk behaviors, including unprotected sex, sex under the influence of alcohol/drugs, and sex exchange for money/drugs/shelter, with psychological violence. Participants included 191 women (89.2% Black), who were recruited through information sessions held at community centers, Parent Teacher Association meetings, substance use and HIV counseling centers, radio public service announcements, and word of mouth. Interested women participated in a multisession HIV and substance use prevention program and completed a self-reported assessment at program baseline. The current study utilized baseline data collected for a longitudinal study. Results from descriptive analysis indicated that the rate of psychological violence was higher than physical violence or sexual violence, and it was strongly associated with physical and sexual violence. Furthermore, hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that unprotected sex was significantly associated with recent psychological violence after controlling for covariates. Findings suggest that recent psychological violence is more common than physical or sexual violence and it relates to sexual risk behaviors among Black women. Recent psychological violence may indicate psychosocial and sexual vulnerability for HIV and warrants particular attention among Black women.

  15. Sexual desire in women: an integrative approach regarding psychological, medical, and relationship dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro

    2010-05-01

    Sexual desire depends on the balance between biologic, psychological, and cultural values. Therefore, conceptualizations of female sexual desire difficulties should consider the interrelated role of those factors. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model regarding factors often implicated on female sexual desire, in order to understand the way those factors interact in sexual interest. Moreover, we intended to evaluate the mediation role of cognitive-emotional factors between sexual desire and other dimensions such as age, medical problems, psychopathology, or dyadic adjustment. Two hundred and thirty-seven women from the general population participated in the study. We evaluated psychopathology, dysfunctional sexual beliefs, automatic thoughts and emotions during sexual activity, dyadic adjustment, and presence of medical problems. Psychopathology measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory, dysfunctional sexual beliefs measured by the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, thoughts and emotions in sexual context measured by the Sexual Modes Questionnaire, dyadic adjustment measured by the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, medical condition measured by the Medical History Formulation, and sexual desire measured by the Sexual Desire subscale of the Female Sexual Function Index. Results from the proposed conceptual model suggest that cognitive factors (mainly automatic thoughts during sexual activity) were the best predictors of sexual desire. In a more specific way, age, failure/disengagement thoughts, and lack of erotic thoughts during sexual activity, showed a significant direct effect on reduced sexual desire. Furthermore, sexual conservatism beliefs, and medical factors showed indirect effects, acting on sexual desire via the presence of lack of erotic thoughts, and failure/disengagement sexual thoughts, respectively. Results from this integrative approach support the need to include cognitive dimensions in the assessment and treatment of sexual desire

  16. Phenomenology of the psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents, depending on various factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutskova E.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents. It presents review of domestic and foreign research of psychological injury in minors. The article gives results of complex psychological and psychiatric examination of 183 juvenile victims of sexual abuse. Psychological effects of sexual abuse in children and adolescents are identified and described on the basis of age, gender, clinical characteristics of the mental state of the victim, as well as the type and duration of the abuse. Intensity and expressiveness of post-traumatic response as well as coverage of personality spheres increase with aging. The data on the gender specificity of the sexual abuse effects suggest that girls more demonstrate internal forms, while external manifestations dominate in boys. The type and duration of sexual abuse determine a wide range of possible psychological consequences. It is noted that the severity of the psychological effects of sexual abuse in victims with mental disorders associated with the trauma is higher than in victims qualified to be mentally sane or having a mental illness, non-associated with psychologically traumatic situations. Psychological consequences exhibited by mentally sane victims show a decrease in their quality of life.

  17. THE CHANGES OF PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SEXUAL COMPLAINS IN WOMEN WITH POST TREATMENT CERVICAL CANCER AFTER SEXUAL NURSING INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afiyanti Afiyanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite increasing awareness related to sexual health for cervical cancer survivors, health care providers are passive in addressing their sexual issues. The objectives were to develop and investigate the effect of a sexual nursing intervention packet to mitigate sexual dysfunction among cervical cancer survivors. Method: A sample of 104 survivors were participated consecutively based on required inclusive criteria in this quasi-experimental study. The sexual nursing intervention packet focused on the physical, psychological, and care of relational aspects of sexual health elements. The packet consisted of 6 weekly 2-hour sessions. Results: The participants reported poor sexual satisfaction and sexual function. There were no statistically signi fi cant differences in sexual interest, sexual arousal, orgasm, and vaginal lubrication improvement following the intervention, although all the variables in the intervention group were improved clinically. The sexual nursing intervention packet was effective in increasing sexual satisfaction and decreasing dispareunia among cervical cancer survivors. Discussion: This study suggests that the quality of life in cervical cancer survivors could be improved with the sexual nursing intervention packet provided as part of supportive group care. This program may be more effective if delivered earlier and for a longer period. Implications for Practice: The sexual nursing intervention packet offers an opportunity to facilitate small-group dynamics that lay the ground for further contacts leading to earlier recognition of sexual problems and active involvement for sexual health improvement for cervical cancer survivors and nurses. It could be utilized for survivor education or support groups to increase sexual satisfaction following cancer treatment.

  18. Bidirectional Associations Between Adolescents' Sexual Behaviors and Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Avelar E Silva, Raquel; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Raat, Hein

    2018-01-01

    Assessing bidirectional longitudinal associations between early sexual behaviors (≤16.0 years) and psychological well-being (global self-esteem, physical self-esteem, depression) among 716 adolescents, and the direct and buffering effect of parent-adolescent relationship quality. We used data from Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality), a longitudinal study on adolescent sexual development in the Netherlands. Participants were 11.0-16.0 years old (mean age at T1 = 13.3 years). Self-reports from four waves of online questionnaires were used. Bidirectional longitudinal associations were assessed by linear mixed-effects models. At most waves, boys had significantly higher levels of psychological well-being than girls, but genders did not differ in experience with sexual behaviors. Engagement in early sexual behaviors did not predict lower levels of psychological well-being over time, and lower levels of psychological well-being did not predict more engagement in early sexual behaviors over time. Parent-adolescent relationship quality did not moderate these associations in either direction, although we found a significant direct effect, in which a higher-quality parent-adolescent relationship predicted more optimal levels of the three indicators of adolescents' psychological well-being (but not lower levels of early sexual activity) over time. Our results show that, among Dutch adolescents, early sexual behaviors and psychological well-being were not interrelated. This may be explained by socio-cultural aspects of the Dutch society, such as more normalization of sexual behaviors during adolescence. As a result, early sexual activity in and of itself was not related to lower psychological well-being over time. Yet, cross-cultural differences in links between adolescents' sexuality and well-being should be further investigated. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  19. Influence of psychological variables in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery after 24 months of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hurtado, José; Ferrer-Márquez, Manuel; Fontalba-Navas, Andrés; García-Torrecillas, Juan Manuel; Olvera-Porcel, M Carmen

    Bariatric surgery is considered a more effective means of achieving weight loss than non-surgical options in morbid obesity. Rates of failure or relapse range from 20 to 30%. The study aims to analyse the influence of psychological variables (self-esteem, social support, coping strategies and personality) in the maintenance of weight loss after bariatric surgery. A cohort study was conducted involving 64 patients undergoing bariatric surgery for 24 months. At the end of the follow-up period, patients were divided into 2sub-cohorts classified as successes or failures. Success or favorable development was considered when the value of percent excess weight loss was 50 or higher. No statistically significant differences were observed between the 2groups in any variable studied. All patients had high self-esteem (87,3 those who failed and 88,1 those who are successful) and social support (90,2 and 90,9). Patients who succeed presented higher scores for cognitive restructuring (57,1) and were more introverted (47,1), while those who failed scored more highly in desiderative thinking (65,7) and were more prone to aggression (50,7) and neuroticism (51,7). High self-esteem and social support does not guarantee successful treatment. The groups differed in how they coped with obesity but the data obtained do not justify the weight evolution. In the absence of psychopathology, personality trait variability between patients is insufficient to predict the results. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychological morbidity and substance use among patients with hypertension: a hospital-based cross-sectional survey from South West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboka, Matiwos; Gudina, Esayas Kebede; Tesfaye, Markos

    2017-01-01

    Psychological morbidity and substance use disorders have been linked to cardiovascular diseases; affecting patients' medical outcome and quality of life. However, little is known about psychological morbidity and substance use among patients with hypertension in Ethiopia. Therefore, we aimed to assess psychological comorbidity and substance use among hypertensive patients in Southwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 396 hypertensive patients on follow-up at Jimma University Teaching Hospital in Ethiopia during the study period. Structured questionnaires were used to assess alcohol use, khat chewing and cigarette smoking. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the Kessler-6 scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify the independent association between outcome and explanatory variables. The prevalence of psychological morbidity among hypertensive patients was 31.6%. Of the total participants, 31 (7.8%) of them had alcohol use disorders and 79 (19.9%) of them were using khat regularly at the time of the study. Singles were more likely to have psychological morbidity than married participants (AOR = 4.72; 95% CI 1.83, 12.20, p = 0.001), whereas those who were able to 'read and write' were less likely to have psychological morbidity than non-literate ones (AOR = 0.46; 95% CI 0.24, 0.89, p = 0.02). However, no association was seen between psychological morbidity and substance use (khat chewing, alcohol use and cigarette smoking), belief about hypertension, ever discontinuation of medication and lifestyle (exercise, salt consumption). Psychological morbidity and substance use are prevalent among hypertensive patients on follow-up at the hospital. The findings of the study imply that there is a need for further studies to understand the effect of psychological morbidity on the clinical outcomes of hypertensive patients.

  1. Are ENT surgeons in the UK at risk of stress, psychological morbidities and burnout? A national questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijendren, Ananth; Yung, Matthew; Shiralkar, Uttam

    2016-03-15

    Work-related stress, psychological disorders and burnout are common occupational disorders affecting UK doctors. To date, there are no studies looking at these psychosocial morbidities amongst ENT surgeons worldwide. The General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory (aMBI) were incorporated into a questionnaire on occupational diseases amongst ENT surgeons and distributed to the entire membership of ENT-UK. The survey study also acquired demographic data on grade of respondent, years of experience in ENT and subspecialty interest. We received 108 (8.1% response rate) appropriately filled GHQ-12 and 121 (9.0% response rate) aMBI questionnaires. 61 respondents (56.5%) on the GHQ-12 were at high risk of developing stress and psychological morbidity and 35 (28.9%) had high enough aMBI scores to suggested burnout. When comparing scores of both GHQ-12 and aMBI with grade of respondent, years of experience in ENT and subspecialty, statistical difference was only found on the risk of stress and psychiatric disorders amongst paediatric ENT surgeons (7 high risk vs 0 low risk, p = 0.02), however the number of these respondents was small (7 in total). Both questionnaires had been validated for use within our population. We found high incidence rates of stress and psychological morbidity (56.5%) and a burnout prevalence rate of 28.9% amongst our responding cohort of UK Oto-rhino-laryngologists. No meaningful differences were found between stress, psychological morbidity and burnout with grade of ENT surgeon, years of experience in ENT and subspecialty within ENT. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dyadic adjustment, family coping, body image, quality of life and psychological morbidity in patients with psoriasis and their partners

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,M. Graça; Brito,Laura; Smith, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is an incurable and chronic disease that includes unpredictable periods of remission and relapse requiring long-term therapy. Purpose This paper focuses on the relationship among family coping, psychological morbidity, body image, dyadic adjustment and quality of life in psoriatic patients and their partners. Method One hundred and one patients with psoriasis and 78 partners comprised the sample. They were regular users of the Dermatology Servic...

  3. Online or off-line victimisation and psychological well-being: a comparison of sexual-minority and heterosexual youth

    OpenAIRE

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sexual-minority and heterosexual youths exposure to sexual abuse off-line, problematic sexual meetings off-line with person/s met online and online harassment with regard to prevalence, psychological well-being and support seeking. A nationally representative sample of 3,432 Swedish high school seniors completed an anonymous school-based survey about sexuality, health, sexual abuse and online-related sexual victimisation or harassment. Sexual-minority ...

  4. Dyadic adjustment, family coping, body image, quality of life and psychological morbidity in patients with psoriasis and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M Graça; Brito, Laura; Smith, Tom

    2012-09-01

    Psoriasis is an incurable and chronic disease that includes unpredictable periods of remission and relapse requiring long-term therapy. This paper focuses on the relationship among family coping, psychological morbidity, body image, dyadic adjustment and quality of life in psoriatic patients and their partners. One hundred and one patients with psoriasis and 78 partners comprised the sample. They were regular users of the Dermatology Service of a Central Northern hospital in Portugal and a private dermatology clinic. Patients with psoriasis were assessed on anxiety, depression, body image, quality of life, dyadic adjustment and family coping. Partners were assessed on the same measures except body image and quality of life. A positive relationship among dyadic adjustment, psychological morbidity and family coping in patients and their partners was found. Also, patients with lower levels of quality of life had partners with higher levels of depressive and anxious symptoms. Better dyadic adjustment predicted family coping in the psoriatic patient. High levels of dyadic adjustment in patients and low partners' trait anxiety predicted better dyadic adjustment in partners. The results highlight the importance of incorporating family variables in psychological interventions in psoriasis' care, particularly family coping and dyadic adjustment as well as the need for psychological intervention to focus both on patients and partners.

  5. Determinants of psychological morbidity in survivors of the earthquake and tsunami in Aceh and Nias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maramis Albert

    2010-04-01

    related to being an IDP. The greatest effect among these was due to disaster impacts. The pattern was similar when considering post-traumatic stress symptoms separately. Conclusions Negative changes in a person's life circumstances following a disaster appear to have as important an effect on psychopathology as the direct experience of the disaster. Ameliorating the extent and duration of post-disaster negative changes in life circumstances may play an important role in prevention of post-disaster psychological morbidity.

  6. Is aversion to incest psychologically privileged? When sex and sociosexuality do not predict sexual willingness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Justin H.

    2008-01-01

    As human possess powerful incest-avoidance mechanisms (which likely evolved due to the high costs of inbreeding), reactions to incestuous sexual encounters may be psychologically distinct from reactions to non-incestuous (but still non-normative) sexual encounters. Accordingly, variables such as sex

  7. How Does Sexual Minority Stigma "Get under the Skin"? A Psychological Mediation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual minorities are at increased risk for multiple mental health burdens compared with heterosexuals. The field has identified 2 distinct determinants of this risk, including group-specific minority stressors and general psychological processes that are common across sexual orientations. The goal of the present article is to develop a…

  8. Medical and Psychology Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…

  9. Psychological morbidity, job satisfaction and intentions to quit among teachers in private secondary schools in Edo-State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofili, A N; Usiholo, E A; Oronsaye, M O

    2009-01-01

    Teachers are an inseparable corner stone of the society and their satisfaction will affect the quality of service they render. Poor job satisfaction could result in job stress and this could affect their psychological health. This study aims to ascertain the level, causes of job dissatisfaction, intentions to quit and psychological morbidity among teachers in private secondary schools in a developing country. A cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers (392) in private secondary schools in Benin-City, Edo-State Nigeria, between June 2003 to November 2003. A total population of 400 teachers who had spent at least one year in the service were included in the study. The respondents completed a self-administered designed questionnaire and a standard instrument--The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28) The response rate was 98%. Fifty-eight (14.8%) of the respondents had psychological morbidity (GHQ score of 4 and above). One hundred and seventy-eight (45.4%) teachers were very satisfied or satisfied with their jobs. A significant number (45.9%) of teachers would want to quit their jobs. The proportion of teachers with GHQ score 4 and above increased with the level of dissatisfaction but this was not found to be statistically significant. Poor salary was found to be the main cause of job dissatisfaction and major reason for wanting to quit the job. This study shows a low level of job satisfaction among Nigerian teachers. Poor salary was the major cause of job dissatisfaction and intention to quit. Further work need to be done to ascertain the association of psychological morbidity and job dissatisfaction.

  10. Psychological Evaluation Results in Patients Confronted with Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Işık Karakaya; Ayşen Coşkun; Belma Ağaoğlu; Şahika Gülen Şişmanlar; Özlem Yıldız Öç; Nursu Çakın Memik; Ümit Biçer

    2006-01-01

    Child and adolescent sexual abuse have lifelong consequences. Sexual development, emotional effects, depressed mood, anxiety, behavioral effects and alteration of personality are some possible consequences of sexual abuse. In this article we evaluated psychiatric symptoms according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria in 21 sexually abused children and adolescents. Twelve girls and nine boys between 4 and 16 years of age were investigated. All the patients belonged to low socioeconomic strata. The m...

  11. Talking About Sex When Sex Is Painful: Dyadic Sexual Communication Is Associated With Women's Pain, and Couples' Sexual and Psychological Outcomes in Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, Kate M; Rosen, Natalie O; Bergeron, Sophie; Nealis, Logan J

    2016-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a recurrent vulvovaginal pain condition associated with psychological and sexual consequences for affected women and their partners, including lower quality of dyadic sexual communication compared to pain-free couples. Although greater sexual communication is associated with positive sexual and relational outcomes for both pain-free couples and couples experiencing painful sex, little is known about its role in women's pain and psychological outcomes, especially in a relational context. The present study examined associations between dyadic sexual communication and pain, sexual satisfaction, sexual functioning, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 107 couples in which the woman was diagnosed with PVD via a standardized gynecological assessment. Women completed a measure of pain intensity, and both members of the couple completed measures of their dyadic sexual communication, sexual satisfaction, sexual functioning, and depressive symptoms. Analyses were guided by the actor-partner interdependence model. Women and partners' own perceptions of greater dyadic sexual communication were associated with their own greater sexual satisfaction and sexual functioning, and lower depressive symptoms. Partners' perceptions of greater dyadic sexual communication were also associated with women's lower pain and greater sexual satisfaction. Results point to the importance of dyadic coping conceptualizations for both individual and interpersonal outcomes in PVD. Dyadic sexual communication may be a key treatment target for interventions aimed at improving the pain and psychological and sexual impairments of women with PVD and their partners.

  12. Thyroid Hormone Levels and Psychological Symptoms in Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…

  13. A Meta-analysis of the Relationship of Child Sexual Abuse to Adult Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, Shan A.

    1995-01-01

    This meta-analysis found significant relationships between the experience of child sexual abuse and subsequent difficulties in psychological adjustment as measured by psychological symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem. Significant heterogeneity occurred across studies using different subject populations. Student samples consistently…

  14. An Overlooked Factor in Sexual Abuse: Psychological and Physical Force Examined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott A.

    1998-01-01

    Separate studies of sex offenders in treatment while serving prison sentences and placed on probation suggest that psychological force is more commonly used in sexual assault than physical force. Seven types of psychological force are described, and the conceptual validity of this schematic for use in treatment is evaluated. (Author/EMK)

  15. Childhood obesity and its physical and psychological co-morbidities: a systematic review of Australian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Ross H; Han, Ahreum; Baker, Julien S; Cobley, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Australia is predicted to have the highest overweight/obesity rate in the world by 2022 outranking the USA and UK. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the associations between childhood obesity and physical and psychological health co-morbidities. Therefore, a systematic literature search was conducted from six databases (2004-2014). Studies were included if they investigated obesity-related co-morbidities with participants residing in Australia aged 0-18 years. Forty-seven studies fulfilled selection criteria. Evidence suggests that overweight/obese Australian children and adolescents, compared to normal-weight peers, had more cardio-metabolic risk factors and higher risk factors of non-alcohol fatty liver disease and were experiencing more negative psychological outcomes (depression, low self-esteem and lower scores of health-related quality of life). Many other health consequences have either not been investigated in Australia, or as frequently as in other countries. Given Australia's current overweight/obesity prevalence and trajectory, Australia-based studies are needed to identify the suspected co-morbidities, understand the range of individual, social and environmental mechanisms driving obesity, and help identify policies, interventions and strategies that will change the future trajectory and 'disease burden' both in Australia and internationally. • Trend analyses have shown that obesity prevalence in Australia is increasing and will outrank UK and the USA by 2022. • Every third Australian child/adolescent between 5 and 19 years old is predicted to be classified as overweight or obese by 2025. • Childhood obesity is associated with multiple immediate physical and psychological health co-morbidities as well as co-morbidities in adulthood. These have often been identified and examined individually. What is New: • This paper presents a holistic picture of childhood obesity and the associated multiple co-morbidities in Australia.

  16. Psychological Evaluation Results in Patients Confronted with Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işık Karakaya

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Child and adolescent sexual abuse have lifelong consequences. Sexual development, emotional effects, depressed mood, anxiety, behavioral effects and alteration of personality are some possible consequences of sexual abuse. In this article we evaluated psychiatric symptoms according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria in 21 sexually abused children and adolescents. Twelve girls and nine boys between 4 and 16 years of age were investigated. All the patients belonged to low socioeconomic strata. The most frequently diagnosed psychiatric disorders in these children were posttraumatic stress disorder, separation anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder and elimination disorder. Sexually abused children and adolescents present various psychiatric symptoms. So, understanding the consequences of sexual abuse on children and adolescents is significant in assessment, prevention, and treatment. Key words: Child, adolescent, sexual abuse, psychiatric effects

  17. Sexual, psychological, and relational functioning in women after surgical treatment for vulvar malignancy: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Leen; Enzlin, Paul; Vergote, Ignace; Verhaeghe, Johan; Poppe, Willy; Amant, Frederic

    2012-02-01

    Vulvectomy is an intrusive treatment option for women with vulvar malignancy that theoretically may affect sexual function. This study aims to provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the impact of surgical treatment for vulvar malignancy on sexual functioning, overall quality of life, and partner relationship. Systematic search of the medical literature on PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane database, Google Scholar and Embase using a number of related terms including vulvar malignancy, vulvar cancer, vulva cancer, vulval cancer, vulvectomy, sexual function, partner relation, quality of life, and psychological functioning. Measures and indicators of sexual function, overall quality of life, and partner relationship following vulvectomy for vulvar malignancy. There is evidence that women who undergo surgical treatment for vulvar cancer or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia are at high risk for sexual dysfunctions, dissatisfaction with partner relationship, and psychological difficulties. Factors associated with posttreatment sexual dysfunction include patient's increased age, poor overall well-being, history of depression, anxiety, and excision size of vulvar malignancy. Surgical treatment of vulvar cancer has a negative impact on sexual function, quality of life, and satisfaction with partner relationship. However, hitherto only little research effort has been directed to postoperative sexual well-being in vulvar cancer survivors. There is a need for more methodological sound prospective studies that explore sexual function, quality of life, and partner relationship and its predictors over time in vulvar cancer patients. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Possible use of psychological corrective measures for people with abnormal sexual preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babina S.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the possibility of psychological corrective measures aimed at persons with abnormal sexual preferences. We reviewed domestic and foreign scientific publications described the treatment of sexual disorders and the basic directions of the therapy, and indicated its positive and negative aspects. We have studied progress notes and etiology of "personality disorders and behavior in adulthood" disease class, "disorders of sexual preference" disease subsection and analyzed the efficiency of the psychopharmacological treatment, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and psychotherapy for each violation of sexual preference. The most productive methods of therapeutic intervention are identified. This analysis allows making the most appropriate scheme of psychological correction and treatment for persons with abnormalities of sexual preference.

  19. Health-related productivity losses increase when the health condition is co-morbid with psychological distress: findings from a large cross-sectional sample of working Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The health condition of workers is known to impact on productivity outcomes. The relationship between health and productivity is of increasing interest amid the need to increase productivity to meet global financial challenges. Prevalence of psychological distress is also of growing concern in Australia with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of psychological distress in Australia from 1997-2005. Methods We used the cross-sectional data set from the Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC) study to explore the impacts of health conditions with and without co-morbid psychological distress, compared to those with neither condition, in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The World Health Organisation Health and Performance Questionnaire was used which provided data on demographic characteristics, health condition and working conditions. Data were analysed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism respectively. Results For both absenteeism and presenteeism productivity measures there was a greater risk of productivity loss associated when health conditions were co-morbid with psychological distress. For some conditions this risk was much greater for those with co-morbid psychological distress compared to those without. Conclusions Co-morbid psychological distress demonstrates an increased risk of productivity loss for a range of health conditions. These findings highlight the need for further research to determine whether co-morbid psychological distress potentially exacerbates lost productivity. PMID:21627840

  20. Health-related productivity losses increase when the health condition is co-morbid with psychological distress: findings from a large cross-sectional sample of working Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecchio Nerina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health condition of workers is known to impact on productivity outcomes. The relationship between health and productivity is of increasing interest amid the need to increase productivity to meet global financial challenges. Prevalence of psychological distress is also of growing concern in Australia with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of psychological distress in Australia from 1997-2005. Methods We used the cross-sectional data set from the Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC study to explore the impacts of health conditions with and without co-morbid psychological distress, compared to those with neither condition, in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The World Health Organisation Health and Performance Questionnaire was used which provided data on demographic characteristics, health condition and working conditions. Data were analysed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism respectively. Results For both absenteeism and presenteeism productivity measures there was a greater risk of productivity loss associated when health conditions were co-morbid with psychological distress. For some conditions this risk was much greater for those with co-morbid psychological distress compared to those without. Conclusions Co-morbid psychological distress demonstrates an increased risk of productivity loss for a range of health conditions. These findings highlight the need for further research to determine whether co-morbid psychological distress potentially exacerbates lost productivity.

  1. 6. The Psychological Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    support to their children. INTRODUCTION. Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) is a pervasive travesty against the most vulnerable section of humanity, children. James and Gilliland have characterized it as a unique serious crime that threatens people of all ages and stations of life [1]. Durand and Barlow characterize sexual abuse of ...

  2. Psychological distress and risky sexual behaviours among women aged 16-25 years in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhuong T; Subasinghe, Asvini K; Wark, John D; Reavley, Nicola; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-12-01

    Identifying factors related to risky sexual behaviour may contribute to preventive and interventional approaches to reduce negative mental health outcomes among young women. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between psychological distress and risky sexual behaviours in females aged 16-25 years in Victoria, Australia. Data were extracted from the Young Female Health Initiative (YFHI), a study in which participants were recruited via advertisements on Facebook. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between psychological distress, as measured by the Kessler 10 (K10) Psychological Distress Scale, and risky sexual behaviours. Data were available from 200 sexually active participants and 40 non-sexually active participants. We found that the K10 score was independently associated with sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs (odds ratio: 1.7; 95% confidence intervals: 1.2, 2.7; P = 0.006). Although data were collected from a small sample of young women, we found that those with underlying psychological distress may adopt risky sexual behaviours, especially if concomitantly drinking alcohol or taking drugs.

  3. Coping, emotion regulation, and self-blame as mediators of sexual abuse and psychological symptoms in adult sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Relyea, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether coping, emotion regulation, and self-blame mediate relationships of trauma histories with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in adult sexual assault victims (N = 1863). A path analysis showed that theorized mediators partially mediated associations between trauma history variables and psychological symptoms. Specifically, child sexual abuse severity was related to greater post-traumatic stress disorder and depression indirectly through maladaptive coping and decreased emotion regulation but not self-blame. Other traumas had direct relationships with symptoms and partially mediated effects through maladaptive coping and emotion regulation. Child sexual abuse was unrelated to self-blame, but other traumas were related to greater self-blame. Results differed according to whether women had counseling post-assault. Implications are drawn for future research and clinical treatment of adult sexual assault victims.

  4. PSYCHOLOGICAL MORBIDITY IN PATIENTS WITH TINNITUS : A HOSPITAL BASED CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus is not a disease but a symptom of hearing sound when no external sound is present. Studies have shown that some people, the sound causes anxiety or interferes with concentration, incr eased awareness of depression and personality disorders. To this purpose we evaluated the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in chronic tinnitus using MINI interview. METHODS: A sample of 53 male and female patients with tinnitus between the age of 13 and 50 years participated in the study. Patients with ear infections , disease of th e heart or blood vessels , Meniere's disease , brain tumors , exposure to certain medications, a previous head injury and earwax were excluded. The subjects so chosen, were explained the nature of the study. Da ta was collected from outpatient ENT Clinics regarding demographic and clinical profiles from these patients. Each subject was then administered Mini International Neuropsychaitric Interview (M.I.N.I RESULTS: More numbers of females were there than males and majority were in between 30 - 39 years. Both married and unmarried people were equally affected. Middle class and upper lower classes were most affected. The prevalence of psychiatric co morbidity in these tinnitus patients follows in descending order: M ajor depressive disorder>>Social Phobia > Suicide > Panic - disorder > Obsessive – compulsive – disorder > Agarophobia = Dysthymic - disorder=Generalized - anxiety. CONCLUSION : We observed that the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in chronic tinnitus patients were as follows in descending order Major - depressive - disorder >> Social - Phobia > Suicide > Pani c - disorder > Obsessive - compulsive – disorder > Agarophobia = Dysthymic disorder=Generalized - anxiety . Treatment of this psychiatric morbidity with medications and psychotherapy may likely reduce the severity of tinnitus in many of these patients.

  5. Associations Between Personality Disorder Characteristics, Psychological Symptoms, and Sexual Functioning in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauvogl, Andrea; Pelzer, Britt; Radder, Veerle; van Lankveld, Jacques

    2017-12-21

    Recently, the etiology of sexual dysfunctions in women has been approached from different angles. In clinical practice and in previous studies, it has been observed that women with sexual problems experience anxiety problems and express more rigid and perfectionistic personality traits than women without these problems. To investigate whether personality disorder characteristics according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and psychological symptoms are associated with sexual problems in women. 188 women 18 to 25 years old participated in this cross-sectional study. Questionnaires measuring sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index), personality disorder characteristics (Assessment of DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders Questionnaire), and psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were used. The main outcome measure used was sexual functioning assessed by self-report. Results, using analysis of variance, indicated that women with sexual problems report significantly more cluster A (specifically schizoid) and C (specifically avoidant and obsessive-compulsive) personality disorder characteristics than women without sexual problems. Furthermore, using multiple regression analyses, higher cluster A (specifically schizoid) and lower cluster B (specifically borderline and antisocial) personality disorder characteristics indicated lower levels of sexual functioning. Psychological symptoms partly mediated the effect of cluster A personality disorder characteristics on sexual functioning. The results of this study indicate that clinical practice should extend its scope by focusing more on improving adaptive personality characteristics, such as extraversion and individualism seen in cluster B personality characteristics, and decreasing the perfectionistic, introvert, and self-doubting characteristics seen in cluster C personality characteristics

  6. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. PMID:25328265

  7. Studying Sex: A Content Analysis of Sexuality Research in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Candice; Mosley, Della V; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle

    2017-05-01

    Using a sex positive framework, the authors conducted a 61-year (1954-2015) content analysis of sexuality research in the flagship counseling psychology journals, the Journal of Counseling Psychology and The Counseling Psychologist. Given counseling psychology's core strengths- and multiculturalism-related values, this study aimed to uncover which human sexuality topics were published most, whether publications aligned with a sex positive, neutral, or negative discourse, what methodologies were used, and differences in how populations were investigated across race. Researchers used an integrative approach to content analysis and human coding (Neuendorf, 2011). Results highlighted that out of 188 articles meeting criteria, a slight majority (38.05%) focused on sexual orientation, identity, and minorities topics. Only 4.78% utilized a sex-positive perspective. Quantitative and conceptual pieces were most published, and publications disproportionately focused on primarily White populations. When people of color were included, the discourse was sex negative. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  8. The psychological impact of child sexual abuse on primary caregivers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nonetheless, not all caregivers are supportive of survivors; recent research findings, instead, show that incidents of CSA have debilitating psychological impact on survivors' caregivers which impair their functioning. This study explored whether a systematic link exists between an incident ofCSAand psychological changes ...

  9. Psychological intimate partner violence and sexual risk behavior: examining the role of distinct posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in the partner violence-sexual risk link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Nicole M; Willie, Tiara C; Hellmuth, Julianne C; Sullivan, Tami P

    2015-01-01

    Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women's sexual health outcomes are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior: Examining the Role of Distinct PTSD Symptoms in the Partner Violence-sexual Risk Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Nicole M.; Willie, Tiara C.; Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. METHODS The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 HIV-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. FINDINGS Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSION Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women’s sexual health outcomes are discussed. PMID:25498762

  11. Minority stress, psychosocial resources, and psychological distress among sexual minority breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Jabson, Jennifer M; Mustian, Karen M; Boehmer, Ulrike

    2017-06-01

    Few studies have examined unique factors predicting psychological distress among sexual minority (i.e., lesbian and bisexual) women postbreast cancer diagnosis. The present study assessed the association of minority stress and psychosocial resource factors with depression and anxiety symptoms among sexual minority breast cancer survivors. Two hundred one sexual minority women who had ductal carcinoma in situ or Stage I-IV breast cancer participated in this study through the Love/Avon Army of Women. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess demographic and clinical factors, minority stress factors (discrimination, minority identity development, outness), psychosocial resources (resilience, social support), and psychological distress (anxiety and depression). These factors were included in a structural equation model, testing psychosocial resources as mediators between minority stress and psychological distress. There were no significant differences noted between lesbian and bisexual women. The final structural equation model demonstrated acceptable fit across all sexual minority women, χ2 = 27.83, p > .05; confirmatory fit index = 0.97, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.04, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.93. The model accounted for significant variance in psychological distress (56%). Examination of indirect effects confirmed that exposure to discrimination was associated with distress via association with resilience. Factors unique to sexual minority populations, such as minority stress, may be associated with higher rates of psychological distress among sexual minority breast cancer survivors. However, presence of psychosocial resources may mediate relationships with distress in this population; enhancement of resilience, in particular, could be an aim of psychological intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Implications of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race/ethnicity for psychological distress among working-class sexual minorities: the United for Health Study, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, David H; Krieger, Nancy; Bennett, Gary G; Lindsey, Jane C; Stoddard, Anne M; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of demographic characteristics, the prevalence of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race, and relationships with psychological distress among 178 working-class sexual minorities (i.e., who identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or had ever engaged in same-sex sexual behaviors) recruited to the United for Health Study (2003-2004). The results indicated considerable heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior, with a majority of sexual minority participants not identifying as LGB (74.2%). The authors found significant demographic differences in LGB identification by gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic factors. In addition, LGB participants had higher levels of psychological distress than non-LGB-identified sexual minorities. Linear regression analyses revealed that reports of racial/ethnic discrimination and sexuality discrimination were associated with higher levels of psychological distress among sexual minority participants. The results underscore the need to collect multiple measures of sexuality in conducting research on racially diverse working-class communities; to consider demographic factors in collecting sexuality data; and to disaggregate information on sexuality by LGB identification. Findings also highlight the importance of addressing discrimination in ameliorating problematic mental health outcomes among working-class sexual minorities.

  13. A prospective study of psychological distress and sexual risk behavior among black adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiClemente, R J; Wingood, G M; Crosby, R A; Sionean, C; Brown, L K; Rothbaum, B; Zimand, E; Cobb, B K; Harrington, K; Davies, S

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the association between adolescents' psychological distress and their sexually transmitted disease/human immunodeficiency virus (STD/HIV)-associated sexual behaviors and attitudes. Sexually active black adolescent females (N = 522) completed, at baseline and again 6 months later, a self-administered questionnaire that assessed sexual health attitudes and emotional distress symptoms (using standardized measures, alpha =.84), a structured interview that assessed STD/HIV-associated sexual risk behaviors, and a urine screen for pregnancy. In multivariate analyses, controlling for observed covariates, adolescents with significant distress at baseline were more likely than their peers, after 6 months, to be pregnant (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: = 2.0), have had unprotected vaginal sex (AOR = 2.1), have nonmonogamous sex partners (AOR = 1.7), and not use any form of contraception (AOR = 1.5). Additionally, they were also more likely to: perceive barriers to condom use (AOR = 2.2), be fearful of the adverse consequences of negotiating condom use (AOR = 2.0), perceive less control in their relationship (AOR = 2.0), have experienced dating violence (AOR = 2.4), feel less efficacious in negotiating condom use with a new sex partner (AOR = 1.6), and have norms nonsupportive of a healthy sexual relationship (AOR = 1.7). The findings suggest that psychological distress is predictive over a 6-month period of a spectrum of STD/HIV-associated sexual behaviors and high-risk attitudes. Brief screening to detect distress or depressive symptoms among adolescent females can alert the clinician to the need to conduct a sexual health history, initiate STD/HIV-preventive counseling, and refer for comprehensive psychological assessment and appropriate treatment. Among adolescents receiving STD treatment, those with even moderate emotional distress may be at heightened risk for further unhealthy outcomes. STD/HIV interventions should also consider

  14. Sexual Self Schema as a Moderator of Sexual and Psychological Outcomes for Gynecologic Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Kristen M.; Andersen, Barbara L.; Fowler, Jeffrey M.; Maxwell, G. Larry

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Gynecologic cancer patients are at high risk for emotional distress and sexual dysfunction. The present study tested sexual self schema as an individual difference variable that might be useful in identifying those at risk for unfavorable outcomes. First, we tested schema as a predictor of sexual outcomes,including bodychangestress. Second,we examined schema as a contributor to broader quality of life outcomes, specifically as a moderator of the relationship between sexual satisfacti...

  15. COPING AS A MEDIATOR OF INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG YOUNG ADULT SEXUAL MINORITY WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Balsam, Kimberly F; Rhew, Isaac C; Blayney, Jessica A; Lehavot, Keren; Hughes, Tonda L

    2014-09-01

    Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling. Data are from a national sample of 1,099 young adult sexual minority women who were on average 20.86 ( SD = 2.12) years old, participating in a study on mental health and substance use. The model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ 2 (83) = 402.9, p homophobia and psychological distress, sexual minority-specific coping did not. Our findings support previous studies that have demonstrated the impact of internalized homophobia on psychological distress as well as the role of coping as a protective/risk factor in this relationship.

  16. COPING AS A MEDIATOR OF INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG YOUNG ADULT SEXUAL MINORITY WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lehavot, Keren; Hughes, Tonda L.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling. Data are from a national sample of 1,099 young adult sexual minority women who were on average 20.86 (SD= 2.12) years old, participating in a study on mental health and substance use. The model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ2 (83) = 402.9, p homophobia and psychological distress, sexual minority-specific coping did not. Our findings support previous studies that have demonstrated the impact of internalized homophobia on psychological distress as well as the role of coping as a protective/risk factor in this relationship. PMID:25530980

  17. PSA testing anxiety, psychological morbidity, and PSA utility in the management of prostate cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Micsunescu, Anamaria Elia

    2017-01-01

    Anecdotal reports from urologists and medical oncologists have suggested that patients with prostate cancer (PCa) often present with anxiety related to ongoing monitoring of their PSA levels as part of their disease management. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the prevalence and severity of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing anxiety in a population of patients with either localised or metastatic PCa living in Australia. Other aspects of psychological morbidit...

  18. Consequences of gynecological cancer in patients and their partners from the sexual and psychological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Iżycki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of gynecological cancer and the following consequences of the treatment radically change the lives of cancer patients and their partners. Women experience negative consequences in terms of sexual, psychological and social functioning. Surgical treatment may result in a decrease in sexual pleasure and pain during intercourse. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause a loss of libido and negatively affect the capacity to experience pleasure or orgasm. Treatment-related changes may include the occurrence of body image disorders, decreased quality of life as well as depressive and anxiety disorders among patients. Furthermore, a negative influence on the relationship between the affected women and their partners, as well as an adverse effect on the social activity, can be observed. Cancer is not an individual experience. It also affects partners of the sick women in terms of psychological and sexual functioning. This article depicts possible problems encountered by cancer patients and their partners from the psychological and sexual perspective. The emphasis is put on understanding sexuality not only in the context of sexual performance, but also in a wider perspective.

  19. Consequences of gynecological cancer in patients and their partners from the sexual and psychological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iżycki, Dariusz; Woźniak, Katarzyna; Iżycka, Natalia

    2016-06-01

    The diagnosis of gynecological cancer and the following consequences of the treatment radically change the lives of cancer patients and their partners. Women experience negative consequences in terms of sexual, psychological and social functioning. Surgical treatment may result in a decrease in sexual pleasure and pain during intercourse. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause a loss of libido and negatively affect the capacity to experience pleasure or orgasm. Treatment-related changes may include the occurrence of body image disorders, decreased quality of life as well as depressive and anxiety disorders among patients. Furthermore, a negative influence on the relationship between the affected women and their partners, as well as an adverse effect on the social activity, can be observed. Cancer is not an individual experience. It also affects partners of the sick women in terms of psychological and sexual functioning. This article depicts possible problems encountered by cancer patients and their partners from the psychological and sexual perspective. The emphasis is put on understanding sexuality not only in the context of sexual performance, but also in a wider perspective.

  20. Psychological Correlates to Dysfunctional Eating Patterns among Morbidly Obese Patients Accepted for Bariatric Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege Gade

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationships between dysfunctional eating patterns, personality, anxiety and depression in morbidly obese patients accepted for bariatric surgery. Design: The study used cross-sectional data collected by running a randomized controlled trial (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01403558. Subjects: A total of 102 patients (69 women, 33 men with a mean (SD age of 42.6 (9.8 years and a mean BMI of 43.5 (4.4 kg/m2 participated. Measurements: Measurements included the NEO-PI-R (personality: neuroticism, extroversion, openness, conscientiousness and agreeableness, the TFEQ-R-21 (dysfunctional eating: emotional eating (EE, uncontrolled eating (UE and cognitive restraint of eating (CR and the HADS (anxiety and depression. Results: The personality traits neuroticism and conscientiousness were more strongly correlated with dysfunctional eating than anxiety and depression. These differences were most pronounced for emotional and cognitive restraint of eating. Emotional eating occurred more often in female than in male patients, a finding that was partially mediated by neuroticism but not by anxiety and depression. Conclusion: Personality traits may be important to address in the clinical management of morbidly obese patients seeking bariatric surgery as neuroticism is particularly salient in female patients displaying an emotional eating behaviour.

  1. Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

  2. The Influence of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Physical Abuse, Family Environment, and Gender on the Psychological Adjustment of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Lori A.; Long, Patricia J.; Miranda, Robert, Jr.; Marx, Brian P.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined contributions of sexual abuse, physical abuse, family cohesion, and conflict in predicting psychological functioning of 131 adolescents receiving residential vocational training services. In addition to child sexual abuse and physical abuse, family conflict and cohesion predicted development of psychological distress and…

  3. Prevalence and correlates of physical, psychological, and sexual intimate partner violence in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekers, Dominique; Pallin, Sarah C; Hutchinson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing awareness that domestic violence is a major public health problem, existing studies focus on physical and sexual violence and give little attention to psychological violence. This study uses data from the 2008 Bolivia Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHS) to examine the prevalence and correlates of physical, sexual, and psychological intimate partner violence in Bolivia. The results show that psychological intimate partner violence is extremely common (affecting nearly one in two women) and often occurs in addition to physical violence. While physical, psychological and sexual intimate partner violence have several common predictors, there are factors that only affect some types of violence. Common risk factors include urban residence, respondent's employment status and having witnessed interparental violence in childhood. Although marital status is not a risk factor for physical violence, unmarried cohabitation is a strong risk factor for psychological intimate partner violence. Our findings highlight the need for research to assess the potential consequences of psychological intimate partner violence, particularly for women's mental health.

  4. Transformations of self and sexuality: psychologically modified experiences in the context of forensic mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven D; Reavey, Paula; Kanyeredzi, Ava; Batty, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Forensic mental health inpatients in medium-secure settings have a limited capacity for sexual expression during their stay in hospital. This is due to a number of factors, including a lack of willingness on behalf of staff to engage with sexual issues, as a result of safety fears and ambiguity regarding the ability of the patient to consent. Furthermore, UK forensic medium-secure units do not provide conjugal suites for patients to have sexual relations, with their spouse or other patients. To date, there is no empirical research on how forensic psychiatric patients (or service users) manage their sexuality, while in hospital and when released into the community. Here, we present an analysis of semi-structured interviews with patients at a UK medium forensic unit, in order to explore these issues further. More specifically, we examine how the public exclusion of sexuality from these units results in sexuality being experienced as sectioned off or amputated, such that a new form of sexuality emerges, one that has been cultivated by the psychologically informed practices operating within the unit. This process, we argue, produces a psychologically modified experience, a new form of self-relation that continues to modify when released into the broader ecology of the community.

  5. Psychological assessment in sexual abuse cases in childhood and adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Habigzang, Luísa Fernanda; Corte, Fabiana Dala; Hatzenberger, Roberta; Stroeher, Fernanda; Koller, Sílvia Helena

    2008-01-01

    A avaliação psicológica de crianças e adolescentes vítimas de abuso sexual é um desafio para os profissionais, devido à complexidade do fenômeno. O presente artigo tem como objetivo apresentar os resultados de um modelo de avaliação psicológica. O estudo foi realizado com 10 meninas com idade entre nove e 13 anos. As participantes foram clinicamente avaliadas em três encontros individuais. Os resultados apontaram que a maioria das meninas foi vítima de abuso sexual por pelo um ano até revelar...

  6. Sexual dysfunction in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: magnetic resonance imaging, clinical, and psychological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Y; Achiron, A; Elizur, A; Gabbay, U; Noy, S; Sarova-Pinhas, I

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sexual complaints and severity of sexual dysfunction in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and to correlate them with psychological, neurological, and radiological variables. Frequency and characteristics of sexual disturbances were reported by 41 multiple sclerosis patients (32 females, 9 males; mean age 35.4 +/- 10.2 y). Clinical neurologic variables tested were disease duration, exacerbation rate, and disability; psychological variables tested were anxiety and depression. All patients underwent a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan at the time of this study. The sexual dysfunction questionnaire included items based on the 3 phases of human sexual response: loss of libido, excitement (arousal difficulties, impotence, premature ejaculation), and anorgasmia. Five males (55.5%) and 16 females (50.0%) reported at least 1 sexual disturbance. The most frequent dysfunctions were loss of libido (26.8%) and arousal difficulties (19.5%). Females rated their difficulties as more severe. Sexual dysfunctions correlated with depression, (r = 0.68, P = 0.001). No correlation between MRI score and depression was found. Anorgasmia correlated with brain stem and pyramidal abnormalities (r = 0.56, P = 0.011; r = 0.56, P = 0.012, respectively). The total area of lesions (plaques) on the brain MRI scan also correlated with anorgasmia (r = 0.41, P = 0.02). Sexual dysfunctions in multiple sclerosis patients are frequent, are mild to moderate in severity, correlate with depression and in some cases central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating process, and thus may be related either to the psychological impact of this disease or to specific organic lesions in the brain. PMID:8754594

  7. The Psychological Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on child sexual abuse (CSA) suggest that support and protection from the caregiver provide the child an effective platform for quick recovery and improvement in mental health and social functioning. Nonetheless, not all caregivers are supportive of survivors; recent research findings, instead, show that incidents of ...

  8. Exploration of health status, illness perceptions, coping strategies, and psychological morbidity in stoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Simon R; Tribbick, Davina; Connell, William R; Castle, David; Salzberg, Michael; Kamm, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    We employed the Common Sense Model (CSM) of illness perceptions to examine the relative contribution of illness perceptions, stoma self-efficacy, and coping strategies in explaining anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with a fecal ostomy. The CSM suggests that the consequences of illness activity, such as psychological distress, are influenced by an individual's illness perceptions as well as what coping strategies they engage in. Descriptive, cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. One hundred fifty adults with a stoma (54 males, and 96 females; mean age 44 years) completed an online survey. Several instruments were used to measure study outcomes, including the Health Perceptions Questionnaire, Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire, Carver Brief Coping Questionnaire, Stoma Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Participants were advised of the study through online forums containing a link to the survey. Outcome measures used in the current study are valid and reliable and have been extensively used in medically ill patients. Using structural equation modeling, the final model provided an excellent fit to the data (χ23= 16.53, P = .22, χ/N = 1.27, SRMR 0.97, CFI > 0.99). There was a direct pathway from health status to illness perceptions months since surgery directly influenced health status, illness beliefs, and adaptive emotion-focused coping (β= .81, P coping. Maladaptive coping mediated the relationship between illness perceptions and depression and anxiety, and adaptive emotion-focused coping mediated the relationship between illness perception and depression. The final model provided support for the CSM, in that illness perceptions were directly related to illness status, and that both illness perceptions and coping strategies directly influenced anxiety and depression. More specifically, maladaptive coping style (eg, ignore problems) exacerbated depression and anxiety symptoms, while self-efficacy and emotion

  9. Impact of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Violence on Social Adjustment of School Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; Walsh, Kerryann

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to understand the pervasiveness and impact of physical, psychological, and sexual violence on the social adjustment of Grade 8 and 9 school children in the state of Tripura, India. The study participants, 160 boys and 160 girls, were randomly selected from classes in eight English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala city,…

  10. Psychological, Sexual, Social and Vocational Aspects of Spinal Cord Injury. A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Sharon, Comp.; And Others

    Presented is a bibliography with approximately 700 citations referring to research in the area of spinal cord injury. Entries are listed alphabetically by author under the following sections: psychological aspects (236 entries), sexual aspects (170 entries), social aspects (152 entries), and vocational aspects (134 entries). Information for each…

  11. In Harm's Way: Factors Related to Psychological Distress following Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinsworth, Linda L.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.; Drasgow, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    The negative consequences for victims of sexual harassment are well documented. However, one area unexamined is the process that leads to harm. Researchers have proposed three influences (i.e., objective or stimulus factors, individual factors, and contextual factors) on the psychological, health-related, and organizational outcomes of sexual…

  12. Bidirectional Associations Between Adolescents' Sexual Behaviors and Psychological Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nogueira Avelar e Silva, Raquel; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Raat, Hein

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Assessing bidirectional longitudinal associations between early sexual behaviors (≤16.0 years) and psychological well-being (global self-esteem, physical self-esteem, depression) among 716 adolescents, and the direct and buffering effect of parent-adolescent relationship quality. Methods:

  13. Sexual Orientation and Psychological Distress in Adolescence: Examining Interpersonal Stressors and Social Support Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Koji

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents with homosexual and bisexual orientations have higher levels of psychological distress than other adolescents. Drawing from previous studies, I hypothesize that this epidemiological pattern is due largely to the interpersonal problems that sexual minorities experience at home and at school. Analysis of longitudinal data based on a…

  14. Adolescents' Psychological Health and Experiences with Unwanted Sexual Behavior at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Greetje

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated included psychosomatic problems and self-esteem. It…

  15. Bidirectional Associations Between Adolescents' Sexual Behaviors and Psychological Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nogueira Avelar e Silva, Raquel; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Raat, Hein

    Purpose: Assessing bidirectional longitudinal associations between early sexual behaviors (≤16.0 years) and psychological well-being (global self-esteem, physical self-esteem, depression) among 716 adolescents, and the direct and buffering effect of parent-adolescent relationship quality. Methods:

  16. Adolescents' psychological health and experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, G

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated

  17. Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative…

  18. Introduction of an Undergraduate Course in the Psychology of Human Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinginna, Anne M.; McClure, Gary

    1981-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a course in the psychology of human sexuality which was introduced at Georgia Southern College in 1979. Findings indicated that, despite initial objections, the course was popular with students and has experimentally demonstrated to have produced an increase in knowledge. (DB)

  19. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Jitse P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking during previous week, early sexual initiation, psychological factors (self-esteem, well-being, extroversion, neuroticism, religiousness, and SRB (intercourse under risky conditions, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use in 832 Slovak university students (response 94.3%. Results Among those with sexual experience (62%, inconsistent condom use was the most prevalent risk behaviour (81% in females, 72% in males. With the exception of having been drunk in males, no factor was associated with inconsistent condom use. Regarding the other types of SRB, early sexual initiation was most strongly associated. In addition, other, mostly behavioural, factors were associated, in particular having been drunk. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioural factors are more closely related to SRB than psychological factors. Associations differ by type of SRB and gender but offer few clues to target risk groups for inconsistent condom use. Results show a high need for health-promotion programmes in early adolescence that target SRB in conjunction with other health risk behaviours such as alcohol abuse.

  20. Psychological Distress and Revictimization Risk in Youth Victims of Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittenger, Samantha L; Schreier, Alayna; Meidlinger, Katie; Pogue, Jessica K; Theimer, Kate; Flood, Mary Fran; Hansen, David J

    2016-07-01

    Psychological distress, including depression and anxiety, has been associated with increased risk for sexual revictimization in youth who have experienced child sexual abuse. The present study utilized assessment information from treatment seeking youth with histories of sexual abuse to explore specific risk indicators for revictimization-risk taking, social problems, maladaptive cognitions, and posttraumatic stress-that may be indicated by self-reported distress. The relationship between initial levels of distress and change in symptoms over a 12-week course of treatment was also explored. Participants were 101 youth referred to a child-focused therapeutic group for victims of sexual abuse, 65 youth referred to an adolescent-focused group, and their non-offending caregivers. Results revealed that when combined into a distress score, depression and anxiety were associated with delinquent behaviors, interpersonal difficulties, maladaptive cognitions, and posttraumatic stress symptoms for child and adolescent group participants at presentation to treatment. Children exhibited improvement on measures of interpersonal difficulties, maladaptive cognitions, and self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Adolescents exhibited less change over time, with significant improvement on self-reported social problems and PTSD only. Higher psychological distress was associated with less improvement in regard to negative expectations of abuse impact for child group participants. The findings suggest that distress indicates the presence of specific revictimization risk indicators, helping to identify targetable symptoms for intervention. Therefore, screening for psychological distress after discovery of sexual abuse may help detect youth at higher risk for revictimization and guide treatment.

  1. The association between sexual function, pain, and psychological adaptation of men diagnosed with chronic pelvic pain syndrome type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Sylvie; Berger, Richard E; Heiman, Julia R; Ciol, Marcia A

    2008-03-01

    Prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is known to have a negative impact on quality of life, especially on intimate relationships and sexual function. Information is, however, missing on the contribution of demographic and psychological variables to sexual variables. AIM. We compared the sexual function of men with CPPS to men without pain, and examined the relationship between the sexual, demographic, and psychological measures in men with CPPS. Self-report questionnaires assessing demographic, pain, sexual function, and psychological adaptation. The sample consisted of 72 men diagnosed with CPPS and 98 men without any pain condition. Self-report questionnaires measuring demographic, pain, and sexual function were completed once at the eligibility visit by all subjects. CPPS subjects completed additional questionnaires related to pain and psychological adaptation. CPPS subjects differed from controls by reporting significantly less frequent sexual desire or thoughts, less frequent sexual activities, less arousal/erectile function, less orgasm function, and higher frequencies of genital pain during/after intercourse. When we adjusted for age and marital status, the difference between groups remained for thoughts/desire, frequency of sexual activity, and arousal/erectile function. Analysis of factors related to sexual function in CPPS subjects included pain status and psychological adaptation. Results showed that frequency of sexual activity decreased with increasing depression, whereas arousal/erectile function decreased with increasing pain symptoms and stress appraisal. Orgasm function decreased with increasing depression and pleasure/satisfaction decreased with increasing pain symptoms, stress appraisal, and decreasing belief of a relationship between emotions and pain. We found a differential sexual profile for men with CPPS when compared to men without pain. The results suggest that interventions addressing psychological factors affecting sexual

  2. Evaluation of the prevalence of burnout and psychological morbidity among radiation oncologist members of the Kyoto Radiation Oncology Study Group (KROSG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mampuya, Wambaka Ange; Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Akira; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the self-reported prevalence of burnout and psychological morbidity among radiation oncologists members of the Kyoto Radiation Oncology Study Group (KROSG) and to identify factors contributing to burnout. We mailed an anonymous survey to 125 radiation oncologists members of the KROSG. The survey included; the demographic data, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). There were 87 responses out of 125 eligible respondents (69.6% response rate). In terms of burnout, three participants (3.4%) fulfilled the MBI-HSS criteria of having simultaneously high emotional exhaustion (EE), high depersonalization (DP) and low sense of personal accomplishment (PA). Eighteen (20.6%) reported a high score for either EE or DP meeting the alternative criteria for burnout with three of these simultaneously having high EE and high DP. The prevalence of psychological morbidity estimated using GHQ-12 was 32%. A high level of EE and low level of PA significantly correlated with high level of psychological morbidity with P morbidity among radiation oncologists in Japan. Compared with other studies involving radiation oncologists, the prevalence of low personal accomplishment was particularly high in the present study. The prevalence of psychological morbidity was almost the double that of the Japanese general population and was significantly associated with low PA and high EE. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  3. The Psychological Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    father- daughter incest: Experiences of mothers following disclosure. Journal of Psychology in. Africa, 2007; 17 (1 & 2), 57-65. 16. Cohen, S., T. Kamarck, & R. Mermelstein. A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and. Social Behavior, 1983; 24,386-396. 17. Menon, A., B. Munalula& C. Glazebrook. Stress in.

  4. Developing an affirmative position statement on sexual and gender diversity for psychology professionals in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius J. Victor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Against the background of the dominance of patriarchy and heteronormativity in Africa and the resultant stigma, discrimination and victimisation of sexually and gender-diverse people, this article reports on the development of an affirmative position statement by the Psychological Society of South Africa (PsySSA for psychology professionals working with sexually and gender-diverse people. The position statement is an attempt to contribute positively to the de-stigmatisation, amongst psychology professionals, of all people with diverse sexual and gender identities. Objective. In documenting and reflecting on the process of developing the statement — a first on the African continent — the article aims to contribute to the potential resources available to others in their work on similar projects around the world. Design. Although initially intended to be relevant to the African continent, the position statement is appropriate to the South African context specifically, but developed in consultation with a range of stakeholders, also from other African countries. Results. Concerns expressed during stakeholder consultations, and thus taken into account in the development of the statement, include relevance to other African countries, negotiating the politics of representation and language, the importance of including gender and biological variance in addition to sexuality, and the need to be sensitive to how Western influence is constructed in some African contexts. Conclusion. Other national psychology organisations stand to benefit by ‘lessons learned’ during this country-specific process with global implications, especially with respect to broadening the lens from lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI to sexual and gender diversity, as well as an acknowledgement of the multiple and fluid developmental pathways around sexuality and gender, in general.

  5. Child Sexual Abuse Attributions Among Undergraduate Psychology Students in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Russell; Teng Sze Wei, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    Experimental vignettes were used to investigate attributions relating to child sexual abuse with a focus on the degree of blame allocated to the family and to society, factors thought to be particularly relevant in a collectivist society. One hundred and sixty-two undergraduates in Singapore evaluated media reports describing a case of child sexual abuse. A 2 x 2 x 2 between-subjects design manipulated victim sex, perpetrator sex, and victim-perpetrator relationship. Participants rated the vignettes on degree of blame and prevention potential and rated the abusiveness of the case. Individualism and collectivism attitudes of the participants were also measured. While the highest blame ratings were attributed to perpetrators, significantly more blame was attributed to the family and to society than to the victim. The demonstration of the present attributions of blame to family and to society is a timely finding given recent recommendations to broaden approaches to child abuse prevention by moving away from a reliance on school based child protection programs, which leave the onus on the child to prevent and report abuse, toward a public health approach, which is particularly inclusive of parent and community education approaches . Allocation of some blame to victims, in spite of their status as children, while not a unique finding in victimology research, emphasizes the challenges still to be faced in encouraging the reporting of child sexual abuse.

  6. Psychological, sexual and cultural issues for patients with a stoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Patricia K

    Patients undergoing stoma surgery will more readily adapt to their new body image and way of life if they receive professional and voluntary input from the ostomy agencies such as the British Colostomy Association, from the preoperative stage through to rehabilitation and their return to the community. Nursing has moved away from mechanistic, task-oriented care to holistic care and, apart from the physical changes that a stoma will cause, there are other areas to be considered to improve the patient's quality of life after surgery. Patients undergoing stoma surgery experience a profound threat to their sense of physical integrity and self-concept with the change of body image in relation to bodily functions. Sexuality is an integral part of the whole person and is a highly complex phenomenon. Many patients find it difficult to discuss their sexual feelings, especially after a body image change and the nurse should be able to help patients identify and adapt to alterations in sexual self-concept. Cultural background plays an important part in patients' lives, including their beliefs, whether personal or religious, their perceptions of recovery, behaviour and concepts of and attitude towards the disease process. Nurses must combine sound, general information with open, respectful questions to the patient or family and be committed to responding flexibly and constructively. This article describes some of the potential problems that may be faced by patients after stoma surgery and increased knowledge of these areas will allow nurses to improve patient care and satisfaction.

  7. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…

  8. Adolescent sexual offenders: a self-psychological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorn, R; Parekh, A

    1997-01-01

    Following a request for assistance in formulating a treatment philosophy for adolescent sexual offenders, a qualitative study of seven adolescent offenders was designed with a view to elaborating pre-offense, and post-offense dynamics. The point of departure was the hypothesis that sexual offending had relation to object relations. It was further hypothesized that offenders' object relations and self-development had been disfigured in childhood and adolescent development. The developmental theories of Mahler, Stern, Winnicott, and Kohut were reviewed in order to shed light on the connection between disfigured self-development and sexual offending. Mahler's work suggested that anomalies during the separation-individuation process were heavily implicated. Winnicott's thinking on transitional functioning in potential space and his employment of the concepts of the true self and false self were especially useful. These bodies of work were assimilated to Kohut's theory of self development in which three nuclear sectors of the self, namely, the grandiose-exhibitionistic sector, the idealizing-voyeuristic sector, and the twinship-alterego sector, gradually coalesce and cohere through the moderating influence of parental empathy with the child's developmental tasks. Where such empathy is unforthcoming, or when the normal parental functions are obliterated by traumatic experiences of abuse, unmoderated needs for exhibitionism and voyeurism continue through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Victims of sexual offending were hypothesized to perform functions of restoration and preservation of a chronically weak and threatened self. The sample's interview transcripts were qualitatively analyzed and aggregated. Analysis suggested that, indeed, offenses appeared to have been motivated to preserve a weakened sense of self and that the thoughts and perceptions surrounding the offenses resonated with expressions of problematic separation from parental objects. In addition, it

  9. Fulfilling desire: evidence for negative feedback between men's testosterone, sociosexual psychology, and sexual partner number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puts, David A; Pope, Lauramarie E; Hill, Alexander K; Cárdenas, Rodrigo A; Welling, Lisa L M; Wheatley, John R; Marc Breedlove, S

    2015-04-01

    Across human societies and many nonhuman animals, males have greater interest in uncommitted sex (more unrestricted sociosexuality) than do females. Testosterone shows positive associations with male-typical sociosexual behavior in nonhuman animals. Yet, it remains unclear whether the human sex difference in sociosexual psychology (attitudes and desires) is mediated by testosterone, whether any relationships between testosterone and sociosexuality differ between men and women, and what the nature of these possible relationships might be. In studies to resolve these questions, we examined relationships between salivary testosterone concentrations and sociosexual psychology and behavior in men and women. We measured testosterone in all men in our sample, but only in those women taking oral contraception (OC-using women) in order to reduce the influence of ovulatory cycle variation in ovarian hormone production. We found that OC-using women did not differ from normally-ovulating women in sociosexual psychology or behavior, but that circulating testosterone mediated the sex difference in human sociosexuality and predicted sociosexual psychology in men but not OC-using women. Moreover, when sociosexual psychology was controlled, men's sociosexual behavior (number of sexual partners) was negatively related to testosterone, suggesting that testosterone drives sociosexual psychology in men and is inhibited when those desires are fulfilled. This more complex relationship between androgens and male sexuality may reconcile some conflicting prior reports. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological and behavioral profile of sexual abusers of children

    OpenAIRE

    Serafim, Antonio de Pádua; Saffi, Fabiana; Rigonatti, Sérgio Paulo; Casoy, Ilana; Barros, Daniel Martins de

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXTO: A prática de abuso sexual contra crianças é um fenômeno universal. Ela ocorre em todos os tempos e lugares e atinge todas as classes socioeconômicas. Enquanto a maioria dos estudos investiga as vítimas, os poucos estudos sobre agressores se concentram principalmente em dados demográficos. OBJETIVO: Apresentar revisão da literatura quanto à classificação de molestadores sexuais de crianças, de acordo com o perfil psicológico e comportamental. MÉTODOS: Revisão da literatura e discussã...

  11. Identification of clinically significant psychological distress and psychiatric morbidity by examining quality of life in subjects with occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghezzo Heberto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Juniper Asthma Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ(S is a questionnaire that allows measurement of disease specific quality of life. We wanted to examine correlations between the (AQLQ(S general and different subscale scores and both psychiatric morbidity and levels of psychological distress in individuals with occupational asthma (OA and to determine if results in the emotional function subscale allow identification of individuals with clinically significant psychological distress or current psychiatric disorders. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of individuals with OA who were assessed during a re-evaluation for permanent disability, after they were no longer exposed to the sensitizing agent. Patients underwent a general sociodemographic and medical history evaluation, a brief psychiatric interview (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders, PRIME-MD and completed a battery of questionnaires including the AQLQ(S, the St-Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, and the Psychiatric Symptom Index (PSI. Results There was good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.936 for the AQLQ(S total score and construct validity for the AQLQ(S (Spearman rho = -0.693 for the SGRQ symptom score and rho = -0.650 for the asthma severity score. There were medium to large correlations between the total score of the AQLQ(S and the SGRQ symptom score (r = -.693, and PSI total (r = -.619 and subscale scores (including depression, r = -.419; anxiety, r = -.664; anger, r = -.367; cognitive disturbances, r = -.419. A cut-off of 5.1 on the AQLQ(S emotional function subscale (where 0 = high impairment and 7 = no impairment had the best discriminative value to distinguish individuals with or without clinically significant psychiatric distress according to the PSI, and a cut-off of 4.7 best distinguished individuals with or without a current psychiatric disorder according to the PRIME-MD. Conclusions Impaired quality of life is

  12. The structure of the psychological consequences of sexual violence and abuse against children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutskova E.V.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of the joint psychiatric-psychological examination of 175 victims of child sexual abuse (CSA are presented. A complex of methods and techniques was used, including semi-structured interview for detection of posttraumatic stress in children, inventories for quality of life and maladjustment assessment, a battery of methods applied in the forensic psychiatric-psychological expertise, statistical methods. In the framework of the clinical and psychological (non-clinical levels psychological consequences of CSA in accordance with the psychic state of victims were revealed. 4 groups of consequences with different intensity are described: psychogenic state in form of disorder (1 and psychogenic state in form of reaction (2 (clinical level; unfavorable psychological state (3 and minimally unfavorable state (4 (psychological level. It was stated that the more severe is the victim’s psychic disturbance, from minimally unfavorable to psychic disorder, the broader is the range of psychological, personality spheres involved the bigger is the number and the intensity of symptoms of posttraumatic reactions. Psychological consequences displayed by mentally healthy victims of CSA indicate, though, their quality of life impairment.

  13. Sexual attraction and psychological adjustment in Dutch adolescents: coping style as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny; van Beusekom, Gabriël; Sandfort, Theo

    2014-11-01

    This study examined whether feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) in 12- to 15-year-old Dutch adolescents were related to psychological health (self-esteem and psychological distress) and whether this relation was mediated by coping styles and moderated by biological sex. Data were collected from 1,546 high school students (802 boys and 744 girls; M age = 13.57 years) by means of standardized measurements. SSA was found to predict lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of psychological distress. Further analyses showed that passive coping style partly mediated these associations. This mediation was not moderated by biological sex. The findings suggest that in understanding and addressing mental health disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexual youth attention should be paid to intrapersonal psychological factors such as coping styles.

  14. Lower Psychological Well-Being and Excessive Sexual Interest Predict Symptoms of Compulsive Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material Among Adolescent Boys

    OpenAIRE

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Baams, Laura; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing body of literature addresses the effects of young people?s use of sexually explicit Internet material, research on the compulsive use of this type of online content among adolescents and its associated factors is largely lacking. This study investigated whether factors from three distinct psychosocial domains (i.e., psychological well-being, sexual interests/behaviors, and impulsive-psychopathic personality) predicted symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet...

  15. Sexual Harassment, Psychological Distress, and Problematic Drinking Behavior Among College Students: An Examination of Reciprocal Causal Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jennifer M; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Colaneri, Anthony S

    2017-01-01

    Sexual harassment on college campuses is a frequent occurrence and serious public health concern. Victims of sexual harassment are at risk for many possible negative health consequences. In addition, certain psychological distress symptoms and/or alcohol use may put individuals at increased risk of being victims of sexual harassment. Data from more than 2,000 college students in the Midwestern United States were used to examine reciprocal causal effects of the relations between (a) experiencing sexual harassment and alcohol use and (b) experiencing sexual harassment and psychological distress symptoms, specifically depression and anger/hostility. Analyses were conducted separately for sexual harassment which occurs at school and which occurs in college students' workplaces, and also separately for men and women. Results of cross-lagged panel models showed that there were reciprocal causal effects between sexual harassment and alcohol problems, depression, and anger. Discussion focuses on the overall patterns of results as well as the nuances within these findings.

  16. Quality of life and psychological morbidity in vitiligo patients: A study in a teaching hospital from north-east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucybeth N Sangma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Vitiligo is an acquired discoloration of skin and mucous membrane of great cosmetic importance affecting 1-4% of the world′s population. It causes disfiguration in all races, more so in dark-skinned people because of strong contrast. Men, women, and children with vitiligo face severe psychological and social disadvantage. Aim: To assess the impact of the disease on the quality of life of patients suffering from vitiligo, also to ascertain any psychological morbidity like depression associated with the disease and to compare the results with that of healthy control group. Materials and Methods : Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD are administered to 100 vitiligo patients presenting to the Dermatology OPD and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results were analyzed and compared with that of control group. Findings are also correlated in relation to demographic and clinical profile of the disease. Statistical analysis is made to see the significance. Results : Vitiligo-affected patients had significantly elevated total DLQI scores (P < 0.001 compared to healthy controls. There is increase in parameters like itch, embarrassment, social and leisure activities in the patient cohort than the control group. Patients of vitiligo are also found to be more depressed (P < 0.001 than the controls. Conclusion : Quality of life (QOL in patients affected with vitiligo declined more severely, and also there is increase in incidence of depression than in the control group. These changes are critical for the psychosocial life of the affected people.

  17. Psychological and Physical Health of Nonoffending Parents After Disclosure of Sexual Abuse of Their Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Mireille; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Hébert, Martine; Tourigny, Marc; McDuff, Pierre; Turcotte, Marie-Ève

    2016-10-01

    Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be traumatic for nonoffending parents. Research has shown its impact on mothers' mental health, which includes heightened psychological distress, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Very little is known, however, about its impact on their physical health or on fathers' health. The self-perceived mental and physical health of nonoffending parents after child sexual abuse disclosure was compared to determine gender-related differences in this regard. Interviews were conducted with 109 mothers and 43 fathers of 6- to 13-year-old sexually abused children. Bivariate analyses revealed that a fair proportion of parents reported psychological and physical problems after disclosure. However, proportionally more mothers than fathers reported psychological distress, depression, and use of professional services. Fathers were more likely to resort to health services instead of social services and to use medication for depression. Study findings provide leads for health and social service providers for the development of intervention protocols and referral procedures sensitive to gender issues, and they shed new light on specific needs of nonoffending parents.

  18. Effect of a non-dieting lifestyle randomised control trial on psychological well-being and weight management in morbidly obese pre-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkoles, Erika; Carroll, Sean; Clough, Peter; Polman, Remco C J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a non-dieting lifestyle intervention approach for morbidly obese women designed in the framework of the self-determination theory (SDT) and Health at Every Size on weight maintenance and psychological functioning. Predominantly white (97%), morbidly obese (BMI ≥ 35 kg m(-2) with at least one co-morbid condition or a BMI ≥ 40 kg m(-2)) pre-menopausal women (N=62), aged between 24 and 55 years were initially randomly assigned to 12 weeks of lifestyle intervention (IIG) or delayed start control group (DSCG). The program consisted of 3 months intensive lifestyle intervention followed by 9 month maintenance phase. The DSCG group commenced the program after 3 months. Initially, the IIG showed a significant decrease in body weight (baseline to end of the RCT phase) compared with a significant increase in the DSCG group. However, no significant changes in weight status were evident in either group at 12 months compared with baseline. The 3-month intensive intervention resulted in significantly improved psychological functioning in both groups, which were maintained at 12 months. The study provides additional support for a non-dieting, theory-based, lifestyle approach to weight management and psychological well-being among morbidly obese females. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuroticism in child sex offenders and its association with sexual dysfunctions, cognitive distortions, and psychological complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillat, Coralie; Deuring, Gunnar; Pflueger, Marlon O; Graf, Marc; Rosburg, Timm

    Studies in child sex offenders (CSO) often report deviant personality characteristics. In our study, we investigated neuroticism in CSO and tested the hypothesis that CSO with high neuroticism show more serious abuse behavior and are more likely to exhibit sexual dysfunction and cognitive distortions, as compared to CSO with low neuroticism. A sample of 40 CSO (both child sexual abusers and child sexual material users) was split into two subsamples based on their neuroticism scores, obtained by the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) questionnaire. Subsequently, we compared their scores in the Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI) questionnaire and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Our results show that CSO exhibited higher levels of neuroticism than controls, but were still in the normal range. In CSO, neuroticism was associated with sexual dysfunction and cognitive distortions, rather than with more severe abuse behavior. Moreover, neuroticism in this group was linked to a broad range of psychological problems and psychopathological symptoms, such as somatization or anxiety. Our findings suggest that neuroticism even below the level of personality disorder is associated with a broader range of psychological problems in CSO, which should be addressed in therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexual identity and HIV status influence the relationship between internalized stigma and psychological distress in black gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Melissa R; Cook, Stephanie H; Wilson, Patrick A

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men.

  1. Do Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Improve when Patients Receive Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Co-morbid Anxiety Disorders in a Primary Care Psychological Therapy (IAPT) Service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenwright, Mark; McDonald, Jason; Talbot, Jo; Janjua, Kinza

    2017-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common co-morbid condition with anxiety disorders, and patients often report a fear of incontinence in public places. This type of bowel control anxiety (BCA) can be conceptualized as a phobic syndrome. Yet little evidence exists on the prevalence or outcomes of these co-morbidities in routine primary care psychological therapy (Improving Access to Psychological Therapies, IAPT) services. To examine the prevalence and outcomes of IBS and BCA patients treated with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders within a routine IAPT service. An observational cohort study screened 2322 referrals to an IAPT service over 12 months for the presence of IBS. Patients with co-morbid anxiety disorders and IBS were grouped into those with, and without BCA. Patients completed the IBS symptom severity scale and the IAPT minimum data set. Diagnoses and outcomes were examined for all groups up to 6 months follow-up. A greater proportion of BCA patients had a primary diagnosis of phobic disorder. After receiving CBT, patients made clinically significant improvement in both anxiety and IBS symptoms at 6 months follow-up. Patients with BCA made greater improvement in phobia scales and IBS symptoms than non-BCA patients. Anxiety disorders with co-morbid IBS improved significantly in a routine IAPT service. A significant proportion of co-morbid IBS sufferers had a fear of incontinence in public places (BCA). Directly addressing and modifying these fears with CBT appeared to enhance improvement in both phobic anxiety and IBS symptoms.

  2. Sexual Stigma, Psychological Well-Being and Social Engagement among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beirut, Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Glenn J.; Aunon, Frances M.; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Karam, Rita; Khouri, Danielle; Tohme, Johnny; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to explore the sexual identity development of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beirut, the stigma experienced by these men, and how their psychological well-being and social engagement are shaped by how they cope with this stigma. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 MSM, and content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. While many men reported feeling very comfortable with their sexual orientation and had disclosed their sexual orientatio...

  3. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Psychiatric Morbidity, and Criminal Outcomes in Women Assessed by Medium Secure Forensic Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen

    2013-01-01

    There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of…

  4. Psychological and Social Problems of Adult Female Victims After Sexual Assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Belma Gölge

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychological and social problems faced by female victims after rape and additionally the impact of also being a victim of childhood sexual abuse in Turkey, where opportunity of getting medical and psychological support for sexual assault for victims is limited and legal process lasts for years. Method: Participants consisted of 93 female rape victims who were examined by the Second Specialization Board of State Council of Forensic Medicine.  An interview form, which is developed in order to investigate socio-demographic features, assault charactersitics, psychological and social problems of victim, Post Traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PTDS  and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were applied for the investigation. Results:  61.3 % of victims were diagnosed with post traumatic stres disorder (PTSD and 54.8% of victims had sexual dysfunctions caused by the sexual assault. 68.8 % of victims reported that they were exposed to negative social reactions. 70,3% of victims who were exposed to negative social reactions met diagnostic criteria for PTSD while only 41,4% of people who were not exposed to negative social reactions met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Difference between groups was analyzed with chi squre method and there is significant difference between them ( X2:7.04, df:1, p<0.01. Self-mutilation and suicide attempts were high in victims of adult rape who were also sexually abused in childhood. Discussion:  Considering duration between the sexual assault and interview, in our research findings the ratio of the people who have PTSD and sexual issues, is more than the other studies consequences. On the other hand, the victims which reported that incident occured more than three years ago, are fitted to the diagnosis criterias of PTSD, with the ratio of 58.8%. It’s been thought that, studying with the victims who has been sent for physical examination and the continuation of judicial

  5. The Psychological Context of Sexual Compulsivity Among Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Roy C; Woods, William J; Moskowitz, Judith T; Carrico, Adam W

    2016-02-01

    Among men who have sex with men (MSM), sexual compulsivity is associated with overlapping psychosocial and behavioral health problems. Because difficulties with emotion regulation are thought to be one important feature, this study examined whether affective states and traumatic stress symptoms were independently associated with key dimensions of sexual compulsivity. Data were collected in San Francisco for the Urban Men's Health Study-2002 from May 24, 2002 to January 19, 2003. In total, 711 MSM recruited via probability-based sampling completed a mail-in questionnaire that assessed psychological factors and substance use. Dissociation related to traumatic stress and any stimulant use in the past 6 months were independently associated with more frequent sexual thoughts or urges. Increased anger and HIV-positive serostatus were independently associated with a greater perception that sexual behavior is difficult to control. Clinical research is needed to examine if interventions targeting emotion regulation and traumatic stress can boost the effectiveness of HIV prevention efforts among MSM who experience difficulties related to managing sexual behaviors.

  6. Psychological adjustment and sexual development of adolescents with disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinemeier, Eva; Jürgensen, Martina; Lux, Anke; Widenka, Pia-Marie; Thyen, Ute

    2010-11-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) are a heterogeneous group of congenital conditions characterized by an atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex. Particularly at the time of expected puberty, adolescents with DSD may become aware of being different from peers. This study explores the effect of DSD on psychosocial well-being and sexual development. We interviewed 60 adolescents aged 13-16 years with a DSD. To measure health-related quality of life, mental health, and body image, we used standardized instruments and additional questions related to sexuality and coping with DSD. Reference and control data were available from the German Health Survey for Children and Adolescents (Kiggs) and from a secondary school survey. The general psychological well-being of adolescents with DSD was not impaired. However, outcomes related to adolescent developmental tasks like sexual activities demonstrated impaired participation, especially girls with DSD reported fewer sexual activities than female controls. Adolescents who needed hormonal treatment to induce puberty reported impaired well-being in nearly all outcomes in contrast to those who entered puberty spontaneously. Interdisciplinary health care teams should focus on the pressure of conformity and openly discuss it with the adolescent in context of treatment decisions. Furthermore, special counseling concerning sexuality and coping with the condition in daily life is needed. Copyright © 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mental health screening in armed forces before the Iraq war and prevention of subsequent psychological morbidity: follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rona, Roberto J; Hooper, Richard; Jones, Margaret; Hull, Lisa; Browne, Tess; Horn, Oded; Murphy, Dominic; Hotopf, Matthew; Wessely, Simon

    2006-11-11

    To assess whether screening for mental disorder before the start of the 2003 Iraq war would have predicted subsequent mental disorders. Longitudinal cohort study of the United Kingdom armed forces. 2820 of 2873 personnel of the three services who completed an initial questionnaire in 2002 were asked to complete a second questionnaire between June 2004 and 2 March 2006. Regiments, air stations, bases, ships, and homes for those who had left the services. Positive and negative likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive value of first assessment compared with assessment two to three years later of post-traumatic stress disorder, general health questionnaire, physical symptoms, self perception of health, and alcohol misuse for the entire group and for those deployed to the Iraq war. The response rate to the follow-up questionnaire was 69%, adjusted for return to senders. The positive likelihood ratio of post-traumatic stress disorder was high (13.1, 95% confidence interval 7.2 to 23.8), but the negative likelihood ratio was close to 1 (0.78, 0.67 to 0.91). The positive predictive values were low because of the low prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in the period before the Iraq war. The positive likelihood ratios for the other psychological assessments varied between 2.7 and 5.6, and the negative likelihood ratios were slightly lower than for post-traumatic stress disorder, indicating that these were not good candidates for screening. Results were the same for the analyses restricted to those who were deployed. Screening for common mental disorders before deployment in this cohort would not have reduced subsequent morbidity or predicted post-traumatic stress disorder, but this may change if there is a considerable increase in the prevalence of the disorder.

  8. Why Us? Perceived Injustice is Associated With More Sexual and Psychological Distress in Couples Coping With Genito-Pelvic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pâquet, Myriam; Bois, Katy; Rosen, Natalie O; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Charbonneau-Lefebvre, Véronique; Bergeron, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is the most frequent cause of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD) and is associated with negative psychological and sexual consequences for affected women and their partners. PVD is often misdiagnosed or ignored and many couples may experience a sense of injustice, due to the loss of their ability to have a normal sexual life. Perceiving injustice has been documented to have important consequences in individuals with chronic pain. However, no quantitative research has investigated the experience of injustice in this population. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between perceived injustice and pain, sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, and depression among women with PVD and their partners. Women diagnosed with PVD (N = 50) and their partners completed questionnaires of perceived injustice, pain, sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, and depression. (1) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale; (2) Female Sexual Distress Scale; (3) Beck Depression Inventory-II; and (4) McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire. After controlling for partners' age, women's higher level of perceived injustice was associated with their own greater sexual distress, and the same pattern was found for partners. Women's higher level of perceived injustice was associated with their own greater depression, and the same pattern was found for partners. Women's higher perceived injustice was not associated with their own lower sexual satisfaction but partners' higher perceived injustice was associated with their own lower sexual satisfaction. Perceived injustice was not associated with women's pain intensity. Results suggest that perceiving injustice may have negative consequences for the couple's sexual and psychological outcomes. However, the effects of perceived injustice appear to be intra-individual. Targeting perceived injustice could enhance the efficacy of psychological interventions for women with PVD and their partners

  9. Sexual dysfunction in obese women is more affected by psychological domains than that of non-obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Paulo José Faria; Vivacqua, Carla Almeida; Godoy, Eudes Paiva de; Bruno, Selma Sousa; Brígido, Alexandra Régia Dantas; Barros, Felipe Chaves Duarte; Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro de

    2015-12-01

    To compare differences in the occurrence and changed domains of sexual dysfunction in obese and non-obese Brazilian women. Female Sexual Function Index, based on six domains, to investigate 31 sexual dysfunction incidence for obese compared to 32 non-obese women, was used. Statistical analysis using ANOVA and MANOVA were performed to compare total scores of Female Sexual Function Index among groups and to identify the differences among domains, Student t -test was used. Statistical significant level was established for all tests for pfemale sexual dysfunction frequency between obese (25.8%) and non-obese women (22.5%) was found. However, an important distinction in which aspects of sexual life were affected was found. While the obese group was impaired in three domains of sexual life (desire, orgasm, and arousal), in the control group five aspects were dysfunctional (desire, orgasm, arousal, pain and lubrication). Future research exploring psychological outcomes in obese females, such as body image and measures of positive and negative effect, might better characterize the female sexual dysfunction in this group. Obesity does not appear to be an independent factor for allow quality of female sexual life. However, disturbance associated to obesity indicates a low frequency of disorder in physical domains, suggesting that psychological factors seem to be mainly involved in the sexual dysfunction in obese women.

  10. Lower Psychological Well-Being and Excessive Sexual Interest Predict Symptoms of Compulsive Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material Among Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Baams, Laura; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2016-01-01

    Although a growing body of literature addresses the effects of young people's use of sexually explicit Internet material, research on the compulsive use of this type of online content among adolescents and its associated factors is largely lacking. This study investigated whether factors from three distinct psychosocial domains (i.e., psychological well-being, sexual interests/behaviors, and impulsive-psychopathic personality) predicted symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys. Links between psychosocial factors and boys' compulsive use symptoms were analyzed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally with compulsive use symptoms measured 6 months later (T2). Data were used from 331 Dutch boys (M age = 15.16 years, range 11-17) who indicated that they used sexually explicit Internet material. The results from negative binomial regression analyses indicated that lower levels of global self-esteem and higher levels of excessive sexual interest concurrently predicted boys' symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material. Longitudinally, higher levels of depressive feelings and, again, excessive sexual interest predicted relative increases in compulsive use symptoms 6 months later. Impulsive and psychopathic personality traits were not uniquely related to boys' symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material. Our findings, while preliminary, suggest that both psychological well-being factors and sexual interests/behaviors are involved in the development of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys. Such knowledge is important for prevention and intervention efforts that target the needs of specific problematic users of sexually explicit Internet material.

  11. Relationship trajectories and psychological well-being among sexual minority youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle Marie; Sandfort, Theo G.M.; Eisenberg, Anna; Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.

    2010-01-01

    Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexual minority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an opposite-sex relationship (OSR) on sexual minority youths' psychological well-being (i.e., symptoms of depression, anxiety and internalized homophobia, and self-esteem) in an ethnically-diverse sample of 350 youth (55% male) between the ages of 15-19 years, recruited from three GLBT drop-in centers in the New York City area. Using longitudinal data, we examined youths' SSR and OSR over time. Multivariate regression analyses suggest that involvement in a SSR was positively associated with changes in self-esteem in males, and negatively correlated with changes in internalized homophobia in females. We discuss the implications for positive development in sexual minority adolescent populations. PMID:20535536

  12. [Relations between self-discrimination of MSM and sexual behavior and psychological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Zhang, Hong-bo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Guang-gui; Yang, Hong-wu; Fan, Jing

    2010-07-01

    To understand the self-discrimination experience of MSM and its relationship with sexual behavior and psychological factors. By respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method, a call-for action and anonymous self-administration questionnaire investigation was carried out in Mianyang city on experience of self-discriminations, sexual partners and behaviors and depression symptom, etc. The first 12 qualified people were designated as the "root" in the whole investigation from different MSM subgroups. Every "root" would get 3 recruit cards after their own investigation, then cards could be promoted to another 3 qualified people who were willing to accept questionnaires. And this process would go on till the sample size was accomplished. χ(2) test, rank correlation and contingency coefficient would be applied for the statistical analysis. In total, 201 persons were investigated. Within the past 6 months, 59.2% (119/201) persons felt they did harm to their family or made the family down as gays, 79.6% (160/201) had to disguise their real sexual orientation in avoidance of being discriminated, 39.3% (79/201) were humiliated for having gay sex. It showed correlation between humiliation or harm to family and frequency to disco balls/night clubs (r = 0.196, χ(2) = 7.95, P discriminated and the frequency of show up in the cybercafé (r = 0.272, χ(2) = 15.932, P discrimination was connected to entrance into gay-welcome places, acceptance of HIV consultancy and tests, posting gay information among MSM friends and hold of many sexual partners. Meanwhile, the pressure was rising when depression was checked out. Self-discrimination was prevalent among MSM, which had brought critical influence on the individual behavior, MSM psychological health and prevalence of AIDS.

  13. Review of Randomized Controlled Trials on Psychological Interventions in Child Sexual Abuse: Current Status and Emerging Needs in the Indian Context

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choudhary, Vandana; Satapathy, Sujata; Sagar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a critical, psychologically traumatic and sometimes life-threatening incident often associated with sequel of adverse physical, behavioral, and mental health consequences...

  14. Psychological resilience: an approach to the concept, theoretical framework and relation with child sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gustavo Pinto-Cortez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a serious public health problem and a violation of human rights from children and adolescents. A prolific research has been developed to determine the magnitude of the problem, psychological effects, risk factors and protective factors. In this context, resilience approach becomes important by explain the mechanisms that promote positive adaptation to adversity. In this paper, it is discussed in the first part, the analysis of the concept of resilience and its various stages of investigation over time. Finally, an integration of this model in understanding and approaching child and adolescent victimization is done.

  15. Does nipple preservation in mastectomy improve satisfaction with cosmetic results, psychological adjustment, body image and sexuality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, F; Radice, D; Gandini, S; Bedolis, R; Rotmensz, N; Maldifassi, A; Santillo, B; Luini, A; Galimberti, V; Scaffidi, E; Lupo, F; Martella, S; Petit, J Y

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the influence of nipple areolar complex (NAC) sparing in mastectomy, on patient satisfaction with cosmetic results, body-image, sexuality and psychological well-being. We developed a specific questionnaire and compared two groups of women who underwent radical mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction (IBR). Between 2004 and 2006, 310 women with NAC preservation and 143 patients with successive NAC reconstruction were mailed the questionnaire at follow-up 1 year after definitive complete breast reconstruction surgery. 256 questionnaires was available. Our results showed significant differences in favour of the NAC sparing group regarding body image (difficulty in looking at themselves naked and being seen naked by their partners after surgery, P = 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively); regarding satisfaction with the appearance of the nipple (P body image and psychological adjustment.

  16. Minority stress, psychological distress, and alcohol misuse among sexual minority young adults: A resiliency-based conditional process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Nicholas A; Christianson, Nathan; Cochran, Bryan N

    2016-12-01

    Sexual minority young adults experience elevated rates of distal stress (discrimination, victimization), and related psychological distress and alcohol misuse. However, few studies have examined the degree to which personality trait differences confer risk/resilience among sexual minority young adults. We hypothesized that psychological distress would mediate the relationship between distal stress and alcohol misuse, but that these relationships would be moderated by personality trait differences. Sexual minority young adults (N=412) were recruited nationally. Survey measures included demographic questions, minority stressors, Five Factor personality traits, and current psychological distress and alcohol misuse symptoms. We used a data-driven two-stage cluster analytic technique to empirically derive personality trait profiles, and conducted mediation and moderated mediation analyses using a regression-based approach. Our results supported a two-group personality profile solution. Relative to at-risk individuals, those classified as adaptive scored lower on neuroticism, and higher on agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. As predicted, psychological distress mediated the relationship between distal stress and alcohol misuse. However, personality moderated these relationships to the degree that they did not exist among individuals classified as adaptive. In the current study, we found that personality moderated the established relationships between distal stress, psychological distress, and alcohol misuse among sexual minority young adults. Future research is needed to further explicate these relationships, and in order to develop tailored interventions for sexual minority young adults at risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Emotional security in the family system and psychological distress in female survivors of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of early sexual debut and pubertal timing on psychological distress among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Ksobiech, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relative influence of early sexual debut (ESD) and pubertal timing on psychological distress from adolescence to young adulthood in Taiwan, a non-Western society with a distinct cultural and family context. Data were from a cohort sample of 15-year-olds (N = 2595) first interviewed in 2000, with four follow-ups during a 7-year period. Psychological distress was assessed by a reduced form of the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised. ESD was defined by first intercourse at age 15 or younger. Multivariate analyses via growth curve modeling found a greater increase in psychological distress over time in adolescents with ESD (β = .28, p adolescents were at greater risk for the onset of psychological distress (β = .46, p adolescents with an ESD appeared to be especially likely to be distressed (β = 3.39, p adolescents became young adults (β = -.03, p influence of both ESD and pubertal timing on distress trajectories, independent of parental and family characteristics.

  19. Sexually transmitted infections among pregnant heroin- or cocaine-addicted women in treatment: the significance of psychiatric co-morbidity and sex trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, C E; Hedden, S L; Latimer, W W

    2010-02-01

    Psychiatric co-morbidity and sex trade were tested as correlates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among 76 pregnant heroin- or cocaine-dependent women. Participants were recruited from a drug treatment programme and attended a clinician-administered assessment including the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV-TR) and self-report questionnaires about lifetime histories of sex trade and STIs (i.e. gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts or trichomonas). Lifetime and six month rates of STIs were 53.9% and 18.4%, respectively. The majority of women also had lifetime histories of psychiatric co-morbidity (61.8%) and/or sex trade (60.5%). Participants with psychiatric co-morbidity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-11.6) and/or sex trade (AOR 3.2; 95% CI 1.1-9.5) were more likely to report STIs during their lifetime compared with those without such histories while controlling for age, education and race/ethnicity. Results suggest that as many as one-in-five pregnant heroin- or cocaine-dependent women in treatment have one or more STIs that are concurrent with their pregnancy and may contribute to risk for contracting HIV and pregnancy complications; psychiatric co-morbidity and/or sex trade were associated with greater STI risk. Findings underscore the importance of identifying and addressing co-morbid psychiatric disorders and sex trade behaviour in this population.

  20. A Case Study of Sexual Abuse and Psychological Correlates among an HIV-Serodiscordant Couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gail E; Loeb, Tamra B; Williams, John K; Davis, Teri D; Zhang, Muyu

    2012-06-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA), adult sexual abuse (ASA) and intimate partner violence (IVP) are documented risk factors for HIV infection and are often implicated in the presentation of mental health disorders in both males and females, including those who are vulnerable to HIV-infection (African-Americans; trauma survivors). As such, these issues may contribute to health-related challenges among couples, particularly if the individuals are impacted by histories of trauma and HIV. Presented here is a case study of one couple with self-reported histories of CSA and clinically significant symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. This couple was selected from a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study of 535 African-American HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples (see El Bassel, 2010). The study couple completed 8 sessions of an HIV sexual risk reduction intervention program to increase condom use. Although the couple reported an initial increase in condom use at the immediate post intervention assessment, condom use decreased to baseline assessment levels at the 12-month post intervention assessment. The decrease in HIV-transmission protective behaviors over time (i.e., condom use), in part, may be attributable to the clinically significant psychological distress symptoms of PTSD and depression that were maintained from baseline, throughout the trial, and at follow-up assessments. We propose that the success of sexual risk reduction interventions may be attenuated and compromised over time by the presence of sexual trauma histories and the residual mental health issues. We discuss clinical implications for health care professionals in their work with couples, especially those from racially diverse groups.

  1. Sexual Self-Schema and Depressive Symptoms after Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A.; Carpenter, Kristen M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The years following prostate cancer (PC) treatment are characterized by changes in sexual functioning and risk for depressive symptoms. Sexual self-schemas (SSS) are cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of the self that are associated with sexual behavior, affect, and the processing of sexually-relevant information. This study tested if men's SSS moderates the impact of sexual morbidity on depressive symptoms. Methods Men (N=66) treated for localized PC in the preceding two years were assessed at T1 and four months later (T2). Questionnaires included the CESD (Radloff, 1977), Sexual Self-Schema Scale for Men (Andersen et al., 1999), Sexual Experience Scale (Derogatis & Melisaratos, 1979), and the EPIC (Wei et al., 2000). Results Regressions controlled for age, sexual activity, and T1 depressive symptoms revealed no significant effect of SSS on depressive symptoms; however, better sexual functioning was related to fewer depressive symptoms (B=−.25, psexual outcomes. Among men with high SSS, poor sexual functioning was associated with increased depressive symptoms; loss of sexual function was particularly distressing. There was no significant effect of sexual functioning. Among men with high SSS, there was an inverse relationship between sexual engagement and depressive symptoms. Among men with lower SSS, greater frequency of sexual behavior was associated with increased depressive symptoms. Conclusions SSS may be an important individual difference in determining the impact of sexual morbidity on psychological adjustment. Men high on SSS are more vulnerable to psychological consequences of lower sexual functioning and less engagement in sexual activities. PMID:24920457

  2. Minority stressors, rumination, and psychological distress in monozygotic twins discordant for sexual minority status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Liam; Rimes, Katharine A; Rahman, Qazi

    2017-11-07

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals report higher levels of depression and anxiety than heterosexual people. Genetic factors may be a 'common cause' of sexual minority status and psychological distress. Alternatively, these may be correlated because of non-genetic environmental factors (e.g. minority stressors). This study investigated minority stressors and distress in monozygotic twins discordant for sexual minority status. This design provides a test of the role of non-shared environmental factors while minimizing differences due to genetics. Thirty-eight twin pairs in which one was heterosexual and the other was LGB completed a survey. Differences between twin pairs in minority stressors, rumination, psychological distress, and gender non-conformity were examined. Associations between these variables were also tested. Although there were no significant group differences for distress, LGB twins had higher rumination, a vulnerability factor for distress, than heterosexual co-twins. LGB twins also had higher scores than heterosexual co-twins on expectations of rejection, active concealment, self-stigma, prejudice events, childhood gender non-conformity, and lower scores on sexual orientation disclosure. Differences between twin pairs in rumination were positively associated with differences in acceptance concerns and self-stigma. Finally, self-stigma was positively associated with rumination in the full sample of heterosexual co-twins and microaggressions were positively associated with rumination when looking at exclusively heterosexual co-twins. These results support environmental factors as a causal explanation for disparities in rumination between LGB and heterosexual individuals. These factors likely include minority stressors. Rumination may also be associated with minority stressors in heterosexual MZ co-twins of LGB individuals.

  3. Childhood sexual abuse characteristics, intimate partner violence exposure, and psychological distress among women in methadone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, Malitta; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa

    2012-10-01

    Traumatic experiences and their biopsychosocial sequelae present complex challenges in substance use treatment. For women with substance use problems, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), intimate partner violence exposure (IPV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and overall psychological distress are often co-occurring concerns. To address gaps in knowledge and to strengthen practice regarding these critical issues in substance use treatment, we drew upon cross-sectional and longitudinal data from baseline and 12-month interviews with a random sample of 416 women in methadone treatment to examine relationships between CSA characteristics, particularly the presence of force and involvement of family, IPV, and mental health concerns. Although CSA involving force and family was not associated with IPV as hypothesized, it was associated with increased risk of PTSD and overall psychological distress. The multivariate findings underscore the psychological vulnerabilities associated with CSA involving force and family and suggest that drug use and financial circumstances may be important targets to reduce IPV risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychological Assessment through Performance-Based Techniques and Self-Reports: A Case Study of a Sexually Abused Girl at Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological…

  5. Assault-related shame mediates the association between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Lynch, Shannon M; Wong, Maria M; Matthews, Kathleen C

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have identified associations between social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress; however, no studies have evaluated shame as a mediator of this association. This study evaluated assault-related shame as a mediator of the associations between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and global distress and hypothesized that there would be an indirect effect of social reactions to disclosure upon symptoms of psychopathology via assault-related shame. Participants were 207 female psychology undergraduates who reported past history of completed or attempted sexual assault and had disclosed the assault to at least 1 other person. Participants completed self-report measures of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure, assault-related shame, and symptoms of psychopathology. Participants reported significant histories of attempted or completed sexual assault and indicated clinically significant symptoms of depression and subthreshold symptoms of PTSD and global distress, on average. Evaluation of structural models confirmed the hypothesized indirect effect of negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure upon symptoms of PTSD (z = 5.85, p shame. These findings offer new insight concerning the intervening role of assault-related shame and highlight the importance of shame as a target for therapeutic intervention. This study suggests the need for future research concerning the role of shame in the etiology of PTSD and process of disclosure among survivors of attempted or completed sexual assault. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders in middle-aged and older adults: evidence from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed (1) to assess the relationship of childhood sexual abuse and revictimization with 6 common mental disorders, alcohol and drug dependence, posttraumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, and suicidal behavior; (2) to test whether gender moderates the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric comorbidity; and (3) to assess the association of childhood sexual abuse with health care service use among middle-aged and older adults. The author conducted secondary analyses of data from a population-based, nationally representative sample of 3,493 community-dwelling adults aged 50 years and above who were interviewed in England in 2006 and 2007 as part of the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. The survey assessed childhood sexual abuse (sexual touching and sexual intercourse), sexual abuse revictimization (experiencing both childhood and adult sexual abuse), demographics, health care service use, 6 common mental disorders according to ICD-10 diagnostic criteria (depressive episode, mixed anxiety and depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder), eating disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol and drug dependence, and suicidal behavior. After weighting, the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse was 8.0%, and the prevalence of revictimization was 1.9%. Multivariate analyses revealed that childhood sexual abuse was significantly associated with mixed anxiety and depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.09-2.63), generalized anxiety disorder (AOR = 1.78; 95% CI, 1.01-3.11), eating disorders (AOR = 2.04; 95% CI, 1.12-3.75), posttraumatic stress disorder (AOR = 2.45; 95% CI, 1.20-4.99), and suicidal ideation (AOR = 2.32; 95% CI, 1.27-4.27). Revictimization was significantly related to mixed anxiety and depression (AOR = 3.21; 95% CI, 1.63-6.32), generalized anxiety disorder (AOR = 2.60; 95% CI, 1.07-6.35), phobia (AOR = 4.07; 95% CI, 1.23-13.46), posttraumatic

  7. Association between childhood sexual abuse and adverse psychological outcomes among youth in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Zabin, Laurie S

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and negative psychological consequences in adulthood, controlling for family environments and Confucian values. The data used in this study were collected from Taipei. The final analysis sample comprised 4,084 participants aged 15-24 years. Three sets of logistic regression models were fitted to verify the association between CSA and negative psychological outcomes. Sociodemographic variables, household instability, and parenting variables, as well as Confucian value variables were controlled in models step by step. The overall prevalence of CSA in our analysis sample was 5.2%. The overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation among Taipei respondents was 11.8%, 16.4%, and 16.7%, respectively, but young people who experienced CSA had significantly higher rates of all three than young adults who had not experienced CSA. After controlling for other covariates, the odds ratios of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation associated with a history of CSA were 1.78 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.25-2.54), 1.77 (95% CI: 1.28-2.44), and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.56-4.29), respectively. Our findings suggested that CSA was an independent predictor of negative psychological consequences in adulthood. In our analysis, we controlled for household, parenting, and Confucian culture factors, which provides a better understanding of how they work together to affect adult psychological status. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Agreement on Reporting of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Violence among White, Black, and Hispanic Couples in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Field, Craig; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Lipsky, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    This article examines agreement on reports of male-to-female and female-to-male psychological, physical, and sexual violence among White, Black, and Hispanic couples in the United States. Using a probability sample, separate face-to-face interviews were conducted in respondents' homes with both members of 1,025 intact couples living in the 48…

  9. Psychological Outcomes among Lesbian Sexual Assault Survivors: An Examination of the Roles of Internalized Homophobia and Experiential Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Sari D.; Dickstein, Benjamin D.; Marx, Brian P.; Lexington, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relations among internalized homophobia (IH), experiential avoidance, and psychological symptom severity in a community sample of 72 lesbian sexual assault survivors. Results indicated that IH is associated with both experiential avoidance and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. In addition, experiential…

  10. Group-Level Coping as a Moderator between Heterosexism and Sexism and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.…

  11. Abuse and Parental Characteristics, Attributions of Blame, and Psychological Adjustment in Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi; Seth, Puja; Jackson, Joan; Niehaus, Ashley; Fitzgerald, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of abuse and parental characteristics on attributional content and determine the relative contribution of different attributions of blame in predicting psychological symptomatology among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. One hundred eighty-three female undergraduates with a history of…

  12. Gender nonconformity, perceived stigmatization, and psychological well-being in Dutch sexual minority youth and young adults: A mediation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baams, L.; Beek, T.; Hille, H.; Zevenbergen, F.C.; Bos, H.M.W.

    2013-01-01

    Dutch sexual minority youth and young adults (106 females and 86 males, 16-24 years old) were assessed to establish whether there was a relation between gender nonconformity and psychological well-being and whether this relation was mediated by perceived experiences of stigmatization due to

  13. In sickness and in wealth: psychological and sexual costs of income comparison in marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Lamar; Dahl, Michael S; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2013-03-01

    As the percentage of wives outearning their husbands grows, the traditional social norm of the male breadwinner is challenged. The upward income comparison of the husband may cause psychological distress that affects partners' mental and physical health in ways that affect decisions on marriage, divorce, and careers. This article studies this impact through sexual and mental health problems. Using wage and prescription medication data from Denmark, we implement a regression discontinuity design to show that men outearned by their wives are more likely to use erectile dysfunction medication than their male breadwinner counterparts, even when this inequality is small. Breadwinner wives suffer increased insomnia/anxiety medication usage, with similar effects for men. We find no effects for unmarried couples or for men who earned less than their fiancée prior to marriage. Our results suggest that social norms play important roles in dictating how individuals respond to upward social comparisons.

  14. Gay male sexual assault survivors: the relations among internalized homophobia, experiential avoidance, and psychological symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Sari D; Marx, Brian P; Lexington, Jennifer M

    2007-03-01

    This study explored the relations among internalized homophobia (IH), experiential avoidance, and psychological symptom severity in a community sample of 74 gay male sexual assault survivors. Results indicated that IH is associated with both depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. IH accounted for more variance than assault severity in predicting both PTSD and depression symptom severity. IH and experiential avoidance similarly predicted PTSD symptom severity. In comparison with IH, however, experiential avoidance is a stronger predictor of depression symptom severity. Results also showed that experiential avoidance partially mediated the relation between IH and both depressive and PTSD symptom severity. The implications of these findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided.

  15. Speeches and consumption of sexualities - plotting new possibilities for action in psychologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Jardim Barreto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently we experience what many authors call transition’s period from disciplinary societies to control societies, in this complex scenario, the subjectivation’s processes are crossed by molar lines and molecular lines, micro and macro political and many other phenomenas composed by device of power and control situations that produces truths and normative discourses about sexualities and genders. In the face of the devaluation and impracticability of subjectivities considered to be dissidents, the naturalization of biopower and the identity crisis, the psychological sciences are challenged not to turn into another one of the normative and standardizing devices that produces reproducing bodies and to favor the maintenance of the production system of capitalistic subjectivities.

  16. Coping and quality of life in patients with skin tumors in the follow-up stage: The mediating role of body image and psychological morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M Graça; Baia, Vânia; Machado, José C

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between coping style, body image, psychological morbidity, and quality of life. A total of 58 patients who were diagnosed with skin tumors, had been submitted to surgery, and were in the follow-up phase answered the following instruments: dermatology life quality index (DLQI), hospital anxiety and depression scales (HADS), body image scale (BIS), and the mini mental adjustment to cancer scale (Mini-MAC). The results showed that patients with a higher use of the coping styles of helplessness/hopelessness, anxious preoccupation, and cognitive avoidance reported a worse quality of life. Body image mediated the relationship between the coping styles of anxious preoccupation, helplessness/hopelessness, and quality of life. Psychological morbidity mediated the relationship between helplessness/hopelessness and quality of life. Therefore, even in the follow-up phase, it is important that health professionals are aware of the patient's emotional distress and body image to identify those at a higher risk of having a poorer quality of life.

  17. Psychological morbidity and health-related quality of life in patients with differing awareness of cancer diagnosis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dian Can; Guo, Chuan Bin; Peng, Xin; Su, Yan Jie

    2014-09-01

    Concealment of cancer diagnosis from patients is not rare worldwide and physicians in mainland China are in fact discouraged from disclosing a cancer diagnosis to cancer patients. Preventing worsened psychological morbidity is at the core of the argument for nondisclosure. The purpose of this study was to quantify anxiety, depression, and distress among patients with various degrees of awareness of their cancer diagnosis. Quality of life was also measured. Using a cross-sectional and blinded design, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire, the Distress Thermometer, and the SF-36 Health Survey were administered to 287 hospitalized patients with oral and maxillofacial tumors. Independently, the patients' awareness of disease was assessed with semistructured interviews. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Distress Thermometer, and SF-36 did not identify significant differences in scores among the hospitalized patients with various degrees of awareness of their cancer diagnosis: an awaiting diagnosis group, a concealed diagnosis group, and a disclosed diagnosis group. Before surgery, inpatients who were hospitalized because of oral and maxillofacial tumors with various degrees of awareness of their cancer diagnosis had similar psychological morbidity and quality of life. Informing hospitalized cancer patients of their diagnosis before surgery may not deteriorate their psychiatric condition or their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A Social Psychological Approach to Sexual Orientation: Theory and Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Preciado, Mariana Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Sexual orientation has two key aspects: actual sexual experiences (e.g., attraction, fantasy, and behavior) and beliefs about those sexual experiences (self-perceived sexual orientation). It is self-perceived sexual orientation that is most often measured and used to understand the mental, physical, and behavioral correlates of sexual orientation. While evidence suggests that features of the social context (e.g., social norms) are related to self-perceived sexual orientation, to date there is...

  19. Sexual activity and psychological health as mediators of the relationship between physical health and marital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinsky, Adena M; Waite, Linda J

    2014-05-01

    The pathways linking spousal health to marital quality in later life have been little examined at the population level. We develop a conceptual model that links married older adults' physical health and that of their spouse to positive and negative dimensions of marital quality via psychological well-being of both partners and their sexual activity. We use data from 1,464 older adults in 732 marital dyads in the 2010-2011 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. We find that own fair or poor physical health is linked to lower positive and higher negative marital quality, spouse's health to positive quality, and that own and spouse's mental health and more frequent sex are associated with higher positive and lower negative marital quality. Further, we find that (a) sexual activity mediates the association between own and partner's physical health and positive marital quality, (b) own mental health mediates the association between one's own physical health and both positive and negative marital quality, and (c) partner's mental health mediates the associations of spouse's physical health with positive marital quality. These results are robust to alternative specifications of the model. The results suggest ways to protect marital quality among older adults who are struggling with physical illness in themselves or their partners.

  20. Consistency of reporting sexual and physical abuse during psychological treatment of personality disorder: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Bamelis, Lotte; Haringsma, Rimke; Molendijk, Marc; Arntz, Arnoud

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of decreasing, consistent and increasing reports of sexual and physical abuse after 12 months of long-term psychological treatment of personality disorders, to investigate demographic and clinical characteristics predictive of inconsistency of reporting abuse, and to explore whether autobiographical memory may account for this inconsistency. In 229 clinical participants with an SCID II diagnosed personality disorder, 180 (78.6%) reported the same instances of invasive sexual and/or physical abuse on a trauma questionnaire (SPAQ) at baseline and follow-up, 25 (10.9%) decreased and 24 (10.4%) increased their abuse reports. Consistency of reporting abuse did not differ between schema-focused therapy, clarification-oriented psychotherapy and treatment-as-usual. Current depressive episode (SCID-I) and decreased capacity to produce specific negative memories on the Autobiographical Memory Test were characteristic of decreasing abuse reporters, while increasing abuse reporters showed higher levels of Cluster A personality pathology (in particular schizotypal traits) on the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders (ADP-IV). These results suggest that even in treatment procedures directed at exploring someone's personal past with abuse-related imagery consistency of reporting abuse is quite stable. However, certain clinical characteristics may make some persons more likely to change their trauma reports. Moreover, reduced negative memory specificity may represent an avoidant strategy associated with no longer reporting instances of abuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Techniques Used in Forensic Psychological Examinations in Cases of Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Lages Gava

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no standardized protocol for the evaluation of situations of sexual abuse. Thus, this study investigated the techniques used by psychologists in forensic examinations in cases of suspected child and adolescent sexual abuse in the context of the criminal investigation. Semi-structured interviews, which were qualitatively analyzed using the WebQDA software, were applied with twelve psychologists who work as expert witnesses in the Medical-Legal Institute of six Brazilian capitals. The results showed a diversity of actions taken in the forensic examination practice, as well as consensus and controversy regarding the use of psychological testing and the credibility assessment of the report. Flexibility in conducting the forensic examinations by the teams was also observed, with the techniques used adapted according to the needs. The importance of the diversity of techniques was highlighted, as these aim to assist the expert witness to come to reliable conclusions, as well as maintain the rigor and technical quality of the evaluation.

  2. Sexual orientation and gender identity in schools: A call for more research in school psychology-No more excuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L

    2016-02-01

    Research focused on sexual orientation and gender identity among youth is scarce in school psychology journals. Graybill and Proctor (2016; this issue) found that across a sample of eight school support personnel journals only .3 to 3.0% of the articles since 2000 included lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT)-related research. It appears that special issues are a mechanism for publishing LGBT-related scholarship. This commentary includes a call for more research in school psychology and other related disciplines that intentionally addresses experiences of LGBT youth and their families. Two articles in this special section are summarized and critiqued with clear directions for future scholarship. Researchers and practitioners are ethically responsible for engaging in social justice oriented research and that includes assessing gender identity and sexual orientation in their studies and prevention program evaluations. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity and psychological adaptation of the nurses in a structured SARS caring unit during outbreak: a prospective and periodic assessment study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tung-Ping; Lien, Te-Cheng; Yang, Chih-Yi; Su, Yiet Ling; Wang, Jia-Horng; Tsai, Sing-Ling; Yin, Jeo-Chen

    2007-01-01

    To assess the rapidly changing psychological status of nurses during the acute phase of the 2003 SARS outbreak, we conducted a prospective and periodic evaluation of psychiatric morbidity and psychological adaptation among nurses in SARS units and non-SARS units. Nurse participants were from two SARS units (regular SARS [N=44] and SARS ICU [N=26]) and two non-SARS units (Neurology [N=15] and CCU [N=17]). Participants periodically self-evaluated their depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, sleep disturbance, attitude towards SARS and family support. Results showed that depression (38.5% vs. 3.1%) and insomnia (37% vs. 9.7%) were, respectively, greater in the SARS unit nurses than the non-SARS unit nurses. No difference between these two groups was found in the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (33% vs. 18.7%), yet, three unit subjects (SARS ICU, SARS regular and Neurology) had significantly higher rate than those in CCU (29.7% vs. 11.8%, respectively) (pregular SARS unit. Occurrence of psychiatric symptoms was linked to direct exposure to SARS patient care, previous mood disorder history, younger age and perceived negative feelings. Positive coping attitude and strong social and family support may have protected against acute stress. In conclusion, the psychological impact on the caring staffs facing future bio-disaster will be minimized with lowered risk factors and a safer and more structured work environment.

  4. Fulfilling Desire: Evidence for negative feedback between men’s testosterone, sociosexual psychology, and sexual partner number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puts, David A.; Pope, Lauramarie E.; Hill, Alexander K.; Cárdenas, Rodrigo A.; Welling, Lisa L. M.; Wheatley, John R.; Breedlove, S. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Across human societies and many nonhuman animals, males have greater interest in uncommitted sex (more unrestricted sociosexuality) than do females. Testosterone shows positive associations with male-typical sociosexual behavior in nonhuman animals. Yet, it remains unclear whether the human sex difference in sociosexual psychology (attitudes and desires) is mediated by testosterone, whether any relationships between testosterone and sociosexuality differ between men and women, and what the nature of these possible relationships might be. In studies to resolve these questions, we examined relationships between salivary testosterone concentrations and sociosexual psychology and behavior in men and women. We measured testosterone in all men in our sample, but only in those women taking oral contraception (OC-using women) in order to reduce the influence of ovulatory cycle variation in ovarian hormone production. We found that OC-using women did not differ from normally-ovulating women in sociosexual psychology or behavior, but that circulating testosterone mediated the sex difference in human sociosexuality and predicted sociosexual psychology in men but not OC-using women. Moreover, when sociosexual psychology was controlled, men’s sociosexual behavior (number of sexual partners) was negatively related to testosterone, suggesting that testosterone drives sociosexual psychology in men and is inhibited when those desires are fulfilled. This more complex relationship between androgen and male sexuality may reconcile some conflicting prior reports. PMID:25644313

  5. Psychological morbidity and autonomic reactivity to emotional stimulus in parental cancer: a study with adult children caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, R J; Pereira, M G

    2014-01-01

    Literature suggests that parental cancer can provoke aversive emotional arousal in adult children, who may perceive caregiving as a traumatic experience. Limited research has been conducted on emotional and physiological impact of family caregiving for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The aim of the present study was to examine psychological and physiological responses in parental cancer's caregivers. Two matched groups of adult children, with 78 participants each (parental cancer vs. control), completed psychological measures of distress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and burden. Additionally, each participant visualised standardised pictures with different emotional valences, while cardiovascular (heart rate) and electrodermal responses (skin conductance) were recorded. Between-group analysis showed significant differences on all psychological variables, and on skin conductance for all types of pictures. However, for the heart rate responses, differences were found only for pictures with unpleasant emotional arousal. In the parental cancer group, the heart rate peak response stood out as a predictor of PTSD symptoms, after controlling for distress and burden. This study highlights the important role of psychophysiological measures of family caregiving in oncology. Physiological responses may explain a higher prevalence of PTSD symptoms. Therefore, biofeedback combined with targeted psychosocial interventions for relaxation could be of great clinical value for this population. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Psychological assessment through performance-based techniques and self-reports: a case study of a sexually abused girl at preschool age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological battery including the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Standard Progressive Matrices, Rorschach Ink Blots, and the Schema Mode Inventory. These investigations were useful in formulating both a diagnosis and a management plan. The girl fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode and borderline personality disorder. This combination of psychological testing may be useful in establishing an accurate multiaxial diagnosis and for understanding the behavioral and psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse in similar cases. The study further suggests that schema-focused therapy is a useful therapeutic tool for individuals who have suffered child sexual abuse at an early age and who have borderline personality disorder.

  7. Alexithymia as a mediator of the relationship between child sexual abuse and psychological distress in adolescence: A short-term longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Martine; Boisjoli, Cyndi; Blais, Martin; Oussaïd, Essaïd

    2017-12-14

    Understanding factors influencing mental health of sexually abused teenagers is essential to orient treatment with this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study was to explore alexithymia as a mediator of the relationship between child sexual abuse and psychological distress using a representative sample of teenagers, while considering gender as a potential moderator. Teenagers participating in the Quebec Youths' Romantic Relationships Survey completed measures evaluating a history of child sexual abuse and alexithymia at baseline while psychological distress was evaluated 6 months later. A moderated mediated model revealed a partial mediation effect of alexithymia in the relationship between child sexual abuse and psychological distress. Gender acted as a moderator as the conditional indirect effects of child sexual abuse on mental health via alexithymia were stronger for boys. Findings underscore the relevance of assessing and targeting sexually abused victims' capacity to identify and communicate emotions to promote well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. How Perceptions of Mortality and HIV Morbidity Relate to Substance Abuse Problems and Risky Sexual Behaviors among Former Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromet, Dena M.; Ramchand, Rajeev; Griffin, Beth Ann; Morral, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether high-risk young adults' perceptions of their likelihood of living to age 35 and of acquiring HIV are related to their substance abuse problems and risky sexual behaviors. The sample consists of data from the 72- and 87-month follow-up assessments of 449 juvenile offenders referred to probation in 1999 and 2000.…

  9. A holistic approach to psychological sexual problems in women with diabetic husbands

    OpenAIRE

    Anahita Khodabakhshi Koolaee; Edalat Asadi; Ladan Mansoor; Leili Mosalanejad; Ali FathAbadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of negative and influential factor to chronic diseases is creation of sexual problems in the couple's sexual relationship. Sexual health is one of the most important factor in Sexual and marital satisfaction. Objective: This study aims to compare the relationship between couple burnout, sexual assertiveness, and sexual dysfunctional beliefs in women with diabetic and non-diabetic husbands. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was a causal comparative o...

  10. Relationship between sexual dysfunction and psychological burden in men with infertility: a large observational study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiansheng; Su, Puyu; Liu, Jishuang; Shi, Kai; Hao, Zongyao; Zhou, Jun; Liang, Chaozhao

    2013-08-01

    Although infertility is known to be associated with psychological and sexual problems, the relationship between these two aspects in infertile men has not been well investigated. To investigate the incidence of sexual dysfunction and psychological burden, and their possible associations in infertile men. From June 2009 to June 2012, a total of 1,468 infertile men and 942 fertile men were evaluated. Premature ejaculation (PE) and erectile dysfunction (ED) were measured by the PE diagnostic tool (PEDT), the intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and the international index of erectile function (IIEF)-5. Anxiety and depression, which reflect the degree of psychological burden, were measured by the self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS), respectively. PE and ED were measured by the PEDT, IELT, and IIEF-5. Anxiety and depression were measured by the SAS and SDS, respectively. The incidences of PE and ED in the infertile group were significantly higher than those in the fertile group (PE: 19.01% vs.10.93%, P infertile than fertile men (Anxiety: 38.01% vs. 26.65%, P infertile group, the PEDT score was positively associated with anxiety (adjusted r = 0.57; P psychological burden, and their possible associations in infertile men in China. Further in-depth studies are needed to confirm and extend these results. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. Sexual stigma, psychological well-being and social engagement among men who have sex with men in Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Glenn J; Aunon, Frances M; Kaplan, Rachel L; Karam, Rita; Khouri, Danielle; Tohme, Johnny; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to explore sexual identity development among men who have sex with men in Beirut, Lebanon; the stigma experienced by these men; and how their psychological well-being and social engagement are shaped by how they cope with this stigma. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 men who have sex with men and content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. While many men reported feeling very comfortable with their sexual orientation and had disclosed their sexual orientation to family, most men struggled at least somewhat with their sexuality, often because of perceived stigma from others and internal religious conflict about the immorality of homosexuality. Most participants described experiencing verbal harassment or ridicule or being treated as different or lesser than in social relationships with friends or family. Mechanisms for coping with stigma included social avoidance (trying to pass as heterosexual and limiting interaction with men who have sex with men to the internet) or withdrawal from relationships in an attempt to limit exposure to stigma. Findings suggest that effective coping with both internal and external sexual stigma is central to the psychological well-being and social engagement of men who have sex with men in Beirut, much as has been found in Western gay communities.

  12. Pathways from parental AIDS to child psychological, educational and sexual risk: developing an empirically-based interactive theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Sherr, Lorraine; Makasi, Daphne; Nikelo, Joy

    2013-06-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates negative psychological, health, and developmental outcomes for children associated with parental HIV/AIDS illness and death. However, little is known about how parental AIDS leads to negative child outcomes. This study used a structural equation modelling approach to develop an empirically-based theoretical model of interactive relationships between parental or primary caregiver AIDS-illness, AIDS-orphanhood and predicted intervening factors associated with children's psychological distress, educational access and sexual health. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2009-2011, from 6002 children aged 10-17 years in three provinces of South Africa using stratified random sampling. Comparison groups included children orphaned by AIDS, orphaned by other causes and non-orphans, and children whose parents or primary caregivers were unwell with AIDS, unwell with other causes or healthy. Participants reported on psychological symptoms, educational access, and sexual health risks, as well as hypothesized sociodemographic and intervening factors. In order to build an interactive theoretical model of multiple child outcomes, multivariate regression and structural equation models were developed for each individual outcome, and then combined into an overall model. Neither AIDS-orphanhood nor parental AIDS-illness were directly associated with psychological distress, educational access, or sexual health. Instead, significant indirect effects of AIDS-orphanhood and parental AIDS-illness were obtained on all measured outcomes. Child psychological, educational and sexual health risks share a common set of intervening variables including parental disability, poverty, community violence, stigma, and child abuse that together comprise chain effects. In all models, parental AIDS-illness had stronger effects and more risk pathways than AIDS-orphanhood, especially via poverty and parental disability. AIDS-orphanhood and parental AIDS-illness impact

  13. Physical and/or Sexual Abuse Is Associated with Increased Psychological and Emotional Distress Among Transgender Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussin-Shoptaw, Alexandra L; Fletcher, Jesse B; Reback, Cathy J

    2017-08-01

    Transgender women have consistently reported elevated rates of lifetime physical and sexual abuse. This study examined the associations between reported physical and/or sexual abuse and symptoms of psychological and emotional distress among a sample of urban, high-risk transgender women. From June 2005 through July 2012, 99 transgender women enrolled in a Comprehensive Risk Counseling and Services program in Hollywood, CA. Seemingly unrelated regression equations (SURE) were used to simultaneously regress psychiatric symptom reports on participant sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported history of physical/sexual abuse. Participants were African American/Black (33.3%), Caucasian/White (28.3%), or Hispanic/Latina (24.2%). Average age was 35 years (standard deviation [SD] = 9), and 37.4% of participants self-reported an HIV-positive status. Most (84.9%) participants reported experiencing physical or sexual abuse at some point in their lifetime, and symptoms of psychological and emotional distress (as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory) among those who reported abuse were more severe than those observed in cisgender psychiatric in-patient populations. After controlling for participant sociodemographics, prior experience of physical and/or sexual abuse was associated with significantly increased psychological and emotional distress across all measured symptom domains except psychoticism [χ 2 (9)  = 17.56; p < 0.05]. Given these associations as well as the high prevalence of physical and/or sexual abuse among transgender women, mental health professionals and social service providers working with this population should be sensitive to the abuse history and mental health needs of the transgender women with whom they work.

  14. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 47. Number RR-1. 1998 Guidelines for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-23

    ated with Escherichia coli urinary tract infection in young women. Whether condoms used with vaginal application of spermicide are more effective than...transmitted E coli infection also occurs among homosexual men who are the insertive part- ners during anal intercourse. Sexually transmitted...sp., Entamoeba his- tolytica, and, rarely, C. trachomatis (LGV serovars). CMV or other opportunistic agents may be involved in immunosuppressed HIV

  15. Sexual function in Italian women with systemic sclerosis is affected by disease-related and psychological concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddali Bongi, Susanna; Del Rosso, Angela; Mikhaylova, Svetlana; Baccini, Marco; Matucci Cerinic, Marco

    2013-10-01

    In patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), sexual function is somewhat impaired. Our aim was to evaluate sexual function in women with SSc in comparison to controls, and to investigate the association with sociodemographic and disease characteristics, and physical and psychological variables. Forty-six women with SSc and 46 healthy women were assessed for sociodemographic characteristics and gynecological development and administered the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced-New Italian Version, and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue Scale. Patients were also assessed for disease duration and subset, Female Sexual Function in SSc, Hand Mobility in Scleroderma test (HAMIS), Cochin Hand Functional Disability Scale, Mouth Handicap in Systemic Sclerosis Scale (MHISS), Disability Sexual and Body Esteem Scale (PDSBE); and fist closure, hand opening, and mouth opening. In patients with SSc, only FSFI desire subscale score was significantly lower (p = 0.035) versus controls. Total FSFI score, similar to controls, was related with Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 mental component, HAQ (p = 0.022), MHISS (p = 0.038), and HAMIS (p = 0.037). In SSc, the main factors independently associated with sexual functioning were vaginal dryness [regression coefficient (B) = -0.72; p sexual function, although not different from controls, is influenced by specific disease-related and psychological concerns. Thus it should be included in patient evaluations and assessed in daily clinical practice.

  16. Gender, Dialogue and Discursive Psychology: A Pilot Sexuality Intervention with South African High-School Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jearey-Graham, Nicola; Macleod, Catriona Ida

    2017-01-01

    Good-quality sexuality education can be effective in reducing sexual health risks, but may also be disconnected from the lived realities of learners' lives and reinforce gendered stereotypes. In line with the trend towards "empowerment" in and through sexuality education, we implemented a pilot sexuality intervention with Grade 10…

  17. The Conditions under which Growth-Fostering Relationships Promote Resilience and Alleviate Psychological Distress among Sexual Minorities: Applications of Relational Cultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Relational cultural theory posits that resilience and psychological growth are rooted in relational connections and are facilitated through growth-fostering relationships. Framed within this theory, the current study examined the associations between growth-fostering relationships (i.e., relationships characterized by authenticity and mutuality) with a close friend and psychological distress among sexual minorities. More specifically, we tested the moderating effects of individuals’ internalized homophobia and their friend’s sexual orientation on the associations between growth-fostering relationship with their close friend and level of psychological distress. A sample of sexual minorities (N = 661) were recruited online and completed a questionnaire. The 3-way interaction between (a) growth-fostering relationship with a close friend, (b) the close friend’s sexual orientation, and (c) internalized homophobia was significant in predicting psychological distress. Among participants with low levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close heterosexual or LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress. Among participants with high levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress but not with a heterosexual friend. Our results demonstrate that growth-fostering relationships may be associated with less psychological distress but under specific conditions. These findings illuminate a potential mechanism for sexual minorities’ resilience and provide support for relational cultural theory. Understanding resilience factors among sexual minorities is critical for culturally sensitive and affirmative clinical practice and future research. PMID:26380836

  18. The Conditions under which Growth-Fostering Relationships Promote Resilience and Alleviate Psychological Distress among Sexual Minorities: Applications of Relational Cultural Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H; Poteat, V Paul

    2015-09-01

    Relational cultural theory posits that resilience and psychological growth are rooted in relational connections and are facilitated through growth-fostering relationships. Framed within this theory, the current study examined the associations between growth-fostering relationships (i.e., relationships characterized by authenticity and mutuality) with a close friend and psychological distress among sexual minorities. More specifically, we tested the moderating effects of individuals' internalized homophobia and their friend's sexual orientation on the associations between growth-fostering relationship with their close friend and level of psychological distress. A sample of sexual minorities ( N = 661) were recruited online and completed a questionnaire. The 3-way interaction between (a) growth-fostering relationship with a close friend, (b) the close friend's sexual orientation, and (c) internalized homophobia was significant in predicting psychological distress. Among participants with low levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close heterosexual or LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress. Among participants with high levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress but not with a heterosexual friend. Our results demonstrate that growth-fostering relationships may be associated with less psychological distress but under specific conditions. These findings illuminate a potential mechanism for sexual minorities' resilience and provide support for relational cultural theory. Understanding resilience factors among sexual minorities is critical for culturally sensitive and affirmative clinical practice and future research.

  19. Applying network analysis to psychological comorbidity and health behavior: Depression, PTSD, and sexual risk in sexual minority men with trauma histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Karmel W; Batchelder, Abigail W; Ehlinger, Peter P; Safren, Steven A; O'Cleirigh, Conall

    2017-12-01

    High rates of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) contribute to sexual risk, particularly in men who have sex with men (MSM) who have experienced childhood sexual abuse. The comorbidity between depression and PTSD and mechanisms by which they contribute to sexual risk in MSM remain unclear. This study sought to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a network approach to (a) characterize symptom interconnections between depression and PTSD in MSM, (b) identify specific symptoms related to sexual risk behavior, and (c) compare symptom networks across groups at different levels of risk. Cross-sectional baseline data were collected from 296 HIV-negative urban MSM as part of a multisite randomized intervention trial. Symptoms of depression and PTSD were self-reported along with sexual risk behavior. Analyses were performed in R using regularized partial correlation network modeling. Network analyses revealed complex associations between depression and PTSD symptoms and in relation to sexual risk behavior. While symptoms clustered within their respective disorders, depression and PTSD were connected at key symptom nodes (e.g., sleep, concentration). Specific symptoms (e.g., avoiding thoughts and feelings) were linked to sexual risk behavior. Network comparisons across risk groups suggested avoidant processes could be more readily activated in higher-risk individuals, whereas hyperarousal symptoms may be more salient and protective for lower-risk individuals. This study is one of the earliest network analyses of depression and PTSD, and first to extend this inquiry to health behavior. Symptom-level investigations may clarify mechanisms underlying psychological comorbidity and behavioral risk in MSM and refine targets for intervention/prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Psychological morbidity in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy depends on phenotypic, social, economic, and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finsterer J

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Josef Finsterer,1 Sinda Zarrouk-Mahjoub2 1Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftung, Vienna, Austria; 2University of Tunis El Manar, Genomics Platform, Pasteur Institute of Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia We have read with interest the article by Garcia et al1 about the effect of visual impairment on psychological well-being with regard to mood, interpersonal interactions, and career-related goals.1 Among the 103 Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON patients, half became depressed with negative impacts on interpersonal relations and career goals. At diagnosis, older age corresponded to higher depression prevalence than young age. We have the following comments and concerns.View the original paper by Garcia and colleagues.  

  1. Relationship between health status, illness perceptions, coping strategies and psychological morbidity: a preliminary study with IBD stoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, S R; Cook, S I; Tribbick, D

    2013-11-01

    Individuals living with IBD and a stoma are at an increased risk of anxiety and depression and it is likely that several factors mediate these relationships, including illness perceptions and coping strategies. Using the Common Sense Model (CSM), this study aimed to characterize the mediators of anxiety and depression in an IBD stoma cohort. Eighty-three adults (23 males) with a stoma (25 ileostomy, 58 colostomy; 26 emergency, 57 planned, 55 permanent, 28 temporary) completed an online survey. Health status was measured with the Health Orientation Scale (HOS), coping styles assessed with the Carver Brief COPE scale, illness perceptions explored with the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire (BIPQ), and anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Combining the questionnaire data using structural equation modeling resulted in a final model with an excellent fit (χ(2) (11)=12.86, p=0.30, χ(2)/N=1.17, SRMR0.96, CFI>0.99). Consistent with the CSM, health status directly influenced illness perceptions, which in turn, influenced coping (emotion-focused and maladaptive coping). Interestingly, months since surgery was found to influence illness perceptions and emotion-focused coping directly, but not health status. While depression was influenced by illness perceptions, emotion-focused coping and maladaptive coping, anxiety was only influenced by illness perceptions and maladaptive coping. The preliminary results provide further evidence for the complex interplay between psychological processes. In terms of directions for psychological interventions, a focus on identifying and working with illness perceptions is important. Copyright © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring the relationships between health status, illness perceptions, coping strategies and psychological morbidity in a chronic kidney disease cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Simon; Swan, Lauren; Salzberg, Michael; Castle, David; Langham, Robyn

    2014-10-01

    Using the common sense model of illness adjustment, this study aimed to explore the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on individual illness perceptions, coping styles and psychological well-being. Eighty individuals (50 men and 30 women) with an average age of 62.66 years (standard deviation, 11.98) were included in the study. All participants were under the care of the Renal Unit of a metropolitan tertiary referral hospital. Twenty-nine patients (36%) had CKD stage 3b-4, and 51 (64%) had CKD stage 5 (or end stage kidney disease [ESKD]). Disease severity was evaluated using the health perceptions questionnaire, coping styles assessed with the Carver brief COPE scale, illness perceptions explored with the brief illness perceptions questionnaire and anxiety and depression measured using the hospital anxiety and depression scale. The hospital anxiety and depression scale assessment revealed 13 patients (16.3%) with moderate or severe anxiety and 6 (7.5%) with moderate depression. Consistent with the common sense model, disease activity had a significant direct influence on illness perceptions, while, in turn, illness perceptions had a significant direct influence on depression and anxiety. Adaptive and maladaptive coping were found to mediate the relationship between illness perceptions, and anxiety and depression. The results provide evidence that it is the perception of an illness rather than the actual symptoms themselves that best account for adaption to CKD. These findings suggest that intervention strategies aimed at increasing psychological well-being need to focus on changing illness perceptions rather than improving symptoms of CKD or coping mechanisms.

  3. Co-infections and co-morbidities among injecting drug users versus sexually infected patients in Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Manea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After the 2008 introduction of new psychoactive substances (NPS in Romania, the number of newly diagnosed HIV infections showed significant increase among injecting drug users (IDUs. Our objective was to analyze the differences between co-infections related to the HIV infection, based on the way of transmission (IDUs versus sexually infected. Materials and Methods: A retrospective transversal study was carried out, analyzing 245 adult HIV-positive patients, diagnosed between January 2013 and December 2013 in our hospital. We collected socio-demographic, epidemiological and laboratory data at the diagnosis and analyzed them using SPSS version 20. Results: Most patients (71%, 174/245 were men and the median age was 32 years (IQR: 26–38. 91 patients (37% were former/active IDUs (most of them injecting both opioids and NPS, while 154 patients (63% were sexually infected, with 84% being heterosexuals and 16% men having sex with men (MSM. The median CD4 count, at the moment of diagnosis, was 294 cells/mm3 (IQR: 119–483.Other co-infections at diagnosis were toxoplasmosis (four patients, cryptococcosis (two patients and cytomegalovirus reactivations (three patients without significant association between the two groups. Conclusion: Heterosexual transmission was the most common way of HIV transmission in 2013 in contrast with EU/CEE, where MSM accounted for the majority of cases of HIV epidemics in 2012 [1]. Sexually transmitted HIV infection was associated with late presentation, stage C and syphilis. We noted a high percentage of IDU transmission, which was associated with stage A and hepatitis C infection.

  4. Linguistic changes in expressive writing predict psychological outcomes in women with history of childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulverman, Carey S; Lorenz, Tierney A; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-01-01

    An expressive writing treatment was recently reported to reduce depressive symptoms and improve sexual function and satisfaction in a sample of female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (Meston, Lorenz, & Stephenson, 2013). We conducted a linguistic analysis of this data to determine whether pre- to posttreatment changes in participants' language use were associated with the improvements in sexuality and depression. Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC), a program that counts the use of word categories within a text, was used to evaluate the impact of several word categories, previously associated with changes in mental health (Frattaroli, 2006), and shown to differ between childhood sexual abuse survivors and nonabused women (Lorenz & Meston, 2012), on treatment outcomes. A reduction in the use of the word "I" and an increase in positive emotion words were associated with decreased depression symptoms. A reduction in the use of "I" and negative emotion words were associated with improvement in sexual function and sexual satisfaction. The findings suggest that, because language may serve as an implicit measure of depression and sexual health, monitoring language changes during treatment may provide a reliable indicator of treatment response free of the biases of traditional self-report assessments. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. A holistic approach to psychological sexual problems in women with diabetic husbands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Asadi, Edalat; Mansoor, Ladan; Mosalanejad, Leili; Fathabadi, Ali

    2014-03-01

    One of negative and influential factor to chronic diseases is creation of sexual problems in the couple's sexual relationship. Sexual health is one of the most important factor in Sexual and marital satisfaction. This study aims to compare the relationship between couple burnout, sexual assertiveness, and sexual dysfunctional beliefs in women with diabetic and non-diabetic husbands. This cross sectional descriptive study was a causal comparative one. The research plan was derived from the master's dissertation for family counseling in Shahid Beheshti University which was done during 2011-2012 in Tehran, Iran. Totally 200 participants were included in this study; 100 participants were women with diabetic husbands and the others were women with non-diabetic husbands. These participants were selected by purposeful sampling method. Data were collected using personality traits and demographic characteristics' questionnaire, couple burnout Measure, Hulbert index of sexual assertiveness and sexual dysfunctional beliefs Questionnaire. RESULTS of the multi-variable analysis of variance indicated that there was a significant difference between couple burnout, sexual assertiveness, and sexual dysfunctional beliefs in women with diabetic and non-diabetic husbands. Women with non-diabetic husbands had a higher mean score in sexual assertiveness factor compared to women with diabetic husbands, whereas in couple burnout and sexual dysfunctional beliefs factors, women with diabetic husbands had a higher mean score. It seems that one of the most important factors which influences and increases couple burnout, increases wrong sexual beliefs regarding sexual function, and decreases sexual assertiveness in women is their husbands' sexual dysfunction. In fact, women whose husbands suffer from chronic diseases such as diabetes (which results in sexual dysfunction) have lower sexual assertiveness and higher couple burnout and sexual dysfunctional beliefs compared with other women. This

  6. Psychological, physical, and sexual abuse in addicted patients who undergo treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José J; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the prevalence of a history as victims of abuse among patients who sought outpatient treatment for drug addiction. A sample of 252 addicted patients was assessed. Information was collected on the patients' lifetime history of abuse (psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse), sociodemographic factors, consumption factors, psychopathological factors, and personality variables. Drug-addicted patients who present a lifelong history of abuse were compared with patients who were not abused. Of the total sample, 46% of the patients (n = 115) who were addicted to drugs had been victims of abuse. There was a statistically significant difference between the victimization rates of men (37.8%) and women (79.6%). Moreover, for some variables, significant differences were observed between patients who had been abused and those who had not. Compared with patients who had not been abused, the addicted patients with a history of victimization scored significantly higher on several European Addiction Severity Index, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II, and maladjustment variables but not on the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. The current results indicate that patients who present a lifelong history of abuse exhibit both a more severe addiction than patients who were not abused and several comorbidities. The implications of these results for further research and clinical practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Watching pornographic pictures on the Internet: role of sexual arousal ratings and psychological-psychiatric symptoms for using Internet sex sites excessively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Schächtle, Ulrich; Schöler, Tobias; Altstötter-Gleich, Christine

    2011-06-01

    Excessive or addictive Internet use can be linked to different online activities, such as Internet gaming or cybersex. The usage of Internet pornography sites is one important facet of online sexual activity. The aim of the present work was to examine potential predictors of a tendency toward cybersex addiction in terms of subjective complaints in everyday life due to online sexual activities. We focused on the subjective evaluation of Internet pornographic material with respect to sexual arousal and emotional valence, as well as on psychological symptoms as potential predictors. We examined 89 heterosexual, male participants with an experimental task assessing subjective sexual arousal and emotional valence of Internet pornographic pictures. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and a modified version of the IAT for online sexual activities (IATsex), as well as several further questionnaires measuring psychological symptoms and facets of personality were also administered to the participants. Results indicate that self-reported problems in daily life linked to online sexual activities were predicted by subjective sexual arousal ratings of the pornographic material, global severity of psychological symptoms, and the number of sex applications used when being on Internet sex sites in daily life, while the time spent on Internet sex sites (minutes per day) did not significantly contribute to explanation of variance in IATsex score. Personality facets were not significantly correlated with the IATsex score. The study demonstrates the important role of subjective arousal and psychological symptoms as potential correlates of development or maintenance of excessive online sexual activity.

  8. Sexual Victimization and the Military Environment: Contributing Factors, Vocational, Psychological, and Medical Sequelae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadler, Anne

    1997-01-01

    .... A national sample of 558 women veterans completed a computer-assisted telephone interview assessing their experiences with in-military sexual harassment, unwanted sexual touching, physical assault and rape...

  9. The Seduction Script: Psychological and Cultural Norms of Interpersonal Approaches As Markers for Sexual Aggression and Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Steffen; von Treskow, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Hardly any subjects enjoy greater - public or private - interest than the art of flirtation and seduction. However, interpersonal approach behavior not only paves the way for sexual interaction and reproduction, but it simultaneously integrates non-sexual psychobiological and cultural standards regarding consensus and social norms. In the present paper, we use script theory, a concept that extends across psychological and cultural science, to assess behavioral options during interpersonal approaches. Specifically, we argue that approaches follow scripted event sequences that entail ambivalence as an essential communicative element. On the one hand, ambivalence may facilitate interpersonal approaches by maintaining and provoking situational uncertainty, so that the outcome of an action - even after several approaches and dates - remains ambiguous. On the other hand, ambivalence may increase the risk for sexual aggression or abuse, depending on the individual's abilities, the circumstances, and the intentions of the interacting partners. Recognizing latent sequences of sexually aggressive behavior, in terms of their rigid structure and behavioral options, may thus enable individuals to use resources efficiently, avoid danger, and extricate themselves from assault situations. We conclude that interdisciplinary script knowledge about ambivalence as a core component of the seduction script may be helpful for counteracting subtly aggressive intentions and preventing sexual abuse. We discuss this with regard to the nature-nurture debate as well as phylogenetic and ontogenetic aspects of interpersonal approach behavior and its medial implementation.

  10. Assessing psychological factors, social aspects and psychiatric co-morbidity associated with Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) in men -- a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Björn; Bruenahl, Christian A; Ahyai, Sascha; Bingel, Ulrike; Fisch, Margit; Löwe, Bernd

    2014-11-01

    Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a chronic pain disease with high prevalence rates and substantial health care costs. An interdisciplinary classification system is commonly used (UPOINT) which includes psychosocial factors. Nevertheless, psychosocial influences on CP/CPPS only recently became a research focus. Therefore, we aimed to synthesize the existing data and to identify further research topics. Then, based on our results, diagnosis and treatment can be improved. In a systematic review conducted according to the PRISMA reporting guidelines we searched different databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO) using the broad search terms "chronic pelvic pain syndrome AND men". Two raters independently screened the literature and assessed the risk of bias. We included 69 original research articles which considered psychosocial variables. We found studies investigating different psychosocial factors (pain catastrophizing, stress, personality factors, social aspects), co-morbid psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety and trauma-related disorders, somatization disorder, substance abuse) and Quality of Life (QoL). In addition, there is a high risk of bias in most studies e.g. concerning the study design or the measures. There is evidence suggesting that psychological factors are important in understanding CP/CPPS. However, research concentrated on a few aspects while the others were not covered adequately. We found evidence of a higher number of psychosocial factors and psychiatric co-morbidities than is currently included in the UPOINT system. More high quality research is needed to understand the interplay of psychosocial factors in CP/CPPS. Furthermore, these factors should be incorporated into treatment approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Sexual, Physical, and Psychological Violence Against Women and Men of 60 to 74 Years in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnlund, Petra; Andersson, Tommy; Snellman, Fredrik; Sundström, Madelene; Heimer, Gun

    2017-03-01

    Past-year sexual, physical, and psychological violence against women and men aged 60 to 74 years was studied. The data derived from a nationally representative survey on violence in which approximately 2,800 women and men aged 60 to 74 years in Sweden participated. Women were significantly more likely to have been subjected to at least one form of violence in the past year. The prevalence of sexual violence as well as systematic and repeated psychological violence was found to be significantly higher for women than for men. Sexual violence was the most common form of violence against women. Systematic and repeated psychological violence was the most common form of violence against men. Additional gender differences were found in relation to victim characteristics. While associations among women were found between violence victimization and sociodemographic characteristics, health as well as social capital, only health-related characteristics were found to be associated with past-year violence victimization among men. Among women, economic problems, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, lack of trust in other people, and not having anyone to talk to were associated with violence victimization. Poor psychological health and an at-risk consumption of alcohol were found to be associated with violence victimization among men. The results highlight the importance of research on violence victimization to assess gender differences also when inquiring into the situation among persons in older generations. The results also indicate practical implications for caring professions; the need to inquire into the experiences of violence among older persons and to pay particular attention to these characteristics when encountering women and men in this age interval.

  12. Psychological impact and sexual dysfunction in men with and without spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo Cuenca, Ana I; Sampietro-Crespo, Antonio; Virseda-Chamorro, Miguel; Martín-Espinosa, Noelia

    2015-02-01

    The World Health Organization recognizes sexual health as a fundamental right that should be guaranteed to all individuals. Sexual dysfunction affects various aspects in the lives (physical, psychic, and social) of affected persons. To assess the different types of sexual dysfunction, the quality of life (QOL), depression, anxiety, and levels of self-esteem observed in 165 men with sexual dysfunction, both with and without spinal cord injury (SCI). Case control study of 85 men with SCI and sexual dysfunction, and 80 men without SCI that have sexual dysfunction. The Sexual Health Evaluation Scale, the Fugl-Meyer Life Satisfaction Questionnaire scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Evaluation of the Sexual Health Scale, and Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale were all used for data collection. Of the members in group A (with SCI), 89.4% (76) showed erectile dysfunction, and 75.2% (64) reported anejaculation. In group B (without SCI), 75 (96.8%) showed erectile dysfunction, and 58.7% (47) had disorders of sexual desire. In group A, 16.47 % (14) showed signs of depression, and 35.3% (30) had signs of anxiety. In group B, 30% (24) had elevated scores regarding depression, and 48.75% (39) had high scores for anxiety. All of the participants reported a high general QOL and a high satisfaction with their QOL but reported that their satisfaction with their sexual lives was only at the acceptable level. Social QOL is significantly higher in the SCI group (t Student P=0.031). The QOL, self-esteem, and anxiety and depression levels are significantly correlated. Men with sexual dysfunction strive to adapt to their situations, with the relationship between the type of sexual dysfunction and the QOL, mood (depression), and self-esteem all being important considerations. Sexuality and employment status are the areas where men with spinal cord injuries report less satisfaction. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Do changes in coping style explain the effectiveness of interventions for psychological morbidity in family carers of people with dementia? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ryan; Cooper, Claudia; Austin, Allana; Livingston, Gill

    2013-02-01

    Observational studies find that family carers of people with dementia who use more emotional support and acceptance-based coping, and less dysfunctional coping, are less depressed and anxious. We hypothesized that interventions effective in reducing psychological symptoms would increase emotional support and acceptance-based coping, or decrease dysfunctional coping. We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials published up to July 2011, of interventions for carers of people with dementia measuring coping and psychological morbidity. We rated study validity and reported findings. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses for interventions where possible. Eight of 433 papers identified by the search met inclusion criteria. All measured coping immediately after intervention. Two interventions significantly decreased depressive or anxiety symptoms: the smaller study found no change in dysfunctional coping. Neither measured emotional support and acceptance-based coping. Meta-analysis found that both group coping skills interventions alone (SMD = -0.39, 95% CI = -0.75 to -0.03, p = 0.04) and with behavioral activation (SMD = -0.26, 95% CI = -0.48 to -0.04, p = 0.02) significantly increased dysfunctional coping, while significantly reducing depressive symptoms. Positive coping (a mix of emotional and solution-focused strategies) increased (SMD = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.05-0.51, p = 0.02) with group coping skills interventions and behavioral activation. Contrary to our hypothesis, dysfunctional coping increased when carer depressive symptoms improved. There was preliminary evidence that emotional support and acceptance-based coping increased, as positive coping increased although solution-focused coping alone did not. More research is needed to elucidate whether successful interventions work through changing coping strategies immediately and in the longer term.

  14. The social, psychological, emotional morbidity and adjustment techniques for women with anal incontinence following Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injury: use of a word picture to identify a hidden syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighley, M R B; Perston, Yvette; Bradshaw, Elissa; Hayes, Joanne; Keighley, D Margaret; Webb, Sara

    2016-09-21

    To identify the emotional, social and psychological consequences and recovery process of anal incontinence (AI) following obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) and explore if this can be identified as a recognisable syndrome with visual representation. A qualitative approach was adopted for this study. Data derived from case studies (n = 81) and interviews (n = 14) with women with AI after OASIS was used to identify the emotional, social and psychological consequences of AI after OASIS. Keywords and synonyms were extracted and the power of these statements displayed as a 'word picture'. The validity and authenticity of the word picture was then assessed by: a questionnaire sent to a group of mothers who had experienced this condition (n = 16); a focus group attended by mothers (n = 14) and supported by health professionals (n = 6) and via interviews with health professionals (n = 12) who were involved with helping mothers with AI following OASIS. Women with AI resulting from OASIS have a specific syndrome - the 'OASIS Syndrome' - which we have uniquely visualised as a 'word picture'. They feel unclean which results in dignity loss, psychosexual morbidity, isolation, embarrassment, guilt, fear, grief, feeling low, anxiety, loss of confidence, a feeling of having been mutilated and a compromised role as a mother. Coping relies on repetitive washing (which may become a ritual), planning daily activities around toiletry needs, sharing, family support, employment if possible and attention to the baby. Recovery and healing is through care of the child and hope generated by love within the family. This study has identified a previously unrecognised 'OASIS Syndrome' and, by way of a new and unique 'word picture', revealed a hidden condition. There should be greater awareness by the public and profession about the 'OASIS Syndrome' and a mechanism for early identification of the condition and referral for management. This, if successful, would

  15. Psychological assessment in sexual abuse cases in childhood and adolescence / Avaliação psicológica em casos de abuso sexual na infância e adolescência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Fernanda Habigzang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological assessment done with children and adolescents victims of sexual abuse is still a challenge for professionals due to the complexity of the phenomenon. This article aims to present the results of a psychological assessment method conducted with girls who were victims of sexual abuse. Ten girls with age raging from 9 to 13 years old were evaluated in three individual meetings. The results have shown that the sexual abuse lasted for, at least, one year before it was revealed. The girls presented symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety. The assessment method which was used showed to be efficient, favoring the creation of bonds, the knowledge of the sexual abuse history and the identification of related psychological symptoms.

  16. Sexual aggression among White, Black, and Hispanic couples in the U.S.: alcohol use, physical assault and psychological aggression as its correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Caetano, Raul; McGrath, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence of sexual aggression and its association with alcohol and other forms of violence, such as physical abuse and psychological aggression, in a national sample of married and cohabiting couples. These couples were part of a longitudinal study conducted in 1995 and 2000. The analyses include 406 White, 232 Black, and 387 Hispanic couples interviewed in 2000. Male-to-female sexual aggression rates ranged from 11% to 23% and female-to-male aggression rates ranged from 5.5% to 13.5%. Insisting on having sex without use of physical force and having sex without a condom are the two most frequently reported types of sexual aggression across all ethnic groups. Male and female perpetrated sexual aggression rates among Black couples were over 2 times the rate of White couples. Male perpetrated severe psychological aggression is a significant predictor of male sexual aggression. Female perpetrated severe psychological aggression predicted female sexual aggression. The study findings underscore the importance of addressing alcohol use and the presence of psychological abuse in the light of preventing other forms of violence including sexual aggression among couples.

  17. Young Women's Adolescent Experiences of Oral Sex: Relation of Age of Initiation to Sexual Motivation, Sexual Coercion, and Psychological Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Nicole M.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus…

  18. Different Patterns of Sexual Identity Development over Time: Implications for the Psychological Adjustment of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Despite research documenting variability in the sexual identity development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths, it remains unclear whether different developmental patterns have implications for the psychological adjustment of LGB youths. The current report longitudinally examines whether different patterns of LGB identity formation and integration are associated with indicators of psychological adjustment among an ethnically diverse sample of 156 LGB youths (ages 14 – 21) in New York City. Although differences in the timing of identity formation were not associated with psychological adjustment, greater identity integration was related to less depressive and anxious symptoms, fewer conduct problems, and higher self-esteem both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Individual changes in identity integration over time were associated with all four aspects of psychological adjustment, even after controlling for rival hypotheses concerning family and friend support, gay-related stress, negative social relationships, and other covariates. These findings suggest that difficulties in developing an integrated LGB identity may have negative implications for the psychological adjustment of LGB youths and that efforts to reduce distress among LGB youths should address the youths’ identity integration. PMID:19916104

  19. Psychological and socio-demographic variables associated with sexual risk behavior for sexually transmitted infections/HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludgleydson Fernandes de Araújo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La población adulta es un grupo ascendente en los nuevos diagnósticos de las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS y el VIH. El objetivo principal es analizar si el conocimiento sobre el ITS/VIH, la preocupación por las ITS/VIH y el embarazo y la autoeficacia para rechazar relaciones sexuales son predictoras de las conductas sexuales de riesgo en jóvenes y adultos españoles. Participaron 1.106 jóvenes y adultos de ambos sexos, entre los 17 y los 55 años. Los resultados mostraron que ser soltero, homosexual, haberse hecho la prueba del VIH, haber tenido una ITS, tener estudios universitarios e ingresos económicos mensuales de 900 a más de 1.200 euros tenían las puntuaciones más altas en el conocimiento sobre el ITS/VIH. La autoeficacia predijo gran parte de las conductas sexuales vaginales y anales (la edad de inicio del sexo vaginal y anal y el número de parejas con las que se ha mantenido sexo vaginal. Además, se halló que a mayor conocimiento sobre ITS/VIH, mayor edad de inicio del sexo vaginal y mayor uso del preservativo en la primera relación sexual vaginal. Se espera que estos resultados sean útiles para el desarrollo de programas de prevención de ITS/VIH. © 2013 Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L. Todos los derechos reservados.

  20. Prevalence of physical, verbal and nonverbal sexual harassments and their association with psychological distress among Jimma University female students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaru, Almaz; Getachew, Kinde; Mohammed, Yasmin

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies conducted on sexual harassment focused on general magnitude rather than specific details of the various forms of sexual harassment and their effect on psychological health. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence rates of the various forms of sexual harassments and their associations with psychological distress among Jimma University female students. Three hundred and eighty five (385) female participants were selected from all colleges using stratified and systematic sampling techniques. A structured questionnaire consisting of items on the various forms of sexual harassment and psychological distress was administered. The prevalence rates of physical, verbal and nonverbal sexual harassments were 78.2%, 90.4% and 80.0%, respectively, while the prevalence rate of psychological distress among students who had experienced sexual harassment was 63.0%. The multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that students who were physically [adjusted OR = 3.950, 95% CI = (1.979, 7.884)] and nonverbally [(adjusted OR = 12.099, 95% CI= (5.190, 28.205] harassed were 4 and 12 times more likely to experience psychological distress, respectively, adjusted for all other variables. The prevalence of various forms of sexual harassment were higher and strongly associated with psychological distress. Important implications for University officials and policy makers including creating harassment free University have been drawn. Otherwise, female students tend to dropout and their academic achievements suffer a lot as a result of psychological distress; and the government's effort for realizing the gender parity in education would be compromised.

  1. Psychological pathways from childhood sexual and physical abuse to HIV/sexually transmitted infection outcomes among homeless women: the role of posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Eric; Sandfort, Theo G M; Watson, Kalycia T; Caton, Carol L M

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the psychological factors linking childhood abuse and HIV/sexually transmitted infection outcomes among 190 single homeless women in New York City. Participants were assessed for mental health symptoms, sexually transmitted infections, and exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse. Findings indicate that the relationship between childhood abuse and HIV/sexually transmitted infection diagnoses during adulthood is mediated by a combination of posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder symptoms. Screening single homeless women who report childhood abuse histories for symptoms of both disorders may aid in the identification of individuals particularly vulnerable for HIV infection. Implications for clinical interventions are discussed.

  2. Transformations of self and sexuality: Psychologically modified experiences in the context of forensic mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Steven D.; Reavey, Paula; Kanyeredzi, Ava; Batty, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Forensic mental health inpatients in medium-secure settings have a limited capacity for sexual expression during their stay in hospital. This is due to a number of factors, including a lack of willingness on behalf of staff to engage with sexual issues, as a result of safety fears and ambiguity regarding the ability of the patient to consent. Furthermore, UK forensic medium-secure units do not provide conjugal suites for patients to have sexual relations, with their spouse or other patients. ...

  3. Sexual Abuse Is Associated With an Abnormal Psychological Profile and Sleep Difficulty in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsing-Feng; Liu, Pei-Yi; Wang, Yen-Po; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Chang, Full-Young; Lu, Ching-Liang

    2018-01-30

    Both sexual and physical abuse history have been reported to be associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Western countries. The impact of abuse history in IBS patients in Asia remains unclear. We aim to determine the prevalence of abuse history, its associated psychological profiles, and sleep problems among IBS patients in Taiwan. In total, 194 Rome III-defined IBS patients were invited to participate. Age- and sex- matched healthy carriers of chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C without chronic abdominal symptoms were identified as disease-controls. We administered a validated questionnaire to evaluate bowel symptoms, physical/sexual abuse history, anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), and sleep quality. IBS patients had a significantly higher prevalence of sexual abuse history than the disease-control group both before (16.5% vs 6.7%, P < 0.05) and after (16.0% vs 6.6%, P < 0.05) adolescence. These significant differences were mainly observed in women (13.4% vs 3.4%, P < 0.05). No difference was noted in history of physical abuse between the 2 groups. IBS patients with a history of sexual abuse had significantly higher HADS scores and higher frequencies of sleep difficulty than those without. In Taiwan, sexual abuse history was more prevalent in female IBS patients than controls. Sexual abuse history may contribute to higher anxiety/depression levels and sleep difficulties, which are commonly experienced in IBS patients. In Asia, abuse history should be obtained when approaching IBS patients to facilitate better management.

  4. Techniques Used in Forensic Psychological Examinations in Cases of Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gava, Lara Lages; DellAglio, Debora Dalbosco

    2013-01-01

    .... Thus, this study investigated the techniques used by psychologists in forensic examinations in cases of suspected child and adolescent sexual abuse in the context of the criminal investigation...

  5. Sexual Risk Among African American Women: Psychological Factors and the Mediating Role of Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Timothy M.; Monahan, Jennifer L.; Samp, Jennifer A.; Coles, Valerie B.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Sales, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates a positive association between mental health problems and sexual risk for African American women. Using the social skills deficit hypothesis, we proposed that social skills mediate this relationship. African American women (n = 557, M age = 20.58) completed measures of depression, stress, emotional dysregulation, sexual risk behaviors, and perceptions of their social skills with their primary sexual partner. Social skills mediated the link between the mental health assessments and a composite sexual risk index. Theoretical implications of extending the social skill deficit hypothesis are discussed as well as implications for interventions. PMID:28490827

  6. Counseling Psychology Research on Sexual (Orientation) Minority Issues: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; Mohr, Jonathan J.; Worthington, Roger L.; Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    This lead article of the special issue discusses conceptual and methodological considerations in studying sexual minority issues, particularly in research conducted by counseling psychologists (including the work represented in this special issue). First, the overarching challenge of conceptualizing and defining sexual minority populations is…

  7. Child Sexual Abuse and Psychological Impairment in Victims: Results of an Online Study Initiated by Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Gerard A.; Mundt, Ingrid A.; Ahlers, Christoph J.; Bahls, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims…

  8. Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse of Community Women: Mediated Effects on Psychological Distress and Social Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallstrom-Fuqua, Amanda C.; Weston, Rebecca; Marshall, Linda L.

    2004-01-01

    Possible mediators of sexual abuse severity were tested on the basis of D. Finkelhor and A. Browne's (1985) traumagenic dynamics model with 178 low-income African American, European American, and Mexican American community women interviewed for Project HOW: Health Outcomes of Women. This subsample reported contact sexual abuse before the age of 18…

  9. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…

  10. Psychological Adjustment and Sexual Development of Adolescents With Disorders of Sex Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kleinemeier, Eva; Jürgensen, Martina; Lux, Anke; Widenka, Pia-Marie; Thyen, Ute

    2010-01-01

    ...] . The presence of a genetic or chronic health condition may create additional stress and instability [4] . The development of a satisfying sexuality, in particular, is meaningful for the development of personality and identity [5] . Adolescents with congenital disabilities may experience difficulties developing sexual relationships because of low self-e...

  11. Relationship Trajectories and Psychological Well-Being among Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle Marie; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Eisenberg, Anna; Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.

    2010-01-01

    Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexual minority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an…

  12. Intimate Partner Violence and Cigarette Smoking: Association Between Smoking Risk and Psychological Abuse With and Without Co-Occurrence of Physical and Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hee-Jin; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between psychological abuse in a current relationship and current cigarette smoking among women, with and without the co-occurrence of physical or sexual abuse. Methods. Women’s experience of psychological abuse, experience of physical or sexual abuse, and smoking status were ascertained through a survey of female nurses. A score of 20 or more on the Women’s Experience With Battering scale defined psychological abuse. We used logistic regression to predict current smoking, adjusting for demographic and social covariates. Analyses included women in a current relationship (n=54200). Results. Adjusted analyses demonstrated that women experiencing only psychological abuse alone were 33% (95% confidence interval [CI]=13%, 57%) more likely to smoke than nonabused women. Compared with nonabused women, psychologically abused women’s risk of smoking was greater if they reported a single co-occurrence of physical or sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR]=1.5; 95% CI=1.3, 1.8) or multiple co-occurrences (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.7, 2.3). Conclusions. Psychological abuse in a current relationship was associated with an increased risk of smoking in this cohort of largely White, well-educated, and employed women. The co-occurrence of physical or sexual abuse enhanced that risk. Further research is needed to see if these associations hold for other groups. PMID:17600272

  13. Psychological Outcomes After a Sexual Assault Video Intervention: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katherine E; Cranston, Christopher C; Davis, Joanne L; Newman, Elana; Resnick, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Sexual assault survivors are at risk for a number of mental and physical health problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety. Unfortunately, few seek physical or mental health services after a sexual assault (Price, Davidson, Ruggiero, Acierno, & Resnick, 2014). Mitigating the impact of sexual assault via early interventions is a growing and important area of research. This study adds to this literature by replicating and expanding previous studies (e.g., Resnick, Acierno, Amstadter, Self-Brown, & Kilpatrick, 2007) examining the efficacy of a brief video-based intervention that provides psychoeducation and modeling of coping strategies to survivors at the time of a sexual assault nurse examination. Female sexual assault survivors receiving forensic examinations were randomized to standard care or to the video intervention condition (N = 164). The participants completed mental health assessments 2 weeks (n = 69) and 2 months (n = 74) after the examination. Analyses of covariance revealed that women in the video condition had significantly fewer anxiety symptoms at the follow-up assessments. In addition, of those participants in the video condition, survivors reporting no previous sexual assault history reported significantly fewer posttraumatic stress symptoms 2 weeks after the examination than those with a prior assault history. Forensic nurses have the unique opportunity to intervene immediately after a sexual assault. This brief video intervention is a cost-effective tool to aid with that process.

  14. A psicologia redescobrirá a sexualidade? La psicologia¿ redescubrirá la sexualidad? Will psychology rediscover sexuality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Paiva

    2008-12-01

    trayectorias de sujetos sexuales. El trabajo de los psicólogos se verá beneficiado en su formación al redescubrir la sexualidad, superar los abordajes psicológicos con pretensiones universalistas, por lo menos en el dominio sexual.Common sense designates the psychologist the most proficient professional to work with sexuality. Rarely, though, we are educating psychologists to work with the sexual life in non-clinical contexts. This article synthesizes a critique of the "sexological" framework, hegemonic throughout the XX century, and argues that the "constructionist" approach, while deconstructing woman's subordination and hetero-normativeness as natural, was validated as an alternative paradigm of great relevance for research and professional practice approaching the sexual sphere. This theoretical framework better understood challenges as the Aids epidemic, especially in contexts of inequality and rights violations; inspired technologies for its prevention based on gender analysis and the understanding of sexual scenarios, scenes, scripts and trajectories by sexual subjects. Psychologists practice will benefit from rediscovering sexuality, surpassing approaches based on personal values, rethinking the sexological and psychological approaches that aim at universalism, at least on the sexuality domain.

  15. Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for ...

  16. Sexual attraction and psychological adjustment in Dutch adolescents: coping style as a mediator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.; van Beusekom, G.; Sandfort, T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) in 12- to 15-year-old Dutch adolescents were related to psychological health (self-esteem and psychological distress) and whether this relation was mediated by coping styles and moderated by biological sex. Data were collected from

  17. Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Related Behaviors among Students in Grades 9-12--United States and Selected Sites, 2015. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 65, Number 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Laura; Olsen, Emily O'Malley; McManus, Tim; Harris, William A.; Shanklin, Shari L.; Flint, Katherine H.; Queen, Barbara; Lowry, Richard; Chyen, David; Whittle, Lisa; Thornton, Jemekia; Lim, Connie; Yamakawa, Yoshimi; Brener, Nancy; Zaza, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Problem: Sexual identity and sex of sexual contacts can both be used to identify sexual minority youth. Significant health disparities exist between sexual minority and nonsexual minority youth. However, not enough is known about health-related behaviors that contribute to negative health outcomes among sexual minority youth and how the prevalence…

  18. Attributions of blame and responsibility in sexual harassment: reexamining a psychological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kristen M; Apple, Kevin J; Kahn, Arnold S

    2011-04-01

    Kelley's (Nebr Symp Motiv 15:192-238, 1967) attribution theory can inform sexual harassment research by identifying how observers use consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness information in determining whether a target or perpetrator is responsible for a sexual harassment situation. In this study, Kelley's theory is applied to a scenario in which a male perpetrator sexually harasses a female target in a university setting. Results from 314 predominantly female college students indicate that consistency and consensus information significantly affect participants' judgments of blame and responsibility for the situation. The authors discuss the importance of the reference groups used to derive consensus and distinctiveness information, and reintroduce Kelley's attribution theory as a means of understanding observers' perceptions of sexual harassment.

  19. Evaluation of psychological support for victims of sexual violence in a conflict setting: results from Brazzaville, Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustache, Sarah; Moro, Marie-Rose; Roptin, Jacky; Souza, Renato; Gansou, Grégoire Magloire; Mbemba, Alain; Roederer, Thomas; Grais, Rebecca F; Gaboulaud, Valérie; Baubet, Thierry

    2009-04-01

    Little is known about the impact of psychological support in war and transcultural contexts and in particular, whether there are lasting benefits. Here, we present an evaluation of the late effect of post-rape psychological support provided to women in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. Women who attended the Médecins Sans Frontières program for sexual violence in Brazzaville during the conflict were selected to evaluate the psychological consequences of rape and the late effect of post-rape psychological support. A total of 178 patients met the eligibility criteria: 1) Women aged more than 15 years; 2) raped by unknown person(s) wearing military clothes; 3) admitted to the program between the 1/1/2002 and the 30/4/2003; and 4) living in Brazzaville. The initial diagnosis according to DSM criteria showed a predominance of anxious disorders (54.1%) and acute stress disorders (24.6%). One to two years after the initial psychological care, 64 women were evaluated using the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ), the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF) and an assessment scale to address medico-psychological care in emergencies (EUMP). Two patients (3.1%) met the needed criteria for PTSD diagnosis from the TSQ. Among the 56 women evaluated using GAF both as pre and post-test, global functioning was significantly improved by initial post-rape support (50 women (89.3%) had extreme or medium impairment at first post-rape evaluation, and 16 (28.6%) after psychological care; p = 0.04). When interviewed one to two years later, the benefit was fully maintained (16 women (28.6%) presenting extreme or medium impairment). We found the benefits of post-rape psychological support to be present and lasting in this conflict situation. However, we were unable to evaluate all women for the long-term impact, underscoring the difficulty of leading evaluation studies in unstable contexts. Future research is needed to validate these findings in other settings.

  20. Evaluation of psychological support for victims of sexual violence in a conflict setting: results from Brazzaville, Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbemba Alain

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the impact of psychological support in war and transcultural contexts and in particular, whether there are lasting benefits. Here, we present an evaluation of the late effect of post-rape psychological support provided to women in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. Methods Women who attended the Médecins Sans Frontières program for sexual violence in Brazzaville during the conflict were selected to evaluate the psychological consequences of rape and the late effect of post-rape psychological support. A total of 178 patients met the eligibility criteria: 1 Women aged more than 15 years; 2 raped by unknown person(s wearing military clothes; 3 admitted to the program between the 1/1/2002 and the 30/4/2003; and 4 living in Brazzaville. Results The initial diagnosis according to DSM criteria showed a predominance of anxious disorders (54.1% and acute stress disorders (24.6%. One to two years after the initial psychological care, 64 women were evaluated using the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF and an assessment scale to address medico-psychological care in emergencies (EUMP. Two patients (3.1% met the needed criteria for PTSD diagnosis from the TSQ. Among the 56 women evaluated using GAF both as pre and post-test, global functioning was significantly improved by initial post-rape support (50 women (89.3% had extreme or medium impairment at first post-rape evaluation, and 16 (28.6% after psychological care; p = 0.04. When interviewed one to two years later, the benefit was fully maintained (16 women (28.6% presenting extreme or medium impairment. Conclusion We found the benefits of post-rape psychological support to be present and lasting in this conflict situation. However, we were unable to evaluate all women for the long-term impact, underscoring the difficulty of leading evaluation studies in unstable contexts. Future research is needed to validate these

  1. The effects of multiple interpersonal traumas on psychological maladjustment of sexually abused children in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Oh, Kyung Ja

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of multiple interpersonal traumas on psychiatric diagnosis and behavior problems of sexually abused children in Korea. With 495 children (ages 4-13 years) referred to a public counseling center for sexual abuse in Korea, we found significant differences in the rate of psychiatric diagnoses (r = .23) and severity of behavioral problems (internalizing d = 0.49, externalizing d = 0.40, total d = 0.52) between children who were victims of sexual abuse only (n = 362) and youth who were victims of interpersonal trauma experiences in addition to sexual abuse (n = 133). The effects of multiple interpersonal trauma experiences on single versus multiple diagnoses remained significant in the logistic regression analysis where demographic variables, family environmental factors, sexual abuse characteristics, and postincident factors were considered together, odds ratio (OR) = 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [0.25, 0.77], p children with multiple interpersonal traumas are clearly at a greater risk for negative consequences following sexual abuse. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  2. Dissociation mediates the relationship between sexual abuse and child psychological difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensink, Karin; Berthelot, Nicolas; Bégin, Michaël; Maheux, Julie; Normandin, Lina

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, using structural equation modeling, a theoretical model in which dissociation is a core process mediating the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and internalizing, externalizing, and sexualized behaviour difficulties in children. A total of 290 children aged 2-12 participated in this study in Québec, Canada from 1998 to 2004, including 138 children with histories of CSA and 152 non-abused children. To assess child dissociative symptoms, internalizing and externalizing difficulties, as well as sexualized behaviour difficulties, the Child Dissociative Checklist, the Child Behaviour Checklist and the Child Sexualized Behaviour Inventory were completed by parents. Dissociation mediated the relationship between CSA and internalizing, externalizing, and sexualized behaviour difficulties, with the model explaining respectively 42.5%, 49.9% and 33.9% of the variance of these difficulties. Findings are consistent with a model where dissociation is a common pathway linking CSA and child psycho-sexual difficulties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Review of Psychoeducational Interventions to Improve Sexual Functioning, Quality of Life, and Psychological Outcomes in Gynecological Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ka Ming; Chan, Joanne C Y; Choi, Kai K C; Chan, Carmen W H

    2016-01-01

    Psychoeducational interventions are recommended for use with clinical gynecological cancer patients to improve their patient care outcomes. However, the evidence of their effectiveness is far from conclusive. The objective of this study was to identify the best available research evidence related to the effects of psychoeducational interventions on sexual functioning, quality of life, and psychological outcomes in gynecological cancer patients. A systematic search was conducted to identify English and Chinese articles from the inception of the databases to April 2012 and included 13 English databases and 7 Chinese databases. Gray literature or unpublished studies were also searched. A total of 11 studies involving 975 gynecological cancer patients were included in the review. Meta-analysis results for 4 comparable studies indicated that psychoeducational interventions were effective in treating depressive symptoms among gynecological cancer patients (standardized mean difference = -0.80; 95% confidence interval, -1.05 to -0.54), whereas information provision significantly improved the mental aspect of quality of life (standardized mean difference = -0.41; 95% confidence interval, -0.74 to -0.08). With regard to sexual functioning, psychoeducational interventions appeared to have benefits in improving the sexual life of patients. Findings confirm the effectiveness of psychoeducational interventions on depressive symptoms and mental aspect of the quality of life in gynecological cancer patients. The authors discuss the implications of review findings for the effective design of psychoeducational interventions including components, provider, provision time frame, and duration for clinical practice, as well as psychoeducational intervention research.

  4. A Comparison of Sexual Function, Psychological Status, and Sociodemographic Characteristics of Turkish Men within Polygamous and Monogamous Marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekerbiçer, Hasan Çetin; Resim, Sefa; Efe, Erkan; Bahar, Mustafa Remzi; Altunören, Özlem; Küçükdurmaz, Faruk; Benlioğlu, Can

    2016-07-01

    A limited number of studies within the literature have entailed objective evaluations of psychological, sexual, and emotional features of women within polygamous marriages. However, there is a lack of studies reporting these features among polygamous and monogamous men. The aim of this study was to investigate sociodemographic characteristics, sexual function, and psychological status of polygamously and monogamously married men. Cross-sectional study. The study sample comprised two groups: 35 polygamous and 45 monogamous men in Kahramanmaraş Province, Turkey. Door-to-door surveys covered sociodemographic factors and adopted Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and International Index of Erectile Function - Erectile Function Domain (IIEF-EFD) scales. Polygamous men showed considerably higher IIEF-EFD scores (p0.05). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of monogamous men for erectile dysfunction and depression were 14.4 (95% CI: 3.1-67.5) and 7.4 (95% CI: 0.9-61.9), respectively. The main reasons for multiple marriages reported by polygamous men, in descending order, were: 1) decreased satisfaction of sexual desires by a wife (37.1%); 2) falling in love with the second wife (22.8%); and 3) incompatibility with the first wife (17.1%). However, 62.9% of them responded negatively to the question: "Would you recommend polygamous marriage to other men?" Our results showed that polygamous men had higher erectile function and lower depression scores than monogamous men. Further studies investigating the effects of polygamy on men's psychosexual function are warranted. Additionally, studies that address the perspectives of offspring and women's expectations within polygamous marriages should be conducted.

  5. A comparison of stress levels, coping styles and psychological morbidity between graduate-entry and traditional undergraduate medical students during the first 2 years at a UK medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvauya, R; Oyebode, F; Day, E J; Thomas, C P; Jones, L A

    2017-02-13

    Stress levels and psychological morbidity are high among undergraduate medical students (UGs), but there is a lack of research into the psychological health of UK graduate-entry medical students (GEs). GEs are likely to experience different (perhaps more severe) stressors and to cope with stress differently. We compared stress levels, psychological morbidity and coping styles in GE versus UG medical students studying at the same UK medical school in the same academic year. A cross-sectional self-rated questionnaire study of all first- and second-year GE and UG medical students was conducted. Perceived stress, psychological morbidity, recent adverse life events, stress-related personality traits and coping styles were assessed using standard questionnaires. 75% GEs and 46% UGs responded to the questionnaire. Both groups reported equally high levels, and similar profiles of, perceived stress and psychological morbidity. Levels of recent adverse life events and stress-related personality traits were similar in both groups. Compared to UGs, GEs were more likely to use active coping (p = 0.02) and positive reframing (p = 0.03), but were also more likely to use substances (alcohol and other drugs; p cope. Unlike UGs, second-year GEs showed less perceived stress (p = 0.007) and psychological morbidity (p = 0.006) than first-year GEs although levels of both were still high. Our results show that both GE students and their younger UG counterparts on a traditional medical course have similar profiles of stress symptoms. They do, however, cope with stress differently. GEs are more likely to use active problem-focused coping strategies, and they are also more likely to cope by using substances (alcohol or other drugs). GE students need interventions to prevent maladaptive coping styles and encourage adaptive coping that are tailored to their needs. Such interventions should be targeted at first-year students. It is vital that these students develop positive coping

  6. The Impact of Infertility on the Psychological Well-Being, Marital Relationships, Sexual Relationships, and Quality of Life of Couples: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Bronya Hi-Kwan; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to identify, with supporting evidence, the effect of infertility on couples. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINHAL Plus articles were searched for relevant studies (2000-2014) published in English. Twenty articles were included in this review. The results showed that infertility affected couples in the following four aspects of their life: psychological well-being, marital relationships, sexual relationships, and quality of life. There is evidence that infertility has a negative effect on the psychological well-being and sexual relationships of couples, but the evidence is inconclusive for the effect on marital relationships and quality of life.

  7. Health-Related Quality of Life, Psychological Distress, and Sexual Changes Following Prostate Cancer: A Comparison of Gay and Bisexual Men with Heterosexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette; Kellett, Andrew; Chambers, Suzanne; Latini, David; Davis, Ian D; Rose, Duncan; Dowsett, Gary W; Williams, Scott

    2016-03-01

    Decrements in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and sexual difficulties are a recognized consequence of prostate cancer (PCa) treatment. However little is known about the experience of gay and bisexual (GB) men. HRQOL and psychosexual predictors of HRQOL were examined in GB and heterosexual men with PCa to inform targeted health information and support. One hundred twenty-four GB and 225 heterosexual men with PCa completed a range of validated psychosexual instruments. Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) was used to measure HRQOL, with validated psychosexual measures, and demographic and treatment variables used as predictors. GB men were significantly younger (64.25 years) than heterosexual men (71.54 years), less likely to be in an ongoing relationship, and more likely to have casual sexual partners. Compared with age-matched population norms, participants in both groups reported significantly lower sexual functioning and HRQOL, increased psychological distress, disruptions to dyadic sexual communication, and lower masculine self-esteem, sexual confidence, and sexual intimacy. In comparison with heterosexual men, GB men reported significantly lower HRQOL (P = .046), masculine self-esteem (P sexual functioning (P sexual confidence (P = .001). In regression analysis, psychological distress, cancer-related distress, masculine self-esteem, and satisfaction with treatment were predictors of HRQOL for GB men (R2Adj = .804); psychological distress and sexual confidence were predictors for heterosexual men (R2Adj = .690). These findings confirm differences between GB and heterosexual men in the impact of PCa on HRQOL across a range of domains, suggesting there is a need for GB targeted PCa information and support, to address the concerns of this "hidden population" in PCa care. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychological morbidity and stress but not social factors influence level of fear of cancer recurrence in young women with early breast cancer: results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewes, B; Bell, M L; Butow, P; Beith, J; Boyle, F; Friedlander, M; McLachlan, S A

    2013-12-01

    Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is a common problem amongst survivors. Past research has shown that young women with breast cancer are particularly vulnerable to FCR, yet few previous studies have specifically examined FCR in this subgroup. The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between FCR, psychological morbidity and social factors. A secondary aim was to explore the relationship between clinical levels of FCR and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and hypochondriasis. Two hundred eighteen breast cancer survivors (aged 18-45 years at diagnosis) diagnosed at least 1 year prior were recruited through seven metropolitan oncology clinics and two breast cancer consumer groups. Participants completed a web-based questionnaire, which assessed FCR, psychological functioning, generalised anxiety, hypochondriasis and items exploring past cancer-related experiences, attitudes to future childbearing, social support and correlates were identified using linear regression. Psychological morbidity scales measuring anxiety and psychological functioning and stressful life events were significantly associated with FCR in adjusted and unadjusted models (p cancer experiences, children, social support and attitudes to childrearing were not associated with FCR. Among those with clinical levels of FCR (n = 152), 43% met screening criteria for hypochondriasis, and 36% met screening criteria for GAD. This study shows psychological morbidity is associated with FCR, but the majority of women with high levels of FCR do not also meet the criteria for a clinical level of GAD or hypochondriasis. Understanding the factors that make young women vulnerable to FCR is important to help guide the development of FCR-specific interventions for this subgroup. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Impact of radiotherapy on psychological, financial, and sexual aspects in postmastectomy carcinoma breast patients: A prospective study and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of radiotherapy (RT on psychological, financial, and sexual aspects in postmastectomy carcinoma breast patients affecting their quality of life (QOL before, during, and after RT with a strong emphasis on their management and rehabilitation aspects. Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out in a specialized institution, comprising sixty women. Two standardized questionnaires European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC 30-item Quality of Life Questionnaire and Quality of Life Questionnaire breast cancer-23 (QLQ-BR23 for health-related quality, translated and validated for the Hindi language were used. The scores' manual of the EORTC was used to calculate the domain scores of the questionnaires. Results: According to the first questionnaire, the emotional function was most affected even at onset of RT treatment and it was worst at the completion of RT treatment with a mean score of 63.75. The global QOL score was also worst at the end of radiation treatment with a mean score of 32.36, while the score 3 months after completion of treatment was 68.16. The symptoms with the highest scores were insomnia with a worst scoring at completion of treatment (29.99, fatigue (26.57, and pain (23.05. According to the QLQ-BR23, the mean score for side effects such as sexual functioning was minimum 0.55 at the completion of RT, which improved to 11.66 on the first follow-up after 3 months. Mean future perspective score which was 57.22 before the start of RT which was reduced to 50.55 at completion, which means that many women experience side effects of RT and impaired sexual satisfaction. Conclusions: Women with breast cancer showed changes in the following domains: financial, emotional, sexual satisfaction, and future prospects. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fatigue, insomnia, and pain.

  10. Play Room as an psychological assessment method in cases of alleged child sexual abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagelskjær, Marie

    2017-01-01

    of Play Room from prevention into clinical assessment, in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Taking its starting point in the theory of Jean Laplanche, this article will discuss how psychoanalytic concepts such as seduction, translation, asymmetry, absence, and listening to listening can be used......This article presents an example of how psychoanalytic theory can be implemented in practice. The aim is to introduce and discuss the semi-projective material ‘Play Room’ which was originally developed to support prevention of sexual abuse among vulnerable children in Denmark. However, a recent...... study has shown that, when measured with a scale called Ability to Answer, children exposed to sexual abuse talked about the illustrations in Play Room in a significantly different way than did a clinical sample and a normal control group. The finding indicates the potential for expanding the scope...

  11. [The impact of childhood sexual abuse on the development of AIDS related high risk behaviors and psychological appearances among men who have sex with men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zeng-Zhao; Zhang, Bei-Chuan; Li, Xiu-Fang; Wang, Ning; Shi, Tong-Xin; Chu, Quan-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    To study the AIDS related high risk behaviors and psychological appearances among men who have sex with men (MSM) who ever experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Target sampling for a cross-sectional study was developed and valid anonymous questionnaires were adopted to compare the differences of high risk behaviors related to AIDS and psychological appearances between those with or without CSA experiences among 2147 MSM from nine cities. Compared to corresponding ones without CSA experience, CSA group had a significant larger numbers in the following events: total sexual partners, anal sex episodes with same sex, female sexual partners and anal sex in the previous six months, with the figures of median as 20.0, 10.0, 3.0, 3.0 respectively. In the previous year, 30.8% of them had ever participated in 'group sex', 19.2% ever exchanged money for sex, 36.7% bled while having sexual intercourse, 37.3% had sex with male partners away from his own region. All the above said figures were higher than non-CSA group, with significant differences. It also appeared that CSA experience had an impact on significant lower rate of condom use (67.3%) in the last anal sex. Those with CSA experience had more psychological problems which appeared as: 75.6% considered they would suffer from serious discrimination if their sexual orientation ever disclosed, 34.7% had a strong intention of suicide and 24.3% ever having had suicidal attempts. The differences of the two groups showed statistical significance. CSA experience not only increased the number of AIDS related high risk behaviors in adulthood, but also had negative impact on their psychological appearances. It is of urgent need to carry out psychological intervention approaches to target on MSM with CSA experiences while childhood sexual education and rights assurance towards juvenile population should also not be neglected.

  12. Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors among Students in Grades 9-12--Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Early Release. Volume 60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Laura; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; McManus, Tim; Kinchen, Steve; Chyen, David; Harris, William A.; Wechsler, Howell

    2011-01-01

    Problem: Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the health-risk behaviors practiced by sexual minority youths are needed at the state and local…

  13. The Social Acceptability of Sexual Slang: Functions of Biological Sex and Psychological Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott A.; Cortese, Juliann

    A study explored the social acceptability that accompanies the expression of sexual slang. The study of gender differences in language use is nothing new. Previous research has indicated that men and women differ in their use of tentative language, topic selection, control techniques, and conversational style. However, this research has examined…

  14. Sexual Harassment on College Campuses. Abusing the Ivory Power. SUNY Series, The Psychology of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paludi, Michele A., Ed.

    The 13 papers in this book deal with issues concerning sexual harassment on college campuses including the abuse of power and ways to set up policy statements and develop effective grievance procedures. Part 1 examines legal, methodological, and conceptual issues of harassment; Part 2 considers issues of abuse of the power of the professoriate and…

  15. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalina, Ondrej; Geckova, Andrea M.; Jarcuska, Pavol; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB) in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of

  16. Minority Stress and Psychological Distress among Asian American Sexual Minority Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Sung, Mi Ra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine multiple minority stressors (i.e., heterosexist events, racist events, heterosexism in communities of color, racism in sexual minority communities, race-related dating and relationship problems, internalized heterosexism or homophobia, outness to family, and outness to world) as they relate to the…

  17. School Psychology and Issues of Sexual Orientation: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Todd A.; Prout, H. Thompson; Chard, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate school psychologists' attitudes toward lesbians and gay males. Aspects of school psychologists' knowledge, beliefs, current practices, and levels of preparedness related to issues of sexual orientation were also explored. A sample of 288 school psychologists (215 females and 73 males, mean age = 44…

  18. HUBUNGAN DUKUNGAN SOSIAL DENGAN PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING PADA REMAJA KORBAN SEXUAL ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryani Hardjo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara dukungan sosial dengan psychological well-being pada remaja korban kekerasan seksual. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif  korelasional. Populasi penelitian adalah remaja korban kekerasan seksual di kabupaten Langkat yang diketahui berjumlah 32 orang. Teknik pengambilan sampel yang digunakan adalah total sampling yaitu seluruh anggota populasi dijadikan sampel penelitian. Pengumpulan data penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan skala psikologi, yaitu skala psychological well-being dan skala dukungan sosial yang dikembangkan peneliti berdasarkan teori yang relevan. Analisa terhadap data penelitian yang terkumpul dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknik analisa korelasi pearson product moment.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan positif yang signifikan antara dukungan sosial dengan psychological well-being pada remaja korban kekerasan seksual. Semakin tinggi dukungan sosial yang diterima oleh remaja korban kekerasan seksual maka akan semakin tinggi psychological well-being yang mereka miliki. Sebaliknya, semakin rendah dukungan sosial yang diterima oleh remaja korban kekerasan seksual maka akan semakin rendah  psychological well-being yang mereka miliki.

  19. [Psychological treatment of transsexualism and sexual identity disorders some recent attempts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, M

    1978-11-01

    Psychological treatments of transsexualism and sex gender Dysphoria syndroms. Recent data. There are generally two types of patients requesting sex change operations: one type is the classical but rare transsexual, the others belong to the larger more vague group of sex gender Dysphoria. These syndroms have been felt to be unresponsive to psychotherapy. We review here some recent attempts of psychological treatments which claim to improve satisfaction with biological sex gender identity and result in renonciation of the request of sex reassignment surgery (S.R.S.). These psychotherapies use various methods: Behavior therapy, psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapy, religious exorcism and conversion. The reports reviewed suggest that sex gender identity may be more malleable than previously thought in transsexual syndrom, at least in relatively youthful subjects. Cases of recent onset of the syndrom which result from a crisis cases underline the necessity for careful evaluation and attempted psychological treatment before undertaking irreversible surgical procedures.

  20. The Co-Occurrence of Adolescent Boys' and Girls' Use of Psychologically, Physically, and Sexually Abusive Behaviours in Their Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Heather A.; Sandra Byers, E.; Lisa Price, E.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the co-occurrence of and risk factors for adolescent boys' and girls' self-reported use of psychologically, physically, and sexually abusive behaviours in their dating relationships. The participants were 324 boys and 309 girls in grades 7, 9, or 11 who completed surveys at school. Descriptive analyses showed that 19% of boys and 26%…

  1. Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration by Court-Ordered Men: Distinctions and Intersections among Physical Violence, Sexual Violence, Psychological Abuse, and Stalking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Kathleen C.; Hall, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of two different measurement models of male partners' perpetration of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking against intimate partners. Data were obtained from a sample of 340 men arrested for physical assault of a female spouse or partner and court ordered into batterer…

  2. Comparative Effectiveness of Antidepressant Medication versus Psychological Intervention on Depression Symptoms in Women with Infertility and Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Hajar; Basirat, Zahra; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Kheirkhah, Farzan

    2018-04-01

    Fertility loss is considered as a challenging experience. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of antidepressant medication and psychological intervention on depression symptoms in women with infertility and sexual dysfunctions (SD). This randomized, controlled clinical trial study was completed from December 2014 to June 2015 in Babol, Iran. Of the 485 participants, 93 were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to psychosexual therapy (PST), bupropion extended-release (BUP ER) at a dose of 150 mg/d, and control (no intervention) groups. The beck depression inventory (BDI) was completed at the beginning and end of the study. Duration of study was eight weeks. Statistical analyses were performed by using paired-test and analysis of covariance. The mean depression score on the BDI was 22.35 ± 8.70 in all participants. Mean BDI score decreased significantly in both treatment groups (PST: Pinfertility and SD (Registration number: IRCT2015042721955N2).

  3. The impact of childhood sexual abuse on psychological distress among women in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flett, Ross A; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Long, Nigel R; MacDonald, Carol; Millar, Michelle; Clark, Bronwyn; Edwards, Howard; Petrik, Alexandra M

    2012-02-01

    In order to better understand the long-term impact of child sex abuse, this study examined the association between women's experience of abuse, health symptoms, and psychological distress in adulthood. There is limited information about child abuse outside the United States. Nine hundred sixty-one women participated in a structured interview. Participants who had experienced abuse (13%) were significantly more vulnerable to psychological distress in adulthood if they were younger, less satisfied with their standard of living, and resided in urban areas. Dissemination and evaluation of therapies for the treatment of sex abuse in the New Zealand context is warranted. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The impact of overactive bladder on health-related quality of life, sexual life and psychological health in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun Sang; Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Duk Yoon; Oh, Seung-June; Kim, Joon Chul

    2011-09-01

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) in Korea, to assess the variation in prevalence by sex and age, and to measure the impact of OAB on quality of life. A population-based, cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted between April and June 2010 with a questionnaire regarding the prevalence of OAB, demographics, and the impact of OAB on quality of life. A geographically stratified random sample of men and women aged ≥30 years was selected. The overall prevalence of OAB was 22.9% (male, 19%; female, 26.8%). Of a total of 458 participants with OAB, 37.6% and 19.9% reported moderate or severe impact on their daily life and sexual life (5.6% and 3.5%, respectively, in participants without OAB). Anxiety and depression were reported by 22.7% and 39.3% of participants with OAB, respectively (9.7% and 22.8%, respectively, in participants without OAB). Only 19.7% of participants with OAB had consulted a doctor for their voiding symptoms, but 50.7% of respondents with OAB were willing to visit a hospital for the management of their OAB symptoms. This study confirmed that OAB symptoms are highly prevalent in Korea, and many sufferers appear to have actively sought medical help. OAB has severe effects on daily and sexual life as well as psychological health.

  5. Contraceptive and sexual behavior of black female adolescents. A test of a social-psychological theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, R H; Jay, S; Seymore, C

    1990-07-01

    To test a previous theoretical model, we studied the relationships between social, attitude, and psychological factors and adolescent contraceptive behavior over a 6-month period. A pretested questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 115 black females aged 12 to 18 years from a low socioeconomic population. Six months after the initial interview 113 of the subjects were administered a second questionnaire assessing their sexual and contraceptive behavior. Based on regression analysis, previous pregnancy and coital frequency explained 12.7% (p less than or equal to 0.0001) of the variation in engaging in unprotected coitus. When controlling for sexual activity, birth control knowledge and previous broken appointments explained an additional 5.5% of variation in the regression model (total R2 = 0.185). Coital frequency of the subjects was positively associated with Tanner stage, length of the relationship, effectiveness of previous contraceptive method(s), and degree of birth control knowledge. Coital frequency was inversely associated with a negative attitude toward pregnancy and negative parental attitudes toward adolescent pregnancy. The perceived risk of pregnancy was positively correlated with coital frequency and previous pregnancy. These findings support our model, but suggest that among low socioeconomic black female adolescents the interpretation of several model components depends on the subjects' attitude toward pregnancy and her perception of her parent's attitude toward adolescent pregnancy.

  6. Feminist Psychology and the "Body Problem": Sexuality, Physical Appearance, and Women's Physical and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    2011-01-01

    Reductionistic, misogynistic, and heterosexist views of women's bodies have been often expressed and widely shared, and psychology has not been immune to those views. Second-wave feminist psychologists had plenty of work to do to normalize and destigmatize women's bodies and to point out that cultural pressures, social constructions, and…

  7. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian W Holloway

    Full Text Available The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526, which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18-24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037 and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, p<0.001; psychological distress is an internalized response to environmental and cognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population.

  8. Misconceptions about childhood sexual abuse and child witnesses: Implications for psychological experts in the courtroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Rachel; Garry, Maryanne; London, Kamala; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Hayne, Harlene

    2013-03-18

    Recent changes to the law in New Zealand have led to a marked increase in experts being called to give evidence in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Here we outline some of the common misconceptions that are held by expert witnesses in these cases and we review research on patterns of abuse disclosure and retraction, symptoms of abuse, external influences on children's reports, and experts' ability to distinguish true from false reports. We also consider what experts can say about memory that has relevance for these cases. We conclude that many long-held notions of child sexual abuse and children's testimony that make their way into our courtrooms are not supported by empirical research, raising questions about who is-and who is not-qualified to act as an expert witness.

  9. Child sexual abuse and psychological impairment in victims: results of an online study initiated by victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Ahlers, Christoph J; Bahls, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims in a research area central to their lives. This study was conducted by a victims interest group as an effort to meet the need to add victims' perspectives to our current understanding of this topic. The online survey focused on investigating victims' psychosocial impairment, which was found to be extensive. Results indicated that an intact social support system facilitates better health, especially when offered early on.

  10. [Psychological treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder after sexual abuse: an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Kathlen; Steil, Regina; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Dyer, Anne S; Krüger, Antje; Bohus, Martin

    2012-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate how to treat posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood sexual abuse. In Germany patients mostly receive a psychodynamically oriented treatment with a long-lasting stabilization before the use of exposure-based interventions. The number of randomized controlled trials on posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood sexual abuse is quite limited. The results of these studies show that cognitive-behavioral trauma-focussing interventions are very efficacious with large effect sizes. 2 controlled studies on psychodynamically oriented treatment found only small improvements in posttraumatic symptoms. The high dropout rates in prolonged exposure especially in patients with co-occurring personality disorders point towards the need of a emotion regulation training before the exposure phase. Future studies should include subgroup-analyses and the assessment of adverse effects during therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Psychological injury in victims of child sexual abuse: A meta-analytic review

    OpenAIRE

    Amado, Bárbara G.; Arce, Ramón; Herraiz, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of child/adolescent sexual abuse (CSA/ASA) on the victim's probability of developingsymptoms of depression and anxiety, to quantify injury in populational terms, to establish theprobability of injury, and to determine the different effects of moderators on the severity of injury, a meta-analysis was performed. Given the abundant literature, only studies indexed in the scientific databaseof reference, the Web of Science, were selected. A total of 78 studies met t...

  12. Physical and Psychological Health Following Military Sexual Assault: Recommendations for Care, Research, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    assault are more likely to experience chronic medi- cal conditions, such as fibromyalgia , gastrointestinal symptoms associated with irritable bowel...medications for pain relief and reduction of anxiety symptoms, when indicated (DoJ, 2004, and WHO, 2003). Not all sexual assault victims require or...symptoms, including anxiety , disorganized thoughts and memory, nausea, hypervigilance, and numbing or dissociation that may make them fear that they are

  13. Psychological and cross-cultural aspects of infertility and human sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco Palha, Antonio; Lourenço, Mário F

    2011-01-01

    The influences of culture are present in different areas of human health, as is the case with reproductive behaviors. To have a child means to have made a responsible decision. If conception takes longer to happen, these patients require the help of doctors to stimulate the refractory body. In light of data suggesting that psychosexual symptoms may interfere with fertility, successful infertility treatment and the ability to tolerate ongoing treatment rely on paying attention to these symptoms. Infertility is not only a fault of nature, but it is also something that does not respect the established order, a fact that casts doubt on the truth of the femininity and masculinity representations prevailing in a culture. Infertility is always a disease of the couple, and it is the couple that must be treated. The same is true when it comes to addressing sexual dysfunction. The dominant values and cultural practices indelibly affect the sexuality of infertile couples. In order to be credible, humanization of the treatment protocols for infertile couples must take into account the problems of intimacy as well as the sexual health of these couples. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Avaliação psicológica em casos de abuso sexual na infância e adolescência Psychological assessment in sexual abuse cases in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Fernanda Habigzang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação psicológica de crianças e adolescentes vítimas de abuso sexual é um desafio para os profissionais, devido à complexidade do fenômeno. O presente artigo tem como objetivo apresentar os resultados de um modelo de avaliação psicológica. O estudo foi realizado com 10 meninas com idade entre nove e 13 anos. As participantes foram clinicamente avaliadas em três encontros individuais. Os resultados apontaram que a maioria das meninas foi vítima de abuso sexual por pelo um ano até revelarem a situação a alguém. As meninas apresentaram sintomas de transtorno do estresse pós-traumático, depressão e ansiedade. O método de avaliação utilizado mostrou-se efetivo, possibilitando a formação de vínculo, o conhecimento da história do abuso sexual e a identificação dos sintomas psicológicos decorrentes.Psychological assessment done with children and adolescents victims of sexual abuse is still a challenge for professionals due to the complexity of the phenomenon. This article aims to present the results of a psychological assessment method conducted with girls who were victims of sexual abuse. Ten girls with age raging from 9 to 13 years old were evaluated in three individual meetings. The results have shown that the sexual abuse lasted for, at least, one year before it was revealed. The girls presented symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety. The assessment method which was used showed to be efficient, favoring the creation of bonds, the knowledge of the sexual abuse history and the identification of related psychological symptoms.

  15. Sexual Stigma, Coping Styles, and Psychological Distress: A Longitudinal Study of Men Who Have Sex With Men in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Steward, Wayne T; Miège, Pierre; Hudes, Esther; Gregorich, Steven E

    2016-08-01

    The direct link between stigma against sexual minorities and psychological distress is well established. However, few studies have examined the potential mediating roles of avoidant and social support coping in the relationships between internalized and anticipated stigma associated with homosexuality and depressive symptoms and anxiety among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). We recruited a longitudinal sample of 493 MSM in Beijing, China from 2011 to 2012. Participants completed computer-based questionnaires at baseline, 6, and 12 months. We found significant indirect effects of anticipated MSM stigma on symptoms of both depression and anxiety via avoidant coping: anticipated MSM stigma at baseline was significantly associated with avoidant coping (B = 0.523, p stigma, avoidant coping had a significant positive effect on depressive symptoms and anxiety at 12 months (B = 0.069, p = 0.001 and B = 0.071, p = 0.014). In contrast, no significant indirect effects of anticipated MSM stigma on either psychological distress outcome via social support coping were found. No significant indirect effects of internalized MSM stigma via either avoidant or social support coping were found. These results underscore the need for interventions that address anticipations of stigma and the use of avoidant coping techniques to manage such anticipations.

  16. War related sexual violence and it's medical and psychological consequences as seen in Kitgum, Northern Uganda: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Were-Oguttu Juliet

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recent adoption of the UN resolution 1820 (2008 which calls for the cessation of war related sexual violence against civilians in conflict zones, Africa continues to see some of the worst cases of war related sexual violence including the mass sexual abuse of entire rural communities particularly in the Great Lakes region. In addition to calling for a complete halt to this abuse, there is a need for the systematic study of the reproductive, surgical and psychological effects of war related sexual violence in the African socio-cultural setting. This paper examines the specific long term health consequences of war related sexual violence among rural women living in two internally displaced person's camps in Kitgum district in war affected Northern Uganda who accessed the services of an Isis-Women's International Cross Cultural Exchange (Isis-WICCE medical intervention. Methods The study employed a purposive cross-sectional study design where 813 respondents were subjected to a structured interview as part of a screening procedure for an emergency medical intervention to identify respondents who required psychological, gynaecological and surgical treatment. Results Over a quarter (28.6% of the women (n = 573 reported having suffered at least one form of war related sexual violence. About three quarters of the respondents had 'at least one gynaecological complaint' (72.4% and 'at least one surgical complaint' (75.6%, while 69.4% had significant psychological distress scores (scores greater than or equal to 6 on the WHO SRQ-20. The factors that were significantly associated with war related sexual violence were the age group of less than or equal to 44 years, being Catholic, having suffered other war related physical trauma, and having 'at least one gynaecological complaint'. The specific gynaecological complaints significantly associated with war related sexual violence were infertility, chronic lower abdominal pain

  17. War related sexual violence and it's medical and psychological consequences as seen in Kitgum, Northern Uganda: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyanda, Eugene; Musisi, Seggane; Biryabarema, Christine; Ezati, Isaac; Oboke, Henry; Ojiambo-Ochieng, Ruth; Were-Oguttu, Juliet; Levin, Jonathan; Grosskurth, Heiner; Walugembe, James

    2010-11-10

    Despite the recent adoption of the UN resolution 1820 (2008) which calls for the cessation of war related sexual violence against civilians in conflict zones, Africa continues to see some of the worst cases of war related sexual violence including the mass sexual abuse of entire rural communities particularly in the Great Lakes region. In addition to calling for a complete halt to this abuse, there is a need for the systematic study of the reproductive, surgical and psychological effects of war related sexual violence in the African socio-cultural setting.This paper examines the specific long term health consequences of war related sexual violence among rural women living in two internally displaced person's camps in Kitgum district in war affected Northern Uganda who accessed the services of an Isis-Women's International Cross Cultural Exchange (Isis-WICCE) medical intervention. The study employed a purposive cross-sectional study design where 813 respondents were subjected to a structured interview as part of a screening procedure for an emergency medical intervention to identify respondents who required psychological, gynaecological and surgical treatment. Over a quarter (28.6%) of the women (n = 573) reported having suffered at least one form of war related sexual violence. About three quarters of the respondents had 'at least one gynaecological complaint' (72.4%) and 'at least one surgical complaint' (75.6%), while 69.4% had significant psychological distress scores (scores greater than or equal to 6 on the WHO SRQ-20). The factors that were significantly associated with war related sexual violence were the age group of less than or equal to 44 years, being Catholic, having suffered other war related physical trauma, and having 'at least one gynaecological complaint'. The specific gynaecological complaints significantly associated with war related sexual violence were infertility, chronic lower abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding, and sexual dysfunction

  18. Integrating psychological theory into the design of an online intervention for sexual health: the sexunzipped website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, Kenneth; McCarthy, Ona; Murray, Elizabeth; Bailey, Julia V

    2012-11-19

    The Internet can provide a confidential and convenient medium for sexual health promotion for young people. This paper describes the development of an interactive, theory-based website (Sexunzipped) aimed at increasing safe sexual behavior of young people, as well as an outline of the evaluation protocol. The website focuses on safer sex, relationships, and sexual pleasure. An overview of the site is provided, including a description of the theoretical constructs which form the basis of the site development. An integrated behavioral model was chosen as the guiding theory for the Sexunzipped intervention. A randomized trial design will be used to evaluate the site quantitatively. The content of the site is described in detail with examples of the main content types: information pages, quizzes, and decision-making activities. We describe the protocol for quantitative evaluation of the website using a randomized trial design and discuss the principal challenges involved in developing the site, including the challenge of balancing the requirements of theory with young people's views on website content and design. Considerations for future interventions are discussed. Developing an online behavior-change intervention is costly and time consuming. Given the large public health potential, the cost involved in developing online interventions, and the need for attractive design, future interventions may benefit from collaborating with established sites that already have a user base, a brand, and a strong Internet presence. It is vital to involve users in decisions about intervention content, design, and features, paying attention to aspects that will attract and retain users' interest. A central challenge in developing effective Internet-based interventions for young people is to find effective ways to operationalize theory in ways that address the views and perspectives of young people.

  19. Sexual abuse of children – psychological and psychodynamic traits and functioning of the perpetrator, the partner and the victim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Rojšek

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse significantly affects the victim's formation and his/her functioning and causes or predisposes certain physical and psychical problems both during the subject's childhood and his/her adulthood. The intensity of the problems depends on the victim's age, his/her pre-morbid personality, the form and the duration of the abuse. Emotional and behavioural reactions are specific in different age periods and as such characteristic for the abuse. Within the therapeutic context first reactions of the surroundings i.e. as support, security and acceptance are important. Psychotherapeutic treatment is established regarding its form ant contents. On the other side we deal with case studies and statistical research dealing with male and female perpetrators and their partners who tend to show peculiarities in their personality structures and personal traits. In addition to that there are elements of ego defects and characteristic object relations and self pathology. Constitutional characteristics and personal traits enable the application of the biological therapy and a wide range of psychotherapeutic approaches.

  20. Coping strategies as mediators of the effect of the START (strategies for RelaTives) intervention on psychological morbidity for family carers of people with dementia in a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ryan; Cooper, Claudia; Barber, Julie; Rapaport, Penny; Griffin, Mark; Livingston, Gill

    2014-10-01

    Family carers of people with dementia frequently become depressed or anxious. In observational studies, more emotion-focused and less dysfunctional coping predict fewer psychological symptoms, but no randomised controlled trial (RCT) has directly investigated emotion-focused coping as mediator of effectiveness of a successful psychological intervention. We hypothesised that emotion-focused coping would mediate the START psychological intervention׳s effects in an RCT. We tested whether mediated effects were moderated by severity of baseline symptoms. 260 family carers from NHS dementia services were randomised to START (manualised coping skills intervention), or treatment-as-usual (TAU). Blinded raters administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-T) and Brief COPE inventory at baseline, 4 and 8 months. HADS-T improved in the intervention group when compared to TAU at all levels of psychological distress. We tested whether coping was a mediator and for moderated mediation, and (post-hoc) subgroup treatment effects on coping. Data were available for 187 carers (71.9%) for the mediation analysis. The reduced HADS-T score in the intervention group was mediated by increased emotion-focused coping only among carers with higher (16+) baseline HADS-T scores (mediated effect=-0.63 [-1.11, -0.15]; proportion of overall effect=33% [3%, 64%]). We did not measure plausible psychosocial treatment mechanisms other than coping. START benefited family carers both in preventing and treating psychological morbidity, through different mechanisms of action. The most psychologically distressed carers increased their emotion-focused coping and did not decrease their dysfunctional coping, while others benefited but not through this mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. La psicologización de la sexualidad en Argentina (1900-1970 The Psychologization Of Sexuality In Argentina (1900-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Talak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo analiza diferentes modos de abordar problemas relacionados con la sexualidad en la Argentina, a través de la conformación de conocimientos que utilizan descripciones y explicaciones en términos psicológicos. Se parte de la hipótesis de que conjuntamente con la medicalización de la sexualidad en Argentina se produjo un proceso de psicologización de la misma. El término psicologización alude a la conformación e implantación extendida de una grilla interpretativa de los problemas humanos en términos psicológicos, y a la mayor presencia de los saberes de las disciplinas psicológicas (en sus relaciones con el psicoanálisis y la psiquiatría en este proceso. Se estudian seis casos desde principios del siglo XX hasta comienzos de la década de 1970, y se utilizan como fuentes artículos y libros de autores argentinos. El trabajo se inscribe en el enfoque de una historia de la psicología entendida como historia de las ideas y de las prácticas.This work analyzes different approaches to problems related to sexuality in Argentina, through the constitution of a knowledge that uses psychological descriptions and explanations. Our main hypothesis affirms along with sexuality medicalization, a process of sexuality psychologization befell. The term psychologization refers to the extended constitution and implantation of an interpreting gird of human problems in psychological terms, and the increasing presence of knowledge from psychological disciplines (in their relations with psychoanalysis and psychiatry in this process. Six cases are studied, from the beginnings of the twentieth century to the seventies decade, using articles and books from argentine authors as sources. This article adopts a history of psychology approach in terms of a history of ideas and practices.

  2. It Isn’t All Just Fun and Games: Collegiate Participation in Extracurricular Activities and Risk for Generalized and Sexual Harassment, Psychological Distress, and Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Collegiate extracurricular activities, despite their benefits, may place students at an increased risk for experiencing harassment. This study utilizes multiple waves of data from an online longitudinal survey to examine how participation in college activities (intramural sports, fraternities/sororities, school clubs) relates to experiences of sexual and generalized harassment and outcomes (psychological distress, heavy alcohol use) among undergraduates (N = 1852, 58.6% female, 57.4% White) in the Midwestern United States. Activity participation was related to harassment, but the pattern depended on the activity, harassment type, and sex. Fraternity/sorority involvement was associated with generalized harassment, whereas school club involvement was linked to both generalized and sexual harassment. Female intramural athletes were at an increased risk to experience both harassment types. In addition to direct relations, activity participation was indirectly linked to future psychological distress (depression, anxiety) and heavy alcohol use via harassment. Implications for intervention with this college student population are discussed. PMID:27771523

  3. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W; Traube, Dorian E; Schrager, Sheree M; Tan, Diane; Dunlap, Shannon; Kipke, Michele D

    2017-01-01

    The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526), which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18-24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037) and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, ppsychological distress is an internalized response to environmental and cognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population.

  4. A Comparison of Psychological Response, Body Image, Sexuality, and Quality of Life between Immediate and Delayed Autologous Tissue Breast Reconstruction: A Prospective Long-Term Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Toni; Hu, Jiayi; Bagher, Shaghayegh; Vo, Anthony; OʼNeill, Anne C; Butler, Kate; Novak, Christine B; Hofer, Stefan O P; Metcalfe, Kelly A

    2016-10-01

    This is the first study to use generic distress, cancer-specific, and procedure-specific measures to prospectively evaluate psychological responses, body image, sexuality, and health-related quality of life in immediate compared with delayed breast reconstruction. Consecutive patients undergoing autologous immediate and delayed breast reconstruction (June of 2009 to December of 2010) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Body Image Scale, Sexuality Scale, and BREAST-Q preoperatively and postoperatively (6, 12, and 18 months). Linear mixed-effects analyses between each outcome and time point were performed. One hundred six women underwent mastectomy with immediate (n = 30) and delayed breast reconstruction (n = 76). Before reconstruction, 26 percent of patients had abnormal anxiety scores and 9 percent had abnormal depression scores, with no significant differences between groups. Patients awaiting delayed breast reconstruction had significantly impaired prereconstruction body image (p = 0.01) and sexuality (p = 0.01) and worse satisfaction with breast (p depression, body image, sexuality, and health-related quality of life. This single-center study shows that mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction may protect breast cancer patients from a period of psychosocial distress, poor body image, and diminished sexual well-being compared with those waiting for delayed breast reconstruction. In patients who are oncologically eligible and strongly interested in breast reconstruction, efforts should be made to provide immediate breast reconstruction to decrease the interval of psychosocial distress, poor body image, and impaired sexuality.

  5. The psychological treatment of sexual abuse in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Sánchez-Meca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante una revisión meta-analítica, este estudio investigó la eficacia de los tratamientos psicológicos para niños y adolescentes que han sufrido abuso sexual. Los criterios de selección fueron cumplidos por 33 artículos con los que, utilizando el grupo como unidad de análisis, se identificaron 44 grupos de tratamiento y 7 grupos de control. El índice del tamaño del efecto fue el cambio estandarizado entre las medias del pretest y del postest, y se calculó éste por separado para diferentes medidas de resultado (conductas sexualizadas, ansiedad, depresión, autoestima, problemas de conducta y otras medidas. El tamaño del efecto medio para los grupos tratados fue estadística y clínicamente significativo con todas las medidas de resultado. Se obtuvo eficacia diferencial entre los distintos tratamientos para el promedio global, las conductas sexualizadas y los problemas de conducta. En general, los tratamientos cognitivoconductuales centrados en el trauma combinados con terapia de apoyo y algún elemento psicodinámico (e.g., terapia de juego obtuvieron los mejores resultados. Por último, se discuten las implicaciones clínicas y para la investigación futura de nuestros resultados en este campo.

  6. Emotion Language in Trauma Narratives is Associated with Better Psychological Adjustment among Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardecker, Britney M; Edelstein, Robin S; Quas, Jodi A; Cordon, Ingrid M; Goodman, Gail S

    2017-12-01

    Traumatized individuals are often encouraged to confront their experiences by talking or writing about them. However, survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) might find it especially difficult to process abuse experiences, particularly when the abuse is more severe, which could put them at greater risk for mental health problems. The current study examined whether CSA survivors who use emotion language when describing their abuse experiences exhibit better mental health. We analyzed the trauma narratives of 55 adults who, as children, were part of a larger study of the long-term emotional effects of criminal prosecutions on CSA survivors. Abuse narratives were analyzed using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program. We examined whether positive and negative emotion language in participants' abuse narratives were associated with self- and caregiver-reported mental health symptoms and whether these associations differed according to the severity of the abuse. As hypothesized, participants who used more positive and negative emotion language had better psychological outcomes, especially when the abuse was severe. Our findings suggest that survivors of more severe abuse might benefit from including emotion language, whether positive or negative in valence, when describing the abuse.

  7. Tools to assess psychological trauma & its correlates in child sexual abuse: A review & current needs in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapathy, Sujata; Choudhary, Vandana; Sagar, Rajesh

    2017-02-01

    Absence of visible physical symptoms and limited capacity to express trauma directly, pose significant challenges in assessment of its exact nature of trauma and its correlates in child sexual abuse. There are numerous assessment tools however, deciding upon the appropriateness is often challenging in Asian socio-cultural and health care set up. A review would provide a ready reference to the practioner regarding the exact clinically utility of the tools and also would guide them in the direction of culture specific modifications. Computerized databases namely Medline, PsycINFO, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, and Social Sciences Citation Index were used. 52 scales were obtained and analysed in terms of scale characteristics, reference to theory and DSM, and cultural competency. Despite of a wide variety of methods, and newer instruments, many of the traditionally used techniques of child's internal thinking and emotional assessment appear outdated while reviewing the recent theories of CSA related psychological trauma. An integrated format, incroporating child-parent-clinicain rating, with multiple domain speciafic items and verbal and non-verbal tasks, is the current need in the Asian region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An investigation of the clinical use of the house-tree-person projective drawings in the psychological evaluation of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, L; Farrar, A R; Valle, M; Ghahary, N; Panella, M; DeGraw, D

    2000-05-01

    Identification and evaluation of child sexual abuse is an integral task for clinicians. To aid these processes, it is necessary to have reliable and valid psychological measures. This is an investigation of the clinical validity and use of the House-Tree-Person (HTP) projective drawing, a widely used diagnostic tool, in the assessment of child sexual abuse. HTP drawings were collected archivally from a sample of sexually abused children (n = 47) and a nonabused comparison sample (n = 82). The two samples were grossly matched for gender, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status. The protocols were scored using a quantitative scoring system. The data were analyzed using a discriminant function analysis. Group membership could not be predicted based on a total HTP score.

  9. Sexual life of Japanese patients with erectile dysfunction taking phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors: an Internet survey using the Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scales-Short Form questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Akira; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Soda, Tetsuji; Takezawa, Kentaro; Okuda, Hidenobu; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Nonomura, Norio; Miyagawa, Yasushi

    2014-08-01

    To investigate details of sexual function of erectile dysfunction in Japanese patients taking phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. A Japanese version of the Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scales-Short Form was used to carry out a nationwide survey using the Internet. A total of 556 erectile dysfunction patients (age 30-70 years) who had been prescribed a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor and had attempted sexual intercourse within the past 6 months were included in this survey. Scores were compared in relation to the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors most frequently taken within the past 6 months. In the subdomains of self-confidence and spontaneity of the Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scales-Short Form, scores for vardenafil and tadalafil were significantly higher than those for sildenafil. In the subdomain of time concern of the Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scales-Short Form, the score for tadalafil was significantly lower than that for others. Our findings support the hypothesis that Japanese patients with erectile dysfunction have high sexual self-confidence, spontaneity and low time concerns when taking tadalafil. These characteristics of tadalafil could be associated with high patient satisfaction and high preference. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  10. Psychological injury in victims of child sexual abuse: A meta-analytic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara G. Amado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the effects of child/adolescent sexual abuse (CSA/ASA on the victim's probability of developingsymptoms of depression and anxiety, to quantify injury in populational terms, to establish theprobability of injury, and to determine the different effects of moderators on the severity of injury, a meta-analysis was performed. Given the abundant literature, only studies indexed in the scientific databaseof reference, the Web of Science, were selected. A total of 78 studies met the inclusion criteria: they measuredCSA/ASA victimization or injury in terms of depression or anxiety symptoms, measured the effectsize or included data for computing them, and provided a description of the sample. The results showedthat CSA/ASA victims suffered significant injury, generally of a medium effect size and generalizable, victimshad 70% more probabilities of suffering from injury, and clinical diagnosis was significantly a moreadequate measure of injury than symptoms. The probability of chronic injury (dysthymia was greaterthan developing more severe injury, i.e., major depressive disorder (MDD. In the category of anxiety disorders,injury was expressed with a higher probability in specific phobia. In terms of the victim's gender,females had significantly higher rates of developing a depressive disorder (DD and/or an anxiety disorder(AD, quantified in a 42% and 24% over the baseline, for a DD and AD respectively. As for the type of abuse,the meta-analysis revealed that abuse involving penetration was linked to severe injury, whereas abusewith no contact was associated to less serious injury. The clinical, social, and legal implications of the resultsare discussed.

  11. The Importance of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Psychological Child’s Painting Drawings in the Diagnosis of Sexual Abuse Towards the Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuzhan Ekizoğlu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The sexual abuse of children causes both physical and emotional effects and in this kind of cases, anogenital trauma findings are investigated primarily. In a sexual action that involves the child, although it’s not commonly seen, sexually transmitted diseases and the interpretation of the abuse related painting related that made by child during the physiological evaluation are important in the diagnosis. For this purpose a 13 year old boy who is diagnosed as anogenital herpes is reported with the paintings that are made by him during the physiological evaluation this support abuse. Key words: Sexually abused children, herpes simplex virus, human figure drawings

  12. Physical, psychological, sexual, and systemic abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa: Mapping the evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Winters

    Full Text Available Children with disabilities (CWDs are at a higher risk of being maltreated than are typical children. The evidence base on the abuse of children with disabilities living in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited but the problem is particularly acute in East Africa. We don't know the types of evidence that exist on this topic. This problem is compounded by the fact that key indicators of disability, such as reliable prevalence rates, are not available currently. This paper addresses this serious problem by mapping the existing evidence-base to document the coverage, patterns, and gaps in existing research on the abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa. An evidence map, following systematic review guidelines, was conducted and included a systematic search, transparent and structured data extraction, and critical appraisal. Health and social science databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Taylor&Francis, Web of Science, and SAGE were systematically searched for relevant studies. A substantive grey literature search was also conducted. All empirical research on the abuse of CWDs in East Africa was eligible for inclusion: Data on abuse was systematically extracted and the research evidence, following critical appraisal, mapped according to the type of abuse and disability condition, highlighting gaps and patterns in the evidence-base. 6005 studies were identified and screened, of which 177 received a full-text assessment. Of these, 41 studies matched the inclusion criteria. By mapping the available data and reports and systematically assessing their trustworthiness and relevance, we highlight significant gaps in the available evidence base. Clear patterns emerge that show a major data gap and lack of research on sexual abuse of children with disabilities and an identifiable lack of methodological quality in many relevant studies. These make the development of a concerted and targeted research effort to tackle the abuse of

  13. Physical, psychological, sexual, and systemic abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa: Mapping the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Niall; Langer, Laurenz; Geniets, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Children with disabilities (CWDs) are at a higher risk of being maltreated than are typical children. The evidence base on the abuse of children with disabilities living in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited but the problem is particularly acute in East Africa. We don't know the types of evidence that exist on this topic. This problem is compounded by the fact that key indicators of disability, such as reliable prevalence rates, are not available currently. This paper addresses this serious problem by mapping the existing evidence-base to document the coverage, patterns, and gaps in existing research on the abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa. An evidence map, following systematic review guidelines, was conducted and included a systematic search, transparent and structured data extraction, and critical appraisal. Health and social science databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Taylor&Francis, Web of Science, and SAGE) were systematically searched for relevant studies. A substantive grey literature search was also conducted. All empirical research on the abuse of CWDs in East Africa was eligible for inclusion: Data on abuse was systematically extracted and the research evidence, following critical appraisal, mapped according to the type of abuse and disability condition, highlighting gaps and patterns in the evidence-base. 6005 studies were identified and screened, of which 177 received a full-text assessment. Of these, 41 studies matched the inclusion criteria. By mapping the available data and reports and systematically assessing their trustworthiness and relevance, we highlight significant gaps in the available evidence base. Clear patterns emerge that show a major data gap and lack of research on sexual abuse of children with disabilities and an identifiable lack of methodological quality in many relevant studies. These make the development of a concerted and targeted research effort to tackle the abuse of children with

  14. The Scope of Sexual, Physical, and Psychological Abuse in a Bedouin-Arab Community of Female Adolescents: The Interplay of Racism, Urbanization, Polygamy, Family Honor, and the Social Marginalization of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study of the abuse--especially sexual--of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these…

  15. Sexual Regret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to answer three key questions about explaining the emotion of regret in the domain of casual sex: Are sex differences in sexual regret robust or attenuated in a highly egalitarian culture? What proximate psychological variables might explain sex differences in sexual regret? And what accounts for within-sex variation in experiences of sexual regret about casual sex. We conducted a study of 263 Norwegian students (ages 19–37 who reported how much they regretted having either engaged in, or passed up, their most recent casual sexual experience. Sex differences in sexual regret are not attenuated in this sexually egalitarian culture. The study revealed sex differences in worries about pregnancy, STIs, and reputation; however, these predictors did not succeed in accounting for the sex differences in regret engaging in casual sex. Sexual gratification and socio-sexual orientation both predicted the sex differences in casual sex regret. In contrast, only socio-sexual orientation attenuated the sex difference in regret passing up casual sex. Predictors of within-sex variation in casual sexual regret included worry about sexual reputation, experienced gratification during the encounter, and socio-sexual orientation. Discussion focuses on implications for the psychological design features of this relatively neglected emotion.

  16. A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandermeersch, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    P. Vandermeersch, A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture? In: F. VAN DE VIJVER & G. HUTSCHEMAEKERS (ed.), The Investigation of Culture. Current Issues in Cultural Psychology, Tilburg, Tilburg University Press, 1990, 43-58.

  17. Sexual Risk Behaviors, Sexual Offenses, and Sexual Victimization Among Homeless Youth: A Systematic Review of Associations With Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerde, Jessica A; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2016-12-01

    The use of substances among youth experiencing homelessness is an important issue in the context of addressing the developing burden of morbidities arising due to illness, injury, physical and mental health concerns, and low rates of health care utilization among this population group. Youth experiencing homelessness report engaging in and being victimized by various forms of sexual behavior. Of interest in this systematic review were published studies investigating substance use in its association with perpetration of sexual offenses, engagement in sexual risk behavior, or experience of sexual victimization among homeless youth. A systematic search of 12 psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "sex crimes," "sexual victimization," "survival sex," "rape," "drugs," and "substance abuse." Twenty-three studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. No studies statistically examining substance use in its association with perpetrating sexual offenses were located. Findings showed substance use was generally associated with sexual risk behavior or sexual victimization; however, it remains unclear whether substance use precedes or follows these behaviors and experiences. It is possible substances are used by homeless youth as a means of coping with sexual risk behavior and victimization. Implications of the review findings in relation to prevention and intervention approaches aimed to decrease the incidence and severity of health concerns among homeless youth are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Comparative Effectiveness of Antidepressant Medication versus Psychological Intervention on Depression Symptoms in Women with Infertility and Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Pasha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Fertility loss is considered as a challenging experience. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of antidepressant medication and psychological intervention on depression symptoms in women with infertility and sexual dysfunctions (SD. Materials and Methods This randomized, controlled clinical trial study was completed from December 2014 to June 2015 in Babol, Iran. Of the 485 participants, 93 were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to psychosexual therapy (PST, bupropion extended-release (BUP ER at a dose of 150 mg/d, and control (no intervention groups. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI was completed at the beginning and end of the study. Duration of study was eight weeks. Statistical analyses were performed by using paired-test and analysis of covariance. Results The mean depression score on the BDI was 22.35 ± 8.70 in all participants. Mean BDI score decreased significantly in both treatment groups (PST: P<0.0001, BUP: P<0.002 from baseline to end of the study, whereas intra-individual changes in BDI score were not significant in the control group. The decrease in mean BDI score was greater with PST compared to BUP treatment (P<0.005 and the control group (P<0.0001. The PST group showed greater improvement in depression levels (severe to moderate, moderate to mild in comparison with the two other groups (P<0.001. Drug treatment was well tolerated by the participants in the BUP group. Conclusion PST can be a reliable alternative to BUP ER for relieving depression symptoms in an Iranian population of women with infertility and SD (Registration number: IRCT2015042721955N2.

  19. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Counselling Psychology Trainees’ Experiences of Working with Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmour, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Background: In view of the estimation that around one fifth of individuals abused in childhood will develop psychological difficulties which require professional input there is a high chance that counselling psychology trainees will encounter adult survivors in their practice. Counselling psychology trainees are continuously faced with philosophical and practical challenges when they seek to integrate psychological models into their practice. The critical literature review discusses the conte...

  20. BIENESTAR PSICOLÓGICO Y ORIENTACIÓN DE ROL SEXUAL EN ADOLESCENTES/ PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AND SEX ROLE ORIENTATION IN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Barra Almagiá*

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEl objetivo del presente estudio fue examinar la relación entre el bienestar psicológico, las dimensiones de masculinidady feminidad y las categorías de rol sexual (masculino, femenino, andrógino, indiferenciado en adolescentes. Los participantesfueron 231 estudiantes de ambos sexos de Concepción (Chile con edades entre 12 y 21 años, quienes respondieroninstrumentos referentes a bienestar psicológico y rol sexual. Se encontró que el bienestar psicológico presentaba mayorrelación con la masculinidad que con la feminidad, que los adolescentes categorizados como andróginos informaron mayorbienestar psicológico que los categorizados como indiferenciados y que no había diferencias de género en el nivel generalde bienestar. Se proponen diversos factores para explicar los resultados obtenidos.ABSTRACTThis study examined the relationships between psychological well-being, masculinity, feminity and the sex role orientationcategories (masculine, feminine, androgynous, undifferentiated in 231 male and female students, 12 to 21 years old, fromConcepción (Chile. Individuals completed measures of psychological well-being and sex role. Results showed thatpsychological well-being had higher relationships with masculinity than with feminity. Participants with androgynousorientation reported higher psychological well-being than did undifferentiated. There was no gender difference in generalpsychological well-being. Diverse explanatory factors for obtained results are proposed.

  1. Garnering an in-depth understanding of men who have sex with men in Chennai, India: a qualitative analysis of sexual minority status and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Closson, Elizabeth F; Thomas, Beena; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Theresa; Menon, Sunil; Safren, Steven A

    2015-10-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are a hidden and largely understudied population, and have an HIV prevalence 17 times higher than that of the general Indian population. Experiences of social marginalization and negative psychosocial conditions occur concurrent to HIV risk among Indian MSM. To better understand the contextual variables driving HIV risk and inform intervention development, five focus groups (n = 46) and nine key informant interviews were conducted with 55 MSM in Chennai in 2010. NVivo software was used to code the transcripts, and data were analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis methodology. Participants described sources of psychological distress and low self-worth related to gender non-conformity and sexual minority status. These included stigma from society, pressure to marry, lack of familial acceptance, childhood sexual abuse, and the imperative to keep sexual minority status a secret. Participants' personal evaluations revealed that self-acceptance may be an important resilience factor that can shield these psychosocial and HIV risk factors. In promoting health-seeking behavioral changes for Indian MSM at an individual level, our findings point to the potential strength of strategies that focus on self-acceptance of one's sexual minority identity to foster better psychosocial and overall health.

  2. Caracterización Psicológica de un Grupo de Delincuentes Sexuales Chilenos a través del Test de Rorschach Psychological Profile of Chilean Sexual Offenders through the Rorschach Inkblot Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jiménez Etcheverría

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Es relevante profundizar en las motivaciones que determinan la conducta criminal e intentar una aproximación a la personalidad de quienes delinquen. Así, este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la posible existencia de características psicológicas comunes en un grupo de delincuentes sexuales. Con este propósito se utilizó el Test de Rorschach y, como criterio de comparación, datos de individuos con comisión de un delito de hurto y/o robo y datos estadísticos del Rorschach de referencia nacional. Se encontraron diferencias significativas con ambos grupos, lo que sugiere la existencia de un conjunto de características psicológicas en los delincuentes sexuales que les serían propias y les distinguirían tanto del resto de la población como del resto de los delincuentes comunes.It is relevant to deepen our understanding of the motivations of criminal behaviour and to try to understand such personalities. The objective of this study was to determine if there were underlying psychological characteristics common to sexual offenders. For this purpose, the Rorschach Inkblot test was used and, as comparative parameters, individuals with histories of theft and Chilean national Rorschach statistics. Significant differences were found in both groups, which suggest the existence of underlying common psychological traits in sexual offenders. These traits make them stand out from the general population and from other common delinquents.

  3. Perfil psicológico e comportamental de agressores sexuais de crianças Psychological and behavioral profile of sexual abusers of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Pádua Serafim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A prática de abuso sexual contra crianças é um fenômeno universal. Ela ocorre em todos os tempos e lugares e atinge todas as classes socioeconômicas. Enquanto a maioria dos estudos investiga as vítimas, os poucos estudos sobre agressores se concentram principalmente em dados demográficos. OBJETIVO: Apresentar revisão da literatura quanto à classificação de molestadores sexuais de crianças, de acordo com o perfil psicológico e comportamental. MÉTODOS: Revisão da literatura e discussão do material utilizado. RESULTADOS: Apresentação das principais classificações dos criminosos sexuais contra crianças, identificando as tipologias mais utilizadas com suas possíveis contribuições à psiquiatria e à psicologia forense. CONCLUSÃO: A utilização do perfil psicológico em crimes sexuais é de fundamental relevância no contexto médico-legal, mas ainda carece de bases científicas mais sólidas.BACKGROUND: Sexual violence against children is a universal problem, occurring since ever, everywhere and regardless the socio-economic status. Whist most studies have been dedicated to the victim of such crime, there is little information regarding their perpetrators, which is largely limited to the description of demographic data. OBJECTIVE: Review the literature regarding children sexual aggressors according to psychological and behavioral profile. METHODS: Literature review and discussion. RESULTS: Presentation of the major classifications of offenders, pointing out the most widely used ones and the implications to forensic psychiatry and psychology. CONCLUSION: The psychological and behavioral profile use is very important for medico-legal practice, but still needs better scientific validation.

  4. Statistical and Epistemological Issues in the Evaluation of Treatment Efficacy of Pharmaceutical, Psychological, and Combination Treatments for Women's Sexual Desire Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Meredith L; Basson, Rosemary; Brotto, Lori A; Graham, Cynthia A; Stephenson, Kyle R

    2017-04-03

    We were grateful to receive responses from Leonore Tiefer, Anita Clayton and Robert Pyke, and Richard Balon and Robert Segraves, to our commentary (Brotto et al., 2016 ) on Pyke and Clayton ( 2015 ). These commentaries raise a number of substantive statistical and epistemological issues relating to the evaluation of treatment efficacy in pharmaceutical, psychological, and combination treatments for sexual desire difficulties and caution researchers to remain mindful of sources of bias as we do the science. In what follows, we discuss each of these issues in turn in hopes of encouraging our field to adopt the highest possible standards when carrying out and interpreting treatment outcome research.

  5. [The role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and psychological distress among sexual-minority youths (SMY): a moderated mediation approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Félix-Antoine; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sexual-minority youths (SMY) report high rates of psychological distress such as depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation (Burton, Marshal, Chisolm, Sucato et Friedman, 2013; Williams & Chapman, 2011). Several studies confirm that the poor mental health outcomes are partly related to their high likelihood of experiencing homophobic victimization (Blais, Gervais, Boucher, Hébert & Lavoie, 2013; Taylor & Peter, 2011; Hughes, McCabe, Wilsnack, West & Boyd, 2010; Chamberland, Richard & Bernier, 2013). Whereas the development of a positive sexual minority identity is crucial for the mental health of SMY (Chamberland, Richard & Chevrier, 2011; Rosario, Schrimshaw & Hunter, 2011; Luhtanen, 2002), the victimization they experience put them at risk of internalizing societal homophobia and heterosexism (Meyer, 2003; Hatzenbuehler, 2009). It is important to identify variables that may influence the impact of distal and proximal factors that impact SMY's mental health.Objectives The objectives of this paper are 1) to document different forms of homophobic victimization experienced by SMY, according to gender and age, and 2) to test the potential moderating effect of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization, internalized homophobia and psychological distress.Method Data come from 228 SMY aged 14 to 22 years old recruited through online means as part of the Quebec Youth's Romantic Relationships Survey. The impact of homophobic victimization, parental support, and internalized homophobia on psychological distress is explored by a linear regression model including moderated mediation effects.Results Results show the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress as well as indirect significant relationship through internalized homophobia. The moderated mediation analysis also confirms the moderating role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress. Thus

  6. Review of Randomized Controlled Trials on Psychological Interventions in Child Sexual Abuse: Current Status and Emerging Needs in the Indian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Vandana; Satapathy, Sujata; Sagar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a critical, psychologically traumatic and sometimes life-threatening incident often associated with sequel of adverse physical, behavioral, and mental health consequences. Factors such as developmental age of the child, severity of abuse, closeness to the perpetrator, availability of medico-legal-social support network and family care, gender stereotypes in the community complicate the psychological trauma. Although the research on the effects of CSA as well as psychological intervention to reduce the victimization and promote the mental health of the child is in its infancy stage in India, the global research in the past three decades has progressed much ahead. A search was performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar from 1984 to 2015 and only 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) out of 96 potentially relevant studies were included. While nonspecific therapies covering a wide variety of outcome variables were prominent till 1999s, the trend changed to specific and focused forms of trauma-focused therapies in next one-and-half decades. Novel approaches to psychological interventions have also been witnessed. One intervention (non-RCT) study on effects on general counseling has been reported from India.

  7. Psychosocial Impairment as a Possible Cause of Sexual Dysfunction among Young Men with Mild Androgenetic Alopecia: A Cross-sectional Crowdsourcing Web-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Caparros-Del Moral, Isabel; Gomez-Avivar, Pilar; Alcalde-Alonso, Mercedes; Jimenez-Moleon, Jose Juan

    2016-04-01

    Finasteride 1 mg, one of the main treatments for male androgenetic alopecia (MAGA), may produce sexual dysfunction, but young men with MAGA could experience high psychosocial impairment because of changes in body image. Dissatisfaction with body image has been linked to an increase in problems with sexual function. To date no study has considered the possible effect of psychological impairment on sexual function of men with MAGA. Aim of our study was to explore the effect of psychosocial impairment produced by hair loss on the sexual function of men with MAGA. Cross-sectional design. In total, 190 men with MAGA ranging 18-40 years old were recruited from an Internet online community. Participants completed an online survey comprising the SKINDEX-29 and the Massachusetts General Hospital Sex Functioning Questionnaire. Individuals with MAGA and moderate to severe psychosocial impairment had a higher risk of sexual dysfunction - adjusted odds ratio 2.1 (1.2-4.0; P=0.02) - compared with subjects with mild to absent impairment. Sexual desire and sexual arousal were the most affected elements of sexual response, but an increase in erectile dysfunction and reduced global satisfaction were also reported. We present the first study exploring the influence of MAGA psychosocial impairment on sexual function. Men between 18 and 40 years of age with moderate to severe MAGA psychosocial morbidity were found to have an increased risk of sexual dysfunction. Assessment of psychological morbidity and sexual function could be critical in patients with MAGA, particularly when considering treatment with finasteride.

  8. Lower Psychological Well-Being and Excessive Sexual Interest Predict Symptoms of Compulsive Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material Among Adolescent Boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Baams, Laura; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.

    Although a growing body of literature addresses the effects of young people's use of sexually explicit Internet material, research on the compulsive use of this type of online content among adolescents and its associated factors is largely lacking. This study investigated whether factors from three

  9. Lower Psychological Well-Being and Excessive Sexual Interest Predict Symptoms of Compulsive Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material Among Adolescent Boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; van Den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Baams, Laura; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2016-01-01

    Although a growing body of literature addresses the effects of young people's use of sexually explicit Internet material, research on the compulsive use of this type of online content among adolescents and its associated factors is largely lacking. This study investigated whether factors from three

  10. It isn't all just fun and games: Collegiate participation in extracurricular activities and risk for generalized and sexual harassment, psychological distress, and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A

    2016-12-01

    Collegiate extracurricular activities, despite their benefits, may place students at an increased risk for experiencing harassment. This study utilizes multiple waves of data from an online longitudinal survey to examine how participation in college activities (intramural sports, fraternities/sororities, school clubs) relates to experiences of sexual and generalized harassment and outcomes (psychological distress, heavy alcohol use) among undergraduates (N = 1852, 58.6% female, 57.4% White) in the Midwestern United States. Activity participation was related to harassment, but the pattern depended on the activity, harassment type, and sex. Fraternity/sorority involvement was associated with generalized harassment, whereas school club involvement was linked to both generalized and sexual harassment. Female intramural athletes were at an increased risk to experience both harassment types. In addition to direct relations, activity participation was indirectly linked to future psychological distress (depression, anxiety) and heavy alcohol use via harassment. Implications for intervention with this college student population are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Critical reflections on evolutionary psychology and sexual selection theory as explanatory account of emergence of sex differences in psychopathology: comment on Martel (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L

    2013-11-01

    Martel (2013) proposed a metatheory, based on sexual selection theory and broad evolutionary psychological (EP) principles, to account for well-known sex differences in the emergence of common behavioral and certain internalizing disorders across childhood and adolescence, respectively. In this comment, I first enumerate several strengths and then offer 2 primary critiques about Martel's proposal. Martel provides an exceptional, integrative review that organizes several disparate literatures that hold promise to enhance understanding of such sex differences. At the same time, I raise critical questions regarding EP generally, and sexual selection theory specifically, as the metatheoretical framework chosen to bind together these different influences and mechanisms as drivers of the sex difference in different psychopathologies. Indeed, it is not clear that EP is necessary--nor does it provide unique explanatory power-to explicate the emergence of sex differences in internalizing and externalizing disorders among youth. Moreover, Martel's EP-based proposal pertains to adolescent-onset depression and social phobia but does not provide an explanation for known sex differences in other common childhood-onset and early adult-onset anxiety disorders. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  12. Student Reviews of Selected Current Articles in Adolescent Psychology: Academics, Developmental Issues, Psychopathology, Sexual Behavior, Substance Abuse, and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, H. Lee, Ed.; Sirmans, Amanda, Ed.

    Critical annotations of articles written in 1988 or 1989 and selected from "PSYCHSCAN: Clinical Psychology" are presented in this document. The annotations were written by college students in an undergraduate adolescent psychology class. The annotations are clustered under the following topics: (1) academics, including learning disabilities, sleep…

  13. An Online Assessment of Personality, Psychological, and Sexuality Trait Variables Associated with Self-Reported Hypersexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Michael T; Cantor, James M; Lykins, Amy D

    2017-04-01

    "Hypersexual" behavior represents a perceived inability to control one's sexual behavior. To investigate hypersexual behavior, an international sample of 510 self-identified heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual men and women completed an anonymous online self-report questionnaire battery. In addition to age and sex (male), hypersexual behavior was related to higher scores on measures of sexual excitation, sexual inhibition due to the threat of performance failure, trait impulsivity, and both depressed mood and anxiety. In contrast, hypersexual behavior was related to lower scores on sexual inhibition due to the threat of performance consequences. Higher neuroticism and extraversion, as well as lower agreeableness and conscientiousness, also predicted hypersexual behavior. Interestingly, interactions among the variables assessed did not significantly predict hypersexual behavior, suggesting the possible existence of multiple and predominantly independent taxa for various persons reporting hypersexual behavior. Core personality features may also be present in persons with hypersexual behavior. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  14. Sexual counseling in elderly couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Johannes; Platano, Giacomo; Tschudin, Sibil; Alder, Judith

    2008-09-01

    Sexual health of the elderly has long been either a taboo or a non-medical life style luxury issue. Increasing longevity of women and men, reconceptualization of sexual health as part of general health, and the development of drugs aiming at improvement of sexual function have contributed to a change in the attitude of the elderly and the medical community, thus increasing the demands for help. To respond to these demands, caregivers need to be informed about the statistics concerning the sex life of the elderly, need to understand the biological, psychological, interaction and social factors that determine the sexual health of the aging population, need a comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic approach, taking into account the specific characteristics of the aging male, female, and the couple. Diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm integrating the biopsychosocial profile of the aging male and female and the interaction characteristics of the couple. Review of the literature, analysis of cases, and review of multidisciplinary case discussions of elderly couples with sexual problems consulting the Division of Sexual Medicine at the University Hospital of Basel. Sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent in the aging population, with hypoactive sexual desire disorder and pain disorders being the most frequent in women, and premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction being the most frequent in men. The specific characteristics of the sexual ill health in elderly couples are the interactions of physical and mental morbidity including therapies, multidimensional sexual dysfunctions in both partners, dyssynchrony in personal development and sexual scripts, and a longstanding fixed interactional pattern with rigid "sexual roles." The diagnostic approach has to integrate sexological descriptive diagnoses of both partners, their biopsychosocial profile, and the couple's history and interactional pattern. From this diagnostic framework, caregivers must design specific

  15. Lifetime Prevalence Rates and Overlap of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Dating Abuse Perpetration and Victimization in a National Sample of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Espelage, Dorothy L; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Korchmaros, Josephine D; Boyd, Danah

    2016-07-01

    National, epidemiological data that provide lifetime rates of psychological, physical, and sexual adolescent data abuse (ADA) perpetration and victimization within the same sample of youth are lacking. To address this gap, data from 1058 randomly selected U.S. youth, 14-21 years old, surveyed online in 2011 and/or 2012, were weighted to be nationally representative and analyzed. In addition to reporting prevalence rates, we also examined the overlap of the six types of ADA queried. Results suggested that ADA was commonly reported by both male and female youth. Half (51 %) of female youth and 43 % of male youth reported victimization of at least one of the three types of ADA. Half (50 %) of female youth and 35 % of male youth reported at least one type of ADA perpetration. More male youth reported sexual ADA perpetration than female youth. More female youth reported perpetration of psychological and physical ADA and more reported psychological victimization than male youth. Rates were similar across race and ethnicity, but increased with age. This increase may have been because older youth spent longer time in relationships than younger youth, or perhaps because older youth were developmentally more likely than younger youth to be in abusive relationships. Many youth reported being both perpetrators and victims and/or involved in multiple forms of ADA across their dating history. Together, these findings suggested that interventions should acknowledge that youth may play multiple roles in abusive dyads. Understanding the overlap among ADA within the same as well as across multiple relationships will be invaluable to future interventions aiming to disrupt and prevent ADA.

  16. Feminist Identity Styles, Sexual and Non-Sexual Traumatic Events, and Psychological Well-Being in a Sample of Polish Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Justyna

    2015-08-19

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relations between the development of a feminist identity and effects of traumatic stress in a sample of Polish women. The distinction between non-sexual and sexual traumatic events was made. It was hypothesized that individuals scoring high on the Synthesis and Active Commitment scales of the Feminist Identity Development Model would present a higher self-esteem and lower level of depression as compared with individuals having low scores on those scales and high scores on the Passive Acceptance scale. It was also assumed that the relation between the feminist identity styles and self-esteem and depression would be stronger in women who had experienced sexual traumatic events as compared with those who had experienced other kinds of trauma. A total of 273 women participated in the questionnaire research. Regression analyses were performed to test the interaction model, and the obtained results support all of the hypotheses. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Psychological distress, drug use, sexual risks and medication adherence among young HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men: exposure to community violence matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine; Voisin, Dexter R; Bouris, Alida; Schneider, John

    2016-07-01

    In the USA, Black males are disproportionately affected by community violence and HIV. The aim of this study was to assess whether exposures to community violence are related to psychological distress, drug use, sexual risk behaviors, and medication adherence among a sample of HIV-positive young Black men who had sex with men (YBMSM). Data are from 98 YBMSM ages 18-29 years recruited from Chicago who completed measures on demographics, exposures to community violence, psychological distress, drug use, condomless anal intercourse, and medication adherence. Rates of exposure to community violence were high and youth reported victimization and witnessing numerous types of violence in their lifetime. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, models indicate that YBMSM reporting higher levels of exposure to community violence had significantly higher rates of condomless anal intercourse in the previous 6 months (AOR: 5.33, 95%CI: 1.38-20.55). Additionally, exposure to community violence was positively associated with psychological distress, hard drug use, and use of marijuana as a sex drug. Adherence to HIV antiretroviral medication was negatively associated with community violence (AOR: 0.36, 95%CI: 0.13-0.97). Rates of exposure to community violence are especially high in urban communities. Overall findings suggest that treatment, intervention, and programmatic approaches that include initiatives to address exposure to community violence might correlate with better health-related outcomes for HIV-positive YBMSM.

  18. A qualitative evaluation of online chat groups for women completing a psychological intervention for female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucker, Alice; McCabe, Marita P

    2014-01-01

    Because of the embarrassment that can surround female sexual dysfunctions, online interventions offer an anonymous and private treatment alternative. Recently, an online cognitive-behavioral treatment for female sexual dysfunctions was evaluated. Although significant improvements were observed in sexual functioning, the treatment was primarily a behavioral intervention because of difficulties with engaging participants in cognitive therapy over e-mail. To address this limitation, the use of chat groups was incorporated into a new online treatment for female sexual dysfunctions-the PursuingPleasure program. Thirty-eight women participated in the PursuingPleasure chat groups. The goals of the chat groups were to address and overcome challenges as women progressed through PursuingPleasure and to create a social support network where group therapy processes could be used. The chat groups aimed to address misunderstandings, monitor changes, and receive feedback. A qualitative analysis of the chat groups revealed that they helped to facilitate the cognitive-affective aspects of the program, as well as fulfill their other intended functions. This study demonstrates how the use of chat groups in the online treatment of female sexual dysfunctions is a useful addition to Internet-based treatment. Feedback suggests that the chat groups were one of the most helpful aspects of the program, although a small group of women reported finding the groups unhelpful.

  19. Psychiatric Morbidity among Subjects with Leprosy and Albinism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with high psychological morbidity.[6]. Yamaguchi et al. ... leprosy on the well-being of adolescent children. The authors .... link between the physical and psychological health allows ..... Secondary school. 5. 8 .... psychiatric morbidity in dermatological patients. Indian J. Dermatol 2003;48:137‑41. 10. Verma KK ...

  20. Female sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  1. Female sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality.

  2. Psicologia jurídica e tomada de decisão em situações envolvendo abuso sexual infantil Forensic psychology and decision making in situations involving child sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátula Pelisoli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma revisão teórica sobre a tomada de decisão em situações de alegação de abuso sexual infantil. Profissionais de saúde mental em todo o mundo necessitam tomar decisões acerca da veracidade dessas alegações, sendo muitas julgadas erroneamente. Este artigo apresenta o abuso sexual como um problema mundial, destaca as relações entre a psicologia e a justiça e aborda estudos que demonstram as influências de variáveis como vieses cognitivos, crenças prévias e gênero sobre as decisões tomadas por profissionais que avaliam tais casos. É fundamental que os profissionais reconheçam essas variáveis para que erros sobre esses julgamentos possam ser evitados e para que se aumente a qualidade das avaliações psicológicas forenses. A necessidade de experiência e conhecimento científico é abordada como possível contribuinte para a qualificação dos psicólogos que atuam na área e é sugerida a realização de pesquisas sobre o tema no contexto brasileiro.This paper presents a theoretical review on decision making in situations of alleged child sexual abuse. Mental health professionals around the world need to make decisions about the veracity of these claims, many being wrongly judged. This article presents sexual abuse as a global problem, highlights the relationship between psychology and justice, and approaches studies that demonstrate the influences of variables such as cognitive biases, prior beliefs and gender on the decisions taken by professionals who assess these cases. It is essential that professionals recognize these variables so that errors on these trials could be avoided and the quality of forensic psychological assessments could be increased. The need for experience and scientific knowledge is discussed as a possible contributor to the qualification of psychologists working in this area and researches on this subject within the Brazilian context are suggested.

  3. Cumulative childhood trauma and psychological maladjustment of sexually abused children in Korea: mediating effects of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Oh, Kyung Ja

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the mediating effects of emotion regulation on the association between cumulative childhood trauma and behavior problems in sexually abused children in Korea, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Data were collected on 171 children (ages 6-13 years) referred to a public counseling center for sexual abuse in Seoul, Korea. Cumulative childhood traumas were defined on the basis of number of traumas (physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, neglect, traumatic separation from parent, and sexual abuse) and the severity and duration of traumas. Children were evaluated by their parents on emotion regulation using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems using the Korean-Child Behavior Checklist. SEM analyses confirmed the complete mediation model, in which emotion dysregulation fully mediates the relationship between cumulative childhood traumas and internalizing/externalizing behavior problems. These findings indicate that emotion regulation is an important mechanism that can explain the negative effects of cumulative childhood traumas and that there is a need to focus on emotion regulation in sexually abused children exposed to cumulative trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Do Coping Styles Moderate or Mediate the Relationship between Internalized Heterosexism and Sexual Minority Women's Psychological Distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test tenets of both minority stress and lesbian feminist/sexual identity development theories by examining the potential moderating and mediating roles of individual coping styles (i.e., problem-solving and avoidant coping) in the relationship between internalized heterosexism and lesbian and bisexual (sexual…

  5. Assessing sexual function in obese women preparing for bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos; Panayiotopoulos, Spiros; Iconomou, Gregoris; Karaivazoglou, Katerina; Matzaroglou, Charalambos; Vagenas, Konstantinos; Kalfarentzos, Fotis

    2006-08-01

    Obesity has become a modern epidemic, increasingly affecting the general population worldwide. Obese people are vulnerable to a variety of co-morbidities, including cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, osteoarthritis, diabetes, cancer and psychiatric conditions, that not only diminish life expectancy but also impair quality of life. Research has shown that obesity is further linked to sexual dysfunction, although relevant studies are limited and further investigation is needed. We assessed the sexual function of 60 obese women scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery and 50 healthy controls matched by age, education and marital status. All participants were administered the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Additionally, participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Obese women reported significant impairment on most domains of sexual function, including sexual desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and satisfaction, compared to healthy controls. The observed sexual impairment was associated with BMI but was not entirely attributed to the presence of anxiety or depression. Obese women complain of significant sexual impairment. Obesity-related sexual dysfunction appears to be a complex condition linked to a range of social, psychological and biological factors. Clinicians are encouraged to evaluate routinely sexual function in this patient population in order to detect those who are in need of intervention.

  6. [A survey instrument for evaluating psychological variables and risky sexual behavior among young adults at two university centers in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña López, Julio A; Robles Montijo, Susana; Rivera Icedo, Blanca M

    2007-11-01

    To measure the psychometric attributes of a survey instrument designed to evaluate historical and context variables that lead to high-risk sexual behaviors among a sample of university students in Mexico. Cross-sectional study of a sample of 1 346 university students in Mexico: 784 from the Sonora State Center for Higher Education in Hermosillo, Sonora, or 33.2% of its total enrollment; and 562 from the National Autonomous University of Mexico, at Tlalnepantla campus in Mexico State, or 23.5% of its total enrollment. The study took place in Hermosillo during the month of October 2006 and in Tlalnepantla from January to March 2006. The survey had 11 questions on sociodemographics, 7 on risky sexual behaviors, 22 on related motives, 8 on social context, and 6 on physical status prior to sexual relations. The survey was evaluated in terms of how well the questions were understood, its conceptual validity, and reliability. The final version of the survey instrument was composed of 44 questions. The reliability analysis produced an overall Cronbach alpha value of 0.821, taking into account all the variables combined and grouped by factor. Three factors were found that together accounted for 38.36% of the total variance: reasons for not using a condom in the first sexual relationship or throughout life, reasons for inconsistent use of a condom with a casual sex partner, and willingness to become sexually active and to engage in casual sex. The psychometric attributes of this survey instrument were found to be satisfactory. Those interested in using this instrument should become familiar with the theoretical model on which it is based, since understanding the results depends on properly defining the historical and context variables, and their interaction.

  7. Psychological Symptoms are Associated with Both Abstinence and Risky Sex among Men with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol T.; Solomon, Sondra E.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Varni, Susan E.; Hodge, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual abstinence is often deemed the “safest behavior” in HIV prevention, but is sometimes associated with psychological symptoms (e.g., depression) just as sexually risky behavior is. This study explored whether sexual abstinence and risky sexual behavior among men with HIV are associated with similar constellations of psychological symptoms. Prior research has not addressed this issue because abstinent people often are not included in the sample, or when data are analyzed, researchers combine abstinent people with sexually active people who practice safer sex. Past research also neglects the co-morbidity of psychological symptoms. A latent class analysis of the psychological symptoms (assessed with the Symptom Check List 90-R; Derogatis, 1994) of 140 men with HIV, mostly from rural New England, revealed three latent classes; men who were asymptomatic on all symptom domains (28.8%), men who were symptomatic on all domains (34.1%), and men who were symptomatic on internalizing domains (37.1%), but were asymptomatic on the externalizing symptoms of hostility and paranoid ideation. Logistic regression showed that sexual behavior during the past 90 days of men in the all symptom class and the internalizing symptoms class was similar, with abstinence and risky sex predominating, and safer sex being relatively uncommon for both classes. The sexual behavior of men in the asymptomatic class differed, with safer sex being relatively more likely to occur compared to the symptomatic classes. These findings suggest that the psychological symptom profile of sexually abstinent people places them at risk for inconsistent condom use should they engage in sexual behavior. PMID:25614050

  8. Effects of psychoeducational interventions on sexual functioning, quality of life and psychological outcomes in patients with gynaecological cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ka Ming; H Chan, Carmen W; Chan, Joanne C Y

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of gynaecological cancer and the effects of related treatment have adverse effects on sexual functioning, quality of life and psychological outcomes of patients. Psychoeducational interventions are recommended for use in clinical areas for gynaecological cancer patients to improve patient outcomes. However, the evidence for its effectiveness is far from conclusive. Moreover, such interventions are still scarce or even absent in most countries. To identify the best available evidence related to the effectiveness of psychoeducational interventions for gynaecological cancer patients on sexual functioning, quality of life and psychological outcomes. Randomized controlled trials.Adult women who with a primary gynaecological cancer confirmed by pathology test.Psychoeducational interventions that aimed at enhancing the acceptance of the disease and recovery from the illness and treatment among gynaecological cancer patients.Sexual functioning, quality of life and psychological outcomes including, but not limited to, anxiety, depression, distress, adjustment to illness, mood, self-esteem, uncertainty, and coping. Thirty electronic bibliographic databases in English and Chinese were searched from their inception to April 2012. The Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for experimental studies was used to critically appraise the methodological quality of studies. Two reviewers extracted and summarized the details of included studies using the Joanna Briggs Institute data extraction form independently. Quantitative results of comparable studies were pooled in statistical meta-analysis. Standardized mean difference and 95% confidence interval were calculated for the summary effect of continuous data measured by different scales. Results were presented in narrative form where statistical pooling was not appropriate. A total of 11 randomized controlled trials involving 975 gynaecological cancer patients were included. Only four studies were

  9. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nicole A; Wilcox, Gisela; Walker, Karen Z; Ashton, John F; Cox, Marc B; Stojanovska, Lily

    2008-01-01

    To examine the estrogenic and androgenic activity of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) and its effect on the hormonal profile and symptoms in postmenopausal women. Fourteen postmenopausal women completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. They received 3.5 g/day of powered Maca for 6 weeks and matching placebo for 6 weeks, in either order, over a total of 12 weeks. At baseline and weeks 6 and 12 blood samples were collected for the measurement of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin, and the women completed the Greene Climacteric Scale to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms. In addition, aqueous and methanolic Maca extracts were tested for androgenic and estrogenic activity using a yeast-based hormone-dependent reporter assay. No differences were seen in serum concentrations of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin between baseline, Maca treatment, and placebo (P > 0.05). The Greene Climacteric Scale revealed a significant reduction in scores in the areas of psychological symptoms, including the subscales for anxiety and depression and sexual dysfunction after Maca consumption compared with both baseline and placebo (P Maca as no physiologically significant activity was observed in yeast-based assays employing up to 4 mg/mL Maca extract (equivalent to 200 mg/mL Maca). Preliminary findings show that Lepidium meyenii (Maca) (3.5 g/d) reduces psychological symptoms, including anxiety and depression, and lowers measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women independent of estrogenic and androgenic activity.

  10. Sexual prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M; McLemore, Kevin A

    2013-01-01

    Despite shifts toward greater acceptance in U.S. public opinion and policy, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people remain widely stigmatized. This article reviews empirical research on sexual prejudice, that is, heterosexuals' internalization of cultural stigma, manifested in the form of negative attitudes toward sexual minorities and same-sex desires and behaviors. After briefly reviewing measurement issues, we discuss linkages between sexual prejudice and religion, gender, sexuality, and related variables, and consider how the cultural institutions encompassing these domains create a social context within which individual expressions of prejudice can meet important psychological needs. These include needs for securing social acceptance, affirming values that are central to one's self-concept, and avoiding anxiety and other negative emotions associated with threats to self-esteem. We conclude by discussing factors that may motivate heterosexuals to reduce their own sexual prejudice, including intergroup contact, as well as avenues for future empirical inquiry.

  11. Critical Reflections on Evolutionary Psychology and Sexual Selection Theory as Explanatory Account of Emergence of Sex Differences in Psychopathology: Comment on Martel (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Martel (2013) proposed a meta-theory, based on sexual selection theory and broad evolutionary psychological (EP) principles, to account for well-known sex differences in the emergence of common behavioral and certain internalizing disorders across childhood and adolescence, respectively. This Comment first enumerates several strengths and then offers two primary critiques about Martel’s proposal. Martel provides an exceptional, integrative review that organizes several disparate literatures that hold promise to enhance understanding of such sex differences. At the same time, I raise critical questions regarding EP generally, and sexual selection theory specifically, as the meta-theoretical framework chosen to bind together these different influences and mechanisms as drivers of the sex difference in different psychopathologies. Indeed, it is not clear that EP is necessary—nor does it provide unique explanatory power—to explicate the emergence of sex differences in internalizing and externalizing disorders among youth. Moreover, Martel’s EP-based proposal pertains to adolescent-onset depression and social phobia but does not provide an explanation for known sex differences in other common childhood-onset and early adult-onset anxiety disorders. PMID:24188421

  12. Sexual Activity and Urological Morbidities Among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan,. 1Department of Obstetrics and ... the measures of quality-of-life among the geriatrics. In women, it may manifest as stress, ..... Ann Med Health Sci Res 2014;4:206‑9. Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of ...

  13. Sexual dysfunction--a silent hurt: issues on treatment awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegunloye, Olushola Abejide; Ezeoke, Grace Gwabachi

    2011-05-01

    The magnitude of sexual health problems and availability of treatment options in the local environment is yet to be documented; thus, there is an urgent need for this, as sexual dysfunction may be a real social and psychological problem, needing urgent attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and pattern of sexual health seeking behavior, among secondary school teachers in Ilorin, Kwara State Nigeria. 450 teachers were invited to complete an anonymous self-administered sociodemographic questionnaire, as well as three other instruments measuring human sexuality and general mental health status. The survey instrument used were the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5), a modified Sexual Activity Questionnaire (SAQ), and the General Health Questionnaire -30 (GHQ -30). Result were compared with established normative data, and validated cut-off scores that were available. A total of 417 teachers (93%) responded to the questionnaire. The following prevalence rates were found: female anorgasmia (40%), lubrication failure (30%), dyspareunia (12%), erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and male orgasmic disorder (23% each), loss of sexual desire (24%), sexual life dissatisfaction, and relationship dissatisfaction six months prior to interview (10% each), and GHQ-30 scores were significant in sexual dysfunction in both genders, except for female anorgasmia and premature ejaculation in males. However, a presence of psychiatric morbidity was significantly found in overall sexual life dissatisfaction, as well as relationship dissatisfaction. The pattern of sexual health help-seeking behavior showed that majority (53%) do not seek treatment. Of these 53%, many (44%) gave the reason that they thought it transient, ignorance of hospital treatment service (30%), and fear of stigma (26%); also, among those that sought treatment, 46% chose alternative medicine. The prevalence of sexual dysfunctions found in this study

  14. A psicologia redescobrirá a sexualidade? La psicologia¿ redescubrirá la sexualidad? Will psychology rediscover sexuality?

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Paiva

    2008-01-01

    O senso comum indica o psicólogo como o profissional mais preparado para trabalhar com a sexualidade. Raramente, entretanto, formamos psicólogos para lidar com a vida sexual em contextos que não sejam clínicos. Esse artigo sintetiza uma crítica às abordagens "sexológicas", dominantes no século XX, argumentando que a abordagem "construcionista", ao desconstruir a heteronormatividade e a subordinação da mulher como naturais, validou-se como paradigma alternativo de grande relevância para a pesq...

  15. The scope of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse in a Bedouin-Arab community of female adolescents: The interplay of racism, urbanization, polygamy, family honor, and the social marginalization of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman

    2006-03-01

    This is an exploratory study of the abuse-especially sexual-of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these forms of abuse. : A self-administered survey that measured demographic characteristics and psychological abuse was distributed to 217 female high-school students (aged 14-18 years). Sexual and physical abuse were measured via the Finkelhor's scale [Finkelhor, D. (1979). Sexually victimized children. New York: Free Press]. Sixty-nine percent of the participants (n=149) reported no sexual abuse experiences, 16% reported one or two experiences, 11% reported three or four, and 4% reported more than four. Most participants indicated that they had been physically abused at least once by their father (37.1%), mother (43.7%), or siblings (44%) during the previous month. More than 50% of the participants reported being psychologically abused by members of their immediate families. Mother's age and closeness to mother significantly predicted physical abuse, and marital satisfaction and mother's age significantly predicted psychological abuse. This study addresses a topic that has never before been fully investigated--the maltreatment of females in a conservative, tribal Arab community. Although this was an exploratory study, the results attest that female abuse is a serious social problem in this community, and that the rate of abuse exceeds that of other Palestinian groups. These findings demonstrate an immediate need for professional intervention and prevention to address this problem.

  16. Taking a sexual history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presswell, N; Barton, D

    2000-06-01

    Significant social changes have resulted in increased exposure to sexual issues and greater tolerance of sexual behaviours such as premarital sex and homosexuality. These changes are not universal, however. We live in a multicultural society with widely varying sexual mores and frequent clashes of culture across generations. The media has contributed to unrealistic expectations about body image and sexual performance while at the same time increasing awareness of sexually transmitted diseases. Consequently, patients seek help with these issues and will discuss them freely if the general practitioner is comfortable in the area of sexual health. This article outlines an approach to sexual assessment and ways of addressing the barriers faced in taking a sexual history. All sexual disorders involve biological, psychological and social factors. General practice can provide a safe, non-judgmental environment for the patient to divulge sexual difficulties and have these dealt with holistically. However, this takes time, a significant obstacle in current practice.

  17. An epidemiological study of sexual disorders in south Indian rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana Rao, T S; Darshan, M S; Tandon, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality is an important aspect of the personality of an individual and influences psychological, physical and social well-being of both men and women. It is a paradox, that in the country where 'kamasutra' (by Vatsyayana) took birth, there is a lack of research publications and sexuality related literature; hence the current study was conducted, to estimate the prevalence and association of sexual disorders with various socio-demographic variables, in the selected rural population. Subjects who were sexually active and fulfilled the study criteria were administered Arizona Sexual Experience Scale as screening tool for the presence of sexual problems. Those who were found to be having sexual problems were interviewed further using appropriate questionnaires. 21.15% of the male subjects were diagnosed to have one (or more) sexual disorder. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction was found to be 15.77%, male hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) 2.56%; premature ejaculation was found to be prevalent in 8.76% of the male subjects. Around 14% of the female subjects were diagnosed to have female sexual disorders. Prevalence of female arousal dysfunction was found to be 6.65%, female HSDD 8.87%, female anorgasmia 5.67%, female dyspareunia 2.34% and female sexual aversion disorder was found to be prevalent in 0.37% of the female subjects. This study concluded that one in five males and one in seven females were suffering from one (or more) sexual disorder. Improving the training of undergraduate medical and nursing students in sexuality related issues, increasing trained individuals in sexual medicine by starting new courses, providing sex education to the general population using media and merging sexual health care with primary care, are likely to play a significant role in addressing the increasing sexual health morbidity.

  18. An epidemiological study of sexual disorders in south Indian rural population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Darshan, M. S.; Tandon, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sexuality is an important aspect of the personality of an individual and influences psychological, physical and social well-being of both men and women. It is a paradox, that in the country where ‘kamasutra’ (by Vatsyayana) took birth, there is a lack of research publications and sexuality related literature; hence the current study was conducted, to estimate the prevalence and association of sexual disorders with various socio-demographic variables, in the selected rural population. Materials and Methods: Subjects who were sexually active and fulfilled the study criteria were administered Arizona Sexual Experience Scale as screening tool for the presence of sexual problems. Those who were found to be having sexual problems were interviewed further using appropriate questionnaires. Results: 21.15% of the male subjects were diagnosed to have one (or more) sexual disorder. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction was found to be 15.77%, male hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) 2.56%; premature ejaculation was found to be prevalent in 8.76% of the male subjects. Around 14% of the female subjects were diagnosed to have female sexual disorders. Prevalence of female arousal dysfunction was found to be 6.65%, female HSDD 8.87%, female anorgasmia 5.67%, female dyspareunia 2.34% and female sexual aversion disorder was found to be prevalent in 0.37% of the female subjects. Conclusion: This study concluded that one in five males and one in seven females were suffering from one (or more) sexual disorder. Improving the training of undergraduate medical and nursing students in sexuality related issues, increasing trained individuals in sexual medicine by starting new courses, providing sex education to the general population using media and merging sexual health care with primary care, are likely to play a significant role in addressing the increasing sexual health morbidity. PMID:26124520

  19. Sexual revictimization: the role of sexual self-esteem and dysfunctional sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bruggen, Lisa K; Runtz, Marsha G; Kadlec, Helena

    2006-05-01

    Disproportionately high rates of sexual revictimization have been noted among former victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), yet researchers have yet to determine the source of this apparent vulnerability to reexperience sexual violence. This study explores this issue by examining sexual self-esteem, sexual concerns, and sexual behaviors among 402 university women. Compared to women without a history of CSA (n = 348), women with a history of CSA (n = 54) had lower sexual self-esteem, poorer sexual adjustment, and were 2 times more likely to have experienced sexual assault since the age of 14 years. Structural equation modeling indicated that the relationship between child abuse (i.e., CSA and child psychological maltreatment) and sexual revictimization was partially mediated by sexual self-esteem, sexual concerns, and high-risk sexual behaviors. This study emphasizes the need for further research on child maltreatment, revictimization, and women's sexual adjustment.

  20. Sexual Function and Health-Related Quality of Life in Long-Term Rectal Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Virginia; Grant, Marcia; Wendel, Christopher S.; McMullen, Carmit K.; Bulkley, Joanna E.; Herrinton, Lisa J.; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Krouse, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexual dysfunction is a treatment sequela in rectal cancer (RC) survivors. Differences in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) may occur based on ostomy status (permanent ostomy versus anastomosis). Aim To describe alterations in sexual function and HRQOL based on ostomy status in long-term (≥ 5 years) RC survivors. Methods RC survivors with an ostomy (N=181) or anastomosis (N=394) were surveyed using validated HRQOL and functional status tools. We compared sexuality outcomes between the ostomy and anastomosis group, and reported differences adjusted for clinical and demographic characteristics. Qualitative data from one open-ended question on survivors’ greatest challenges since their surgery were analyzed to explore sexuality, symptoms, and relationships. Main Outcome Measures Whether sexually active, satisfaction with sexual activity, and select sexual dysfunction items from the Modified City of Hope Quality of Life-Ostomy (mCOH-QOL-O). Results Survivors with a permanent ostomy were more likely to have been sexually inactive after surgery if it occurred before year 2000, and experience dissatisfaction with appearance, interference with personal relationships and intimacy, and lower overall HRQOL. Female RC survivors with an ostomy were more likely to have problems with vaginal strictures and vaginal pain after surgery that persisted at the time of survey (5+ years later). Radiation treatment, tumor stage, soilage of garments in bed, and higher Charlson-Deyo co-morbidity scores were negatively associated with outcomes. Six qualitative themes emerged: loss of and decreased sexual activity; psychological issues with sexual activity, physical issues with sexual activity; partner rejection; ostomy interference with sexual activity; and positive experiences with sexuality. Conclusions Sexual dysfunction is a common long-term sequela of RC treatment, with more problems observed in survivors with a permanent ostomy. This warrants widespread

  1. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic difficulties more often than not coexist, suggesting an integration of phases. Sexual dysfunction can result from a wide variety of psychological and physiological causes including derangements in the levels of sex hormones and neurotrensmitters. This review deals with the biology of different phases of sexual function as well as implications of hormones and neurotransmitters in sexual dysfunction

  2. Perceived stress, external locus of control, and social support as predictors of psychological adjustment among female inmates with or without a history of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Kia; Renk, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing number of women who are incarcerated across the United States, the current study investigated the relationships among female inmates' perceptions of their own stress, external locus of control (LOC), social support adequacy, and various aspects of psychological functioning. Generally, female inmates with a self-reported history of childhood sexual abuse did not differ from their nonabused counterparts on the variables of interest. Results suggested that female inmates' perceptions of higher stress, a higher degree of external LOC, and inadequate social support correlated with greater symptoms of depression and hopelessness as well as lower self-esteem. In regression analyses, stress and social support were significant predictors for depression and anxiety. In contrast, stress was the only significant predictor of hopelessness and self-esteem. Finally, none of the predictors examined here was significant in the prediction of traumatic stress. Overall, findings suggested the importance of stress and social support in the prediction of female inmates' adjustment, specifically their symptoms of depression and anxiety.

  3. HIV prevention interventions to reduce sexual risk for African Americans: the influence of community-level stigma and psychological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Allecia E; Dovidio, John F; Ballester, Estrellita; Johnson, Blair T

    2014-02-01

    Interventions to improve public health may benefit from consideration of how environmental contexts can facilitate or hinder their success. We examined the extent to which efficacy of interventions to improve African Americans' condom use practices was moderated by two indicators of structural stigma-Whites' attitudes toward African Americans and residential segregation in the communities where interventions occurred. A previously published meta-analytic database was re-analyzed to examine the interplay of community-level stigma with the psychological processes implied by intervention content in influencing intervention efficacy. All studies were conducted in the United States and included samples that were at least 50% African American. Whites' attitudes were drawn from the American National Election Studies, which collects data from nationally representative samples. Residential segregation was drawn from published reports. Results showed independent effects of Whites' attitudes and residential segregation on condom use effect sizes. Interventions were most successful when Whites' attitudes were more positive or when residential segregation was low. These two structural factors interacted: Interventions improved condom use only when communities had both relatively positive attitudes toward African Americans and lower levels of segregation. The effect of Whites' attitudes was more pronounced at longer follow-up intervals and for younger samples and those samples with more African Americans. Tailoring content to participants' values and needs, which may reduce African Americans' mistrust of intervention providers, buffered against the negative influence of Whites' attitudes on condom use. The structural factors uniquely accounted for variance in condom use effect sizes over and above intervention-level features and community-level education and poverty. Results highlight the interplay of social identity and environment in perpetuating intergroup disparities

  4. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in small amounts, after removal of the ovaries* Psychological and Emotional Mental distress: stress, anxiety, depression, eating disorders, past sexual abuse, fear of unwanted pregnancy Relationship issues: boredom, anger, ...

  5. Prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse among a nationwide sample of Arab high school students: association with family characteristics, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim A; Ohaeri, Jude U; Gado, Osama M

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were first, to assess the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse among a stratified random sample of Kuwaiti high school students and second, to explore the association of child abuse with parental characteristics, subjective quality of life (QOL), self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. We assessed the students for experience of abuse by their mothers, fathers, and others, using standard scales on psychological, physical and sexual abuse. They also completed the short version of the World Health Organization's QOL Instrument; the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and a scale for anxiety and depression. We obtained responses from 4,467 students (49% boys), mean age 16.9 years. About 18, 15, and 18%, indicated that for at least six times in the past 12 months, they experienced psychological abuse by their mothers, fathers and others, respectively. The corresponding figures for lifetime experience were similar. The respective figures for experience of physical abuse during the past 12 months were 4.3, 5.8, and 6.4%. For lifetime experience, the corresponding figures were 3.4, 5.3, and 5.8%. The girls had significantly higher physical/psychological abuse scores. There were no significant gender differences in the prevalence of sexual attacks (8.6%) and someone threatening the subjects with sex (5.9%). The prevalence of someone sexually exposing themselves to the students (15.3%) and unwanted touching of sexual parts (17.4%) was significantly higher among the boys. Over one-third of those abused had experienced multiple abuses. Child abuse was significantly associated with parental divorce, diminished QOL and self-esteem, high scores on anxiety/depression, and difficulty with studies, and social relationships. In the regression analysis involving only the abuse indices, psychological abuse by mothers was the most important predictor of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem (11.5-19.7% of variance). Good quality of

  6. Sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This document provides information on issues related to sexual assault in the US. The specific topics briefly discussed are incidence, psychological impact, assault assessment kits, medical evaluation, legal concerns, counseling, follow-up, and special circumstances. It is stated that a woman who is sexually assaulted would experience intense anxiety, anger or fear, and rape-trauma syndrome. The physician evaluating the victim should be aware of the state statutory requirements, which may involve the use of kits for gathering evidence. Informed consent from the victim and meticulous physical examination of the entire body should be performed with photographs and drawings made in the injured areas. In counseling, the physician should talk with the patient concerning the degree of the injury and the probability of infection or pregnancy. There is a need for patients to be reevaluated concerning her medical and psychological status.

  7. Idade e distúrbios psicológicos: variáveis associadas à disfunção sexual no período pós-infarto Age and psychologic disorders: variables associated to post-infarction sexual dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Janussi Vacanti

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: As informações sobre a disfunção sexual (DS após o infarto do miocárdio (IM são esparsas, principalmente em nosso meio e em relação aos seus preditores. Avaliamos pacientes de ambos os sexos, com vida sexual ativa e sem disfunção sexual prévia ao IM, para estudar a incidência de DS após o IM, e identificar as possíveis variáveis associadas às mesmas. MÉTODOS: Estudamos consecutivamente 43 pacientes, utilizando questionários estruturados para diagnóstico das DS e dos distúrbios psicológicos (DP. Analisamos a influência dos fatores de risco clássicos para aterosclerose, dos DP e do uso de medicamentos na ocorrência de DS até o sexto mês após o IM. RESULTADOS: Após o IM, 91% dos pacientes reiniciaram a atividade sexual. Vinte e seis pacientes (60% apresentaram disfunção sexual até o 6º mês da alta hospitalar (9 com ejaculação precoce, 15 com disfunção erétil e 20 com desejo sexual hipoativo. Os pacientes com DP apresentaram disfunção sexual em maior freqüência que aqueles sem DP (100%x47%, p=0,001. O grupo com disfunção sexual era significativamente mais velho que o grupo sem disfunção sexual: 53±8,9 anos versus 47±8,7 anos (p=0,04. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes apresentaram significativa redução da freqüência da atividade sexual e elevada incidência de DS após o infarto agudo do miocárdio. A presença de DP e a idade mais elevada estiveram associadas à maior incidência de DS após o infarto.OBJECTIVE: Data on sexual disfunction (SD after myocardial infarction (MI are sketchy, especially in our community and in regard to predictors. Both males and females, with active sexual life and no sexual dysfunction prior to MI were evaluated in order to investigate SD incidence after MI, as well as to identify the possible variables associated. METHODS: Forty-three patients were studied consecutively, through structured questionnaires for SD and psychological disorders (PD diagnosis. The

  8. Health-related quality of life, psychological well-being, and sexual function in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia after prostatic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Pierre W C; Wang, Wenru; Jiang, Ying; Zakir, Hussain Abdul Salam; Toh, Poh Choo; Lopez, Violeta; He, Hong-Gu

    2015-11-01

    Patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may receive prostatic surgery due to severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This study aimed to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL), psychological well-being, and sexual function of patients with BPH after prostatic surgery and identify the predictors of HRQoL among this group of patients. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study. A convenience sample of 94 participants was recruited from a urology center in a tertiary public hospital in Singapore. The 12-item Short Form Health Survey version 2 (SF-12v2), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and 5-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) were used to measure the study variables. Compared to the general population norms and the findings of similar studies conducted in western countries, this group of patients reported poorer physical health but better mental health as assessed by SF-12v2. Despite the prostatic surgery, over a quarter of the patients experienced moderate LUTS, and 13.8% experienced severe erectile dysfunction. Multiple linear regression analysis identified that LUTS (B=-0.51, p=0.02) and maximum flow rate (B=-0.23, p=0.02) predicted poor physical health, accounting for 45.9% of variance, while HADS-Anxiety (B=-1.07, psexual dysfunction. Special attention should be given to those patients with severe LUTS who have a low maximum flow rate or have anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A study of geriatric depression and co- morbidities among primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depression in the elderly is very common but diagnostic rates among primary care physicians is poor. This is attributed to both patient and physician related factors. The patient factors include co-morbidities, aging and psychological mindedness which is culture related. Generally, there's paucity of psychological complaints ...

  10. [Physiology and physiopathology of sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzin, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    From desire to orgasm, sexuality, in women and men, is underpinned by a complex organic, psychological and emotional function. Sexual dysfunction encompasses diverse aetiologies, including chronic diseases and iatrogenesis resulting from medication or surgery. The effects of a chronic disease can have an impact on all phases of the sexual response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Sexual Assaults on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Laura Lynn; Kerner, Jim; Herring, Susan D.

    2017-01-01

    Recent sexual assault scandals have brought public attention to the fact that there is a need for colleges to aggressively address the issues surrounding sexual assaults on their campuses. Studies indicate that one in four women are being sexually assaulted each year, but few women report this. Women suffer major psychological issues when…

  12. Sexuality, intimacy, and gynecological cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijmar Schultz, W.C.M.; van de Wiel, H.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    On a psychological level, not all changes in sexual functioning following gynecological cancer treatment automatically lead to sexual problems or dysfunctions. Whether sexual dissatisfaction occurs will also depend on personal factors, social factors, and the context in which these negative changes

  13. The "Right" Sexuality for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

  14. Hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity.......Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity....

  15. Women's History of Sexual Abuse, Their Sexuality, and Sexual Self-Schemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meston, Cindy M.; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Heiman, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors assessed 48 female survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) and 71 female control participants using measures of adult sexual function, psychological function (i.e., depression and anxiety), and sexual self-schemas. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether differences existed between women with and without a…

  16. Long-term sexual function in survivors of vulvar cancer: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazewinkel, Menke H.; Laan, Ellen T. M.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Fons, Guus; Burger, Matthé P. M.; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To assess sexual function of vulvar cancer survivors who received extensive and less extensive treatment. To explore associations between sexual function and patient, disease, treatment, and psychological variables. Methods. Sexual function (Female Sexual Function Index, FSFI), mental

  17. New morbidity of the young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present phase of epidemiological transition, the most frequent causes of youth morbidity are disorders in reproductive health, mental disorders and injuries which are not life threatening. This, so-called new youth morbidity, is most often caused by their risky behavior, which in the field of sexuality often leads to unplanned pregnancies and abortions, as well as sexually transmitted infections. Misuse of tobacco, alcohol and narcotics, which is most commonly started in adolescence, has an unfavorable short-term and long-term influence on the psycho-physical health of the young. All research, in the world and in our country, indicate gradual yet constant growth of sexual activity of the youth and the age decrease of its starting point, especially when girls are in question. Due to insufficient maturity and inadequate knowledge and consciousness on the necessity of protecting reproductive health, sexual behavior of young people can often be characterized as insufficiently responsible and not supplemented with the usage of adequate protective measures. The result is frequently abortion, which terminates 90% of unplanned and unwanted pregnancies in this age. This creates health and psychosocial risks, as well as giving birth in adolescence which is contrary to the modern health concepts that giving birth should not be performed too early, while the young are still developing. A significant increase in the frequency of sexually transmitted diseases is also present, to which the youth are especially susceptible due to the specific development period in which they are in. A serious medical and sociopathological problem of contemporary society represents the greater and greater misuse of psychoactive substances among the young people, with a tendency of decreasing the average age they are consumed for the first time, as well as the use of drugs and alcohol. With the increase of the anti-smoking campaign and restrictive measures in highly

  18. Sexual abuse of boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Sharon M

    2005-01-01

    Sexual abuse in childhood can disable self-esteem, self-concept, relationships, and ability to trust. It can also leave psychological trauma that compromises a boy's confidence in adults. While some boys who willingly participate may adjust to sexual abuse, many others face complications, such as reduced quality of life, impaired social relationships, less than optimal daily functioning, and self-destructive behavior. These problems can respond to treatment if detected. In this paper, we examine the prevalence, characteristics, psychological consequences, treatment, and coping patterns of boys who have been sexually abused and their failure to disclose abuse unless asked during a therapeutic encounter. Nurses have a responsibility to detect the clues to sexual abuse, diagnose the psychological consequences, and advocate for protection and treatment. Computerized literature search of the Medline and PsychInfo literature and books on sexual abuse of boys. Psychological responses to abuse such as anxiety, denial, self-hypnosis, dissociation, and self-mutilation are common. Coping strategies may include being the angry avenger, the passive victim, rescuer, daredevil, or conformist. Sexual abuse may precipitate runaway behavior, chronic use of sick days, poor school or job performance, costly medical, emergency and or mental health visits. In worst cases, the boy may decide that life is not worth living and plan suicide. The nurse has a key role to play in screening, assessing, and treating sexual abuse children.

  19. Morbidity and GH deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Laursen, Torben; Green, Anders

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate morbidity in Denmark in all patients with GH deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: Morbidity was analyzed in 1794 GHD patients and 8014 controls matched on age and gender. All records in the GHD patients were studied and additional morbidity noted. Diagnoses and dates of admissions were...... identified in the National Patient Registry. Lag time until first admission was used as a measure of morbidity. Patients were divided into childhood onset (CO) and adult onset (AO), discriminated by an age cut-off of 18 years at onset of GHD. METHOD: Sex- and cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) in CO and AO...... GHD compared with controls. RESULTS: Total morbidity was significantly increased in the GHD patients. HR for CO males: 3.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7-3.7), CO females: 3.2 (95% CI: 2.6-3.9), AO males: 2.9 (95% CI: 2.6-3.2), and AO females: 3.2 (95% CI: 2.8-3.6). In 18 out of 20 chapters from...

  20. Sexual disorders in infertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischmann, Tewes H

    2010-05-01

    Sexuality and the desire for a child are strongly interconnected. The same applies to sexual disorders and the unfulfilled desire for a child. This article indicates the relations between sexual disorders and the unfulfilled desire for a child and outlines the potential effects of diagnostics and treatment in the context of reproductive medicine on the couples' sexuality. A research drive was undertaken in well-established medical and psychological literature database with the keywords "infertile" or "infertility" and "sexual dysfunction" or "sexual satisfaction." Sexual dysfunctions (of organic or of psychic origin) as a cause of involuntary childlessness are relatively unusual. By contrast (temporary) sexual disorders resulting from diagnosis and medical therapy are common in couples with fertility problems, with women more frequently affected than men. Counseling for couples with the unfulfilled desire for a child should invariably include explicit and appropriately tactful reference to sexuality and (functional) sexual disorders by the therapist.

  1. Testing a Model of Minority Identity Achievement, Identity Affirmation and Psychological Well-Being among Ethnic Minority and Sexual Minority Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    How is social identity related to psychological well-being among minority individuals? Drawing on developmental models of identity formation (e.g., Erikson, 1968) and on Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), we tested a conceptual model examining links between two key aspects of social identity and psychological well-being. We proposed that the association between identity achievement (exploring and understanding the meaning of one’s identity) and psychological well-being is mediate...

  2. Impact of pelvic radiotherapy on female sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Cláudia; Teixeira, Rubina; Teixeira, Tânia; Conde, Sofia; Soares, Paula; Torgal, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    To assess physical and psychological morbidity, sexual functioning and social and relationship satisfaction among women treated with pelvic radiotherapy. Observational (case-control) study of 199 women: 98 submitted to pelvic radiotherapy for the treatment of uterine, rectal or anal cancers and 101 without a personal history of cancer and similar socio-demographic variables. These completed a socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire, and validated measures of psychological health (DASS: Lovibond and Lovibond in Behav Res Ther 33:353-343, 1995), sexual function (FSFI: Rosen et al. in J Sex Marital Ther 26:191-208, 2007), social support (ESSS: Ribeiro in Analise Psicologica 3:547-558, 1999) and relationship satisfaction (IMS: Hudson in The WALMYR assessment scales scoring manual 1992). Women submitted to pelvic irradiation reported a higher rate of adverse physical symptoms in the last month: fatigue 59 versus 25% (p radiotherapy patients, but only reach statistical significance for the stress parameter (6.1 vs. 4.0, p = 0.012). Also these women reported lower scores of satisfaction with social support (57.2 vs. 62.2, p = 0.005) and sexual function (8.5 vs. 13.5, p = 0.049). No statistically significant differences occurred between the two groups regarding scores of relationship satisfaction (20.8 vs. 19.9, p = n.s.). Our results suggested that pelvic radiotherapy had a negative impact on female sexuality. Thus, interventions that would help to reduce this impact need to be designed and integrated into routine clinical practice.

  3. Morbidity from parotid sialography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalk, WWI; Vissink, A; Spijkervet, FKL; Moller, JM; Roodenburg, JLN

    2001-01-01

    Objective. Sialography is commonly used for the diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome, although its invasive nature is often regarded as a serious drawback for routine usage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morbidity and acceptability of parotid sialography using oil-based contrast fluid. Study

  4. Decreasing asthma morbidity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-12-12

    Dec 12, 1994 ... Apart from the optimal use of drugs, various supplementary methods have been tested to decrease asthma morbidity, usually in patients from reiatively affluent socio-economic backgrounds. A study of additional measures taken in a group of moderate to severe adult asthmatics from very poor socio- ...

  5. How Statewide LGB Policies Go From “Under Our Skin” to “Into Our Hearts”: Fatherhood Aspirations and Psychological Well-Being Among Emerging Adult Sexual Minority Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65 % White; 92 % gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men. PMID:24233971

  6. How statewide LGB policies go from ‘‘under our skin’’ to ‘‘into our hearts’’: fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being among emerging adult sexual minority men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A

    2014-08-01

    Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65% White; 92% gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men.

  7. Psychopathological Behaviour and Cognition in Morbid Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, Alba; Calabro, Pasquale Fabio; Lippi, Chita; Jaccheri, Roberta; Vitti, Jacopo; Santini, Ferruccio

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition with high prevalence and multifaceted aetiology, accompanied by an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Obesity has several negative effects on the psychological status, and the severity of psychological disorders correlates with the degree of obesity. Aim of this review is to provide an overview of the literature concerning the psychological distress associated with severe obesity, which contributes to deterioration of the quality of life of affected patients. Dysfunctional eating behaviours and eating disorders, psychiatric comorbidity, cognition and quality of life will be discussed together with the most common drugs that can be employed to treat the various disorders in this peculiar clinical setting. The effects of bariatric surgery will be also reviewed. Obesity is often the result of pathological behaviours implemented in an eating disorder. Inconsistent results have been reported with regard to the effect of severe obesity on cognition, which recognize a multifaceted aetiology. Serotonergic agents play an important role in the management of patients with obesity and binge episodes, fluoxetine being currently a drug approved for this disorder. The efficacy of lorcaserin, a combination of bupropion and naltrexone, or antiepileptic medications (topiramate and zonisamide) has also been proposed. A neuroprotective role of leptin and oestrogen has been hypothesized. Bariatric surgery is a helpful treatment of morbid obese patients, with long-term favourable results on the psychopathological profile. Psychological, psychoeducational and psychopharmacological treatment can facilitate weight loss in morbid obese subjects with psychopathological comorbidities. A precise definition of the mechanisms affecting appetite, satiety and energy balance is expected to foster the development of new effective antiobesity drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Sexual activity and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Lochlainn, Mary; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-08-01

    Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that men and women experience throughout their lives. Research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. Many of these physiological changes are modifiable. There are various therapeutic options available to patients to achieve maximum sexual capacity in old age. This article reviews the prevalence of sexual activity among older adults, the problems these adults encounter with sexual activity, and the role of the health care professional in addressing these problems. The physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women are reviewed, as well as the effect of age-related physical and psychological illness on sexual function. The attitudes and perceptions of the media and general public toward sexual activity and aging are summarized. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany the aging process may help general practitioners and other doctors to give practical and useful advice on sexuality as well as refute the misconception that aging equates to celibacy. A thorough awareness of this aspect of older people's quality of life can raise meaningful expectations for aging patients. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Coping behaviour, posttraumatic growth and psychological well-being in women who experienced childhood sexual abuse / H.J. Walker-Williams

    OpenAIRE

    Walker-Williams, Hayley Janay

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence of sexual abuse suffered by women as children is well documented, both internationally and in South Africa. The life outcomes of women who had experienced childhood sexual abuse are generally reported as adverse, yet some of these survivors manage to overcome the abusive relationship and experience positive changes in themselves and their lives. Emerging trauma literature thus supports a philosophical shift from a pathogenic to a autogenic paradigm in which the focus is on...

  10. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  11. The effects of non-physical peer sexual harassment on high school students' psychological well-being in Norway: consistent and stable findings across studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Mons; Daveronis, Josef; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen

    2018-01-01

    The paper examines how strongly non-physical peer sexual harassment is associated with a wide range of well-being outcomes from symptoms of depression and anxiety to self-esteem and body image. Two large community samples of high school students were analyzed (n = 1384 and n = 1485). Students responded to questionnaires on being subject to non-physical sexual harassment, sexual coercion and forced intercourse, and to well-being indicators ranging from anxiety, depression, self-esteem, body image. Regression analyses suggest that being harassed by peers in a non-physical way was moderately associated with lower levels of well-being over and above the effect of other risk factors. This effect was present for all indicators of well-being. The effect of peer harassment on depressive symptoms was moderated by sex (affected women more) but not by sexual or ethnic minority status. The findings imply that although sticks and stones may break bones, it does seem that derogatory words and other forms of non-physical sexual harassment definitely harm high school students.

  12. Psychological distress and symptoms among patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study was carried out to investigate the manifestations of psychological distress and symptoms among individuals receiving treatment for sexually transmitted diseases and to compare them with individuals who were not suffering from sexually transmitted diseases. Methods: Patients attending the sexually ...

  13. [Adolescence and sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellberg, G

    2006-03-22

    Different pathological states occurring during adolescence, such as anorexia, bulimia and suicidal attempts are seen as possible manifestations of psychological defence mechanisms against the anxiety-provoking bodily changes of puberty and the necessary psychological transformations inherent to adolescence and sexual maturation. The changes of object of desire and some sexual risk behaviours are illustrated by clinical vignettes. Music is suggested to play a role in the mobilisation of emotions, bodily sensations and in the construction of an imaginary world and thus to be a factor--a part from biological and psycho-social ones--influencing the sexual behaviour of adolescents. Some communication techniques are suggested enabling access to adolescents on sexual matters - a domain of increasing public health importance.

  14. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.

  15. Attitudes to sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    Many older people enjoy an active sex life although they are likely to experience problems relating to poor health or lack of understanding from healthcare professionals. Health issues include male sexual dysfunction resulting from medication and conditions such as diabetes, vascular disease or prostatic surgery. Older women may experience urogenital atrophy causing dryness, itching and pain on intercourse. Psychological problems such as depression are also associated with poor sexual function.

  16. Prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in urban hospital outpatients in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. Method. A sample of 1 532 consecutively selected patients (56.4% men and 43.6% women from various hospital outpatient departments were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Results. Based on assessment with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, a measure of psychological distress, 17.1% of the patients (15.5% of men and 19.4% of women had severe psychological distress. Logistic multiple regression identified no income, poor health status, migraine headache and tuberculosis as significant factors associated with severe psychological stress for men. For women the factors identified were lower education, no income, having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease, stomach ulcer and migraine headache. Conclusion. The study found a high prevalence of psychological distress among hospital outpatients in South Africa. Brief psychological therapies for adult patients with anxiety, depression or mixed common mental health problems treated in hospital outpatient departments are indicated. Accurate diagnosis of co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorders in patients with chronic medical illness is essential in understanding the cause and optimising the management of somatic symptom burden.

  17. [Morbidity among forestry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalski, H; Bernacki, K

    1981-01-01

    The past and presently diagnosed diseases (excluding vibration disease and occupational hearing impairment) were analysed in 1105 sawers operating combustion drive mechanic saws and in 295 controls. The greatest rate, both in the sawers and controls, was that of the diseases of respiratory tract, circulatory system and osseo -- articulo -- muscular system, nervous system and sense organs. These constituted 86% of all diseases that afflicted sawers and controls. No specific general morbidity accompanying vibration disease or occupational hearing impairment was found in the sawers exposed to noise and vibration.

  18. Assessment of psychological problems in schoolgoing adolescents of Aligarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafis Faizi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period of physical, nutritional, and sexual transition, also remarkable for the accompanying psychological changes. Worldwide, 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a disabling mental illness. Therefore, knowledge of the prevalence of these disorders can be used to design intervention strategies. The present study was conducted in the 13–15 years' age group schoolgoing adolescents, with the objective to estimate the prevalence of psychological morbidity, employing Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in three different schools of Aligarh, in the 13–15 years' age group, with a prior permission from the school authorities. The study was approved by a multidisciplinary Institutional Ethics and Research Advisory Committee. Results: A total of 1456 students were sampled for the study. The prevalence of psychological morbidity on the basis of total difficulties score was found to be 9.75% (95% confidence interval - 8.33–11.39. The prevalence of emotional, conduct, hyperactivity, peer, and prosocial problems was 5.42%, 5.56%, 3.78%, 4.40%, and 4.26%, respectively. Conclusions: Psychological problems are fairly common in the adolescent age group. Despite the need, there is a dearth studies conducted in this crucial age group in India. Of the studies available, a wide variance is reported either due to the difference in diagnostic tools or due to the types of psychological disorders considered in different researches. For the purpose of uniformity and comparability, SDQ stands as a good option.

  19. Regional anaesthesia and surgical morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, N B; Kehlet, H

    1988-01-01

    This review assesses the results of studies examining the influence of regional anaesthesia on surgical morbidity. Morbidity appears to be reduced when procedures below the umbilicus are concerned, but evidence is less convincing for upper abdominal and thoracic procedures.......This review assesses the results of studies examining the influence of regional anaesthesia on surgical morbidity. Morbidity appears to be reduced when procedures below the umbilicus are concerned, but evidence is less convincing for upper abdominal and thoracic procedures....

  20. Laryngeal morbidity after tracheal intubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M K; Rasmussen, N; Kristensen, M S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation may cause vocal fold damage. The trial was designed to assess laryngeal morbidity comparing the Endoflex(®) tube with a conventional endotracheal tube with stylet. We hypothesised that laryngeal morbidity within the first 24 h after extubation would be lower...... in the shimmer values in that group implies that the Endoflex may be associated with less laryngeal morbidity....

  1. Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration by Court-Ordered Men: Distinctions among Subtypes of Physical Violence, Sexual Violence, Psychological Abuse, and Stalking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey E.; Walters, Mikel L.; Basile, Kathleen C.

    2012-01-01

    This study continues previous work documenting the structure of violence perpetrated by males against their female intimate partners. It assesses the construct validity of a measurement model depicting associations among eight subtypes of perpetration: moderate physical violence, severe physical violence, forced or coerced sexual violence, sexual…

  2. Prevalence and correlates of childhood sexual abuse in adults consulting for sexual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Nicolas; Godbout, Natacha; Hébert, Martine; Goulet, Michel; Bergeron, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse in individuals consulting for sexual therapy and to explore the association between a history of childhood sexual abuse and psychological and couple functioning. A sample of 218 adults receiving sex therapy completed questionnaires assessing depressive and anxious symptomatology, as well as dyadic adjustment. Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse was high in women (56%) and men (37%), and clients with a history of childhood sexual abuse were more likely to report psychological and relationship problems. Findings should aware clinicians of the need to assess sexual trauma and related outcomes.

  3. Sexual desire in a nationally representative Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eplov, Lene; Giraldi, Annamaria; Davidsen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    . In general terms, factors related to seldom having sexual desire were age and social, psychological, and physical distress in both genders. CONCLUSION: This study shows that overall, men have a higher level of sexual desire than women; sexual desire decreases with increasing age; and social, psychological...

  4. Characteristics Associated with Psychological, Physical, Sexual Abuse, Caregiver Neglect and Financial Exploitation in U.S. Chinese Older Adults: Findings from the Population-Based Cohort Study in the Greater Chicago Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqi Dong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the socio-demographic and health related characteristics of elder mistreatment (EM in a community-dwelling older Chinese population. Methods: Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, the PINE study conducted in-person interviews with 3,159 U.S. Chinese older adults aged 60 years and older in the Greater Chicago area from 2011–2013. Participants answered questions regarding psychological, physical and sexual mistreatment, caregiver neglect, and financial exploitation. Definitional approaches for EM subtypes were constructed from least restrictive to most restrictive. Results: The sociodemographic and health-related characteristics associated with EM differed by type of mistreatment and by the operational definition used. Living with fewer people, having been born in countries other than China, poorer health status, and lower quality of life were significantly correlated with physical mistreatment. Only higher education was positively and significantly associated with sexual mistreatment and only poorer health status was consistently correlated with psychological mistreatment among all definitions. Male gender, higher educational levels, higher income, fewer children, and having been in the U.S. for fewer years were significantly correlated with financial exploitation. As for caregiver neglect, older age, having more children, having been in the U.S. for more years, poorer health status, lower quality of life, and worsening health over the past year were consistently correlated with caregiver neglect with different definitions. Conclusions: Prevention and intervention programs on EM should be geared towards specific types of mistreatment. Studies on EM should conduct a thorough analysis to justify the operational definition used.

  5. Fibromyalgia and sexual problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scarpellini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to describe the recent literature concerning sexual dysfunction in fibromyalgic patients. To this end, we used the common online databases PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to June 2012 and searched for the key words fibromyalgia (FM and sexual dysfunction. All the studies examined underlined that FM is strictly associated with sexual dysfunction in women. The major findings observed were related to a decreased sexual desire and arousal, decreased experience of orgasm, and in some studies an increase in genital pain. The psychological aspects, together with the stress related to the constant presence of chronic widespread pain, fatigue and sleep disturbances, are certainly a major factor that adversely affects the sexuality of the patient with FM. Moreover, the drugs most commonly used in these cases may interfere negatively on the sexuality and sexual function of these patients. Therefore, the therapeutic intervention should be targeted and the side effects should be weighed up against the positive effects. It is of the utmost importance to recognise the problem of sexuality and sexual dysfunction in a more complex form of its expression and undertake a multidisciplinary therapeutic intervention to improve the quality of FM patients’ life.

  6. Parricide: Psychiatric morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunjić Bojana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Parricide is defined as a murder of parents by their children; the patricide is murder of father, while matricide is murder of mother. This entity is classified as homicide, but it differs in the fact that victims are parents and the killers are their children. Mostly, it is associated with psychiatric morbidity. OBJECTIVE To describe sociodemographic and psychopathological characteristics of parricide committers and to analyze circumstances of parricide and psychiatric morbidity in order to achieve better recognition and prevention of risks. METHOD This retrospective study included all homicide autopsy records (1991-2005 performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Medical School, University of Belgrade. For further analyses, all parricide records were selected out. The study analyzed all available parameters, which concerned parricide committers, victims and the act itself. Methods of descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS Between 1991 and 2005, there were 948 cases of homicide; of these, 3.5% were parricides. The committers of parricide were on average 31.2±11.9 years old, 87.8% were males, 60.6% with psychiatric symptoms most commonly with schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, personality disorder etc. Victims were on average 63.7±11.9 years old, 54.5% males, and 21.2% had a diagnosed mental illness. CONCLUSION Parricide is a rare kind of homicide accounting for 3% of all homicides. Committers are mostly unemployed males in early adulthood who have mental disorder. The phenomenon of parricide deserves a detailed analysis of the committer (individual bio-psycho-social profile and the environ- mental factors (family, closely related circumstances to enable a precise prediction of the act and prevention of the fatal outcome, which logically imposes the need of further studies.

  7. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Youth Risk Behavior Survey Newest CDC data on teen risk behaviors Publications Check here to find the latest sexual ... Health (Medline Plus) Teen Sexual Health (Medline Plus) Teen Sexual Risk Behaviors Sexual Health and HIV/AIDS [1] WHO working ...

  8. The importance of feeling sexually attractive: Can it predict an individual's experience of their sexuality and sexual relationships across gender and sexual orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita

    2017-10-01

    Limited research exists on the implications of feeling sexually attractive for various aspects of sexuality and sexual relationships. This article examined associations between self-perceived sexual attractiveness and sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction and amount of sexual experience, among both men and women who identified as heterosexual (n = 1017), gay or lesbian (n = 1225) or bisexual (n = 651). Results of the study demonstrated that positive self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness predicted greater sexual esteem, greater sexual satisfaction, a higher frequency of sexual activity with others and a larger number of sexual partners among both men and women who identified as heterosexual, gay, lesbian or bisexual. The findings suggest that feeling sexually attractive may have implications for how an individual experiences their sexuality and sexual relationships regardless of their gender or sexual orientation. The importance of considering an individual's self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness when they present with concerns related to their sexual experiences or relationships, and the potential benefits of educational and therapeutic interventions designed to enhance self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness are discussed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. Psychiatry Morbidity and Mortality Rounds: Implementation and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Stuart; Demaso, David R.; Kemler, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the implementation of psychiatry morbidity and mortality rounds (M&Ms) on the clinical and educational practice in a children's hospital. Methods: Attendees to monthly M&Ms between July 2005 and May 2007 included staff and trainees from psychiatry, psychology, nursing, and social work. Cases were selected based on a…

  10. Psychiatric Morbidity among Subjects with Leprosy and Albinism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Skin, which is the largest organ in the body, carries immense psychological significance. Disfiguring skin disorders may impact negatively on the mental health of individuals. Aim: This study compared the psychiatric morbidity of subjects with leprosy and albinism. Subjects and Methods: One hundred subjects ...

  11. Assessment of Parental Distress and Psychiatric Morbidity Before ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Paediatric operation has been reported to be stressful not only to the child scheduled for operation but also to the parents and family members. In the absence of detailed information about the impending operation both mother and child may manifest preoperative distress and psychological morbidity. This study ...

  12. Testing a model of minority identity achievement, identity affirmation, and psychological well-being among ethnic minority and sexual minority individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Negin; Fingerhut, Adam; Peplau, Letitia A; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A

    2011-01-01

    How is social identity related to psychological well-being among minority individuals? Drawing on developmental models of identity formation (e.g., Erikson, 1968) and on Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), we tested a conceptual model examining links between two key aspects of social identity and psychological well-being. We proposed that the association between identity achievement (exploring and understanding the meaning of one's identity) and psychological well-being is mediated by identity affirmation (developing positive feelings and a sense of belonging to one's social group). Across three studies, including ethnic minority high school students (Study 1), ethnic minority college students (Study 2) and lesbian and gay male adults (Study 3), we found strong support for the model. Results suggest that the process of exploring and understanding one's minority identity can serve as an important basis for developing positive feelings toward and an enhanced sense of attachment to the group, which can in turn confer psychological benefits for minority individuals. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Testing a Model of Minority Identity Achievement, Identity Affirmation and Psychological Well-Being among Ethnic Minority and Sexual Minority Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    How is social identity related to psychological well-being among minority individuals? Drawing on developmental models of identity formation (e.g., Erikson, 1968) and on Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), we tested a conceptual model examining links between two key aspects of social identity and psychological well-being. We proposed that the association between identity achievement (exploring and understanding the meaning of one’s identity) and psychological well-being is mediated by identity affirmation (developing positive feelings and a sense of belonging to one’s social group). Across three studies, including ethnic minority high school students (Study 1), ethnic minority college students (Study 2) and lesbian and gay male adults (Study 3), we found strong support for the model. Results suggest that the process of exploring and understanding one’s minority identity can serve as an important basis for developing positive feelings toward and an enhanced sense of attachment to the group which can in turn confer psychological benefits for minority individuals. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21341900

  14. Sexual Objectification of Women: Clinical Implications and Training Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Carr, Erika R.; Moffitt, Lauren B.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the implications of theory and empirical research on the sexual objectification of women. Drawing largely from the American Psychological Association's 2007 "Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Girls and Women," the 2007 "Report of the American Psychological Association's Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls,"…

  15. Sexual Satisfaction and Sexual Health Among University Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullinax, Margo; Trussell, James; Davidson, J. Kenneth; Moore, Nelwyn B.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the World Health Organization's definition of sexual health as a state of well-being, virtually no public health research has examined sexual well-being outcomes, including sexual satisfaction. Emerging evidence suggests that sexual well-being indicators are associated with more classic measures of healthy sexual behaviors. We surveyed 2168 university students in the United States and asked them to rate their physiological and psychological satisfaction with their current sexual lives. Many respondents reported that they were either satisfied (approximately half) or very satisfied (approximately one third). In multivariate analyses, significant (P sexual guilt, sexual self-comfort, self-esteem (especially among men), relationship status, and sexual frequency. To enhance sexual well-being, public health practitioners should work to improve sexual self-comfort, alleviate sexual guilt, and promote longer term relationships. PMID:21778509

  16. Determinants of common mental disorder, alcohol use disorder and cognitive morbidity among people coming for HIV testing in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayston, Rosie; Patel, Vikram; Abas, Melanie; Korgaonkar, Priya; Paranjape, Ramesh; Rodrigues, Savio; Prince, Martin

    2015-03-01

    To investigate associations between background characteristics (psychosocial adversity, risk behaviours/perception of risk and HIV-related knowledge, perceptions and beliefs) and psychological and cognitive morbidity among people coming for testing for HIV/AIDS in Goa, India. Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data (plus HIV status) from a prospective cohort study. Participants were recruited at the time of coming for HIV testing. Consistent with associations found among general population samples, among our sample of 1934 participants, we found that indicators of psychosocial adversity were associated with CMD (common mental disorder - major depression, generalised anxiety and panic disorder) among people coming for testing for HIV. Similarly, perpetration of intimate partner violence was associated with AUD (alcohol use disorder). Two STI symptoms were associated with CMD, and sex with a non-primary partner was associated with AUD. Suboptimal knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention was associated with low cognitive test scores. In contrast with other studies, we found no evidence of any association between stigma and CMD. There was no evidence of modification of associations by HIV status. Among people coming for testing for HIV/AIDS in Goa, India, we found that CMD occurred in the context of social and economic stressors (violence, symptoms of STI, poor education and food insecurity) and AUD was associated with violence and risky sexual behaviour. Further research is necessary to understand the role of gender, stigma and social norms in determining the relationship between sexual and mental health. Understanding associations between these background characteristics and psychological morbidity may help inform the design of appropriate early interventions for depression among people newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. MODUS OPERANDI OF SEXUAL ABUSERS AND THEIR GROOMING TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Gönültaş, Miraç Burak

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse has detrimental effects on both psychological and sociological development of children. In recent years, attention of sexual abuse and abuser has increased because of missing and abducted children. According to literature, sexual abusers are more opportunist and agile than offenders of other crime types. Academic researches related to sexual absusers aim to understand how to sexual abusers groom children and their methods. Therefore these studies intend to prevent sexual ab...

  18. Adolescent Sexuality and Positive Well-Being: A Group-Norms Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrangalova, Zhana; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    2011-01-01

    The link between adolescent sexual activity and psychological well-being is a controversial issue in developmental psychology. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between three aspects of teenage sexuality (genital sexual experience, age of sexual onset, and number of sex partners) and positive well-being (hedonic, eudaimonic,…

  19. The psychological effects of vasectomy for American men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Larry J.; Houston, B. Kent

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed evidence concerning the psychological effects of vasectomy for American men. Surveys of postoperative sexual behavior and satisfaction and/or happiness were cited, as were data from studies employing clinical interviews and/or psychological tests. (Author/SB)

  20. Co-morbidity in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Skov, Lone

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Psoriasis is a common, chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory disorder. The disease is associated with several co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and psychiatric disorders. It is important to identify and treat these co-morbidities because they have...... a strongly negative effect on the overall health of patients with psoriasis. Unfortunately, these co-morbidities are often overlooked and/or left untreated. Therefore, the aim of this review is to discuss the mechanisms of how co-morbidities are associated with psoriasis as well as implications...... for the clinic to be able to recognize such co-morbidities. Areas covered: This is a review of studies investigating and discussing co-morbidities of psoriasis and screening. Literature was retrieved by searching on the PubMed database using individual and combined search terms related to relevant co...

  1. Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth.

  2. Morbidity of childhood onset narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Pickering, Line; Thorstensen, Eva Wiberg

    2017-01-01

    Narcolepsy is associated with significant morbidities. We evaluated the morbidities and mortality in a national group of child and adolescent patients after a first diagnosis of narcolepsy. METHODS: Identified from the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR), 243 patients (128 boys) aged 0-19 years...... children presented significantly more diagnoses of multiple comorbidities than controls before and after diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Before and after a diagnosis of narcolepsy in children, morbidity is more frequent in several domains, including metabolic, psychiatric, neurological and other diseases....

  3. Talking Gender and Sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    psychology for analysing everyday practical language use, agency and identity in talk. Contributors re-examine the foundations of earlier research on gender in spoken interaction, critically appraise this research to see if and how it 'translates' successfully into the study of sexuality in talk, and promote...... innovative alternatives that integrate the insights of recent feminist and queer theory with qualitative studies of talk and conversation. Detailed empirical analyses of naturally occurring talk are used to uncover how gender and sexual identities, agencies and desires are contingently accomplished......This edited volume brings together scholars from psychology, linguistics, sociology and communication science to investigate how performative notions of gender and sexuality can be fruitfully explored with the rich set of tools that have been developed by conversation analysis and discursive...

  4. Aging and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2006-09-01

    Sexuality, although only one aspect of one's being, plays an integral role during the aging process. This role has physical and psychologic ramifications. A healthy sexual attitude combined with addressing physical health needs provides a greater potential for enjoying a more fulfilled lifestyle as one ages. With aging come significant potential medical problems and associated psychologic disturbances. These issues present a challenge to those in the medical profession who treat this age group. It is important to those physicians accepting this responsibility to become extremely familiar with all the nuances affecting those in the golden years of their lives. This enormous responsibility requires knowledge, caring, compassion, understanding, and sensitivity. With luck, we will all reach those golden years and receive the freedom to experience and express sexuality that is most certainly deserved.

  5. Sexual problems and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual trauma: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Ciarán; Flanagan, Esther

    2016-09-01

    Difficulties with sex often develop following sexual trauma, yet are rarely targeted within treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Where outcomes of sexual function are included, they are secondary to other measures. This review aimed to assess whether psychological treatment for PTSD (from sexual trauma) has an effect on sexual functioning. Systematic searches of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and trial registers were performed. Five studies met inclusion criteria. Pre-post treatment effect sizes were also calculated. Data from four good-quality RCTs were included in the meta-analyses. These examined females (n = 799) who had experienced adult sexual trauma or child sexual abuse. Studies compared psychological treatment to control conditions, but no effect on outcomes of sexual concerns, standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.03 and dysfunctional sexual behaviour, SMD = 0.02, was found. Pre-post treatment effect sizes were small to medium (SMD = 0.36 and 0.47, respectively). While firm conclusions cannot be drawn, the available evidence suggests that psychological treatment for PTSD has no effect on sexual problems. Pre-post effects indicate some improvement over the course of treatment, which may be strengthened if treatment actively targeted sexual problems. The paucity of evidence in this area suggests that there is substantial need for further research in order to establish a set of evidence-based guidelines for practitioners implementing treatment in this area. The measurement of sexual problems is overlooked in psychological treatment RCTs for sexual trauma. Current treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from sexual trauma do not appear to be addressing sexual problems. Integrated treatments for comorbid sexual problems and PTSD treatment may be warranted. It is imperative that in future, RCTs that examine people with PTSD from sexual trauma use outcomes of sexual problems. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Physiology of Women's Sexual Function: Basic Knowledge and New Findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salonia, Andrea; Giraldi, Annamaria; Chivers, Meredith L

    2010-01-01

    Introduction.  Data concerning the physiology of female sexual functioning are still obtained from animal studies, but an increasing amount of novel evidence comes from human studies. Aim.  To gain knowledge of psychological and biologic physiology of women's sexual functioning, mainly addressing...... sexual arousal and orgasm. Methods.  A broad-based literature review of current knowledge of the psychological and biologic physiology aspects of women's sexual functioning. Results.  A comprehensive understanding of the anatomical, neurobiological, and psychological mechanisms behind sexual function...... arousal in women in both procreation/reproduction and recreation/pleasure. The interaction between physiological and psychological states of women's sexual response, nonspecific sexual response, interoceptive awareness, and flexibility of sexual interests have also been addressed. Conclusion.  Further...

  7. Lovers, loners, and lifers: sexuality and the older adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, L M

    1998-09-01

    With the aging of the baby boomers, increased attention is being given to sexuality and aging. This article discusses what is found in the current literature regarding the sociocultural, psychological, and physical factors affecting sexuality in aging individuals.

  8. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR

  9. Attention and emotional responses to sexual stimuli and their relationship to sexual desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prause, Nicole; Janssen, Erick; Hetrick, William P

    2008-12-01

    Little is known about why individuals vary in their levels of sexual desire. Information processing models, like Barlow's (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 54:140-148, 1986) model of sexual functioning, suggest that individuals with higher sexual desire attend more and respond with more pleasant emotions to sexual cues than individuals with lower levels of sexual desire. In this study, 69 participants (36 women, 33 men) completed a dot detection task measuring attention capture by sexual stimuli and a startle eyeblink modulation task indexing the valence of emotional response to affective stimuli. Participants with high levels of sexual desire were slower to detect targets in the dot detection task that replaced sexual images but did not differ in startle eyeblink responses to sexual stimuli. The results suggest that the amount of attention captured by sexual stimuli is a stronger predictor of a person's sexual desire level than the valence of the emotional responses elicited by such stimuli.

  10. Sexual Assertiveness Mediates the Effect of Social Interaction Anxiety on Sexual Victimization Risk among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schry, Amie R.; White, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques.…

  11. The Impact of a College Course in Human Sexuality upon Sexual Attitudes and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godow, Annette G.; LaFave, Francis E.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a study measuring 203 students' attitude and behavior changes as a result of college human sexuality and social psychology courses. Findings showed significant attitude change and little behavior change, especially for human sexuality students. Conclusions are that a college sexuality course causes more liberal attitudes. (CK)

  12. Military Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS...TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS.

  13. La Psicología Jurídica en el ámbito hospitalario: las prácticas profesionales y la dimensión simbólico-imaginaria en relación a los delitos/derechos sexuales The Juridic Psychology in the hospitality ambit: the professional practice and imaginary-symbolic dimension in relation to the sexual crimes/rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde de la Iglesia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta presentación se enmarca en el: UBACYT P423, 2008/10, Análisis de la práctica de la psicología jurídica en relación a los delitos contra la integridad sexual (ley 25087/99 y los derechos sexuales. Dimensiones institucional-organizacional, simbólico-imaginaria e histórico-genealógica. Dirección: Lic. Matilde de la Iglesia. Un abordaje simbólico-imaginario de las prácticas profesionales de la Psicología Jurídica en el ámbito hospitalario ha develado algunos de los imaginarios que conviven y subyacen a las mismas en relación a los delitos y los derechos sexuales. En el ejercicio de dichas prácticas se reproducen las múltiples discriminaciones que sufren aquellos individuos con una identidad sexual o una expresión de género diferente a la hegemónica, como la de aquellos que se han visto vinculados a un delito contra la integridad sexual. En todos los casos se fundamentan las acciones de dichos individuos en términos de "perversión", sin poder discriminar las acepciones del término, con fuerte preeminencia de la sanción moral sobre la ética profesional.This communication forms part of the work of the research group UBACYT P423, 2008/10, Analysis of the practice on legal psychoanalysis in relation to crimes against sexual integrity (law 25087/99 and sexual rights: organisational-institutional, symbolic-imaginary and genealogical-historical dimensions. Director: Matilde de la Iglesia. The symbolic-imaginary approach on Legal Psychology within hospitals has shown some of the imaginaries underlying in these practices as regards sexual offences and sexual rights. In the exercise of these practices, multiple discriminations are reproduced towards those with a sexual identity, a gender expression or who have been related to sexual offenses. In all cases, the actions carried out by these individuals are considered in terms of "perversion", even though the term cannot be defined in its multiple definitions, showing a strong

  14. Knowledge, attitude and practice about sexually transmitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality among women in the child-bearing age. In order to institute appropriate preventive measures there is need to establish the profile of knowledge of the predisposing factors and causation of STDs, attitude to sexual ...

  15. Hungarian "jailhouse rock": incidence and morbidity of Vaseline self-injection of the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecker, Ágnes; Bordás, Noémi; Pajor, László; Bajory, Zoltán

    2013-02-01

    Vaseline self-injection into the penis is currently a popular procedure in prisons. Since such injections are illegal, severe complications of the procedure can often remain hidden. To identify the incidence, motivation, and morbidity of Vaseline self-injection into the penis among inmates. A total of 4,735 inmates at the largest Hungarian prisons were asked to complete a questionnaire relating to their sexual life, whether they had self-injected Vaseline into their penis, the motivation leading them to resort to Vaseline self-injection, any complications observed and the level of satisfaction attained. A 17-point questionnaire on the circumstances, motivations, and complications of Vaseline self-injection among prisoners. Of the 1,905 responders, 15.7% admitted Vaseline self-injection. Only around one-fifth of the Vaseline injected subjects had not been satisfied with the original size of their penis and their sexual life up to the time of the injection, a proportion similar to that among Vaseline nonusers. While the satisfaction with the sexual life became significantly worse after the Vaseline injection, the satisfaction with the penis size did not change and an erectile dysfunction developed de novo in 21.4% of cases. The most common motivation for self-injection was a recommendation by another inmate; it was rarely recommended by a sexual partner. Complications had developed among 25.4% of the Vaseline users and 50.3% of them were not satisfied with the result of the Vaseline injection. Of the Vaseline users, 22.4% regretted the self-injection, while the rate among those who had developed complications was 53%. The self-injection of Vaseline into the penile skin proved to be somewhat of a trend among these inmates. The complications depended mainly on the amount of Vaseline injected, the poor hygienic circumstances, and the personal tolerability. Increased awareness is needed for the prevention of this social, psychological, and physical problem. © 2012

  16. Psychosocial factors associated with perceived psychological health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    role, self-image and marital satisfaction on psychological health status, perception of menopause and sexual satisfaction in climacteric women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Subjects and methods: 45 female participants were randomly selected from Ibadan ...

  17. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health By Mayo Clinic Staff Sexual health basics Sexuality is part of being human. Love, affection and ... infections. Talking to kids about sex Kids and sexuality — those words strike fear into the hearts of ...

  18. The physiological basis of human sexual arousal: neuroendocrine sexual asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L

    2005-04-01

    Normal sexual arousal and response suppose an integrated process involving both physiological and psychological processes. However, the current understanding of sexual arousal does not provide a coherent model that accounts for the integration of multiple physiological systems that subsequently generate a coordinated sexual response at both the spinal peripheral and cerebral central levels. Herein we suggest a model that involves both sympathetic and parasympathetic activation during sexual arousal via the two classes of gonadal hormones, androgens and oestrogens. We discuss the manner in which gonadal hormones may activate such a system, transforming pre-pubertal (non-erotic) genital stimulation to post-pubertal erogenization of stimulation and subsequent sexual arousal. Finally, we indicate that the different balance of androgens and oestrogens in men and women may generate asymmetric effects on each of the components of the autonomic nervous system, thereby explaining some of the differences in patterns of sexual arousal and the responses cycle across the sexes.

  19. Psychosocial and sexual aspects of female circumcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdel-Azim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior is a result of interaction of biology and psychology. Sexual excitement of the female can be triggered by stimulation of erotogenic areas; part of which is the clitoris. Female circumcision is done to minimize sexual desire and to preserve virginity. This procedure can lead to psychological trauma to the child; with anxiety, panic attacks and sense of humiliation. Cultural traditions and social pressures can affect as well the unexcised girl. Female circumcision can reduce female sexual response, and may lead to anorgasmia and even frigidity. This procedure is now prohibited by law in Egypt.

  20. Female Sexual Dysfunctions and Urogynecological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emillio Sacco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Female sexual dysfunctions are a highly prevalent and often-underestimated health problem and include disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and sexual pain, associated with self-distress. Pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunctions is complex and still poorly understood, although it has been related to several biological, medical and psychological factors. Amongst women, urogynecological disorders such as urinary incontinence, overactive bladder syndrome, bladder pain syndrome and pelvic organ prolapse, have been found to be associated with sexual dysfunctions, although the biological and psychological bases of these associations are poorly investigated. Data on sexual function impact of these conditions come from several cross-sectional or community-based, epidemiological studies based on self-administered validated psychometric tools. This review focuses on the most relevant available evidence on the impact of urogynecological disorders and related surgical treatments on female sexual function.

  1. Considerações acerca da avaliação psicológica das comorbidades psiquiátricas em obesos Consideraciones sobre la evaluación psicológica de las comorbidades psiquiátricas en obesos Consideration about psychological assessment of psychiatric co morbidity in obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Silva Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pretende-se neste artigo apresentar uma revisão teórica sobre avaliação psicológica, obesidade e comorbidades psiquiátricas mais frequentes na população obesa. A obesidade é uma doença clínica de múltiplas causas, e atualmente é considerada uma epidemia; assim seu adequado entendimento deve envolver uma equipe composta por diversos profissionais de saúde, incluindo o psicólogo. Serão abordadas questões pertinentes ao tema de obesidade, como etiologia, incidência e a relação entre obesidade e transtornos psiquiátricos. Serão propostos alguns instrumentos com o objetivo de estruturar informações necessárias ao tratamento e à demanda do paciente obeso, e reflexões referentes à avaliação psicológica em obesos e a prática do profissional de psicologia.Se pretiende en ese artículo presentar una revisión teórica sobre la evaluación psicológica, obesidad y comorbidades psiquiátricas más frecuentes en esa población. La obesidad es una enfermedad clínica con diversas causas y actualmente es considerada una epidemia, así el adecuado entendimiento de la obesidad debe involucrar un equipo compuesto por diversos profesionales de salud, incluso el psicólogo. En ese artículo serán abordadas cuestiones pertinentes a la temática de la obesidad, como etiología, prevalencia y la relación entre obesidad y los trastornos psiquiátricos. Serán propuestos algunos instrumentos* con el objetivo de estructurar informaciones necesarias al tratamiento y a la demanda del paciente obeso, reflexiones referentes a la evaluación psicológica en obesos y la práctica del profesional de PsicologíaWe intend in this article to present a theoretical review about psychological assessment, obesity and psychiatric co morbidity. Obesity is a clinical illness, it has multi factorial causes, and nowadays it is considered an epidemic, so the right knowledge must involve all health professional, include the psychologist. In this article we

  2. Sexuality in Older Adults (65+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træen, Bente; Hald, Gert Martin; Graham, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the current article was to provide an overview of literature on sexual function and sexual difficulties in older adults. Method: The authors conducted a narrative review of papers published in English between January 2005 and July 2015 based on an extensive search in Psyc......INFO. Results: The review showed that although common biological changes may adversely affect sexual function in old age, sexual experience seems to also be affected by psychological and interpersonal factors. Conclusions: Greater life expectancy and better medical care will result in older individuals...... with chronic diseases living longer. The need for help to cope with changes in sexual health is likely to increase in older adults, as sexuality may be negatively affected through several pathways....

  3. Psychological and behavioral moderators of the relationship between trauma severity and HIV transmission risk behavior among MSM with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, Abigail W; Ehlinger, Peter P; Boroughs, Michael S; Shipherd, Jillian C; Safren, Steven A; Ironson, Gail H; O'Cleirigh, Conall

    2017-10-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which can be associated with condomless sex among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, the impact of moderating factors on the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and condomless sex is poorly understood. We examined whether PTSD symptom severity was associated with condomless sex among MSM with CSA histories, and whether substance dependence, self-esteem, and distress tolerance moderated that relationship (n = 288). Notably, no direct relationship between PTSD symptom severity and condomless sex was found. Adjusted models indicated that condomless sex was differentially impacted by PTSD symptom severity among those without substance dependence (ΔR 2  = 0.03, p = 0.034) and, counterintuitively, those with high self-esteem (ΔR 2  = 0.07, p = 0.005). PTSD symptom severity was associated with condomless sex across levels of distress tolerance. Findings indicate that substance use, self-esteem, and distress tolerance should be targeted in high-risk MSM with CSA even if they do not have PTSD.

  4. Wound morbidity after kidney transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fockens, M. Matthijs; Alberts, Victor P.; Bemelman, Frederike J.; van der Pant, Karlijn A. M. I.; Idu, Mirza M.

    2015-01-01

    Wound morbidity is an important surgical complication after kidney transplant. To assess risk factors for postoperative wound complications and the impact of such complications on outcomes of kidney transplant. Retrospectively, 108 consecutive kidney transplant patients between January 2010 and

  5. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    in alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... account for about half of the morbidity. The pathogenic mechanisms include preoperative immune incompetence, subclinical cardiac insufficiency and haemostatic imbalance. In addition, surgical trauma and/or postoperative abstinence result in an exaggerated stress response, which may further contribute...

  6. Niki de Saint Phalle's lifelong dialogue between art and diseases: psychological trauma of sexual abuse, transient selective IgA deficiency, occupational exposure to toxic plastic material, chronic lung disease, rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Henning

    2013-05-01

    The French artist Niki de Saint Phalle (1930-2002) is one of the most famous female painter and sculptor of the 20th century. Her eventful live was full of emotional and physical burdens such as abuse by the father as a adolescent, early separation from family, nervous collapse, turbulent relationship with the artist Jean Tinguely, and last not least serious diseases. The psychological trauma of sexual abuse together with a "nervous breakdown" years later was the start of a life as an artist and is also a key to her art of the early years. She was affected from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and was treated over 20 years with prednisolone and antimalarials leading to a good functional outcome and limited erosions of the wrist joint. Additionally, she had lifelong pulmonary disorders finally leading to death, which she attributed to polyester, the material used for her sculptures. An analysis of medical documents collected by her and provided by treating physicians gives another surprising explanation: selective IgA deficiency with multiple recurrent respiratory infections, asthma, milk intolerance, autoimmune thyroiditis, and RA compatible with hypogammaglobulinemia. Very unique in case of Niki de Saint Phalle is that IgA deficiency was transient. Nevertheless, it may be possible that the occupational exposure with art materials (polystyrene, polyester) has contributed in part or temporarily to her health problems. Altogether, her enormous artistic productivity represents an outstanding example of creative coping with RA and other lifelong health problems. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  7. Psychological Disorders and Psychosocial Resources of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Bladder and Kidney Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Long; Liu, Li; Li, Meng-Yao; Shi, Meng; Wang, Lie

    2016-01-01

    Psychological disorders have been proven to be associated with poor physiological, psychological and immune outcomes in cancer patients. However, despite of many challenges of the changed self-image/body image and the altered sexual/urinary function, relatively little is known about psychological disorders of patients with newly diagnosed bladder and kidney cancer. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the associated psychosocial factors among bladder/kidney cancer patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted of consecutive inpatients with bladder/kidney cancer in the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, northeast China. A total of 489 early-stage cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic and clinical variables, depression, anxiety, PTSD, perceived social support and positive psychological variables (hope, optimism and resilience) anonymously during October 2013 and August 2014. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between psychosocial resources and psychological disorders, while controlling for possible covariates. The prevalence of depression, anxiety and PTSD was 77.5%, 69.3% and 25.2%, respectively, while 24.9% of patients had psychological co-morbidity. Psychosocial resources together explained more than one-third of the variance on psychological disorders. Under standardized estimate (β) sequence, patient's perception of social support from family was significantly associated with depression, anxiety and PTSD (p resilience showed integrated and independent effects on psychological disorders, and hope represented the significant association with PTSD only (p patients with early-stage bladder/kidney cancer should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings. Additionally, in consideration of the different protective effects of psychosocial resources, the present study

  8. The relationship between personality traits and sexual self-esteem and its components

    OpenAIRE

    Firoozi, Mahbobe; Azmoude, Elham; Asgharipoor, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women's sexual self-esteem is one of the most important factors that affect women's sexual satisfaction and their sexual anxiety. Various aspects of sexual life are blended with the entire personality. Determining the relationship between personality traits and self-concept aspects such as sexual self-esteem leads to better understanding of sexual behavior in people with different personality traits and helps in identifying the psychological variables affecting their sexual perfor...

  9. Morbidity and Mortality in Sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Alicia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review Chronic sarcoidosis is a complex disease with numerous comorbid conditions and can be fatal in some cases. Recognizing causes of morbidity and mortality is important to effectively select treatments, manage symptoms, and improve outcomes. The purpose of this review is to examine emerging knowledge on morbidity and mortality in sarcoidosis. Recent Findings Approximately one to five percent of patients with sarcoidosis die from complications of sarcoidosis. Recent population studies indicate that mortality may be increasing over the past decade. The reasons behind these trends are unclear, but could include increasing incidence, detection rates, severity of disease, or age of the population. Morbidity of sarcoidosis is reflected by a trend of increased hospitalizations over recent years and increased use of healthcare resources. Morbidity can be caused by organ damage from granulomatous inflammation, treatment complications, and psychosocial effects of the disease. Recent studies are focused on morbidity related to cardiopulmonary complications, bone health, and aging within the sarcoidosis population. Last, sarcoidosis is associated with autoimmune diseases, pulmonary embolism, and malignancy; however, the underlying mechanisms linking diseases continue to be debated. Summary Morbidity in sarcoidosis is significant and multifactorial. Mortality is infrequent, but may be increasing over the years. PMID:25029298

  10. Prevalence of reproductive morbidity amongst males in an urban slum of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppal Y

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of reproductive morbidity among males in India have chiefly focused on prevalence of Reproductive Tract Infections/Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTIs/STIs among males attending Sexually Transmitted Disease clinics, blood donors and other selected population groups, with only few focused on the magnitude and the type of reproductive morbidity amongst Indian males at community level. Objective: To estimate prevalence of reproductive morbidity including (RTIs/STIs among males in the age group of 20-50 years residing in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods: Out of 268 males in the targeted age group, selected by systematic random sampling, residing in an urban sum of Delhi, 260 males were subjected to clinical examination and laboratory investigations for diagnosis of reproductive morbidity. Laboratory investigations were done for diagnosis of Hepatitis B and C, Syphilis, Gonorrhoea, Non gonococcal urethritis and urinary tract infection. Results: A total of 90 (33.6% of 268 study subjects reported one or more perceived symptoms of reproductive tract / sexual morbidity in last six months. Overall reproductive morbidity based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis was present in 76 (29.2% study subjects and of this sexually acquired morbidity accounted for 21.2% cases. Hepatitis B was most common (10.3% reproductive morbidity followed by Urinary Tract Infection (5.0%, scabies (3.5% and congenital anomalies (3.5%. Conclusion: High prevalence of reproductive morbidity (29.2% amongst males in an urban slum highlights the need for more studies in different settings. There is a need for developing interventions in terms of early diagnosis and treatment and prevention.

  11. Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking, and sexual satisfaction among African-American adolescent females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brody, Gene H.; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Sexuality-related constructs such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction have been related to sexual behaviors that place one at risk for adverse consequences such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors, biological, and psychological predispositions that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescent samples. African-American females aged 14-20 were recruited from reproductive health clinics for an HIV intervention. Baseline survey and follow-up DNA data (N=304) was used to assess biological, psychological and social environmental associations with the sexuality constructs of arousal, SSS, and sexual satisfaction. In multivariable linear regressions, a higher depressive symptom rating was associated with higher arousability while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower arousability. Impulsivity and perceived peer norms supportive of unsafe sexual behaviors were associated with increased SSS, and short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower SSS. Higher social support was also associated with higher levels of sexual satisfaction while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower satisfaction. The sexuality constructs were also significantly related to number of sex partners, frequency of vaginal sex, and number of unprotected vaginal sex acts in the past six months. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding biopsychosocial factors, including the role of serotonin as an indicator of natural variations in sexual inclination and behaviors, that influence sexuality constructs, which in turn are associated with sexual behaviors, to allow further refinement of sexual health clinical services and programs and promote the development of healthy sexuality. PMID:24262218

  12. Dance and sexuality: many moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Judith Lynne

    2010-03-01

    This literature review of dance and sexual expression considers dance and religion, dance and sexuality as a source of power, manifestations of sexuality in Western theater art and social dance, plus ritual and non-Western social dance. Expressions of gender, sexual orientation, asexuality, ambiguity, and adult entertainment exotic dance are presented. Prominent concerns in the literature are the awareness, closeting, and denial of sexuality in dance; conflation of sexual expression and promiscuity of gender and sexuality, of nudity and sexuality, and of dancer intention and observer interpretation; and inspiration for infusing sexuality into dance. Numerous disciplines (American studies, anthropology, art history, comparative literature, criminology, cultural studies, communication, dance, drama, English, history, history of consciousness, journalism, law, performance studies, philosophy, planning, retail geography, psychology, social work, sociology, and theater arts) have explored dance and sexual expression, drawing upon the following concepts, which are not mutually exclusive: critical cultural theory, feminism, colonialism, Orientalism, postmodernism, poststructuralism, queer theory, and semiotics. Methods of inquiry include movement analysis, historical investigation, anthropological fieldwork, autoethnography, focus groups, surveys, and self-reflection or autobiographical narrative. Directions for future exploration are addressed.

  13. A Sex-Positive Framework for Research on Adolescent Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K Paige

    2014-09-01

    In this article, I propose a sex-positive framework for research on adolescent sexuality in which I consider consensual sexual activities in adolescence as developmentally normative and potentially healthy. The sex-positive framework is contrasted with the predominant "risk" perspective that presumes that abstinence from sexual activity is the ideal behavioral outcome for teenagers. Evidence from longitudinal and behavioral genetic studies indicates that engaging in sexual intercourse in adolescence does not typically cause worse psychological functioning. The relationship context of sexual experience may be a critical moderator of its psychological impact. Moreover, cross-cultural data on adolescents' contraception usage, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections suggest that, despite the unacceptably high rate of negative health consequences among U.S. teenagers, adolescents can have the developmental capacity to regulate the health risks inherent in sexual activity. Understanding adolescent sexuality can be fostered by considering sexual well-being, a multidimensional construct that incorporates an adolescent's sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, feelings of sexual pleasure and satisfaction, and freedom from pain and negative affect regarding sexuality. New research is necessary to understand the development of adolescent sexual well-being, including its normative age trends, its reciprocal links with sexual behavior, and its impact on psychological and physical health. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Treatment of sexually compulsive adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, James

    2008-12-01

    We clarified the nature of sexual compulsivity in adolescence, addressed who is labeled as "sexually compulsive youth," conceptualized the underlying factors of sexual compulsivity, and outlined a treatment format. We focused on trauma, dissociation, attachment, and self-concept. We questioned the conventional perceptions of who is included in this group. We reiterated that the belief that sexually compulsive adolescents are abusive males is no longer considered accurate. The evolution and accessibility of the Internet only raises greater concerns about compulsive sexual behavior, as more adolescents are brought into therapy because of Internet use to seek sexual interaction or stimulation. The sexually compulsive youth is as likely to be the clean-cut, high-achieving, intelligent student as is the economically deprived, juvenile delinquent on the street. This article began with the observation that adolescents rarely receive any direct, accurate information about sexuality and intimacy. The messages taken in through music, television, movies, politicians, popular press, clergy, and school are polarizing and contradictory. Beyond this are the implications as to how we, as a society, treat the youths that do present with sexual behavior problems. We have tended to treat these youth (as well as adults) with disdain and to designate sexually abusive youth the same as adult offenders with harsher, more punitive treatment interventions. Research and clinical experience now strongly question this type of response. This article is consistent with this leaning. Early psychological injury, from sexual abuse, physical abuse, exposure to violence, attachment trauma, or early sexualization, is at the root of sexually compulsive behavior. While it is necessary to reign in out-of-control and destructive behaviors, if we acknowledge that the source of the behavior is psychological injury, then it is cruel and inconsistent to treat the individual with disdain or as a pariah. The

  15. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined...... in one entity. Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a new entity which is suggested to be defined as Restless Genital Syndrome. Aims.  The aims of this brief review are to give definitions of the different types of FSAD, describe their aetiology, prevalence and comorbidity with somatic...... and psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods.  The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience...

  16. Airway management and morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Michael S

    2010-11-01

    Morbidly obese patients present with excess fatty tissue externally on the breast, neck, thoracic wall and abdomen and internally in the mouth, pharynx and abdomen. This excess tissue tends to make access (intubation, tracheostomy) to and patency (during sedation or mask ventilation) of the upper airway and the function of the lungs (decreased residual capacity and aggravated ventilation perfusion mismatch) worse than in lean patients. Proper planning and preparation of airway management is essential, including elevation of the patient's upper body, head and neck. Preoxygenation is mandatory in morbidly obese patients and should be followed by actions to counteract atelectasis formation. The decision as to weather to use a rapid sequence induction, an awake intubation or a standard induction with hypnotics should depend on the thorough airway examination and comorbidity and should not be based solely on whether morbid obesity is present or not. It is important to ensure sufficient depth of anaesthesia before initiating manipulation of the airway because inadequate anaesthesia depth predisposes to aspiration if airway management becomes difficult. The intubating laryngeal mask airway is more efficient in the morbidly obese patients than in lean patients and serves as a rescue device for both failed ventilation and failed intubation. In the 24 h following anaesthesia, morbidly obese patients experience frequent oxygen desaturation periods that can be counteracted by continuous positive airway pressure, noninvasive ventilation and physiotherapy.

  17. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ...

  18. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  19. Non-Life Threatening Maternal Morbidity: Cross Sectional Surveys from Malawi and Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa Zafar

    Full Text Available For more accurate estimation of the global burden of pregnancy associated disease, clarity is needed on definition and assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. Our study aimed to define maternal morbidity with clear criteria for identification at primary care level and estimate the distribution of and evaluate associations between physical (infective and non-infective and psychological morbidities in two different low-income countries.Cross sectional study with assessment of morbidity in early pregnancy (34%, late pregnancy (35% and the postnatal period (31% among 3459 women from two rural communities in Pakistan (1727 and Malawi (1732. Trained health care providers at primary care level used semi-structured questionnaires documenting signs and symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory tests which were bundled to reflect infectious, non-infectious and psychological morbidity.One in 10 women in Malawi and 1 in 5 in Pakistan reported a previous pregnancy complication with 1 in 10 overall reporting a previous neonatal death or stillbirth. In the index pregnancy, 50.1% of women in Malawi and 53% in Pakistan were assessed to have at least one morbidity (infective or non-infective. Both infective (Pakistan and non-infective morbidity (Pakistan and Malawi was lower in the postnatal period than during pregnancy. Multiple morbidities were uncommon ( 9. Complications during a previous pregnancy, infective morbidity (p <0.001, intra or postpartum haemorrhage (p <0.02 were associated with psychological morbidity in both settings.Our findings highlight the need to strengthen the availability and quality of antenatal and postnatal care packages. We propose to adapt and improve the framework and criteria used in this study, ensuring a basic set of diagnostic tests is available, to ensure more robust assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity.

  20. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  1. Psychiatric morbidity following Hurricane Andrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, D; Mellman, T A; Mendoza, L M; Kulick-Bell, R; Ironson, G; Schneiderman, N

    1996-07-01

    The nature of psychiatric morbidity in previously non-ill subjects from the area most affected by Hurricane Andrew was investigated at 6-12 months posthurricane. Preliminary associations of morbidity with personal and event-related risk factors were also determined. Fifty one percent (31/61) met criteria for a new-onset disorder, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 36%, major depression (MD) in 30%, and other anxiety disorders in 20%. Thirty four subjects (56%) had significant symptoms persisting beyond 6 months. Having sustained "severe damage" was the risk factor most strongly associated with outcome. Our data underscore the range of psychiatric morbidity related to a natural disaster, and suggest a relationship to chronic stressors.

  2. Surgical treatment of morbid obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brane Breznikar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the article we present a morbid obesity and treatment options. We describe instructions for patients before operation and our results for operation with adjustable band.Patients and methods: Between May and December 2005 we operated 10 morbidly obese patients, 7 female and 3 male, aged 23 to 56, body mass index (BMI between 38 and 48.5 (laparoscopically inserted adjustable band. Two had comorbidity (diabetes.Results: We followed the patients’ status between 1 and 8 months. They reduced their body weight from 5 to 28 kg, on average 4.3 kg per month.Conclusions: Bariatric surgery is successful method for morbid obesity treatment. It demands multidisciplinary approach. Beside surgeon, endocrinologist, gastroenterologist, psychologist and others take part in the decision for the operation. During subsequent treatment dietetics and general physician play an important role.

  3. Airway management and morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    Morbidly obese patients present with excess fatty tissue externally on the breast, neck, thoracic wall and abdomen and internally in the mouth, pharynx and abdomen. This excess tissue tends to make access (intubation, tracheostomy) to and patency (during sedation or mask ventilation) of the upper...... in morbidly obese patients and should be followed by actions to counteract atelectasis formation. The decision as to weather to use a rapid sequence induction, an awake intubation or a standard induction with hypnotics should depend on the thorough airway examination and comorbidity and should not be based...... solely on whether morbid obesity is present or not. It is important to ensure sufficient depth of anaesthesia before initiating manipulation of the airway because inadequate anaesthesia depth predisposes to aspiration if airway management becomes difficult. The intubating laryngeal mask airway is more...

  4. Maternal age and child morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Malene Meisner; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud

    2017-01-01

    the association between maternal age and overall child morbidity according to main diagnosis groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a national cohort study including 352 027 live firstborn singleton children. The children were born between Jan 1994 and Dec 2009 and followed to Dec 2012. Children were divided...... into groups according to maternal age: 15-24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35+ years. Poisson regression analyses calculated adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of child morbidities according to main diagnoses groups A-Q of the International Classification of Disease 10 with adjustment for year of birth, body mass...... index, smoking, and mother's level of education. RESULTS: Average follow-up time was 11 years. Compared to children born to women 25-29 years, firstborn children to mothers aged 35+ had higher child morbidity in 8 of 19 main diagnosis groups and firstborn children to mothers 15-24 years had higher child...

  5. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re...... precise identification of alcohol abuse. However, the inability of the questionnaires to detect short-term changes in intake and abuse without dependence, the inconsistent predictive values of the biological markers, and the lack of evidence of an association to postoperative morbidity reduces...

  6. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative risk assessment has become part of daily clinical practice, but preoperative alcohol abuse has not received much attention. METHODS: A Medline search was carried out to identify original papers published from 1967 to 1998. Relevant articles on postoperative morbidity...... in alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... account for about half of the morbidity. The pathogenic mechanisms include preoperative immune incompetence, subclinical cardiac insufficiency and haemostatic imbalance. In addition, surgical trauma and/or postoperative abstinence result in an exaggerated stress response, which may further contribute...

  7. Dissatisfaction with male sexual performance and female sexual dysfunction in women with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, K; Bargiota, A; Mouzas, O; Melekos, M; Koukoulis, G; Tzortzis, V

    2015-01-01

    Although partnership issues are thought to be implicated in female psychology and sexual life, no data exist on the relationship between dissatisfaction with male sexual performance and female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1). We studied 70 women with uncomplicated DM-1 and 100 nondiabetic women using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS) and a Likert Scale to evaluate sexual function, sexual distress and the degree of satisfaction derived from the male partner's sexual performance. Compared with healthy controls, DM-1 women had significantly worse sexual function, higher sexual distress and higher FSD frequency. No significant difference in dissatisfaction with partner's sexual performance was found between diabetic and control group (CG). Moreover, dissatisfied diabetic and control women were comparable in sexual functioning, sexual distress and FSD frequency. In the CG, dissatisfied women had significantly worse total FSFI score compared with the satisfied ones. In addition, dissatisfaction with male sexual performance led to significantly worse FSDS score and higher FSD frequency in both diabetic and CGs. Therefore, our findings reveal a negative association between dissatisfaction with male partner's sexual performance and female sexual functioning, regardless of the presence of diabetes.

  8. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  9. Morbid obesity and asthma : co-morbidity or causal relationship?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardenburg-van Huisstede, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three parts. Part A describes in chapter 2 the complex diagnosis of asthma in the morbidly obese, and especially focuses on underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of asthma in this patient group. Part B investigates bronchial and systemic inflammation. It starts in chapter 3 with a

  10. Psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients is being studied all over the world. There is paucity of Indian literature particularly in asymptomatic HIV individuals. Aim: The aim of the following study is to establish the prevalence and the determinants of psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic HIV patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess psychiatric morbidity as per ICD-10 dacryocystorhinostomy criteria in 100 consecutive asymptomatic seropositive HIV patients and an equal number of age, sex, education, economic and marital status matched HIV seronegative control. All subjects were assessed with the general health questionnaire (GHQ, mini mental status examination, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS and sensation seeking scale (SSS and the scores were analyzed statistically. Results: Asymptomatic HIV positive patients had significantly higher GHQ caseness and depression but not anxiety on HADS as compared to HIV seronegative controls. On SSS asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects showed significant higher scores in thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking and boredom susceptibility as compared to controls. HIV seropositive patients had significantly higher incidence of total psychiatric morbidity. Among the individual disorders, alcohol dependence syndrome, sexual dysfunction and adjustment disorder were significantly increased compared with HIV seronegative controls. Conclusion: Psychiatric morbidity is higher in asymptomatic HIV patients when compared to HIV seronegative controls. Among the individual disorders, alcohol dependence syndrome, sexual dysfunction and adjustment disorder were significantly increased compared with HIV seronegative controls. High sensation seeking and substance abuse found in HIV seropositive patients may play a vital role in engaging in high-risk behavior resulting in this dreaded illness.

  11. Toward Identification of the Sexual Killer: A Comparison of Sexual Killers Engaging in Post-Mortem Sexual Interference and Non-Homicide Sexual Aggressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Tamsin; Carter, Adam J; Stefanska, Ewa B; Glorney, Emily

    2017-08-01

    Establishing a model of sexual assault reflecting psychosocial and behavioral characteristics of perpetrators of sexual killing and rape is necessary for development in risk assessment and intervention. Methodological variations in defining sexual killing have amalgamated serial and non-serial offenders and perpetrators with direct and indirect associations between killing and sexual arousal. This study defined sexual killing specifying that killing should be directly linked to sexual arousal, and sampled 48 sexual killers, operationalized to include only those engaging in post-mortem sexual interference, with one or two known female victims (non-serial), from prison service national (England and Wales) databases. These sexual killers were compared with 48 non-homicide, life or indeterminately sentenced sexual aggressors on psychological and crime scene characteristics. Contrary to previous research, fatal outcomes were associated with neither stranger victims nor weapon presence; sexual killing was characterized by severity of violence less so than non-fatal assault. Sexual killers more often reported problems with emotional loneliness, empathic concern, and sexual entitlement than the sexual aggressors. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.

  12. Child maltreatment and women's adult sexual risk behavior: childhood sexual abuse as a unique risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated (a) whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior, after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment and (b) whether there were additive or interactive effects of different types of maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior. Participants were 414 women (M age = 28 years) attending a publicly funded STD clinic. All women completed a computerized survey assessing childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical, psychological abuse, and neglect) and sexual risk behavior. Analyses showed that sexual abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect were associated with adult sexual risk behavior. Multivariate analyses that controlled for all other forms of child maltreatment showed that only CSA was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior (i.e., percentage of episodes of unprotected sex in the past 3 months and number of lifetime partners). The authors found little support for an additive or an interactive model of the effects of different types of childhood maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior; CSA alone was the best predictor of adult sexual risk behavior. Sexual risk reduction interventions are needed for women who were sexually abused as children. Continued research on the effects of multitype maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior is needed.

  13. From sexual identity to sexual relationships: a contextual shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, J P; Shively, M G

    The article has three major purposes. First, it adumbrates four contexts within which the discourse on sexual identity has been carried on: the historical, bisexual, homosexual, and biological. Within these contexts sexual identity has been conceived in three general forms: the biological, psychological, and socio-cultural. The biological form is the most basic since all conceptualizations of sexual identity make the biological sex of partners in sexual relationships the criterial distinction. Second, the article addresses problems that have arisen in each of the contexts: the uncritical use of popular concepts and explanations of sexual identity, the incorporation of unacknowledged moral judgements, and the misapplication of the scientific method. Third, it identifies conceptual, methodological, and moral advantages in redirecting the discourse on sexual identity so that the focus of inquiry is on sexual relationships: (a) The focus is shifted from isolated individuals to their mutual associations. (b) Social scientists could conceive of sexual relationships in other than biological terms or metaphors. (c) The shift would capitalize on the advantages of the psychoanalytic method (the exploration of personally constructed meanings) and symbolic interactionism (the identification of socially constructed meanings) while avoiding the pitfalls of relying on one of these approaches to the exclusion of the other. (d) The shift would allow investigators to view sexual relationships from the vantage point of a morality of individual choice rather than a traditional morality of externally imposed obligation.

  14. Treatment for Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saywitz, Karen J.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Berliner, Lucy; Cohen, Judith A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews research demonstrating the variable effects of childhood sexual abuse, need for intervention, and effectiveness of available treatment. Proposes extending and modifying treatment from mainstream clinical child psychology to sexually abused children. Interventions range from psychoeducation and screening, to short-term, abuse-focused…

  15. Teenage Sexuality: What Are the Emotional Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Bebe C.

    Much attention has been given to the physical ramifications of early sexual activity, but little has been said about emotional and psychological repercussions. The breakdown of the American family may be a contributing factor in causing premature sexual activity, along with the strong adolescent sex drive, the fear of loneliness and the media. An…

  16. Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychological Association (APA), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls was formed in response to expressions of public concern regarding the sexualization of girls and girlhood in U.S. culture. This report examines and summarizes psychological theory, research, and clinical experience addressing the sexualization of girls. The…

  17. Sexual behaviour and contraception inadolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Sam-Soto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization defines the adolescence as the period between 10 and 19 years old. It is a critical developmental period, in which major physical, psychological, emotional and social changes take place. In terms of sexual and reproductive health, adolescents are considered a vulnerable group. Several risks and negative consequences of unprotected sexual relations are worrisome nationwide. According to the Mexican National Survey carried in 2010, 15.6% of Mexico’s population are adolescents. Sexual education in Mexico is not uniform and lacks an integral vision. There is no culture of prevention with respect to sexual and reproductive rights, sexual health, nor gender equality focused on adolescents. The consequences of these gaps are evident in our health indicators. We consider there is an urgent need to address this issue in an updated, integrative and age-focused manner in order to develop effective programs and diminish consequences such as unwanted pregnancies.

  18. Infantile sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy

    2010-01-01

    When first presented, Freud´s theory of infantile sexuality was a scandal. Not only was the claim that the small child sucking at the mother´s breast experiences a kind of pleasure that Freud without hesitation named sexual, the theory also turned the common understanding of human sexuality up...... vision of the sexual. Following a historic outline, we examine the theories that inspired by Laplanche, once more discuss infantile sexuality, and argue that infantile sexuality is clarified by combining the concept of the drive with what in effect is an inter-subjective point of view....

  19. A biologic perspective on sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillard, R C; Bailey, J M

    1995-03-01

    Sexual orientation may be defined as the sustained erotic attraction to members of one's own gender, the opposite gender, or both--homosexual, heterosexual, or bisexual, respectively. Interest in sexual orientation is as old as the science of psychology, yet many fundamental issues remain unresolved. This article reviews research in the development and psychopathology of sexual orientation as well as the results of family and twin studies. Research in genetic linkage, sex hormones, and brain differences also is discussed.

  20. Sexuality among patients with a colostomy: an exploration of the influences of gender, sexual orientation, and Asian heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Chun

    2009-01-01

    A large number of patients undergoing surgery for rectal cancer experience construction of a colostomy and subsequent sexual dysfunction. However, sexual problems are easily neglected or concealed by patients, partners, and medical staff. This literature review explores sexual concerns, dysfunctions, and related factors that directly or indirectly influence sexuality after rectal cancer surgery, including gender differences, sexual orientation, sexual partners, and cultural beliefs. Results of this literature review suggest that additional research is needed that focuses on both anatomical and physiological changes after creation of a colostomy as well as psychological, gender based, and sociocultural factors affecting sexuality.