WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychological morbidity methods

  1. Tinnitus and the prevalence of co-morbid psychological stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tinnitus is a symptom of unknown pathophysiology with few therapeutic measures and may present with co-morbid psychological stresses necessitating psychiatric treatment. This study aims at determining the prevalence of depression and anxiety in tinnitus sufferers in our environment. Method: This is a one ...

  2. Sources of stress and psychological morbidity among undergraduate physiotherapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J M; Feeney, C; Hussey, J; Donnellan, C

    2010-09-01

    Professional education can be a stressful experience for some individuals, and may impact negatively on emotional well-being and academic performance. Psychological morbidity and associated sources of stress have not been investigated extensively in physiotherapy students. This study explored sources of stress, psychological morbidity and possible associations between these variables in undergraduate physiotherapy students. A questionnaire-based survey. The Undergraduate Sources of Stress Questionnaire was used to identify sources of stress, and the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) was used to rate the prevalence of psychological morbidity, using a conservative GHQ threshold of 3 to 4 to determine probable 'cases'. Uni- and multivariate tests of correlation were used to analyse the data. An Irish educational institution. One hundred and twenty-five physiotherapy undergraduate students. More than one-quarter of all students (27%) scored above the GHQ threshold, indicating probable psychological morbidity. This is higher than the level of psychological morbidity reported by the general population. Regression analysis showed that academic (beta=0.31, Phours spent studying. Individual significant items from these subscales were stressful events (beta=0.24, P=0.004), mood (beta=0.43, Pacademic and personal issues being the greatest concern. While personal causes of stress such as stressful events and mood are more difficult to control, manipulation of curricular factors may have positive effects on academic sources of stress. Copyright 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A study of a couple with type 2 diabetes: dyadic adjustment and psychological morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Graça Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study assessed dyadic adjustment and psychological morbidity in type 2 diabetic patients and their partners, focusing on the role of gender. Methods: 214 diabetic patients and their partners participated in the cross-sectional study and were assessed on psychological morbidity (HADS and marital adjustment (RDAS. Data was analyzed using dyadic analysis, a statistical process that studies the patient/partner dyads simultaneously. Results: results revealed that the negative relationship between dyadic adjustment and psychological morbidity in female patients was stronger than in male diabetic patients or in partners of male diabetic patients. On the other hand, the relationship between dyadic adjustment and psychological morbidity in partners of diabetic men was stronger than the same relationship in partners of diabetic women. Conclusion: since gender is a moderator, it is important to attend to the different needs of female and male patients and the education of diabetic patients should be centered on the patient/partner dyad.

  4. Psychological distress in morbid obesity in relation to weight history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Maria Letizia; Villanova, Nicola; Avagnina, Sebastiano; Fusco, Maria Antonia; Fatati, Giuseppe; Compare, Angelo; Marchesini, Giulio

    2007-03-01

    Very few data are available on psychological distress in morbidly obese subjects in relation to the history of their weight. In subjects with childhood obesity, psychological distress might be better than in adult-onset obesity, because of progressive adaptation to the social stigma. Psychological distress was tested in relation to BMI at age 20 years (BMI-20), weight history and somatic co-morbidities in 632 treatment-seeking, morbidly obese participants from the QUOVADIS cohort (130 men, 502 women; mean age 45.5 years). The number of dieting attempts/year, BMI increase and cumulative BMI loss since age 20 were calculated as weight cycling parameters. The Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), the Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB), the Binge-Eating Scale, and the ORWELL-97 questionnaire were used to score psychometry and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Complications were quantitatively assessed by a modified Charlson's score. BMI-20 was normal in 35% of cases and >35 kg/m2 in only 14%. Psychometric scores were not different in relation to BMI-20, when corrected for age, with the exception of the General Health scale of PGWB, showing a greater distress in subjects with normal BMI-20. In most cases, the prevalence of pathological results of questionnaires showed a J-shaped curve, with participants with normal BMI-20 or those with Class II-III obesity in early adulthood having the highest prevalence of psychological/psychiatric distress and poor HRQL. Weight cycling was a risk factor for binge-eating, depression and interpersonal sensitivity in SCL-90, whereas somatic co-morbidities adversely affected most SCL-90 and all PGWB scales. Weight cycling and somatic co-morbidities, but not age of onset of obesity, are the main factors negatively influencing psychological health in treatment-seeking, morbidly obese subjects.

  5. Psychological predictors of outcome after gastric banding for morbid obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    Obesity has become a major public health problem in Western societies. Although surgery is considered the treatment of choice in morbid obesity, the outcome is variable and weight regain may occur in the long-term postoperative period. The aim of this thesis was to examine psychological predictors

  6. Evaluation of factors affecting psychological morbidity in emergency medicine practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Mehdi; Fahim, Farshid; Vahidi, Elnaz; Nejati, Amir; Saeedi, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Assessing and evaluating mental health status can provide educational planners valuable information to predict the quality of physicians' performance at work. These data can help physicians to practice in the most desired way. The study aimed to evaluate factors affecting psychological morbidity in Iranian emergency medicine practitioners at educational hospitals of Tehran. In this cross sectional study 204 participants (emergency medicine residents and specialists) from educational hospitals of Tehran were recruited and their psychological morbidity was assessed by using a 28-question Goldberg General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Somatization, anxiety and sleep disorders, social dysfunction and depression were evaluated among practitioners and compared to demographic and job related variables. Two hundreds and four participants consisting of 146 (71.6%) males and 58 (28.4%) females were evaluated. Of all participants, 55 (27%) were single and 149 (73%) were married. Most of our participants (40.2%) were between 30-35 years old. By using GHQ-28, 129 (63.2%) were recognized as normal and 75 (36.8%) suffered some mental health disorders. There was a significant gender difference between normal practitioners and practitioners with disorder (P=0.02) while marital status had no significant difference (P=0.2). Only 19 (9.3%) declared having some major mental health issue in the previous month. Females encountered more mental health disorders than male (P=0.02) and the most common disorder observed was somatization (P=0.006).

  7. Psychological co-morbidity in children with specific learning disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children under 19 years of age constitute over 40% of India′s population and information about their mental health needs is a national imperative. Children with specific learning disorders (SLDs exhibit academic difficulties disproportionate to their intellectual capacities. Prevalence of SLD ranges from 2% to 10%. Dyslexia (developmental reading disorder is the most common type, affecting 80% of all SLD. About 30% of learning disabled children have behavioral and emotional problems, which range from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (most common to depression, anxiety, suicide etc., to substance abuse (least common. Co-occurrence of such problems with SLD further adds to the academic difficulty. In such instances, diagnosis is difficult and tricky; improvement in academics demands comprehensive holistic treatment approach. SLD remains a large public health problem because of under-recognition, inadequate treatment and therefore merits greater effort to understand the co-morbidities, especially in the Indian population. As the literature is scarce regarding co-morbid conditions in learning disability in Indian scenario, the present study has tried to focus on Indian population. The educational concessions (recent most given to such children by Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi are referred to. The issues to be addressed by the family physicians are: Low level of awareness among families and teachers, improper dissemination of accurate information about psychological problems, available help seeking avenues, need to develop service delivery models in rural and urban areas and focus on the integration of mental health and primary care keeping such co-morbidity in mind.

  8. Detecting acute distress and risk of future psychological morbidity in critically ill patients: validation of the intensive care psychological assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Dorothy M; Hankins, Matthew; Smyth, Deborah A; Rhone, Elijah E; Mythen, Michael G; Howell, David C J; Weinman, John A

    2014-09-24

    The psychological impact of critical illness on a patient can be severe, and frequently results in acute distress as well as psychological morbidity after leaving hospital. A UK guideline states that patients should be assessed in critical care units, both for acute distress and risk of future psychological morbidity; but no suitable method for carrying out this assessment exists. The Intensive care psychological assessment tool (IPAT) was developed as a simple, quick screening tool to be used routinely to detect acute distress, and the risk of future psychological morbidity, in critical care units. A validation study of IPAT was conducted in the critical care unit of a London hospital. Once un-sedated, orientated and alert, critical care patients were assessed with the IPAT and validated tools for distress, to determine the IPAT's concurrent validity. Fifty six patients took IPAT again to establish test-retest reliability. Finally, patients completed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety questionnaires at three months, to determine predictive validity of the IPAT. One hundred and sixty six patients completed the IPAT, and 106 completed follow-up questionnaires at 3 months. Scale analysis showed IPAT was a reliable 10-item measure of critical care-related psychological distress. Test-retest reliability was good (r =0.8). There was good concurrent validity with measures of anxiety and depression (r =0.7, P psychological morbidity was good (r =0.4, P psychological morbidity (AUC =0.7). The IPAT was found to have good reliability and validity. Sensitivity and specificity analysis suggest the IPAT could provide a way of allowing staff to assess psychological distress among critical care patients after further replication and validation. Further work is also needed to determine its utility in predicting future psychological morbidity.

  9. A psychological morbidity study of patients with major burns seen at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... occurred among the patients that were studied. This psychological morbidity developed by 72 hours after sustaining the injury. The need for specialized multidisciplinary approach in burns is emphasized. Keywords: Burns, psychometric study, psychological morbidity. Nigerian Journal of Plastic Surgery Vol. 4 (2) 2008: pp.

  10. Psychological Morbidity in Students of Medical College and Science and Art College Students - A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Mahawar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of quality of life in medical students we have conducted a cross sectional & descriptive study on screening of mental illness of 60 medical students of prefinal year and comparing it with 60 students of third year of Science and Art College. Students were selected via random sampling. GHQ-12 was used as a screening tool and after obtaining scores students were graded in 3 categories - individuals screened positive for psychological morbidity were of Grades 2 and 3 and individuals screened negative for psychological morbidity were of Grade 1 and they were compared according to college, gender & residence. Students screened positive for psychological morbidity as per GHQ-12 were found higher in medical college (87% as compared to Science and Art College (45% and a statistically significant association was found between psychological morbidity and medical students. Psychological morbidity was not significantly associated with residence and gender.

  11. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Shankar, Pathiyil R; Binu, VS; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjoy; Ray, Biswabina; Menezes, Ritesh G

    2007-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. Results The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students). The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. Conclusion The higher level of psychological morbidity

  12. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Chiranjoy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. Results The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students. The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. Conclusion The higher

  13. Psychological and physical co-morbidity among urban South African women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Mendenhall

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence for the links between poverty and both physical and mental health; but limited research on the relationship of physical and mental health problems exists in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence and co-morbidity of psychological distress among women with common physical diseases in a socio-economically disadvantaged urban area of South Africa.Women enrolled in the Birth to twenty (Bt20 cohort study were evaluated for this paper. Bt20 was founded in 1990 and has followed more than 3,000 children and their caregivers since birth; this study evaluates the health of the caregivers (average age 44 of these children. Psychological distress was evaluated by administering the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and we evaluated the presence of physical disease by self-report.Forty percent of the sample presented with psychological distress using the GHQ scoring method. More than half of the women who reported a history of a physical disease, including diabetes, heart attack, asthma, arthritis, osteoporosis, epilepsy, and tuberculosis, reported psychological disorder. Presence of one physical disease was not associated with increased rates of psychological distress. However, women who reported two diseases had increased rates of psychological symptoms, and this upward trend continued with each additional physical disease reported (measured to five.These data indicate high prevalence rates of co-morbid psychological distress among women with physical disease. This argues for the need of greater mental health support for women living with physical diseases.

  14. The mediator role of psychological morbidity on sleep and health behaviors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Silvia Helena Modenesi; Pereira, Maria da Graça

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediation role of psychological morbidity, defined in this study as depression/anxiety, in the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality, and between sleep habits and health behaviors, in adolescents. A total of 272 students, between 12 and 18 years old, underwent a psychological protocol assessing excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, sleep habits, health behavior, and psychological morbidity. Psychological morbidity was not associated with the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality, but was associated, with statistical significance, in the relationship between sleep habits and health behaviors. These results emphasize the role of psychological morbidity in adolescent health behaviors. Analyzing the symptoms of depression and anxiety in pediatric patients may help in a more accurate diagnosis, especially in relation to sleep problems and health behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Pre-morbid predictors of psychological adjustment to cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranchor, AV; Sanderman, R; Steptoe, A; Wardle, J; Miedema, [No Value; Ormel, J; Miedema, I.

    This study examined the potential role of social support, neuroticism, and self-efficacy as predictors of the short-term and long-term adaptation to the diagnosis of cancer. Psychological adjustment was defined in terms of psychological distress. It is argued that these factors may provide insights

  16. Medical Students' Stress, Psychological Morbidity, and Coping Strategies: a Cross-Sectional Study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Nazish; Tariq, Khaula Fatima; Pervez, Muhammad Ijaz; Jawaid, Masood; Haider, Imran Ijaz

    2016-02-01

    The authors studied the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stresses, as well as coping strategies in Pakistani medical students. Medical students in Lahore, Pakistan, completed a cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire in 2013 on the sources and severity of various stressors. The General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and Brief COPE assessed the psychological morbidity and coping strategies. Out of 1500 students, 527 responded to the survey. The prevalence of psychological morbidity was 23.3%; 52.3% respondents showed evidence of distress. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-12 caseness was associated with being male and occurrence of health-related stressors. The most common stressors were related to academic concerns. Coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness. The significant psychological morbidity and distress warrants establishing support systems to support students and bringing about evidence-based changes to teaching and evaluation systems. Adequate counseling facilities should be made available and students encouraged to seek help.

  17. Screening for psychological morbidity in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women using community counselors in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranix-Chibanda, Lynda; Chibanda, Dixon; Chingono, Albert; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Wells, Jennifer; Maldonado, Yvonne; Chipato, Tsungai; Shetty, Avinash K

    2005-12-01

    To examine the prevalence of psychological morbidity in HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women seeking antenatal care in Zimbabwe. Pregnant women were screened for psychological morbidity at the initial antenatal care visit using the 14-item Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ) before voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT). The primary outcome measure was "cases," as determined by a SSQ score of >or= 8. Demographic characteristics and HIV status were compared between cases and noncases to determine the risk factors for psychological morbidity. Of the 437 participants, psychological morbidity was detected in 73 (17%) women before undergoing VCT. Risk factors for psychological morbidity included having a spouse older than 35 years of age. HIV infection by itself was not a risk factor for psychological morbidity for women. There is a high burden of psychological morbidity among pregnant women in Zimbabwe. Mental health services should be integrated into antenatal care to improve psychological health for all women in Zimbabwe.

  18. Burnout, psychological morbidity, job stress, and job satisfaction in Chinese neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyu; Pu, Juncai; Zhong, Xiaoni; Zhu, Dan; Yin, Dinghong; Yang, Lining; Zhang, Yuqing; Fu, Yuying; Wang, Haiyang; Xie, Peng

    2017-05-02

    To investigate the prevalence of and personal and professional characteristics associated with burnout, psychological morbidity, job stress, and job satisfaction in Chinese neurologists. The China Neurologist Association conducted a national cross-sectional study from September 2014 to March 2015. A questionnaire including the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, the Consultants' Mental Health Questionnaire, and questions assessing personal and professional characteristics, career satisfaction, and current doctor-patient relationships was administered. A total of 693 directors of neurology departments and 6,111 neurologists in 30 Chinese provinces returned surveys. Overall, 53.2% of responding neurologists experienced burnout, 37.8% had psychological morbidity, 50.7% had high levels of job stress, 25.7% had low levels of job satisfaction, 76.9% had poor doctor-patient relationships, and 58.1% regretted becoming a doctor. Factors independently associated with burnout were lower income, more hours worked per week, more nights on call per month, working in public hospitals, psychological morbidity, high levels of job stress, low levels of job satisfaction, and poor doctor-patient relationships. Factors independently associated with psychological morbidity included lower income, more nights on call per month, working in enterprise-owned hospitals, burnout, high levels of job stress, and low levels of job satisfaction. Burnout and psychological morbidity are common in Chinese neurologists. Burnout is the single greatest predictor of neurologists' psychological morbidity, high job stress, and low job satisfaction. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Psychological changes in morbidly obese patients after sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, Yolanda; Ferrer, José Vicente; Sanahuja, Angel; Amador, Lydia; Hernando, Denise

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to observe the psychological changes at one year postop in a group of patients undergoing laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy (GVL) and multidisciplinary follow- up. A total of 46 patients with a BMI-35 or higher, who were selected for GVL, completed psychological testing. After GVL surgery, patients received psychological, nutritional, and medical attention during 12 months, and they retook the same tests. Psychological tests showed an improvement on almost all scales tested, except perfectionism. The most significant change was in the benchmark for Eating Disorders with an improvement of 89% for bulimia (P<.01), and 55% for body dissatisfaction (P<.01) and ineffectiveness (P<.01). In quality of life there was an improvement of 57% in the change in health status (P<.01). During our study, a protocol involving GVL and multidisciplinary follow-ups seems proved to be an effective intervention for improving bulimic symptoms and quality of living. The results of these psychological changes are similar to Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass but different to vertical banded gastroplasty or adjustable gastric band, according to previous studies. However, long-term studies are necessary to confirm this trend. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychological correlates and psychiatric morbidity in patients with Dhat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Gupta, Sunil; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine psychological factors in the form of somatosensory amplification, alexithymia and hypochondriasis in patients with Dhat syndrome. Secondary aims of the study were: (1) To evaluate the influence of psychiatric comorbidity on the psychological correlates; (2) to compare the prevalence of psychological correlates in those with Dhat syndrome and in those with depression and somatoform disorders. A total of 106 subjects diagnosed with Dhat syndrome as per International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) criteria were assessed on Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Somatosensory Amplification Scale (SSAS) and Whitely Index (WI). Psychiatric comorbidity was diagnosed as per ICD-10. Data on 50 patients with depression and 119 patients with somatoform disorder was used for comparison. The age at onset of Dhat syndrome was 22.54 (standard deviation [SD] - 7.5) years, and duration of illness was 5.04 (SD - 4.2) years. Depressive disorders were diagnosed in 13.2%, anxiety disorders in 15.1%, erectile dysfunction in 14.2% and premature ejaculation in 17% of cases. The mean SSAS total score was 23.12 (SD - 7.99), mean total TAS-20 score was 63.3 (SD - 13.3) and mean WI score was 8.23 (SD - 2.7). About two third of the patients had alexithymia (n = 67; 63.2%) and hypochondriasis (n = 69; 65.1%). Comparison of the psychological correlates between those with Dhat syndrome alone (n = 59) and those with comorbid psychiatric disorder (n = 47) revealed no significant differences. Patients with only Dhat syndrome had significantly higher scores for somatosensory amplification when compared with those with somatoform disorders, but no difference was seen between those with depression and Dhat syndrome alone. Compared to patients with Dhat syndrome alone, those with depression had higher prevalence of alexithymia and hypochondriasis. There are differences in the prevalence of somatosensory amplification, hypochondriasis and alexithymia between

  1. Psychological morbidity among co-residents of older people in rural South India: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M Khurram; Jacob, K S

    2015-03-01

    This study attempted to examine psychological morbidity among co-residents of older people living in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. This cross-sectional study evaluated psychological morbidity among co-residents using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire and psychiatric morbidity among older people using the 10/66 Dementia Research Group's population-based studies protocol. Socio-demographic data were also collected. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Of 807 residents evaluated, 73 (9.0%) had significant psychological morbidity. Such morbidity was associated with being older, female, poorer, illiterate, currently employed and being a spouse of the older person. A diagnosis of depression, neuropsychiatric symptoms and greater disability in older people were also associated with psychological morbidity among co-residents. Co-residents living with older people have significant psychological morbidity, which needs to be recognised and treated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. The mediator role of psychological morbidity in patients with chronic low back pain in differentiated treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Salomé; Pereira,M. Graça

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the mediating role of psychological morbidity and the variables that discriminated low versus high disability, in patients receiving physiotherapy and acupuncture. A total of 203 patients answered measures of illness and medication representations, coping, depression, anxiety, quality of life, and functional disability. Morbidity was a mediator between functional disability and quality of life. Treatment consequences and quality of life, in the acupuncture grou...

  3. Dyadic adjustment, family coping, body image, quality of life and psychological morbidity in patients with psoriasis and their partners

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,M. Graça; Brito,Laura; Smith, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is an incurable and chronic disease that includes unpredictable periods of remission and relapse requiring long-term therapy. Purpose This paper focuses on the relationship among family coping, psychological morbidity, body image, dyadic adjustment and quality of life in psoriatic patients and their partners. Method One hundred and one patients with psoriasis and 78 partners comprised the sample. They were regular users of the Dermatology Servic...

  4. Physical and psychological morbidities among selected antenatal females in Kegalle district of Sri Lanka: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, I N S; Balasuriya, A; Sivayogan, S

    2017-10-01

    While motherhood is often a positive and satisfying experience, for some women, it is linked with suffering and ill-health. A woman should be able to feel physically and mentally content during pregnancy. Discomforts in pregnancy may be considered as insignificant by the physician. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine physical and psychological morbidities among primigravid antenatal females in the Kegalle District, Sri Lanka. A sample of 1017 second and third trimester primigravid antenatal females selected by a two-stage probability proportional to size cluster sampling method, were assessed for physical and psychological problems. Data analysis was done using SPSS 16 package and associations were found using Chi square test with p values. The presence of any physical health problem during the preceding 14 days was reported by 75.7% (95% CI 73.0-78.2) of females though each individual physical problem was reported by less than or around one-third. Prevalence of psychological distress and depression was 22.7% (95% CI 20.2-25.4) and 10.4% (95% CI 8.7-12.4), respectively. The self-rated health was very good in 24.7% and good in 55.9%. Older employed females had significantly higher physical problems. It is concluded that although the self-rated wellbeing during pregnancy is high, the presence of physical and psychological ill-health is substantial. Impact statement Pregnancy is a time of intense physical change and is associated with emotional upheaval in many women. Obstetric morbidity is defined as morbidity in a woman who has been pregnant regardless of the site or the duration of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management, but not from accidental or incidental causes. It is classified into three categories namely; direct, indirect and psychological obstetric morbidity. For one maternal death, there can be between 9 and 16 females with obstetric morbidity depending on the level of development

  5. Psychological morbidity and return to work after injury: multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Denise; Dhiman, Paula; Kellezi, Blerina; Coupland, Carol; Whitehead, Jessica; Beckett, Kate; Christie, Nicola; Sleney, Judith; Barnes, Jo; Joseph, Stephen; Morriss, Richard

    2017-08-01

    The benefits of work for physical, psychological, and financial wellbeing are well documented. Return to work (RTW) after unintentional injury is often delayed, and psychological morbidity may contribute to this delay. The impact of psychological morbidity on RTW after a wide range of unintentional injuries in the UK has not been adequately quantified. To quantify the role of psychological factors, including anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic distress, on RTW following unintentional injuries. A longitudinal multicentre prospective study was undertaken in Nottingham, Bristol, Leicester, and Guildford, UK. Participants (n = 273) were 16-69-year-olds admitted to hospital following unintentional injury, who were in paid employment prior to injury. They were surveyed at baseline, then at 1, 2, 4, and 12 months following injury; demographic data were collected along with injury characteristics, psychological morbidity, and RTW status. Associations between demographic, injury and psychological factors, and RTW between 2 and 12 months after injury were quantified using random effects logistic regression. The odds of RTW between 2 and 12 months after injury reduced as depression scores early in the recovery period (1 month after injury) increased (odds ratio [OR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.79 to 0.95) and as length of hospital stay increased (OR 0.91, 95% CI] = 0.86 to 0.96). For those experiencing threatening life events following injury (OR 0.27, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.72) and with higher scores on the Crisis Support Scale (OR 0.93, 95% CI] = 0.88 to 0.99), the odds of RTW between 2 and 12 months after injury were lower. Multiple imputation analysis found similar results, but those relating to crisis support did not remain statistically significant. Primary care professionals can identify patients at risk of delayed RTW who may benefit from management of psychological morbidity and support to RTW. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  6. Sexual morbidity associated with poorer psychological adjustment among gynecological cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Anna O; Carpenter, Kristen M; Fowler, Jeffrey M; Brothers, Brittany M; Andersen, Barbara L; Maxwell, G Larry

    2010-04-01

    Sexual morbidity is a distressing and undertreated problem in gynecological cancer survivorship known to occur early and persist well beyond the period of physical recovery. Although often studied as a separate domain, sexuality represents an integral component of psychological adjustment and quality of life (QoL) that is adversely affected by cancer treatments. The present study tests the association between sexual morbidity, and adverse psychological adjustment and QoL outcomes. A cross-sectional design was used. The participants were gynecological (cervical, endometrial, ovarian, and vulvar) cancer survivors who were partnered (N = 186), whose cancer was diagnosed 2 to 10 years previously, and who were at least 6 months post any cancer therapy. Most had been found to have early-stage disease (70%) and were treated with hysterectomy (77%), chemotherapy (43%), and/or radiotherapy (23%). Sexual morbidity was operationalized as a multidimensional construct including sexual behavior, sexual functioning, and subjective sexual satisfaction, assessed by patient self-report. Outcomes included self-reported depressive symptoms, traumatic stress symptoms, cancer-specific stress, stress about body changes, and QoL. Nurse-rated of performance status and disruptive signs/symptoms of treatment toxicity, as well as relevant sociodemographic and disease variables were collected as potential controls. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested sexual morbidity as a predictor of poor outcomes. All statistical models were significant, accounting for 12% to 53% of the variance in psychological adjustment/QoL. Sexual morbidity covaried with worsened depressive symptoms, body change stress, and psychological QoL beyond the negative contributions of (older) age, (poorer) performance status, and (greater) fatigue. Notably, disease and treatment variables were not statistically significant correlates of psychological adjustment or QoL. These findings suggest that prevention or

  7. Health-related productivity losses increase when the health condition is co-morbid with psychological distress: findings from a large cross-sectional sample of working Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The health condition of workers is known to impact on productivity outcomes. The relationship between health and productivity is of increasing interest amid the need to increase productivity to meet global financial challenges. Prevalence of psychological distress is also of growing concern in Australia with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of psychological distress in Australia from 1997-2005. Methods We used the cross-sectional data set from the Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC) study to explore the impacts of health conditions with and without co-morbid psychological distress, compared to those with neither condition, in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The World Health Organisation Health and Performance Questionnaire was used which provided data on demographic characteristics, health condition and working conditions. Data were analysed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism respectively. Results For both absenteeism and presenteeism productivity measures there was a greater risk of productivity loss associated when health conditions were co-morbid with psychological distress. For some conditions this risk was much greater for those with co-morbid psychological distress compared to those without. Conclusions Co-morbid psychological distress demonstrates an increased risk of productivity loss for a range of health conditions. These findings highlight the need for further research to determine whether co-morbid psychological distress potentially exacerbates lost productivity. PMID:21627840

  8. Health-related productivity losses increase when the health condition is co-morbid with psychological distress: findings from a large cross-sectional sample of working Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecchio Nerina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health condition of workers is known to impact on productivity outcomes. The relationship between health and productivity is of increasing interest amid the need to increase productivity to meet global financial challenges. Prevalence of psychological distress is also of growing concern in Australia with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of psychological distress in Australia from 1997-2005. Methods We used the cross-sectional data set from the Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC study to explore the impacts of health conditions with and without co-morbid psychological distress, compared to those with neither condition, in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The World Health Organisation Health and Performance Questionnaire was used which provided data on demographic characteristics, health condition and working conditions. Data were analysed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism respectively. Results For both absenteeism and presenteeism productivity measures there was a greater risk of productivity loss associated when health conditions were co-morbid with psychological distress. For some conditions this risk was much greater for those with co-morbid psychological distress compared to those without. Conclusions Co-morbid psychological distress demonstrates an increased risk of productivity loss for a range of health conditions. These findings highlight the need for further research to determine whether co-morbid psychological distress potentially exacerbates lost productivity.

  9. Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willkinson, Leland

    1999-01-01

    Proposes guidelines for revising the American Psychological Association (APA) publication manual or other APA materials to clarify the application of statistics in research reports. The guidelines are intended to induce authors and editors to recognize the thoughtless application of statistical methods. Contains 54 references. (SLD)

  10. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Shankar, Pathiyil R; Binu, V S; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjoy; Ray, Biswabina; Menezes, Ritesh G

    2007-08-02

    In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students). The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. The higher level of psychological morbidity warrants need for interventions like

  11. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay Chiranjoy; Binu VS; Shankar Pathiyil R; Sreeramareddy Chandrashekhar T; Ray Biswabina; Menezes Ritesh G

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical cur...

  12. Chronic idiopathic urticaria, psychological co-morbidity and posttraumatic stress: the impact of alexithymia and repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunkin, Victoria; Chung, Man Cheung

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the interrelationship between chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU), psychological co-morbidity, posttraumatic stress, repression and alexithymia. 89 participants with CIU and 105 without CIU responded to an online questionnaire. Both groups completed the general health questionnaire-12, the perceived stress scale, the posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale and the Toronto alexithymia scale-20 and were categorised into four defence mechanism groups (repressive, defensive, high-anxious, low-anxious). CIU participants also completed the Skindex-17 and a self-report severity measure. CIU participants reported higher levels of alexithymia than the control group and their defence mechanism was most likely to be categorised as defensive, with conscious self-image management reported alongside high manifest anxiety. Partial least squares analysis revealed significant paths between posttraumatic stress and CIU severity and psychological co-morbidity. Posttraumatic stress was associated with alexithymia and type of defence mechanism. Only being in the high-anxious group partially mediated the relationship between posttraumatic stress and CIU severity. In conclusion, there is evidence for a relationship between CIU and trauma. The severity of posttraumatic symptoms varies depending upon alexithymic traits and defence mechanisms used. Disease severity and psychological co-morbidity are differentially influenced by the relationships between trauma, alexithymic traits and defence mechanisms.

  13. Psychological morbidity among female commercial sex workers with alcohol and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiyan, Kasthuri; Chandrasekhar, H; Madhusudhan, S

    2012-10-01

    Substance abuse may act as precursors and also can form outcomes of sexual behaviors. The confluence of drug use, mental stressors, poverty, sexually transmitted diseases, low self-esteem and high-risk partners forms a fertile ground for psychological morbidity. To assess the psychological morbidity among female commercial sex workers (CSWs) who use alcohol and other substance abuse. One hundred consecutive CSWs with alcohol and drug abuse patients attending the psychiatric OPD at Victoria hospital were assessed clinically. Relevant investigations were also carried out. General health questionnaire and substance use disorder identification tests were administered. A total of 100 cases between 30-40 years of age were taken up for the study. All were abusing alcohol with tobacco chewing or smoking being (64). Eighty-seven were married. Fifty of them being illiterate. Seventy-eight were suffering from physical illness. Two were HIV patient on treatment. Seventy-eight were having psychological morbidity (depression and adjustment disorder). Preventive interventions, targeting substance abuse and stimulating healthier-environments and providing economically independent.

  14. Qualitative Research Methods in Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Biggerstaff, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    In the scientific community, and particularly in psychology and health, there has been an active and ongoing debate on the relative merits of adopting either quantitative or qualitative methods, especially when researching into human behaviour (Bowling, 2009; Oakley, 2000; Smith, 1995a, 1995b; Smith, 1998). In part, this debate formed a component of the development in the 1970s of our thinking about science. Andrew Pickering has described this movement as the "sociology of scientific knowledg...

  15. Co-morbidity of depression, anxiety and fatigue in cancer patients receiving psychological care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Ranchor, Adelita V; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Almansa, Josué; Sanderman, Robbert; Schroevers, Maya J

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to examine (1) subgroups of cancer patients with distinct co-morbidity patterns of depression, anxiety and fatigue; (2) how individuals transitioned between these patterns; and (3) whether socio-demographic, clinical and psychological care characteristics distinguished patients' transitions. This naturalistic, longitudinal study focused on 241 cancer patients receiving psycho-oncological care in the Netherlands. Data were collected before initiation of psychological care (T1), 3 months (T2), and 9 months thereafter (T3). Latent transition analysis was performed examining research questions. Three distinct co-morbidity patterns were identified: class 1 ('mood disturbances and fatigue'), class 2 ('mood disturbances') and class 3 ('few symptoms of mood disturbances and fatigue'). Half of those in class 1 remained in this group from T1 to T3, a quarter transitioned to class 2 and another quarter to class 3. Baseline physical symptoms distinguished these transitions: those with more physical symptoms tended to remain stable. Half of patients in class 2 remained stable from T1 to T3, 46% moved into class 3 and 8% into class 1. Baseline physical symptoms and years after cancer diagnosis significantly distinguished these transitions: the 8% moving to class 1 had more physical symptoms and were longer after cancer diagnosis. Most patients in class 3 remained stable from T1 to T3, and predictors of transitions could not be examined. Three distinct co-morbidity patterns of depression, anxiety and fatigue were identified and exhibited different symptom courses longitudinally. Those with poor physical health tended to report elevated mood disturbances and fatigue during psychological care. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Investigating risk factors for psychological morbidity three months after intensive care: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Dorothy M; Howell, David C; Weinman, John A; Hardy, Rebecca J; Mythen, Michael G; Brewin, Chris R; Borja-Boluda, Susana; Matejowsky, Claire F; Raine, Rosalind A

    2012-10-15

    There is growing evidence of poor mental health and quality of life among survivors of intensive care. However, it is not yet clear to what extent the trauma of life-threatening illness, associated drugs and treatments, or patients' psychological reactions during intensive care contribute to poor psychosocial outcomes. Our aim was to investigate the relative contributions of a broader set of risk factors and outcomes than had previously been considered in a single study. A prospective cohort study of 157 mixed-diagnosis highest acuity patients was conducted in a large general intensive care unit (ICU). Data on four groups of risk factors (clinical, acute psychological, socio-demographic and chronic health) were collected during ICU admissions. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety and quality of life were assessed using validated questionnaires at three months (n = 100). Multivariable analysis was used. At follow-up, 55% of patients had psychological morbidity: 27.1% (95% CI: 18.3%, 35.9%) had probable PTSD; 46.3% (95% CI: 36.5%, 56.1%) probable depression, and 44.4% (95% CI: 34.6%, 54.2%) anxiety. The strongest clinical risk factor for PTSD was longer duration of sedation (regression coefficient = 0.69 points (95% CI: 0.12, 1.27) per day, scale = 0 to 51). There was a strong association between depression at three months and receiving benzodiazepines in the ICU (mean difference between groups = 6.73 points (95% CI: 1.42, 12.06), scale = 0 to 60). Use of inotropes or vasopressors was correlated with anxiety, and corticosteroids with better physical quality of life. Strikingly high rates of psychological morbidity were found in this cohort of intensive care survivors. The study's key finding was that acute psychological reactions in the ICU were the strongest modifiable risk factors for developing mental illness in the future. The observation that use of different ICU drugs correlated with different psychological outcomes merits further

  17. Psychological morbidity among young adults attending primary care: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Louise; Hannigan, Ailish; O'Regan, Andrew; Khalil, Sherif; Meagher, David; Cullen, Walter

    2015-10-15

    Currently, Ireland has the fourth highest rate of youth suicide in the European Union with psychological morbidity ranging from 21% to 27% in young adults. Primary care is ideally situated to address mental health problems and provide direction and support to young adults. This study investigates the prevalence and management of young adults aged 18-25 presenting to their general practitioner with a psychological problem as part of a larger study on all adults. A random sample of 100 patients aged 18 and over with a consultation in the previous 2 years was selected from the practice management systems of 40 general practices in Ireland. Clinical records of active patients (excluding temporary visitors to the practice) were examined using a standardized reporting tool to extract information on demographics, prevalence, diagnoses and treatments for psychological problems. Of the 3845 active patients sampled aged 18 and over, 479 were in the target age group of 18-25. Of the 479 young adults identified (51% female, 60% fee paying), 57 (12%, 95% CI: 9-15%) had a documented psychological problem within the previous 2 years. Those with psychological problems were more likely to be frequent attenders and eligible for free medical care. Depression (23%) and stress and anxiety (23%) were most commonly identified. The estimated prevalence rate is considerably lower than previous studies which may indicate reluctance among young adults in presenting to primary care or reflect under-identification of psychological problems. Given the high rate of prescribing, enhancing access to non-pharmacological treatments in primary care is a priority. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Gender differences in psychological morbidity and treatment in intensive care survivors--a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schandl, Anna; Bottai, Matteo; Hellgren, Elisabeth; Sundin, Örjan; Sackey, Peter

    2012-05-14

    Many hospitals have initiated follow-up to facilitate rehabilitation after critical illness and intensive care, although the efficacy of such an intervention is uncertain. Studies in trauma research indicate significant differences in psychological reactions to traumatic events between men and women. Our aim, in a quasi-experimental design, was to compare psychological morbidity and treatment effects between men and women enrolled in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU) follow-up programme (follow-up group) and ICU patients not offered such follow-up (control group). Men and women treated more than four days in the ICU in 2006, before ICU follow-up started, were compared with men and women treated in 2007 and 2008, when all patients with an ICU stay of more than four days were offered ICU follow-up at 3, 6 and 12 months post-ICU. Fourteen months after ICU discharge, psychological problems were measured with Impact of Event Scale (IES) for posttraumatic stress and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) for anxiety and depression. Women with no follow-up reported significantly higher IES scores than men. Women in the follow-up group reported significantly lower IES scores compared to women in the control group, both in crude analysis and after adjusting for significant confounders/predictors (age, ICU length of stay and previous psychological problems). Furthermore, the 75th percentile for IES and HADS-Depression scores (high scores and degree of symptoms of psychological problems) in women in the follow-up group was lower than in those without follow-up (IES: -17.4 p, P Psychological problems after critical illness and intensive care appear to be more common in women than in men. A multidisciplinary ICU follow-up may reduce the incidence of long-term symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression for women.

  19. Burnout, psychological morbidity and use of coping mechanisms among palliative care practitioners: A multi-centre cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Mervyn Yong Hwang; Chong, Poh Heng; Neo, Patricia Soek Hui; Ong, Yew Jin; Yong, Woon Chai; Ong, Wah Ying; Shen, Mira Li Juan; Hum, Allyn Yin Mei

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of burnout, psychological morbidity and the use of coping mechanisms among palliative care practitioners in Singapore have not been studied. We aimed to study the prevalence of burnout and psychological morbidity among palliative care practitioners in Singapore and its associations with demographic and workplace factors as well as the use of coping mechanisms. This was a multi-centre, cross-sectional study of all the palliative care providers within the public healthcare sector in Singapore. The study was conducted in hospital palliative care services, home hospice and inpatient hospices in Singapore. The participants were doctors, nurses and social workers. The prevalence of burnout among respondents in our study was 91 of 273 (33.3%) and psychological morbidity was 77 (28.2%). Working >60 h per week was significantly associated with burnout (odds ratio: 9.02, 95% confidence interval: 2.3-35.8, p = 0.002) and psychological morbidity (odds ratio: 7.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.8-28.8, p = 0.005). Home hospice care practitioners (41.5%) were more at risk of developing psychological morbidity compared to hospital-based palliative care (17.5%) or hospice inpatient care (26.0%) (p = 0.007). Coping mechanisms like physical well-being, clinical variety, setting boundaries, transcendental (meditation and quiet reflection), passion for one's work, realistic expectations, remembering patients and organisational activities were associated with less burnout. Our results reveal that burnout and psychological morbidity are significant in the palliative care community and demonstrate a need to look at managing long working hours and promoting the use of coping mechanisms to reduce burnout and psychological morbidity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Secondary stressors are associated with probable psychological morbidity after flooding: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempest, Elizabeth L; Carter, Ben; Beck, Charles R; Rubin, G James

    2017-12-01

    The impact of flooding on mental health is exacerbated due to secondary stressors, although the mechanism of action is not understood. We investigated the role of secondary stressors on psychological outcomes through analysis of data collected one-year after flooding, and effect modification by sex. We analysed data from the English National Study on Flooding and Health collected from households flooded, disrupted and unexposed to flooding during 2013-14. Psychological outcomes were probable depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Parsimonious multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to determine the effect of secondary stressors on the psychological outcomes. Sex was tested as an effect modifier using subgroup analyses. A total of 2006 people participated (55.5% women, mean age 60 years old). Participants reporting concerns about their personal health and that of their family (concerns about health) had greater odds of probable depression (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.77, 95% CI 1.17-2.65) and PTSD (aOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.82-3.66). Loss of items of sentimental value was associated with probable anxiety (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.26-2.62). For women, the strongest associations were between concerns about health and probable PTSD (aOR 2.86, 95% CI 1.79-4.57). For men, the strongest associations were between 'relationship problems' and probable depression (aOR 3.25, 95% CI 1.54-6.85). Concerns about health, problems with relationships and loss of sentimental items were consistently associated with poor psychological outcomes. Interventions to reduce the occurrence of these secondary stressors are needed to mitigate the impact of flooding on probable psychological morbidity.

  1. Neuropathic pain and psychological morbidity in patients with treated leprosy: a cross-sectional prevalence study in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasry-Levy, Estrella; Hietaharju, Aki; Pai, Vivek; Ganapati, Ramaswamy; Rice, Andrew S C; Haanpää, Maija; Lockwood, Diana N J

    2011-03-08

    Neuropathic pain has been little studied in leprosy. We assessed the prevalence and clinical characteristics of neuropathic pain and the validity of the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire as a screening tool for neuropathic pain in patients with treated leprosy. The association of neuropathic pain with psychological morbidity was also evaluated. Adult patients who had completed multi-drug therapy for leprosy were recruited from several Bombay Leprosy Project clinics. Clinical neurological examination, assessment of leprosy affected skin and nerves and pain evaluation were performed for all patients. Patients completed the Douleur Neuropathique 4 and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire to identify neuropathic pain and psychological morbidity. One hundred and one patients were recruited, and 22 (21.8%) had neuropathic pain. The main sensory symptoms were numbness (86.4%), tingling (68.2%), hypoesthesia to touch (81.2%) and pinprick (72.7%). Neuropathic pain was associated with nerve enlargement and tenderness, painful skin lesions and with psychological morbidity. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 92% in diagnosing neuropathic pain. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 is a simple tool for the screening of neuropathic pain in leprosy patients. Psychological morbidity was detected in 15% of the patients and 41% of the patients with neuropathic pain had psychological morbidity.

  2. Neuropathic pain and psychological morbidity in patients with treated leprosy: a cross-sectional prevalence study in Mumbai.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Lasry-Levy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain has been little studied in leprosy. We assessed the prevalence and clinical characteristics of neuropathic pain and the validity of the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire as a screening tool for neuropathic pain in patients with treated leprosy. The association of neuropathic pain with psychological morbidity was also evaluated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult patients who had completed multi-drug therapy for leprosy were recruited from several Bombay Leprosy Project clinics. Clinical neurological examination, assessment of leprosy affected skin and nerves and pain evaluation were performed for all patients. Patients completed the Douleur Neuropathique 4 and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire to identify neuropathic pain and psychological morbidity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: One hundred and one patients were recruited, and 22 (21.8% had neuropathic pain. The main sensory symptoms were numbness (86.4%, tingling (68.2%, hypoesthesia to touch (81.2% and pinprick (72.7%. Neuropathic pain was associated with nerve enlargement and tenderness, painful skin lesions and with psychological morbidity. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 92% in diagnosing neuropathic pain. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 is a simple tool for the screening of neuropathic pain in leprosy patients. Psychological morbidity was detected in 15% of the patients and 41% of the patients with neuropathic pain had psychological morbidity.

  3. Neuropathic Pain and Psychological Morbidity in Patients with Treated Leprosy: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in Mumbai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasry-Levy, Estrella; Hietaharju, Aki; Pai, Vivek; Ganapati, Ramaswamy; Rice, Andrew S. C.; Haanpää, Maija; Lockwood, Diana N. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain has been little studied in leprosy. We assessed the prevalence and clinical characteristics of neuropathic pain and the validity of the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire as a screening tool for neuropathic pain in patients with treated leprosy. The association of neuropathic pain with psychological morbidity was also evaluated. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult patients who had completed multi-drug therapy for leprosy were recruited from several Bombay Leprosy Project clinics. Clinical neurological examination, assessment of leprosy affected skin and nerves and pain evaluation were performed for all patients. Patients completed the Douleur Neuropathique 4 and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire to identify neuropathic pain and psychological morbidity. Conclusions/Significance One hundred and one patients were recruited, and 22 (21.8%) had neuropathic pain. The main sensory symptoms were numbness (86.4%), tingling (68.2%), hypoesthesia to touch (81.2%) and pinprick (72.7%). Neuropathic pain was associated with nerve enlargement and tenderness, painful skin lesions and with psychological morbidity. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 92% in diagnosing neuropathic pain. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 is a simple tool for the screening of neuropathic pain in leprosy patients. Psychological morbidity was detected in 15% of the patients and 41% of the patients with neuropathic pain had psychological morbidity. PMID:21408111

  4. Research methods for economic psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranyard, Rob; Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of possible avenues for research in relation to various key economic-psychological problems. Theoretical research mainly comprises (mathematical) modelling of economic psychological processes. The starting point for theoretical research often is literature search

  5. Exploring the experience of psychological morbidity and service access in community dwelling stroke survivors: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jennifer; Dickson, Alexandra; Magin, Parker; Tapley, Amanda; Attia, John; Sturm, John; Carter, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Post-stroke depression occurs in one-third of stroke survivors with a similar risk of development across short, intermediate and long-term recovery stages. Knowledge of factors influencing psychological morbidity beyond the first year post-stroke can inform long-term interventions and improve community service access for stroke survivors. This paper aimed to identify the physical and psycho-social functioning status of stroke survivors beyond 12 months post-stroke. Qualitative processes explored the longer term experiences of psychological morbidity and service access needs. A cross-sectional follow-up of participants from a prospective cohort study. In that study, patients and were followed for 12 months post-stroke. In this study, participants from that cohort study were interviewed up to five years post-stroke. Data generation and analysis were concurrent and were analysed thematically, employing a process of constant comparison. Our sample included 14 participants, aged 58-89 years at an average of three years post-stroke (range 18 months to five years). Our qualitative key themes emerged as follows: physical impacts on post-stroke psychological morbidity, the experience of psychological distress, factors attenuating distress and service delivery implications. The experience of psychological morbidity persists beyond 12 months post-stroke, having a profound impact on community access, and social participation. Clinical implications are a need for long-term psychological monitoring post-stroke and for ongoing rehabilitation that addresses disability, community participation and social support.

  6. Determinants of psychological morbidity in survivors of the earthquake and tsunami in Aceh and Nias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maramis Albert

    2010-04-01

    related to being an IDP. The greatest effect among these was due to disaster impacts. The pattern was similar when considering post-traumatic stress symptoms separately. Conclusions Negative changes in a person's life circumstances following a disaster appear to have as important an effect on psychopathology as the direct experience of the disaster. Ameliorating the extent and duration of post-disaster negative changes in life circumstances may play an important role in prevention of post-disaster psychological morbidity.

  7. Psychological morbidity of farmers and non-farming population: results from a UK survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounsome, Barry; Edwards, Rhiannon T; Hounsome, Natalia; Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2012-08-01

    The relatively high rate of suicide among UK farmers suggests that they may suffer greater mental health problems than the general population. This paper provides a comparison of the psychological morbidity of farmers and their partners/spouses with non-farmers. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was administered using face-to-face interviews with 784 attendees of agricultural shows in the UK. Results show that GHQ-12 scores for farmers and their partners/spouses were significantly higher (P employed or not in paid employment, having a non-supervisory position and living in a rural area were characterized by higher mean GHQ-12 scores compared to correspondent subgroups from the non-farming population.

  8. Gender differences in psychological morbidity, burnout, job stress and job satisfaction among Chinese neurologists: a national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Juncai; Zhou, Xinyu; Zhu, Dan; Zhong, Xiaoni; Yang, Lining; Wang, Haiyang; Zhang, Yuqing; Fan, Songhua; Liu, Lanxiang; Xie, Peng

    2017-07-01

    Women are an important part of the medical workforce, yet little is known about gender differences in psychological morbidity, burnout, job stress and job satisfaction among neurologists. This study assessed gender differences in a large national sample of Chinese neurologists. Multivariate analyses were performed to examine associations. A total of 5558 neurologists were included in the analysis. Compared with their male counterparts, female neurologists were generally younger; were less likely to be married or to have children; had higher levels of education; were in practice for a shorter period of time; were less likely to hold senior roles; and had lower incomes. Male and female neurologists worked similar hours and spent a similar number of nights on call. No gender differences were found in psychological morbidity, burnout, and high levels of job stress for female and male, respectively. Women had higher emotional exhaustion scores, while men were more likely to have low levels of job satisfaction. The multivariate analysis showed that factors independently associated with psychological morbidity, burnout, high levels of job stress and low levels of job satisfaction were generally similar for women and men. These findings increase our understanding of gender differences in psychological morbidity, burnout, job stress, and job satisfaction among neurologists. As more women join the medical profession, these differences may be useful in designing medical training and practice.

  9. PSYCHOLOGICAL MORBIDITY IN PATIENTS WITH TINNITUS : A HOSPITAL BASED CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus is not a disease but a symptom of hearing sound when no external sound is present. Studies have shown that some people, the sound causes anxiety or interferes with concentration, incr eased awareness of depression and personality disorders. To this purpose we evaluated the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in chronic tinnitus using MINI interview. METHODS: A sample of 53 male and female patients with tinnitus between the age of 13 and 50 years participated in the study. Patients with ear infections , disease of th e heart or blood vessels , Meniere's disease , brain tumors , exposure to certain medications, a previous head injury and earwax were excluded. The subjects so chosen, were explained the nature of the study. Da ta was collected from outpatient ENT Clinics regarding demographic and clinical profiles from these patients. Each subject was then administered Mini International Neuropsychaitric Interview (M.I.N.I RESULTS: More numbers of females were there than males and majority were in between 30 - 39 years. Both married and unmarried people were equally affected. Middle class and upper lower classes were most affected. The prevalence of psychiatric co morbidity in these tinnitus patients follows in descending order: M ajor depressive disorder>>Social Phobia > Suicide > Panic - disorder > Obsessive – compulsive – disorder > Agarophobia = Dysthymic - disorder=Generalized - anxiety. CONCLUSION : We observed that the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in chronic tinnitus patients were as follows in descending order Major - depressive - disorder >> Social - Phobia > Suicide > Pani c - disorder > Obsessive - compulsive – disorder > Agarophobia = Dysthymic disorder=Generalized - anxiety . Treatment of this psychiatric morbidity with medications and psychotherapy may likely reduce the severity of tinnitus in many of these patients.

  10. Psychological Profile and Quality of Life of Morbid Obese Patients Attending a Cognitive Behavioural Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Marzocchi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The results show that 27% of cases had a BES score ≥ 17, indicative of possible binge eating, and 13% had a BES ≥ 27, largely indicative of binge eating, with a higher prevalence in females. The BDI score was above normal in 30% of males and 45% of females, and 13% of females were in the range of moderate-severe depression. BES and BDI were significantly correlated with each other. Orwell-97 was much higher in females, and similarly the generic PGWB was indicative of a poorer HRQL in females. PGWB was positively associated with age, without any effect of BMI. The association with age was maintained in female, not in males. Both the Orwell-97 and the PGWB were associated with both BES and BDI in both genders. Psychological distress is common and largely variable in patients attending CBT for morbid obesity. This data should be considered for individual treatment protocols, and should be compared with similar series of patients enrolled for bariatric surgery.

  11. Social Psychology: research methods and techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira, Marcos Emanoel; Álvaro, José Luís

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the research methods adopted by researchers in the field of Social Psychology, differentiating them by considerations derived from the four epistemic dimensions...

  12. Influence of psychological variables in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery after 24 months of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hurtado, José; Ferrer-Márquez, Manuel; Fontalba-Navas, Andrés; García-Torrecillas, Juan Manuel; Olvera-Porcel, M Carmen

    Bariatric surgery is considered a more effective means of achieving weight loss than non-surgical options in morbid obesity. Rates of failure or relapse range from 20 to 30%. The study aims to analyse the influence of psychological variables (self-esteem, social support, coping strategies and personality) in the maintenance of weight loss after bariatric surgery. A cohort study was conducted involving 64 patients undergoing bariatric surgery for 24 months. At the end of the follow-up period, patients were divided into 2sub-cohorts classified as successes or failures. Success or favorable development was considered when the value of percent excess weight loss was 50 or higher. No statistically significant differences were observed between the 2groups in any variable studied. All patients had high self-esteem (87,3 those who failed and 88,1 those who are successful) and social support (90,2 and 90,9). Patients who succeed presented higher scores for cognitive restructuring (57,1) and were more introverted (47,1), while those who failed scored more highly in desiderative thinking (65,7) and were more prone to aggression (50,7) and neuroticism (51,7). High self-esteem and social support does not guarantee successful treatment. The groups differed in how they coped with obesity but the data obtained do not justify the weight evolution. In the absence of psychopathology, personality trait variability between patients is insufficient to predict the results. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of clinically significant psychological distress and psychiatric morbidity by examining quality of life in subjects with occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghezzo Heberto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Juniper Asthma Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ(S is a questionnaire that allows measurement of disease specific quality of life. We wanted to examine correlations between the (AQLQ(S general and different subscale scores and both psychiatric morbidity and levels of psychological distress in individuals with occupational asthma (OA and to determine if results in the emotional function subscale allow identification of individuals with clinically significant psychological distress or current psychiatric disorders. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of individuals with OA who were assessed during a re-evaluation for permanent disability, after they were no longer exposed to the sensitizing agent. Patients underwent a general sociodemographic and medical history evaluation, a brief psychiatric interview (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders, PRIME-MD and completed a battery of questionnaires including the AQLQ(S, the St-Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, and the Psychiatric Symptom Index (PSI. Results There was good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.936 for the AQLQ(S total score and construct validity for the AQLQ(S (Spearman rho = -0.693 for the SGRQ symptom score and rho = -0.650 for the asthma severity score. There were medium to large correlations between the total score of the AQLQ(S and the SGRQ symptom score (r = -.693, and PSI total (r = -.619 and subscale scores (including depression, r = -.419; anxiety, r = -.664; anger, r = -.367; cognitive disturbances, r = -.419. A cut-off of 5.1 on the AQLQ(S emotional function subscale (where 0 = high impairment and 7 = no impairment had the best discriminative value to distinguish individuals with or without clinically significant psychiatric distress according to the PSI, and a cut-off of 4.7 best distinguished individuals with or without a current psychiatric disorder according to the PRIME-MD. Conclusions Impaired quality of life is

  14. Psychological morbidity and substance use among patients with hypertension: a hospital-based cross-sectional survey from South West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboka, Matiwos; Gudina, Esayas Kebede; Tesfaye, Markos

    2017-01-01

    Psychological morbidity and substance use disorders have been linked to cardiovascular diseases; affecting patients' medical outcome and quality of life. However, little is known about psychological morbidity and substance use among patients with hypertension in Ethiopia. Therefore, we aimed to assess psychological comorbidity and substance use among hypertensive patients in Southwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 396 hypertensive patients on follow-up at Jimma University Teaching Hospital in Ethiopia during the study period. Structured questionnaires were used to assess alcohol use, khat chewing and cigarette smoking. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the Kessler-6 scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify the independent association between outcome and explanatory variables. The prevalence of psychological morbidity among hypertensive patients was 31.6%. Of the total participants, 31 (7.8%) of them had alcohol use disorders and 79 (19.9%) of them were using khat regularly at the time of the study. Singles were more likely to have psychological morbidity than married participants (AOR = 4.72; 95% CI 1.83, 12.20, p = 0.001), whereas those who were able to 'read and write' were less likely to have psychological morbidity than non-literate ones (AOR = 0.46; 95% CI 0.24, 0.89, p = 0.02). However, no association was seen between psychological morbidity and substance use (khat chewing, alcohol use and cigarette smoking), belief about hypertension, ever discontinuation of medication and lifestyle (exercise, salt consumption). Psychological morbidity and substance use are prevalent among hypertensive patients on follow-up at the hospital. The findings of the study imply that there is a need for further studies to understand the effect of psychological morbidity on the clinical outcomes of hypertensive patients.

  15. Are ENT surgeons in the UK at risk of stress, psychological morbidities and burnout? A national questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijendren, Ananth; Yung, Matthew; Shiralkar, Uttam

    2016-03-15

    Work-related stress, psychological disorders and burnout are common occupational disorders affecting UK doctors. To date, there are no studies looking at these psychosocial morbidities amongst ENT surgeons worldwide. The General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory (aMBI) were incorporated into a questionnaire on occupational diseases amongst ENT surgeons and distributed to the entire membership of ENT-UK. The survey study also acquired demographic data on grade of respondent, years of experience in ENT and subspecialty interest. We received 108 (8.1% response rate) appropriately filled GHQ-12 and 121 (9.0% response rate) aMBI questionnaires. 61 respondents (56.5%) on the GHQ-12 were at high risk of developing stress and psychological morbidity and 35 (28.9%) had high enough aMBI scores to suggested burnout. When comparing scores of both GHQ-12 and aMBI with grade of respondent, years of experience in ENT and subspecialty, statistical difference was only found on the risk of stress and psychiatric disorders amongst paediatric ENT surgeons (7 high risk vs 0 low risk, p = 0.02), however the number of these respondents was small (7 in total). Both questionnaires had been validated for use within our population. We found high incidence rates of stress and psychological morbidity (56.5%) and a burnout prevalence rate of 28.9% amongst our responding cohort of UK Oto-rhino-laryngologists. No meaningful differences were found between stress, psychological morbidity and burnout with grade of ENT surgeon, years of experience in ENT and subspecialty within ENT. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality of life and psychological morbidity in vitiligo patients: A study in a teaching hospital from north-east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucybeth N Sangma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Vitiligo is an acquired discoloration of skin and mucous membrane of great cosmetic importance affecting 1-4% of the world′s population. It causes disfiguration in all races, more so in dark-skinned people because of strong contrast. Men, women, and children with vitiligo face severe psychological and social disadvantage. Aim: To assess the impact of the disease on the quality of life of patients suffering from vitiligo, also to ascertain any psychological morbidity like depression associated with the disease and to compare the results with that of healthy control group. Materials and Methods : Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD are administered to 100 vitiligo patients presenting to the Dermatology OPD and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results were analyzed and compared with that of control group. Findings are also correlated in relation to demographic and clinical profile of the disease. Statistical analysis is made to see the significance. Results : Vitiligo-affected patients had significantly elevated total DLQI scores (P < 0.001 compared to healthy controls. There is increase in parameters like itch, embarrassment, social and leisure activities in the patient cohort than the control group. Patients of vitiligo are also found to be more depressed (P < 0.001 than the controls. Conclusion : Quality of life (QOL in patients affected with vitiligo declined more severely, and also there is increase in incidence of depression than in the control group. These changes are critical for the psychosocial life of the affected people.

  17. Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative…

  18. Dyadic adjustment, family coping, body image, quality of life and psychological morbidity in patients with psoriasis and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M Graça; Brito, Laura; Smith, Tom

    2012-09-01

    Psoriasis is an incurable and chronic disease that includes unpredictable periods of remission and relapse requiring long-term therapy. This paper focuses on the relationship among family coping, psychological morbidity, body image, dyadic adjustment and quality of life in psoriatic patients and their partners. One hundred and one patients with psoriasis and 78 partners comprised the sample. They were regular users of the Dermatology Service of a Central Northern hospital in Portugal and a private dermatology clinic. Patients with psoriasis were assessed on anxiety, depression, body image, quality of life, dyadic adjustment and family coping. Partners were assessed on the same measures except body image and quality of life. A positive relationship among dyadic adjustment, psychological morbidity and family coping in patients and their partners was found. Also, patients with lower levels of quality of life had partners with higher levels of depressive and anxious symptoms. Better dyadic adjustment predicted family coping in the psoriatic patient. High levels of dyadic adjustment in patients and low partners' trait anxiety predicted better dyadic adjustment in partners. The results highlight the importance of incorporating family variables in psychological interventions in psoriasis' care, particularly family coping and dyadic adjustment as well as the need for psychological intervention to focus both on patients and partners.

  19. Psychological morbidity, job satisfaction and intentions to quit among teachers in private secondary schools in Edo-State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofili, A N; Usiholo, E A; Oronsaye, M O

    2009-01-01

    Teachers are an inseparable corner stone of the society and their satisfaction will affect the quality of service they render. Poor job satisfaction could result in job stress and this could affect their psychological health. This study aims to ascertain the level, causes of job dissatisfaction, intentions to quit and psychological morbidity among teachers in private secondary schools in a developing country. A cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers (392) in private secondary schools in Benin-City, Edo-State Nigeria, between June 2003 to November 2003. A total population of 400 teachers who had spent at least one year in the service were included in the study. The respondents completed a self-administered designed questionnaire and a standard instrument--The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28) The response rate was 98%. Fifty-eight (14.8%) of the respondents had psychological morbidity (GHQ score of 4 and above). One hundred and seventy-eight (45.4%) teachers were very satisfied or satisfied with their jobs. A significant number (45.9%) of teachers would want to quit their jobs. The proportion of teachers with GHQ score 4 and above increased with the level of dissatisfaction but this was not found to be statistically significant. Poor salary was found to be the main cause of job dissatisfaction and major reason for wanting to quit the job. This study shows a low level of job satisfaction among Nigerian teachers. Poor salary was the major cause of job dissatisfaction and intention to quit. Further work need to be done to ascertain the association of psychological morbidity and job dissatisfaction.

  20. An Interview Method for Teaching Adolescent Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a method for teaching adolescent psychology which requires that students interview adolescents on course topics. The reports of these interviews become the basis of classroom discussions which are designed to demonstrate that concepts of adolescence vary as a function of time. (Author/DH)

  1. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  2. Childhood obesity and its physical and psychological co-morbidities: a systematic review of Australian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Ross H; Han, Ahreum; Baker, Julien S; Cobley, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Australia is predicted to have the highest overweight/obesity rate in the world by 2022 outranking the USA and UK. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the associations between childhood obesity and physical and psychological health co-morbidities. Therefore, a systematic literature search was conducted from six databases (2004-2014). Studies were included if they investigated obesity-related co-morbidities with participants residing in Australia aged 0-18 years. Forty-seven studies fulfilled selection criteria. Evidence suggests that overweight/obese Australian children and adolescents, compared to normal-weight peers, had more cardio-metabolic risk factors and higher risk factors of non-alcohol fatty liver disease and were experiencing more negative psychological outcomes (depression, low self-esteem and lower scores of health-related quality of life). Many other health consequences have either not been investigated in Australia, or as frequently as in other countries. Given Australia's current overweight/obesity prevalence and trajectory, Australia-based studies are needed to identify the suspected co-morbidities, understand the range of individual, social and environmental mechanisms driving obesity, and help identify policies, interventions and strategies that will change the future trajectory and 'disease burden' both in Australia and internationally. • Trend analyses have shown that obesity prevalence in Australia is increasing and will outrank UK and the USA by 2022. • Every third Australian child/adolescent between 5 and 19 years old is predicted to be classified as overweight or obese by 2025. • Childhood obesity is associated with multiple immediate physical and psychological health co-morbidities as well as co-morbidities in adulthood. These have often been identified and examined individually. What is New: • This paper presents a holistic picture of childhood obesity and the associated multiple co-morbidities in Australia.

  3. Quantitative Methods in Psychology: Inevitable and Useless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomela, Aaro

    2010-01-01

    Science begins with the question, what do I want to know? Science becomes science, however, only when this question is justified and the appropriate methodology is chosen for answering the research question. Research question should precede the other questions; methods should be chosen according to the research question and not vice versa. Modern quantitative psychology has accepted method as primary; research questions are adjusted to the methods. For understanding thinking in modern quantitative psychology, two epistemologies should be distinguished: structural-systemic that is based on Aristotelian thinking, and associative-quantitative that is based on Cartesian–Humean thinking. The first aims at understanding the structure that underlies the studied processes; the second looks for identification of cause–effect relationships between the events with no possible access to the understanding of the structures that underlie the processes. Quantitative methodology in particular as well as mathematical psychology in general, is useless for answering questions about structures and processes that underlie observed behaviors. Nevertheless, quantitative science is almost inevitable in a situation where the systemic-structural basis of behavior is not well understood; all sorts of applied decisions can be made on the basis of quantitative studies. In order to proceed, psychology should study structures; methodologically, constructive experiments should be added to observations and analytic experiments. PMID:21833199

  4. PSA testing anxiety, psychological morbidity, and PSA utility in the management of prostate cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Micsunescu, Anamaria Elia

    2017-01-01

    Anecdotal reports from urologists and medical oncologists have suggested that patients with prostate cancer (PCa) often present with anxiety related to ongoing monitoring of their PSA levels as part of their disease management. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the prevalence and severity of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing anxiety in a population of patients with either localised or metastatic PCa living in Australia. Other aspects of psychological morbidit...

  5. Psychological Correlates to Dysfunctional Eating Patterns among Morbidly Obese Patients Accepted for Bariatric Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege Gade

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationships between dysfunctional eating patterns, personality, anxiety and depression in morbidly obese patients accepted for bariatric surgery. Design: The study used cross-sectional data collected by running a randomized controlled trial (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01403558. Subjects: A total of 102 patients (69 women, 33 men with a mean (SD age of 42.6 (9.8 years and a mean BMI of 43.5 (4.4 kg/m2 participated. Measurements: Measurements included the NEO-PI-R (personality: neuroticism, extroversion, openness, conscientiousness and agreeableness, the TFEQ-R-21 (dysfunctional eating: emotional eating (EE, uncontrolled eating (UE and cognitive restraint of eating (CR and the HADS (anxiety and depression. Results: The personality traits neuroticism and conscientiousness were more strongly correlated with dysfunctional eating than anxiety and depression. These differences were most pronounced for emotional and cognitive restraint of eating. Emotional eating occurred more often in female than in male patients, a finding that was partially mediated by neuroticism but not by anxiety and depression. Conclusion: Personality traits may be important to address in the clinical management of morbidly obese patients seeking bariatric surgery as neuroticism is particularly salient in female patients displaying an emotional eating behaviour.

  6. Exploration of health status, illness perceptions, coping strategies, and psychological morbidity in stoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Simon R; Tribbick, Davina; Connell, William R; Castle, David; Salzberg, Michael; Kamm, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    We employed the Common Sense Model (CSM) of illness perceptions to examine the relative contribution of illness perceptions, stoma self-efficacy, and coping strategies in explaining anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with a fecal ostomy. The CSM suggests that the consequences of illness activity, such as psychological distress, are influenced by an individual's illness perceptions as well as what coping strategies they engage in. Descriptive, cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. One hundred fifty adults with a stoma (54 males, and 96 females; mean age 44 years) completed an online survey. Several instruments were used to measure study outcomes, including the Health Perceptions Questionnaire, Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire, Carver Brief Coping Questionnaire, Stoma Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Participants were advised of the study through online forums containing a link to the survey. Outcome measures used in the current study are valid and reliable and have been extensively used in medically ill patients. Using structural equation modeling, the final model provided an excellent fit to the data (χ23= 16.53, P = .22, χ/N = 1.27, SRMR 0.97, CFI > 0.99). There was a direct pathway from health status to illness perceptions months since surgery directly influenced health status, illness beliefs, and adaptive emotion-focused coping (β= .81, P coping. Maladaptive coping mediated the relationship between illness perceptions and depression and anxiety, and adaptive emotion-focused coping mediated the relationship between illness perception and depression. The final model provided support for the CSM, in that illness perceptions were directly related to illness status, and that both illness perceptions and coping strategies directly influenced anxiety and depression. More specifically, maladaptive coping style (eg, ignore problems) exacerbated depression and anxiety symptoms, while self-efficacy and emotion

  7. Environmental psychology: history, scope and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L.; Berg, van den A.E.; Groot, de J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to give an introduction in environmental psychology. We defi ne environmental psychology as the discipline that studies the interplay between individuals and their built and natural environment. This means that environmental psychology examines the infl uence of the environment on

  8. Evaluation of the prevalence of burnout and psychological morbidity among radiation oncologist members of the Kyoto Radiation Oncology Study Group (KROSG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mampuya, Wambaka Ange; Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Akira; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the self-reported prevalence of burnout and psychological morbidity among radiation oncologists members of the Kyoto Radiation Oncology Study Group (KROSG) and to identify factors contributing to burnout. We mailed an anonymous survey to 125 radiation oncologists members of the KROSG. The survey included; the demographic data, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). There were 87 responses out of 125 eligible respondents (69.6% response rate). In terms of burnout, three participants (3.4%) fulfilled the MBI-HSS criteria of having simultaneously high emotional exhaustion (EE), high depersonalization (DP) and low sense of personal accomplishment (PA). Eighteen (20.6%) reported a high score for either EE or DP meeting the alternative criteria for burnout with three of these simultaneously having high EE and high DP. The prevalence of psychological morbidity estimated using GHQ-12 was 32%. A high level of EE and low level of PA significantly correlated with high level of psychological morbidity with P morbidity among radiation oncologists in Japan. Compared with other studies involving radiation oncologists, the prevalence of low personal accomplishment was particularly high in the present study. The prevalence of psychological morbidity was almost the double that of the Japanese general population and was significantly associated with low PA and high EE. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  9. Psychological morbidity and quality of life in women with advanced breast cancer: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabsch, Brenda; Clarke, David M; Love, Anthony; McKenzie, Dean P; Snyder, Raymond D; Bloch, Sidney; Smith, Graeme; Kissane, David W

    2006-03-01

    Our purpose was to determine the frequency of psychiatric morbidity and to assess the quality of life of women with advanced breast cancer. The 227 women in the sample were recruited in Melbourne, Australia, and were interviewed (prior to intervention) for a randomized controlled trial of supportive-expressive group therapy. The main outcome measures were DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses plus quality of life data based on the EORTC QLQ-C30 (core) and QLQ-BR23 (breast module) instruments. Forty-two percent of the women (97/227) had a psychiatric disorder; 35.7% (81) of these had depression or anxiety or both. Specific diagnoses were minor depression in 58 women (25.6%), major depression in 16 (7%), anxiety disorder in 14 (6.2%), and phobic disorder in 9 (4%). Seventeen (7.5%) women had more than one disorder. In terms of quality of life, one-third felt less attractive, one-quarter were dissatisfied with their body image, and, in most, sexual interest had waned. Menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes affected less than one-third, whereas symptoms of lymphedema were experienced by 26 (11.5%). Women with advanced breast cancer have high rates of psychiatric and psychological disturbance. Quality of life is substantially affected. Clinicians need to be vigilant in monitoring psychological adjustment as part of a comprehensive biopsychosocial approach.

  10. Psychologically-Informed Methods of Enhancing Endurance Performance

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, Alister

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis was to determine psychologically-informed methods of enhancing endurance performance, particularly in endurance sport events. There were three main research aims. First, this thesis aimed to synthesise research conducted to date on the psychological determinants of endurance performance. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify psychological interventions that affect endurance performance in experimental research. Learning psychological skills, ve...

  11. Effect of a non-dieting lifestyle randomised control trial on psychological well-being and weight management in morbidly obese pre-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkoles, Erika; Carroll, Sean; Clough, Peter; Polman, Remco C J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a non-dieting lifestyle intervention approach for morbidly obese women designed in the framework of the self-determination theory (SDT) and Health at Every Size on weight maintenance and psychological functioning. Predominantly white (97%), morbidly obese (BMI ≥ 35 kg m(-2) with at least one co-morbid condition or a BMI ≥ 40 kg m(-2)) pre-menopausal women (N=62), aged between 24 and 55 years were initially randomly assigned to 12 weeks of lifestyle intervention (IIG) or delayed start control group (DSCG). The program consisted of 3 months intensive lifestyle intervention followed by 9 month maintenance phase. The DSCG group commenced the program after 3 months. Initially, the IIG showed a significant decrease in body weight (baseline to end of the RCT phase) compared with a significant increase in the DSCG group. However, no significant changes in weight status were evident in either group at 12 months compared with baseline. The 3-month intensive intervention resulted in significantly improved psychological functioning in both groups, which were maintained at 12 months. The study provides additional support for a non-dieting, theory-based, lifestyle approach to weight management and psychological well-being among morbidly obese females. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Do Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Improve when Patients Receive Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Co-morbid Anxiety Disorders in a Primary Care Psychological Therapy (IAPT) Service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenwright, Mark; McDonald, Jason; Talbot, Jo; Janjua, Kinza

    2017-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common co-morbid condition with anxiety disorders, and patients often report a fear of incontinence in public places. This type of bowel control anxiety (BCA) can be conceptualized as a phobic syndrome. Yet little evidence exists on the prevalence or outcomes of these co-morbidities in routine primary care psychological therapy (Improving Access to Psychological Therapies, IAPT) services. To examine the prevalence and outcomes of IBS and BCA patients treated with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders within a routine IAPT service. An observational cohort study screened 2322 referrals to an IAPT service over 12 months for the presence of IBS. Patients with co-morbid anxiety disorders and IBS were grouped into those with, and without BCA. Patients completed the IBS symptom severity scale and the IAPT minimum data set. Diagnoses and outcomes were examined for all groups up to 6 months follow-up. A greater proportion of BCA patients had a primary diagnosis of phobic disorder. After receiving CBT, patients made clinically significant improvement in both anxiety and IBS symptoms at 6 months follow-up. Patients with BCA made greater improvement in phobia scales and IBS symptoms than non-BCA patients. Anxiety disorders with co-morbid IBS improved significantly in a routine IAPT service. A significant proportion of co-morbid IBS sufferers had a fear of incontinence in public places (BCA). Directly addressing and modifying these fears with CBT appeared to enhance improvement in both phobic anxiety and IBS symptoms.

  13. Feminism and psychology: critiques of methods and epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagly, Alice H; Riger, Stephanie

    2014-10-01

    Starting in the 1960s, many of the critiques of psychological science offered by feminist psychologists focused on its methods and epistemology. This article evaluates the current state of psychological science in relation to this feminist critique. The analysis relies on sources that include the PsycINFO database, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2010), and popular psychology methods textbooks. After situating the feminist critique within the late-20th-century shift of science from positivism to postpositivism, the inquiry examines feminists' claims of androcentric bias in (a) the underrepresentation of women as researchers and research participants and (b) researchers' practices in comparing women and men and describing their research findings. In most of these matters, psychology manifests considerable change in directions advocated by feminists. However, change is less apparent in relation to some feminists' criticisms of psychology's reliance on laboratory experimentation and quantitative methods. In fact, the analyses documented the rarity in high-citation journals of qualitative research that does not include quantification. Finally, the analysis frames feminist methodological critiques by a consideration of feminist epistemologies that challenge psychology's dominant postpositivism. Scrutiny of methods textbooks and journal content suggests that within psychological science, especially as practiced in the United States, these alternative epistemologies have not yet gained substantial influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Dynamics of psychological crisis experience with psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrutdinova, Liliya Raifovna; Nugmanova, Dzhamilia Renatovna

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of experience as such and its corporeal, emotional and cognitive elements in the situation of psychological consulting provisioning is covered. The aim of research was to study psychological crisis experience dynamics in the situation when psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods is provided. Theoretical analysis of the problem of crisis situations, phenomenon and structural, and dynamic organization of experience of the subject of consulting have been carried out. To fulfill research project test subjects experience crisis situation have been selected, studied in the situation when they provided psychological consulting by methods of gestalt therapy, and methodology of study of crisis situations experience has been prepared. Specifics of psychological crisis experience have been revealed and its elements in different stages of psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods. Dynamics of experience of psychological crisis and its structural elements have been revealed and reliable changes in it have been revealed. Dynamics of psychological crisis experience and its structural elements have been revealed and reliable changes in it have been revealed. "Desiccation" of experience is being observed, releasing its substantiality of negative impression to the end of consulting and development of the new experience of control over crisis situation. Interrelations of structural elements of experience in the process of psychological consulting have been shown. Effecting one structure causes reliable changes in all others structural elements of experience. Giving actual psychological help to clients in crisis situation by methods of gestalt therapy is possible as it was shown in psychological consulting sessions. Structure of client's request has been revealed - problems of personal sense are fixed as the most frequent cause of clients' applications, as well as absence of choices, obtrusiveness of negative thoughts, tend to getting stuck on events

  15. Theory in Psychology ( Review essay of Andre Kukla, Methods of Theoretical Psychology).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looren De Jong, H.; Bem, S.; Schouten, M.K.D.

    2004-01-01

    This review essay critically discusses Andre Kukla's Methods of theoretical psychology. It is argued that Kukla mistakenly tries to build his case for theorizing in psychology as a separate discipline on a dubious distinction between theory and observation. He then argues that the demise of

  16. Experimental Methods in Psychology and Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have always been important in psychology and are as commonly used today as ever due to the dominating position of cognitive research in international psychology. This trend has been further strengthened by recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, where experimental...... studies are central. Recently, experimental studies within the field of affective neuroscience have also received attention. Notwithstanding, experimental methods remain controversial also in psychology, and one should carefully weigh their advantages against their drawbacks....

  17. Mental health screening in armed forces before the Iraq war and prevention of subsequent psychological morbidity: follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rona, Roberto J; Hooper, Richard; Jones, Margaret; Hull, Lisa; Browne, Tess; Horn, Oded; Murphy, Dominic; Hotopf, Matthew; Wessely, Simon

    2006-11-11

    To assess whether screening for mental disorder before the start of the 2003 Iraq war would have predicted subsequent mental disorders. Longitudinal cohort study of the United Kingdom armed forces. 2820 of 2873 personnel of the three services who completed an initial questionnaire in 2002 were asked to complete a second questionnaire between June 2004 and 2 March 2006. Regiments, air stations, bases, ships, and homes for those who had left the services. Positive and negative likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive value of first assessment compared with assessment two to three years later of post-traumatic stress disorder, general health questionnaire, physical symptoms, self perception of health, and alcohol misuse for the entire group and for those deployed to the Iraq war. The response rate to the follow-up questionnaire was 69%, adjusted for return to senders. The positive likelihood ratio of post-traumatic stress disorder was high (13.1, 95% confidence interval 7.2 to 23.8), but the negative likelihood ratio was close to 1 (0.78, 0.67 to 0.91). The positive predictive values were low because of the low prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in the period before the Iraq war. The positive likelihood ratios for the other psychological assessments varied between 2.7 and 5.6, and the negative likelihood ratios were slightly lower than for post-traumatic stress disorder, indicating that these were not good candidates for screening. Results were the same for the analyses restricted to those who were deployed. Screening for common mental disorders before deployment in this cohort would not have reduced subsequent morbidity or predicted post-traumatic stress disorder, but this may change if there is a considerable increase in the prevalence of the disorder.

  18. Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Harry T.; Judd, Charles M.

    2000-03-01

    This volume provides an overview of research methods in contemporary social psychology. Coverage includes conceptual issues in research design, methods of research, and statistical approaches. Because the range of research methods available for social psychology have expanded extensively in the past decade, both traditional and innovative methods are presented. The goal is to introduce new and established researchers alike to new methodological developments in the field.

  19. SPEECH THERAPY INTERVENTION IN MORBIDLY OBESE UNDERGOING FOBI-CAPELL GASTROPLASTY METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    GONÇALVES, Rosa de Fátima Marques; ZIMBERG, Ethel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rehabilitation of complications related to oral feeding, resulting from gastroplasty is the competence of the speech therapist, to intervene in mastication and swallowing functions, aiming at quality of life. Aim: Check in the postoperative period the efficiency of stimulation, independent judges in readiness for re-introduction of solid food in morbidly obese undergoing gastroplasty. Method: Cross-sectional study of descriptive and quantitative evaluated mastication and qu...

  20. SPEECH THERAPY INTERVENTION IN MORBIDLY OBESE UNDERGOING FOBI-CAPELL GASTROPLASTY METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    GON?ALVES, Rosa de F?tima Marques; ZIMBERG, Ethel

    2016-01-01

    Background : The rehabilitation of complications related to oral feeding, resulting from gastroplasty is the competence of the speech therapist, to intervene in mastication and swallowing functions, aiming at quality of life. Aim : Check in the postoperative period the efficiency of stimulation, independent judges in readiness for re-introduction of solid food in morbidly obese undergoing gastroplasty. Method : Cross-sectional study of descriptive and quantitative evaluated mastication and qu...

  1. The riddle of Siegfried: exploring methods and psychological perspectives in analytical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Marco Heleno

    2016-02-01

    Jung's dream of the killing of Siegfried poses a riddle: why did the unconscious choose precisely Siegfried as the hero to be murdered? Jung himself declares that he does not know. This paper attempts to decipher this riddle using three distinct methodological approaches accepted by Jung, two of them in fact grounded in his theories of dream interpretation. Besides presenting some possible answers to the riddle of Siegfried, this interpretative reflection brings to light the discrepancy of the psychological perspectives created by the heterogeneity of methods within analytical psychology. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  2. Laparoscopic gastric banding as a universal method for the treatment of patients with morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenkov, Michael; Kneist, Werner; Heintz, Achim; Junginger, Theodor

    2004-09-01

    This study analyzed the influence of potentially negative predictors such as sweet-eating behavior, super-obesity, social and psychological status, family and education situation, intake of sedative drugs, and the distance between hospital and home on the outcome of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). 77 women and 29 men with mean age 40.6 years (28-47) underwent LAGB. Preoperative mean body weight was 146 kg (99-179), and mean BMI was 48.1 kg/m2 (36.4-73.5). The influence of the above-mentioned potentially negative predictors on weight loss was the primary end point. Mean follow-up was 44.6 +/- 19.7 months. Follow-up was possible in all but 6 patients. Median excess weight loss (EWL) was 52.1% (range 28.6-72.2%). Univariate analysis revealed no influence of the investigated negative predictors on the weight reduction. Median EWL in 24 sweet-eater patients was 55.6% compared to 55.4% in 82 non-sweet-eaters (P=0.65). A significant difference in the weight reduction was found between super-obese and non-superobese groups (P <0.001). LAGB should be recommended without limitation as the operation of choice for morbidly obese patients. Gastric bypass operations should be recommended only in cases of unsuccessful LAGB.

  3. Female sterilization: a review of methods, morbidity, failure rates and medicolegal aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, J; Mccormack, J

    1990-09-01

    Introduced in England in 1967, laparoscopic sterilization has effected a radical change in female sterilization which 1st consisted of electrocoagulation of the Fallopian tubes. Mechanical methods have since basically replaced electrocoagulation, such as tubal rings and clips. In the mid 1970s, the Filshie clip emerged and has since become the most common form of laparoscopic technique. Research demonstrates that it has a low incidence of surgical difficulty, low morbidity, and low failure rates. Other means of accessing the tubes include minilaparotomy and culdotomy (common in India). Generally women undergo general anesthesia for sterilization. Overall morbidity and mortality (10/10,000) following female sterilization is low. Early morbidity may include surgical complications (bleeding during surgery or torn tubes), technical failure (.6-1% for various laparoscopic techniques), and hemorrhage. Few long term follow up studies have taken place, but possible long term adverse effects are abdominal pain, pain during sexual intercourse, changes in menstruation, and a need for gynecologic surgery. Failure rates vary depending on the method, surgical approach, surgeon skill, and type of patient. The highest failure rate of a laparoscopic or minilaparotomy approach lies with culdotomy (7-15/1000) and the lowest with thermal coagulation (1/1000). The laparotomy approach may be as high as 14/1000. Between 1970-1980, the number of litigations have increased because of sterilization failure. These cases have showed a consistent pattern: insufficient patient information, poor notes with no indications of any counseling, little written information for patients to support verbal counseling, and illegible and meager operation notes.

  4. Exploring Psychological Systems with the 'Method of Units'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Bespalov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the units of psychological systems proposed in the works of the founders of activity theory (L.S. Vygotsky, A.N. Leontiev, S.L. Rubinstein and others from the perspective of a fuzzy logic model of the unity of opposite sides of the units developed by the author. A clear distinction is drawn between the concepts of 'unit', 'basic unit' and 'cell' of a psychological system. The paper also reviews some goals, outcomes and means of exploring psychological systems with the 'method of units'. This method is aimed at finding components in a system that have significant features in common with this system, features which can turn into each other through the 'moments of their equality' or unity. Describing such transitions (for example, of conscious actions into unconscious operations helps to reveal the mechanisms of the corresponding psychological processes. The paper draws a comparison between the 'chunks of information' in cognitive psychology and the 'units of psychological interaction' in activity theory

  5. [Unemployment as psychological stress and coping methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabóné Kapuvári, Virág

    2013-01-01

    The present article focuses on unemployment as a stressor and a crisis situation as well. Both the definition and theories about this phenomenon are analyzed. The author tries to explore unemployment like a stressor and a special crisis situation afterwards illustrating it by several Hungarian results of the unemployment research. The author tries to emphasize coping methods of personality. Last but not least unemployment is presented like a special problem that could be solved by some practical aspects recommended for the professionals.

  6. Coping and quality of life in patients with skin tumors in the follow-up stage: The mediating role of body image and psychological morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M Graça; Baia, Vânia; Machado, José C

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between coping style, body image, psychological morbidity, and quality of life. A total of 58 patients who were diagnosed with skin tumors, had been submitted to surgery, and were in the follow-up phase answered the following instruments: dermatology life quality index (DLQI), hospital anxiety and depression scales (HADS), body image scale (BIS), and the mini mental adjustment to cancer scale (Mini-MAC). The results showed that patients with a higher use of the coping styles of helplessness/hopelessness, anxious preoccupation, and cognitive avoidance reported a worse quality of life. Body image mediated the relationship between the coping styles of anxious preoccupation, helplessness/hopelessness, and quality of life. Psychological morbidity mediated the relationship between helplessness/hopelessness and quality of life. Therefore, even in the follow-up phase, it is important that health professionals are aware of the patient's emotional distress and body image to identify those at a higher risk of having a poorer quality of life.

  7. Psychological morbidity and health-related quality of life in patients with differing awareness of cancer diagnosis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dian Can; Guo, Chuan Bin; Peng, Xin; Su, Yan Jie

    2014-09-01

    Concealment of cancer diagnosis from patients is not rare worldwide and physicians in mainland China are in fact discouraged from disclosing a cancer diagnosis to cancer patients. Preventing worsened psychological morbidity is at the core of the argument for nondisclosure. The purpose of this study was to quantify anxiety, depression, and distress among patients with various degrees of awareness of their cancer diagnosis. Quality of life was also measured. Using a cross-sectional and blinded design, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire, the Distress Thermometer, and the SF-36 Health Survey were administered to 287 hospitalized patients with oral and maxillofacial tumors. Independently, the patients' awareness of disease was assessed with semistructured interviews. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Distress Thermometer, and SF-36 did not identify significant differences in scores among the hospitalized patients with various degrees of awareness of their cancer diagnosis: an awaiting diagnosis group, a concealed diagnosis group, and a disclosed diagnosis group. Before surgery, inpatients who were hospitalized because of oral and maxillofacial tumors with various degrees of awareness of their cancer diagnosis had similar psychological morbidity and quality of life. Informing hospitalized cancer patients of their diagnosis before surgery may not deteriorate their psychiatric condition or their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Counseling Psychology Doctoral Trainees' Satisfaction with Clinical Methods Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Kristen Ann

    2015-01-01

    Counseling psychology doctoral trainees' satisfaction with their clinical methods training is an important predictor of their self-efficacy as counselors, persistence in graduate programs, and probability of practicing psychotherapy in their careers (Fernando & Hulse-Killacky, 2005; Hadjipavlou & Ogrodniczuk, 2007; Morton & Worthley,…

  9. Ethnographic Decision Tree Modeling: A Research Method for Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kirk A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes ethnographic decision tree modeling (EDTM; C. H. Gladwin, 1989) as a mixed method design appropriate for counseling psychology research. EDTM is introduced and located within a postpositivist research paradigm. Decision theory that informs EDTM is reviewed, and the 2 phases of EDTM are highlighted. The 1st phase, model…

  10. Teaching Psychological Research Methods through a Pragmatic and Programmatic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Patrick; Fielden, Amy; Tzemou, Effy

    2014-01-01

    Research methods teaching in psychology is pivotal in preparing students for the transition from student as learner to independent practitioner. We took an action research approach to re-design, implement and evaluate a module guiding students through a programmatic and pragmatic research cycle. These revisions allow students to experience how…

  11. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity and psychological adaptation of the nurses in a structured SARS caring unit during outbreak: a prospective and periodic assessment study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tung-Ping; Lien, Te-Cheng; Yang, Chih-Yi; Su, Yiet Ling; Wang, Jia-Horng; Tsai, Sing-Ling; Yin, Jeo-Chen

    2007-01-01

    To assess the rapidly changing psychological status of nurses during the acute phase of the 2003 SARS outbreak, we conducted a prospective and periodic evaluation of psychiatric morbidity and psychological adaptation among nurses in SARS units and non-SARS units. Nurse participants were from two SARS units (regular SARS [N=44] and SARS ICU [N=26]) and two non-SARS units (Neurology [N=15] and CCU [N=17]). Participants periodically self-evaluated their depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, sleep disturbance, attitude towards SARS and family support. Results showed that depression (38.5% vs. 3.1%) and insomnia (37% vs. 9.7%) were, respectively, greater in the SARS unit nurses than the non-SARS unit nurses. No difference between these two groups was found in the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (33% vs. 18.7%), yet, three unit subjects (SARS ICU, SARS regular and Neurology) had significantly higher rate than those in CCU (29.7% vs. 11.8%, respectively) (pregular SARS unit. Occurrence of psychiatric symptoms was linked to direct exposure to SARS patient care, previous mood disorder history, younger age and perceived negative feelings. Positive coping attitude and strong social and family support may have protected against acute stress. In conclusion, the psychological impact on the caring staffs facing future bio-disaster will be minimized with lowered risk factors and a safer and more structured work environment.

  12. Psychological morbidity and autonomic reactivity to emotional stimulus in parental cancer: a study with adult children caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, R J; Pereira, M G

    2014-01-01

    Literature suggests that parental cancer can provoke aversive emotional arousal in adult children, who may perceive caregiving as a traumatic experience. Limited research has been conducted on emotional and physiological impact of family caregiving for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The aim of the present study was to examine psychological and physiological responses in parental cancer's caregivers. Two matched groups of adult children, with 78 participants each (parental cancer vs. control), completed psychological measures of distress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and burden. Additionally, each participant visualised standardised pictures with different emotional valences, while cardiovascular (heart rate) and electrodermal responses (skin conductance) were recorded. Between-group analysis showed significant differences on all psychological variables, and on skin conductance for all types of pictures. However, for the heart rate responses, differences were found only for pictures with unpleasant emotional arousal. In the parental cancer group, the heart rate peak response stood out as a predictor of PTSD symptoms, after controlling for distress and burden. This study highlights the important role of psychophysiological measures of family caregiving in oncology. Physiological responses may explain a higher prevalence of PTSD symptoms. Therefore, biofeedback combined with targeted psychosocial interventions for relaxation could be of great clinical value for this population. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The phenomenological method in qualitative psychology and psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Englander

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article will closely examine the phenomenological method as applied to qualitative inquiry in psychology and psychiatry. In a critical comparison between Amedeo Giorgi's and Larry Davidson's qualitatively methods, conclusions were drawn with regard to how different kinds of qualitative inquiry are possible while remaining faithful to Husserlian philosophical foundations. Utilizing Lester Embree's recent articulation of how Husserl's method of the epochē can be disclosed as specific to a discipline, varieties of these two qualitative methods were seen in their relation to the original scientific aim instigated by the developer.

  14. [A new method of gastric shunting for treatment of patients with morbid obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubnik, V V; Golliak, V P; Kresiun, M S

    2013-01-01

    The gastric shunting (GSH) method, permitting to control the patients body mass more effectively and promoting complete remission of diabetes mellitus type II, was elaborated. In 2008 - 2009 yrs 29 patients (9 men, 20 women) were operated on for morbid obesity, using shunting interventions. In 21 patients (the first group) a standard GSH was performed, in 8 (second group)--a modified operation. In 18-24 mo the excessive patient's body mass in patients of the first group have reduced by 62.8%, of the second group--by 89.3%. Complete compensation of diabetes mellitus type II with rejection from insulin and other antidiabetic preparations was achieved in 4 patients of the first group and in all--in the second group. Resistence for insulin have had lowered in patients of both groups, including in the first group--in 1,4 times, in the second group--in 3.2 times. Thus, preliminary results accurately demonstrate, that application of a modified GSH method is more effective, concerning the patients body mass reduction and achievement of complete compensation of diabetes mellitus type II.

  15. Digital methods for the history of psychology: Introduction and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Lee, Shayna

    2016-02-01

    At the York University Digital History of Psychology Laboratory, we have been working on projects that explore what digital methodologies have to offer historical research in our field. This piece provides perspective on the history and theory of digital history, as well as introductory resources for those who are curious about incorporating these methods into their own work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Psychological morbidity in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy depends on phenotypic, social, economic, and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finsterer J

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Josef Finsterer,1 Sinda Zarrouk-Mahjoub2 1Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftung, Vienna, Austria; 2University of Tunis El Manar, Genomics Platform, Pasteur Institute of Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia We have read with interest the article by Garcia et al1 about the effect of visual impairment on psychological well-being with regard to mood, interpersonal interactions, and career-related goals.1 Among the 103 Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON patients, half became depressed with negative impacts on interpersonal relations and career goals. At diagnosis, older age corresponded to higher depression prevalence than young age. We have the following comments and concerns.View the original paper by Garcia and colleagues.  

  17. Relationship between health status, illness perceptions, coping strategies and psychological morbidity: a preliminary study with IBD stoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, S R; Cook, S I; Tribbick, D

    2013-11-01

    Individuals living with IBD and a stoma are at an increased risk of anxiety and depression and it is likely that several factors mediate these relationships, including illness perceptions and coping strategies. Using the Common Sense Model (CSM), this study aimed to characterize the mediators of anxiety and depression in an IBD stoma cohort. Eighty-three adults (23 males) with a stoma (25 ileostomy, 58 colostomy; 26 emergency, 57 planned, 55 permanent, 28 temporary) completed an online survey. Health status was measured with the Health Orientation Scale (HOS), coping styles assessed with the Carver Brief COPE scale, illness perceptions explored with the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire (BIPQ), and anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Combining the questionnaire data using structural equation modeling resulted in a final model with an excellent fit (χ(2) (11)=12.86, p=0.30, χ(2)/N=1.17, SRMR0.96, CFI>0.99). Consistent with the CSM, health status directly influenced illness perceptions, which in turn, influenced coping (emotion-focused and maladaptive coping). Interestingly, months since surgery was found to influence illness perceptions and emotion-focused coping directly, but not health status. While depression was influenced by illness perceptions, emotion-focused coping and maladaptive coping, anxiety was only influenced by illness perceptions and maladaptive coping. The preliminary results provide further evidence for the complex interplay between psychological processes. In terms of directions for psychological interventions, a focus on identifying and working with illness perceptions is important. Copyright © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring the relationships between health status, illness perceptions, coping strategies and psychological morbidity in a chronic kidney disease cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Simon; Swan, Lauren; Salzberg, Michael; Castle, David; Langham, Robyn

    2014-10-01

    Using the common sense model of illness adjustment, this study aimed to explore the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on individual illness perceptions, coping styles and psychological well-being. Eighty individuals (50 men and 30 women) with an average age of 62.66 years (standard deviation, 11.98) were included in the study. All participants were under the care of the Renal Unit of a metropolitan tertiary referral hospital. Twenty-nine patients (36%) had CKD stage 3b-4, and 51 (64%) had CKD stage 5 (or end stage kidney disease [ESKD]). Disease severity was evaluated using the health perceptions questionnaire, coping styles assessed with the Carver brief COPE scale, illness perceptions explored with the brief illness perceptions questionnaire and anxiety and depression measured using the hospital anxiety and depression scale. The hospital anxiety and depression scale assessment revealed 13 patients (16.3%) with moderate or severe anxiety and 6 (7.5%) with moderate depression. Consistent with the common sense model, disease activity had a significant direct influence on illness perceptions, while, in turn, illness perceptions had a significant direct influence on depression and anxiety. Adaptive and maladaptive coping were found to mediate the relationship between illness perceptions, and anxiety and depression. The results provide evidence that it is the perception of an illness rather than the actual symptoms themselves that best account for adaption to CKD. These findings suggest that intervention strategies aimed at increasing psychological well-being need to focus on changing illness perceptions rather than improving symptoms of CKD or coping mechanisms.

  19. Transforming han: a correlational method for psychology and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Whachul

    2015-06-01

    Han is a destructive feeling in Korea. Although Korea accomplished significant exterior growth, Korean society is still experiencing the dark aspects of transforming han as evidenced by having the highest suicide rate in Asia. Some reasons for this may be the fragmentation between North and South Korea. If we can transform han then it can become constructive. I was challenged to think of possibilities for transforming han internally; this brings me to the correlational method through psychological and religious interpretation. This study is to challenge and encourage many han-ridden people in Korean society. Through the psychological and religious understanding of han, people suffering can positively transform their han. They can relate to han more subjectively, and this means the han-ridden psyche has an innate sacredness of potential to transform.

  20. Assessing psychological factors, social aspects and psychiatric co-morbidity associated with Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) in men -- a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Björn; Bruenahl, Christian A; Ahyai, Sascha; Bingel, Ulrike; Fisch, Margit; Löwe, Bernd

    2014-11-01

    Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a chronic pain disease with high prevalence rates and substantial health care costs. An interdisciplinary classification system is commonly used (UPOINT) which includes psychosocial factors. Nevertheless, psychosocial influences on CP/CPPS only recently became a research focus. Therefore, we aimed to synthesize the existing data and to identify further research topics. Then, based on our results, diagnosis and treatment can be improved. In a systematic review conducted according to the PRISMA reporting guidelines we searched different databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO) using the broad search terms "chronic pelvic pain syndrome AND men". Two raters independently screened the literature and assessed the risk of bias. We included 69 original research articles which considered psychosocial variables. We found studies investigating different psychosocial factors (pain catastrophizing, stress, personality factors, social aspects), co-morbid psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety and trauma-related disorders, somatization disorder, substance abuse) and Quality of Life (QoL). In addition, there is a high risk of bias in most studies e.g. concerning the study design or the measures. There is evidence suggesting that psychological factors are important in understanding CP/CPPS. However, research concentrated on a few aspects while the others were not covered adequately. We found evidence of a higher number of psychosocial factors and psychiatric co-morbidities than is currently included in the UPOINT system. More high quality research is needed to understand the interplay of psychosocial factors in CP/CPPS. Furthermore, these factors should be incorporated into treatment approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bridging Human Reliability Analysis and Psychology, Part 1: The Psychological Literature Review for the IDHEAS Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Katya L. Le Blanc; Jing Xing

    2012-06-01

    In response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is sponsoring work to update the technical basis underlying human reliability analysis (HRA) in an effort to improve the robustness of HRA. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a hybrid of existing methods addressing limitations of current HRA models and in particular issues related to intra- and inter-method variabilities and results. This hybrid method is now known as the Integrated Decision-tree Human Event Analysis System (IDHEAS). Existing HRA methods have looked at elements of the psychological literature, but there has not previously been a systematic attempt to translate the complete span of cognition from perception to action into mechanisms that can inform HRA. Therefore, a first step of this effort was to perform a literature search of psychology, cognition, behavioral science, teamwork, and operating performance to incorporate current understanding of human performance in operating environments, thus affording an improved technical foundation for HRA. However, this literature review went one step further by mining the literature findings to establish causal relationships and explicit links between the different types of human failures, performance drivers and associated performance measures ultimately used for quantification. This is the first of two papers that detail the literature review (paper 1) and its product (paper 2). This paper describes the literature review and the high-level architecture used to organize the literature review, and the second paper (Whaley, Hendrickson, Boring, & Xing, these proceedings) describes the resultant cognitive framework.

  2. Is multicultural psychology a-scientific?: diverse methods for diversity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauce, Ana Mari

    2011-07-01

    This article asks, and answers three separate questions: What is multicultural psychology? What is psychological science? Are multicultural psychology and (empirical/positivist) psychological science incompatible? A brief overview of the history of science is provided emphasizing the emancipatory impulses behind a modernist, empirical, positivist approach to science. It is argued that such an approach is not incompatible with multicultural psychology. The author concludes that multicultural psychological will be strengthened if psychologists draw upon both qualitative and quantitative methods, including those that come from a positivist tradition, when investigating psychological and social issues as they affect diverse populations.

  3. Do changes in coping style explain the effectiveness of interventions for psychological morbidity in family carers of people with dementia? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ryan; Cooper, Claudia; Austin, Allana; Livingston, Gill

    2013-02-01

    Observational studies find that family carers of people with dementia who use more emotional support and acceptance-based coping, and less dysfunctional coping, are less depressed and anxious. We hypothesized that interventions effective in reducing psychological symptoms would increase emotional support and acceptance-based coping, or decrease dysfunctional coping. We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials published up to July 2011, of interventions for carers of people with dementia measuring coping and psychological morbidity. We rated study validity and reported findings. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses for interventions where possible. Eight of 433 papers identified by the search met inclusion criteria. All measured coping immediately after intervention. Two interventions significantly decreased depressive or anxiety symptoms: the smaller study found no change in dysfunctional coping. Neither measured emotional support and acceptance-based coping. Meta-analysis found that both group coping skills interventions alone (SMD = -0.39, 95% CI = -0.75 to -0.03, p = 0.04) and with behavioral activation (SMD = -0.26, 95% CI = -0.48 to -0.04, p = 0.02) significantly increased dysfunctional coping, while significantly reducing depressive symptoms. Positive coping (a mix of emotional and solution-focused strategies) increased (SMD = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.05-0.51, p = 0.02) with group coping skills interventions and behavioral activation. Contrary to our hypothesis, dysfunctional coping increased when carer depressive symptoms improved. There was preliminary evidence that emotional support and acceptance-based coping increased, as positive coping increased although solution-focused coping alone did not. More research is needed to elucidate whether successful interventions work through changing coping strategies immediately and in the longer term.

  4. The social, psychological, emotional morbidity and adjustment techniques for women with anal incontinence following Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injury: use of a word picture to identify a hidden syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighley, M R B; Perston, Yvette; Bradshaw, Elissa; Hayes, Joanne; Keighley, D Margaret; Webb, Sara

    2016-09-21

    To identify the emotional, social and psychological consequences and recovery process of anal incontinence (AI) following obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) and explore if this can be identified as a recognisable syndrome with visual representation. A qualitative approach was adopted for this study. Data derived from case studies (n = 81) and interviews (n = 14) with women with AI after OASIS was used to identify the emotional, social and psychological consequences of AI after OASIS. Keywords and synonyms were extracted and the power of these statements displayed as a 'word picture'. The validity and authenticity of the word picture was then assessed by: a questionnaire sent to a group of mothers who had experienced this condition (n = 16); a focus group attended by mothers (n = 14) and supported by health professionals (n = 6) and via interviews with health professionals (n = 12) who were involved with helping mothers with AI following OASIS. Women with AI resulting from OASIS have a specific syndrome - the 'OASIS Syndrome' - which we have uniquely visualised as a 'word picture'. They feel unclean which results in dignity loss, psychosexual morbidity, isolation, embarrassment, guilt, fear, grief, feeling low, anxiety, loss of confidence, a feeling of having been mutilated and a compromised role as a mother. Coping relies on repetitive washing (which may become a ritual), planning daily activities around toiletry needs, sharing, family support, employment if possible and attention to the baby. Recovery and healing is through care of the child and hope generated by love within the family. This study has identified a previously unrecognised 'OASIS Syndrome' and, by way of a new and unique 'word picture', revealed a hidden condition. There should be greater awareness by the public and profession about the 'OASIS Syndrome' and a mechanism for early identification of the condition and referral for management. This, if successful, would

  5. Benchmarking routine psychological services: a discussion of challenges and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo, Jaime; McMillan, Dean; Leach, Chris; Lucock, Mike; Gilbody, Simon; Wood, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Policy developments in recent years have led to important changes in the level of access to evidence-based psychological treatments. Several methods have been used to investigate the effectiveness of these treatments in routine care, with different approaches to outcome definition and data analysis. To present a review of challenges and methods for the evaluation of evidence-based treatments delivered in routine mental healthcare. This is followed by a case example of a benchmarking method applied in primary care. High, average and poor performance benchmarks were calculated through a meta-analysis of published data from services working under the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) Programme in England. Pre-post treatment effect sizes (ES) and confidence intervals were estimated to illustrate a benchmarking method enabling services to evaluate routine clinical outcomes. High, average and poor performance ES for routine IAPT services were estimated to be 0.91, 0.73 and 0.46 for depression (using PHQ-9) and 1.02, 0.78 and 0.52 for anxiety (using GAD-7). Data from one specific IAPT service exemplify how to evaluate and contextualize routine clinical performance against these benchmarks. The main contribution of this report is to summarize key recommendations for the selection of an adequate set of psychometric measures, the operational definition of outcomes, and the statistical evaluation of clinical performance. A benchmarking method is also presented, which may enable a robust evaluation of clinical performance against national benchmarks. Some limitations concerned significant heterogeneity among data sources, and wide variations in ES and data completeness.

  6. Theory and Method in Cross-Cultural Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpass, Roy S.

    1977-01-01

    Cross cultural psychology is considered as a methodological strategy, as a means of evaluating hypotheses of unicultural origins with evidence of more panhuman relevance, and as a means of developing new theoretical psychological phenomena. (Author)

  7. SPEECH THERAPY INTERVENTION IN MORBIDLY OBESE UNDERGOING FOBI-CAPELL GASTROPLASTY METHOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rosa de Fátima Marques; Zimberg, Ethel

    2016-03-01

    The rehabilitation of complications related to oral feeding, resulting from gastroplasty is the competence of the speech therapist, to intervene in mastication and swallowing functions, aiming at quality of life. Check in the postoperative period the efficiency of stimulation, independent judges in readiness for re-introduction of solid food in morbidly obese undergoing gastroplasty. Cross-sectional study of descriptive and quantitative evaluated mastication and quality of life of 70 morbidly obese patients undergoing gastroplasty, and a group of 35 obese suffered speech therapy. In the evaluation of mastication for group 1 (pre and post speech therapy), the results show that, except for the lack of chewing, the other variables, such as food court, type of mastication, mastication rhythm, jaw movements, bolus size, excessive mastication and fluid intake, demonstrate statistical insignificance. In evaluating the quality of life when compared groups 1 and 2, the results from the questionnaire on quality of life in dysphagia (SWAL-QoL - Quality of Life in Swallowing) total and 11 domains assessed in the questionnaire, were statistically significant. With these results, the group 2 presented unfavorable conditions for quality of life. The stimulation protocol, independent judges in readiness for re-introduction of solid food of these patients in the postoperative period, applied in these conditions of the study, was not the distinguishing factor of the rehabilitation process for the observed period.

  8. Exploring Reticence in Research Methods: The Experience of Studying Psychological Research Methods in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Barbara E.; Robertson, Julia M.

    2017-01-01

    As a fundamental element of any psychology degree, the teaching and learning of research methods is repeatedly brought into sharp focus, and it is often regarded as a real challenge by undergraduate students. The reasons for this are complex, but frequently attributed to an aversion of maths. To gain a more detailed understanding of students'…

  9. A comparison of two psychological screening methods currently used for inpatients in a UK burns service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Laura; Tew, Victoria; Rai, Lovedeep

    2017-12-01

    Various types of psychological screening are currently used in the UK to identify burn patients who are experiencing psychological distress and may need additional support and intervention during their hospital admission. This audit compared two types of psychological screening in 40 burn inpatients. One screening method was an unpublished questionnaire designed to explore multiple areas of potential distress for those who have experienced burns. The other method was an indirect psychological screen via discussions within multi-disciplinary team (MDT) meetings where a Clinical Psychologist was present to guide and prompt psychological discussions. Data was collected between November 2012 and September 2016. Results suggested that both screening methods were similar in identifying patients who benefit from more formal psychological assessment. Indeed, statistical analysis reported no difference between the two screening methods (N=40, p=.424, two-tailed). In conclusion, measuring distress in burns inpatients using a burns-specific questionnaire and psychological discussions within MDT meetings are similar in their ability to identify patients in need of more thorough psychological assessment. However, both screening methods identified patients who were in need of psychological input when the other did not. This suggests that psychological screening of burns inpatients, and the psychological difficulties that they can present with, is complex. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods of screening are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological method and the historical Jesus: The contribution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews a number of psychologically informed studies of Jesus in view of the criteria pertaining to psychobiography. It argues that the studies have produced divergent interpretations of Jesus because of a lack of data and the nature of the sources. This is especially true of these studies as they used psychological ...

  11. A comparison of stress levels, coping styles and psychological morbidity between graduate-entry and traditional undergraduate medical students during the first 2 years at a UK medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvauya, R; Oyebode, F; Day, E J; Thomas, C P; Jones, L A

    2017-02-13

    Stress levels and psychological morbidity are high among undergraduate medical students (UGs), but there is a lack of research into the psychological health of UK graduate-entry medical students (GEs). GEs are likely to experience different (perhaps more severe) stressors and to cope with stress differently. We compared stress levels, psychological morbidity and coping styles in GE versus UG medical students studying at the same UK medical school in the same academic year. A cross-sectional self-rated questionnaire study of all first- and second-year GE and UG medical students was conducted. Perceived stress, psychological morbidity, recent adverse life events, stress-related personality traits and coping styles were assessed using standard questionnaires. 75% GEs and 46% UGs responded to the questionnaire. Both groups reported equally high levels, and similar profiles of, perceived stress and psychological morbidity. Levels of recent adverse life events and stress-related personality traits were similar in both groups. Compared to UGs, GEs were more likely to use active coping (p = 0.02) and positive reframing (p = 0.03), but were also more likely to use substances (alcohol and other drugs; p cope. Unlike UGs, second-year GEs showed less perceived stress (p = 0.007) and psychological morbidity (p = 0.006) than first-year GEs although levels of both were still high. Our results show that both GE students and their younger UG counterparts on a traditional medical course have similar profiles of stress symptoms. They do, however, cope with stress differently. GEs are more likely to use active problem-focused coping strategies, and they are also more likely to cope by using substances (alcohol or other drugs). GE students need interventions to prevent maladaptive coping styles and encourage adaptive coping that are tailored to their needs. Such interventions should be targeted at first-year students. It is vital that these students develop positive coping

  12. Psychological morbidity and stress but not social factors influence level of fear of cancer recurrence in young women with early breast cancer: results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewes, B; Bell, M L; Butow, P; Beith, J; Boyle, F; Friedlander, M; McLachlan, S A

    2013-12-01

    Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is a common problem amongst survivors. Past research has shown that young women with breast cancer are particularly vulnerable to FCR, yet few previous studies have specifically examined FCR in this subgroup. The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between FCR, psychological morbidity and social factors. A secondary aim was to explore the relationship between clinical levels of FCR and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and hypochondriasis. Two hundred eighteen breast cancer survivors (aged 18-45 years at diagnosis) diagnosed at least 1 year prior were recruited through seven metropolitan oncology clinics and two breast cancer consumer groups. Participants completed a web-based questionnaire, which assessed FCR, psychological functioning, generalised anxiety, hypochondriasis and items exploring past cancer-related experiences, attitudes to future childbearing, social support and correlates were identified using linear regression. Psychological morbidity scales measuring anxiety and psychological functioning and stressful life events were significantly associated with FCR in adjusted and unadjusted models (p cancer experiences, children, social support and attitudes to childrearing were not associated with FCR. Among those with clinical levels of FCR (n = 152), 43% met screening criteria for hypochondriasis, and 36% met screening criteria for GAD. This study shows psychological morbidity is associated with FCR, but the majority of women with high levels of FCR do not also meet the criteria for a clinical level of GAD or hypochondriasis. Understanding the factors that make young women vulnerable to FCR is important to help guide the development of FCR-specific interventions for this subgroup. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The integrated nature of the method of psychological portraying in law enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals peculiarities of using the method of psychological portraying in law enforcement, shows the current practice of using psychological knowledge in solving crimes, reveals an integration relationship of other Sciences with psychology with the use of the method of psychological portraying the disclosure of crimes. The article presents a comprehensive approach to the psychological profile of an unknown offender. Psychological portraying of an unknown offender is regarded as a form of analytical work in solving crimes, which integrate information and knowledge from various Sciences such as forensics, criminology, detective work, psychiatry, sexology, victimology, etc. Psychological science (information of its various branches is a fundamental element that helps to explain, interpret and describe the behavior of the offender and the victim to resolve the problems of law enforcement.

  14. Listening as a method of addressing psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alun Charles; Cutcliffe, John R

    2009-04-01

    This paper discusses the values of therapeutic listening and ways that emotional difficulties can impact palliative nurses' abilities to provide psychological care. Recent literature indicates that providing psychological care can burden some healthcare professionals including nurses; who may lack the necessary competencies or organizational resources to carry out their roles. References drawn from the databases: all EBM reviews, British Nursing INDEX, CINAHL, PSYCH INFO and MEDLINE and EMBASE are discussed. Psychological care is considered critical to providing holistic care. Yet the literature suggests engaging in such work makes emotional demands on the professionals attempting to carry it out and is associated with psychological difficulties including burnout. Clinical supervision can help reduce the distress caused by emotionally charged situations. Thoughtful clinical supervision can also contribute to safe and effective health care. Nursing would benefit from understanding more about the effects on healthcare professionals of repeated exposure to emotionally charged situations and benefits that clinical supervision can offer to health care.

  15. "Having to Shift Everything We've Learned to the Side": Expanding Research Methods Taught in Psychology to Incorporate Qualitative Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Lynne D; Castell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    ... and quantitative methodologies within the undergraduate psychology curriculum. Despite this, the undergraduate psychology curriculum in most Australian universities retains a strong focus on teaching quantitative research methods...

  16. Integrating cross-cultural psychology research methods into ethnic minority psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Leung, Kwok; Cheung, Fanny M

    2010-10-01

    Multicultural psychology has 2 related but often disconnected streams, namely cross-cultural psychology and racial and ethnic minority psychology (Hall & Maramba, 2001). We propose that advances in both fields will be facilitated if there is greater cross-fertilization, especially in methodological approaches given that proponents in both fields are interested in studying and understanding the role and impact of culture on human behavior. To facilitate this cross-fertilization, we present 3 methodological approaches that would be of value in racial and ethnic minority psychology. First, we present an overview of the importance of and the approaches to evaluating and establishing measurement equivalence. Second, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of conceptual equivalence in light of indigenous approaches, cultural manipulation, and multilevel analysis. Third, we present a combined etic-emic approach to cross-cultural personality research as illustrated by the Cross-Cultural Personality Assessment Inventory developed by Fanny Cheung and her colleagues. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. The Tachikawa cohort of motor vehicle accident study investigating psychological distress: design, methods and cohort profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yutaka; Nishi, Daisuke; Nakajima, Satomi; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Hashimoto, Kenji; Noguchi, Hiroko; Homma, Masato; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2009-04-01

    The Tachikawa cohort of motor vehicle accident (TCOM) Study has been carried out in Tokyo since 2004. This study examined the association of medical and psychosocial variables evaluated shortly after admission to the acute critical care center with long-term psychiatric morbidity risk in patients with accidental injuries. Between May 2004 and January 2008, patients with accidental injury consecutively admitted were recruited to the TCOM Study. Psychiatric morbidity as a primary endpoint was measured using a structured clinical interview at 1, 6, 18 and 36 months after involvement in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). The baseline investigation consisted of self-administered questionnaires concerning acute psychological responses and personality. Medical information was obtained from patients' medical charts. Various socio-demographic data, health-related habits and psychosocial factors were assessed by interview. To examine potential biomarkers of psychological distress, blood samples were collected. Out of 344 patients who were asked to participate in this study, 300 (87%) patients with MVA-related injury were enrolled. Corresponding rates for the questionnaires on psychological responses and blood sampling were 98-99 and 79%, respectively. The cohort sample was composed of 78% men; the median age was 34 years; and 45% of the participants were motorcycle drivers. The TCOM Study should prove useful for researchers examining the association between bio-psychosocial variables and psychological distress and may contribute to the formation of a framework for providing care for patients with MVA-related injury.

  18. Psychological method and the historical Jesus: The contribution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    psychologist to develop more general psychological theories. According to. Runyan, more general methodological development can take place in two ways. First, the life course of the subject can be described as a series of interactions between the person, the situation and his or her behavior. (Runyan 1982:84-86, 97-99).

  19. Social Network Methods for the Educational and Psychological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Tracy M.

    2016-01-01

    Social networks are especially applicable in educational and psychological studies involving social interactions. A social network is defined as a specific relationship among a group of individuals. Social networks arise in a variety of situations such as friendships among children, collaboration and advice seeking among teachers, and coauthorship…

  20. METHODS AND PSYCHOLOGY OF TEACHING THE SLOW LEARNER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARTIN, RUTH; MARTIN, WILLIAM

    THE SPECIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF THE SLOW LEARNER ARE EMPHASIZED IN THIS PUBLIC SCHOOL CURRICULUM GUIDE. FOR THIS TYPE OF STUDENT MORE FOCUS MUST BE PLACED ON PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT AND ADEQUACY IN BASIC SKILLS THAN ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT. THEREFORE THE OBJECTIVES OF A "BASIC WORK PROGRAM" FOR SLOW LEARNERS SHOULD STRESS THE…

  1. Using Astrology to Teach Research Methods to Introductory Psychology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Roger A.; Grasha, Anthony F.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a classroom demonstration designed to test an astrological hypothesis and help teach introductory psychology students about research design and data interpretation. Illustrates differences between science and nonscience, the role of theory in developing and testing hypotheses, making comparisons among groups, probability and statistical…

  2. Psychiatry Morbidity and Mortality Rounds: Implementation and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Stuart; Demaso, David R.; Kemler, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the implementation of psychiatry morbidity and mortality rounds (M&Ms) on the clinical and educational practice in a children's hospital. Methods: Attendees to monthly M&Ms between July 2005 and May 2007 included staff and trainees from psychiatry, psychology, nursing, and social work. Cases were selected based on a…

  3. Psychiatric Morbidity among Subjects with Leprosy and Albinism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Skin, which is the largest organ in the body, carries immense psychological significance. Disfiguring skin disorders may impact negatively on the mental health of individuals. Aim: This study compared the psychiatric morbidity of subjects with leprosy and albinism. Subjects and Methods: One hundred subjects ...

  4. Thermal injury with contemporary cast-application techniques and methods to circumvent morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halanski, Matthew A; Halanski, Amy D; Oza, Ashish; Vanderby, Ray; Munoz, Alejandro; Noonan, Kenneth J

    2007-11-01

    Thermal injuries caused by application of casts continue to occur despite the development of newer cast materials. We studied the risk of these injuries with contemporary methods of immobilization. Using cylindrical and L-shaped limb models, we recorded the internal and external temperature changes that occurred during cast application. Variables that we assessed included the thickness of the cast or splint, dip-water temperature, limb diameter and shape, cast type (plaster, fiberglass, or composite), padding type, and placement of the curing cast on a pillow. These data were then plotted on known time-versus-temperature graphs to assess the potential for thermal injury. The external temperature of the plaster casts was an average (and standard deviation) of 2.7 degrees +/- 1.9 degrees C cooler than the internal temperature. The external temperature of twenty-four-ply casts peaked at an average of 84 +/- 42 seconds prior to the peak in the internal temperature. The average difference between the internal and external temperatures of the thicker (twenty-four-ply) casts (4.9 degrees +/- 1.3 degrees C) was significantly larger than that of the thinner (six and twelve-ply) casts (1.5 degrees +/- 1 degrees C) (p risk of thermal injury. Likewise, placing a cast on a pillow during curing resulted in temperatures in the area of pillow contact that were high enough to cause thermal damage, as did overwrapping of a curing plaster cast with fiberglass. Attempts to decrease internal temperatures with the application of isopropyl alcohol to the exterior of the cast did not decrease the risk of thermal injury. Excessively thick plaster and a dip-water temperature of >24 degrees C should be avoided. Splints should be cut to a proper length and not folded over. Placing the limb on a pillow during the curing process puts the limb at risk. Overwrapping of plaster in fiberglass should be delayed until the plaster is fully cured and cooled.

  5. Improving Athletes' Perspectives of Sport Psychology Consultation: A Controlled Evaluation of Two Interview Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, B.; Dickens, Y.; Lancer, K.; Covassin, T.; Hash, A.; Miller, A.; Genet, J.

    2004-01-01

    Although investigations have consistently demonstrated the effectiveness of sport psychology interventions, these methods have been underutilized by athletes. In this study, 124 athletes completed the athletes Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation Questionnaire (ATSSPCQ) and were subsequently randomly assigned to receive one of…

  6. Impact of interprofessional education about psychological and medical comorbidities on practitioners' knowledge and collaborative practice: mixed method evaluation of a national program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Christine B; Hall, Sally; Irving, Michelle

    2016-09-02

    Many patients with chronic physical illnesses have co-morbid psychological illnesses, which may respond to interprofessional collaborative care. Continuing education programs frequently focus on skills and knowledge relevant for individual illnesses, and unidisciplinary care. This study evaluates the impact of "Mind the Gap", an Australian interprofessional continuing education program about management of dual illnesses, on practitioners' knowledge, use of psychological strategies and collaborative practice. A 6-h module addressing knowledge and skills needed for patients with physical and psychological co-morbid illnesses was delivered to 837 practitioners from mixed health professional backgrounds, through locally-facilitated workshops at 45 Australian sites. We conducted a mixed-methods evaluation, incorporating observation, surveys and network analysis using data collected, before, immediately after, and three months after training. Six hundred forty-five participants enrolled in the evaluation (58 % GPs, 17 % nurses, 15 % mental health professionals, response rate 76 %). Participants' knowledge and confidence to manage patients with psychological and physical illnesses improved immediately. Among the subset surveyed at three months (response rate 24 %), referral networks had increased across seven disciplines, improvements in confidence and knowledge were sustained, and doctors, but no other disciplines, reported an increase in use of motivational interviewing (85.9 % to 96.8 %) and mindfulness (58.6 % to 74 %). Interprofessional workshops had an immediate impact on the stated knowledge and confidence of participants to manage patients with physical and psychological comorbidities, which appears to have been sustained. For some attendees, there was a sustained improvement in the size of their referral networks and their use of some psychological strategies.

  7. Coping strategies as mediators of the effect of the START (strategies for RelaTives) intervention on psychological morbidity for family carers of people with dementia in a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ryan; Cooper, Claudia; Barber, Julie; Rapaport, Penny; Griffin, Mark; Livingston, Gill

    2014-10-01

    Family carers of people with dementia frequently become depressed or anxious. In observational studies, more emotion-focused and less dysfunctional coping predict fewer psychological symptoms, but no randomised controlled trial (RCT) has directly investigated emotion-focused coping as mediator of effectiveness of a successful psychological intervention. We hypothesised that emotion-focused coping would mediate the START psychological intervention׳s effects in an RCT. We tested whether mediated effects were moderated by severity of baseline symptoms. 260 family carers from NHS dementia services were randomised to START (manualised coping skills intervention), or treatment-as-usual (TAU). Blinded raters administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-T) and Brief COPE inventory at baseline, 4 and 8 months. HADS-T improved in the intervention group when compared to TAU at all levels of psychological distress. We tested whether coping was a mediator and for moderated mediation, and (post-hoc) subgroup treatment effects on coping. Data were available for 187 carers (71.9%) for the mediation analysis. The reduced HADS-T score in the intervention group was mediated by increased emotion-focused coping only among carers with higher (16+) baseline HADS-T scores (mediated effect=-0.63 [-1.11, -0.15]; proportion of overall effect=33% [3%, 64%]). We did not measure plausible psychosocial treatment mechanisms other than coping. START benefited family carers both in preventing and treating psychological morbidity, through different mechanisms of action. The most psychologically distressed carers increased their emotion-focused coping and did not decrease their dysfunctional coping, while others benefited but not through this mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sport psychology education: a preliminary survey on chartered physiotherapists' preferred methods of training delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Hemmings, Brian; Becker, Caryl A; Booth, Lynn

    2008-11-01

    To gain an insight to the existing suggestions and recommendations on chartered physiotherapists' preferred methods of delivery for further training in sport psychology. 22 delegates (14 women, 8 men) from the 2006 Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Sports Medicine/International Federation of Sports Physiotherapy annual conference (response rate 53.7%). A questionnaire survey for best method of sport psychology delivery was developed. The most suitable methods for sport-psychology-training delivery were workshops, seminars, mentoring, and coaching. Intense training days and weekends were considered most appropriate. The vast majority were willing to travel over 50 miles to receive training, and they indicated that the most suitable organizations to arrange training would be professional bodies and associations. The findings provide suggestions into how further training in sport psychology for chartered physiotherapists could be delivered. To gain more detailed information on these issues, however, further research with a larger sample size is recommended.

  9. A brief measure of attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Povee, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of mixed methods research in psychology has trailed behind other social science disciplines. Teaching psychology students, academics, and practitioners about mixed methodologies may increase the use of mixed methods within the discipline. However, tailoring and evaluating education and training in mixed methodologies requires an understanding of, and way of measuring, attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology. To date, no such measure exists. In this article we present the development and initial validation of a new measure: Attitudes toward Mixed Methods Research in Psychology. A pool of 42 items developed from previous qualitative research on attitudes toward mixed methods research along with validation measures was administered via an online survey to a convenience sample of 274 psychology students, academics and psychologists. Principal axis factoring with varimax rotation on a subset of the sample produced a four-factor, 12-item solution. Confirmatory factor analysis on a separate subset of the sample indicated that a higher order four factor model provided the best fit to the data. The four factors; ‘Limited Exposure,’ ‘(in)Compatibility,’ ‘Validity,’ and ‘Tokenistic Qualitative Component’; each have acceptable internal reliability. Known groups validity analyses based on preferred research orientation and self-rated mixed methods research skills, and convergent and divergent validity analyses based on measures of attitudes toward psychology as a science and scientist and practitioner orientation, provide initial validation of the measure. This brief, internally reliable measure can be used in assessing attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology, measuring change in attitudes as part of the evaluation of mixed methods education, and in larger research programs. PMID:25429281

  10. Increasing Literacy in Quantitative Methods: The Key to the Future of Canadian Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsell, Alyssa; Cribbie, Robert A.; Harlow, Lisa. L.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative methods (QM) dominate empirical research in psychology. Unfortunately most researchers in psychology receive inadequate training in QM. This creates a challenge for researchers who require advanced statistical methods to appropriately analyze their data. Many of the recent concerns about research quality, replicability, and reporting practices are directly tied to the problematic use of QM. As such, improving quantitative literacy in psychology is an important step towards eliminating these concerns. The current paper will include two main sections that discuss quantitative challenges and opportunities. The first section discusses training and resources for students and presents descriptive results on the number of quantitative courses required and available to graduate students in Canadian psychology departments. In the second section, we discuss ways of improving quantitative literacy for faculty, researchers, and clinicians. This includes a strong focus on the importance of collaboration. The paper concludes with practical recommendations for improving quantitative skills and literacy for students and researchers in Canada. PMID:28042199

  11. Increasing Literacy in Quantitative Methods: The Key to the Future of Canadian Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsell, Alyssa; Cribbie, Robert A; Harlow, Lisa L

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative methods (QM) dominate empirical research in psychology. Unfortunately most researchers in psychology receive inadequate training in QM. This creates a challenge for researchers who require advanced statistical methods to appropriately analyze their data. Many of the recent concerns about research quality, replicability, and reporting practices are directly tied to the problematic use of QM. As such, improving quantitative literacy in psychology is an important step towards eliminating these concerns. The current paper will include two main sections that discuss quantitative challenges and opportunities. The first section discusses training and resources for students and presents descriptive results on the number of quantitative courses required and available to graduate students in Canadian psychology departments. In the second section, we discuss ways of improving quantitative literacy for faculty, researchers, and clinicians. This includes a strong focus on the importance of collaboration. The paper concludes with practical recommendations for improving quantitative skills and literacy for students and researchers in Canada.

  12. The Role of Statistics and Research Methods in the Academic Success of Psychology Majors: Do Performance and Enrollment Timing Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freng, Scott; Webber, David; Blatter, Jamin; Wing, Ashley; Scott, Walter D.

    2011-01-01

    Comprehension of statistics and research methods is crucial to understanding psychology as a science (APA, 2007). However, psychology majors sometimes approach methodology courses with derision or anxiety (Onwuegbuzie & Wilson, 2003; Rajecki, Appleby, Williams, Johnson, & Jeschke, 2005); consequently, students may postpone…

  13. Is There a Relation Between Natal Cleft Depth and Post-Operative Morbidity After Different Methods of Excision of Sacro-Coccygeal Pilonidal Sinus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Khaled; Abdlhamid, Nader M; Badwan, Basem R; Allowbany, Akram

    2015-12-01

    The role of natal cleft depth in postoperative morbidities after pilonidal sinus disease (PSD) surgery is still uncertain. To examine the correlation between natal cleft depth and postoperative morbidities after different methods of excision of PSD. We prospectively examined data of 66 operated patients with PSD at Prince Fahd Ben Sultan hospital, Tabouk, KSA. Of the studied patients, 18 were treated by simple closure (27.3 %), 13 patients by Bascom closure (19.7 %), 21 patients by the open method (31.8 %) and 14 patients by the semiopen method (21.2 %). Postoperative morbidities were recorded. The data were analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. Sixty six patients (62 males, 4 females) underwent surgery for PSD. The mean age of the studied patients was 26.7 ± 6.9 (range 15-51). Nine patients (13.7 %) showed delayed healing with the highest incidence was among patients treated by the open method (6/21 (28.5 %)), and 5 patients (7.5 %) showed recurrence. There have been significant positive correlations between natal cleft depth and delayed healing, which was evident among patients treated by the open method (r = +0.78; p < .0001). The findings suggest that natal cleft depth is a significant factor correlated with postoperative morbidities of PSD after surgical treatment.

  14. The use of wound healing assessment methods in psychological studies: a review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschwanez, Heidi E; Broadbent, Elizabeth

    2011-02-01

    To provide a critical review of methods used to assess human wound healing in psychological research and related disciplines, in order to guide future research into psychological influences on wound healing. Acute wound models (skin blister, tape stripping, skin biopsy, oral palate biopsy, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene tubing), surgical wound healing assessment methods (wound drains, wound scoring), and chronic wound assessment techniques (surface area, volumetric measurements, wound composition, and assessment tools/scoring systems) are summarized, including merits, limitations, and recommendations. Several dermal and mucosal tissue acute wound models have been established to assess the effects of psychological stress on the inflammatory, proliferative, and repair phases of wound healing in humans, including material-based models developed to evaluate factors influencing post-surgical recovery. There is a paucity of research published on psychological factors influencing chronic wound healing. There are many assessment techniques available to study the progression of chronic wound healing but many difficulties inherent to long-term clinical studies. Researchers need to consider several design-related issues when conducting studies into the effects of psychological stress on wound healing, including the study aims, type of wound, tissue type, setting, sample characteristics and accessibility, costs, timeframe, and facilities available. Researchers should consider combining multiple wound assessment methods to increase the reliability and validity of results and to further understand mechanisms that link stress and wound healing. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  15. The birth of experimental psychology in Germany between psychophysical methods and physiological theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In 1879 Wundt's laboratory of psychology was opened in Leipzig, and it has been the landmark ever since for the beginning of modern experimental psychology. Its founder, Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt, was the first to successfully demarcate the areas of scientific psychology as being distinct from either physiology or philosophy, thus guaranteeing the survival of psychology, which was regarded as an autonomous discipline set upon a secure institutional framework. This paper attempts to clarify the basic facts and concepts related to the roots of scientific psychology in Germany, i.e., the context in which the "Founding Father" worked, as well as of those predecessors who proposed the topics and apparatus of his laboratory. Attention will be paid in particular to the psychophysical methods of Weber and Fechner, especially in regard to colour perception. In this context, an outline is presented of the history of reaction time experiments in astronomy, physiology, and psychology, and of the role played by the scientific instruments. It is shown how the methodology of physics and physiology contributed to the emancipation of scientific psychology and to the formation of its orientation.

  16. Review: Dennis Howitt & Duncan Cramer (2005. Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin B. Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This introduction to quantitative and qualitative research methods largely succeeds in conveying the main aims of contemporary empirical research in psychology. However, while the scope of the text is admirable, qualitative methods are presented implicitly as an exception to mainstream psychological research. Moreover, useful ways of combining quantitative and qualitative approaches are explored only briefly. Thus even though the text has an adequate description of qualitative methods, students reading HOWITT and CRAMER's work would be left in no doubt about the status of qualitative work in the discipline. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs080168

  17. [Evaluation of psychological methods for determining the degree of psychological stress in children in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenin, V V; Ostreĭkov, I F; Vasil'ev, Ia I

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with results of comparative evaluation of system of assessment of children's fear and anxiety in dentistry (SDS test) and other objective and subjective methods for assessing anxiety in pediatric patients. We studied 381 pediatric patients aged from 3 to 7 years. The aim of the study was to prove validity mathematical derived FCD test as a technique of anxiety detection in dentistry. During the study following subjective test were used: MAS, DAS, mYPAS, VAS, STAI, STAIC, EASI, PHBQ, and some history data and stress factors were also considered. Objective data used were vital signs (hemodynamics and respiratory rate). Test SDS has strong correlation with YALE, MAS, DAS, STAIlich, VAS and other parameters such as age, sex, person which is responsible for bringing up a child and so on.

  18. Counseling psychology trainees' experiences with debt stress: a mixed methods examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson-Garriott, Amber N; Garriott, Patton O; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2015-04-01

    Financial debt accrued by graduate psychology students has increased in recent years and is a chief concern among psychology trainees (El-Ghoroury, Galper, Sawaqdeh, & Bufka, 2012). This study examined debt stress among counseling psychology trainees using a complementary mixed methods research design. Qualitative analyses (N = 11) using the consensual qualitative research method (CQR; Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997; Hill et al., 2005) revealed six domains, 15 categories, and 34 subcategories. Domains included social class contributions, institutional contributions, long-term effects, coping mechanisms, personal relationships, and effect on well-being. The transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) and social class worldview model (Liu, Soleck, Hopps, Dunston, & Pickett, 2004) guided quantitative analyses. Results of a path analysis (N = 285) indicated total debt and subjective social class were significant predictors of debt stress and that the relationship between debt stress and psychological distress was mediated by avoidant coping. Avoidant coping also moderated the association between debt stress and psychological distress. Results are discussed in relation to professional training and the career development of counseling psychology trainees. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Psychological Distress and Coping amongst Higher Education Students: A Mixed Method Enquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychological distress among higher education students is of global concern. Students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teacher education are exposed to additional stressors which may further increase their risk for psychological distress. The ways in which these students cope with distress has potential consequences for their health and academic performance. An in-depth understanding of how nursing/midwifery and teacher education students experience psychological distress and coping is necessary to enable higher education providers to adequately support these students. Methods This mixed method study was employed to establish self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire), coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire) and lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire) of a total sample (n = 1557) of undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students in one university in Ireland. Individual interviews (n = 59) provided an in-depth understanding of students experiences of psychological distress and coping. Results A significant percentage (41.9%) of respondents was psychologically distressed. The factors which contributed to their distress, included study, financial, living and social pressures. Students used varied coping strategies including seeking social support, problem solving and escape avoidance. The positive relationship between elevated psychological distress and escape avoidance behaviours including substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) and unhealthy diet is of particular concern. Statistically significant relationships were identified between “escape-avoidance” and gender, age, marital status, place of residence, programme/year of study and lifestyle behaviours such as diet, substance use and physical inactivity. Conclusion The paper adds to existing research by illuminating the psychological distress experienced by undergraduate nursing/midwifery and

  20. The effect of the Tomatis Method on the psychological well-being ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two-group pre-post assessment, mixed-method design was used. It involved thirteen ... Qualitative results suggest that the Tomatis Method enhanced psychological well-being, particularly regarding autonomy, interpersonal relationships and self-confidence in experimental group participants. Quantitative and qualitative ...

  1. Tension between the theoretical thinking and the empirical method: is it an inevitable fate for psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Yasuhiro

    2012-03-01

    This paper will start from focusing on the limitations of quantitative approach in psychology from three viewpoints. First--data collection, especially experiments and questionnaires as two major methods of quantitative approach. The second limitation is data aggregation, followed by the third--statistical significance testing. After that, recent spread of qualitative approach as another option for one of psychological methods will be introduced and a controversy surrounding epistemology of qualitative approach will be also introduced. Finally, it will be discussed that accumulation of faithful descriptions on reality, especially from qualitative approach, would be needed for producing creative research.

  2. Methods and challenges in measuring the impact of national pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccine introduction on morbidity and mortality in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Zeev, Naor; Kapanda, Lester; King, Carina; Beard, James; Phiri, Tambosi; Mvula, Hazzie; Crampin, Amelia C; Mwansambo, Charles; Costello, Anthony; Parashar, Umesh; Tate, Jacqueline E; Verani, Jennifer R; Whitney, Cynthia G; Heyderman, Robert S; Cunliffe, Nigel A; French, Neil

    2015-05-28

    Pneumonia and gastroenteritis are leading causes of vaccine-preventable childhood morbidity and mortality. Malawi introduced pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines to the immunisation programme in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Evaluating their effectiveness is vital to ensure optimal implementation and justify sustained investment. A national evaluation platform was established to determine vaccine effectiveness and impact in Malawi. Impact and effectiveness against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease, radiological pneumonia and rotavirus gastroenteritis are investigated using before-after incidence comparisons and case-control designs, respectively. Mortality is assessed using a prospective population cohort. Cost-effectiveness evaluation is nested within the case-control studies. We describe platform characteristics including strengths and weaknesses for conducting vaccine evaluations. Integrating data from individual level and ecological methods across multiple sites provides comprehensive information for policymakers on programme impact and vaccine effectiveness including changes in serotype/genotype distribution over time. Challenges to robust vaccine evaluation in real-world conditions include: vaccination ascertainment; pre-existing rapid decline in mortality and pneumococcal disease in the context of non-vaccine interventions; and the maintenance of completeness and quality of reporting at scale and over time. In observational non-randomised designs ascertainment of vaccine status may be biased particularly in infants with fatal outcomes. In the context of multiple population level interventions targeting study endpoints attribution of reduced incidence to vaccine impact may be flawed. Providing evidence from several independent but complementary studies will provide the greatest confidence in assigning impact. Welcome declines in disease incidence and in child mortality make accrual of required sample sizes difficult, necessitating large

  3. Psychological distress and coping amongst higher education students: a mixed method enquiry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Deasy

    Full Text Available Psychological distress among higher education students is of global concern. Students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teacher education are exposed to additional stressors which may further increase their risk for psychological distress. The ways in which these students cope with distress has potential consequences for their health and academic performance. An in-depth understanding of how nursing/midwifery and teacher education students experience psychological distress and coping is necessary to enable higher education providers to adequately support these students.This mixed method study was employed to establish self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire, coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire and lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire of a total sample (n = 1557 of undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students in one university in Ireland. Individual interviews (n = 59 provided an in-depth understanding of students experiences of psychological distress and coping.A significant percentage (41.9% of respondents was psychologically distressed. The factors which contributed to their distress, included study, financial, living and social pressures. Students used varied coping strategies including seeking social support, problem solving and escape avoidance. The positive relationship between elevated psychological distress and escape avoidance behaviours including substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis and unhealthy diet is of particular concern. Statistically significant relationships were identified between "escape-avoidance" and gender, age, marital status, place of residence, programme/year of study and lifestyle behaviours such as diet, substance use and physical inactivity.The paper adds to existing research by illuminating the psychological distress experienced by undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students. It also

  4. Psychological distress and coping amongst higher education students: a mixed method enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Psychological distress among higher education students is of global concern. Students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teacher education are exposed to additional stressors which may further increase their risk for psychological distress. The ways in which these students cope with distress has potential consequences for their health and academic performance. An in-depth understanding of how nursing/midwifery and teacher education students experience psychological distress and coping is necessary to enable higher education providers to adequately support these students. This mixed method study was employed to establish self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire), coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire) and lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire) of a total sample (n = 1557) of undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students in one university in Ireland. Individual interviews (n = 59) provided an in-depth understanding of students experiences of psychological distress and coping. A significant percentage (41.9%) of respondents was psychologically distressed. The factors which contributed to their distress, included study, financial, living and social pressures. Students used varied coping strategies including seeking social support, problem solving and escape avoidance. The positive relationship between elevated psychological distress and escape avoidance behaviours including substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) and unhealthy diet is of particular concern. Statistically significant relationships were identified between "escape-avoidance" and gender, age, marital status, place of residence, programme/year of study and lifestyle behaviours such as diet, substance use and physical inactivity. The paper adds to existing research by illuminating the psychological distress experienced by undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students. It also

  5. Decreasing asthma morbidity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-12-12

    Dec 12, 1994 ... Apart from the optimal use of drugs, various supplementary methods have been tested to decrease asthma morbidity, usually in patients from reiatively affluent socio-economic backgrounds. A study of additional measures taken in a group of moderate to severe adult asthmatics from very poor socio- ...

  6. Morbidity and GH deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Laursen, Torben; Green, Anders

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate morbidity in Denmark in all patients with GH deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: Morbidity was analyzed in 1794 GHD patients and 8014 controls matched on age and gender. All records in the GHD patients were studied and additional morbidity noted. Diagnoses and dates of admissions were...... identified in the National Patient Registry. Lag time until first admission was used as a measure of morbidity. Patients were divided into childhood onset (CO) and adult onset (AO), discriminated by an age cut-off of 18 years at onset of GHD. METHOD: Sex- and cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) in CO and AO...... GHD compared with controls. RESULTS: Total morbidity was significantly increased in the GHD patients. HR for CO males: 3.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7-3.7), CO females: 3.2 (95% CI: 2.6-3.9), AO males: 2.9 (95% CI: 2.6-3.2), and AO females: 3.2 (95% CI: 2.8-3.6). In 18 out of 20 chapters from...

  7. Express-method of sportsmen’s psychological tune-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelyanenko V.I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to elaborate express-method of autosuggestion for neurotic reactions relieving and sportsmen’s psychological tune-up. Material : 20 senior dancers participated in the research. The research was held 2 times a week within 4 months. The procedures with specially selected physical exercises and autosuggestion influence before training in sports dances were applied in the experimental group guided by psychotherapeutist. Mechanism of the short-time abashment or stupefaction of the testee was taken as a basis. It was achieved by way of the sportsmen’s attempt to determine quickly surfaces of the parts of the body in contact or concentration of attention on the feeling during physical exercise. Results : in the experimental group it was necessary 10-20 sessions for neurotic reactions relieving. Psychological make-up for training was achieved within 1-5 sessions. Short-time improvement of the psychological condition in the control group arrived only after 30-60 minutes of training in sports ball dances. Conclusion : using the elaborated express-method of suggestion it’s possible to effect psychological tune-up of sportsmen for training sessions and competitions. The method of autosuggestion elaborated by us is more effective than impact of the dance-motion therapy upon the organism. It is possible to use the offered method for sportsmen’s neurotic reactions relieving and for make-up for training sessions and competition.

  8. Autoethnography as a Method for Reflexive Research and Practice in Vocational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlveen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper overviews the qualitative research method of autoethnography and its relevance to research in vocational psychology and practice in career development. Autoethnography is a reflexive means by which the researcher-practitioner consciously embeds himself or herself in theory and practice, and by way of intimate autobiographic account,…

  9. Maths Anxiety in Psychology Undergraduates: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Formulating and Implementing Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross; Wylie, Judith; Hanna, Donncha

    2016-01-01

    Due to the empirical nature of the discipline, psychology students, during the course of their degree, are required to become proficient with a range of quantitative methods. Unfortunately many of these students experience high levels of maths anxiety, which can have a damaging effect on this aspect of their educational development. The first…

  10. Express-method of sportsmen’s psychological tune-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Omelyanenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to elaborate express-method of autosuggestion for neurotic reactions relieving and sportsmen’s psychological tune-up. Material : 20 senior dancers participated in the research. The research was held 2 times a week within 4 months. The procedures with specially selected physical exercises and autosuggestion influence before training in sports dances were applied in the experimental group guided by psychotherapeutist. Mechanism of the short-time abashment or stupefaction of the testee was taken as a basis. It was achieved by way of the sportsmen’s attempt to determine quickly surfaces of the parts of the body in contact or concentration of attention on the feeling during physical exercise. Results : in the experimental group it was necessary 10-20 sessions for neurotic reactions relieving. Psychological make-up for training was achieved within 1-5 sessions. Short-time improvement of the psychological condition in the control group arrived only after 30-60 minutes of training in sports ball dances. Conclusion : using the elaborated express-method of suggestion it’s possible to effect psychological tune-up of sportsmen for training sessions and competitions. The method of autosuggestion elaborated by us is more effective than impact of the dance-motion therapy upon the organism. It is possible to use the offered method for sportsmen’s neurotic reactions relieving and for make-up for training sessions and competition.

  11. Morbidity of childhood onset narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Pickering, Line; Thorstensen, Eva Wiberg

    2017-01-01

    Narcolepsy is associated with significant morbidities. We evaluated the morbidities and mortality in a national group of child and adolescent patients after a first diagnosis of narcolepsy. METHODS: Identified from the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR), 243 patients (128 boys) aged 0-19 years...... children presented significantly more diagnoses of multiple comorbidities than controls before and after diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Before and after a diagnosis of narcolepsy in children, morbidity is more frequent in several domains, including metabolic, psychiatric, neurological and other diseases....

  12. Single Case Method in Psychology: How to Improve as a Possible Methodology in Quantitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Kjær, Elisa; Nedergaard, Jensine I

    2015-09-01

    Awareness of including Single-Case Method (SCM), as a possible methodology in quantitative research in the field of psychology, has been argued as useful, e.g., by Hurtado-Parrado and López-López (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 49:2, 2015). Their article introduces a historical and conceptual analysis of SCMs and proposes changing the, often prevailing, tendency of neglecting SCM as an alternative to Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST). This article contributes by putting a new light on SCM as an equally important methodology in psychology. The intention of the present article is to elaborate this point of view further by discussing one of the most fundamental requirements as well as main characteristics of SCM regarding temporality. In this respect that; "…performance is assessed continuously over time and under different conditions…" Hurtado-Parrado and López-López (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 49:2, 2015). Defining principles when it comes to particular units of analysis, both synchronic (spatial) and diachronic (temporal) elements should be incorporated. In this article misunderstandings of the SCM will be adduced, and further the temporality will be described in order to propose how the SCM could have a more severe usability in psychological research. It is further discussed how to implement SCM in psychological methodology. It is suggested that one solution might be to reconsider the notion of time in psychological research to cover more than a variable of control and in this respect also include the notion of time as an irreversible unity within life.

  13. Evaluation Methods for Assessing Users' Psychological Experiences of Web-Based Psychosocial Interventions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Jacqueline Susan; Howson, Moira; Ritchie, Linda; Carter, Philip D; Parry, David Tudor; Koziol-McLain, Jane

    2016-06-30

    The use of Web-based interventions to deliver mental health and behavior change programs is increasingly popular. They are cost-effective, accessible, and generally effective. Often these interventions concern psychologically sensitive and challenging issues, such as depression or anxiety. The process by which a person receives and experiences therapy is important to understanding therapeutic process and outcomes. While the experience of the patient or client in traditional face-to-face therapy has been evaluated in a number of ways, there appeared to be a gap in the evaluation of patient experiences of therapeutic interventions delivered online. Evaluation of Web-based artifacts has focused either on evaluation of experience from a computer Web-design perspective through usability testing or on evaluation of treatment effectiveness. Neither of these methods focuses on the psychological experience of the person while engaged in the therapeutic process. This study aimed to investigate what methods, if any, have been used to evaluate the in situ psychological experience of users of Web-based self-help psychosocial interventions. A systematic literature review was undertaken of interdisciplinary databases with a focus on health and computer sciences. Studies that met a predetermined search protocol were included. Among 21 studies identified that examined psychological experience of the user, only 1 study collected user experience in situ. The most common method of understanding users' experience was through semistructured interviews conducted posttreatment or questionnaires administrated at the end of an intervention session. The questionnaires were usually based on standardized tools used to assess user experience with traditional face-to-face treatment. There is a lack of methods specified in the literature to evaluate the interface between Web-based mental health or behavior change artifacts and users. Main limitations in the research were the nascency of the topic

  14. Finding a needle in a haystack: toward a psychologically informed method for aviation security screening

    OpenAIRE

    Ormerod, Thomas C.; Dando, Coral J.

    2014-01-01

    Current aviation security systems identify behavioral indicators of deception to assess risks to flights, but they lack a strong psychological basis or empirical validation. We present a new method that tests the veracity of passenger accounts. In an in vivo double-blind randomized-control trial conducted in international airports, security agents detected 66% of deceptive passengers using the veracity test method compared with less than 5% using behavioral indicator recognition. As well as r...

  15. Whatever happened to the third paradigm? Exploring mixed methods research designs in sport and exercise psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Aidan P.; Matthews, James; Kirby, Kate

    2011-01-01

    In the past, quantitative and qualitative approaches to research were portrayed as being incompatible, if not mutually exclusive. More recently, however, researchers have explored the possible complementarity of these approaches through mixed methods research (MMR) the so-called third research paradigm. The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature and implications of mixed methods designs for research in sport and exercise psychology. Having sketched the nature and origins of MMR, we h...

  16. Interview in Sport Psychology: Method of Study and Preparing an Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Bochaver K.A.; Bondarev D.; Savinkina A.; Dovzhik L.

    2018-01-01

    Current article includes an analysis of interviewing in sport psychology, an observing of modern scientific interview protocols, a description of interview cases in private practice and research; also there is a discussion about efficiency and limitations of interview method in the article. Approaches to interviewing as the main and auxiliary method are discussed in details. The objective of the article is to show how an interview can reveal interesting biographical facts, personality traits,...

  17. Linguistic, psychological and methodical aspects of using argumentative phrases to render and interpret the text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г А Политкина

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper entitled «Linguistic, psychological and methodical aspects of using argumentative phrases to render and interpret the text» deals with the linguistic technologies of influence, as well as the methods employed to teach them in classroom. The article gives an abound number of phrases having a pragmatic potential in argumentative articles and speeches and dwells on the necessity of their comprehensive psycholinguistic classification.

  18. Introduction to special section of the Journal of Family Psychology, advances in mixed methods in family psychology: integrative and applied solutions for family science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisner, Thomas S; Fiese, Barbara H

    2011-12-01

    Mixed methods in family psychology refer to the systematic integration of qualitative and quantitative techniques to represent family processes and settings. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in study design, analytic strategies, and technological support (such as software) that allow for the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods and for making appropriate inferences from mixed methods. This special section of the Journal of Family Psychology illustrates how mixed methods may be used to advance knowledge in family science through identifying important cultural differences in family structure, beliefs, and practices, and revealing patterns of family relationships to generate new measurement paradigms and inform clinical practice. Guidance is offered to advance mixed methods research in family psychology through sound principles of peer review.

  19. Investigating the current methods of assessing behavioral and psychological symptoms in residential aged care facilities in a metropolitan city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Samantha M; Lautenschlager, Nicola T

    2017-05-01

    Up to 90% of people with dementia living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) display behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), and these are associated with poorer quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality. In order to implement appropriate interventions, it is important to understand the symptoms in more detail. Despite the availability of BPSD assessment tools, it is unknown what the current practice of monitoring of BPSD in RACFs. We sought to investigate the current BPSD assessment tools being used in RACFs and explore different stakeholders' views on current practices. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 21 clinicians were identified and administered a questionnaire. Old age psychiatrists, aged psychiatry clinicians, behavior management teams and RACF staff completed the questionnaires. Clinicians reported that objective consistent information about BPSD were important for recommending and implementing pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies for BPSD; however, the use of validated BPSD assessments in RACFs was not a usual part of clinical practice. RACF staff stated the major barrier to assessment of BPSD was lack of time. Alternate methods of assessing BPSD which consider preferences from clinicians and RACF staff should be further investigated. Modern technology which can allow "real time" assessment may be a solution.

  20. Enduring Mental Health Morbidity and Social Function Impairment in World Trade Center Rescue, Recovery, and Cleanup Workers: The Psychological Dimension of an Environmental Health Disaster

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeanne Mager Stellman; Rebecca P. Smith; Craig L. Katz; Vansh Sharma; Dennis S. Charney; Robin Herbert; Jacqueline Moline; Benjamin J. Luft; Steven Markowitz; Iris Udasin; Denise Harrison; Sherry Baron; Philip J. Landrigan; Stephen M. Levin; Steven Southwick

    2008-01-01

    ...: Our objective in this study was to describe mental health outcomes, social function impairment, and psychiatric comorbidity in the WTC worker cohort, as well as perceived symptomatology in workers' children. Methods...

  1. Non-Life Threatening Maternal Morbidity: Cross Sectional Surveys from Malawi and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Shamsa; Jean-Baptiste, Rachel; Rahman, Atif; Neilson, James P.; van den Broek, Nynke R.

    2015-01-01

    Background For more accurate estimation of the global burden of pregnancy associated disease, clarity is needed on definition and assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. Our study aimed to define maternal morbidity with clear criteria for identification at primary care level and estimate the distribution of and evaluate associations between physical (infective and non-infective) and psychological morbidities in two different low-income countries. Methods Cross sectional study with assessment of morbidity in early pregnancy (34%), late pregnancy (35%) and the postnatal period (31%) among 3459 women from two rural communities in Pakistan (1727) and Malawi (1732). Trained health care providers at primary care level used semi-structured questionnaires documenting signs and symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory tests which were bundled to reflect infectious, non-infectious and psychological morbidity. Results One in 10 women in Malawi and 1 in 5 in Pakistan reported a previous pregnancy complication with 1 in 10 overall reporting a previous neonatal death or stillbirth. In the index pregnancy, 50.1% of women in Malawi and 53% in Pakistan were assessed to have at least one morbidity (infective or non-infective). Both infective (Pakistan) and non-infective morbidity (Pakistan and Malawi) was lower in the postnatal period than during pregnancy. Multiple morbidities were uncommon (morbidity: 26.9% of women in Pakistan 2.6% in Malawi had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score (EPDS) > 9. Complications during a previous pregnancy, infective morbidity (p morbidity in both settings. Conclusions Our findings highlight the need to strengthen the availability and quality of antenatal and postnatal care packages. We propose to adapt and improve the framework and criteria used in this study, ensuring a basic set of diagnostic tests is available, to ensure more robust assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. PMID:26390124

  2. Gulliver's Eggs: Why Methods are not an Issue of Qualitative Research in Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateo, Luca

    2015-06-01

    The future of qualitative methods regards the kind of object cultural psychology is interested and the kind of questions it can ask. I propose that the object should be experiencing, understood as a complex whole, consisting of lived-by action and counter-action, that is contextual inter-action with the world in the form of an experiencing subject and otherness. The kind of questions cultural psychology can ask is instead related to the epistemological status attributed to both researcher and participant. Probably few scholars such as Vygotsky, Piaget and Lewin understood to what extent experiencing is always changing, because the relationship between mind, alterity and culture is co-generative. This also implies a relativization and a decentralization of the psychology's perspective. Finally, I provide some examples from the history of psychology and some suggestions to work at the level of such complexity by using methods that can work with complex objects such as products of human activity (e.g., art, literature, architecture, etc.).

  3. Piloting Psychology Annual Reviews as a Method of Measuring Psychological Distress and Quality of Life in Paediatric Renal Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, Jade; Wirz, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial distress and poorer quality of life after renal transplantation are common in children and young people. This has implications for medication adherence and survival. Posttransplant psychology annual reviews were introduced in one Paediatric Renal Service in the UK as a means of measuring psychological distress and quality of life, as well as facilitating identification of patients and parents/carers who would benefit from psychological intervention. The process of completing posttransplant psychology annual reviews is discussed within this paper. The posttransplant psychology annual review appointments identified patients experiencing depression and/or anxiety and problems in quality of life. These assessments have led to appropriate referrals to, and engagement with, the renal psychology service as well as with community tier 3 child and adolescent mental health services. The posttransplant psychology annual review will continue to be completed at this UK site and discussions will be undertaken with other paediatric renal transplant services to consider whether these could be introduced at a national level to facilitate collection of longitudinal data regarding long-term psychosocial impact of paediatric renal transplantation and its effect on quality of life.

  4. Has psychology "found its true path"? Methods, objectivity, and cries of "crisis" in early twentieth-century French psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John

    2012-06-01

    This article explores how French psychologists understood the state of their field during the first quarter of the twentieth century, and whether they thought it was in crisis. The article begins with the Russian-born psychologist Nicolas Kostyleff and his announcement in 1911 that experimental psychology was facing a crisis. After briefly situating Kostyleff, the article examines his analysis of the troubles facing experimental psychology and his proposed solution, as well as the rather muted response his diagnosis received from the French psychological community. The optimism about the field evident in many of the accounts surveying French psychology during the early twentieth century notwithstanding, a few others did join Kostyleff in declaring that all was not well with experimental psychology. Together their pronouncements suggest that under the surface, important unresolved issues faced the French psychological community. Two are singled out: What was the proper methodology for psychology as a positive science? And what kinds of practices could claim to be objective, and in what sense? The article concludes by examining what these anxieties reveal about the type of science that French psychologists hoped to pursue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Piloting Psychology Annual Reviews as a Method of Measuring Psychological Distress and Quality of Life in Paediatric Renal Transplant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Bamford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial distress and poorer quality of life after renal transplantation are common in children and young people. This has implications for medication adherence and survival. Posttransplant psychology annual reviews were introduced in one Paediatric Renal Service in the UK as a means of measuring psychological distress and quality of life, as well as facilitating identification of patients and parents/carers who would benefit from psychological intervention. The process of completing posttransplant psychology annual reviews is discussed within this paper. The posttransplant psychology annual review appointments identified patients experiencing depression and/or anxiety and problems in quality of life. These assessments have led to appropriate referrals to, and engagement with, the renal psychology service as well as with community tier 3 child and adolescent mental health services. The posttransplant psychology annual review will continue to be completed at this UK site and discussions will be undertaken with other paediatric renal transplant services to consider whether these could be introduced at a national level to facilitate collection of longitudinal data regarding long-term psychosocial impact of paediatric renal transplantation and its effect on quality of life.

  6. Qi Gong exercises and Feldenkrais method from the perspective of Gestalt concept and humanistic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Stöckl, Andrea; Mucha, Dariusz

    2010-07-01

    This study describes two similar approaches to human movement: Qi Gong exercises and the Feldenkrais method. These systems are investigated in terms of Gestalt concepts and humanistic psychology. Moshe Feldenkrais created the concept known as Awareness Through Movement. This concept assumes that by becoming more aware of one's movements, one functions at a higher level. In similar ways to those using the Feldenkrais method, individuals may become more aware of their own movements by performing Qi Gong exercises: A therapeutic modality that facilitates mind-body integration. Qi Gong exercises commonly lead to increased personal awareness accompained by enhanced quality, fluency and smoothness of movement. These two methods of movement therapies are explored in terms of their relations with Gestalt concept and humanistic psychology. (c) 2008. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Education in the responsible conduct of research in psychology: methods and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLorenzo, Terry A; Becker-Fiegeles, Jill; Gibelman, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    In this mixed-method study of education in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) in psychology, phase one survey respondents (n = 141) reported that faculty and students were familiar with RCR standards and procedures to educate them were believed to be adequate. However, educational methods varied widely. In phase two, seven survey respondents completed in-depth interviews assessing RCR training and education and research review procedures. Educational methods through which RCR content was presented included the following ones: traditional (lectures), technical (web-based), and experiential (internships), but RCR was often minimally considered in the formal curriculum. Our results suggest that psychology training programs might benefit from more formal consideration of RCR education and training in the curriculum.

  8. Psychiatric morbidity in patients of pulmonary tuberculosis-an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Lalit Singh; Pavan Kumar Pardal; Jyoti Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Background: A lot of stigma and misconceptions about pulmonary tuberculosis still persist, in spite of the advances in treatment. Thus, a mere diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis can be a psychological trauma to an individual. The situation has aggravated with the association of tuberculosis with HIV infection. Aim: To study the psychiatric morbidity due to the various psychological stresses faced by a patient of pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 100 ...

  9. Expanding the Aperture of Psychological Assessment: Introduction to the Special Section on Innovative Clinical Assessment Technologies and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary psychological assessment is dominated by tried-and-true methods like clinical interviewing, self-report questionnaires, intellectual assessment, and behavioral observation. These approaches have served as the mainstays of psychological assessment for decades. To be sure, these methods have survived over the years because clinicians…

  10. Appropriateness and limitations of factor analysis methods utilized in psychology and kinesiology: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trninić Viktorija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural modelling techniques and application of models that extract latent variables are recent predominant techniques in the applied multivariate statistical procedures in social sciences. We believe that correlation studies can provide adequate findings if they are supported by logical analysis or causal modelling procedures. It is important to emphasize that factor analysis methods alone do not reveal the cause of covariability and that the final result of factor analytical investigation depends, in part, on the decisions and interpretations of the researcher. The question of the minimum sample size in factor analysis, ambiguousness of results obtained by FA and mathematical problems in the use of FA is particularly scrupulously discussed in this paper. Furthermore, the effect of the factor analysis of data obtained from experiments on the scientific paradigm was analyzed, with emphasis on the current problems with its application in social sciences research. Neither method, including factor analysis, is sufficient to answer all problem issues in the field of psychology and kinesiology. Therefore, it is necessary to combine complementary methods within the research which will allow a more comprehensive analysis of the researched phenomena and a greater validity of empirical results. Finally, reducing theories in psychology to a psychometric method and theories in kinesiology to a kinesiometric method is an anomaly of numerous quantitative studies within these scientific disciplines, making identification, instead of explanation of multi-causal nature of psychological and kinesiological phenomena, a primary focus of the research.

  11. Perioperative mortality and morbidity prediction using POSSUM, P-POSSUM and APACHE II in Chinese gastric cancer patients: surgical method is a key independent factor affecting prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yantian; Wu, Chunhsien; Gu, Xiaodong; Li, Zhengyang; Xiang, Jianbin; Chen, Zongyou

    2014-02-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. Predicting morbidity and mortality is important in deciding timing of surgery and type of surgery offered. APACHE II, POSSUM, and P-POSSUM are the most reliable scoring methods in use today. This is the first paper to evaluate the utility of all three scoring systems in China. We collected data on 851 patients (583 male and 268 female) who underwent surgery between 1991 and 2011. Physiological and pathological data was entered in spreadsheet format and analyzed using STATA version 11.0 to generate ROC curves for each scoring system. In predicting mortality, P-POSSUM and POSSUM were most effective and APACHE II was ineffective. POSSUM predicted a higher morbidity risk than was actually encountered. Age and type of operation were found to be independent risk factors for mortality. The utility of the APACHE II score in gastric cancer patients is limited. APACHE II is suitable for considering group versus individual effect. The POSSUM score is useful in general surgery, but needs improvement. We found the P-POSSUM score to be superior for morbidity and mortality prediction. P-POSSUM is useful for both the general population and for a specific cohort. The type of surgery is a key decision point for surgeons, and independently affects prognosis. Based upon these findings and clinical scoring systems, clinicians can develop individualized treatment algorithms.

  12. The birth of the clinicopathological method in France: the rise of morbid anatomy in France during the first half of the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint-Maur, Paul P

    2012-01-01

    Morbid anatomy underwent extraordinary development in Paris during the last years of the eighteenth and the first half of the nineteenth century, for both philosophical and political reasons. The protagonists of this progress were primarily clinicians whose purpose was to link symptoms with pathological lesions and to elaborate a pertinent nosology. Pierre-Joseph Desault and Jean-Nicolas Corvisart were the forerunners, along with Xavier Bichat, a genius who died before he was able to realize his full potential. Guillaume Dupuytren, a renowned surgeon, founded an Anatomical Society with enthusiastic students; while Gaspard-Laurent Bayle and René-Theophile Laennec studied tuberculosis and developed the principles of clinicopathological correlations. Laennec's invention of the stethoscope in 1816 constituted a dramatic improvement of the possibilities of clinical examination and effectively established the clinicopathological method. A chair of morbid anatomy was created in 1835 for J. Cruveilhier, while a museum of morbid anatomy was established thanks to a 200,000 francs donation on behalf of G. Dupuytren. The French practitioners, however, did not believe that the microscope would play a major part in further medical progress, and after the revolution of 1848, the so-called School of Paris declined.

  13. The digital history of the anglophone vocabulary of psychology: An exploration using Zipfian methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjafield, John G

    2016-05-01

    The digital humanities are being applied with increasing frequency to the analysis of historically important texts. In this study, the methods of G. K. Zipf are used to explore the digital history of the vocabulary of psychology. Zipf studied a great many phenomena, from word frequencies to city sizes, showing that they tend to have a characteristic distribution in which there are a few cases that occur very frequently and many more cases that occur very infrequently. We find that the number of new words and word senses that writers contribute to the vocabulary of psychology have such a Zipfian distribution. Moreover, those who make the most contributions, such as William James, tend also to invent new metaphorical senses of words rather than new words. By contrast, those who make the fewest contributions tend to invent entirely new words. The use of metaphor makes a text easier for a reader to understand. While the use of new words requires more effort on the part of the reader, it may lead to more precise understanding than does metaphor. On average, new words and word senses become a part of psychology's vocabulary in the time leading up to World War I, suggesting that psychology was "finding its language" (Danziger, 1997) during this period. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Review: Dennis Howitt & Duncan Cramer (2005). Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Gavin B.

    2008-01-01

    Diese Einführung in die Forschungsmethoden der Psychologie von Dennis HOWITT und Duncan CRAMER ist der dritte Band einer Serie, nachdem sie zuvor bereits eines über Statistik in der Psychologie und eines über SPSS für Windows vorgelegt haben. In dem vorliegenden "Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology" werden Themen und Verfahren ohne theoretische Begründung vorgestellt, entsprechend werden qualitative Methoden unter eine generelle Logik von Forschung subsumiert (integriert) und damit...

  15. Using mixed methods research designs in health psychology: an illustrated discussion from a pragmatist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Felicity L

    2015-02-01

    To outline some of the challenges of mixed methods research and illustrate how they can be addressed in health psychology research. This study critically reflects on the author's previously published mixed methods research and discusses the philosophical and technical challenges of mixed methods, grounding the discussion in a brief review of methodological literature. Mixed methods research is characterized as having philosophical and technical challenges; the former can be addressed by drawing on pragmatism, the latter by considering formal mixed methods research designs proposed in a number of design typologies. There are important differences among the design typologies which provide diverse examples of designs that health psychologists can adapt for their own mixed methods research. There are also similarities; in particular, many typologies explicitly orient to the technical challenges of deciding on the respective timing of qualitative and quantitative methods and the relative emphasis placed on each method. Characteristics, strengths, and limitations of different sequential and concurrent designs are identified by reviewing five mixed methods projects each conducted for a different purpose. Adapting formal mixed methods designs can help health psychologists address the technical challenges of mixed methods research and identify the approach that best fits the research questions and purpose. This does not obfuscate the need to address philosophical challenges of mixing qualitative and quantitative methods. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Mixed methods research poses philosophical and technical challenges. Pragmatism in a popular approach to the philosophical challenges while diverse typologies of mixed methods designs can help address the technical challenges. Examples of mixed methods research can be hard to locate when component studies from mixed methods projects are published separately. What does this study add? Critical

  16. Evaluation Methods for Assessing Users’ Psychological Experiences of Web-Based Psychosocial Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, Moira; Ritchie, Linda; Carter, Philip D; Parry, David Tudor; Koziol-McLain, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of Web-based interventions to deliver mental health and behavior change programs is increasingly popular. They are cost-effective, accessible, and generally effective. Often these interventions concern psychologically sensitive and challenging issues, such as depression or anxiety. The process by which a person receives and experiences therapy is important to understanding therapeutic process and outcomes. While the experience of the patient or client in traditional face-to-face therapy has been evaluated in a number of ways, there appeared to be a gap in the evaluation of patient experiences of therapeutic interventions delivered online. Evaluation of Web-based artifacts has focused either on evaluation of experience from a computer Web-design perspective through usability testing or on evaluation of treatment effectiveness. Neither of these methods focuses on the psychological experience of the person while engaged in the therapeutic process. Objective This study aimed to investigate what methods, if any, have been used to evaluate the in situ psychological experience of users of Web-based self-help psychosocial interventions. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken of interdisciplinary databases with a focus on health and computer sciences. Studies that met a predetermined search protocol were included. Results Among 21 studies identified that examined psychological experience of the user, only 1 study collected user experience in situ. The most common method of understanding users’ experience was through semistructured interviews conducted posttreatment or questionnaires administrated at the end of an intervention session. The questionnaires were usually based on standardized tools used to assess user experience with traditional face-to-face treatment. Conclusions There is a lack of methods specified in the literature to evaluate the interface between Web-based mental health or behavior change artifacts and users. Main

  17. Psychiatric Morbidity among Subjects with Leprosy and Albinism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with high psychological morbidity.[6]. Yamaguchi et al. ... leprosy on the well-being of adolescent children. The authors .... link between the physical and psychological health allows ..... Secondary school. 5. 8 .... psychiatric morbidity in dermatological patients. Indian J. Dermatol 2003;48:137‑41. 10. Verma KK ...

  18. Finding a needle in a haystack: toward a psychologically informed method for aviation security screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Thomas C; Dando, Coral J

    2015-02-01

    Current aviation security systems identify behavioral indicators of deception to assess risks to flights, but they lack a strong psychological basis or empirical validation. We present a new method that tests the veracity of passenger accounts. In an in vivo double-blind randomized-control trial conducted in international airports, security agents detected 66% of deceptive passengers using the veracity test method compared with less than 5% using behavioral indicator recognition. As well as revealing advantages of veracity testing over behavioral indicator identification, the study provides the highest levels to date of deception detection in a realistic setting where the known base rate of deceptive individuals is low.

  19. Applying cognitive developmental psychology to middle school physics learning: The rule assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinen, Nicole R.; Chi, Min; Chin, Doris B.; Prempeh, Joe; Blair, Kristen P.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive developmental psychology often describes children's growing qualitative understanding of the physical world. Physics educators may be able to use the relevant methods to advantage for characterizing changes in students' qualitative reasoning. Siegler developed the "rule assessment" method for characterizing levels of qualitative understanding for two factor situations (e.g., volume and mass for density). The method assigns children to rule levels that correspond to the degree they notice and coordinate the two factors. Here, we provide a brief tutorial plus a demonstration of how we have used this method to evaluate instructional outcomes with middle-school students who learned about torque, projectile motion, and collisions using different instructional methods with simulations.

  20. Measurement in health psychology: combining theory, qualitative, and quantitative methods to do it right : 6th Methods in Health Psychology Symposium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, G.-J.Y; Dima, A.; Plass, A.M.; Crutzen, R.; Gibbons, C.; Doyle, F.

    2016-01-01

    A recent debate in Health Psychology Review demonstrated the importance of careful attention to measurement and operationalisation of health psychology constructs (Beauchamp, 2016; Brewer, 2016; de Vries, 2016; Schwarzer & McAuley, 2016; Williams & Rhodes, 2016a, 2016b). This need is met by rapid

  1. Robust statistical methods: A primer for clinical psychology and experimental psychopathology researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Andy P; Wilcox, Rand R

    2017-11-01

    This paper reviews and offers tutorials on robust statistical methods relevant to clinical and experimental psychopathology researchers. We review the assumptions of one of the most commonly applied models in this journal (the general linear model, GLM) and the effects of violating them. We then present evidence that psychological data are more likely than not to violate these assumptions. Next, we overview some methods for correcting for violations of model assumptions. The final part of the paper presents 8 tutorials of robust statistical methods using R that cover a range of variants of the GLM (t-tests, ANOVA, multiple regression, multilevel models, latent growth models). We conclude with recommendations that set the expectations for what methods researchers submitting to the journal should apply and what they should report. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Social Psychology: research methods and techniques Psicologia Social: métodos e técnicas de pesquisa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcos Emanoel Pereira; José Luís Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the research methods adopted by researchers in the field of Social Psychology, differentiating them by considerations derived from the four epistemic dimensions...

  3. Understanding the patient's use of the method of free association: an ego psychological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, F

    1997-01-01

    While most of our methods of listening have been geared toward unearthing unconscious fantasies, those directed toward the ego's all-inclusive role in effecting the associative process have lagged far behind. It is the thesis of this paper that listening from the perspective of the ego allows the analyst to work more closely with what the patient is ready to understand. Clinical technique, using an ego psychological view, is elaborated, demonstrated, and compared to technique dependent on the reading of signs and symbols of the unconscious.

  4. Interview in Sport Psychology: Method of Study and Preparing an Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochaver K.A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Current article includes an analysis of interviewing in sport psychology, an observing of modern scientific interview protocols, a description of interview cases in private practice and research; also there is a discussion about efficiency and limitations of interview method in the article. Approaches to interviewing as the main and auxiliary method are discussed in details. The objective of the article is to show how an interview can reveal interesting biographical facts, personality traits, the installation of an athlete, to reflect his inner world, and to form working in the field of sport psychology professionals and students view on the advantages and opportunities an interview in the work of sports psychologist (research and practice. This method can be regarded as a tool of knowledge, but is also used as a preliminary interview before long-term or short-term therapeutic work. Clinical conversation as one of the options the interview are invited to the discussion; the article provides a common protocol for clinical interviews in the sport.

  5. Fine particle sources and cardiorespiratory morbidity: an application of chemical mass balance and factor analytical source-apportionment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnat, Jeremy A; Marmur, Amit; Klein, Mitchel; Kim, Eugene; Russell, Armistead G; Sarnat, Stefanie E; Mulholland, James A; Hopke, Philip K; Tolbert, Paige E

    2008-04-01

    Interest in the health effects of particulate matter (PM) has focused on identifying sources of PM, including biomass burning, power plants, and gasoline and diesel emissions that may be associated with adverse health risks. Few epidemiologic studies, however, have included source-apportionment estimates in their examinations of PM health effects. We analyzed a time-series of chemically speciated PM measurements in Atlanta, Georgia, and conducted an epidemiologic analysis using data from three distinct source-apportionment methods. The key objective of this analysis was to compare epidemiologic findings generated using both factor analysis and mass balance source-apportionment methods. We analyzed data collected between November 1998 and December 2002 using positive-matrix factorization (PMF), modified chemical mass balance (CMB-LGO), and a tracer approach. Emergency department (ED) visits for a combined cardiovascular (CVD) and respiratory disease (RD) group were assessed as end points. We estimated the risk ratio (RR) associated with same day PM concentrations using Poisson generalized linear models. There were significant, positive associations between same-day PM(2.5) (PM with aero-dynamic diameter surrogates of the source-apportioned PM(2.5) values. Despite differences among the source-apportionment methods, these findings suggest that modeled source-apportioned data can produce robust estimates of acute health risk. In Atlanta, there were consistent associations across methods between PM(2.5) from mobile sources and biomass burning with both cardiovascular and respiratory ED visits, and between sulfate-rich secondary PM(2.5) with respiratory visits.

  6. Introduction to the special issue: Advances in methods and measurement in family psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H; Connell, Arin; Doss, Brian; Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Rhoades, Galena K; Trentacosta, Christopher J

    2017-12-01

    This special issue presents a collection of reports that highlight recent advances in methods and measurement and also shed light on the complexity of family psychology. The importance of theory in guiding solid family science is evident throughout these reports. The reports include guides for researchers who incorporate direct observation into their research protocols and the ever-expanding field of tele-health interventions. Advanced analytic approaches are offered in the areas of grid sequence analysis, latent fixed-effects models, and the Factors of Curves Model (FOCUS). These sophisticated analytic approaches may be applied to advance systemic thinking in family psychology. The last set of articles illustrate how complex and innovative methodologies are applied to address important societal issues. Work experiences and marital relationships in African American couples address the importance of spillover effects in contemporary families. The creation of biobehavioral plasticity index has the potential to inform gene x environment contributions to family functioning. Finally, the unique methodological issues that are particularly germane to the diverse nature of stepfamilies and nonresident fathers are addressed. We hope that readers of this special issue will return to these reports as resources and examples of theory-driven methods and measurements. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Psychological Therapy in reducing general psychological distress for Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions and Comorbid Mental Health Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Blainey, Sarah Heidi; Rumball, Freya; Mercer, Louise; Evans, Lauren; Beck, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of psychological therapy in reducing psychological distress for adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and co-morbid mental health conditions in routine clinical practice. To explore the effect of individual characteristics and service factors on change in general distress. Method: In a specialist psychological therapies service for adults with ASC, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) self-report questionnai...

  8. Algorithmic complexity for psychology: a user-friendly implementation of the coding theorem method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvrit, Nicolas; Singmann, Henrik; Soler-Toscano, Fernando; Zenil, Hector

    2016-03-01

    Kolmogorov-Chaitin complexity has long been believed to be impossible to approximate when it comes to short sequences (e.g. of length 5-50). However, with the newly developed coding theorem method the complexity of strings of length 2-11 can now be numerically estimated. We present the theoretical basis of algorithmic complexity for short strings (ACSS) and describe an R-package providing functions based on ACSS that will cover psychologists' needs and improve upon previous methods in three ways: (1) ACSS is now available not only for binary strings, but for strings based on up to 9 different symbols, (2) ACSS no longer requires time-consuming computing, and (3) a new approach based on ACSS gives access to an estimation of the complexity of strings of any length. Finally, three illustrative examples show how these tools can be applied to psychology.

  9. The typological approach in child and family psychology: a review of theory, methods, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the theoretical underpinnings, major concepts, and methods of the typological approach. It was argued that the typological approach offers a systematic, empirically rigorous and reliable way to synthesize the nomothetic variable-centered approach with the idiographic case-centered approach. Recent advances in cluster analysis validation make it a promising method for uncovering natural typologies. This paper also reviewed findings from personality and family studies that have revealed 3 prototypical personalities and parenting styles: Adjusted/Authoritative, Overcontrolled/Authoritarian, and Undercontrolled/Permissive. These prototypes are theorized to be synonymous with attractor basins in psychological state space. The connection between family types and personality structure as well as future directions of typological research were also discussed.

  10. Multi-Level Discourse Analysis in a Physics Teaching Methods Course from the Psychological Perspective of Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Rodrigo Drumond; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a multi-level method for discourse analysis in science classrooms. This method is based on the structure of human activity (activity, actions, and operations) and it was applied to study a pre-service physics teacher methods course. We argue that such an approach, based on a cultural psychological perspective,…

  11. An affirmation of the phenomenological psychological descriptive method: a response to Rennie (2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Amedeo

    2014-12-01

    Rennie (2012) made the claim that, despite their diversity, all qualitative methods are essentially hermeneutical, and he attempted to back up that claim by demonstrating that certain core steps that he called hermeneutical are contained in all of the other methods despite their self-interpretation. In this article, I demonstrate that the method I developed based upon Husserlian phenomenology cannot be so interpreted despite Rennie's effort to do so. I claim that the undertaking of a psychological investigation at large can be considered interpretive but that when the phenomenological method based upon Husserl is employed, it is descriptive. I also object to the attempt to reduce varied theoretical perspectives to the methodical steps of one of the competing theories. Reducing theoretical perspectives to core steps distorts the full value of the theoretical perspective. The last point is demonstrated by showing how the essence of the descriptive phenomenological method is missed if one follows Rennie's core steps. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  12. A steep decline of malaria morbidity and mortality trends in Eritrea between 2000 and 2004: the effect of combination of control methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremichael Andemariam

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a huge public health problem in Africa that is responsible for more than one million deaths annually. In line with the Roll Back Malaria initiative and the Abuja Declaration, Eritrea and other African countries have intensified their fight against malaria. This study examines the impact of Eritrea's Roll Back Malaria Programme: 2000–2004 and the effects and possible interactions between the public health interventions in use. Methods This study employed cross-sectional survey to collect data from households, community and health facilities on coverage and usage of Insecticide-Treated Nets (ITNs, Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS, larvicidal activities and malaria case management. Comparative data was obtained from a similar survey carried out in 2001. Data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS and reports of the annual assessments by the National Malaria Control Programme was used to assess impact. Time series model (ARIMA was used to assess association. Results In the period 2000–2004, approximately 874,000 ITNs were distributed and 13,109 health workers and community health agents were trained on malaria case management. In 2004, approximately 81% households owned at least one net, of which 73% were ITNs and 58.6% of children 0–5 years slept under a net. The proportion of malaria cases managed by community health agents rose from 50% in 1999 to 78% in 2004. IRS coverage increased with the combined amount of DDT and Malathion used rising from 6,444 kg, in 2000 to 43,491 kg, in 2004, increasing the population protected from 117,017 to 259,420. Drug resistance necessitated regimen change to chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. During the period, there was a steep decline in malaria morbidity and case fatality by 84% and 40% respectively. Malaria morbidity was strongly correlated to the numbers of ITNs distributed (β = -0.125, p Conclusion Eritrea has within 5 years attained key Roll Back

  13. From morbid obesity to a healthy weight using cognitive-behavioral methods: a woman's three-year process with one and one-half years of weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a national health problem regularly confronting medical professionals. Although reduced-energy (kilocalorie [kcal]) eating and increased exercise will reliably reduce weight, these behaviors have been highly resistant to sustained change. To control eating using theory-based cognitive-behavioral methods that leverage the positive psychosocial effects of newly initiated exercise as an alternate to typical approaches of education about appropriate nutrition. A woman, age 48 years, with morbid obesity initiated exercise through a 6-month exercise support protocol based on social cognitive and self-efficacy theory (The Coach Approach). This program was followed by periodic individual meetings with a wellness professional intended to transfer behavioral skills learned to adapt to regular exercise, to then control eating. There was consistent recording of exercises completed, foods consumed, various psychosocial and lifestyle factors, and weight. Over the 4.4 years reported, weight decreased from 117.6 kg to 59.0 kg, and body mass index (BMI) decreased from 43.1 kg/m(2) to 21.6 kg/m(2). Mean energy intake initially decreased to 1792 kcal/day and further dropped to 1453 kcal/day by the end of the weight-loss phase. Consistent with theory, use of self-regulatory skills, self-efficacy, and overall mood significantly predicted both increased exercise and decreased energy intake. Morbid obesity was reduced to a healthy weight within 3.1 years, and weight was maintained in the healthy range through the present (1.3 years later). This case supports theory-based propositions that exercise-induced changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood transfer to and reinforce improvements in corresponding psychosocial factors related to controlled eating.

  14. Postpartum related morbidities among women visiting government health facilities in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navya Vyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal morbidities are considered a leading contributor to the burden of disease among women. Especially, if postpartum morbidities are left untreated, this can cause a negative impact on the quality of life. The study was conducted to determine the proportion and types of postpartum morbidities among women visiting government health facilities in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka and to find out the association between the morbidities and various factors. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in various government hospitals in Udupi Taluk, consisted of 229 postpartum women. These subjects were selected from mothers who accompanied their children for immunization from February 2013 to July 2013 using purposive sampling technique. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to find out the association between the morbidities and various factors using SPSS version 15. Results: Among 112 (48.9% women who experienced postpartum morbidities, back pain (23.6%, and perineal pain (15.7% were most commonly reported physical morbidities. Similarly, anxiety (10% and irritability (7.9% were the most common psychological problems. Demographic factors such as religion 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 5.4 and occupation 2.5 (95% CI 1.1, 5.9 were associated with the morbidities. Likewise, obstetric factors such as place of delivery 1.5 (95% CI 0.8, 2.9 and type of delivery 1.9 (95% CI 1.0, 3.6 were also associated with various morbidities. Conclusions: The findings showed a high proportion of postpartum morbidities being reported in our study settings. These observation priorities a need of health program for early recognition, treatment and improving awareness of postpartum morbidities among near mothers.

  15. “Having to Shift Everything We’ve Learned to the Side”: Expanding Research Methods Taught in Psychology to Incorporate Qualitative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Castell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    In Australia the tradition of conducting quantitative psychological research within a positivist framework has been challenged, with calls made for the inclusion of the full range of qualitative and quantitative methodologies within the undergraduate psychology curriculum. Despite this, the undergraduate psychology curriculum in most Australian universities retains a strong focus on teaching quantitative research methods. Limited research has examined attitudes toward qualitative research held by undergraduate psychology students taught within a positivist framework, and whether these attitudes are malleable and can be changed through teaching qualitative methodologies. Previous research has suggested that students from strong quantitative backgrounds experience some cognitive dissonance and greater difficulties in learning qualitative methods. In this article we examine 3rd year undergraduate psychology students’ attitudes to qualitative research prior to commencing and upon completion of a qualitative research unit. All students had previously completed two 13 weeks units of study in quantitative research methods. At Time 1, 63 students (84.1% female) completed online surveys comprising attitudinal measures. Key themes to emerge from student comments were that qualitative research was seen as an alternative approach, representing a paradigmatic shift that was construed by some students advantageous for meeting future professional and educative goals. Quantitative measures of attitudes to qualitative research were associated with general attitudes toward research, and psychology-specific epistemological beliefs. Changes in attitudes following completion of the qualitative research methods unit were in the hypothesized direction, but non-significant (small effect sizes). The findings increase our understanding of psychology students’ attitudes toward qualitative research and inform our recommendations for teaching research methods within the undergraduate

  16. "Having to Shift Everything We've Learned to the Side": Expanding Research Methods Taught in Psychology to Incorporate Qualitative Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D; Castell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    In Australia the tradition of conducting quantitative psychological research within a positivist framework has been challenged, with calls made for the inclusion of the full range of qualitative and quantitative methodologies within the undergraduate psychology curriculum. Despite this, the undergraduate psychology curriculum in most Australian universities retains a strong focus on teaching quantitative research methods. Limited research has examined attitudes toward qualitative research held by undergraduate psychology students taught within a positivist framework, and whether these attitudes are malleable and can be changed through teaching qualitative methodologies. Previous research has suggested that students from strong quantitative backgrounds experience some cognitive dissonance and greater difficulties in learning qualitative methods. In this article we examine 3rd year undergraduate psychology students' attitudes to qualitative research prior to commencing and upon completion of a qualitative research unit. All students had previously completed two 13 weeks units of study in quantitative research methods. At Time 1, 63 students (84.1% female) completed online surveys comprising attitudinal measures. Key themes to emerge from student comments were that qualitative research was seen as an alternative approach, representing a paradigmatic shift that was construed by some students advantageous for meeting future professional and educative goals. Quantitative measures of attitudes to qualitative research were associated with general attitudes toward research, and psychology-specific epistemological beliefs. Changes in attitudes following completion of the qualitative research methods unit were in the hypothesized direction, but non-significant (small effect sizes). The findings increase our understanding of psychology students' attitudes toward qualitative research and inform our recommendations for teaching research methods within the undergraduate

  17. Taking multi-morbidity into account when attributing DALYs to risk factors: comparing dynamic modeling with the GBD2010 calculation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendriek C. Boshuizen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs quantify the loss of healthy years of life due to dying prematurely and due to living with diseases and injuries. Current methods of attributing DALYs to underlying risk factors fall short on two main points. First, risk factor attribution methods often unjustly apply incidence-based population attributable fractions (PAFs to prevalence-based data. Second, it mixes two conceptually distinct approaches targeting different goals, namely an attribution method aiming to attribute uniquely to a single cause, and an elimination method aiming to describe a counterfactual situation without exposure. In this paper we describe dynamic modeling as an alternative, completely counterfactual approach and compare this to the approach used in the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study (GBD2010. Methods Using data on smoking in the Netherlands in 2011, we demonstrate how an alternative method of risk factor attribution using a pure counterfactual approach results in different estimates for DALYs. This alternative method is carried out using the dynamic multistate disease table model DYNAMO-HIA. We investigate the differences between our alternative method and the method used by the GBD2010 by doing additional analyses using data from a synthetic population in steady state. Results We observed important differences between the outcomes of the two methods: in an artificial situation where dynamics play a limited role, DALYs are a third lower as compared to those calculated with the GBD2010 method (398,000 versus 607,000 DALYs. The most important factor is newly occurring morbidity in life years gained that is ignored in the GBD2010 approach. Age-dependent relative risks and exposures lead to additional differences between methods as they distort the results of prevalence-based DALY calculations, but the direction and magnitude of the distortions depend on the particular situation. Conclusions We argue that the

  18. Taking multi-morbidity into account when attributing DALYs to risk factors: comparing dynamic modeling with the GBD2010 calculation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Nusselder, Wilma J; Plasmans, Marjanne H D; Hilderink, Henk H; Snijders, Bianca E P; Poos, René; van Gool, Coen H

    2017-02-14

    Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) quantify the loss of healthy years of life due to dying prematurely and due to living with diseases and injuries. Current methods of attributing DALYs to underlying risk factors fall short on two main points. First, risk factor attribution methods often unjustly apply incidence-based population attributable fractions (PAFs) to prevalence-based data. Second, it mixes two conceptually distinct approaches targeting different goals, namely an attribution method aiming to attribute uniquely to a single cause, and an elimination method aiming to describe a counterfactual situation without exposure. In this paper we describe dynamic modeling as an alternative, completely counterfactual approach and compare this to the approach used in the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study (GBD2010). Using data on smoking in the Netherlands in 2011, we demonstrate how an alternative method of risk factor attribution using a pure counterfactual approach results in different estimates for DALYs. This alternative method is carried out using the dynamic multistate disease table model DYNAMO-HIA. We investigate the differences between our alternative method and the method used by the GBD2010 by doing additional analyses using data from a synthetic population in steady state. We observed important differences between the outcomes of the two methods: in an artificial situation where dynamics play a limited role, DALYs are a third lower as compared to those calculated with the GBD2010 method (398,000 versus 607,000 DALYs). The most important factor is newly occurring morbidity in life years gained that is ignored in the GBD2010 approach. Age-dependent relative risks and exposures lead to additional differences between methods as they distort the results of prevalence-based DALY calculations, but the direction and magnitude of the distortions depend on the particular situation. We argue that the GBD2010 approach is a hybrid of an attributional and

  19. An Investigation into the Socio-Psychological Determinants of Farmers' Conservation Decisions: Method and Implications for Policy, Extension and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, E.; Mathijs, E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to present and apply a method to investigate farmers' socio-psychological determinants of conservation practice adoption, as an aid in extension, policy and conservation practice design. Design/methodology/approach: We use a sequential mixed method, starting with qualitative semi-structured interviews (n = 24),…

  20. Surgical treatment of morbid obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brane Breznikar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the article we present a morbid obesity and treatment options. We describe instructions for patients before operation and our results for operation with adjustable band.Patients and methods: Between May and December 2005 we operated 10 morbidly obese patients, 7 female and 3 male, aged 23 to 56, body mass index (BMI between 38 and 48.5 (laparoscopically inserted adjustable band. Two had comorbidity (diabetes.Results: We followed the patients’ status between 1 and 8 months. They reduced their body weight from 5 to 28 kg, on average 4.3 kg per month.Conclusions: Bariatric surgery is successful method for morbid obesity treatment. It demands multidisciplinary approach. Beside surgeon, endocrinologist, gastroenterologist, psychologist and others take part in the decision for the operation. During subsequent treatment dietetics and general physician play an important role.

  1. Parricide: Psychiatric morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunjić Bojana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Parricide is defined as a murder of parents by their children; the patricide is murder of father, while matricide is murder of mother. This entity is classified as homicide, but it differs in the fact that victims are parents and the killers are their children. Mostly, it is associated with psychiatric morbidity. OBJECTIVE To describe sociodemographic and psychopathological characteristics of parricide committers and to analyze circumstances of parricide and psychiatric morbidity in order to achieve better recognition and prevention of risks. METHOD This retrospective study included all homicide autopsy records (1991-2005 performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Medical School, University of Belgrade. For further analyses, all parricide records were selected out. The study analyzed all available parameters, which concerned parricide committers, victims and the act itself. Methods of descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS Between 1991 and 2005, there were 948 cases of homicide; of these, 3.5% were parricides. The committers of parricide were on average 31.2±11.9 years old, 87.8% were males, 60.6% with psychiatric symptoms most commonly with schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, personality disorder etc. Victims were on average 63.7±11.9 years old, 54.5% males, and 21.2% had a diagnosed mental illness. CONCLUSION Parricide is a rare kind of homicide accounting for 3% of all homicides. Committers are mostly unemployed males in early adulthood who have mental disorder. The phenomenon of parricide deserves a detailed analysis of the committer (individual bio-psycho-social profile and the environ- mental factors (family, closely related circumstances to enable a precise prediction of the act and prevention of the fatal outcome, which logically imposes the need of further studies.

  2. Society of Pediatric Psychology Workforce Survey: Development of Survey Methods, Sample Characteristics, and Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Wysocki, Tim; Brosig, Cheryl L.; Hilliard, Marisa E.

    2016-01-01

    There are few detailed workforce studies of specialty fields within professional psychology, and none have been reported for pediatric psychology since 2006. Availability of such data could facilitate more-informed decision making by students and trainees, psychologists pursuing employment opportunities, and psychologists involved in employment or compensation negotiations. This article describes the work of a task force of the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 54 (Society of ...

  3. A comparison of three different scoring methods for self-report measures of psychological aggression in a sample of college females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Cornelius, Tara L; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-01-01

    Psychological aggression in females' dating relationships has received increased empirical attention in recent years. However, researchers' have used numerous measures of psychological aggression and various scoring methods with these measures, making it difficult to compare across studies on psychological aggression. In addition, research has yet to examine whether different scoring methods for psychological aggression measures may affect the psychometric properties of these instruments. This study examined three self-report measures of psychological aggression within a sample of female college students (N = 108), including their psychometric properties when scored using frequency, sum, and variety scores. Results showed that the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2) had variable internal consistency depending on the scoring method used and good validity; the Multidimensional Measure of Emotional Abuse (MMEA) and the Follingstad Psychological Aggression Scale (FPAS) both had good internal consistency and validity across scoring methods. Implications of these findings for the assessment of psychological aggression and future research are discussed.

  4. Use of missing data methods in longitudinal studies: the persistence of bad practices in developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicić, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M

    2009-07-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal studies obtained from three flagship developmental journals-Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and Journal of Research on Adolescence-we examined the number of longitudinal studies reporting missing data and the missing data techniques used. Of the 100 longitudinal studies sampled, 57 either reported having missing data or had discrepancies in sample sizes reported for different analyses. The majority of these studies (82%) used missing data techniques that are statistically problematic (either listwise deletion or pairwise deletion) and not among the methods recommended by statisticians (i.e., the direct maximum likelihood method and the multiple imputation method). Implications of these results for developmental theory and application, and the need for understanding the consequences of using statistically inappropriate missing data techniques with actual longitudinal data sets, are discussed.

  5. Psychological predictors of weight loss after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Background: Morbid obesity is the fastest growing BMI group in the U.S. and the prevalence of morbid obesity worldwide has never been higher. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe forms of obesity especially with regardto a sustained long-term weight loss. Psychological...... of surgical weight loss.Methods: We searched PubMed, PsycInfo and Web of Science, for original prospectivestudies with a sample size >30 and at least one year follow-up, using a combina-tion of search terms such as ‘bariatric surgery’, ‘morbid obesity’, ‘psychologicalpredictors’, and ‘weight loss’. Only...

  6. Evaluating mediation and moderation effects in school psychology: A presentation of methods and review of current practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Amanda J.; McQuillin, Samuel D.

    2017-01-01

    Third variable effects elucidate the relation between two other variables, and can describe why they are related or under what conditions they are related. This article demonstrates methods to analyze two third-variable effects: moderation and mediation. The utility of examining moderation and mediation effects in school psychology is described and current use of the analyses in applied school psychology research is reviewed and evaluated. Proper statistical methods to test the effects are presented, and different effect size measures for the models are provided. Extensions of the basic moderator and mediator models are also described. PMID:20006988

  7. Extra-curricular methods for improving the quality of the staff training in the university of civil engineering (psychological content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magera Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High technologies in architecture and construction change the world around. Professional trainings for the creators of the artificial environment (engineers and architects have an effect on people’s life but practically they don’t take into account the human nature of the final user and his own psychological features. In this article there are presented the results of the psychological services in the University of civil engineering from 2006 to 2017 as extra-curricular methods for the general competences formation and development. There are also described the methods of works and their specifics, some difficulties and perspectives. There are explained the reasons for psychological service at the university of civil engineering. There are also taken into account the global risks and dangers affecting the study content of civil engineering.

  8. Emotional Prosody Measurement (EPM): a voice-based evaluation method for psychological therapy effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Egon L

    2004-01-01

    The voice embodies three sources of information: speech, the identity, and the emotional state of the speaker (i.e., emotional prosody). The latter feature is resembled by the variability of the F0 (also named fundamental frequency of pitch) (SD F0). To extract this feature, Emotional Prosody Measurement (EPM) was developed, which consists of 1) speech recording, 2) removal of speckle noise, 3) a Fourier Transform to extract the F0-signal, and 4) the determination of SD F0. After a pilot study in which six participants mimicked emotions by their voice, the core experiment was conducted to see whether EPM is successful. Twenty-five patients suffering from a panic disorder with agoraphobia participated. Two methods (story-telling and reliving) were used to trigger anxiety and were compared with comparable but more relaxed conditions. This resulted in a unique database of speech samples that was used to compare the EPM with the Subjective Unit of Distress to validate it as measure for anxiety/stress. The experimental manipulation of anxiety proved to be successful and EPM proved to be a successful evaluation method for psychological therapy effectiveness.

  9. Peer counselling versus role-playing: Two training methods of therapeutic skills in clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Rodríguez, José; Bados López, Arturo; Fusté Escolano, Adela; García-Grau, Eugeni; Saldaña García, Carmina; Balaguer Fort, Gemma; Lluch, Teresa; Arcos Pros, Mar

    2018-02-01

    Training programmes for clinical psychologists should include evidence-based teaching methods that enable trainees to learn therapeutic skills. Here we compared the perceived utility of role-playing vs. peer counselling. In peer counselling, one student recounts a personal experience to the other, who thus has the opportunity to act as the therapist in relation to a real situation. Given that sharing such personal experiences may provoke discomfort in students, we also examined this aspect. Trainees (n=202) were given both role-play and peer counselling activities as a way of practising empathy and active listening. After completing the skills training programme they completed a questionnaire to assess the extent to which each method had helped them to develop their self-awareness and to acquire these therapeutic skills. In general, peer counselling was considered more useful than role-playing for enhancing self-awareness and personal growth, as well as for learning these professional skills. Regarding the discomfort experienced by students, our data suggest that any initial reluctance to share personal experiences is outweighed by the personal and professional benefits obtained. Our results indicate that experiential learning involving emotionally charged situations is an effective way of teaching therapeutic skills to clinical and health psychology trainees.

  10. The effect of the Tomatis Method on the psychological well-being ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since features inherent in student pianists' training may contribute to psychological vulnerability, especially regarding self-concept and anxiety, these student pianists may benefit from interventions that could elevate their level of psychological well-being. Clinical observations, research and Tomatis' theories indicate that the ...

  11. Assessment of job satisfaction, job stress and psychological health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Background: The relationship that exists between job stress and job satisfaction has been investigated across several professional groups. Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological morbidity among journalists in a state in the Southern part of Nigeria. Methods: ...

  12. Assessment of job satisfaction, job stress and psychological health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The relationship that exists between job stress and job satisfaction has been investigated across several professional groups. Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological morbidity among journalists in a state in the Southern part of Nigeria. Methods: The ...

  13. Maternal age and child morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Malene Meisner; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud

    2017-01-01

    the association between maternal age and overall child morbidity according to main diagnosis groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a national cohort study including 352 027 live firstborn singleton children. The children were born between Jan 1994 and Dec 2009 and followed to Dec 2012. Children were divided...... into groups according to maternal age: 15-24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35+ years. Poisson regression analyses calculated adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of child morbidities according to main diagnoses groups A-Q of the International Classification of Disease 10 with adjustment for year of birth, body mass...... index, smoking, and mother's level of education. RESULTS: Average follow-up time was 11 years. Compared to children born to women 25-29 years, firstborn children to mothers aged 35+ had higher child morbidity in 8 of 19 main diagnosis groups and firstborn children to mothers 15-24 years had higher child...

  14. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative risk assessment has become part of daily clinical practice, but preoperative alcohol abuse has not received much attention. METHODS: A Medline search was carried out to identify original papers published from 1967 to 1998. Relevant articles on postoperative morbidity...... in alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... account for about half of the morbidity. The pathogenic mechanisms include preoperative immune incompetence, subclinical cardiac insufficiency and haemostatic imbalance. In addition, surgical trauma and/or postoperative abstinence result in an exaggerated stress response, which may further contribute...

  15. Evaluating Mediation and Moderation Effects in School Psychology: A Presentation of Methods and Review of Current Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Amanda J.; McQuillin, Samuel D.

    2010-01-01

    Third variable effects elucidate the relation between two other variables, and can describe why they are related or under what conditions they are related. This article demonstrates methods to analyze two third-variable effects: moderation and mediation. The utility of examining moderation and mediation effects in school psychology is described…

  16. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  17. Psychological and psychosexual aspects of vulvar vestibulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunns, D; Mandal, D

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: To objectively assess the psychological and psychosexual morbidity of patients with vulvar vestibulitis. METHODS: 30 patients with variable degrees of vulvar vestibulitis were recruited from a vulval clinic. Each patient underwent a detailed history and clinical examination. Friedrich's criteria were used for the diagnosis of vulvar vestibulitis. Standardised questionnaires to assess psychological and psychosexual function were completed by the patient before review. These questionnaires were the STAI and a modified psychosexual questionnaire introduced by Campion. RESULTS: Patients experienced considerable psychological dysfunction compared with controls. All aspects of psychosexual dysfunction were affected. CONCLUSIONS: When managing patients, psychosexual and psychological issues must be considered in addition to other conventional types of therapy. Vulvar vestibulitis may be a risk factor for developing psychosexual complications including vaginismus, low libido, and orgasmic dysfunction. Consideration of these factors must be an integral part of the management of patients with all chronic vulval conditions. PMID:9582478

  18. Modern Methods for Weight Control: The Physiology and Psychology of Dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Kelly D.; Steen, Suzanne Nelson

    1987-01-01

    The article discusses the physiological and psychological factors that influence the regulation of body weight and reviews several approaches to weight loss. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary program for weight control is proposed. (Author/MT)

  19. Psychological distress and coping amongst higher education students: a mixed method enquiry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    .... An in-depth understanding of how nursing/midwifery and teacher education students experience psychological distress and coping is necessary to enable higher education providers to adequately support these students...

  20. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warfa Nasir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. Methods There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. Results The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. Conclusion The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  1. A study of geriatric depression and co- morbidities among primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depression in the elderly is very common but diagnostic rates among primary care physicians is poor. This is attributed to both patient and physician related factors. The patient factors include co-morbidities, aging and psychological mindedness which is culture related. Generally, there's paucity of psychological complaints ...

  2. Morbidities, concordance, and predictors of preterm premature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morbidities, concordance, and predictors of preterm premature rupture of membranes among pregnant women at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria. ... Objective: This article aimed to review the morbidities, concordance, and predictors of PPROM over a 10‑year period. Methods: This was a ...

  3. Hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity.......Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity....

  4. Perspectives of patients and family members regarding psychological support using intensive care diaries: An exploratory mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Leanne M; Rattray, Janice; Kenardy, Justin; Hull, Alastair M; Ullman, Amanda J; Le Brocque, Robyne; Mitchell, Marion; Davis, Chelsea; Castillo, Maria I; Macfarlane, Bonnie

    2017-04-01

    Diaries summarizing intensive care are routine practice in some countries, although evidence to support diary use is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify whether distress post-intensive care influences patients' and relatives' choice as to whether they would like to receive a diary and what information delivery method is preferred. Intensive care patients admitted for at least 3 days and their relatives participated in an exploratory mixed methods study. Interviews were conducted 3 to 5 months after discharge. Psychological distress was assessed using Kessler-10 and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Checklist - 5. Perceptions of benefit of diaries were assessed using a 4-point Likert scale. Differences were examined using Fisher exact test (PPsychological distress was evident in 25 (47%) patients and 5 (23%) relatives. Participants' psychological health was similar for those who perceived diaries as beneficial, and those who did not. Themes included memory, process, and impact, although opinions were diverse. Patient and relative preferences of receiving a diary are not related to psychological distress. Diverse opinions around common themes suggest the need for a range of interventions to aid psychological recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Nasir; Curtis, Sarah; Watters, Charles; Carswell, Ken; Ingleby, David; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-09-07

    The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK) and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA) helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  6. Society of Pediatric Psychology Workforce Survey: Development of Survey Methods, Sample Characteristics, and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Tim; Brosig, Cheryl L; Hilliard, Marisa E

    2016-03-01

    There are few detailed workforce studies of specialty fields within professional psychology, and none have been reported for pediatric psychology since 2006. Availability of such data could facilitate more-informed decision making by students and trainees, psychologists pursuing employment opportunities, and psychologists involved in employment or compensation negotiations. This article describes the work of a task force of the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 54 (Society of Pediatric Psychology) in the design, construction, pretesting, distribution, and data management for the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) Workforce Survey. The 18-member task force was established to design and implement a workforce survey that balanced needs for breadth, clarity, brevity, and protection of confidentiality. The survey solicits information about demographic characteristics; training, licensure and certifications; employment settings, responsibilities, and productivity metrics; compensation; and employment satisfaction. A survey link was distributed via e-mail to full members of the SPP in June 2015. A total of 404 members (32.3% return rate) completed the survey. This article focuses on the development, methodology, and respondent characteristics for this 1st administration of the workforce survey. Separate articles will report detailed analyses of the survey results such as compensation and work satisfaction. Future distributions of the survey will enable compilation of a longitudinal database to track changes in the profession. SPP members and others may propose additional analyses of these data. This work may provide guidance to other groups of specialized psychologists who may wish to implement similar initiatives.

  7. Society of Pediatric Psychology Workforce Survey: Development of Survey Methods, Sample Characteristics, and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Tim; Brosig, Cheryl L.; Hilliard, Marisa E.

    2016-01-01

    There are few detailed workforce studies of specialty fields within professional psychology, and none have been reported for pediatric psychology since 2006. Availability of such data could facilitate more-informed decision making by students and trainees, psychologists pursuing employment opportunities, and psychologists involved in employment or compensation negotiations. This article describes the work of a task force of the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 54 (Society of Pediatric Psychology) in the design, construction, pretesting, distribution, and data management for the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) Workforce Survey. The 18-member task force was established to design and implement a workforce survey that balanced needs for breadth, clarity, brevity, and protection of confidentiality. The survey solicits information about demographic characteristics; training, licensure and certifications; employment settings, responsibilities, and productivity metrics; compensation; and employment satisfaction. A survey link was distributed via e-mail to full members of the SPP in June 2015. A total of 404 members (32.3% return rate) completed the survey. This article focuses on the development, methodology, and respondent characteristics for this 1st administration of the workforce survey. Separate articles will report detailed analyses of the survey results such as compensation and work satisfaction. Future distributions of the survey will enable compilation of a longitudinal database to track changes in the profession. SPP members and others may propose additional analyses of these data. This work may provide guidance to other groups of specialized psychologists who may wish to implement similar initiatives. PMID:28066693

  8. The un-making of a method: From rating scales to the study of psychological processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Philip J.; Valsiner, Jaan

    2011-01-01

    Rating scales are standard instruments in psychology. They force the research participant to provide a numerical estimate of an assumed “degree” of some characteristic along a linear scale. We prove that such numerical estimates are artifacts based on unknown psychological processes that are used...... in the making of a rating. Psychology’s current use of rating scales entails reliance upon unexplored and abbreviated introspection. It superimposes upon the rater the use of real numbers for the subjective construction of the ratings. The axiomatic superimposition of the notion of “degree” of subjective...... in terms of the study of microgenesis of rating processes allows psychology access to the reality of the workings of the human mind....

  9. Emerging Information Literacy and Research-Method Competencies in Urban Community College Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    This article details an assignment developed to teach students at urban community colleges information-literacy skills. This annotated bibliography assignment introduces students to library research skills, helps increase information literacy in beginning college students, and helps psychology students learn research methodology crucial in…

  10. Promoting Psychology to Students: Embracing the multiplicity of research foci and method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Samantha Rees

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order for the discipline of psychology to continue to thrive it is imperative that future students are effectively recruited into the field. Research is an important part of the discipline and it is argued that the nature of psychological research is naturally one of multiplicity in topic and methodology and that promoting and highlighting this should be considered as a potentially effective recruitment strategy. In this study, a snap-shot of current research topics and methodologies was collected based on published papers from one typical academic psychology department in Australia. Fifty articles published in the period 2010-2013 were randomly selected and then grouped using content analysis to form topic clusters. Five main clusters were identified and included: Grief and Loss; Psychopathology; Sociocultural Studies; Attachment and Parenting; and Developmental Disorders. The studies spanned the full spectrum of research methodologies from quantitative to qualitative and had implications for assessment practices, diagnosis, prevention and treatment, education, and policy. The findings are discussed in terms of the unique characteristics of psychology as a discipline and how this diversity ought to be utilized as the main sell

  11. Using psychological theory to inform methods to optimize the implementation of a hand hygiene intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscart Veronique M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Careful hand hygiene (HH is the single most important factor in preventing the transmission of infections to patients, but compliance is difficult to achieve and maintain. A lack of understanding of the processes involved in changing staff behaviour may contribute to the failure to achieve success. The purpose of this study was to identify nurses’ and administrators’ perceived barriers and facilitators to current HH practices and the implementation of a new electronic monitoring technology for HH. Methods Ten key informant interviews (three administrators and seven nurses were conducted to explore barriers and facilitators related to HH and the impact of the new technology on outcomes. The semi structured interviews were based on the Theoretical Domains Framework by Michie et al. and conducted prior to intervention implementation. Data were explored using an inductive qualitative analysis approach. Data between administrators and nurses were compared. Results In 9 of the 12 domains, nurses and administrators differed in their responses. Administrators believed that nurses have insufficient knowledge and skills to perform HH, whereas the nurses were confident they had the required knowledge and skills. Nurses focused on immediate consequences, whereas administrators highlighted long-term outcomes of the system. Nurses concentrated foremost on their personal safety and their families’ safety as a source of motivation to perform HH, whereas administrators identified professional commitment, incentives, and goal setting. Administrators stated that the staff do not have the decision processes in place to judge whether HH is necessary or not. They also highlighted the positive aspects of teams as a social influence, whereas nurses were not interested in group conformity or being compared to others. Nurses described the importance of individual feedback and self-monitoring in order to increase their performance, whereas

  12. Risk of psychological ill health and methods of organisational downsizing: a cross-sectional survey in four European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andreeva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The manner in which organizational downsizing is implemented can make a substantial difference as to whether the exposed workers will suffer from psychological ill health. Surprisingly, little research has directly investigated this issue. We examined the likelihood of psychological ill health associated with strategic and reactive downsizing. Methods A cross-sectional survey included 1456 respondents from France, Sweden, Hungary and the United Kingdom: 681 employees in stable workplaces (reference group and 775 workers from downsized companies. Reactive downsizing was exemplified by the exposures to compulsory redundancies of medium to large scale resulting in job loss or surviving a layoff while staying employed in downsized organizations. The workforce exposed to strategic downsizing was represented by surplus employees who were internally redeployed and supported through their career change process within a policy context of “no compulsory redundancy”. Symptoms of anxiety, depression and emotional exhaustion were assessed in telephone interviews with brief subscales from Hospital Anxiety Scale (HADS-A, Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-CD6 and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-GS. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Results We observed no increased risk of psychological ill health in the case of strategic downsizing. The number of significant associations with psychological ill health was the largest for the large-scale reactive downsizing: surviving a layoff was consistently associated with all three outcome measures; returning to work after the job loss experience was related to anxiety and depression, while persons still unemployed at interview had elevated odds of anxiety. After reactive medium-scale downsizing, unemployment at interview was the only exposure associated with anxiety and depression. Conclusions The manner in which organizational downsizing is implemented can be important for the psychological

  13. Psychological Distress and Help Seeking Amongst Higher Education Students: Findings from a Mixed Method Study of Undergraduate Nursing/Midwifery and Teacher Education Students in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress as experienced by higher education students is of major concern because of its potential to adversely impact academic performance, retention, mental health and lifestyle. This paper reports a mixed method investigation of student self-reported psychological distress and help-seeking behaviour. The sample comprised all…

  14. Statistical Methods Used in "American Educational Research Journal,""Journal of Educational Psychology," and "Sociology of Education" from 1972 through 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Nancy J.; And Others

    The use of particular statistical methods over time was studied in a review of publications from the disciplines of education, psychology, and sociology. Publications studied were the: (1) "American Educational Research Journal"; (2) "Journal of Educational Psychology"; and (3) "Sociology of Education". A total of 221…

  15. Much Pain, Little Gain? Paradigm-Specific Models and Methods in Experimental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser, Thorsten

    2011-03-01

    Paradigm-oriented research strategies in experimental psychology have strengths and limitations. On the one hand, experimental paradigms play a crucial epistemic and heuristic role in basic psychological research. On the other hand, empirical research is often limited to the observed effects in a certain paradigm, and theoretical models are frequently tied to the particular features of the given paradigm. A paradigm-driven research strategy therefore jeopardizes the pursuit of research questions and theoretical models that go beyond a specific paradigm. As one example of a more integrative approach, recent research on illusory and spurious correlations has attempted to overcome the limitations of paradigm-specific models in the context of biased contingency perception and social stereotyping. Last but not least, the use of statistical models for the analysis of elementary cognitive functions is a means toward a more integrative terminology and theoretical perspective across different experimental paradigms and research domains. © The Author(s) 2011.

  16. Web-based cognitive behavioural therapy (W-CBT) for diabetes patients with co-morbid depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bastelaar, Kim M P; Pouwer, Frans; Cuijpers, Pim

    2008-01-01

    could potentially be an effective way to improve the reach of psychological care for diabetes patients, at relatively low costs. This study seeks to test the effectiveness of a web-based self-help depression programme for people with diabetes and co-morbid depression. METHODS/DESIGN: The effectiveness...... of a web-based self-help course for adults with diabetes with co-morbid depression will be tested in a randomised trial, using a wait-list controlled design. The intervention consists of an 8-week, moderated self-help course that is tailored to the needs of persons living with diabetes and is offered...

  17. Morbidity from parotid sialography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalk, WWI; Vissink, A; Spijkervet, FKL; Moller, JM; Roodenburg, JLN

    2001-01-01

    Objective. Sialography is commonly used for the diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome, although its invasive nature is often regarded as a serious drawback for routine usage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morbidity and acceptability of parotid sialography using oil-based contrast fluid. Study

  18. Completed suicide with violent and non-violent methods in rural Shandong, China: a psychological autopsy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Hua Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to describe the specific characteristics of completed suicides by violent methods and non-violent methods in rural Chinese population, and to explore the related factors for corresponding methods. METHODS: Data of this study came from investigation of 199 completed suicide cases and their paired controls of rural areas in three different counties in Shandong, China, by interviewing one informant of each subject using the method of Psychological Autopsy (PA. RESULTS: There were 78 (39.2% suicides with violent methods and 121 (60.8% suicides with non-violent methods. Ingesting pesticides, as a non-violent method, appeared to be the most common suicide method (103, 51.8%. Hanging (73 cases, 36.7% and drowning (5 cases, 2.5% were the only violent methods observed. Storage of pesticides at home and higher suicide intent score were significantly associated with choice of violent methods while committing suicide. Risk factors related to suicide death included negative life events and hopelessness. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide with violent methods has different factors from suicide with non-violent methods. Suicide methods should be considered in suicide prevention and intervention strategies.

  19. Completed Suicide with Violent and Non-Violent Methods in Rural Shandong, China: A Psychological Autopsy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Hua; Jia, Cun-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to describe the specific characteristics of completed suicides by violent methods and non-violent methods in rural Chinese population, and to explore the related factors for corresponding methods. Methods Data of this study came from investigation of 199 completed suicide cases and their paired controls of rural areas in three different counties in Shandong, China, by interviewing one informant of each subject using the method of Psychological Autopsy (PA). Results There were 78 (39.2%) suicides with violent methods and 121 (60.8%) suicides with non-violent methods. Ingesting pesticides, as a non-violent method, appeared to be the most common suicide method (103, 51.8%). Hanging (73 cases, 36.7%) and drowning (5 cases, 2.5%) were the only violent methods observed. Storage of pesticides at home and higher suicide intent score were significantly associated with choice of violent methods while committing suicide. Risk factors related to suicide death included negative life events and hopelessness. Conclusions Suicide with violent methods has different factors from suicide with non-violent methods. Suicide methods should be considered in suicide prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:25111835

  20. Psychopathological Behaviour and Cognition in Morbid Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, Alba; Calabro, Pasquale Fabio; Lippi, Chita; Jaccheri, Roberta; Vitti, Jacopo; Santini, Ferruccio

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition with high prevalence and multifaceted aetiology, accompanied by an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Obesity has several negative effects on the psychological status, and the severity of psychological disorders correlates with the degree of obesity. Aim of this review is to provide an overview of the literature concerning the psychological distress associated with severe obesity, which contributes to deterioration of the quality of life of affected patients. Dysfunctional eating behaviours and eating disorders, psychiatric comorbidity, cognition and quality of life will be discussed together with the most common drugs that can be employed to treat the various disorders in this peculiar clinical setting. The effects of bariatric surgery will be also reviewed. Obesity is often the result of pathological behaviours implemented in an eating disorder. Inconsistent results have been reported with regard to the effect of severe obesity on cognition, which recognize a multifaceted aetiology. Serotonergic agents play an important role in the management of patients with obesity and binge episodes, fluoxetine being currently a drug approved for this disorder. The efficacy of lorcaserin, a combination of bupropion and naltrexone, or antiepileptic medications (topiramate and zonisamide) has also been proposed. A neuroprotective role of leptin and oestrogen has been hypothesized. Bariatric surgery is a helpful treatment of morbid obese patients, with long-term favourable results on the psychopathological profile. Psychological, psychoeducational and psychopharmacological treatment can facilitate weight loss in morbid obese subjects with psychopathological comorbidities. A precise definition of the mechanisms affecting appetite, satiety and energy balance is expected to foster the development of new effective antiobesity drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Investigation of basic notions of positive psychology with an aid of Experience Sampling Method (ESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levit L.Z.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with two investigations of the main concepts of the contemporary positive psychology (eudaimonia, hedonism, the flow, happiness and unhappiness with the help of ESM. The studies were built upon Person-Oriented Conception of Happiness (POCH elaborated by the author. The results indicate that the flow can be accompanied by the rise of the other «components of happiness» belonging to other theories. The study of the situations, that were associated with «unhappiness», showed that most of them belong to maintenance activities of the individual.

  2. Socio-psychological aspects, depending on the online games and the method of its diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochetkov N.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes a non-chemical type of the dependence on online games. The author considers classification and universal signs of dependence and draws the line between the two types of addictive behavior: Internet dependence and dependence on online games. In contrast to clinical characteristics used in the scientific literature, the author suggests a new criterion for identification of the dependence on the on- line games in the scientific psychological school A.V. Petrovsky — position "significant other" in real or virtual space. "Game addiction" — a new term, which is introduced in order to distinguish between the concept of gambling, dependence on online games and, dependence on the game, carried out without Internet connection. The author proposes and substantiates the socio-psychological research methodology aimed at its diagnos- tics. Empirical results that indicate differences in the level of Internet dependence and dependence on online games of respondents, depending on the factor of having "sig- nificant other” in the network, are represented.

  3. Trait Emotional Intelligence, Anxiety Sensitivity, and Experiential Avoidance in Stress Reactivity and Their Improvement Through Psychological Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Choi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress pervades daily society, often with deleterious consequences for those prone to react intensely to it. Intervention techniques to attenuate stress reactivity are thus paramount. With that goal in mind, researchers have sought to identify and alter malleable psychological dispositional variables that influence stress reactivity. Trait emotional intelligence (TEI, anxiety sensitivity (AS, and experiential avoidance (EA are increasingly receiving attention in these research efforts. The self-reported emotional component of stress reactivity has been emphasized in investigations and is our focus. Specifically, this paper overviews the role of TEI, AS, and EA in self-reported stress responses. We also discuss empirically supported psychological methods to adjust suboptimal levels of these variables in normal populations. Both psycho-educational (information, skills and mindfulness-based interventions (specific mindfulness therapies or components are covered. Findings include that (1 TEI, AS, and EA are each correlated with the emotional component of stress reactivity to both naturalistic and lab-based stressors; (2 preliminary support currently exists for psycho-educational intervention of TEI and AS but is lacking for EA; (3 adequate evidence supports mindfulness-based interventions to target EA, with very limited but encouraging findings suggesting mindfulness methods improve TEI and AS; and (4 although more research is needed, stress management approaches based on mindfulness may well target all three of these psychological variables and thus appear particularly promising. Encouragingly, some methods to modify dispositional variables (e.g., a mindfulness-based format of guided self-help are easily disseminated and potentially applicable to the general public.

  4. Maternal morbid obesity and obstetric outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to review pregnancy outcomes in morbidly obese women who delivered a baby weighing 500 g or more in a large tertiary referral university hospital in Europe. METHODS: Morbid obesity was defined as a BMI > or =40.0 kg\\/m2 (WHO). Only women whose BMI was calculated at their first antenatal visit were included. The obstetric out-comes were obtained from the hospital\\'s computerised database. RESULTS: The incidence of morbid obesity was 0.6% in 5,824 women. Morbidly obese women were older and were more likely to be multigravidas than women with a normal BMI. The pregnancy was complicated by hypertension in 35.8% and diabetes mellitus in 20.0% of women. Obstetric interventions were high, with an induction rate of 42.1% and a caesarean section rate of 45.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that maternal morbid obesity is associated with an alarmingly high incidence of medical complications and an increased level of obstetric interventions. Consideration should be given to developing specialised antenatal services for morbidly obese women. The results also highlight the need to evaluate the effectiveness of prepregnancy interventions in morbidly obese women.

  5. Psychological Health of First-Year Health Professional Students in a Medical University in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadayam G Gomathi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the psychological health of first-year health professional students and to study sources of student stress. Methods: All first-year students (N = 125 of the Gulf Medical University (GMU in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE, were invited to participate in a voluntary, anonymous, self-administered, questionnaire-based survey in January 2011. Psychological health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire, with items related to academic, psychosocial and health domains was used to identify sources of stress. Pearson’s chi-squared test and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used for testing the association between psychological morbidity and sources of stress. Results: A total of 112 students (89.6% completed the survey and the overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was found to be 33.6%. The main academic-related sources of stress were ‘frequency of exams’, ‘academic workload’, and ‘time management’. Major psychosocial stressors were ‘worries regarding future’, ‘high parental expectations’, ‘anxiety’, and ‘dealing with members of the opposite sex’. Health-related issues were ‘irregular eating habits’, ‘lack of exercise’, and ‘sleep-related problems’. Psychological morbidity was not significantly associated with any of the demographic factors studied. However, total stress scores and academics-related domain scores were significantly associated with psychological morbidity. Conclusion: Psychological morbidity was seen in one in three first-year students attending GMU. While worries regarding the future and parental expectations were sources of stress for many students, psychological morbidity was found to be significantly associated with only the total stress and the academic-related domain scores.

  6. A multiple indicator, multiple cause method for representing social capital with an application to psychological distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Peter

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes a structural equation methodology for obtaining social capital scores for survey subjects from multiple indicators of social support, neighbourhood and trust perceptions, and memberships of organizations. It adjusts for variation that is likely to occur in levels of social capital according to geographic context (e.g. level of area deprivation, geographic region, level of urbanity) and demographic group. Social capital is used as an explanatory factor for psychological distress using data from the 2006 Health Survey for England. A highly significant effect of social capital in reducing the chance of psychiatric caseness is obtained after controlling for other individual and geographic risk factors. Allowing for social capital has considerable effects on the impacts on psychiatric health of other risk factors. In particular, the impact of area deprivation category is much reduced. There is also evidence of significant differentiation in social capital between population categories and geographic contexts.

  7. The impact of research synthesis methods on industrial-organizational psychology: The road from pessimism to optimism about cumulative knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGeest, David S; Schmidt, Frank L

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an account of the impact that research synthesis methods, in the form of psychometric meta-analysis, has had on industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology. This paper outlines the central contributions of psychometric meta-analysis in providing a method for developing cumulative knowledge. First, this paper describes the concerns and the state of the field before the development of meta-analytic methods. Second, the paper explains how meta-analysis addressed these concerns. Third, the paper details the development of psychometric meta-analysis through VG research and describes how the use of psychometric meta-analysis spread to other topic areas in the field. Finally, the paper presents illustrative example literatures, such as training and leadership, where meta-analysis had crucial impacts. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Multi-level Discourse Analysis in a Physics Teaching Methods Course from the Psychological Perspective of Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond Vieira, Rodrigo; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a multi-level method for discourse analysis in science classrooms. This method is based on the structure of human activity (activity, actions, and operations) and it was applied to study a pre-service physics teacher methods course. We argue that such an approach, based on a cultural psychological perspective, affords opportunities for analysts to perform a theoretically based detailed analysis of discourse events. Along with the presentation of analysis, we show and discuss how the articulation of different levels offers interpretative criteria for analyzing instructional conversations. We synthesize the results into a model for a teacher's practice and discuss the implications and possibilities of this approach for the field of discourse analysis in science classrooms. Finally, we reflect on how the development of teachers' understanding of their activity structures can contribute to forms of progressive discourse of science education.

  9. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.

  10. [Morbidity among forestry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalski, H; Bernacki, K

    1981-01-01

    The past and presently diagnosed diseases (excluding vibration disease and occupational hearing impairment) were analysed in 1105 sawers operating combustion drive mechanic saws and in 295 controls. The greatest rate, both in the sawers and controls, was that of the diseases of respiratory tract, circulatory system and osseo -- articulo -- muscular system, nervous system and sense organs. These constituted 86% of all diseases that afflicted sawers and controls. No specific general morbidity accompanying vibration disease or occupational hearing impairment was found in the sawers exposed to noise and vibration.

  11. Psychological type and the pulpit: An empirical enquiry concerning preachers and the SIFT method of biblical hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie J. Francis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 389 experienced preachers completed a measure of psychological type. They then read Mark 1:29–39 and recorded their evaluations of the four refl ections on this passage proposed by Francis (1997 and which were derived from the SIFT method of biblical hermeneutics and liturgical preaching. Three main conclusions are drawn from these data. First, compared with the United Kingdom population norms, preachers within this sample were signifi cantly more likely to prefer introversion, intuition, feeling and judging. Second, preachers were four times more likely to prefer a sensing interpretation of the text rather than a thinking interpretation, emphasising the richness of the narrative rather than facing the theological questions posed by it. Third, there was little evidence to suggest that preachers were less likely to appreciate interpretations consonant with their less preferred or inferior function than those consonant with their most preferred or dominant function. In this sense, the richness of the SIFT method should be accessible to preachers of all psychological types.

  12. Regional anaesthesia and surgical morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, N B; Kehlet, H

    1988-01-01

    This review assesses the results of studies examining the influence of regional anaesthesia on surgical morbidity. Morbidity appears to be reduced when procedures below the umbilicus are concerned, but evidence is less convincing for upper abdominal and thoracic procedures.......This review assesses the results of studies examining the influence of regional anaesthesia on surgical morbidity. Morbidity appears to be reduced when procedures below the umbilicus are concerned, but evidence is less convincing for upper abdominal and thoracic procedures....

  13. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Laryngeal morbidity after tracheal intubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M K; Rasmussen, N; Kristensen, M S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation may cause vocal fold damage. The trial was designed to assess laryngeal morbidity comparing the Endoflex(®) tube with a conventional endotracheal tube with stylet. We hypothesised that laryngeal morbidity within the first 24 h after extubation would be lower...... in the shimmer values in that group implies that the Endoflex may be associated with less laryngeal morbidity....

  15. Psychiatric morbidity and pattern of dysfunctions in patients with leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy, being a chronic infectious disease with profound social stigma, remains associated with high psychological mortidity. PURPOSES: To find out the pattern of psychiatric morbidity in leprosy patients and the relationship of various factors with the morbidity. METHODS: Ninty patients attending leprosy clinic were randomly chosen for the study group alongwith 40 patients suffering from acute skin problem other than leprosy as control group. The socio-demographic data were recorded in semi-structural proforma; all patients were given Goldbery Health Questioneaire (GHQ. Patients having GHQ score> 2 was assessed by Disability Assessent Questionaire (DAQ. The psychiatric diagnoses was made according to ICD-10 by W ho0 and physical deformity by W ho 0 Disability Scale. FINDINGS: The mean GHQ score of the study grant was 3.44 and that of control group was 1.62. The mean DAQ score was 45.13. Psychiatric disorder was seen in 44.4% and 7.5% of study group and control group respectively. The psychiatric illness was generalised anoxidy disorder (GAD (27.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Leprosis highly associated with psychiatric mobidity. LIMITATIONS: The findings can not be generalised due to small sample size and clinic-based data.

  16. Maternal Morbidity during Childbirth Hospitalization in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndon, Audrey; Lee, Henry C.; Gilbert, William M.; Gould, Jeffrey B.; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence and risk factors for maternal morbidity during childbirth hospitalization. Methods Maternal morbidities were determined using ICD9-CM and vital records codes from linked hospital discharge and vital records data for 1,572,909 singleton births in California, 2005-2007. Sociodemographic, obstetric, and hospital volume risk factors were estimated using mixed effects logistic regression models. Results The maternal morbidity rate was 241/1000 births. The most common morbidities were episiotomy, pelvic trauma, maternal infection, postpartum hemorrhage, and severe laceration. Preeclampsia (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.96; 95% CI 2.8,3.13), maternal age over 35 years, (AOR 1.92; 1.79,2.06), vaginal birth after cesarean, (AOR 1.81; 1.47,2.23), and repeat cesarean birth (AOR 1.99; 1.87,2.12) conferred the highest odds of severe morbidity. Non-white women were more likely to suffer morbidity. Conclusions Nearly one in four California women experienced complications during childbirth hospitalization. Significant health disparities in maternal childbirth outcomes persist in the United States. PMID:22779781

  17. Framing maternal morbidity: WHO scoping exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkruik, Rachel C; Tunçalp, Özge; Chou, Doris; Say, Lale

    2013-11-19

    Maternal morbidity estimations are not based on well-documented methodologies and thus have limited validity for informing efforts to address the issue and improve maternal health. To fill this gap, maternal morbidity needs to be clearly defined, driving the development of tools and indicators to measure and monitor maternal health. This article describes the scoping exercise conducted by the World Health Organization's Department of Reproductive of Health and Research (WHO/RHR), as an essential first step in this process. A literature review was conducted to identify the range of definitions and conditions included in various studies of maternal morbidity with a special focus on the similarities and discrepancies of the definitions used across the studies. Furthermore a questionnaire was developed which included sections on key areas identified during the review and was sent out electronically to 130 international experts in the field of maternal health. Maternal morbidities have been categorized in a variety of ways based on the causes, types of complications, and/or timeline. Issues regarding the time frame, severity, identification and classification and demographics were identified as key areas in the literature that require further investigation to achieve consensus on a maternal morbidity definition. Fifty-five (N = 55) individuals responded with completed questionnaires. Respondents' views on the time frame for the postpartum period varied from 6 weeks to beyond one year postpartum, it was noted that time frame depended on the type of complication. The majority of respondents said maternal morbidity should comprise a continuum of severity, whereas the identification of the cases should use a mixed criteria employing multiple methods. Significant discrepancy in literature and expert opinion exists concerning elements of a maternal morbidity definition. There is a clear need for a concrete definition that would allow for consistent measurement and

  18. Using psychological theory to inform methods to optimize the implementation of a hand hygiene intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscart, Veronique M; Fernie, Geoff R; Lee, Jae H; Jaglal, Susan B

    2012-08-28

    benefits of using a structured approach based on psychological theory to inform an implementation plan for a behavior change intervention. This work is an essential step towards systematically identifying factors affecting nurses' behaviour associated with HH.

  19. PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND. DEVELOPMENT. Oladipo, S.E. PhD. Dept. of Counselling Psychology, Tai Solarin University of Education,. Ijagun, Ogun State. Abstract. Using the archival method of investigation, this paper explores the subject of psychological empowerment (particularly in relation to youths) ...

  20. Analysis of the psychometric characteristics of the experimental psychological methods for examination of the law enforcement officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Omelyanovich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. As a number of local documents requires continuous improvement of psychodiagnostic work, one of the main activities of the Internal Affairs Agencies psychiatric service is an active clinical examination, the timely detection of law enforcement officers employees with neuropsychological instability, tendency to aggression and other forms of deviant behavior. Methods. The aim of the study was the selection of additional experimental psychological techniques to conduct psychological examinations of law enforcement officers.  As on objective of a study evaluation of reliability, validity and discriminative level of psychological tests has been chosen. The object of study was a group of the randomly selected representatives of almost all the major police professions, consisting of 348 respondents of the male gender in the age from 21 to 48 years old. Given the fact that the screening psychological evaluation of law enforcement officers during periodic psychiatric examinations is usually carried out under time constraints and the urgency to form an opinion immediately after the end of testing, nonprojective psychological techniques have been chosen for testing. These techniques, according to the scientific literature, proved their effectiveness and, in addition, are characterized by a small volume of questions and simplicity (largely - the dichotomous scales. Moreover, it does not require a lot of time to handle them: a methodology «Aggressive behavior» (E. P Ilyin, P. O. Kovalev, 2001, the test «Аnxiety-Rigidity- Extravertebral» (D. Moudsli, 2002, the test «IPC-Fragebogen» (H. Levenson, 1986, the test is «MS PTSD» (NM Keane, 2001. Results. Tests reliability was investigated by determining the consistency of their results by calculating the L. Cronbach’s coefficient α and Guttman method of splitting in half; discriminative level was determined by calculating the ratio; construct validity was investigated by the exploratory

  1. Assessment of Parental Distress and Psychiatric Morbidity Before ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Paediatric operation has been reported to be stressful not only to the child scheduled for operation but also to the parents and family members. In the absence of detailed information about the impending operation both mother and child may manifest preoperative distress and psychological morbidity. This study ...

  2. Alternative formulations, delivery methods, and administration options for psychotropic medications in elderly patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Russ S; Litzinger, Mark H J; Fisher, Ed; Takeshita, Junji

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review alternative formulations, delivery methods, and administration options for psychotropic medications in elderly patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). A MEDLINE search was conducted initially in December 2008 and was updated in September 2009, including the search terms pharmacologic treatment and dementia, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, alternative psychotropic medication formulations, alternative dosing methods of medication, drug delivery options, antidepressants and dementia, anxiolytics and dementia, antipsychotics and dementia, mood stabilizers and dementia, cognitive enhancers and dementia, medications and enteral feeding tubes, and hiding medication. Studies were limited to English-language articles dated from 1950 to 2009. Additional relevant articles were obtained by reviewing the references in the initial articles. Drug Facts and Comparisons 4.0 Online, Lexi-Comp Online, and Lexi-Drugs Online were used to obtain additional information. Targeted patients were elderly individuals with BPSD who were considered difficult to treat because they were unable to swallow, were refusing medications, or were not able to eat or drink per physician order. In addition to the standard capsule or tablet given orally, a variety of formulations and delivery methods for psychotropic medications are available. Options include short- and long-acting intramuscular, intravenous, liquid, orally disintegrating, transdermal patch, sublingual, and rectal forms. Additionally, all formulations can be further altered in substance, delivery, or both. For example, tablets may be crushed and capsules opened; this changes their formulation and allows the option of mixing with food or liquids to be taken by mouth or through a tube. Caution must be used, however; in certain cases, alteration of the original form or the intended delivery method is contraindicated. In addition, many alternative

  3. Psychiatric morbidity in oral lichen planus: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Ranjan Pati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the clinical types and association of psychological factors in patients with Oral Lichen Planus (OLP. Materials and Methods: An analytical age- and sex-matched study involved 30 patients with oral lichen planus (group 1 and 30 control subjects (group 2. We applied the following psychometric tests to both groups: General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Results: The patients with OLP were found to exhibit statistically significant higher anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction with the tests that were used (GHQ 24 and HADS than the control group (P > 0.05. The study group likewise exhibited greater depression and somatic symptoms. The mean total of the GHQ and HAD scores were found to be higher in the study group than in the controls (P > 0.05. Among the various types of OLP, patients with the erosive type had higher mean scores for anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and depression. Conclusion: In most patients psychiatric morbidity was strongly associated with OLP, which could support its role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. The higher scores of the General Health Questionnaire and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale gave an insight into the hypothesis that psychological factors are associated with the causation of OLP.

  4. Personality psychology: lexical approaches, assessment methods, and trait concepts reveal only half of the story--why it is time for a paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana

    2013-03-01

    This article develops a comprehensive philosophy-of-science for personality psychology that goes far beyond the scope of the lexical approaches, assessment methods, and trait concepts that currently prevail. One of the field's most important guiding scientific assumptions, the lexical hypothesis, is analysed from meta-theoretical viewpoints to reveal that it explicitly describes two sets of phenomena that must be clearly differentiated: 1) lexical repertoires and the representations that they encode and 2) the kinds of phenomena that are represented. Thus far, personality psychologists largely explored only the former, but have seriously neglected studying the latter. Meta-theoretical analyses of these different kinds of phenomena and their distinct natures, commonalities, differences, and interrelations reveal that personality psychology's focus on lexical approaches, assessment methods, and trait concepts entails a) erroneous meta-theoretical assumptions about what the phenomena being studied actually are, and thus how they can be analysed and interpreted, b) that contemporary personality psychology is largely based on everyday psychological knowledge, and c) a fundamental circularity in the scientific explanations used in trait psychology. These findings seriously challenge the widespread assumptions about the causal and universal status of the phenomena described by prominent personality models. The current state of knowledge about the lexical hypothesis is reviewed, and implications for personality psychology are discussed. Ten desiderata for future research are outlined to overcome the current paradigmatic fixations that are substantially hampering intellectual innovation and progress in the field.

  5. Psychological Benefits of Nonpharmacological Methods Aimed for Improving Balance in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Šumec

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a serious condition with a major negative impact on patient’s physical and mental health. Postural instability is one of the cardinal difficulties reported by patients to deal with. Neuroanatomical, animal, and clinical studies on nonparkinsonian and parkinsonian subjects suggest an important correlation between the presence of balance dysfunction and multiple mood disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and apathy. Considering that balance dysfunction is a very common symptom in PD, we can presume that by its management we could positively influence patient’s state of mind too. This review is an analysis of nonpharmacological methods shown to be effective and successful for improving balance in patients suffering from PD. Strategies such as general exercise, robotic assisted training, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, Yoga, dance (such as tango or ballet, box, virtual reality-based, or neurofeedback-based techniques and so forth can significantly improve the stability in these patients. Beside this physical outcome, many methods have also shown effect on quality of life, depression level, enjoyment, and motivation to continue in practicing the method independently. The purpose of this review is to provide information about practical and creative methods designed to improve balance in PD and highlight their positive impact on patient’s psychology.

  6. Psychiatric Morbidity among Subjects with Leprosy and Albinism in South East Nigeria: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attama, CM; Uwakwe, R; Onyeama, GM; Igwe, MN

    2015-01-01

    Background: Skin, which is the largest organ in the body, carries immense psychological significance. Disfiguring skin disorders may impact negatively on the mental health of individuals. Aim: This study compared the psychiatric morbidity of subjects with leprosy and albinism. Subjects and Methods: One hundred subjects with leprosy and 100 with albinism were interviewed. Sociodemographic questionnaire and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) assessed the sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric morbidity, respectively. GHQ positive cases and 10% of noncases for each group were interviewed with Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory for specific ICD-10 diagnoses. Results: Fifty-five percent (55/100) subjects with leprosy were GHQ positive cases while 41% (41/100) with albinism were GHQ positive cases. The risk of developing psychiatric morbidity was significantly higher in subjects with leprosy than in subjects with albinism (OR = 1.76, CI = 1.00 – 3.08, P = 0.04). The prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders among subjects with leprosy were depression 49% (49/100), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) 18% (18/100), alcohol/drug abuse 16% (16/100), whereas in albinism depression was 51% (51/100), GAD 27% (27/100), and alcohol/drug abuse 7% (7/100). Male, married and uneducated subjects with leprosy had significantly higher psychiatric morbidity than the male, married and uneducated subjects with albinism, respectively. Conclusion: Psychiatric morbidity was higher in subjects with leprosy than in subjects with albinism. Male, married and uneducated subjects with leprosy significantly had higher morbidity than male, married and uneducated subjects with albinism respectively. PMID:26097762

  7. Liver morphology in morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C

    1984-01-01

    Literature on liver morphology in untreated obesity reveals varying prevalences of various pathological findings. The purpose of this literature study was to summarize and evaluate the published observations and to discuss discrepant findings. A complete search was aimed at utilizing bibliographic...... methods including a computerized survey. Forty-one original articles were included, comprising information on liver morphology in 1515 morbidly obese patients. Liver biopsy was considered normal in 12 per cent of the cases. The most frequent abnormality reported was fatty change, present in 80 per cent...... of the biopsies. Portal inflammation was also common (33 per cent). Fibrosis, mainly portal or periportal, was observed in 29 per cent. Cirrhosis, however, involved only 3 per cent. Study of relationships between the degree of liver change and certain possible pathogenetic factors (eg degree and duration...

  8. Effect of the Jigsaw-Based Cooperative Learning Method on Student Performance in the General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level Psychology: An Exploratory Brunei Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmin, Nur Hafizah

    2016-01-01

    The mixed-methods study investigated the effect of the jigsaw cooperative learning method on student performance in psychology and their views towards it. Experimental data were obtained via pre-and-post tests and an open-ended questionnaire from 16 conveniently selected students at one Sixth Form College in Brunei. Moreover, the participants…

  9. Psychological and pedagogical grounds for applying communicative method of teaching foreign languages in higher school with the purpose of realization of students professional orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Yavoruk, O.; Gridneva, S.

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the notion of “professional orientation”, its components and levels. The principles of communicative method of teaching foreign languages are analyzed from psychological and pedagogical point of view. Expediency of applying the given method with the purpose of realization of students’ professional orientation is substantiated.

  10. An Effective Intervention in Research Methods That Reduces Psychology Majors' Sexist Prejudices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Janice D.; Mills, Aeriel S.; Raffa, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    We tested the effectiveness of a course-long intervention in an undergraduate Research Methods course aimed toward reducing students' endorsement of hostile sexism (HS) and benevolent sexism (BS). Reading assignments illustrating diverse research methodologies, lecture examples, and a hands-on research project designed by student teams focused on…

  11. Psychological and emotional methods of affecting consumers’ behavior: generalization of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.О. Borodkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern economic conditions with the development of trade, intensifying of competition and strengthening of general informative pressure on a man, the efficiency of traditional methods of stimulation of sales (in particular, discounts, bonuses, gifts, free concomitant services, price methods and etc. substantially grows short. Such a situation induces specialists (marketing specialists, managers, managers of companies to search for new unconventional and non-standard approaches of moving of commodities and services, in particular, directly in the places of sale. Foremost, we mean marketing technologies used for designing of consumers’ behavior. Specialists say that for successful moving of commodities it is necessary to call to the emotional, subconscious sphere. The role of marketing is taken to communication with a consumer directly in the places of sale, where there is the possibility to provide the most complete immersion of a consumer in the world of brand and to stimulate spontaneous purchases. The task of marketing consists in forming of so-called indoor-environment that is the atmosphere in the places of sale. Foremost, we mean visual (color, voice (audiomarketing and aromatic (aromamarketing design inside a building. The essence of such technologies consists in the influence on man’s subconsciousness and in the creation of manipulation mechanism of management of consumer’s actions and behavior by complex influence on 5 organs of man’s feeling such as sight, hearing, sense of smell, touch, taste. The article generalizes the existent experience of the use of psycho-emotional methods of stimulation of sales used to influence on consumer’s behavior. The authors describe the basic methods of psyho-emotional influence such as color, audiomarketing (or voice design and aromamarketing. It is marked that there is the necessity of the complex use of psyho-emotional methods and receptions from the point of view of their utility for all

  12. Co-morbidity in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Skov, Lone

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Psoriasis is a common, chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory disorder. The disease is associated with several co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and psychiatric disorders. It is important to identify and treat these co-morbidities because they have...... a strongly negative effect on the overall health of patients with psoriasis. Unfortunately, these co-morbidities are often overlooked and/or left untreated. Therefore, the aim of this review is to discuss the mechanisms of how co-morbidities are associated with psoriasis as well as implications...... for the clinic to be able to recognize such co-morbidities. Areas covered: This is a review of studies investigating and discussing co-morbidities of psoriasis and screening. Literature was retrieved by searching on the PubMed database using individual and combined search terms related to relevant co...

  13. Assessing culture via the Internet: methods and techniques for psychological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, D T

    2001-02-01

    This study examines the acculturation experiences of Arabic immigrants and assesses the utility of the Internet as a data collection tool. Based on in-depth pilot interview data from 10 male Arabic immigrants and items selected from pre-existing measures, the Male Arabic Ethnic Identity Measure (MAEIM) was developed. Male Arab immigrants (115 males) were solicited through traditional methods in addition to the Internet. Satisfactory reliability and validity were reported for the MAEIM. No significant differences emerged between the Internet and Midwestern samples. The Internet proved to be an effective method for soliciting a relatively large, geographically dispersed sample of Arabic immigrants. The use of the Internet as a research tool is examined in the context of anonymity, networking, low-cost, perceived interactive control, methodological rigor, and external validity. The Internet was an effective vehicle for addressing concerns raised by prospective participants. It is suggested that the Internet may be an important method to assess culture-relevant variables in further research on Arab and other immigrant populations.

  14. The efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and morbidity in western Kenya II. Study design and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Alaii, Jane A.; Gimnig, John E.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; Kariuki, Simon K.; Shi, Ya Ping; Kachur, S. Patrick; Hightower, Allen W.; Vulule, John M.; Hawley, William A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the study design and methods used in a large community-based, group-randomized, controlled trial of permethrin-treated bed nets (ITNs) in an area with intense, perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya conducted between 1996 and 1999. A multi-disciplinary framework was

  15. PPO.02 Severe maternal morbidity in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manning, E.; Lutomski, J.E.; O'Connor, L.; Corcoran, P.; Greene, R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and examine associated factors in Ireland. METHODS: In 2011, 67,806 maternities were reported from 19 maternity units, representing 93% of maternities in Ireland. SMM was classified as the presence of one or more of 15 categories

  16. Morbidity from iliac crest bone harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalk, WWI; Raghoebar, GM; Jansma, J; Boering, G

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The iliac crest is the most common donor site for autogenous bone grafting in maxillofacial surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the morbidity of bone harvesting from the inner table of the anterior iliac crest. Patients and Methods: Sixty-five patients were

  17. Psychiatric morbidity among pregnant women with hypertensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare psychiatry morbidity among normotensive and hypertensive (cases) pregnant women and their socio-demographic correlates. Method: It was a cross-sectional descriptive study using The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) at antenatal clinic of ...

  18. Morbidity and GH deficiency: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, K.; Laursen, T.; Green, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To estimate morbidity in Denmark in all patients with GH deficiency (GHD). Design: Morbidity was analyzed in 1794 GHD patients and 8014 controls matched on age and gender. All records in the GHD patients were studied and additional morbidity noted. Diagnoses and dates of admissions were...... identified in the National Patient Registry. Lag time until first admission was used as a measure of morbidity. Patients were divided into childhood onset (CO) and adult onset (AO), discriminated by an age cut-off of 18 years at onset of GHD. Method: Sex- and cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) in CO and AO...... GHD compared with controls. Results: Total morbidity was significantly increased in the GHD patients. HR for CO males: 3.1 (951% confidence interval (0): 2.7-3.7), CO females: 3.2 (95%, CI: 2.6-3.9), AO males: 2.9 (95% CI: 2.6-3.2), and AO females: 3.2 (95% CI: 2.8-3.6). In 18 out of 20 chapters from...

  19. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR

  20. Perspectives on Computerized Psychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, James N.

    1985-01-01

    Psychological assessment, a subspecialty of psychology has served as one of the earliest proving grounds of automated technology. This Special Series highlights some of the advances in computerized psychological assessment methods and discusses some of the lingering issues and contemporary problems with automated psychological assessment…

  1. Military Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS...TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS.

  2. Do Students Who Get Low Grades Only in Research Methods Need the Same Help as Students Who Get Low Grades in All Topics in Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Some psychology students achieve high grades in all classes except for research methods (RM). Previous research has usually treated low levels of achievement in RM as a unitary phenomenon, without reference to the grades the student is achieving in other subjects. The present internet survey explored preferences for learning RM in 140 psychology…

  3. Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among diabetes mellitus adults in the Jilin province in China: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Psychological disorders are common in diabetes mellitus (DM patients, and the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of psychological distress and to determine the influence factors associated with psychological distress among DM patients in the Jilin province of China. Methods and Materials Multistage, stratified cluster sampling was used in this cross-sectional study. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 was used to assess psychological status with the total score of ≥4 as the threshold for psychological distress. Results A total of 1,956 subjects with DM were included in the study. Out of this total diabetic participants, 524 (26.8% had psychological distress. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that low educational level, divorce or separation from one’s spouse, low family average monthly income, short sleep duration, being aware of DM status, and multiple co-morbidities are positively associated with psychological distress (all P < 0.05. Conclusions This study revealed a high rate of psychological distress among DM population in Jilin province. Low educational level, divorce or separation from one’s spouse, low family average monthly income, short sleep duration, awareness of DM status, and multiple co-morbidities are all associated with psychological distress among our study subjects. Interventions to control these factors are needed to address the psychological problems among diabetics in Jilin Province.

  4. Considerações acerca da avaliação psicológica das comorbidades psiquiátricas em obesos Consideraciones sobre la evaluación psicológica de las comorbidades psiquiátricas en obesos Consideration about psychological assessment of psychiatric co morbidity in obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Silva Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pretende-se neste artigo apresentar uma revisão teórica sobre avaliação psicológica, obesidade e comorbidades psiquiátricas mais frequentes na população obesa. A obesidade é uma doença clínica de múltiplas causas, e atualmente é considerada uma epidemia; assim seu adequado entendimento deve envolver uma equipe composta por diversos profissionais de saúde, incluindo o psicólogo. Serão abordadas questões pertinentes ao tema de obesidade, como etiologia, incidência e a relação entre obesidade e transtornos psiquiátricos. Serão propostos alguns instrumentos com o objetivo de estruturar informações necessárias ao tratamento e à demanda do paciente obeso, e reflexões referentes à avaliação psicológica em obesos e a prática do profissional de psicologia.Se pretiende en ese artículo presentar una revisión teórica sobre la evaluación psicológica, obesidad y comorbidades psiquiátricas más frecuentes en esa población. La obesidad es una enfermedad clínica con diversas causas y actualmente es considerada una epidemia, así el adecuado entendimiento de la obesidad debe involucrar un equipo compuesto por diversos profesionales de salud, incluso el psicólogo. En ese artículo serán abordadas cuestiones pertinentes a la temática de la obesidad, como etiología, prevalencia y la relación entre obesidad y los trastornos psiquiátricos. Serán propuestos algunos instrumentos* con el objetivo de estructurar informaciones necesarias al tratamiento y a la demanda del paciente obeso, reflexiones referentes a la evaluación psicológica en obesos y la práctica del profesional de PsicologíaWe intend in this article to present a theoretical review about psychological assessment, obesity and psychiatric co morbidity. Obesity is a clinical illness, it has multi factorial causes, and nowadays it is considered an epidemic, so the right knowledge must involve all health professional, include the psychologist. In this article we

  5. Morbidity and Mortality Patterns among Neurological Patients in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANNALS

    Abstract. Background/Objective: The morbidity and mortality of neurological patients managed in the intensive care unit reflect the causes of neurological disorders and the effectiveness of management. Method: The morbidity and mortality patterns of neurological patients admitted into the intensive care unit of the University ...

  6. Gender and Psychiatric Morbidity at First Contact in General Practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gender is a predictor of prevalence of psychiatric morbidity. The present study was to examine gender difference, prevalence and pattern of psychiatric morbidity among attendees of a general outpatient clinic in a tertiary hospital in sokoto, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 267,000 patients attended the general ...

  7. Wound morbidity after kidney transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fockens, M. Matthijs; Alberts, Victor P.; Bemelman, Frederike J.; van der Pant, Karlijn A. M. I.; Idu, Mirza M.

    2015-01-01

    Wound morbidity is an important surgical complication after kidney transplant. To assess risk factors for postoperative wound complications and the impact of such complications on outcomes of kidney transplant. Retrospectively, 108 consecutive kidney transplant patients between January 2010 and

  8. Oncologic outcome and morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Musik, Thabea

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Compared to laparotomic surgery, laparoscopically assisted radical vaginal hysterectomy (LARVH) offers a decreased blood-loss during surgery and faster convalescence of the patient post-operatively while at the same time delivering similar oncologic results. However, there is no data on outcome and toxicity of LARVH followed by (chemo)radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 55 patients (age: 28-78 years, median: 48 years; BMI:...

  9. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    in alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... account for about half of the morbidity. The pathogenic mechanisms include preoperative immune incompetence, subclinical cardiac insufficiency and haemostatic imbalance. In addition, surgical trauma and/or postoperative abstinence result in an exaggerated stress response, which may further contribute...

  10. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  11. Morbidity and Mortality in Sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Alicia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review Chronic sarcoidosis is a complex disease with numerous comorbid conditions and can be fatal in some cases. Recognizing causes of morbidity and mortality is important to effectively select treatments, manage symptoms, and improve outcomes. The purpose of this review is to examine emerging knowledge on morbidity and mortality in sarcoidosis. Recent Findings Approximately one to five percent of patients with sarcoidosis die from complications of sarcoidosis. Recent population studies indicate that mortality may be increasing over the past decade. The reasons behind these trends are unclear, but could include increasing incidence, detection rates, severity of disease, or age of the population. Morbidity of sarcoidosis is reflected by a trend of increased hospitalizations over recent years and increased use of healthcare resources. Morbidity can be caused by organ damage from granulomatous inflammation, treatment complications, and psychosocial effects of the disease. Recent studies are focused on morbidity related to cardiopulmonary complications, bone health, and aging within the sarcoidosis population. Last, sarcoidosis is associated with autoimmune diseases, pulmonary embolism, and malignancy; however, the underlying mechanisms linking diseases continue to be debated. Summary Morbidity in sarcoidosis is significant and multifactorial. Mortality is infrequent, but may be increasing over the years. PMID:25029298

  12. General morbidity prevalence in the Delhi slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the sickness prevalence in the slums of a metropolitan city? Objectives: To estimate the morbidity prevalence with reference to a socio-economic and demographic perspective of the slum population of Delhi. Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted and data were collected by a two-stage random sampling method. In the first stage, slum locations were selected and in the second stage households were selected. Participants: Data were collected from 1049 households consisting of 5358 individuals′ information. Results: The overall morbidity prevalence is 15.4%. It is 14.7 and 16.3% for males and females, respectively but the differences are not statistically significant. The reported higher morbidity prevalence and the illiteracy status are significantly associated. Diseases of the respiratory system appear to be very high among slum dwellers. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the number of years of staying in the slum area, presence of a separate kitchen, type of house, it being Pucca or Kuccha, types of toilet pits or open defecation are the important environmental factors for the reports of higher morbidity patterns from the slum area.

  13. The impact of music therapy versus music medicine on psychological outcomes and pain in cancer patients: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Potvin, Noah; Kesslick, Amy; Shim, Minjung; Radl, Donna; Schriver, Emily; Gracely, Edward J; Komarnicky-Kocher, Lydia T

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of music therapy (MT) versus music medicine (MM) interventions on psychological outcomes and pain in cancer patients and to enhance understanding of patients' experiences of these two types of music interventions. This study employed a mixed methods intervention design in which qualitative data were embedded within a randomized cross-over trial. Thirty-one adult cancer patients participated in two sessions that involved interactive music making with a music therapist (MT) and two sessions in which they listened to pre-recorded music without the presence of a therapist (MM). Before and after each session, participants reported on their mood, anxiety, relaxation, and pain by means of visual analogue and numeric rating scales. Thirty participants completed an exit interview. The quantitative data suggest that both interventions were equally effective in enhancing target outcomes. However, 77.4 % of participants expressed a preference for MT sessions. The qualitative data indicate that music improves symptom management, embodies hope for survival, and helps connect to a pre-illness self, but may also access memories of loss and trauma. MT sessions helped participants tap into inner resources such as playfulness and creativity. Interactive music making also allowed for emotional expression. Some participants preferred the familiarity and predictability of listening to pre-recorded music. The findings of this study advocate for the use of music in cancer care. Treatment benefits may depend on patient characteristics such as outlook on life and readiness to explore emotions related to the cancer experience.

  14. Using consumer perspectives to inform the cultural adaptation of psychological treatments for depression: a mixed methods study from South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Balaji, Madhumitha; Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Rahman, Atif; Verdeli, Helena; Araya, Ricardo; Jordans, M J D; Chowdhary, Neerja; Patel, Vikram

    2014-07-01

    Integrating consumer perspectives in developing and adapting psychological treatments (PTs) can enhance their acceptability in diverse cultural contexts. To describe the explanatory models (EMs) of depression in South Asia with the goal of informing the content of culturally appropriate PTs for this region. Two methods were used: a systematic review of published literature on the EMs of depression in South Asia; and in-depth interviews with persons with depression and family caregivers in two sites in India. Findings from both were analysed independently and then triangulated. There were 19 studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Interviews were conducted with 27 patients and 10 caregivers. Findings were grouped under four broad categories: illness descriptions, perceived impact, causal beliefs and self-help forms of coping. Depression was characterised predominantly by somatic complaints, stress, low mood, and negative and ruminative thoughts. Patients experienced disturbances in interpersonal relationships occupational functioning, and stigma. Negative life events, particularly relationship difficulties, were perceived as the main cause. Patients mostly engaged in distracting activities, religious practices, and received support from family and friends to cope with the illness. The primary data are entirely from India but the studies from the literature review covering South Asia are consistent with these findings. This study also does not include literature in local languages or explore how consumer perspectives change over time. EMs can inform cultural adaptations to PTs for depression in South Asia by defining target outcomes, content for psycho-education, and culturally appropriate treatment strategies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Peer Education Group Intervention to Reduce Psychological Insulin Resistance: A Pilot Mixed-Method Study in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Ka Yan; Yip, Benjamin Hoi-Kei; Lau, Chi Hang; Chen, Hing Han; Chan, Yuk Wah; Lee, Kam Pui

    2017-12-07

    Psychological insulin resistance (PIR) is common among type II diabetes (DM) patients. Although interventions to reduce PIR have been suggested, there is no standardized intervention to reduce PIR. This trial aimed to assess the preliminary effectiveness of a well-structured interventional patient group (for sample size calculation for larger trials), as well as the acceptability and feasibility of this intervention group. This study used a quasi-experimental, mixed-method approach. Fifty-three patients with DM were recruited to an interventional group that included a general education of DM and insulin, an insulin pen demonstration, and an insulin-using peer sharing session. Each group consisted of around 15 participants and lasted for 2 h each. The validated Chinese version of the insulin treatment appraisal scale (C-ITAS) was administered before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention to measure any changes in the participants' PIR. Patients were interviewed to assess the acceptability of the intervention until data saturation. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that the post-intervention C-ITAS scores (immediately post group and at 1 month) were lower than the pre-intervention C-ITAS scores (p group intervention. Ten patient interviews were conducted and found that the intervention was welcomed by all interviewees; no discomfort or adverse reactions were reported. Preliminary results showed that patient intervention groups with general education, insulin pen demonstration, and peer sharing appeared to be safe, acceptable, and effective in reducing PIR. Larger multicenter trials are needed to generalize these findings.

  16. Susceptibility to email fraud:a review of psychological perspectives, data-collection methods, and ethical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Helen; Towse, John; Race, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    We review the existing literature on the psychology of email fraud, and attempt to integrate the small but burgeoning set of research findings. We show that research has adopted a variety of methodologies and taken a number of conceptual positions in the attempt to throw light on decisions about emails that may be in best-case scenarios, sub-optimal, or in the worst-case scenarios, catastrophic. We point to the potential from cognitive science and social psychology to inform the field, and we...

  17. Airway management and morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Michael S

    2010-11-01

    Morbidly obese patients present with excess fatty tissue externally on the breast, neck, thoracic wall and abdomen and internally in the mouth, pharynx and abdomen. This excess tissue tends to make access (intubation, tracheostomy) to and patency (during sedation or mask ventilation) of the upper airway and the function of the lungs (decreased residual capacity and aggravated ventilation perfusion mismatch) worse than in lean patients. Proper planning and preparation of airway management is essential, including elevation of the patient's upper body, head and neck. Preoxygenation is mandatory in morbidly obese patients and should be followed by actions to counteract atelectasis formation. The decision as to weather to use a rapid sequence induction, an awake intubation or a standard induction with hypnotics should depend on the thorough airway examination and comorbidity and should not be based solely on whether morbid obesity is present or not. It is important to ensure sufficient depth of anaesthesia before initiating manipulation of the airway because inadequate anaesthesia depth predisposes to aspiration if airway management becomes difficult. The intubating laryngeal mask airway is more efficient in the morbidly obese patients than in lean patients and serves as a rescue device for both failed ventilation and failed intubation. In the 24 h following anaesthesia, morbidly obese patients experience frequent oxygen desaturation periods that can be counteracted by continuous positive airway pressure, noninvasive ventilation and physiotherapy.

  18. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ...

  19. Non-Life Threatening Maternal Morbidity: Cross Sectional Surveys from Malawi and Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa Zafar

    Full Text Available For more accurate estimation of the global burden of pregnancy associated disease, clarity is needed on definition and assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. Our study aimed to define maternal morbidity with clear criteria for identification at primary care level and estimate the distribution of and evaluate associations between physical (infective and non-infective and psychological morbidities in two different low-income countries.Cross sectional study with assessment of morbidity in early pregnancy (34%, late pregnancy (35% and the postnatal period (31% among 3459 women from two rural communities in Pakistan (1727 and Malawi (1732. Trained health care providers at primary care level used semi-structured questionnaires documenting signs and symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory tests which were bundled to reflect infectious, non-infectious and psychological morbidity.One in 10 women in Malawi and 1 in 5 in Pakistan reported a previous pregnancy complication with 1 in 10 overall reporting a previous neonatal death or stillbirth. In the index pregnancy, 50.1% of women in Malawi and 53% in Pakistan were assessed to have at least one morbidity (infective or non-infective. Both infective (Pakistan and non-infective morbidity (Pakistan and Malawi was lower in the postnatal period than during pregnancy. Multiple morbidities were uncommon ( 9. Complications during a previous pregnancy, infective morbidity (p <0.001, intra or postpartum haemorrhage (p <0.02 were associated with psychological morbidity in both settings.Our findings highlight the need to strengthen the availability and quality of antenatal and postnatal care packages. We propose to adapt and improve the framework and criteria used in this study, ensuring a basic set of diagnostic tests is available, to ensure more robust assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity.

  20. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  1. Psychiatric morbidity following Hurricane Andrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, D; Mellman, T A; Mendoza, L M; Kulick-Bell, R; Ironson, G; Schneiderman, N

    1996-07-01

    The nature of psychiatric morbidity in previously non-ill subjects from the area most affected by Hurricane Andrew was investigated at 6-12 months posthurricane. Preliminary associations of morbidity with personal and event-related risk factors were also determined. Fifty one percent (31/61) met criteria for a new-onset disorder, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 36%, major depression (MD) in 30%, and other anxiety disorders in 20%. Thirty four subjects (56%) had significant symptoms persisting beyond 6 months. Having sustained "severe damage" was the risk factor most strongly associated with outcome. Our data underscore the range of psychiatric morbidity related to a natural disaster, and suggest a relationship to chronic stressors.

  2. Airway management and morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    Morbidly obese patients present with excess fatty tissue externally on the breast, neck, thoracic wall and abdomen and internally in the mouth, pharynx and abdomen. This excess tissue tends to make access (intubation, tracheostomy) to and patency (during sedation or mask ventilation) of the upper...... in morbidly obese patients and should be followed by actions to counteract atelectasis formation. The decision as to weather to use a rapid sequence induction, an awake intubation or a standard induction with hypnotics should depend on the thorough airway examination and comorbidity and should not be based...... solely on whether morbid obesity is present or not. It is important to ensure sufficient depth of anaesthesia before initiating manipulation of the airway because inadequate anaesthesia depth predisposes to aspiration if airway management becomes difficult. The intubating laryngeal mask airway is more...

  3. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re...... precise identification of alcohol abuse. However, the inability of the questionnaires to detect short-term changes in intake and abuse without dependence, the inconsistent predictive values of the biological markers, and the lack of evidence of an association to postoperative morbidity reduces...

  4. Journal article reporting standards for qualitative primary, qualitative meta-analytic, and mixed methods research in psychology: The APA Publications and Communications Board task force report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M; Bamberg, Michael; Creswell, John W; Frost, David M; Josselson, Ruthellen; Suárez-Orozco, Carola

    2018-01-01

    The American Psychological Association Publications and Communications Board Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards for Qualitative Research (JARS-Qual Working Group) was charged with examining the state of journal article reporting standards as they applied to qualitative research and with generating recommendations for standards that would be appropriate for a wide range of methods within the discipline of psychology. These standards describe what should be included in a research report to enable and facilitate the review process. This publication marks a historical moment-the first inclusion of qualitative research in APA Style, which is the basis of both the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2010) and APA Style CENTRAL, an online program to support APA Style. In addition to the general JARS-Qual guidelines, the Working Group has developed standards for both qualitative meta-analysis and mixed methods research. The reporting standards were developed for psychological qualitative research but may hold utility for a broad range of social sciences. They honor a range of qualitative traditions, methods, and reporting styles. The Working Group was composed of a group of researchers with backgrounds in varying methods, research topics, and approaches to inquiry. In this article, they present these standards and their rationale, and they detail the ways that the standards differ from the quantitative research reporting standards. They describe how the standards can be used by authors in the process of writing qualitative research for submission as well as by reviewers and editors in the process of reviewing research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  6. Morbid obesity and asthma : co-morbidity or causal relationship?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardenburg-van Huisstede, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three parts. Part A describes in chapter 2 the complex diagnosis of asthma in the morbidly obese, and especially focuses on underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of asthma in this patient group. Part B investigates bronchial and systemic inflammation. It starts in chapter 3 with a

  7. Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, V.; Gautret, P.; Schlagenhauf, P.; Burchard, G.D.; Caumes, E.; Jensenius, M.; Castelli, F.; Gkrania-Klotsas, E.; Weld, L.; Lopez-Velez, R.; de Vries, P.; von Sonnenburg, F.; Loutan, L.; Parola, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. Methods: To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in

  8. Risk of psychological ill health and methods of organisational downsizing: a cross-sectional survey in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Elena; Brenner, M Harvey; Theorell, Töres; Goldberg, Marcel

    2017-09-29

    The manner in which organizational downsizing is implemented can make a substantial difference as to whether the exposed workers will suffer from psychological ill health. Surprisingly, little research has directly investigated this issue. We examined the likelihood of psychological ill health associated with strategic and reactive downsizing. A cross-sectional survey included 1456 respondents from France, Sweden, Hungary and the United Kingdom: 681 employees in stable workplaces (reference group) and 775 workers from downsized companies. Reactive downsizing was exemplified by the exposures to compulsory redundancies of medium to large scale resulting in job loss or surviving a layoff while staying employed in downsized organizations. The workforce exposed to strategic downsizing was represented by surplus employees who were internally redeployed and supported through their career change process within a policy context of "no compulsory redundancy". Symptoms of anxiety, depression and emotional exhaustion were assessed in telephone interviews with brief subscales from Hospital Anxiety Scale (HADS-A), Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-CD6) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-GS). Data were analyzed using logistic regression. We observed no increased risk of psychological ill health in the case of strategic downsizing. The number of significant associations with psychological ill health was the largest for the large-scale reactive downsizing: surviving a layoff was consistently associated with all three outcome measures; returning to work after the job loss experience was related to anxiety and depression, while persons still unemployed at interview had elevated odds of anxiety. After reactive medium-scale downsizing, unemployment at interview was the only exposure associated with anxiety and depression. The manner in which organizational downsizing is implemented can be important for the psychological wellbeing of workers. If downsizing is unavoidable, it should be

  9. Residents' experiences of relationships with nurses in community-based supported housing - a qualitative study based on Giorgi's method of analysis and self psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønning, Solrun Brenk; Bjørkly, Stål

    2017-01-01

    One of the prioritizations in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 is the provision of community mental health and social care services, such as supported housing. The ongoing process of such deinstitutionalization has raised issues concerning the impact on users' quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore how residents in supported housing experience receiving professional help and how they perceived their relationships with nurses. The second aim was to investigate the relevance of Giorgi's method of analysis and self psychology in analyzing these experiences. Four residents were interviewed individually. The interviews were based on a semi-structured interview guide and analyzed by Giorgi's method of analysis. Relations were interpreted within self psychology. The residents reported that they not only felt safe in the community but also felt a greater awareness of wanting to appear normal. They seemed to have an easier daily life and felt that the personnel met their selfobject needs when routines allowed for it. Professional awareness of empathic attunement and selfobject roles might enhance residents' self-cohesiveness. The interviews were analyzed by Giorgi's method of analysis, and the use of clinical concepts from self psychology was chosen to achieve a more dynamic understanding of the participants' relational experiences and needs in supported housing.

  10. Residents’ experiences of relationships with nurses in community-based supported housing – a qualitative study based on Giorgi’s method of analysis and self psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rønning SB

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solrun Brenk Rønning, Stål Bjørkly Faculty of Health Sciences and Social Care, Molde University College, Molde, Norway Abstract: One of the prioritizations in the World Health Organization’s (WHO Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020 is the provision of community mental health and social care services, such as supported housing. The ongoing process of such deinstitutionalization has raised issues concerning the impact on users’ quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore how residents in supported housing experience receiving professional help and how they perceived their relationships with nurses. The second aim was to investigate the relevance of Giorgi’s method of analysis and self psychology in analyzing these experiences. Four residents were interviewed individually. The interviews were based on a semi-structured interview guide and analyzed by Giorgi’s method of analysis. Relations were interpreted within self psychology. The residents reported that they not only felt safe in the community but also felt a greater awareness of wanting to appear normal. They seemed to have an easier daily life and felt that the personnel met their selfobject needs when routines allowed for it. Professional awareness of empathic attunement and selfobject roles might enhance residents’ self-cohesiveness. The interviews were analyzed by Giorgi’s method of analysis, and the use of clinical concepts from self psychology was chosen to achieve a more dynamic understanding of the participants’ relational experiences and needs in supported housing. Keywords: mental health, nursing relationship, self psychology, supported housing, experiences

  11. Foreskin Morbidity in Uncircumcised Males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, Ida; Thorup, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As a consequence of the discussion on whether the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks and the discrepancies in reported figures of complications, we evaluated the incidence and morbidity of foreskin surgery due to medical indications in boys from the Capital...

  12. Pulmonary function in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugerman, H J

    1987-06-01

    Morbid obesity is not infrequently associated with severe respiratory impairment. In our experience approximately 10 per cent of morbidly obese patients who underwent gastric surgery had severe respiratory impairment. Respiratory insufficiency of obesity can be divided into two primary breathing disorders: the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) and the obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). In its most severe form, when both SAS and OHS are present, it is called the Pickwickian syndrome. In our series 59 morbidly obese patients with respiratory insufficiency secondary to obesity underwent gastric surgery for weight reduction. Fourteen had OHS, 19 had SAS and 26 had both. Of these, two patients died of postoperative complications and one died at five weeks with an inconclusive autopsy, totalling an operative mortality rate of 3.4 per cent and a total mortality of 5.1 per cent. In our overall experience morbidly obese patients lost 67 per cent of excess weight after gastric procedures. In conclusion, surgically induced weight loss will markedly improve or correct respiratory insufficiency secondary to obesity. It will improve arterial oxygenation, minimize CO2 retention, expand lung volumes, correct polycythemia, and reduce apnea frequency. The magnitude of changes in these variables is clinically significant. Therefore, respiratory insufficiency of obesity should be considered a major indication for an aggressive approach to weight reduction. The jejunoileal bypass and unbanded gastroplasty operations have an unacceptable incidence of complications or failure, respectively. There is a high degree of recidivism following dietary programs. Sweets eaters will not do well with a gastroplasty procedure. Gastric bypass for individuals addicted to sweets or the vertical banded gastroplasty for "gorgers" are currently our procedures of choice and are associated with the average loss of two thirds of excess weight and correction of breathing problems associated with

  13. The Intergenerational Impact of Genetic and Psychological Factors on Blood Pressure (InterGEN) Study: Design and Methods for Complex DNA Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Wright, Michelle L; Crusto, Cindy A; Sun, Yan V

    2016-10-01

    The Intergenerational Impact of Genetic and Psychological Factors on Blood Pressure (InterGEN) study aims to delineate the independent and interaction effects of genomic (genetic and epigenetic) and psychological-environmental (maternally perceived racial discrimination, mental health, and parenting behavior) factors on blood pressure (BP) among African American mother-child dyads over time. The purpose of this article is to describe the two-step genetic and epigenetic approach that will be executed to explore Gene × Environment interactions on BP using a longitudinal cohort design. Procedure for the single collection of DNA at Time 1 includes the use of the Oragene 500-format saliva sample collection tube, which provides enough DNA for both the Illumina Multi-Ethnic Genotyping and 850K EPIC methylation analyses. BP readings, height, weight, percentage of body fat, and percentage of body water will be measured on all participants every 6 months for 2 years for a total of 4 time points. Genomic data analyses to be completed include multivariate modeling, assessment of population admixture and structure, and extended analyses including Bonferroni correction, false discovery rate methods, Monte Carlo approach, EIGENSTRAT methods, and so on, to determine relationships among both main and interaction effects of genetic, epigenetic, and psychological environmental factors on BP. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Psychological sequelae of the station nightclub fire: Comparing survivors with and without physical injuries using a mixed-methods analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhi-Ha T Trinh

    Full Text Available Surveying survivors from a large fire provides an opportunity to explore the impact of emotional trauma on psychological outcomes.This is a cross-sectional survey of survivors of The Station Fire. Primary outcomes were post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale - Revised and depressive (Beck Depression Inventory symptoms. Linear regression was used to examine differences in symptom profiles between those with and without physical injuries. The free-response section of the survey was analyzed qualitatively to compare psychological sequelae of survivors with and without physical injuries.104 participants completed the study survey; 47% experienced a burn injury. There was a 42% to 72% response rate range. The mean age of respondents was 32 years, 62% were male, and 47% experienced a physical injury. No significant relationships were found between physical injury and depressive or post-traumatic stress symptom profiles. In the qualitative analysis, the emotional trauma that survivors experienced was a major, common theme regardless of physical injury. Survivors without physical injuries were more likely to experience survivor guilt, helplessness, self-blame, and bitterness. Despite the post-fire challenges described, most survivors wrote about themes of recovery and renewal.All survivors of this large fire experienced significant psychological sequelae. These findings reinforce the importance of mental health care for all survivors and suggest a need to understand factors influencing positive outcomes.

  15. Stressors and psychological symptoms in students of medicine and allied health professions in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omigbodun, Olayinka O; Odukogbe, Akin-Tunde A; Omigbodun, Akinyinka O; Yusuf, O Bidemi; Bella, Tolulope T; Olayemi, Oladopo

    2006-05-01

    Studies suggest that high levels of stress and psychological morbidity occur in health care profession students. This study investigates stressors and psychological morbidity in students of medicine, dentistry, physiotherapy and nursing at the University of Ibadan. The students completed a questionnaire about their socio-demographic characteristics, perceived stressors and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Qualitative methods were used initially to categorise stressors. Data was then analysed using univariate and logistic regression to determine odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Medical and dental students were more likely to cite as stressors, overcrowding, strikes, excessive school work and lack of holidays while physiotherapy and nursing students focused on noisy environments, security and transportation. Medical and dental students (1.66; SD: 2.22) had significantly higher GHQ scores than the physiotherapy and nursing students (1.22; SD: 1.87) (t = 2.3; P = 0.022). Socio-demographic factors associated with psychological morbidity after logistic regression include being in a transition year of study, reporting financial distress and not being a 'Pentecostal Christian'. Although males were more likely to perceive financial and lecturer problems as stressors and females to perceive faculty strikes and overcrowding as source of stress, gender did not have any significant effect on psychological morbidity. Stressors associated with psychological distress in the students include excessive school work, congested classrooms, strikes by faculty, lack of laboratory equipment, family problems, insecurity, financial and health problems. Several identified stressors such as financial problems, academic pressures and their consequent effect on social life have an adverse effect on the mental health of students in this environment especially for students of medicine and dentistry. While stressors outside the reach of the school authorities are difficult to

  16. Psychological compatibility of women's handball team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalar O.G.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of study of psychological compatibility of womanish handball commands are presented. The psychological climate of command is investigational. Certain and adapted methods of estimation of psychological compatibility in the command playing types of sport. Psychological tests allow to expose the strong and weak sides of psychology of sportsmen. These information can be used for more effective program of psychological preparation of sportsmen development. It is necessary to improve determination of separate individual qualities of personality of sportsmen.

  17. Morbidity and mortality following poliomyelitis - a lifelong follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kay, L; Nielsen, N M; Wanscher, B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In the world today 10-20 million people are still living with late effects of poliomyelitis (PM), but the long-term consequences of the disease are not well known. The aim of this study was to describe lifelong morbidity and mortality among Danes who survived PM. METHODS...... no major differences in morbidities between paralytic and non-paralytic PM cases. CONCLUSIONS: Poliomyelitis has significant long-term consequences on morbidity and mortality of both paralytic and non-paralytic cases....

  18. A Model for a Doctor of Psychology Program in Forensic Psychology: Curriculum and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, C. Abraham; And Others

    1976-01-01

    An overview of the objectives and courses of a doctoral program in forensic psychology is provided. Forensic psychology is the application of psychological methods, principles, and skills to the relevant needs of the legal system. (DE)

  19. Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors on the Level of Hope and Psychological Health Status of Patients with Cervical Cancer During Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Rong; Lin, Mei-Guang; Liang, Juan; Hu, Qiong-Yan; Chen, Dan; Lan, Meng-Ying; Liang, Wu-Qing; Zeng, Yu-Ting; Wang, Ting; Fu, Gui-Fen

    2017-07-19

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to explore the factors affecting the level of hope and psychological health status of patients with cervical cancer (CC) during radiotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 480 CC patients were recruited. Psychological distress scale, Herth hope index, functional assessment cancer therapy-cervix, and Jolowiec coping scale were used to conduct surveys on psychological distress, level of hope, quality of life (QOL), and coping style to analyze the factors affecting the level of hope and psychological health status of CC patients. RESULTS The morbidity of significant psychological distress in 480 CC patients during radiotherapy was 68%, and the main factors causing psychological distress were emotional problems and physical problems. During radiotherapy, most patients had middle and high levels of hope, and the psychological distress index of patients was negatively correlated with the level of hope. The QOL of CC patients during radiotherapy were at middle and high levels, and the QOL was positively correlated with confrontment, optimism, appeasement, and self-reliance, but it was negatively correlated with predestination and emotional expression. CONCLUSIONS For CC patients during radiotherapy, the morbidity of psychological distress was high, but they were at middle and high levels of hope.

  20. A cross-sectional population-based study on the association of personality traits with anxiety and psychological stress: Joint modeling of mixed outcomes using shared random effects approach

    OpenAIRE

    Awat Feizi; Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli; Fatemeh Nouri; Hamidreza Roohafza; Peyman Adibi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have showed some evidences about the relationship between personality traits particularly neuroticism and extroversion, separately, with psychological stress and anxiety. In the current study, we clarified the magnitude of joint interdependence (co-morbidity) of anxiety (continuous) and Psychological stress (dichotomous) as dependent variables of mixed type with five-factor personality traits as independent variables. Materials and Methods: Data from 3180 particip...

  1. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Baygeldi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients’ age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate, hematocrit (HCT value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation, trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS, and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3% and 28 females (25.7%, and the mean age was 37.6±18.28 (15–78 years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3% traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle, 27 (24.7% falling from a height, 14 (12.9% assaults, 5 (4.5% sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5% gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3% of grade I, 32 (46.4% of grade II, 22 (31.8% of grade III, and 1 (1.5% of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in

  2. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baygeldi, Serdar; Karakose, Oktay; Özcelik, Kazım Caglar; Pülat, Hüseyin; Damar, Sedat; Eken, Hüseyin; Zihni, İsmail; Çalta, Alpaslan Fedai; Baç, Bilsel

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients' age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate), hematocrit (HCT) value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation), trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS), and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3%) and 28 females (25.7%), and the mean age was 37.6 ± 18.28 (15-78) years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3%) traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle), 27 (24.7%) falling from a height, 14 (12.9%) assaults, 5 (4.5%) sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5%) gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3%) of grade I, 32 (46.4%) of grade II, 22 (31.8%) of grade III, and 1 (1.5%) of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in 21

  3. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  4. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R

    1994-01-01

    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers....

  5. Assessment of psychological problems in schoolgoing adolescents of Aligarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafis Faizi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period of physical, nutritional, and sexual transition, also remarkable for the accompanying psychological changes. Worldwide, 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a disabling mental illness. Therefore, knowledge of the prevalence of these disorders can be used to design intervention strategies. The present study was conducted in the 13–15 years' age group schoolgoing adolescents, with the objective to estimate the prevalence of psychological morbidity, employing Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in three different schools of Aligarh, in the 13–15 years' age group, with a prior permission from the school authorities. The study was approved by a multidisciplinary Institutional Ethics and Research Advisory Committee. Results: A total of 1456 students were sampled for the study. The prevalence of psychological morbidity on the basis of total difficulties score was found to be 9.75% (95% confidence interval - 8.33–11.39. The prevalence of emotional, conduct, hyperactivity, peer, and prosocial problems was 5.42%, 5.56%, 3.78%, 4.40%, and 4.26%, respectively. Conclusions: Psychological problems are fairly common in the adolescent age group. Despite the need, there is a dearth studies conducted in this crucial age group in India. Of the studies available, a wide variance is reported either due to the difference in diagnostic tools or due to the types of psychological disorders considered in different researches. For the purpose of uniformity and comparability, SDQ stands as a good option.

  6. A mixed-method study of expert psychological evidence submitted for a cohort of asylum seekers undergoing refugee status determination in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Kuowei; Frommer, Naomi; Hunter, Jill; Silove, Derrick; Pearson, Linda; San Roque, Mehera; Redman, Ronnit; Bryant, Richard A; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Steel, Zachary

    2013-12-01

    The levels of exposure to conflict-related trauma and the high rates of mental health impairment amongst asylum seekers pose specific challenges for refugee decision makers who lack mental health training. We examined the use of psychological evidence amongst asylum decision makers in New South Wales, Australia, drawing on the archives of a representative cohort of 52 asylum seekers. A mixed-method approach was used to examine key mental health issues presented in psychological reports accompanying each asylum application, including key documents submitted for consideration of asylum at the primary and review levels. The findings indicated that the majority of decision makers at both levels did not refer to psychological evidence in their decision records. Those who did, particularly in the context of negative decisions, challenged the expert findings and rejected the value of such evidence. Asylum seekers exhibiting traumatic stress symptoms such as intrusive thoughts and avoidance, as well as memory impairment, experienced a lower acceptance rate than those who did not across the primary and review levels. The findings raise concern that trauma-affected asylum seekers may be consistently disadvantaged in the refugee decision-making process and underscore the need to improve the understanding and use of mental health evidence in the refugee decision-making setting. The study findings have been used to develop a set of guidelines to assist refugee decision makers, mental health professionals and legal advisers in improving the quality and use of psychological evidence within the refugee decision-making context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Morbidity in early Parkinson's disease and prior to diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Frandsen, Rune; Kjellberg, Jakob; Ibsen, Rikke; Jennum, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonmotor symptoms are probably present prior to, early on, and following, a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Nonmotor symptoms may hold important information about the progression of Parkinson's disease. Objective To evaluated the total early and prediagnostic morbidities in the 3 years before a hospital contact leading to a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Methods Retrospective morbidity data from Danish National Patient Registry records (1997–2007) of 10,490 adult patients with...

  8. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  9. Developing and testing a new method “Theme-situations” for the diagnostics of psychological readiness to developmental conflict resolution in youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Gorlova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the procedure of development of the author's method for the study of psychological readiness to development conflict management in youth, consisting of three parts, which use the method of projection to varying degrees. The method involves diagnosis of development conflict management in adolescence and actualization of the basic contradictions of adolescence, associated with the importance of the following topics to a maturing individual: setting long-term goals, choice of professional self-realization, partner choice in a romantic relationship, solving the existential questions. The method involves identification of strategies to solve these conflicts by young people (asserting own position and “existential” type of answer to the existential question. It has been tested on the retest reliability and construct validity and showed a wide range of connections to the scales of many well-known psycho-diagnostic tools.

  10. Brown adipose tissue in morbidly obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy H E J Vijgen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cold-stimulated adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT to increase energy expenditure is suggested as a possible therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity. We have recently shown high prevalence of BAT in adult humans, which was inversely related to body mass index (BMI and body fat percentage (BF%, suggesting that obesity is associated with lower BAT activity. Here, we examined BAT activity in morbidly obese subjects and its role in cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT after applying a personalized cooling protocol. We hypothesize that morbidly obese subjects show reduced BAT activity upon cold exposure. METHODS AND FINDINGS: After applying a personalized cooling protocol for maximal non-shivering conditions, BAT activity was determined using positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT. Cold-induced BAT activity was detected in three out of 15 morbidly obese subjects. Combined with results from lean to morbidly obese subjects (n = 39 from previous study, the collective data show a highly significant correlation between BAT activity and body composition (P<0.001, respectively explaining 64% and 60% of the variance in BMI (r = 0.8; P<0.001 and BF% (r = 0.75; P<0.001. Obese individuals demonstrate a blunted CIT combined with low BAT activity. Only in BAT-positive subjects (n = 26 mean energy expenditure was increased significantly upon cold exposure (51.5±6.7 J/s versus 44.0±5.1 J/s, P = 0.001, and the increase was significantly higher compared to BAT-negative subjects (+15.5±8.9% versus +3.6±8.9%, P = 0.001, indicating a role for BAT in CIT in humans. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that in an extremely large range of body compositions, BAT activity is highly correlated with BMI and BF%. BAT-positive subjects showed higher CIT, indicating that BAT is also in humans involved in adaptive thermogenesis. Increasing BAT activity could be a therapeutic target in (morbid obesity.

  11. Coping strategies and psychiatric morbidity in women attending breast assessment clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C C; David, A; Thompson, K; Smith, C; Lea, S; Fahy, T

    1996-03-01

    This study examined the role of coping strategies and personality characteristics in mediating psychiatric morbidity in subjects facing possibly serious breast disease. Participating were 121 women aged 20 to 65 undergoing breast fine needle biopsy for a suspicious lesion on mammography. All subjects received psychosocial assessments including the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) and the Coping Strategies Inventory. The results show that neuroticism was the only EPI subscore significantly correlated with GHQ-12 score. A habitual method of coping with adversity known as 'engagement' has a negative correlation with GHQ-12 score; that is, patients who actively confront their illness and the uncertainty that surrounds it show better psychological health. Stepwise multiple regression reveals that neuroticism and an engagement coping strategy are the most significant predictors towards GHQ-12 score prior to the diagnosis of breast cancer.

  12. Climate Change and the Ecological Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamil R. Khisambeyev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological effects of climate change constitute one of the subjects of study of ecological psychology. Ecological psychology is formed and developed at the junction of ecology, different directions of psychology, psychotherapy, pedagogy, philosophy and other disciplines. The article is devoted to review those areas of psychological research, which consider the human psyche in the logic of interac¬tion with the environment. As a result, we hope to answer the fundamental ques¬tion of whether ecological psychology may be regarded as an independent area of psychological research, which has its object and methods that distinguish it from other areas of psychological theory and practice.

  13. Psychiatric morbidities among mentally ill wives of Nepalese men working abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhana Ratna Shakya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Husband working abroad may have not only favorable outcomes for wives and other family members but also adverse consequences, including psychological problems. Present study intended to look into psychiatric morbidity profiles of the Nepalese female psychiatric patients and the stressors related with their husband working abroad. Materials and Methods: This is a hospital-based descriptive study with convenient sampling method. Hundred consecutive female psychiatric patients, with the particular stressor, coming into the contact of the investigating team were enrolled within the study period of 12 months. The psychiatric morbidities/diagnoses were sorted out according to the International classification of disease and infirmity, 10 th edition (ICD-10 criteria. Results: Average age of the enrolled cases was 29 years. Nearly half of the women were illiterate or barely literate. Some other stressors, besides the one of husband working abroad were found to precipitate the illness in about 60%, main being relational and health problems. Common presenting complaints were mood, anxiety, and physical symptoms. Almost 30% of the subjects had some mental illness in their past too and similar proportion had in their blood relatives. About one-third admitted to use substances, mainly alcohol and cigarettes. The common psychiatric diagnoses were mood, anxiety, neurotic, and stress-related disorders. Nearly 10% had presented for suicide attempt. Conclusions: The status of husband working abroad may have adverse consequences in mental health of women. Mood affect, anxiety, and stress-related disorders are common psychiatric illness among them.

  14. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  15. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  16. German Military Psychology 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, *WEST GERMANY, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, APTITUDE TESTS, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHIATRY, MILITARY PROCUREMENT, CLASSIFICATION, SELECTION, PILOTS, AVIATION MEDICINE.

  17. Internet research in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Samuel D; Mason, Winter

    2015-01-03

    Today the Internet plays a role in the lives of nearly 40% of the world's population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges, but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society.

  18. Psychiatric morbidity in spouses of patients with alcohol related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Dandu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Alcohol dependence is on rise world over, especially in developing countries such as India. According to the World Health Organization, about 30% of Indians consume alcohol, out of which 4%–13% are daily consumers and up to 50% of them, fall under the category of hazardous drinking. Another worrying trend from India is that the average age of initiation of alcohol use has reduced from 28 years during the 1980s to 17 years in 2007. In India, alcohol abuse also amounts to huge annual losses due to alcohol-related problems in workplaces. This was a cross-sectional, noninterventional study which was carried out at the Department of Psychiatry, Sri Venkateswara Ramnaraian Ruia Government General Hospital (SVRRGGH, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and nature of psychiatric morbidity in spouses of patients with alcohol-related disorders (ARDs. Methods: Study design - Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Study setting - Psychiatry Department of SVRRGGH, Sri Venkateswara Medical College, Tirupati. Study period - October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015. Study units - the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry, with a diagnosis of ARDs. After the ethical clearance from the Institutional Ethical Committee, the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry with a diagnosis of ARDs according to the International Classification of Diseases-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders constitute the population for the investigation. After obtaining written informed consent from each of the concerned subjects, demographic details and history of psychiatric illness were noted as per the structured pro forma. Results: The age of the alcohol-dependent men and spouses of men with ADS ranged from 23 to 67 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 41.24 ± 10.101 and 21–60 years (mean ± SD 35.04 ± 8.98, respectively. Among the study population, 36.6% of

  19. Using psychological theory and qualitative methods to develop a new evidence-based website about acupuncture for back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Felicity L; Greville-Harris, Maddy; Bostock, Jennifer; Din, Amy; Graham, Cynthia A; Lewith, George; Liossi, Christina; O'Riordan, Tim; Ryves, Rachel; White, Peter; Yardley, Lucy

    2016-08-01

    Potential acupuncture patients seek out information about acupuncture from various sources including websites, many of which are unreliable. We aimed to create an informative, scientifically accurate and engaging website to educate patients about acupuncture for back pain and modify their beliefs in a way that might enhance its clinical effects. We used psychological theory and techniques to design an evidence-based website, incorporating multimedia elements. We conducted qualitative "think aloud" audio-recorded interviews to elicit user views of the website. A convenience sample of ten participants (4 male; aged 21-64 years from the local community) looked at the website in the presence of a researcher and spoke their thoughts out loud. Comments were categorised by topic. The website comprises 11 main pages and addresses key topics of interest to potential acupuncture patients, including beneficial and adverse effects, mechanisms of action, safety, practicalities, and patients' experiences of acupuncture. It provides information through text, evidence summaries and audio-clips of four patients' stories and two acupuncturists' descriptions of their practice, and three short films. Evidence from the think aloud study was used to identify opportunities to make the website more informative, engaging, and user-friendly. Using a combination of psychological theory and qualitative interviews enabled us to produce a user-friendly, evidence-based website that is likely to change patients' beliefs about acupuncture for back pain. Before using the website in clinical settings it is necessary to test its effects on key outcomes including patients' beliefs and capacity for making informed choices about acupuncture.

  20. Airway management and morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    airway and the function of the lungs (decreased residual capacity and aggravated ventilation perfusion mismatch) worse than in lean patients. Proper planning and preparation of airway management is essential, including elevation of the patient's upper body, head and neck. Preoxygenation is mandatory...... solely on whether morbid obesity is present or not. It is important to ensure sufficient depth of anaesthesia before initiating manipulation of the airway because inadequate anaesthesia depth predisposes to aspiration if airway management becomes difficult. The intubating laryngeal mask airway is more...

  1. Prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in urban hospital outpatients in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. Method. A sample of 1 532 consecutively selected patients (56.4% men and 43.6% women from various hospital outpatient departments were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Results. Based on assessment with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, a measure of psychological distress, 17.1% of the patients (15.5% of men and 19.4% of women had severe psychological distress. Logistic multiple regression identified no income, poor health status, migraine headache and tuberculosis as significant factors associated with severe psychological stress for men. For women the factors identified were lower education, no income, having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease, stomach ulcer and migraine headache. Conclusion. The study found a high prevalence of psychological distress among hospital outpatients in South Africa. Brief psychological therapies for adult patients with anxiety, depression or mixed common mental health problems treated in hospital outpatient departments are indicated. Accurate diagnosis of co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorders in patients with chronic medical illness is essential in understanding the cause and optimising the management of somatic symptom burden.

  2. Morbidity in expatriates--a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipti; Easmon, Charles; Seed, Paul; Dow, Carol; Snashall, David

    2006-08-01

    Expatriates comprise an important, but rarely studied subset of international travellers. This study was performed to assess the incidence of health events in an expatriate group and to evaluate factors affecting this incidence. A cohort of 2020 Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) staff and partners living abroad were followed-up over 1 year. The main outcome measure was incidence of illness or injury serious enough to require consultation with a doctor. Data collection was by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to estimate the rates of health events and to test for association between health events and a number of independent variables. The incidence of health events was 21%. Trauma (incidence 5%), musculoskeletal disorders (incidence 4%) and infectious disease (incidence 3%) were the principal causes of morbidity. The incidence of psychological disorders was low (1%). Of significance, employees were at increased risk of morbidity when compared to partners, with a higher incidence of health events [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9] and psychological disorders (IRR 5.9, 95% CI 1.0-34.1). Moreover, unaccompanied employees were at increased risk of health events (IRR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7), and of traumatic injury (IRR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-4.3) when compared to accompanied employees. While the morbidity in FCO personnel is low in comparison to other expatriate groups, the higher risk of morbidity in employees and unaccompanied individuals merits further research, particularly to ascertain whether work demands, isolation or risk-taking behaviour are contributory factors.

  3. Psychological preparation in sport shooting

    OpenAIRE

    Ledecká, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Title: Psychological preparation in sport shooting Objectives: The objective of this thesis is usage of psychological preparation by sport shooting representation team in Czech Republic. How they are informed about psychological preparation. What it means to them. Which types of regulation they use and how they behave before and after a competition. Methods: A Questionnaire was used as a method for data obtaining. The questionnaire was compiled for the purposes of this Thesis. The researched ...

  4. Understanding Resilience and Other Trajectories of Psychological Distress: a Mixed-Methods Study of Low-Income Mothers Who Survived Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Rhodes, Jean E; Waters, Mary C

    2015-09-01

    Recent longitudinal studies in the aftermath of natural disasters have shown that resilience , defined as a trajectory of consistently low symptoms, is the modal experience, although other trajectories representing adverse responses, including chronic or delayed symptom elevations, occur in a substantial minority of survivors. Although these studies have provided insight into the prototypical patterns of postdisaster mental health, the factors that account for these patterns remain unclear. In the current analysis, we aimed to fill this gap through a mixed-methods study of female participants in the Resilience in Survivors of Katrina (RISK) study. Latent class growth analysis identified six trajectories of psychological distress in the quantitative sample ( n =386). Qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 54 participants identified predisaster, disaster-related and postdisaster experiences that could account for the trends in the quantitative data. In particular, preexisting and gains in psychosocial resources (e.g., emotion regulation, religiosity) and positive postdisaster impacts (e.g., greater neighborhood satisfaction, improved employment opportunities) were found to underlie resilience and other positive mental health outcomes. Conversely, experiences of childhood trauma, and pre and postdisaster stressors (e.g., difficulties in intimate partner relationships) were common among participants in trajectories representing adverse psychological responses. Illustrative case studies that exemplify each trajectory are presented. The results demonstrate the utility of mixed-methods analysis to provide a richer picture of processes underlying postdisaster mental health.

  5. Caffeine impact on neonatal morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Jacob V; Beharry, Kay; Valencia, Gloria B; Natarajan, Girija; Davis, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    Caffeine is a silver bullet in neonatology. This ubiquitous trimethylxanthine, pervasively used in the human diet and beverages, significantly impacts on major acute neonatal morbidities including apnea of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, patent ductus arteriousus with or without surgical ligation and post-operative apnea. Potential uses in respiratory distress syndrome as suggested by improved lung function in primate models is supported by the decreased time on mechanical ventilation and need for oxygen therapy. Improved later outcomes at 18 to 22 months include clinically significant decreases in cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, and severe retinopathy of prematurity in those babies who received caffeine during the neonatal period compared to non-caffeine treated placebo neonates. Ongoing and future research studies focus on optimizing current dose regimens to determine whether benefits can be maximized while maintaining an impressive safety profile. Molecular pharmacologic studies focused on the molecular and the biochemical mechanisms underlying the protective effects of caffeine are also being done to optimize treatment regimes and to target potential molecular pathways leading to further decreases in acute and long term neonatal morbidities. Since its use in newborns three decades ago, caffeine is now one of the safest, most cost-beneficial and effective therapies in the newborn.

  6. Co-morbidities of Interstitial Cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela eChelimsky

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to estimate the proportion of patients with Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/BPS with systemic dysfunction associated co-morbidities such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and fibromyalgia (FM. Material and Methods: Two groups of subjects with IC/BPS were included: 1 Physician diagnosed patients with IC/BPS and 2 Subjects meeting NIDDK IC/PBS criteria based on a questionnaire (ODYSA. These groups were compared to healthy controls matched for age and socio-economic status. NIDDK criteria required: pain with bladder filling that improves with emptying, urinary urgency due to discomfort or pain, polyuria > 11 times/24 hrs, and nocturia > 2 times/night. The ODYSA instrument evaluates symptoms pertaining to a range of disorders including chronic fatigue, orthostatic intolerance, syncope, IBS, dyspepsia, cyclic vomiting syndrome, headaches and migraines, sleep, Raynaud’s syndrome and chronic aches and pains. Results: IC/BPS was diagnosed in 26 subjects (mean age 47 +/- 16 yrs, 92% females, 58 had symptoms of IC/BPS by NIDDK criteria, (mean age 40 +/- 17 yrs, 79% females and 48 were healthy controls (mean age 31+/- 14 yrs, mean age 77%. Co-morbid complaints in the IC/BPS groups included gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of IBS and dyspepsia, sleep abnormalities with delayed onset of sleep, feeling poorly refreshed in the morning, waking up before needed, snoring, severe chronic fatigue and chronic generalized pain, migraines and syncope. Discussion: Patients with IC/BPS had co-morbid central and autonomic nervous system disorders. Our findings mirror those of others in regard to IBS, symptoms suggestive of FM, chronic pain and migraine. High rates of syncope and functional dyspepsia found in the IC/BPS groups merit further study to determine if IC/BPS is part of a diffuse disorder of central, autonomic and sensory processing affecting multiple organs outside the bladder.

  7. Psychiatric morbidities among mentally ill wives of Nepalese men working abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Dhana Ratna

    2014-01-01

    Husband working abroad may have not only favorable outcomes for wives and other family members but also adverse consequences, including psychological problems. Present study intended to look into psychiatric morbidity profiles of the Nepalese female psychiatric patients and the stressors related with their husband working abroad. This is a hospital-based descriptive study with convenient sampling method. Hundred consecutive female psychiatric patients, with the particular stressor, coming into the contact of the investigating team were enrolled within the study period of 12 months. The psychiatric morbidities/diagnoses were sorted out according to the International classification of disease and infirmity, 10(th) edition (ICD-10) criteria. Average age of the enrolled cases was 29 years. Nearly half of the women were illiterate or barely literate. Some other stressors, besides the one of husband working abroad were found to precipitate the illness in about 60%, main being relational and health problems. Common presenting complaints were mood, anxiety, and physical symptoms. Almost 30% of the subjects had some mental illness in their past too and similar proportion had in their blood relatives. About one-third admitted to use substances, mainly alcohol and cigarettes. The common psychiatric diagnoses were mood, anxiety, neurotic, and stress-related disorders. Nearly 10% had presented for suicide attempt. The status of husband working abroad may have adverse consequences in mental health of women. Mood affect, anxiety, and stress-related disorders are common psychiatric illness among them.

  8. Sport Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  9. Diet and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M

    1996-09-01

    This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders.

  10. Colonoscopia: morbidade negligenciada Colonoscopy: neglected morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bellotti Formiga

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar fatores de risco que determinam morbidade ao exame de colonoscopia. MÉTODOS: No período de março a junho de 2009 foram analisados prospectivamente 170 pacientes submetidos a exame colonoscópico. Fatores de risco como idade, sexo, indicação, exame ambulatorial/internado, efeitos adversos e qualidade do preparo intestinal, procedimento endoscópico, diagnóstico e intercorrência peri-procedimento foram relacionados. RESULTADOS: A média de idade da amostra foi 60,16 ± 14,69 anos, com predominância do sexo feminino. A indicação mais prevalente do exame foi seguimento pós-operatório. Três exames foram inconclusivos por mau preparo. Do restante, 36,53% foram normais e a maioria dos alterados apresentou pólipos, adenomatosos predominantemente. Quanto as comorbidades, 48,82% dos pacientes possuíam alguma comorbidade, sendo Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica a mais prevalente. Apenas 22,94% dos pacientes apresentaram algum efeito adverso ao preparo. O preparo foi limpo em 65,88% dos exames, mostrando significância quando comparado a morbidade. Outro fator de significância estatística foi a realização de procedimentos (44,7% dos exames, sendo a maioria polipectomias. A morbidade chegou a 16,47%, sendo a desidratação a mais prevalente. Não houve mortalidade. CONCLUSÃO: A qualidade do preparo intestinal e a realização de procedimento endoscópico são fatores diretamente relacionados a morbidade do exame de colonoscopia.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to analyze risks factors of morbidity on colonoscopy. METHOD: From March to June of 2009, 170 patients were examined and analyzed prospectively. Risks factors as age, sex, indication of exam, ambulatory or hospital exam, adverse events and quality of intestinal preparation, endoscopic procedure, diagnoses and incident before, during or after procedure were analyzed. RESULTS: The average age was 60,16±14,69 years old, with majority of female. The prevalent

  11. Psychiatric morbidity in patients of pulmonary tuberculosis-an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A lot of stigma and misconceptions about pulmonary tuberculosis still persist, in spite of the advances in treatment. Thus, a mere diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis can be a psychological trauma to an individual. The situation has aggravated with the association of tuberculosis with HIV infection. Aim: To study the psychiatric morbidity due to the various psychological stresses faced by a patient of pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 100 inpatients admitted to pulmonary ward with diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. The control group consisted of 100 inpatients admitted to pulmonary ward with nontuberculous pulmonary diseases. Psychiatric history and mental status were recorded on a specially designed proforma and diagnosis of any psychiatric illness, if present, arrived at as per International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. The psychiatric tests applied were beck's depression inventory (BDI and Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS. Results: Of the patients of pulmonary tuberculosis, 24% could be given a diagnostic category, as per ICD-10, as compared to only 8% of the controls (P < 0.005. On BDI, 44% of patients of pulmonary tuberculosis showed depression as compared to 27% of the controls (P < 0.02. On TMAS, 38% of patients of pulmonary tuberculosis showed anxiety as compared to 24% of controls (P < 0.05. A greater incidence of depression (on BDI and anxiety (on TMAS was seen in those with longer duration of illness (P < 0.02 and in those with greater severity of illness (P < 0.02. Conclusion: In view of the high psychiatric morbidity associated with pulmonary tuberculosis, there is enough scope for psychiatric services to be made available to these patients. In addition, personnel involved in the treatment of these patients should be trained for early detection of psychiatric symptoms.

  12. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  13. Morbidity in reflex sympathetic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C S; Cohen, A; Perkins, T; Davidson, J E; Sills, J A

    2000-03-01

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), an unusual diagnosis in general paediatrics, is well recognised by paediatric rheumatologists. This study reports the presentation and the clinical course of 46 patients (35 female, age range 8-15.2) with RSD. The patients saw professionals from an average of 2.3 specialties (range 1-5). Twenty five (54%) had a history of trauma. Median time to diagnosis was 12 weeks (range 1-130). Many children had multiple investigations and treatments. Once diagnosis was made, treatment followed with physiotherapy and analgesics. Median time to recovery was seven weeks (range 1-140), with 27.5% relapsing. Nine children required assessment by the child and adolescent psychiatry team. This disease, though rare, has significant morbidity and it is therefore important to raise clinicians' awareness of RSD in childhood. Children with the condition may then be recognised and referred for appropriate management earlier, and spared unnecessary investigations and treatments which may exacerbate the condition.

  14. [Maternal morbidity in adolescent pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luis Simon; Lira Plascencia, Josefina; Ahued Ahued, Roberto; Quesnel García Benítez, Carlos; Iturralde Rosas Priego, Paola; Arteaga Gómez, Cristina

    2002-06-01

    To evaluate the maternal morbidity in drug addiction (2%), hypothyroidism (2%), cardiopathy (1.5%). The most common complications during pregnancy: urinary system infections (20.4%), anemia (9.8%), threats of premature labour (9.8%), premature membrane rupture (9%), hypertensive disease induced by pregnancy (3.2%), delayed intrauterine growth (2.4%) and fetal malformation (2.4%). About 44.1% of the pregnancies were interrupted by cesarean section, 35.6% by eutochia and 20.3% by instrumented labour. The most frequent complications during the puerperium were: tearing of the canal of the cervix (7%), decidual endometritis (3.3%), dehiscence of surgical wounds (2.7%), and pyelonephritis (1.6%). The pregnant teenager is a "special" patient form the biopsychosocial point of view, thus, she must be managed by a multidisciplinary team, with special emphasis in the problems analyzed in this study.

  15. Narrative Method of Practice Increases Curiosity & Exploration, Psychological Capital, and Personal Growth Leading to Career Clarity: A Retrospective Outcome Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Franklin; Basak Yanar; Rich Feller

    2015-01-01

    The paradigm in career counselling is shifting from traditional matching assessments to narrative methods. Storytelling approaches, life design principles, and evidence-based methods of practice are integrating theory into practical tools that career professionals want to use and can easily learn. Evidence of effectiveness of such methods are key to their being implemented, and broad career management variables beyond employment status need to be identified. The retrospective outcome study of...

  16. Psychological correlates of vasovagal versus medically unexplained syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafanelli, Chiara; Gostoli, Sara; Roncuzzi, Renzo; Sassone, Biagio

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric morbidity is quite common in vasovagal syncope (VVS), but findings are sometimes contradictory. Among patients with suspected VVS, up to 40% has a negative response to Head-Up Tilt test (HUT), the cause of syncope remaining unexplained (US). The authors evaluated and compared the psychological and psychosomatic profile in patients with positive (VVS) and negative HUT (US). A consecutive series of 67 patients with suspected VVS underwent HUT: 45 patients had a positive HUT, 22 negative. They were evaluated by means of observer- and self-rated measures. Of the total sample, 95.5% had at least one Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnosis or one psychosomatic syndrome, such as specific and social phobias, illness denial and demoralization. Comparing VVS and US patients, no statistical differences on diagnoses' frequencies were found. However, the US group had significantly poorer health habits, lower levels of well-being and higher psychological distress. They also reported to be more anxious, depressed and hostile. VVS patients were significantly more blood and social phobic than US patients. Despite similar and remarkable observer-rated psychopathology, US patients reported higher self-perceived psychological distress than VVS patients. Psychological evaluation of patients undergoing HUT should incorporate both clinical and subclinical methods to better address syncope management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal Morbidity in Women with Placenta Previa Managed with Prediction of Morbidly Adherent Placenta by Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Fujisaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine maternal morbidity in women with placenta previa managed with prediction of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP by ultrasonography. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken comprising forty-one women who had placenta previa with or without risk factors for MAP. Women who had all three findings (bladder line interruption, placental lacunae, and absence of the retroplacental clear zone were regarded as high suspicion for MAP and underwent cesarean section followed by hysterectomy. We attempted placental removal for women having two findings or less. Results. Among 28 women with risk, nine with high suspicion underwent hysterectomy and were diagnosed with MAP. Three of 19 women with two findings or less eventually underwent hysterectomy and were diagnosed with MAP. The sensitivity and positive predictive value for the detection of MAP were 64% and 100%. The pathological severity of MAP was significantly correlated with the cumulative number of findings. There were no cases of MAP among 13 women without risk. There was no difference of blood loss between women with high suspicion and those without risk (2186±1438 ml versus 1656±848 ml, resp.; p=0.34. Conclusion. Management with prediction of MAP by ultrasonography is useful for obtaining permissible morbidity.

  18. The Burden of Psychological Symptoms in Gynaecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is an increasing evidence of significant psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression) among a large percentage of women with gynaecological conditions. These symptoms are often neglected in the course of management of physical problems, thus leading to an increased morbidity and unresolved ...

  19. Psychological Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Gideon Conway

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.

  20. Morbidly adherent placenta treatments and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailit, Jennifer L; Grobman, William A; Rice, Madeline Murguia; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Leveno, Kenneth J; Iams, Jay D; Tita, Alan T N; Saade, George; Rouse, Dwight J; Blackwell, Sean C

    2015-03-01

    To describe recent maternal and neonatal delivery outcomes among women with a morbidly adherent placenta in major centers across the United States. This study reviewed a cohort of 115,502 women and their neonates born in 25 hospitals in the United States between March 2008 and February 2011 from the Assessment of Perinatal EXcellence data set. All cases of morbidly adherent placenta were identified. Maternal demographics, procedures undertaken, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. There were 158 women with a morbidly adherent placenta (1/731 births, 95% confidence interval 1/632-866). Eighteen percent of women with a morbidly adherent placenta were nulliparous and 37% had no prior cesarean delivery. Only 53% (84/158) were suspected to have a morbidly adherent placenta before delivery. Women with a prenatally suspected morbidly adherent placenta experienced large blood loss (33%), hysterectomy (92%), and intensive care unit admission (39%) compared with 19%, 45%, and 22%, respectively, in those not suspected prenatally to have a morbidly adherent placenta (P<.05 for all). Eighteen percent of women with a morbidly adherent placenta were nulliparous. Half of the morbidly adherent placenta cases were suspected before delivery and outcomes were poorer in this group, probably because the more clinically significant morbidly adherent placentas are more likely to be suspected before delivery. : II.

  1. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  2. Colorectal cancer screening: Systematic review of screen-related morbidity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, N C A; Snijders, H S; Holman, F A; Liefers, G J; Bastiaannet, E; van de Velde, C J H; Peeters, K C M J

    2017-03-01

    Implementation of mass colorectal cancer screening, using faecal occult blood test or colonoscopy, is recommended by the European Union in order to increase cancer-specific survival by diagnosing disease in an earlier stage. Post-colonoscopy complications have been addressed by previous systematic reviews, but morbidity of colorectal cancer screening on multiple levels has never been evaluated before. To evaluate potential harm as a result of mass colorectal cancer screening in terms of complications after colonoscopy, morbidity and mortality following surgery, psychological distress and inappropriate use of the screening test. A systematic review of all literature on morbidity and mortality attributed to colorectal cancer screening, using faecal occult blood test or colonoscopy, from each databases' inception to August 2016 was performed. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the pooled incidence of major complications of colonoscopy (major bleedings and perforations). Sixty studies were included. Five out of seven included prospective studies on psychological morbidity reported an association between participation in a colorectal screening program and psychological distress. Serious morbidity from colonoscopy in asymptomatic patients included major bleedings (0.8/1000 procedures, 95% CI 0.18-1.63) and perforations (0.07/1000 procedures, 95% CI 0.006-0.17). Participation in a colorectal cancer screening program is associated with psychological distress and can cause serious adverse events. Nevertheless, the short duration of psychological impact as well as the low colonoscopy complication rate seems reassuring. Because of limited literature on harms other than perforation and bleeding, future research on this topic is greatly needed to contribute to future screening recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. College Student Perceptions of Psychology as a Science as a Function of Psychology Course Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Pettijohn, Terry F.; Brenneman, Miranda M.; Glass, Jamie N.; Brito, Gabriela R.; Terranova, Andrew M.; Kim, JongHan; Meyersburg, C. A.; Piroch, Joan

    2015-01-01

    College students (N = 297) completed a perceptions of psychology as a science survey before and after completion of psychology courses. Psychology as a science scores increased significantly from the beginning to the end of the research methods courses, but scores in introductory psychology courses did not change and scores for students in…

  4. Application of data mining techniques and data analysis methods to measure cancer morbidity and mortality data in a regional cancer registry: The case of the island of Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamis, Iraklis; Apostolakis, Ioannis; Sifaki-Pistolla, Dimitra; Dey, Nilanjan; Georgoulias, Vassilios; Lionis, Christos

    2017-07-01

    Micro or macro-level mapping of cancer statistics is a challenging task that requires long-term planning, prospective studies and continuous monitoring of all cancer cases. The objective of the current study is to present how cancer registry data could be processed using data mining techniques in order to improve the statistical analysis outcomes. Data were collected from the Cancer Registry of Crete in Greece (counties of Rethymno and Lasithi) for the period 1998-2004. Data collection was performed on paper forms and manually transcribed to a single data file, thus introducing errors and noise (e.g. missing and erroneous values, duplicate entries etc.). Data were pre-processed and prepared for analysis using data mining tools and algorithms. Feature selection was applied to evaluate the contribution of each collected feature in predicting patients' survival. Several classifiers were trained and evaluated for their ability to predict survival of patients. Finally, statistical analysis of cancer morbidity and mortality rates in the two regions was performed in order to validate the initial findings. Several critical points in the process of data collection, preprocessing and analysis of cancer data were derived from the results, while a road-map for future population data studies was developed. In addition, increased morbidity rates were observed in the counties of Crete (Age Standardized Morbidity/Incidence Rates ASIR= 396.45 ± 2.89 and 274.77 ±2.48 for men and women, respectively) compared to European and world averages (ASIR= 281.6 and 207.3 for men and women in Europe and 203.8 and 165.1 in world level). Significant variation in cancer types between sexes and age groups (the ratio between deaths and reported cases for young patients, less than 34 years old, is at 0.055 when the respective ratio for patients over 75 years old is 0.366) was also observed. This study introduced a methodology for preprocessing and analyzing cancer data, using a

  5. Parental Physical and Psychological Aggression: Psychological Symptoms in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Perrin, Cindy L.; Perrin, Robin D.; Kocur, Jodie L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between various levels of parent-child physical violence and psychological symptoms reported by college students, while controlling for demographic variables, severity and frequency of violence, and co-occurrence of parental psychological aggression. Method: Participants…

  6. Diabetic and dyslipidaemic morbidly obese exhibit more liver alterations compared with healthy morbidly obese

    OpenAIRE

    Pardina, Eva; Ferrer, Roser; Rossell, Joana; Baena-Fustegueras, Juan Antonio; Lecube, Albert; Fort, Jose Manuel; Caubet, Enric; González, Óscar; Vilallonga, Ramón; Vargas, Víctor; Balibrea, José María; Peinado-Onsurbe, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Background & aims To study the origin of fat excess in the livers of morbidly obese (MO) individuals, we analysed lipids and lipases in both plasma and liver and genes involved in lipid transport, or related with, in that organ. Methods Thirty-two MO patients were grouped according to the absence (healthy: DM???DL??) or presence of comorbidities (dyslipidemic: DM???DL?+; or dyslipidemic with type 2 diabetes: DM?+?DL?+) before and one year after gastric bypass. Results The livers of healthy, D...

  7. Psychological sequelae of sexual abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, P D

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out in one practice to determine the relationship between sexual abuse in childhood and subsequent psychological morbidity. Out of 418 women who replied (62% response rate), 60 (14%) admitted experiencing some form of sexual abuse as a child. Twenty of these (33%) were found to have a record of some form of psychological problem in adult life, compared with 14% of a sample of the non-abused respondents and 20% of the non-respondents. In particular, 54% of 13 women who had experienced oral, genital or anal penetration or attempted penetration had psychological morbidity recorded. There was no relationship, however, between sexual abuse and psychosexual or marital problems in later life. PMID:2107837

  8. Theory-informed design of values clarification methods : A cognitive psychological perspective on patient health-related decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, A.H.; de Vries, M.; Kunneman, M.; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Feldman-Stewart, D.

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare decisions, particularly those involving weighing benefits and harms that may significantly affect quality and/or length of life, should reflect patients' preferences. To support patients in making choices, patient decision aids and values clarification methods (VCM) in particular have

  9. Co-morbid disorders in Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette Marinette Monique

    2013-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is often accompanied by other symptoms and syndromes. The two best-known co-morbidities are Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), but also other conditions like rage-attacks, depression, and sleeping disturbances are frequent......-morbid disorders, like rage, anxiety, and conduct disorders. The symptoms of a co-morbid disorder might appear prior to the time that tics reach clinical attention. The TS phenotype probably changes during the course of the disease. The exact aetiology of the co-occurrence of co-morbid disorders and TS...

  10. Psychiatric morbidity and its sociodemographic correlates among women in Irbid, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daradkeh, T K; Alawan, A; Al Ma'aitah, R; Otoom, S A

    2006-01-01

    The rate of psychiatric morbidity and its sociodemographic correlates was estimated in 2000 women attending 3 primary care centres in Irbid, Jordan. Women completed standardized diagnostic tools that yielded psychiatric diagnoses, a stress scale and sociodemographic details. The rate of psychiatric morbidity was 26.3% and psychological distress 39.0%. A significant association was found between the amount and severity of stress and psychiatric morbidity. Post-marital status (separated, divorced, widowed), woman's illiteracy, family violence, violent marital relationship, living independently, being in a non-cousin marriage, being a second wife, poor housing and absence of a social support system were significantly associated with psychiatric morbidity in this group of women.

  11. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  12. Deployment psychology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    breaking fashion, brings into a single compendium the growing body of literatures, since Yerkes's work, which point to the ... [they] reflect on how they have changed”.3 From the outset of this text, there is a very real and palpable sense .... embedded and enmeshed. At times, Deployment psychology appears to ignore the.

  13. Assessment of morbidity pattern, quality of life and awareness of government facilities among elderly population in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was done to assess the determinants of morbidity pattern, quality of life (QoL and awareness of elderly about various government schemes and social security legislations. Materials and Methods: Data was collected by house to house survey among participants aged 60 years and above using a structured interview schedule. The QoL was assessed using Kannada version of WHOQOL-BREF instrument following language validation. Results: Mean age of 206 participants was 69.6±6.7 years. Half of them were males and majority were graduates 54 (26.2%. Morbidity was present among 194 (94.2% participants (95% CI 89.5-98.9%, most common being hypertension 96 (46.6%. Morbid conditions were seen more among less educated (P = 0.007. Only 68 (33% were under medical insurance coverage, 17 (8.3% were under old age government pension and 74 (35.9% were under retirement pension scheme. Social relationships, psychological health and environmental domain scores were associated with socio-economic status. Social relationship domain score was significantly better among well educated participants and those without morbidities. Level of ambulation was significantly associated with QoL scores in all domains (P < 0.001. Majority of the participants 132 (64.1% had moderate level of awareness about government facilities for senior citizens. Awareness level was significantly better among males (P < 0.001, well educated (P < 0.001, better socio-economic status respondents (P < 0.001 and those currently working (P = 0.026. Conclusion: Health status of elderly needs improvement which would also improve their QoL. Awareness about various government schemes needs to be enhanced to improve its utilization. The results of this study are expected to help policy makers in planning comprehensive services for elderly residing in this area.

  14. Psychology as a Moral Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...... meaning, and posits psychology as one of the critical methods of organizing normative values in society; at the same time it carefully notes the discipline’s history of being sidetracked by overemphasis on theoretical constructs and physical causes—what the author terms “the psychologizing of morality...

  15. Introducing positive psychology to SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mercer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA. This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, studies of the good language learner, and the concepts related to the self. There are reasons for both encouragement and caution as studies inspired by positive psychology are undertaken. Papers in this special issue of SSLLT cover a range of quantitative and qualitative methods with implications for theory, research, and teaching practice. The special issue serves as a springboard for future research in SLA under the umbrella of positive psychology.

  16. The Perspectives of Patients on Health-Care for Co-Morbid Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Lo

    Full Text Available Multi-morbidity due to diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD remains challenging for current health-systems, which focus on single diseases. As a first step toward health-care improvement, we explored the perspectives of patients and their carers on factors influencing the health-care of those with co-morbid diabetes and CKD.In this qualitative study participants with co-morbid diabetes and CKD were purposively recruited using maximal variation sampling from 4 major tertiary health-services from 2 of Australia's largest cities. Separate focus groups were conducted for patients with CKD stages 3, 4 and 5. Findings were triangulated with semi-structured interviews of carers of patients. Discussions were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed.Twelve focus groups with 58 participants and 8 semi-structured interviews of carers were conducted. Factors influencing health-care of co-morbid diabetes and CKD grouped into patient and health service level factors. Key patient level factors identified were patient self-management, socio-economic situation, and adverse experiences related to co-morbid diabetes and CKD and its treatment. Key health service level factors were prevention and awareness of co-morbid diabetes and CKD, poor continuity and coordination of care, patient and carer empowerment, access and poor recognition of psychological co-morbidity. Health-service level factors varied according to CKD stage with poor continuity and coordination of care and patient and carer empowerment emphasized by participants with CKD stage 4 and 5, and access and poor recognition of psychological co-morbidity emphasised by participants with CKD stage 5 and carers.According to patients and their carers the health-care of co-morbid diabetes and CKD may be improved via a preventive, patient-centred health-care model which promotes self-management and that has good access, continuity and coordination of care and identifies and manages psychological

  17. New morbidity of the young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present phase of epidemiological transition, the most frequent causes of youth morbidity are disorders in reproductive health, mental disorders and injuries which are not life threatening. This, so-called new youth morbidity, is most often caused by their risky behavior, which in the field of sexuality often leads to unplanned pregnancies and abortions, as well as sexually transmitted infections. Misuse of tobacco, alcohol and narcotics, which is most commonly started in adolescence, has an unfavorable short-term and long-term influence on the psycho-physical health of the young. All research, in the world and in our country, indicate gradual yet constant growth of sexual activity of the youth and the age decrease of its starting point, especially when girls are in question. Due to insufficient maturity and inadequate knowledge and consciousness on the necessity of protecting reproductive health, sexual behavior of young people can often be characterized as insufficiently responsible and not supplemented with the usage of adequate protective measures. The result is frequently abortion, which terminates 90% of unplanned and unwanted pregnancies in this age. This creates health and psychosocial risks, as well as giving birth in adolescence which is contrary to the modern health concepts that giving birth should not be performed too early, while the young are still developing. A significant increase in the frequency of sexually transmitted diseases is also present, to which the youth are especially susceptible due to the specific development period in which they are in. A serious medical and sociopathological problem of contemporary society represents the greater and greater misuse of psychoactive substances among the young people, with a tendency of decreasing the average age they are consumed for the first time, as well as the use of drugs and alcohol. With the increase of the anti-smoking campaign and restrictive measures in highly

  18. Post-operative morbidity of the obese patient undergoing posterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome measures: Post-operative morbidity measures – infection, seroma, pulmonary embolism, urinary tract infection, neurological injury and dural tears. Methods: One hundred consecutive patients undergoing posterior lumbar spine surgery were enrolled in the study. Three fellowship trained attending orthopaedic ...

  19. Major depressive disorder as a co-morbid diagnosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to focus on the importance of depressive symptoms in patients suffering from schizophrenia, and the dilemma posed by hierarchical classification methods, which exclude co-morbid diagnoses such as Major Depressive Disorder in patients with schizophrenia. The question arises that if Major ...

  20. Morbidity of the neck after head and neck cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Dijkstra, P.U.; van der Laan, B.F.; Plukker, J.T.; Roodenburg, J.L.

    Background. Studies on morbidity of the neck after head and neck cancer therapy are scarcely described. Methods. Patients who underwent surgery, including neck dissection, with and without radiation therapy at least 1 year before the study were asked to participate. We assessed neck pain, loss of

  1. Prevalence and correlates of psychiatric morbidity among caregivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To screen for psychiatric morbidity among caregivers of patients attending a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic. Method: A total of 155 patients and their caregivers were consecutively recruited over a 1 month period. Sociodemographic and clinical information on patients was obtained either from the hospital ...

  2. Early morbidity after simultaneous and staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov; Husted, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this nationwide study was to investigate the early morbidity after bilateral simultaneous and staged total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in order to clarify potential benefits of a well-established fast-track regime. METHODS: The Danish National Patient Registry was searched for all...

  3. Stress and Minor Psychiatric Morbidity among Nigerian Executives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study aims to determine factors associated with stress and minor psychiatric morbidities among Nigerian executives. Subjects and Methods: A total of 337 management cadre staff attending a health workshop, from various private organizations and belonging to different professional groups participated in this ...

  4. Pouch emptying of solid foods after gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Pedersen, B H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1985-01-01

    To obtain information on possible determinants of weight loss after horizontal gastroplasty, pouch emptying was prospectively investigated in 27 morbidly obese patients. A scintigraphic method was used. Examinations were carried out every 6 months until 2 years after surgery. Pouch emptying...

  5. Psychiatric morbidity develops after onset of pediatric multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangsberg Boesen, Magnus; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Uldall, Peter Vilhelm

    2018-01-01

    ascertainment was performed in all children with pediatric MS, including chart review. For each MS patient, we selected five controls using density sampling from the entire Danish population, matching controls to children with MS by sex and birthdate. We analyzed data as a nested case-control study......BACKGROUND: Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) affects life at a stage vital for social and educational achievements and psychiatric co-morbidity is common after MS onset. Few studies have examined psychiatric morbidity before MS onset. METHODS: In this nationwide study, detailed case...

  6. A Bayesian Mixed-Methods Analysis of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction through Outdoor Learning and Its Influence on Motivational Behavior in Science Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Dettweiler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that outdoor educational interventions can lead to students' increased self-regulated motivational behavior. In this study, we searched into the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (BPN, i.e., autonomy support, the learners' experience of competence, and relatedness, both within the peer group and with their teachers, through outdoor learning. From 2014 to 2016, n = 281 students attended “research weeks” at a Student Science Lab in the Alpine National Park Berchtesgaden (Germany. The program is a curriculum-based one-week residential course, centered on a 2-day research expedition. Both before and after the course, students completed a composite questionnaire addressing BPN-satisfaction and overall motivational behavior in relation to the Self-Determination Index (SDI. At the latter time-point, students also reported on their experiences during the intervention. Questionnaire data was analyzed using a set of Bayesian General Linear Models with random effects. Those quantitative measures have been complemented by and contextualized with a set of qualitative survey methods. The results showed that the basic psychological needs influence the motivational behavior in both contexts equally, however on different scale levels. The basic needs satisfaction in the outdoor context is decisively higher than indoors. Moreover, the increment of competence-experience from the school context to the hands-on outdoor program appears to have the biggest impact to students' increased intrinsic motivation during the intervention. Increased autonomy support, student-teacher relations, and student-student relations have much less or no influence on the overall difference of motivational behavior. Gender does not influence the results. The contextualization partly supports those results and provide further explanation for the students' increased self-regulation in the outdoors. They add some explanatory thrust to the argument that outdoor

  7. A Bayesian Mixed-Methods Analysis of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction through Outdoor Learning and Its Influence on Motivational Behavior in Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettweiler, Ulrich; Lauterbach, Gabriele; Becker, Christoph; Simon, Perikles

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that outdoor educational interventions can lead to students' increased self-regulated motivational behavior. In this study, we searched into the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (BPN), i.e., autonomy support, the learners' experience of competence, and relatedness, both within the peer group and with their teachers, through outdoor learning. From 2014 to 2016, n = 281 students attended “research weeks” at a Student Science Lab in the Alpine National Park Berchtesgaden (Germany). The program is a curriculum-based one-week residential course, centered on a 2-day research expedition. Both before and after the course, students completed a composite questionnaire addressing BPN-satisfaction and overall motivational behavior in relation to the Self-Determination Index (SDI). At the latter time-point, students also reported on their experiences during the intervention. Questionnaire data was analyzed using a set of Bayesian General Linear Models with random effects. Those quantitative measures have been complemented by and contextualized with a set of qualitative survey methods. The results showed that the basic psychological needs influence the motivational behavior in both contexts equally, however on different scale levels. The basic needs satisfaction in the outdoor context is decisively higher than indoors. Moreover, the increment of competence-experience from the school context to the hands-on outdoor program appears to have the biggest impact to students' increased intrinsic motivation during the intervention. Increased autonomy support, student-teacher relations, and student-student relations have much less or no influence on the overall difference of motivational behavior. Gender does not influence the results. The contextualization partly supports those results and provide further explanation for the students' increased self-regulation in the outdoors. They add some explanatory thrust to the argument that outdoor teaching, be it

  8. Morbidity in early Parkinson's disease and prior to diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rune; Kjellberg, Jakob; Ibsen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonmotor symptoms are probably present prior to, early on, and following, a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Nonmotor symptoms may hold important information about the progression of Parkinson's disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluated the total early and prediagnostic morbidities in the 3...... years before a hospital contact leading to a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Retrospective morbidity data from Danish National Patient Registry records (1997-2007) of 10,490 adult patients with a secondary care diagnosis of Parkinson's disease were compared with 42,505 control cases. RESULTS......: Parkinson's disease was associated with significantly higher morbidity rates associated with conditions in the following categories: mental and psychiatric, nervous system, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal system and connective tissue, genitourinary, abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, injury...

  9. Morbidly Adherent Placenta: Interprofessional Management Strategies for the Intrapartum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Suzanne McMurtry; Troiano, Nan H; Kennedy, Margaret Betsy Babb

    "Morbidly adherent placenta" is a term that describes the continuum of placenta accreta, increta, and percreta. The incidence of this type of abnormal placentation has increased significantly over recent decades. The reason is probably multifactorial but, partly, because of factors such as the increasing number of cesarean births. Women at greatest risk are those who have myometrial damage caused by a previous cesarean birth, with either anterior or posterior placenta previa overlying the uterine scar. This condition poses significant risks of morbidity and/or mortality to the pregnant woman and her fetus. A multidisciplinary approach to care throughout pregnancy is essential. This article describes the classification of morbidly adherent placenta, risk factors, methods of diagnosis, potential maternal and fetal complications, and intrapartum clinical management strategies to optimize outcomes.

  10. Morbidity and mortality of middle-aged and elderly narcoleptics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Thorstensen, Eva Wiberg; Pickering, Line

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to evaluate the morbidities and mortality in a national group of middle-aged and elderly narcolepsy patients before and after the first diagnosis of the condition. METHODS: From the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR), 1174 patients (45.1% males) aged....... In the NPR, all morbidities are grouped into major WHO classes. RESULTS: Middle-aged and elderly patients had more health contacts before and after their narcolepsy diagnosis with respect to several disease domains: infections, neoplasm, endocrine/metabolic diseases/diabetes, mental/psychiatric, neurological.......002) among those aged 60+ years. CONCLUSION: There are higher rates of morbidity in several disease domains before and after a diagnosis of narcolepsy. Elderly narcolepsy patients have higher mortality rates....

  11. Intermaxillary Fixation Screw Morbidity in Treatment of Mandibular Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florescu, Vlad-Andrei; Kofod, Thomas; Pinholt, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present retrospective study was to investigate the morbidity of screws used for intermaxillary fixation (IMF) in the treatment of mandibular fractures. A review of the published data was also performed for a comparison of outcomes. Our hypothesis was that the use of screws...... for IMF of mandibular fractures would result in minimal morbidity. Materials and Methods Patients treated for mandibular fractures from 2007 to 2013, using screws for IMF, using the international diagnosis code for mandibular fracture, DS026, were anonymously selected (Department of Oral and Maxillofacial...... retrospective study have shown that the use of screws is a valid choice for IMF in mandibular fracture treatment with minimal morbidity. The 793 screws used for IMF resulted in a negligible amount of central and peripheral tooth root trauma. © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons...

  12. LEARNING THEORY AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , *ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), LEARNING, LEARNING, BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY, ANXIETY, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, MENTAL DISORDERS...PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), THERAPY.

  13. Morbidities, concordance, and predictors of preterm premature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-05

    Dec 5, 2015 ... Background: Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is a challenging complication of pregnancies and an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Management of morbidities associated with PPROM is fraught with controversy. However, women should be informed of these ...

  14. Intubation of the morbidly obese patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydemann, Mogens; Rovsing, Marie Louise; Lindekaer, A L

    2012-01-01

    Several potential problems can arise from airway management in morbidly obese patients, including difficult mask ventilation and difficult intubation. We hypothesised that endotracheal intubation of morbidly obese patients would be more rapid using the GlideScope(®) (GS) (Verathon Inc Corporate...

  15. [The Morbidity Compression Hypothesis and its Alternatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, S

    2015-06-01

    Fries' hypothesis of morbidity compression asserts that the length of lifetime spent in states of chronic disease and disability is decreasing. This can be explained by improved living and working conditions and by successful primary prevention. Using the available studies on morbidity compression it is examined whether the lengths of periods spent in states of morbidity have changed in the last decades. For multimorbidity, chronic diseases, cognitive impairment, and for subjective health the developments are in favour of the morbidity compression hypothesis. The conclusions are nevertheless dependent on the type of health impairment considered. There is evidence that morbidity compression has taken place in the last decades. Depending on the disease, morbidity expansion and dynamic equilibrium may also have occurred. A comprehensive assessment of the development of morbidities is only possible if more diseases are considered. In addition, there is evidence that outside of Europe and the USA morbidity patterns may also develop in other directions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Severe morbidity after antiretroviral (ART) initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abo, Yao; Zannou Djimon, Marcel; Messou, Eugène

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The causes of severe morbidity in health facilities implementing Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) programmes are poorly documented in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to describe severe morbidity among HIV-infected patients after ART initiation, based on data from an active surveillance...... d'Ivoire and one in Cotonou, Benin. Among HIV-infected adults receiving ART, events were recorded using a standardized form. A simple case-definition of severe morbidity (death, hospitalization, fever>38°5C, Karnofsky index... this study. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the ongoing importance of conventional infectious diseases among severe morbid events occurring in patients on ART in ambulatory HIV care facilities in West Africa. Meanwhile, additional studies are needed due to the undiagnosed aspect of severe morbidity...

  17. Self-reported skin morbidity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Zarchi, Kian; Ellervik, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Skin diseases are thought to be common in the general population. In 2004, a cross-sectional study in Norway, using a validated questionnaire for 18,770 individuals, revealed a high prevalence of skin diseases in the general population. To describe the prevalence of self-reported skin morbidities...... questionnaire. In total, 17.2% self-reported skin complaints. The most prominent self-reported skin complaint was itch with an overall prevalence of 6.5%. The skin morbidity most influenced by age was pimples. There was a uniform pattern showing fewer skin complaints with increasing education. Women reported...... skin morbidities more frequently than men. Participants in employment reported fewer skin morbidities compared to unemployed participants. Skin morbidities in Denmark are common, and the distribution of prevalence estimates in the Danish population parallel those of the Norwegian population, although...

  18. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  19. Psychological treatment of women with psychological complaints after pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, D.M.; Swinkels, P.; de Vries, J.I.

    2009-01-01

    Aim. Pre-eclampsia (PE), eclampsia (E) and/or hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome cause major perinatal and maternal morbidity, mortality and have extensive psychosocial impact. The aim of this study is to describe psychological consequences, interventions and

  20. Social phobia and quality of life in morbidly obese patients before and after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirijello, Antonio; D'Angelo, Cristina; Iaconelli, Amerigo; Capristo, Esmeralda; Ferrulli, Anna; Leccesi, Laura; Cossari, Anthony; Landolfi, Raffaele; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Morbidly obesity is characterized by physical and psychological comorbidities which are associated with reduced quality of life. Bariatric surgery has been linked to a reduction of psychopathology other than to a reduction of weight and improvement in physical functioning. Aim of the present study was to compare psychological features of two groups of morbidly obese patients, before and after bariatric surgery, assessing social phobia and quality of life. A total of 46 morbidly obese patients were enrolled in the study. Of them, 20 were waiting for bilio-pancreatic diversion (group A), while 26 had already undergone surgical procedure (group B). Psychometric evaluation assessed social phobia, fear for the body-shape and quality of life, using appropriate psychometric tests. The percentage of patients showing social phobia was significantly higher compared to a sample of healthy controls (p=0.004), both in group A (p=0.003) and in group B (p=0.029). No differences in percentage of patients affected by social phobia were found between groups. A significantly higher percentage of patients affected by distress about the body (pphobia in a population of morbidly obese patients, both before and after surgery. A general reduction of quality of life was also observed, with a partial improvement after surgery. Future studies are needed to clarify the relationship between social phobia and quality of life in surgically-treated morbidly obese patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Theory-informed design of values clarification methods: a cognitive psychological perspective on patient health-related decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Arwen H; de Vries, Marieke; Kunneman, Marleen; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Feldman-Stewart, Deb

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare decisions, particularly those involving weighing benefits and harms that may significantly affect quality and/or length of life, should reflect patients' preferences. To support patients in making choices, patient decision aids and values clarification methods (VCM) in particular have been developed. VCM intend to help patients to determine the aspects of the choices that are important to their selection of a preferred option. Several types of VCM exist. However, they are often designed without clear reference to theory, which makes it difficult for their development to be systematic and internally coherent. Our goal was to provide theory-informed recommendations for the design of VCM. Process theories of decision making specify components of decision processes, thus, identify particular processes that VCM could aim to facilitate. We conducted a review of the MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases and of references to theories included in retrieved papers, to identify process theories of decision making. We selected a theory if (a) it fulfilled criteria for a process theory; (b) provided a coherent description of the whole process of decision making; and (c) empirical evidence supports at least some of its postulates. Four theories met our criteria: Image Theory, Differentiation and Consolidation theory, Parallel Constraint Satisfaction theory, and Fuzzy-trace Theory. Based on these, we propose that VCM should: help optimize mental representations; encourage considering all potentially appropriate options; delay selection of an initially favoured option; facilitate the retrieval of relevant values from memory; facilitate the comparison of options and their attributes; and offer time to decide. In conclusion, our theory-based design recommendations are explicit and transparent, providing an opportunity to test each in a systematic manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychologically Motivated Text Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Shutova, Ekaterina; Lichtenstein, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Natural language processing techniques are increasingly applied to identify social trends and predict behavior based on large text collections. Existing methods typically rely on surface lexical and syntactic information. Yet, research in psychology shows that patterns of human conceptualisation, such as metaphorical framing, are reliable predictors of human expectations and decisions. In this paper, we present a method to learn patterns of metaphorical framing from large text collections, us...

  3. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2018-01-01

    of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...

  4. [Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in adolescents with morbid obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Zohar; Karplus, Gideon; Hanukoglu, Aaron; Abiri, Shirli; Levy, Anat; Serour, Francis

    2011-10-01

    Morbid obesity has become a significant health problem for the pediatric population. The medical impact of obesity in youth is determinant. Conservative methods for weight loss are disappointing and therefore, bariatric surgery should be considered. To present the experience of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in adolescents with morbid obesity, treated by the pediatric multi-disciplinary obesity clinic. All patients (n=7, all female) participated in a weight loss program for at least 6 months without success. At referral, the mean age was 16.2 years (range 13.8 - 18 years), mean body mass index (BMI in kg/m2) was 44.4 (range 38.9-55.2). All suffered from various co-morbidities of obesity: type 2 diabetes, insulin treated (n=1), hypertension (n=5), fatty liver (n=2), obstructive sleep apnea (n=2) and pseudotumor cerebri (n=1). There were no intra- or postoperative complications. After a mean follow-up of 15.1 months (range 5-25 months), all patients but one had reduced BMI (mean BMI of 32.55). In all subjects who lost weight, remission or improvement of the co-morbidities was noted. In this study, with a mean follow-up of 15.1 months, LSG was proven to be a safe and effective option of bariatric surgery in adolescents, resulting in a significant weight loss and remission or improvement of co-morbidities. We suggest that LSG might be considered as a single intervention for morbid obesity in adolescents. Long-term studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of LSG and other bariatric surgeries in adolescents.

  5. Co-morbid depression is associated with poor work outcomes in persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD: A large, nationally representative survey in the Australian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neil Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-morbid major depressive disorder (MDD and cardiovascular disease (CVD is associated with poor clinical and psychological outcomes. However, the full extent of the burden of, and interaction between, this co-morbidity on important vocational outcomes remains less clear, particularly at the population level. We examine the association of co-morbid MDD with work outcomes in persons with and without CVD. Methods This study utilised cross-sectional, population-based data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (n = 8841 to compare work outcomes of individuals with diagnostically-defined MDD and CVD, MDD but not CVD, CVD but not MDD, with a reference group of "healthy" Australians. Workforce participation was defined as being in full- or part-time employment. Work functioning was measured using a WHO Disability Assessment Schedule item. Absenteeism was assessed using the 'days out of role' item. Results Of the four groups, those with co-morbid MDD and CVD were least likely to report workforce participation (adj OR:0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.6. Those with MDD only (adj OR:0.8, 95% CI:0.7-0.9 and CVD only (adj OR:0.8, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9 also reported significantly reduced odds of participation. Employed individuals with co-morbid MDD and CVD were 8 times as likely to experience impairments in work functioning (adj OR:8.1, 95% CI: 3.8- 17.3 compared with the reference group. MDD was associated with a four-fold increase in impaired functioning. Further, individuals with co-morbid MDD and CVD reported greatest likelihood of workplace absenteeism (adj. OR:3.0, 95% CI: 1.4-6.6. Simultaneous exposure to MDD and CVD conferred an even greater likelihood of poorer work functioning. Conclusions Co-morbid MDD and CVD is associated with significantly poorer work outcomes. Specifically, the effects of these conditions on work functioning are synergistic. The development of specialised treatment programs for those with co-morbid

  6. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  7. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  8. Psychological factors and coronary heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Khayyam-Nekouei, Zohreh; Neshatdoost, Hamidtaher; Yousefy, Alireza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Manshaee, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although psychological factors play an important role in coronary heart diseases (CHD), it seems there is a need for more researches in this respect. The present study aimed to review psychological factors, including depression, anxiety and stress related to etiology and prognosis of CHD. METHODS This was a review on medical and psychological literatures, particularly in the years 1995-2012. RESULTS As protective factor or risk factor, psychological factors play an important role i...

  9. [Adolescent psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemerle, Sophie

    2005-05-31

    Adolescence is a transitional period dominated by puberty modifications. These modifications must come with a psychological work leading towards increased self containing from parents and also towards the choice of an own life orientation. In order to do so, adolescent must satisfy his needs to be able to change. This process will not run smoothly. The troubled adolescent will express himself with groans or acting out more than with words. This modus operandi is typical of that age. The general practitioner will be in the front line in being attentive to the adolescent and his parents needs.

  10. The relationship between self-reported alcohol intake and the morbidities managed by GPs in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenti Lisa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One in five Australians consume alcohol at risky or harmful levels. Most (85% attend a general practitioner at least once a year, giving opportunity for detecting and providing brief interventions for reducing alcohol-related harm. Historically, detection rates of problem drinking have been low in general practice, producing lower prevalence estimates of heavy drinking than expected from population surveys. Method The BEACH program collects data from 100 consecutive patient consultations with 1000 GPs annually. For 40 consecutive encounters, GPs ask adult patients three questions on alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C. This paper reports the problems managed and treatments provided at encounters with heavy and non-heavy drinkers, grouped by their response to the 3rd question, and compares the two groups before and after standardisation for age and sex. Heavy drinking was defined as having 6 or more standard drinks at least once a week or more often. Results Heavy drinking was reported by 7.3% patients overall; more prevalent among men (13.8% than women (3.9%; and among Indigenous patients (18.5%. Prevalence was highest in young adults (18–24 years(12.7% and decreased with age. Patients from a non-English speaking background were less likely to be heavy drinkers. Heavy drinkers had more problems managed at encounters, more chronic problems, physical injuries and psychological problems (particularly depression managed than non-heavy drinkers. They were less likely to have respiratory complaints, ischaemic heart disease or diabetes managed. Conclusion Heavy drinkers are more likely than non- or light drinkers to see their GP for management of chronic problems, psychological problems and physical injuries. However, the wide range of morbidity managed in heavy drinkers means that relying on clinical impression alone to detect this group will not suffice and should be augmented with routine screening. Given the pressures of general

  11. Measuring psychological consequences of screening: adaptation of the psychological consequences questionnaire into Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsburger, A. J.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; van As, E.; Cockburn, J.; de Koning, H. J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychometric properties of a Dutch adaptation of an originally Australian instrument measuring the psychological impact of breast cancer screening. METHODS: The three subscales (emotional, physical, social) of the Psychological Consequences Questionnaire (PCQ) underwent

  12. Health, wealth, and culture as predominant factors in psychosocial morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesdorffer, Dale C; Lee, Philip

    2009-06-01

    Depression is the most common psychological morbidity in epilepsy, yet this comorbidity is not well understood. Possible explanations for this comorbidity include recurrence of premorbid depression, increased risk for severe epilepsy due to a history of depression, shared risk factors for depression and epilepsy, AED-induced depression in vulnerable individuals, and coping styles in the face of stressors linked to epilepsy. Preexisting vulnerability to depression may contribute to each of these explanations. Vulnerability may arise from the influence of common risk factors, family history of depression, a history of depression before initiation of relevant AEDs, or coping styles and may reflect allostatic load. These exposures may precede the occurrence of epilepsy or follow the onset of epilepsy, in both cases increasing the risk for depression in prevalent epilepsy. Their careful evaluation is vital to identifying people at greatest risk for depression in epilepsy and for informing interventions to prevent the occurrence of this disabling epilepsy comorbidity.

  13. Psychology of a leader’s managerial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Romanovskyi, O. G.; Gren', L. M.; Knysh, A. Ye.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial aid deals with the subject, functions and principles, psychological laws of a leader’s managerial activity, leadership and management, a leader’s role in managerial activity, methods of psychological influence in management systems, individual-and-psychological peculiarities of leader’s personality and his/her role in improving a collective’s social-and-psychological and moral-and psychological climate. For students of all specialities studying psychology course of a leader’s ma...

  14. Morbidity and mortality of childhood- and adolescent-onset epilepsy: A controlled national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Pickering, Line; Christensen, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Epilepsy is associated with significant morbidities and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the 30-year morbidities and mortality in a national group of patients after a first diagnosis of epilepsy. Methods: From the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR), in total, 3123 patients with epilep...

  15. Estimating morbidity rates from electronic medical records in general practice. Evaluation of a grouping system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermans, M.C.J.; Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H. de; Zielhuis, G.A.; Robbe, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, we evaluated the internal validity of EPICON, an application for grouping ICPC-coded diagnoses from electronic medical records into episodes of care. These episodes are used to estimate morbidity rates in general practice. METHODS: Morbidity rates based on EPICON were

  16. Prenatal prediction of neonatal morbidity in survivors with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a multicenter study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jani, J.C.; Benachi, A.; Nicolaides, K.H.; Allegaert, K.; Gratacos, E.; Mazkereth, R.; Matis, J.; Tibboel, D.; Heyst, A.F.J. van; Storme, L.; Rousseau, V.; Greenough, A.; Deprest, J.A.; Eggink, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the value of the observed to expected fetal lung area to head circumference ratio (o/e LHR) and liver position in the prediction of neonatal morbidity in survivors with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). METHODS: Neonatal morbidity was recorded in 100 consecutive cases

  17. Measuring morbidity of children in the community : a comparison of interview and diary data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnzeels, MA; Foets, M; van der Wouden, JC; Prins, A; van den Heuvel, WJA

    Background Little is known about the validity of estimates of morbidity experienced at home. Methods In the Dutch National Survey of Morbidity and Interventions in General Practice mothers of 1630 children answered a health interview and kept a health diary for 3 weeks (only the first 2 weeks were

  18. Measuring morbidity of children in the community: a comparison of interview and diary data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnzeels, M.A.; Foets, M.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Prins, A.; Heuvel, W.J.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    Background: little is known about the validity of estimates of morbidity experienced at home. Methods: In the Dutch National Survey of Morbidity and Interventions in General practice mothers of 1630 children answered a health interview and kept a health diary for 3 weeks (only the first 2 weeks were

  19. Measuring morbidity of children in the community: a comparison of interview and diary data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Bruijnzeels (Marc); M.M.E. Foets (Marleen); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans); A. Prins (Ad); W.J. van den Heuvel

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Little is known about the validity of estimates of morbidity experienced at home. METHODS: In the Dutch National Survey of Morbidity and Interventions in General Practice mothers of 1630 children answered a health interview and kept a health

  20. Differences in self reported morbidity by educational level: a comparison of 11 western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavelaars, A. E.; Kunst, A. E.; Geurts, J. J.; Crialesi, R.; Grötvedt, L.; Helmert, U.; Lahelma, E.; Lundberg, O.; Matheson, J.; Mielck, A.; Mizrahi, A.; Rasmussen, N. K.; Regidor, E.; Spuhler, T.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess whether there are variations between 11 Western European countries with respect to the size of differences in self reported morbidity between people with high and low educational levels. DESIGN AND METHODS: National representative data on morbidity by educational level

  1. [Psychological aspects of immunotherapies in the treatment of malignant melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Péter; Pánczél, Gitta; Melegh, Krisztina; Balatoni, Tímea; Pörneczy, Edit; Lõrincz, Lenke; Czirbesz, Kata; Gorka, Eszter; Liszkay, Gabriella

    2016-03-02

    Psychological problems may arise in connection with oncomedical treatments in three ways: 1. acute and/or 2. chronic ways, as well as 3. co-morbid psychiatric diseases that already exist must also be taken into account. Immunotherapies have the most common and also clinically relevant psychological side effects. Fatigue, anhedonia, social isolation, psychomotor slowness is reported during treatment. Anti-CTLA-4 antibody (ipilimumab) immunotherapy can present one of the most modern opportunities for adequate treatment for patients having distant metastasis or unresectable tumour. In relation to immunotherapies, acute psychological side effects (acute stress) emerging during treatments develop in a way that can mostly be linked to environmental factors, e.g. notification of diagnosis, hospitalisation, progression, deterioration in quality of life, imminent dates of control. Crisis is a temporary and threatening condition that endangers psychological balance. In such conditions, enhanced psychological vulnerability must be taken into account and doctors play a key role in the rapid recognition of the condition. Chronic psychological problems, which may arise from the depressogenic effect of the applied treatment or originated from a pre-melanoma psychiatric condition, may exceed the diagnostic and psychotherapeutic competences of a clinical psychologist. Even in case of a well-defined depressogenic biological mechanism such as the activation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine pathway, positive environmental effects can reduce symptoms and thus increase compliance. Side effects can be treated successfully using psychotherapeutic methods and/or psychiatric medicines. The application of routinely used complex psychosocial screening packages can provide the easiest method to identify worsening psychological condition during immunotherapy and give rapid feedback to the oncologist and the patient. Team work is of particular importance in a situation like this as it requires

  2. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, F; Heitmann, B L

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...... on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after...

  3. The psychological science of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth; Humphreys, Keith

    2007-03-01

    To discuss the contributions and future course of the psychological science of addiction. The psychology of addiction includes a tremendous range of scientific activity, from the basic experimental laboratory through increasingly broad relational contexts, including patient-practitioner interactions, families, social networks, institutional settings, economics and culture. Some of the contributions discussed here include applications of behavioral principles, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and the development and evaluation of addiction treatment. Psychology has at times been guilty of proliferating theories with relatively little pruning, and of overemphasizing intrapersonal explanations for human behavior. However, at its best, defined as the science of the individual in context, psychology is an integrated discipline using diverse methods well-suited to capture the multi-dimensional nature of addictive behavior. Psychology has a unique ability to integrate basic experimental and applied clinical science and to apply the knowledge gained from multiple levels of analysis to the pragmatic goal of reducing the prevalence of addiction.

  4. A Systematic Review of Psychological Interventions for Adult and Pediatric Patients with Vocal Cord Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Guglani, Loveleen; Atkinson, Sarah; Hosanagar, Avinash; Guglani, Lokesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vocal Cord Dysfunction (VCD) or Paradoxical Vocal Fold Motion (PVFM) is a functional disorder of the vocal cords that requires multidisciplinary treatment. Besides relaxation techniques, the use of psychological interventions can help treat the underlying psychological co-morbidities. There is currently no literature that examines the effectiveness of psychological interventions for VCD/PVFM. Objectives: To review the evidence for psychological interventions used for the treatment...

  5. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  6. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  7. Overpaying morbidity adjusters in risk equalization models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. van Kleef (Richard); R.C.J.A. van Vliet (René); W.P.M.M. van de Ven (Wynand)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMost competitive social health insurance markets include risk equalization to compensate insurers for predictable variation in healthcare expenses. Empirical literature shows that even the most sophisticated risk equalization models—with advanced morbidity adjusters—substantially

  8. Smoking and the compression of morbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Nusselder (Wilma); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); P.J. Marang-van de Mheen; H. van de Mheen (Dike); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To examine whether eliminating smoking will lead to a reduction in the number of years lived with disability (that is, absolute compression of morbidity). DESIGN: Multistate life table calculations based on the longitudinal GLOBE study (the

  9. Adolescent Obesity: its correlates and associated morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Sain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is currently one of the major public health problems, in both developed and developing countries. Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Increasing rates of childhood obesity and more sedentary lifestyles has led to an age shift in metabolic syndrome which now occurs at an earlier age. Thus, the present study was conducted to get an idea about the occurrence of obesity among adolescent school children, risk factors associated with the condition and the related morbidity among them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in two higher secondary government girl schools with the help of a pre- designed and pre-tested questionnaire. RESULTS: Out of 245 students 16.73% were overweight and 6.54% were obese. Among overweight students, 59.65% exercised less than 4 hours a week, 61.4% watched TV ≥ 4 hours per week, 87.72% consumed junk food ≥ 4 days per week and 45.61% skipped meals. Puberty related menstrual irregularities, hypothyroidism, acne and stria were more commonly found in overweight students CONCLUSION: The rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity accompanied by unhealthy lifestyle habits among adolescents is one of the most challenging dilemmas of public health importance.

  10. Violence on television. Unpleasant, interesting or morbid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Fernández Villanueva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many research studies have contributed to the study of the effects of violence on TV, but very few of them have paid attention to the reasons why violence arouses interest or rejection among viewers. The objective of this article is to analyse the discourses, arguments and moral criteria used by the audience to justify their interest or disinterest in TV violence. Methods: The study is based on 16 focus groups carried out in Madrid and segmented by sex, age and education level. Results: The study indicates that audience’s attitudes towards representations of violence on TV range from rejection to morbid interest, including intolerance, lack of interest and self-protection. These attitudes vary depending on whether the representations of violence are real or fictional. Conclusions: The results contradict the popular idea that TV audiences are generally attracted to the TV representations of violence and indicate that this “emotional interest” in violence is actually accompanied by an interest in learning about this phenomenon and developing ethical reflections.

  11. What are the physical and psychological health effects of suicide bereavement on family members? Protocol for an observational and interview mixed-methods study in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, Ailbhe; Larkin, Celine; Corcoran, Paul; Matvienko-Sikar, Karen; Arensman, Ella

    2017-03-30

    Research indicates that experiencing the suicide of a relative can have a significant impact on family members' emotional health. However, research incorporating the impact of suicide bereavement on family members' physical health is sparse. This paper details the protocol for a mixed-methods study of suicide-bereaved family members. The study will primarily examine the physical and mental health needs of those bereaved by suicide. A secondary objective of the study is to describe the support service needs of family members bereaved by suicide. A mixed-methods approach, using semistructured interviews and self-report questionnaires, will be used. Interviews will be conducted with a group of 15-20 relatives who experienced suicide bereavement. This protocol will follow the COREQ checklist criteria for the reporting of qualitative research interviews. Thematic analysis will be used to examine experiences and impact of bereavement on psychological and physical health. Self-report quantitative data on well-being will be analysed using descriptive statistics. Ethical approval to conduct this study has been granted from the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Cork Teaching Hospitals. Pseudonyms will be given to participants to protect anonymity. It will be explained to participants that participation in the study is voluntary and they have to right to withdraw at any time. The findings of this research will be disseminated to regional, national and international audiences through publication in peer-reviewed international journals and presentations at scientific conferences. This research also forms part of a PhD thesis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Profile of Co-morbidities in the Obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salati SA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the profile of co-morbidities in obese patients reporting for bariatric surgical procedures. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at the Bariatric Surgery Unit of Department of Surgery of the College of Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. The records of all the obese patients (with Body Mass Index greater than 30, evaluated in the department over the period of two years from Jan 2012 to Dec 2014, were studied and co-morbidities were sought in all subjects. Results: Of the 172 subjects, 76.2% (n=131 were female and 23.8% (n=41 male. The age ranged from 17–49 years (Mean 29.9 years; Mode 28 years. The weight ranged from 82 kg–146kg and BMI ranged from 33–54 (mean BMI 44.7 kg/m. Out of the total of 172 patients, 96 (56 % including 72 females and 24 males had one or more co-morbidities. Conclusion: A wide range of co-morbidities occur in obese patients that have the potential to decrease the quality of life and the life span.

  13. Psychological Stressors and Burden of Medical Conditions in Older Adults: A Psychosomatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n  "nObjective: "nIn geriatric practice, the impact of psychological distress on health status has been undermined due to ageism, atypical presentation and less tendency to report negative affect among elderly people. Few studies have examined the impact of psychological stressors on medical burden in older adults. The current study has investigated the correlation of psychological distress and burden of medical conditions in a sample of older people .     "n  "n  "nMethod: A convenient study sample of 120 elderly subjects was recruited from the places where there was greater chance for the elderly people to attend. Data were collected by a trained research assistant using perceived stress scale, cumulative illness rating scale, geriatric depressive scale and a demographic questionnaire.     "n  "n  "nResults: "nOur participants perceived more level of stress than the average for their age. In the current study, the burden of medical condition was significantly correlated with the level of perceived stress(r = .197, p = .044. Moreover, in regression analysis, perceived stress was the strongest predictor for physical health morbidity (R2 =.049, significant f= .03.     "n  "n  "nConclusions: "nThe result of this study suggested that the psychological stressors contribute to poor health outcome in older adults ; the area that is usually overlooked due to ageism and its physiological related changes. The medical practitioners should consider the psychological distress as a part of etiological factors implicating in health morbidity among their aged patients.

  14. Psychological sequelae of sexual abuse in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, P D

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out in one practice to determine the relationship between sexual abuse in childhood and subsequent psychological morbidity. Out of 418 women who replied (62% response rate), 60 (14%) admitted experiencing some form of sexual abuse as a child. Twenty of these (33%) were found to have a record of some form of psychological problem in adult life, compared with 14% of a sample of the non-abused respondents and 20% of the non-respondents. In particular, 54% of 13...

  15. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A NIGERIAN NEUROLOGY CLINIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-28

    May 28, 2013 ... medication effects and psychological reactions to the illness. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a good example of a disabling neurological disorder and it is now apparent that the underlying neurodegenerative disorder is a major cause of psychiatric disturbances even though the psychological reactions to the ...

  16. Premenstrual Syndrome and Psychiatric Co-morbidities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Taghizadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n    "nObjective: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is a common disorder with prevalence rate of approximately 30%; its concurrence with psychiatric symptoms will make it a disabling condition that resists usual treatment. Objective: This study was enrolled to assess the co-morbidity of PMS and psychiatric disorders in a sample of girls with PMS compared to those without PMS. "n    "nMaterial and method : This study was conducted through a cross sectional method with 362 participants (166 with PMS and 196 healthy girls who were selected randomly and completed the demographic questionnaire, premenstrual syndrome symptom daily record scale and the symptom checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R. "n    "nResult: According to the result of the independent t test, the mean score of all the psychiatric symptoms in the PMS group was significantly higher than those in healthy group (P<0.001. According to SCL-90-R measurement, most of the participants in the PMS group were categorized as extremely sick for somatization (44% ,obsessive-compulsive (59%, depression (58.4%, anxiety (64.5%, hostility (47% and psychoticism (69.3%; most of the participants were diagnosed as having borderline severity of disorders for interpersonal sensitivity (44.6% and paranoid (42.8% and most of the respondents with PMS (46.4% were diagnosed as healthy only for phobic anxiety. "n    "nConclusion: There is a considerable relationship between PMS and different psychiatric symptoms that can complicate the diagnosis of PMS and its treatment for the health care providers. Therefore, all health care providers who are in contact with women in their reproductive age should be sensitive to mental health status in women with PMS.

  17. Polycultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-03

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.

  18. Pharmacological management of co-morbid conditions at the end of life: is less more?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLean, S

    2013-03-01

    Co-morbid conditions (CMCs) are present in over half of patients with cancer over 50 years of age. As life-limiting illnesses progress, the benefits and burdens of treatments for CMCs become unclear. Relevant issues include physiological changes in advanced illness, time-to-benefit of medications, burden of medications, and psychological impact of discontinuing medications. Optimal prescribing is unclear due to lack of evidence.

  19. Congenital malformations in neonates: analysis of morbidity and associated factors

    OpenAIRE

    Rosana Alves de Melo; Flávia Emília Cavalcante Valença Fernandes; Ana Kariny Costa Araújo; Nadja Maria dos Santos; Maria Elda Alves de Lacerda Campos; Priscylla Helena Alencar Falcão Sobral; Vitória de Barros Siqueira; Roseane da Silva Lemos; Saulo Bezerra Xavier; Alana Mirelle Coelho Leite; Rachel Mola; Luciana Pessoa Maciel; Roberto Luis Pereira dos Santos; Lusineide Carmo Andrade de Lacerda; Gerlene Grudka Lira

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the neonatal morbidity due to congenital malformations in the city of Petrolina-PE, from 2008 to 2013. Methods: A descriptive study with data from the Information System on Live Births (Sinasc). The analyzes were carried out through frequency distribution and measures of central tendency and dispersion. The associations were tested by the Pearson and Kruskal Wallis chi-square tests. Significance was set at 5% and 95% confidence. Results: 436 cases of congenita...

  20. A non-pharmacological intervention to manage behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and reduce caregiver distress: Design and methods of project ACT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N Gitlin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Laura N Gitlin1, Laraine Winter1, Marie P Dennis1, Walter W Hauck21Center for Applied Research on Aging and Health (CARAH, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Formely Division of Biostatistics, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Currently Sycamore Consulting, LLC New Hope, PA, USA; 3Funded by the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute on Nursing Research (Grant # R01 AG22254. Clinical trial registration #NCT00259480.Abstract: Project ACT is a randomized controlled trial designed to test the effectiveness of a non-pharmacological home-based intervention to reduce behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD and caregiver distress. The study targets 272 stressed racially diverse family caregivers providing in-home care to persons with moderate stage dementia with one or more behavioral disturbances. All participants are interviewed at baseline, 4-months (main trial endpoint, and 6-months (maintenance. The four-month intervention involves up to 13 visits from an occupational therapist who works with families to problem-solve potential triggers (communication style, environmental clutter contributing to behaviors, and instruct in strategies to reduce caregiver stress and manage targeted behaviors. To rule out infection or other potential medical contributors to behaviors, a nurse obtains blood and urine samples from the dementia patient, and conducts a medication review. Participants in the no-treatment control group are offered the nurse arm and one in-home session following trial completion at 6-months. This paper describes the research methods, theoretical and clinical aspects of this multi-component, targeted psycho-social treatment approach, and the measures used to evaluate quality of life improvements for persons with dementia and their families.Keywords: family caregiving, environmental modification, home care, occupational

  1. Psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients is being studied all over the world. There is paucity of Indian literature particularly in asymptomatic HIV individuals. Aim: The aim of the following study is to establish the prevalence and the determinants of psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic HIV patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess psychiatric morbidity as per ICD-10 dacryocystorhinostomy criteria in 100 consecutive asymptomatic seropositive HIV patients and an equal number of age, sex, education, economic and marital status matched HIV seronegative control. All subjects were assessed with the general health questionnaire (GHQ, mini mental status examination, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS and sensation seeking scale (SSS and the scores were analyzed statistically. Results: Asymptomatic HIV positive patients had significantly higher GHQ caseness and depression but not anxiety on HADS as compared to HIV seronegative controls. On SSS asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects showed significant higher scores in thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking and boredom susceptibility as compared to controls. HIV seropositive patients had significantly higher incidence of total psychiatric morbidity. Among the individual disorders, alcohol dependence syndrome, sexual dysfunction and adjustment disorder were significantly increased compared with HIV seronegative controls. Conclusion: Psychiatric morbidity is higher in asymptomatic HIV patients when compared to HIV seronegative controls. Among the individual disorders, alcohol dependence syndrome, sexual dysfunction and adjustment disorder were significantly increased compared with HIV seronegative controls. High sensation seeking and substance abuse found in HIV seropositive patients may play a vital role in engaging in high-risk behavior resulting in this dreaded illness.

  2. The psychological profile of bariatric patients with and without type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Cathrine L; Smith, Evelyn; Lund, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some bariatric patients are referred for surgery with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes while others are referred without co-morbid diabetes, but psychological differences between patients with and without type 2 diabetes undergoing bariatric surgery have not yet been investigated....... The objective of this study was to present the baseline results of the longitudinal GASMITO-PSYC study, and to evaluate the psychological differences between bariatric patients with and without type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 129 Roux-en- Y gastric bypass patients were recruited from the bariatric clinic...... at a hospital in the suburban Copenhagen area. Participants answered questionnaires concerning personality, mental symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), body image, lifestyle, and physical health including diabetes status on average 11 weeks before surgery. Questionnaires were either sent...

  3. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ANTARCTIC LIVING,

    Science.gov (United States)

    POLAR REGIONS, ECOLOGY), (*ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), POLAR REGIONS), (*NAVAL PERSONNEL, ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY )), LEADERSHIP, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , EMOTIONS , PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), ACCLIMATIZATION, STRESS( PSYCHOLOGY )

  4. Abdominal wall cellulitis in the morbidly obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsdottir, Bjorg; Tleyjeh, Imad M; Baddour, Larry M

    2005-01-01

    Currently, almost two-thirds of the US population is either overweight or obese. In addition to non-infectious complications, obesity predisposes to infections, including lower extremity cellulitis. Although cases of abdominal wall cellulitis in the morbidly obese occur, to date there has been no formal address of this syndrome in the literature. We therefore reviewed our clinical experience of abdominal wall cellulitis complicating morbid obesity. A retrospective database search was performed to identify patients with both cellulitis and morbid obesity who were seen at the Mayo Clinic between January 1998 and August 2003. Clinical and microbiologic data were collected for these patients. Of the 260 cases of cellulitis identified, 24 (9.2%) had morbid obesity and abdominal wall cellulitis. The mean age of the 24 patients was 47 (range 22-70) y and over two-thirds of them were females. Their mean body mass index (BMI) was 62.3 (range 39.6-108.6). 17 (70.8%) had a remote history of abdominal surgery. 16 patients required 23 hospitalizations. Five patients developed cellulitis complications and 7 (29.1%) patients had recurrent bouts of cellulitis during the study period. Abdominal wall cellulitis is a unique infectious complication in patients with morbid obesity. Further study is needed to better define the pathogenesis of this illness to develop strategies in treatment and prevention.

  5. Customised birthweight standards accurately predict perinatal morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras, Francesc; Figueras, Josep; Meler, Eva; Eixarch, Elisenda; Coll, Oriol; Gratacos, Eduard; Gardosi, Jason; Carbonell, Xavier

    2007-07-01

    Fetal growth restriction is associated with adverse perinatal outcome but is often not recognised antenatally, and low birthweight centiles based on population norms are used as a proxy instead. This study compared the association between neonatal morbidity and fetal growth status at birth as determined by customised birthweight centiles and currently used centiles based on population standards. Retrospective cohort study. Referral hospital, Barcelona, Spain. A cohort of 13 661 non-malformed singleton deliveries. Both population-based and customised standards for birth weight were applied to the study cohort. Customised weight centiles were calculated by adjusting for maternal height, booking weight, parity, ethnic origin, gestational age at delivery and fetal sex. Newborn morbidity and perinatal death. The association between smallness for gestational age (SGA) and perinatal morbidity was stronger when birthweight limits were customised, and resulted in an additional 4.1% (n=565) neonates being classified as SGA. Compared with non-SGA neonates, this newly identified group had an increased risk of perinatal mortality (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.6 to 6.2), neurological morbidity (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.7 to 6.1) and non-neurological morbidity (OR 8; 95% CI 4.8 to 13.6). Customised standards improve the prediction of adverse neonatal outcome. The association between SGA and adverse outcome is independent of the gestational age at delivery.

  6. Factors Affecting Physical and Psychiatric Morbidity in Civilian Extremity Injuries of Firearms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Aslan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim: Shoutgun injuries are one of the most important social and medical problems of our country. Shotguns produce a wide variety of injuries, ranging from minor pellet wounds to major blast injuries and the extremities are the most commonly injured areas. Although ballistic and clinical differences exist, shotgun injuries are generally classified together with pistol injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal and neurovascular system injuries and to determine the the effects of physical and psychiatric morbidity in pistol bullet and shotgun pellet injuries. Patients and method: The records of 46 patients treated between January 2009-January 2011 with firearm injuries and who were followed for one year were reviewed. Injuries were classified according to the classification of Sherman. Trauma severity was evaluated with the severity of the injury score (ISS. Anxiety and depression scores were evaluated with Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD scale. All patients were evaluated with Daily Living Activities (ADL score in terms of quality of life and activities. Results: 27 of 46 patients had shotgun injuries and 19 of 46 had revolver injuries. The mean age was 34.70 ± 14.71, males (82.6% were commonly injured and lower limb injuries (52.2% were the most common injuries. Patients (58.7% were commonly injured wih shotgun and type 3 was the most common injury type (22/46. ISS, HAD and ADL scores were not found significantly different between shotgun and pistol groups in terms of age, gender, type of injury, morbidity, mortality, complications, duration of hospitalization and bone fractures, (p> 0.05. However, there were not any significant difference in HAD scores according to the type of injury; ISS (p = 0.016 and ADL (p = 0.025 scores were significantly different between injury types. Discussion: This study revealed no significant difference between the effects of different weapons on

  7. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  8. Co-morbidities in severe asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste; Menzies-Gow, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Patients with severe asthma represent a minority of the total asthma population, but carry a majority of the morbidity and healthcare costs. Achieving better asthma control in this group of patients is therefore of key importance. Systematic assessment of patients with possible severe asthma...... to identify treatment barriers and triggers of asthma symptoms, including co-morbidities, improves asthma control and reduces healthcare costs and is recommended by international guidelines on management of severe asthma. This review provides the clinician with an overview of the prevalence and clinical...... impact of the most common co-morbidities in severe asthma, including chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, allergic rhinitis, dysfunctional breathing, vocal cord dysfunction, anxiety and depression, obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD...

  9. Risk factors for psychiatric morbidity among bank workers in a northern city of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A D Yussuf

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidi- ty in bank workers in Ilorin, Nigeria, and the sociodemo- graphic and work-related factors that may be associated with poor psychological health. Method. This cross-sectional two-staged study conducted between March and July 1999 involved screening using the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30, a socio- demographic questionnaire, the Present State Examination (PSE schedule and diagnostic criteria from the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. Data source. Bank workers in the three local government areas (west, east, and south of Ilorin, a city in the middle belt of Nigeria. Data analysis. Data were analysed using EpiInfo version 6.0. Frequency distribution, cross tabulation, and chi-square analy- ses were obtained. The level of statistical significance was set at 5%. Result. Four hundred and thirty workers responded satisfactori- ly to the questionnaires (response rate 76%; 77 respondents (18% were GHQ-positive and therefore had psychiatric mor- bidity. There was a significant association between psychiatric morbidity and age, gender, number of children, belonging to a social club, workload, promotion, and job status. Conclusion. The implications of these findings are discussed and possible medical and administrative interventions advo- cated.

  10. A Preliminary Study of the Possible Role of Cannabinoid Receptor-1 (CNR1) Gene Polymorphisms in the Development of Morbid Obesity in Obese Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nilgün Çöl Araz; Muradiye Nacak; Sibel Oguzkan Balci; Sacide Pehlivan; Ayse Balat

    2015-01-01

    ...) gene polymorphisms in the development of morbid obesity in obese children. Method: The study was carried out with 48 morbidly obese (27 female/21 male) and 52 obese (28 female/24 male) children...

  11. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  12. Psychology's Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph; Simonsohn, Uri

    2018-01-04

    In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced. In describing how the renaissance has unfolded, we attempt to describe different points of view fairly but not neutrally, so as to identify the most promising paths forward. In so doing, we champion disclosure and preregistration, express skepticism about most statistical solutions to publication bias, take positions on the analysis and interpretation of replication failures, and contend that meta-analytical thinking increases the prevalence of false positives. Our general thesis is that the scientific practices of experimental psychologists have improved dramatically.

  13. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-01-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  14. Guidelines for postdoctoral training in rehabilitation psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiers, William; Hanson, Stephanie; Turner, Aaron P; Stucky, Kirk; Barisa, Mark; Brownsberger, Mary; Van Tubbergen, Marie; Ashman, Teresa; Kuemmel, Angela

    2012-11-01

    This article describes the methods and results of a national conference that was held to (1) develop consensus guidelines about the structure and process of rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training programs and (2) create a Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdoctoral Training Programs to promote training programs' abilities to implement the guidelines and to formally recognize programs in compliance with the guidelines. Forty-six conference participants were chosen to include important stakeholders in rehabilitation psychology, representatives of rehabilitation psychology training and practice communities, representatives of psychology accreditation and certification bodies, and persons involved in medical education practice and research. Consensus guidelines were developed for rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training program structure and process and for establishing the Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdoctoral Training Programs. The Conference developed aspirational guidelines for postdoctoral education and training programs in applied rehabilitation psychology and established a Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdoctoral Training Programs as a means of promoting their adoption by training programs. These efforts are designed to promote quality, consistency, and excellence in the education and training of rehabilitation psychology practitioners and to promote competence in their practice. It is hoped that these efforts will stimulate discussion, assist in the development of improved teaching and evaluation methods, lead to interesting research questions, and generally facilitate the continued systematic development of the profession of rehabilitation psychology. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Diabetes miles youth Australia : Methods and sample characteristics of a national survey of the psychological aspects of living with type 1 diabetes in Australian youth and their parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagger, V.; Trawley, S.; Hendrieckx, C.; Browne, J.L.; Cameron, F.; Pouwer, F.; Skinner, T.; Speight, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes is a complex and demanding condition, which places a substantial behavioural and psychological burden on young people and their families. Around one-third of adolescents with type 1 diabetes need mental health support. Parents of a child with type 1 diabetes are also at

  16. Intellectual disability and multiple co morbid psychiatric disorders in a child: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Priyanka; Bhatia, M S; Rathi, Anubhav

    2014-11-01

    Comorbid psychiatric Disorders are seen commonly in people with intellectual disability and in fact they are at greater risk for developing other health disorders. Most prevalent chronic health conditions in children with intellectual disability are epilepsy, cerebral palsy,anxiety disorders, sleep disorders and autism spectrum disorders. Co morbidities multiply the problem of people with intellectual impairment to a great extent and hence an accurate psychological assessment of multiple diagnoses is useful in detecting the specific underlying processes differentiating the co morbid syndrome and in planning an appropriate management and rehabilitation program. This case report is presented to emphasize the fact that though. It is common for intellectually disabled children to have other co-morbid psychiatric disorders, it is important to have accurate, suitable assessment and recording of every co-morbid disorder as it has its own implication in course and outcome of the disability in the child. A comprehensive management approach involving people from various spheres would be required to improve the quality of life and for reduction of burden of care giver.We describe a child of intellectual disability with multiple co morbidities.

  17. A study of psychiatric morbidity in patients of peptic ulcer diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagpal Singh Klair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among patients of peptic ulcer disease and to study the patients of peptic ulcer disease with psychiatric morbidity in comparison to patients of peptic ulcer disease without psychiatric morbidity on following variables: sociodemographic variables and attributes/risk factors of peptic ulcer disease. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of clinically proven acid peptic diseases and 30 cases of the control group were screened in department of General Medicine, outdoor as well as indoor patients. Instruments applied for the purpose of the study were Personal Bio-data Performa (Appendix-I, (SCL- 80 (Appendix-II, Hamilton rating scale for anxiety and depression, (P.S.L.E.; clinical diagnosis of psychiatric disorders was made as per ICD- 10 criteria. Data collected shall be subjected to statistical analysis. Results and Findings: The psychiatric morbidity was significantly (P10 years, compared to 23.80% in patients without psychiatric morbidity. Lastly, 48.27% of patients with psychiatric morbidity had significantly (P<0.01 stronger family history of acid peptic disease compared to 9.52% in patients without psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions: There is a significant relationship between the peptic ulcer disease and the various psychiatric morbidity factors as illustrated from the findings of this study.

  18. Ocular Morbidity among Children Attending Government and Private Schools of Kathmandu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Shrestha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children from the developing world are more prone to going blind from avoidable and preventable causes. In Nepal, children in private schools are reported to have a higher ocular morbidity than those in government schools, with myopia being the major cause of the morbidity. This study was designed to evaluate ocular morbidity in students from both types of school. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, comparative study among students from government and private schools of Kathmandu. Eye examination was carried out evaluating visual acuity, color vision, refractive status, binocular vision status, and anterior and posterior segment findings. Results: A total of 4,228 students from government and private schools were evaluated. The prevalence of ocular morbidity was 19.56 % with refractive error (11.9 % being the major cause of the morbidity, followed by strabismus and infective disorders. No signifi cant difference in the prevalence of ocular morbidity and refractive status was found in the students from government and private schools. Conclusions: A signifi cant number of children of school-going age have ocular morbidity with no signifi cant difference in the prevalence in the students from government and private schools. Research exploring the effect of various risk factors in the progression of myopia would be helpful to investigate the refractive status in children from these different types of schools. Keywords: Myopia, ocular morbidity, school Students

  19. Changing age patterns of morbidity vis-à-vis mortality in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Yadav, Suryakant

    2014-07-01

    The combined effects of decreased fertility and mortality coupled with increasing survivorship across most ages have been upsetting the levels and age patterns of morbidity and mortality in India. This study examined data from the National Sample Survey (NSS) and Sample Registration System (SRS) of India. The results reveal marked structural changes in the age patterns of morbidity and mortality. The analysis also tested whether morbidity contours are being compressed or expanded, connecting it with the ongoing processes of demographic and epidemiological transition. The Sullivan (1971) method was used to estimate the health ratio over three time periods to ascertain the expansion of morbidity. The results reveal an exceptional rise in the prevalence rate of chronic non-communicable diseases in ages 60 and above. The proportion of unhealthy years of the total life expectancy has increased more than before for all older age groups. Overall, the results confirm that an expansion of morbidity is in progress, with a heavier and cumulated concentration of morbidity in older ages. The expansion of morbidity hypothesis is validated for major categories of population: rural, urban, male and female. Older females bear a much heavier burden of chronic non-communicable diseases and are vulnerable to a higher proportion of unhealthy years. The age-structural shifts in morbidity and mortality signal the steady progress of epidemiological transition in India.

  20. Psychosocial sequelae of the 1989 Newcastle earthquake: II. Exposure and morbidity profiles during the first 2 years post-disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, V J; Lewin, T J; Webster, R A; Kenardy, J A; Hazell, P L; Carter, G L

    1997-01-01

    A sample of 1089 Australian adults was selected for the longitudinal component of the Quake Impact Study, a 2-year, four-phase investigation of the psychosocial effects of the 1989 Newcastle earthquake. Of these, 845 (78%) completed a survey 6 months post-disaster as well as one or more of the three follow-up surveys. The phase 1 survey was used to construct dimensional indices of self-reported exposure to threat the disruption and also to classify subjects by their membership of five 'at risk' groups (the injured; the displaced; owners of damaged small businesses; helpers in threat and non-threat situations). Psychological morbidity was assessed at each phase using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Psychological morbidity declined over time but tended to stabilize at about 12 months post-disaster for general morbidity (GHQ-12) and at about 18 months for trauma-related (IES) morbidity. Initial exposure to threat and/or disruption were significant predictors of psychological morbidity throughout the study and had superior predictive power to membership of the targeted 'at risk' groups. The degree of ongoing disruption and other life events since the earthquake were also significant predictors of morbidity. The injured reported the highest levels of distress, but there was a relative absence of morbidity among the helpers. Future disaster research should carefully assess the threat and disruption experiences of the survivors at the time of the event and monitor ongoing disruptions in the aftermath in order to target interventions more effectively.

  1. Responsive Social Psychologies to Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Galindo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we approach some clues of research that move at the interface between Social Psychology and Ethology, discussing responsive relationships with animals from the contributions of Vinciane Despret. We argue that to be apart of the emerging social psychology of aspects critical in Latin America after the 1970s crisis, ethology has become not to evolutionary social psychologists interested in the study of the agency not restricted to human. What practices can bring the Ethology for Social Psychologies? Which derive stories (reencounter between the animal studies in this field translated and placed under other questions by the Social Psychologies? From a body in movement, employed as psychosocial research method, we have testimony of production which is beyond survival through pairing elements and paired opposites that lead the body to resistance limits, the limits of the human borders.

  2. Toward a cogenetic cultural psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The dialogue between cultural psychology and phenomenological and semiotic philosophy seems to be extremely promising. I have tried to present some relevant aspects of this dialogue and to use them as cornerstones to elaborate a metatheoretical and epistemological discourse about the way of build......The dialogue between cultural psychology and phenomenological and semiotic philosophy seems to be extremely promising. I have tried to present some relevant aspects of this dialogue and to use them as cornerstones to elaborate a metatheoretical and epistemological discourse about the way...... to account for developmental processes must emerge from a triadic system, rather than following the procedures of a binary logic, in order to have any correspondence between concept building and phenomenological world in psychology. Then, I sketch an epistemological approach called method of complementary...... negation that could help cultural psychology to build more developmental abstract models of very concrete human phenomena....

  3. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A NIGERIAN NEUROLOGY CLINIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-28

    May 28, 2013 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 89 No. 2 February 2012. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A NIGERIAN NEUROLOGY CLINIC. P. O. Ajiboye, FWACP, Senior Lecturer/ Consultant Psychiatrist, Department of Behavioural Sciences, University of Ilorin/. University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara State, ...

  4. Cardiac morbidity risk and depression and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tully, Phillip J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Winefield, Helen R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine depression and anxiety disorders and their characteristic symptoms (anhedonia/low positive affect and anxious arousal, respectively), along with measures of state negative affect (NA) and Type D personality, in relation to cardiac surgery related morbidity. Pa...

  5. Co-Morbidity of Conditions among Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkfield, Alison J.; Graffam, J.; Meneilly, Sharn

    2009-01-01

    Eighty seven adult prisoners (58 males, 29 females) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and a questionnaire on current health in order to examine both the prevalence of co-morbid conditions and the relation of depression and anxiety to ill-health and prior substance use. High prevalence rates of…

  6. Risk factors for psychiatric morbidity of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pressure, family problems, unfulfilled social expectations, and job .... health. Sociodemographic characteristics and morbidity. (Table I). Age. The majority of respondents (N = 271, 67.4%) were between 30 and 44 years of age, with 70% of respondents with .... armed robbery, air and noise pollution, to overcrowding could.

  7. Postpartum maternal morbidity and mortality associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary postpartum haemorrhage occurred in 40% of the women. There was a case fatality rate of 4%. Conclusion: Retained placenta is a cause of postpartum maternal morbidity and mortality in Aba, south-eastern Nigeria. There is therefore a need to train birth attendants in the appropriate management of delivery and ...

  8. Life Satisfaction and Morbidity among Postmenopausal Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyry S Lukkala

    Full Text Available To investigate associations between morbidity and global life satisfaction in postmenopausal women taking into account type and number of diseases.A total of 11,084 women (age range 57-66 years from a population-based cohort of Finnish women (OSTPRE Study responded to a postal enquiry in 1999. Life satisfaction was measured with a 4-item scale. Self-reported diseases diagnosed by a physician and categorized according to ICD-10 main classes were used as a measure of morbidity. Enquiry data on health and lifestyle were used as covariates in the multivariate logistic models.Morbidity was strongly associated with life dissatisfaction. Every additional disease increased the risk of life dissatisfaction by 21.1% (p < .001. The risk of dissatisfaction was strongest among women with mental disorders (OR = 5.26; 95%CI 3.84-7.20 and neurological disorders (OR = 3.62; 95%CI 2.60-5.02 compared to the healthy (each p < .001. Smoking, physical inactivity and marital status were also associated with life dissatisfaction (each p < .001 but their introduction to the multivariate model did not attenuate the pattern of associations.Morbidity and life dissatisfaction have a disease-specific and dose-dependent relationship. Even if women with mental and neurological disorders have the highest risk for life dissatisfaction, monitoring life satisfaction among aging women regardless of disorders should be undertaken in order to intervene the joint adverse effects of poor health and poor well-being.

  9. Exploring Interdisciplinary Themes in Introductory Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Kristin A.; Bott, Jennifer P.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a method for helping introductory psychology students identify interdisciplinary connections among 5 social science disciplines. Pre- and posttest data assessed 359 undergraduates' understanding of psychology's relation to other fields. Results indicate the method is effective and provides one way for individual instructors to address…

  10. Gestalt Therapy: Its Inheritance from Gestalt Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yontef, Gary M.

    When adequately elaborated, the basic method of Gestalt therapy can be traced to the phenomenological field theory of Gestalt psychology. Gestalt therapy differs from Gestalt psychology not because of a difference in philosophy or method, but because of different contexts; the clinical context has different demands than those of basic research.…

  11. Psychological strain between nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Obročníková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to identify differences in perception of work (mental workload among nurses providing acute and chronic nursing care. Design: Study design is cross-sectional and descriptive. Methods: The sample of respondents consisted of 97 nurses working in departments Neurology, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit of the hospital St. James in Bardejov, University Hospital of L. Pasteur in Košice and University Hospital J. A. Reiman in Prešov. To measure psychological strain, Meister's questionnaire for neuropsychological strain was used. Results: Increased psychological strain was observed in nurses providing acute care versus nurses providing chronic care, particularly in job satisfaction, long-term tolerance, time constraints, high responsibility, nervousness, fatigue and satiety. In comparison with the population norm, nurses in acute care achieved significantly higher indicators of factor I (strain and gross score as nurses in neurological care. A statistically significant relationship between psychological stress and age of nurses working in anesthesiology and intensive care departments was confirmed. Nurses with long term practical experience are exposed to intense mental stress (especially in the areas of strain and monotony. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest the reality that variable qualities of work related strain among nurses can lead to physical and emotional exhaustion.

  12. The Smartphone Psychology Manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey

    2012-05-01

    By 2025, when most of today's psychology undergraduates will be in their mid-30s, more than 5 billion people on our planet will be using ultra-broadband, sensor-rich smartphones far beyond the abilities of today's iPhones, Androids, and Blackberries. Although smartphones were not designed for psychological research, they can collect vast amounts of ecologically valid data, easily and quickly, from large global samples. If participants download the right "psych apps," smartphones can record where they are, what they are doing, and what they can see and hear and can run interactive surveys, tests, and experiments through touch screens and wireless connections to nearby screens, headsets, biosensors, and other peripherals. This article reviews previous behavioral research using mobile electronic devices, outlines what smartphones can do now and will be able to do in the near future, explains how a smartphone study could work practically given current technology (e.g., in studying ovulatory cycle effects on women's sexuality), discusses some limitations and challenges of smartphone research, and compares smartphones to other research methods. Smartphone research will require new skills in app development and data analysis and will raise tough new ethical issues, but smartphones could transform psychology even more profoundly than PCs and brain imaging did. © The Author(s) 2012.

  13. Psychology of psychology? A theoretization of psychological science through historical and socio-anthropological analysis of Psychology as institution

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Žužek-Kres

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.

  14. Does psychological status influence clinical outcomes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and other chronic gastroenterological diseases: An observational cohort prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Ian G

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether there is a temporal relationship between psychological problems and clinical outcomes in patients with diseases of the digestive tract has not been widely researched. Thus, our aims were 1 To observe and compare prospectively clinical outcomes in relation to psychological co-morbidity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and chronic hepatitis C (HCV and, 2 To test the hypothesis that patients with psychological co-morbidities are less likely to have a satisfactory response to standard treatment at 12 months. Methods Overall, 139 patients were enrolled in this observational cohort prospective study. Over the ensuing year, physical and psychological measures were made at baseline and after 12 months (HADS, SCL90, SF-12 and disease activity measures. A logistic regression was conducted to observe any relationship between baseline characteristics and patients' clinical outcomes after 12 months. Results Overall, there was no relationship between psychological status and quality of life at baseline and relapse at 12 months (p > 0.05. However, patients with inactive disease at baseline were at lower risk of relapse after 12 months (OR = 0.046, CI: 0.012–0.178. No significant relationship was found between psychological problems such as depression/anxiety and a total number of relapses in the IBD group. However, interestingly, patients with an active disease at baseline tended to have a greater number of relapses (OR = 3.07, CI: 1.650–5.738 and CD participants were found at lower risk of relapse than UC participants (OR = 0.382, CI: 0.198–0.736. Conclusion In contrast to previous investigations, this study suggests that there is no temporal relationship between psychological problems at baseline and clinical outcomes over time. Longer and larger prospective studies are needed to better understand this result.

  15. Women's experience of maternal morbidity: a qualitative analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meaney, S

    2016-07-01

    Maternal morbidity refers to pregnancy-related complications, ranging in severity from acute to chronic. In Ireland one in 210 maternities will experience a severe morbidity. Yet, how women internalize their experience of morbidity has gone largely unexplored. This study aimed to explore women\\'s experiences of maternal morbidity.

  16. [Primary-care morbidity and true morbidity due to acute respiratory infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Rodríguez, A E; González Ochoa, E; Bravo González, J R; Carlos Silva, L; Linton, T

    1992-01-01

    The present work presents the study of morbidity due to acute respiratory infections (ARI) in areas of the town of Lisa in Ciudad Habana, and Isla Juventud (Cuba), to characterize different aspects of morbidity measured by health care attendance and to measure true morbidity. About 90% of consultations for ARI were first-time consultations, while their ratio to further consultations was 5.3. True morbidity rates (TMR), obtained trough active research, ranged from 110.4 to 163.4 cases per 1000 inhabitants, considerably higher than morbidity rates measured by primary care consultations (MRPCC) in the same time period. The true morbidity index (TMI), as measured by the ratio of the two previous rates, ranged from 5 to 15. A high proportion (47.6%) of cases reported no medical care attendance. These results provide approximate estimates of true morbidity in the study area, and allow the establishment of a new control program, also improving epidemiologic surveillance within primary care activities.

  17. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  18. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  19. PREVALENCE OF OCCULT DEPRESSION IN ELDERLY WITH CHRONIC CO - MORBIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth in elderly population has led to an increase in age related diseases and mainly depression which is affecting the quality of life. Depression is more prevalent amongst elderly individuals with medical illnesses and emerging public health problem leading to increased morbidity and disability worldwide. AIMS AND OBJE CTIVES: To assess the prevalence of occult depression in elderly patients with chronic co - morbid medical conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a cross - sectional study conducted in tertiary hospital. Total 100 elderly patients with underlying chronic me dical illnesses were included. Depression in study population was assessed by geriatric depression scale and analyzed. RESULT: Out of 100 patients 23(23% had depression. Females 12/39(30.76% were affected more than males 11/61 (18.03%. Depression was mo re prevalent among patients with 3 or more co - morbid conditions (45.4% as compared to <3 (11.9%. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients with multiple chronic medical illnesses may have associated occult depression. Screening of these patients for depression couple d with appropriate psychiatric referral should be an integral part of Geriatric service

  20. Multi-Morbidity in Hospitalised Older Patients: Who Are the Complex Elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Milagros; Bottle, Alex; Long, Susannah; Aylin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background No formal definition for the “complex elderly” exists; moreover, these older patients with high levels of multi-morbidity are not readily identified as such at point of hospitalisation, thus missing a valuable opportunity to manage the older patient appropriately within the hospital setting. Objectives To empirically identify the complex elderly patient based on degree of multi-morbidity. Design Retrospective observational study using administrative data. Setting English hospitals during the financial year 2012–13. Subjects All admitted patients aged 65 years and over. Methods By using exploratory analysis (correspondence analysis) we identify multi-morbidity groups based on 20 target conditions whose hospital prevalence was ≥ 1%. Results We examined a total of 2788900 hospital admissions. Multi-morbidity was highly prevalent, 62.8% had 2 or more of the targeted conditions while 4.7% had six or more. Multi-morbidity increased with age from 56% (65-69yr age-groups) up to 67% (80-84yr age-group). The average multi-morbidity was 3.2±1.2 (SD). Correspondence analysis revealed 3 distinct groups of older patients. Group 1 (multi-morbidity ≤2), associated with cancer and/or metastasis; Group 2 (multi-morbidity of 3, 4 or 5), associated with chronic pulmonary disease, lung disease, rheumatism and osteoporosis; finally Group 3 with the highest level of multi-morbidity (≥6) and associated with heart failure, cerebrovascular accident, diabetes, hypertension and myocardial infarction. Conclusions By using widely available hospital administrative data, we propose patients in Groups 2 and 3 to be identified as the complex elderly. Identification of multi-morbidity patterns can help to predict the needs of the older patient and improve resource provision. PMID:26716440

  1. Art therapy for hospitalised congenital heart disease patients: a method of psychological intervention at the IRCCS Policlinico San Donato Milanese Hopsital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Quadri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work is the presentation of a new project at the IRCSS San Donato Milanese University hospital, in the sphere of Psychocardiology. Hospitalised children and adolescents often face psychosocial difficulties and the psychological condition of their parents frequently has an impact on their wellbeing. A strong need to take care, beyond the mere cure, is necessary in the hospital settings - that is a need to pay attention also to psychological aspects apart from the medical ones. Art therapy could be an answer for this need: the literature has outlined its efficacy in hospital, also due to the higher inclination of children and adolescents toward creativity. By providing and analysing the drawings of 10 young patients with congenital heart disease (CHD, this study outlines how the art therapy program gives these patients the opportunity to freely and directly express fears and anxieties about medical procedures and their disease. Moreover, through the creation of a tangible product, psychologists can better evaluate the psychological troubles of young patients and provide them and their parents with more focused and personalized support. This study also focuses on the perception of the utility that parents have of this new therapeutic intervention, offered at the Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, confirming that art therapy is perceived as being effective and is definitely a good instrument in helping to “take care” of children and adolescents suffering from CHD.

  2. [Art therapy for hospitalised congenital heart disease patients: a method of psychological intervention at the IRCCS Policlinico San Donato Milanese Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, E; Farè, C; Palmero, E; Campioni, G; Chessa, M; Callus, E

    2012-01-01

    The current work is the presentation of a new project at the IRCSS San Donato Milanese University hospital, in the sphere of Psychocardiology. Hospitalised children and adolescents often face psychosocial difficulties and the psychological condition of their parents frequently has an impact on their wellbeing. A strong need to take care, beyond the mere cure, is necessary in the hospital settings - that is a need to pay attention also to psychological aspects apart from the medical ones. Art therapy could be an answer for this need: the literature has outlined its efficacy in hospital, also due to the higher inclination of children and adolescents toward creativity. By providing and analysing the drawings of 10 young patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), this study outlines how the art therapy program gives these patients the opportunity to freely and directly express fears and anxieties about medical procedures and their disease. Moreover, through the creation of a tangible product, psychologists can better evaluate the psychological troubles of young patients and provide them and their parents with more focused and personalized support. This study also focuses on the perception of the utility that parents have of this new therapeutic intervention, offered at the Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, confirming that art therapy is perceived as being effective and is definitely a good instrument in helping to "take care" of children and adolescents suffering from CHD.

  3. Psychological Disorders and Quality of Life among Sudanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sleep disorders were experienced by 81 (64.8%) of dialyzed, and nine (20.9%) of kidney transplant recipients (P<0.001). Conclusion: Psychological disorders in dialyzed ESRD patients have significant effect on the quality of life and may have a tremendous impact on mortality and morbidity. For this reason, supportive ...

  4. Group Psychological Therapy in Obstetric Fistula Care: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Group psychotherapy in Obstetric fistula care. African Journal of Reproductive Health March 2014; 18(1): 156. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. Group Psychological Therapy in Obstetric Fistula Care: A. Complementary Recipe for the Accompanying Mental Ill Health. Morbidities? Oladosu A Ojengbede. 1. , Yvonne Baba. 2.

  5. Buddha philosophy and western psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!

  6. Psychological Flexibility, ACT, and Organizational Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2006-01-01

    This paper offers organizational behavior management (OBM) a behavior analytically consistent way to expand its analysis of, and methods for changing, organizational behavior. It shows how Relational Frame Theory (RFT) suggests that common, problematic, psychological processes emerge from language itself, and they produce psychological inflexibility. Research suggests that an applied extension of RFT, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, has led to new interventions that increase psychological ...

  7. Psychological Perspectives on Interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrij, Aldert; Meissner, Christian A; Fisher, Ronald P; Kassin, Saul M; Morgan, Charles A; Kleinman, Steven M

    2017-11-01

    Proponents of "enhanced interrogation techniques" in the United States have claimed that such methods are necessary for obtaining information from uncooperative terrorism subjects. In the present article, we offer an informed, academic perspective on such claims. Psychological theory and research shows that harsh interrogation methods are ineffective. First, they are likely to increase resistance by the subject rather than facilitate cooperation. Second, the threatening and adversarial nature of harsh interrogation is often inimical to the goal of facilitating the retrieval of information from memory and therefore reduces the likelihood that a subject will provide reports that are extensive, detailed, and accurate. Third, harsh interrogation methods make lie detection difficult. Analyzing speech content and eliciting verifiable details are the most reliable cues to assessing credibility; however, to elicit such cues subjects must be encouraged to provide extensive narratives, something that does not occur in harsh interrogations. Evidence is accumulating for the effectiveness of rapport-based information-gathering approaches as an alternative to harsh interrogations. Such approaches promote cooperation, enhance recall of relevant and reliable information, and facilitate assessments of credibility. Given the available evidence that torture is ineffective, why might some laypersons, policymakers, and interrogation personnel support the use of torture? We conclude our review by offering a psychological perspective on this important question.

  8. Type and Extent of Somatic Morbidity before and after the Diagnosis of Hypothyroidism. A Nationwide Register Study

    OpenAIRE

    Marianne Thvilum; Frans Brandt; Dorthe Almind; Kaare Christensen; Thomas Heiberg Brix; Laszlo Hegedüs

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism has been linked with an increased risk of other morbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. However, the temporal relationship between these diseases and the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is not well illuminated. Such information may provide insight into causal relationships between hypothyroidism and other morbidities. AIM: To investigate the type and extent of somatic morbidity before and after a diagnosis of hypothyroidism. METHODS: Observat...

  9. Cultural Psychology and Deconstructing Developmental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Crafter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at points of convergence and divergence between the different branches of cultural psychology and Burman's ideas in Deconstructing Developmental Psychology (DDP). The paper discusses the relationship between the developing ideas in cultural psychology over time and some of the shared theoretical and conceptual criticisms put forward in DDP. This takes into account some of the differences between symbolic approach, activity theory and an individualistic approach to cultural ps...

  10. Sport psychology: psychologic issues and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Christopher M

    2006-08-01

    This article has briefly highlighted the area of sport psychology as it relates to performance psychology skills (mental training), including a historical overview and current topics overview. The use of mental training skills may be of interest to the practicing physical medicine and rehabilitation professional in the treatment of his or her patients. It is important that the physical medicine professional recognize what sport or performance psychology represents within the paradigm of psychologic interventions. Referring to an individual based on his or her training (licensed psychologist versus mental training consultant) is essential for the appropriate management of psychologic issues related to performance. The issues related to the psychologic rehabilitation of the injured athlete are of importance to the medical staff; the overview of affective responses can assist in understanding the normal and adaptive responses of the injured athlete. Finally, a brief description of a psychologist's role within a sports medicine and rehabilitation practice is presented. The psychologic issues that are present in the world of sport and elite performance are numerous, and not all are mentioned in this article. Issues of eating disorders, substance abuse, and psychologic health with athletes should be further explored within the physical medicine and rehabilitation discipline as well as in the sports medicine discipline. The ever-evolving psychologic dynamics of individuals involved in sport and elite performance are intriguing and unique. A specialized knowledge base, training, and experience in providing psychologic services are required to treat this unique population. Counseling and clinical issues of the athlete and elite performer require further attention in the realm of psychologic interventions, including further exploration of the efficacy of interventions for performance enhancement. The field of applied sport psychology may offer the physical medicine

  11. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesi...

  12. Identifying psychological distress in elderly seeking health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, Prafulla; Sadanand, Shilpa; Bharath, Srikala; Girish, N; Philip, Mariamma; Varghese, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Psychological distress in the elderly with various illness conditions often goes unrecognized. Since psychological distress is treatable, it is important to recognize it at the earliest to enhance recovery. This is an interim analysis of screening data of the elderly seeking health care in a hospital in India, with a focus on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), a screening instrument for psychological distress and a rationale for a higher cutoff score in help seeking elderly. A retrospective analysis of screening data of psychological distress using GHQ-12 in the elderly seeking care for neuropsychiatric conditions was carried out. Traditionally, ≥2 is considered positive for distress by GHQ-12. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to define new cutoff points for psychological distress. At ≥2, 2443 (50%) of the elderly screened were recognized to be psychologically distressed. Using an ROC and optimum sensitivity and specificity measures, a cutoff score of ≥4 was observed to detect 30% of the elderly who had diagnosable mental health disorders. Female sex, illiteracy, and multiple co-morbidities were the factors that were associated with higher cutoff scores on GHQ-12 proposed here and psychiatric morbidity thereof. There is greater psychological distress among the elderly seeking health care. Hence, it is important to screen them and identify those at higher risk. Using a higher cutoff score with a standardized instrument like GHQ-12 indicated that it was statistically valid to identify those elderly with higher distress in a busy out-patient setting.

  13. Psychological Assessment Training in Clinical Psychology Doctoral Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihura, Joni L; Roy, Manali; Graceffo, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    We surveyed American Psychological Association-accredited clinical psychology doctoral programs' (n = 83) training in psychological assessment-specifically, their coverage of various assessment topics and tests in courses and practica, and whether the training was optional or required. We report results overall and separately per training model (clinical science, scientist-practitioner, and practitioner-focused). Overall, our results suggest that psychological assessment training is as active, or even more active, than in previous years. Areas of increased emphasis include clinical interviewing and psychometrics; multimethod, outcomes, health, and collaborative or therapeutic assessment; and different types of cognitive and self-report personality tests. All or almost all practice-focused programs offered training with the Thematic Apperception Test and Rorschach compared to about half of the scientist-practitioner programs and a third of the clinical science programs. Although almost all programs reported teaching multimethod assessment, what constitutes different methods of assessing psychopathology should be clarified in future studies because many programs appear to rely on one method-self-report (especially clinical science programs). Although doctoral programs covered many assessment topics and tests in didactic courses, there appears to be a shortage of program-run opportunities for students to obtain applied assessment training. Finally, we encourage doctoral programs to be familiar with (a) internships' assessment expectations and opportunities, (b) the professional guidelines for assessment training, and (c) the American Psychological Association's requirements for preinternship assessment competencies.

  14. [Migraine with psychiatric co-morbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radat, F

    2005-07-01

    Investigation of migraine co-morbidity has confirmed a strong association between depression, anxiety disorders (particularly panic and phobia) and migraine. However, research into the possible mechanisms underlying these associations remains limited. The literature also indicates that migrainers are at reduced risk of suffering from anxiety, mood disorders and substance-related disorders compared with medication overuse headache sufferers. Patients suffering from medication overuse headache sometimes exhibit addictive behavior for acute migraine drugs. Finally, migrainers show increased non-specific neurotic suffering.

  15. Non-inferiority of retrospective data collection for assessing perioperative morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amour B.U. Patel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Postoperative morbidity has immediate and delayed consequences for surgical patients, including excess risk of premature death. Capturing these data objectively and routinely in large electronic databases using tools such as the Postoperative Morbidity Survey (POMS would offer tremendous clinical and translational potential. However, POMS has thus far only utilised prospective data collection by research staff. We hypothesised that retrospective data collection from routinely collated hospital data from paper and electronic charts, medical and nursing notes was non-inferior to prospective data collection requiring research staff capturing POMS-defined morbidity in real-time.Methods. Morbidity was recorded by a trained investigator as defined by POMS prospectively on postoperative days 3 and 7. Separately, an independent investigator blinded to prospectively acquired data retrospectively assessed the same patients’ morbidity as defined by POMS criteria, using medical charts, nursing summaries and electronic data. Equivalence was accepted when the confidence limits for both modes of data collection fell completely inside the equivalence bounds, with the maximum equivalence difference (i.e., the largest value of the difference in sensitivities deemed to reach a conclusion of equivalence set a priori at 0.2. Differences for confidence limits between retrospective and prospective data collection were based on Nam’s RMLE method. The relationship between morbidity on postoperative day 3 as recorded by each data collection method on time to become morbidity free and length of hospital stay was compared using the log-rank test.Results. POMS data from 85 patients undergoing elective or emergency surgery were analyzed. At postoperative day 3, POMS-defined morbidity was similar regardless of whether data were collected prospectively or retrospectively (95% CI [−0.13–0.013]; p < 0.001. Non-inferiority for sensitivity was observed for all

  16. [Morbidity in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordević, Momcilo; Sazdanović, Predrag; Dordević, Gordana; Jovanović, Bozidar

    2010-01-01

    Insecticides are toxins by which we destroy harmful insects. The most frequent insecticides which are used today are organophosphorus pesticides. This group of compounds make substances whose activity mechanism is based on the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in nerve synapsis, thus producing holynergic syndrome, resulting from the accumulation of acetylcholine which developed due to the absence of decomposition under the influence of cholinesterase. In the clinical picture of acute toxication by cholinesterase inhibitors there is a clear difference between muscarinic and nicotine effects. The basic aim of the study was to establish the effects of organophosphorus pesticides present in blood and breast milk of mothers on newborns morbidity. The study group consisted of 18 newborns whose mothers had isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breast-milk on the third day after delivery, and the control group consisted of 84 newborns whose mothers did not have isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breastmilk. Morbidity is three times greater, often in combination with some disorders of the central nervous system, and the relative risk for its appearance is eight time greater in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. Disorders that appear in newborns exposed to pesticides are mutagenic, cancerogenic and neurotoxic and some agenses could disturb the immune system which is reflected in morbidity increase, primarly of the central nervous system. The presence of organophosphorus pesticides in blood and breast milk has negative effects on newborns. In addition to acetylcholinesterase inhibition, organophosphorus pesticides react by means of other mechanisms as well.

  17. Acute Infectious Morbidity in Multiple Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Dotters-Katz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Physiologic and immunologic changes in pregnancy result in increased susceptibility to infection. These shifts are more pronounced in pregnancies complicated by multiple gestation. The objective of this study was to determine the association between multiple gestation and risk of infectious morbidity. Study Design. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2008–2010 was used to identify pregnant women during admission for delivery with International Classification of Diseases codes. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for demographic data, preexisting medical conditions, and acute medical and infectious complications for women with multiple versus singleton gestations. Results. Among women with multiple gestation, 38.4 per 1,000 women had an infectious complication compared to 12.8 per 1,000 women with singletons. The most significant infectious morbidity associated with multiple gestation was intestinal infections, pyelonephritis, influenza, and pneumonia. After controlling for confounding variables, infectious complications at delivery persisted for women with multiples, though the association was dependent on mode of delivery. Conclusions. Women with multiple gestations are at increased risk for infectious morbidity identified at the time of delivery. This association was diminished among women who had a cesarean suggesting that operative delivery is not responsible for this association.

  18. Attachment, infidelity, and loneliness in college students involved in a romantic relationship: the role of relationship satisfaction, morbidity and prayer for partner

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,M. Graça; Taysi, Ebru; Orcan, Fatih; Fincham, Frank D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of relationship satisfaction, prayer for a partner, and morbidity in the relationship between attachment and loneliness, infidelity and loneliness, and psychological morbidity and loneliness, in college students involved in a romantic relationship. Participants were students in an introductory course on family development. This study examined only students (n = 345) who were involved in a romantic relationship. The average age of partic...

  19. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  20. Psychological typology of Sasang medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ah Jung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study briefly reviewed and summarized published studies related to the Sasang typology in order to investigate the common psychological characteristics in each type and suggest conceptual and methodological implications for future research. A total of 44 articles written in Korean between 1990 and 2014, and that used objective measures of personality, were selected from two Korean database for this study. The number of publications, type of scale used, and distribution of each Sasang type were reviewed and summarized. From these works, it was found that there was significant common ground between the classification of Sasang types, which is rooted in Eastern concepts, and the psychological features and types revealed by objective personality measures used in Western psychology. On the basis of these findings, the degree of overlap between Eastern and Western personality typologies was highlighted, and further considerations for developing a more valid and objective classification method, and the limitations of the existing searching method and scope were discussed.