WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychological mood states

  1. The effects of moderate exercise training on psychological well-being and mood state in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, S R; Nieman, D C; Lee, J W

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between moderate exercise training (five 45 min sessions/week, brisk walking at 62 beta +/- 2% VO2max for 15 weeks, psychological well-being and mood state was investigated in a group of 35 sedentary, mildly obese women. A 2 (exercise (EX) (N = 18), and nonexercise (NEX) (N = 17) groups) x 3 (baseline, 6-week, 15-week testing sessions) factorial design was used with data analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Four psychological tests were administered: Daily Hassles Scale (DHS), General Well-being Schedule (GWB), Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (S-Anxiety), and Profile of Mood States (POMS). The EX and NEX groups had significantly different patterns of change over time for GWB total scores [F(2,66) = 5.72, p = 0.005] and the GWB subscales 'energy level' and 'freedom from health concern or worry'. Scores for the EX group were elevated at both 6 and 15 weeks. General well-being total scores and subscale 'energy level' scores were significantly correlated with improvement in submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness (r = -0.41, p = 0.014; r = -0.40, p = 0.017, respectively). Exercise training also had a significant effect on frequency but not intensity of DHS scores, and S-Anxiety, with a significant decrease seen in the EX group at 6 weeks but not 15 weeks. Profile of Mood States scores were not significantly related to exercise training. These data support the results of other studies that have reported improvement in general psychological well-being with exercise training.

  2. Anabolic steroid use by amateur athletes: effects upon psychological mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, A C; Choi, P Y; Davies, M

    1994-09-01

    Twenty-one male amateur athletes attending a Welsh needle-exchange clinic, were asked to complete the Buss-Durke Inventory on feelings of hostility/aggression, and a feeling state questionnaire. All were weight training in local gyms in order to increase their body mass. They were also using high doses of anabolic steroids during 6-14 week cycles, while between these cycles they were steroid free. Subjects reported significantly higher feelings of aggression, aggression towards objects, verbal aggression, and aggression during training (but not physical aggression towards people), during the on-steroid periods. Other changes on-drug, included significantly higher feelings of alertness, irritability, anxiety, suspiciousness, and negativism. While increased aggressiveness has been noted in many previous studies, the present findings demonstrate that anabolic steroids can affect a wide range of psychological mood states.

  3. Correlation between sleep and psychological mood states in female wheelchair basketball players on a Japanese national team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Kenji; Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Hotta, Kazushi; Shimizu, Yukiyo; Kitano, Naruki; Wadano, Yasuyoshi

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] Although some studies suggest the importance of getting adequate sleep for enhancing mood, there is not yet sufficient evidence on the relationship between sleep and mood states in athletes, especially for athletes with physical disability. The purpose of this study is to reveal relationships between sleep and psychological mood states in female wheelchair basketball players. [Subjects and Methods] Seventeen female wheelchair basketball players (30.9 ± 9.4 years old) on a Japanese national team participated. Sleep states were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and mood states with the Japanese version of the Profile of Mood States short form (POMS-SF). Spearman's rank correlations were computed. [Results] The mean PSQI score was 5.4 ± 2.6 points, and 9 athletes (52.9%) exceeded the cutoff point (5.5) for insomnia. Higher sleep efficiency (rS=0.58), fewer sleep disturbances (rS=-0.58), and lower total PSQI score (rS=-0.51) were significantly correlated with higher vigor. Lower likelihood of daytime dysfunction was also significantly correlated with lower tension (rS=0.50). [Conclusion] Vigor was the mood state most frequently correlated with sleep variables. Because vigor is a known key psychological factor in optimal performance, the findings are valuable for wheelchair basketball players.

  4. Effect of Tongkat Ali on stress hormones and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Talbott, Shawn M; Talbott, Julie A; George, Annie; Pugh, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Background Eurycoma longifolia is a medicinal plant commonly called tongkat ali (TA) and ?Malaysian ginseng.? TA roots are a traditional ?anti-aging? remedy and modern supplements are intended to improve libido, energy, sports performance and weight loss. Previous studies have shown properly-standardized TA to stimulate release of free testosterone, improve sex drive, reduce fatigue, and improve well-being. Methods We assessed stress hormones and mood state in 63 subjects (32 men and 31 women...

  5. Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora®) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, Shawn M; Talbott, Julie A; Pugh, Mike

    2013-08-07

    Magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) and Phellodendron (Phellodendron amurense) barks are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional remedies for reducing stress and anxiety. Modern dietary supplements are intended to induce relaxation and reduce stress as well as stress-related eating. Previous studies have shown the combination of Magnolia/Phellodendron (MP) to reduce both cortisol exposure and the perception of stress/anxiety, while improving weight loss in subjects with stress-related eating. Competitive athletes are "stressed" by their intense exercise regimens in addition to their normal activities of daily living and thus may benefit from a natural therapy intended to modulate baseline perceptions of stress and stress hormone exposure. We assessed salivary cortisol exposure and psychological mood state in 56 subjects (35 men and 21 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized/patented MP combination (Relora®, Next Pharmaceuticals) or Placebo for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of supplementation, salivary cortisol exposure was significantly (pStress (-11%), Tension (-13%), Depression (-20%), Anger (-42%), Fatigue (-31%), and Confusion (-27%), and higher indices of Global Mood State (+11%) and Vigor (+18%). These results indicate that daily supplementation with a combination of Magnolia bark extract and Phellodendron bark extract (Relora®) reduces cortisol exposure and perceived daily stress, while improving a variety of mood state parameters, including lower fatigue and higher vigor. These results suggest an effective natural approach to modulating the detrimental health effects of chronic stress in moderately stressed adults. Future studies should examine the possible performance and recovery benefits of Relora supplementation in athletes overstressed by the physical and psychological demands of training and competition.

  6. Effect of Tongkat Ali on stress hormones and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, Shawn M; Talbott, Julie A; George, Annie; Pugh, Mike

    2013-05-26

    Eurycoma longifolia is a medicinal plant commonly called tongkat ali (TA) and "Malaysian ginseng." TA roots are a traditional "anti-aging" remedy and modern supplements are intended to improve libido, energy, sports performance and weight loss. Previous studies have shown properly-standardized TA to stimulate release of free testosterone, improve sex drive, reduce fatigue, and improve well-being. We assessed stress hormones and mood state in 63 subjects (32 men and 31 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized hot-water extract of TA root (TA) or Placebo (PL) for 4 weeks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with significance set at p sleep deprivation, and exercise training.

  7. The Relationship between Mood State, Interpersonal Attitudes and Psychological Distress in Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Margaret A.; Andrewes, David G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether increasing positive mood improved interpersonal attitudes and relieved depression in depressed stroke patients despite levels of cognitive and emotional dysfunction. Depressed stroke (n = 30) and rheumatic/orthopaedic controls (n = 30) were compared on the effect of verbal and nonverbal positive and neutral mood…

  8. The Mood Induction Task: A standardized, computerized laboratory procedure for altering mood state in humans

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Oliver J Robinson, Christian Grillon & Barbara J Sahakian ### Abstract Mood states are an integral component of our everyday lives and have wide-ranging impacts upon psychological health and well-being. Moreover, disorders of mood, such as major depression, bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders are amongst the most common and most deleterious diseases facing society. Clarifying the neurobiological underpinnings of mood states is therefore of utmost importance. Experiment...

  9. Exercise performed at hypoxia influences mood state and anxiety symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernando Tavares de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During hypoxia conditions, psychological states can be worsened. However, little information is available regarding the effect of physical exercise performed in hypoxia conditions on mood state and anxiety symptoms. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the acute effect of moderate physical exercise performed at hypoxia on mood states and anxiety symptoms in healthy young subjects. Ten volunteers were subjected to the following conditions: a normoxic condition (NC and a hypoxic condition (HC. They performed 45 min of physical exercise. Their anxiety symptoms and mood states were evaluated at the initial time point as well as immediately following and 30 and 60 min after the exercise session. Our results showed a significant increase in post-exercise anxiety symptoms and a significant decrease in mood scores immediately after and 30 min after exercise performed in the HC. Moderate physical activity performed at hypoxia condition increased post-exercise anxiety and worsened mood state.

  10. Mood state effects of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Parker, Isabella; Brotchie, Heather

    2006-06-01

    Chocolate consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. Popular claims confer on chocolate the properties of being a stimulant, relaxant, euphoriant, aphrodisiac, tonic and antidepressant. The last claim stimulated this review. We review chocolate's properties and the principal hypotheses addressing its claimed mood altering propensities. We distinguish between food craving and emotional eating, consider their psycho-physiological underpinnings, and examine the likely 'positioning' of any effect of chocolate to each concept. Chocolate can provide its own hedonistic reward by satisfying cravings but, when consumed as a comfort eating or emotional eating strategy, is more likely to be associated with prolongation rather than cessation of a dysphoric mood. This review focuses primarily on clarifying the possibility that, for some people, chocolate consumption may act as an antidepressant self-medication strategy and the processes by which this may occur. Any mood benefits of chocolate consumption are ephemeral.

  11. Anxiety and mood states in delinquent adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, F T; White, M J; Finch, A J

    1977-10-01

    Studied the relationship between state-trait anxiety and mood states in deliquents by giving the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) (Spielberger, 1973) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971) to 41 behavior problem adolescents who were residents of a facility for youthful offenders. Results indicated that males and females did not differ significantly. The A-State portion of the STAIC was correlated significantly with the Vigor-Activity and Anger-Hostility portions of the POMS as well as the Total Mood Disturbance index. On the other hand, the A-Trait portion of the STAIC was correlated significantly with the Depression-Dejection, the Tension-Anxiety, and the Fatigue-Inertia portions of the POMS as well as the Total Mood Disturbance index. Findings were discussed in terms of their relationship to previous research and in terms of the differences in conception of affective states presented by Spielberger (1973) and McNair et al. (1971).

  12. The effect of a musical mood induction procedure on mood state-dependent word retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De L'Etoile, Shannon K

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to replicate and expand upon an earlier study by Thaut and de l'Etoile (1993) by examining the effect of a musical mood induction procedure on mood state-dependent word retrieval. Participants (N = 45) completed a 2-day testing procedure. On day one, participants read a list of adjectives and wrote down an antonym for each one. On day two, participants recalled as many of the antonyms as possible. During the testing procedure, participants were placed in 1 of 4 conditions: (a) mood induction at encoding, (b) mood induction at recall, (c) no mood induction, and (d) mood induction at both encoding and recall. The mood induction procedure included 3 steps. Participants first assessed their current mood state using a visual analog scale. They then listened to music for 5 minutes, determined the mood of the piece while listening, and tried to match their mood to the music. Finally, participants again used the visual analog scale to indicate their mood. Results indicated that participants who received mood induction prior to both encoding and recall were able to retrieve significantly more words than participants who did not undergo any mood induction. The results are discussed in light of the associative network theory of memory and emotions and the treatment of mood disorders.

  13. Mean diffusivity of basal ganglia and thalamus specifically associated with motivational states among mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2017-03-01

    Previously, we proposed that the mean diffusivity (MD), a measure of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in areas of the dopaminergic system (MDDS), is associated with motivation. In this study, we tested if and how the motivational state is associated with MD in comparison with other mood states. We also tested the associations of these mood states with multiple cognitive functions. We examined these issues in 766 right-handed healthy young adults. We employed analyses of MD and a psychological measure of the profile of mood states (POMS) as well as multiple cognitive functions. We detected associations between the higher Vigor subscale of POMS and lower MD in the right globus pallidum, right putamen to right posterior insula, right caudate body, and right thalamus, and these associations were highly specific to the Vigor subscale. Similarly, the association of the motivational state with creativity measured by divergent thinking (CMDT) was rather specific and prominent compared with that of the other mood states and cognitive functions. In conclusion, when affective states are finely divided, only the motivational state is associated with MD in the areas related to the dopaminergic system, and psychological mechanisms that had been associated with dopaminergic system (CMDT). These results suggest that these mechanisms specifically contribute to the motivational state and not to the other states, such as depression and anxiety.

  14. Physical exercise, salivary IgA and mood states of elderly people

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, R.; F. Rosado; Cunha, M. R.; Martins, M.; Teixeira, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the aging process is associated with immunosenescence. On the other hand, physical activity has been consistently associated with positive states of affection and mood which also implies gains on psychological well-being. However, more studies are needed to support the benefit effect of exercise on specific population groups like the elderly. The purpose of the present work is to study the functional fitness, mood states and salivary IgA chronic adaptations after...

  15. Comparative study between the effects of replacement therapy with liquid and tablet formulations of levothyroxine on mood states, self-perceived psychological well-being and thyroid hormone profile in recently thyroidectomized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Bocale, Raffaella; Barini, Angelina; Barini, Antonella; D'Amore, Annamaria; Boscherini, Mauro; Bellantone, Rocco

    2017-01-01

    Following thyroid surgery, levothyroxine therapy is used to replace deficient thyroid hormones and prevent postoperative thyroid hypofunction. We compared the effects of replacement therapy with either liquid or tablet formulation of levothyroxine on mood states, self-perceived mental well-being and thyroid hormone profile in recently thyroidectomized patients. Profile of mood states, General Heath Questionnaire 12-items and thyroid hormone profile were assessed in recently (5-7 days) thyroidectomized patients at baseline and 2 months after randomization to replacement therapy with either liquid (n = 77) or tablet (n = 78) formulation of levothyroxine. After 2 months under levothyroxine replacement treatment, significant improvements of Positive Affect Scale (p Negative Affect Scale (p mood states, as well as of General Heath Questionnaire 12-items (p Positive Affect Scale of Profile of mood states, p = 0.030; Negative Affect Scale of Profile of mood states, p mood states and self-perception of mental well-being and thyroid hormone profile after 2 months of replacement therapy in recently thyroidectomized patients.

  16. Mood states and sleepiness in college students: influences of age, sex, habitual sleep, and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Louis, G; von Gizycki, H; Zizi, F; Nunes, J

    1998-10-01

    Survey and laboratory evidence suggests several factors affecting sleep-wake patterns of college students. These factors include social and academic demands, diminution of parental guidance, reduction of total sleep time, delayed bedtime, and increased nap episodes. In this study, we examined the problem of falling asleep in school as a correlate of negative moods in this population (N = 294). A multivariate analysis showed significant main effects of sleepiness on mood states based on the Profile of Mood States. Students who fell asleep in school reported higher negative mood states. Significant interactions were observed among sleepiness and age, sex, race, and duration of sleep. Specifically, younger men reported higher negative moods. No interactions were noted for alcohol and marijuana consumption; however, students who fell asleep in school consumed more alcoholic beverages and smoked more than those who did not. Perhaps falling asleep in school could be used as an index that characterizes students who manifest adaptive or psychological difficulty.

  17. Mood-state-dependent retrieval: the effects of induced mood on memory reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenealy, P M

    1997-05-01

    Analysis of studies investigating mood-state-dependent retrieval identifies methodological problems that may have contributed to the controversy surrounding the reliability of the effect-in particular, the possible confounding of encoding and retrieval in previous studies. Five experiments are reported investigating the effects of mood on learning and recall. Mood-state-dependent retrieval was observed in Experiment 1a (using Velten's Mood Induction Procedure); Experiment 1b (using a music MIP); and Experiment lc (using Velten's MIP at encoding and a music MIP at retrieval). Subjects who learned and recalled in different moods had significantly greater decrements in recall than did subjects in the same moods. Experiments 2 and 3 investigated the effect of observable retrieval cues on mood-state-dependent retrieval. In Experiment 2, the presence of observable retrieval cues at recall overrode state-dependent retrieval. In Experiment 3, by manipulating the presence or absence of observable cues at recall, both the occurrence and the erasure of the mood-state dependency was demonstrated. Mood state during learning and cued recall was also shown to affect performance in a third session under conditions of free recall.

  18. Acute and medium term effects of a 10-week running intervention on mood state in apprentices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Katrin; von Haaren, Birte; Löffler, Simone; Härtel, Sascha; Jansen, Carl-Philipp; Werner, Christian; Stumpp, Jürgen; Bös, Klaus; Hey, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Exercise and physical activity have proven benefits for physical and psychological well-being. However, it is not clear if healthy young adults can enhance mood in everyday life through regular exercise. Earlier studies mainly showed positive effects of acute exercise and exercise programs on psychological well-being in children, older people and in clinical populations. Few studies controlled participants' physical activity in daily life, performed besides the exercise program, which can impact results. In addition the transition from mood enhancement induced by acute exercise to medium or long-term effects due to regular exercise is not yet determined. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the acute effects of an aerobic running training on mood and trends in medium term changes of mood in everyday life of young adults. We conducted a 10-week aerobic endurance training with frequent mood assessments and continuous activity monitoring. 23 apprentices, separated into experimental and control group, were monitored over 12 weeks. To control the effectiveness of the aerobic exercise program, participants completed a progressive treadmill test pre and post the intervention period. The three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness were assessed via electronic diaries. Participants had to rate their mood state frequently on 3 days a week at five times of measurement within 12 weeks. Participants' physical activity was assessed with accelerometers. All mood dimensions increased immediately after acute endurance exercise but results were not significant. The highest acute mood change could be observed in valence (p = 0.07; η(2) = 0.27). However, no medium term effects in mood states could be observed after a few weeks of endurance training. Future studies should focus on the interaction between acute and medium term effects of exercise training on mood. The decreasing compliance over the course of the study requires the development of

  19. On the evolution and optimality of mood States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trimmer, Pete C; Paul, Elizabeth S; Mendl, Mike T; McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2013-01-01

    .... Developing an evolutionary approach to mood as an adaptive process, we consider the structure and function of such states in guiding behavioural decisions regarding the acquisition of resources...

  20. Emotional intelligence and mood states associated with optimal performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, A; Thelwell, Richard; Devonport, T.

    2009-01-01

    This study utilized a within-subject design to investigate relationships between emotional intelligence and memories of mood states associated with optimal and dysfunctional performance in competitive sport and academic situations. Sport students (N = 436) completed a self-report Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS), whilst retrospective accounts of mood states associated with optimal and dysfunctional sporting competition and academic examination performance were recorded using the Brunel Mood...

  1. Exploring relations between positive mood state and school-age children's risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Stewart, Julia; Pope, Kristina; Pogrebtsova, Ekaterina; Boulay, Karissa-June

    2015-05-01

    To examine whether children engage in greater risk taking when in a positive versus neutral mood state, and whether positive urgency trait relates to risk taking. Positive mood in 7-10-year-old children was induced experimentally, and children's risk-taking intentions and actual behaviors were measured when the child was in a positive and neutral mood state. Within-person comparisons revealed that children showed greater risk-taking intentions and actual risk behaviors when in a positive mood state compared with a neutral one. Positive urgency was associated with greater risk taking when in a positive mood state, and this effect was stronger in the actual risk taking than intentions to risk take task. Mood state affects children's risk taking. Positive mood is associated with greater risk taking in elementary-school children, and those high in positive urgency are especially likely to show this effect. Implications for injury prevention are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The relationship between burnout and mood state among student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Emotional/Physical Exhaustion and Total Burnout Score in particular were strongly related to various STEMS subscales. However, the strength of the burnout - mood state relationship was inconsistent over the study period. Collectively, these results raise question marks over the use of mood state changes as a marker ...

  3. Immediate effects of chocolate on experimentally induced mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Michael; Mueller, Jochen

    2007-11-01

    In this work two hypotheses were tested: (1) that eating a piece of chocolate immediately affects negative, but not positive or neutral mood, and (2) that this effect is due to palatability. Experiment 1 (48 normal-weight and healthy women and men) examined the effects of eating a piece of chocolate and drinking water on negative, positive and neutral mood states induced by film clips. Eating chocolate reduced negative mood compared to drinking water, whereas no or only marginal effects were found on neutral and positive moods. Experiment 2 (113 normal-weight and healthy women and men) compared effects of eating palatable and unpalatable chocolate on negative mood, and examined the duration of chocolate-induced mood change. Negative mood was improved after eating palatable chocolate as compared to unpalatable chocolate or nothing. This effect was short lived, i.e., it disappeared after 3 min. In both experiments, chocolate-induced mood improvement was associated with emotional eating. The present studies demonstrate that eating a small amount of sweet food improves an experimentally induced negative mood state immediately and selectively and that this effect of chocolate is due to palatability. It is hypothesized that immediate mood effects of palatable food contribute to the habit of eating to cope with stress.

  4. Test Review: The Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuqiong; Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Wang, Miao

    2014-01-01

    The "Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition" (POMS 2) was published in 2012 by Multi-Health Systems (MHS) to assess transient feelings and mood among individuals aged 13 years and above. Evolving from the original POMS (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971, 1992), the POMS 2 was designed for youth (13-17 years old) and adults (18 years old…

  5. Incidental mood state before dissonance induction affects attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinie, Marie-Amélie; Almecija, Yves; Ros, Christine; Gil, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    The way that incidental affect impacts attitude change brought about by controlled processes has so far been examined when the incidental affective state is generated after dissonance state induction. We therefore investigated attitude change when the incidental mood occurs prior to dissonance state induction. We expected a negative mood to induce systematic processing, and a positive mood to induce heuristic processing. Given that both systematic processing and attitude change are cognitively costly, we expected participants who experienced the dissonance state in a negative mood to have insufficient resources to allocate to attitude change. In our experiment, after mood induction (negative, neutral or positive), participants were divided into low-dissonance and high-dissonance groups. They then wrote a counterattitudinal essay. Analysis of their attitudes towards the essay topic indicated that attitude change did not occur in the negative incidental mood condition. Moreover, written productivity-one indicator of cognitive resource allocation-varied according to the type of incidental mood, and only predicted attitude change in the high-dissonance group. Our results suggest that incidental mood before dissonance induction influences the style of information processing and, by so doing, affects the extent of attitude change.

  6. Mood State-Dependent Retention Using Identical or Non-Identical Mood Inductions at Learning and Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaga, David A.

    State-dependent retention (SDR) refers to the tendency to recall something more easily when in the same state as when one first learned it. The most directly relevant evidence in favor of mood SDR has confounded matching of mood at learning and recall with matching of mood induction procedure. A study was conducted to test directly whether the use…

  7. Peripheral inflammation during abnormal mood states in bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Prossin, Alan R; Johnson, Casey P; Christensen, Gary E; Magnotta, Vincent A; Wemmie, John A

    2015-11-15

    Bipolar disorder carries a substantive morbidity and mortality burden, particularly related to cardiovascular disease. Abnormalities in peripheral inflammatory markers, which have been commonly reported in case-control studies, potentially link these co-morbidities. However, it is not clear whether inflammatory markers change episodically in response to mood states or are indicative of chronic pro-inflammatory activity, regardless of mood, in bipolar disorder. Investigations focused on comparing concentrations of specific inflammatory cytokines associated with immune activation status (primary outcome=tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)) in 37 participants with bipolar disorder across 3 mood states (mania N=15, depression N=9, normal mood N=13) and 29 controls without a psychiatric disorder (total N=66). Cytokine levels were also compared to T1ρ, a potential neuroimaging marker for inflammation, in select brain regions in a subsample (N=39). Participants with bipolar disorder and healthy controls did not differ significantly in inflammatory cytokine concentrations. However, compared to cases with normal mood, cases with abnormal mood states (mania and depression) had significantly elevated levels of TNF-α, its soluble receptors (sTNFR1/sTNFR2), other macrophage-derived cytokines (interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18) in addition to IL-4, interferon-γ, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, fibroblast growth factor β, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Cytokine levels were not correlated with signals from T1ρ imaging in selected structures (amygdalae, hippocampi, hypothalamus, anterior cingulate gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus). Participants were not followed prospectively across mood states. Activation of inflammatory markers was found in abnormal mood states of bipolar disorder. Longitudinal study of individuals with mood disorders is needed to confirm these findings and to elucidate the time course of any such changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  8. Physical exercise, salivary IgA and mood states of elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the aging process is associated with immunosenescence. On the other hand, physical activity has been consistently associated with positive states of affection and mood which also implies gains on psychological well-being. However, more studies are needed to support the benefit effect of exercise on specific population groups like the elderly. The purpose of the present work is to study the functional fitness, mood states and salivary IgA chronic adaptations after a physical exercise program. 28 subjects aged between 65 and 95 years old participated in this study. The experimental group exercised during 16 weeks, 3 times per week. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the data. The results showed positive changes on the functional fitness that reinforce the trainability principle of the older person. The data shows also an improvement in mood states and chronic positive effects on salivary IgA after the exercise program.

  9. Therapygenetics: Using genetic markers to predict response to psychological treatment for mood and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lester, Kathryn J; Eley, Thalia C

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Considerable variation is evident in response to psychological therapies for mood and anxiety disorders. Genetic factors alongside environmental variables and gene-environment interactions are implicated in the etiology of these disorders and it is plausible that these same factors may also be important in predicting individual differences in response to psychological treatment. In this article, we review the evidence that genetic variation influences psychological treatment outcomes...

  10. Emotion and mood: over 120 years of contemplation and exploration in the American Journal of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarriba, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    Emotional states derived from stimuli such as visual objects, scenes, and films, linguistic input such as words and phrases, and other inputs such as music and humor have been examined over many decades in an attempt to understand how feelings are aroused and, in turn, how they influence behavior. From early introspectionists to modern-day social, clinical, and cognitive researchers studying the ways in which affect is derived from everyday conscious and unconscious experiences and how those experiences frame our perceptions for processing future encounters with emotional stimuli, over 120 years of work has been reported in The American Journal of Psychology. The current article provides an overview of the more salient and influential of those works and articulates the ways in which the reported findings influence our current explorations of emotion and mood.

  11. Effects of charcoal kiln saunas (Jjimjilbang) on psychological states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Shinya; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Kajii, Eiji; Ide, Masahiro; Shibata, Yosuke; Noda, Tatsuya; Murata, Chiyoe; Nagata, Katsutaro; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2008-05-01

    This uncontrolled intervention study explored the effects of sauna bathing utilizing residual heat from charcoal kilns (charcoal kiln saunas) on psychological states. Forty-five volunteers (24 males and 21 females; mean age 51.9 years (S.D. 15.7) visiting a bamboo charcoal kiln in Japan participated in the study. They completed a shortened version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and after charcoal kiln sauna bathing in order to determine mood and anxiety states. Six factors relating to mood were measured using the POMS: Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Vigor, Fatigue, and Confusion. The two anxiety concepts of state anxiety and trait anxiety were also measured. Changes in psychological states before and after sauna bathing were then determined. All mood scales and both manifest anxiety measures were improved after sauna bathing. Charcoal kiln sauna bathing appears to improve mood and decrease anxiety. It is a limitation of this study that this was a descriptive prospective and an uncontrolled intervention study. Further investigation of the improvement of trait anxiety is required.

  12. Does mood state change risk taking tendency in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Lee, Tatia M C; Ho, Andy H Y

    2007-06-01

    No study has been conducted to evaluate the influences of age differences on specific moods for risk taking tendencies. This study examined the patterns of risk taking tendencies among younger and older persons in 3 transient affective states: positive, neutral, and negative moods. By means of viewing happy, neutral, or sad movie clips, participants were induced to the respective mood. Risk taking tendencies were measured with decision tasks modified from the Choice Dilemmas Questionnaire (N. Kogan & M. A. Wallach, 1964). Consistent with the affect infusion model (J. P. Forgas, 1995), risk taking tendency was greater for those individuals who were in a happy mood than for those who were in a sad mood, for both young and older participants. However, an asymmetrical effect of positive and negative mood on risk taking tendency was identified among both the young and older participants, but in opposite directions. These results are consistent with the predictions of the negativity bias and the positivity effect found in young and older adults, respectively, and are interpreted via information processing and motivation effects of mood on the decision maker. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Acute and medium term effects of a ten-week running intervention on mood state in apprentices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eWalter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and physical activity have proven benefits for physical and psychological well-being. However, it is not clear if healthy young adults can enhance mood in everyday life through regular exercise. Earlier studies mainly showed positive effects of acute exercise and exercise programs on psychological well-being in children, older people and in clinical populations. Few studies controlled participants´ physical activity in daily life, performed besides the exercise program, which can impact results. In addition the transition from mood enhancement induced by acute exercise to medium or long-term effects due to regular exercise is not yet determined.The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the acute effects of an aerobic running training on mood and trends in medium term changes of mood in everyday life of young adults. We conducted a 10-week aerobic endurance training with frequent mood assessments and continuous activity monitoring. 23 apprentices, separated into experimental and control group, were monitored over 12 weeks.To control the effectiveness of the aerobic exercise program, participants completed a progressive treadmill test pre and post the intervention period. The three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness were assessed via electronic diaries. Participants had to rate their mood state frequently on three days a week at five times of measurement within twelve weeks. Participants´ physical activity was assessed with accelerometers. All mood dimensions increased immediately after acute endurance exercise but results were not significant. The highest acute mood change could be observed in valence (p=.07; η2=.27. However, no medium term effects in mood states could be observed after a few weeks of endurance training.Future studies should focus on the interaction between acute and medium term effects of exercise training on mood. The decreasing compliance over the course of the study requires the

  14. Relation of game location and experience on mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwell, Richard C; Weston, Neil J V; Lane, Andrew M; Greenlees, Iain A

    2006-02-01

    The study investigated relationships between game location, performers' experience, and mood states. 31 experienced collegiate soccer players completed the Brunel Mood Scale to assess anger, calmness, confusion, depression, fatigue, happiness, tension, and vigor before eight competitive games (four home and four away). Participants were categorized into Experienced and Less Experienced groups, based on the level of performance at which they played. Repeated-measures multivariate analyses of variance compared mean mood scores across location and experience, and follow-up univariate analyses suggested the increase in mood scores on Tension and decrease in scores on Calmness, Happiness, and Vigor between playing away and at home were significantly greater for Less experienced soccer players than Experienced players. Implications of these findings for the applied practitioner are discussed.

  15. Interaction between emotional state and learning underlies mood instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldar, Eran; Niv, Yael

    2015-01-21

    Intuitively, good and bad outcomes affect our emotional state, but whether the emotional state feeds back onto the perception of outcomes remains unknown. Here, we use behaviour and functional neuroimaging of human participants to investigate this bidirectional interaction, by comparing the evaluation of slot machines played before and after an emotion-impacting wheel-of-fortune draw. Results indicate that self-reported mood instability is associated with a positive-feedback effect of emotional state on the perception of outcomes. We then use theoretical simulations to demonstrate that such positive feedback would result in mood destabilization. Taken together, our results suggest that the interaction between emotional state and learning may play a significant role in the emergence of mood instability.

  16. Similarities in Food Cravings and Mood States Between Obese Women and Women Who Smoke Tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Pepino, M Yanina; Finkbeiner, Susana; Mennella, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study assessed food cravings in a cohort of 229 women who differed in smoking history (i.e., never smoker, former smoker, and current smoker) and body weight (i.e., normal weight, overweight, and obese). Each subject completed the Food Craving Inventory (FCI), which measures cravings for sweets, high fats, carbohydrates/starches, and fast-food fats, and the Profile of Mood States (POMS), which measures psychological distress. Smoking and obesity were independently associated with ...

  17. [Mood States in outpatients with lesional epilepsy at the neurosurgical clinic and improvement in mood States after lamotrigine addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajita, Yasukazu; Yoshida, Kouta; Nagai, Toshiya; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2013-03-01

    People with epilepsy have a high incidence of mood disorders that may affect their quality of life. Lamotrigine(LTG)is one of the antiepileptic drugs that are commercially available in Japan these days and its mood-stabilizing qualities were well known. First, 66 outpatients with epilepsy were evaluated for changes in mood states by the Profile of Mood States(POMS)and the Japanese-edition Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition(BDI-II)on self report. The POMS questionnaire includes 30 items that address six components of mood. At baseline, one third of the outpatients with epilepsy had mood problems compared by POMS health reference. The mean BDI-II baseline score was 14.9±10.1, and one third of these epilepsy patients exhibited moderate or severe depression. Second, in the twelve patients with epilepsy, LTG was added to other antiepileptic drugs, and the POMS and BDI-II were administered at baseline and after addiction to LTG. 4 out of 8(50%)patients with simple partial seizure and 5 out of 8(62.5%)patients after the adjunctive therapy experienced at least a 50% reduction in the number of seizures compared with the self-reported baseline before the adjunctive therapy. The component scores of Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility and Confusion-Bewilderment in POMS were statistically improved in these patients completing adjunctive LTG(pared t-test, pmood-stabilizing effect and improve the quality of life in patients with epilepsy.

  18. Attitudes Toward Combining Psychological, Mind-Body Therapies and Nutritional Approaches for the Enhancement of Mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lores, Taryn Jade; Henke, Miriam; Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Context • Interest has been rising in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the promotion of health and treatment of disease. To date, the majority of CAM research has focused on exploring the demographic characteristics, attitudes, and motivations of CAM users and on the efficacy of different therapies and products. Less is known with respect to the psychological characteristics of people who use CAM. Previous research has not investigated the usefulness of integrating mind-body therapies with natural products in a combined mood intervention. Objective • The study intended to investigate attitudes toward a proposed new approach to the treatment of mood, one that integrates psychological mind-body therapies and natural nutritional products. Design • Participants completed an online survey covering demographics, personality traits, locus of control, use of CAM, attitudes toward the proposed psychonutritional approach, and mood. Setting • This study was conducted at the University of Adelaide School of Psychology (Adelaide, SA, Australia). Participants • Participants were 333 members of the Australian general public, who were recruited online via the social-media platform Facebook. The majority were women (83.2%), aged between 18 and 81 y. Outcome Measures • Measures included the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale Form B, the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. Results • Participants were positive about the proposed approach and were likely to try it to enhance their moods. The likeliness of use of the combined approach was significantly higher in the female participants and was associated with higher levels of the personality trait openness and an internal health locus of control, after controlling for all other variables. Conclusions • Interest exists for an intervention for mood that incorporates both psychological and nutritional approaches. Further research into the

  19. Similarities in food cravings and mood states between obese women and women who smoke tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, M Yanina; Finkbeiner, Susana; Mennella, Julie A

    2009-06-01

    The present study assessed food cravings in a cohort of 229 women who differed in smoking history (i.e., never smoker, former smoker, and current smoker) and body weight (i.e., normal weight, overweight, and obese). Each subject completed the Food Craving Inventory (FCI), which measures cravings for sweets, high fats, carbohydrates/starches, and fast-food fats, and the Profile of Mood States (POMS), which measures psychological distress. Smoking and obesity were independently associated with specific food cravings and mood states. Current smokers craved high fats more frequently than former and never smokers. They also craved starches more frequently and felt more depressed and angry than never smokers, but not former smokers. Whereas cravings for starchy foods and some mood states may be characteristic of women who are likely to smoke, more frequent cravings for fat among smokers is related to smoking per se. Similarly, obese women craved high fats more frequently than nonobese women and depression symptoms were intensified with increasing body weights. We hypothesize that the overlapping neuroendocrine alterations associated with obesity and smoking and the remarkable similarities in food cravings and mood states between women who smoke and women who are obese suggest that common biological mechanisms modulate cravings for fat in these women.

  20. Analysis of Chosen Variables Psychological Determining the Occurrence of Mood Disorders After Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak, Marzena; Gierszewska, Małgorzata; Mieczkowska, Estera; Gebuza, Grażyna; Banaszkiewicz, Mariola

    2015-01-01

    Psychological factors are one of many that contribute to the increased risk of a psychiatric disorder's occurrence after childbirth. The aim of this work was to determine the relation between psychological variables, such as sense of self-efficacy and dispositional optimism, and the risk of mood disorder's occurrence in women after childbirth. Two hundred eighty five women, who gave birth in the University Hospital no. 2 in Bydgoszcz, took part in the study. To measure the risk occurrence of mood disorder symptoms after childbirth the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDPS) was used. Obtaining a score of 12 or more points out of 30 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was an indicator of mood disorders. To study psychological variables the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) were used. Twenty three point two percent of women obtained 12 or more points in the EDPS scale. The average result in GSES scale for all women who took part in the study was 30.80 and indicated a high estimation of women's own capabilities in dealing with new situations. Obtained results indicated a surprisingly small group of women with low estimation of their own capabilities (n = 15). However, negative correlation between EDPS and GSES parameters, on a statistically significant level (p mood disorders. Scores obtained in EDPS negatively correlated with the results in LOT-R (r = -0.43) and are statistically significant (p mood disorders. There is a negative correlation between the sense of self-efficacy and dispositional optimism and risk of occurrence of mood disorders after childbirth.

  1. Relationship between sleep and mood states among student-athlete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to examine the relationship between sleep and mood states on student-athlete. The respondent consists of 89 student-athletes from MajlisSukanNegeri, Perak. There were 53 male respondent (59.3%) and 36 female respondent (40.4%). These respondent were range from age 13 to 21 years old are chosen ...

  2. The effects of an aerobic exercise program on the mood states of premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Ramírez Balas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between physical activity and psychological health has been stated in recent investigations. Nevertheless, most studies report the physical health benefits, but not the benefits on mood states. Therefore, this research tries to observe the changes on parameters of mood in premenopausal women after an aerobic training. The study included 20 premenopausal women, separated into two groups: younger than 35 years (n = 10 and over 35 years (n = 10. The experimental subjects underwent an assessment of mood before and after an aerobic training. A physical activity program was performed during 5 months, 3 days a week. Exercise sessions lasted 60 minutes and with an intensity between 60 to 70 % of reserve maximum heart rate. Results indicate improves the vigor and reduces the anxiety levels in over 35 years premenopausal women; in contrast, younger than 35 years caused no significant change. The conclusion of this study is that an aerobic exercise program based in aerobics, step and toning classes, improves the mood states in over 35 years premenopausal women.

  3. Food insecurity in adults with mood disorders: prevalence estimates and associations with nutritional and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Karen M; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2015-01-01

    Because little is known about food insecurity in people with mental health conditions, we investigated relationships among food insecurity, nutrient intakes, and psychological functioning in adults with mood disorders. Data from a study of adults randomly selected from the membership list of the Mood Disorder Association of British Columbia (n = 97), Canada, were analyzed. Food insecurity status was based on validated screening questions asking if in the past 12 months did the participant, due to a lack of money, worry about or not have enough food to eat. Nutrient intakes were derived from 3-day food records and compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Psychological functioning measures included Global Assessment of Functioning, Hamilton Depression scale, and Young Mania Rating Scale. Using binomial tests of two proportions, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Poisson regression we examined: (1) food insecurity prevalence between the study respondents and a general population sample from the British Columbia Nutrition Survey (BCNS; n = 1,823); (2) differences in nutrient intakes based on food insecurity status; and (3) associations of food insecurity and psychological functioning using bivariate and Poisson regression statistics. In comparison to the general population (BCNS), food insecurity was significantly more prevalent in the adults with mood disorders (7.3% in BCNS vs 36.1%; p food-insecure had lower median intakes of carbohydrates and vitamin C (p food insecurity had protein, folate, and zinc intakes below the DRI benchmark of potential inadequacy (p food insecurity and mania symptoms (adjusted prevalence ratio = 2.37, 95% CI 1.49-3.75, p Food insecurity is associated with both nutritional and psychological health in adults with mood disorders. Investigation of interventions aimed at food security and income can help establish its role in enhancing mental health.

  4. Dopamine and light: dissecting effects on mood and motivational states in women with subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, Elizabeth I; Park, Sarah; aan het Rot, Marije; Sancton, Kimberley; Benkelfat, Chawki; Young, Simon N; Boivin, Diane B; Leyton, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Despite evidence that bright light can improve mood, the neurobiology remains poorly understood. Some evidence implicates the catecholamines. In the present study, we measured the effects of transiently decreasing dopamine (DA) synthesis on mood and motivational states in healthy women with mild seasonal mood changes who were tested in either bright or dim light. On 2 test days, participants slept overnight in a light-controlled room. On the morning of each session, half of the participants awoke to gradual increases of bright light, up to 3000 lux, and half to dim light (10 lux). For all participants, DA was reduced on 1 of the test days using the acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method; on the other day, they ingested a nutritionally balanced control mixture (BAL). Beginning 4 hours postingestion, participants completed subjective mood questionnaires, psychological tests and a progressive ratio breakpoint task during which they worked for successive units of $5. Thirty-two women participated in our study. The APTD lowered mood, agreeableness, energy and the willingness to work for monetary reward. The effects on energy and motivation were independent of light, while the effects on mood and agreeableness were seen in the dim condition only, being prevented by bright light. Acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion might affect systems other than DA. The sample size was small. These results suggest that increased DA function may be responsible for some of the beneficial effects of light, while adding to the evidence that the neurobiology of mood and motivational states can be dissociated.

  5. Negative mood regulation expectancies moderate the relationship between psychological abuse and avoidant coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd-McMullen, Cassandra; Mearns, Jack; Stokes, Julie E; Mechanic, Mindy B

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the relationships among psychological abuse, attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV), negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE), and coping. Participants were 126 female college students in dating, cohabitating, or married relationships within the previous year. In one single session, they completed self-report scales measuring IPV, NMRE, and coping. Results indicated that women reporting higher levels of psychological abuse reported less negative attitudes toward IPV, engaged in less-active coping responses, and had lower NMRE. Psychological abuse was a significant predictor of avoidant coping, while NMRE significantly predicted both active and avoidant coping. In addition, the interaction of NMRE × Psychological abuse added incremental prediction of avoidant coping. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Movies and mood: an exploration of the critical variables related to mood states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura L. Payne; Tammie Shaw; Linda L. Caldwell

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between movie viewing and mood, and to test the Pleasure Arousal Dominance (PAD) mood theory in a theater setting. The results of this exploratory study are presented here, challenging the PAD model, and providing suggestions for future research regarding the leisure and mood relationship.

  7. Correlation between serum testosterone levels and peripartal mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlagschwandtner, M; Husslein, P; Klier, C; Ulm, B

    2001-04-01

    We conducted a prospective study at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Vienna to investigate associations between serum testosterone levels and maternal peripartal mood states. Two hundred and fifty-two pregnant women at term (38 to 40 weeks' gestation) took part in the study. Blood samples for plasma testosterone levels and other biochemicals were obtained prepartum, and on the 1st and 3rd day postpartum. Mood was assessed with the McNair Profile of Mood States (POMS) at term pregnancy and daily from the first day after delivery until discharge from the hospital. The final study population consisted of 193 women. Serum testosterone levels correlated significantly with maternal depression scores, both pre- and post partum (at term r=0.148, p=0.04; 1st day postpartum r=0.156, p=0.03; and 2nd day postpartum r=0.186, p=0.02, respectively). Testosterone concentrations also correlated with anger prepartum (r=0.164, p=0.02) and on the third day after delivery (r=0.188, p=0.02). No significant correlation between testosterone concentration and fatigue and vigor both pre- and post partum, respectively were found. Serum testosterone levels correlate with depression and anger in the first postpartum days.

  8. Mood state sub-types in adults who stutter: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Yvonne; Blumgart, Elaine; Craig, Ashley

    2017-10-28

    Many adults who stutter have elevated negative mood states like anxiety and depressive mood. Little is known about how mood states change over time. The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories or sub-types of mood states in adults who stutter over a 6 month period, and establish factors that contribute to these sub-types. Participants included 129 adults who stutter who completed an assessment regimen at baseline, including a measure of mood states (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). Three mood states were assessed (interpersonal sensitivity or IS, depressive mood and anxiety) once a month over 6 months. Latent class growth mixture modeling was used to establish trajectories of change in these mood states over time. Logistic regression was then used to determine factors assessed at baseline that contribute to the IS trajectories. Three-class trajectory models were accepted as the best fit for IS, depressive mood and anxiety mood sub-types. Stable and normal mood state sub-types were found, incorporating around 60% of participants. Up to 40% belonged to sub-types comprising elevated levels of negative mood states. The logistic regression was conducted only with the IS domain, and revealed four factors that significantly contributed to IS mood sub-types. Those with low perceived control, low vitality, elevated social fears and being female were more likely to belong to elevated IS classes. This research revealed mood sub-types in adults who stutter, providing direction for the treatment of stuttering. Clarification of how much stuttering influences mood sub-types versus pre-existing mood is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of a commercial product containing guaraná on psychological well-being, anxiety and mood: a single-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrini, Gianluca Ivan; Marino, Franca; Cosentino, Marco

    2013-05-25

    Guaranà (Paulinia cupana) seed extracts are increasingly popular worldwide for their stimulant, cognitive and behavioral effects. To assess the effects on psychological well-being, anxiety and mood of a commercially available guaranà preparation taken regularly over several days according to the labelled dosages and instructions, 27 healthy volunteers were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Guaranà 350 mg × 3 daily just after breakfast or placebo were given for 5 consecutive days. Assessment was performed one day after the last intake and included the psychological well-being (PWB) scales, the self-rating anxiety state scale (SAS), and the Bond-Lader mood scales. There were no significant differences between guaranà and placebo in any of the 6 areas of PWB, in SAS, as well as in any of the 16 mood scales. In healthy subjects a 5-day treatment with a commercial preparation of guaranà used according to labelled instructions provided no evidence for any major effects on psychological well-being, anxiety and mood. Considering the increasing popularity of guaranà-containing products sold as dietary supplements for fitness purposes, controlled studies are strongly warranted to assess their benefits in comparison to the labelled claims.

  10. Exploring the effect of stress on mood, self-esteem, and daily habits with psychology graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinzie, Charla; Altamura, Vivian; Burgoon, Erica; Bishop, Christopher

    2006-10-01

    There are few empirical studies on the issues of psychology graduate students beyond dissertation research. Data from a sample of 65 psychology graduate students were analyzed to explore how stress relates to self-esteem, mood, and daily habits (eating, sleeping, smoking, exercise, and alcohol consumption). The results suggest that sleep patterns, exercise habits, and negative mood were significant correlates and predictors of stress. Findings prompt further investigation of the effects of the stress on psychology graduate students, which might aid in developing interventions leading to increased productivity, satisfaction, and global well-being for both graduate students and faculty.

  11. Expert consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of cancer-related depressed mood state based on Chinese medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaodan Tian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This consensus statement is organized into six parts: 1 Definitions: cancer-related depressed mood state is defined as a group of depressive symptoms, rather than major depressive disorder. Thus, “cancer-related depression” or “depressed mood state” is introduced as standard terminology and associated with the Chinese medicine concept of “yu zheng” (depression syndrome. 2 Pathogenesis: factors including psychological stress, cancer pain, cancer fatigue, sleep disorders, surgery trauma, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are strongly associated with cancer-related depressed mood state. Crucial elements of pathogenesis are cancer caused by depression, depression caused by cancer, and the concurrence of phlegm, dampness, and stasis from constrained liver-qi and spleen deficiency. 3 Symptoms: these include core symptoms, psychological symptoms, and somatic symptoms. Depressed mood and loss of interest are the main criteria for diagnosis. 4 Clinical evaluation: based on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a numeric rating scale, and taking mood changes during cancer diagnosis and treatment into consideration, a questionnaire can be drafted to distinguish between major depressive disorder and cancer-related depression. The aim is to assist oncology clinicians to identify, treat, and refer patients with cancer-related depression. 5 Diagnosis: diagnosis should be based on the Chinese Classification for Mental Disorders (CCMD-3, taking patients' mood changes during diagnosis and treatment into consideration. 6 Treatment: treatments for cancer-related depression must be performed concurrently with cancer treatment. For mild depression, non-pharmacologic comprehensive therapies, including psychological intervention, music therapy, patient education, physical activity, and acupuncture, are recommended; for moderate depression, classical Chinese herbal formulas based on syndrome pattern differentiation combined with

  12. Mood and heuristics: the influence of happy and sad states on sensitivity and bias in stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J; Banaji, M R

    2000-06-01

    The influence of mood states on the propensity to use heuristics as expressed in stereotypes was examined using signal detection statistics. Participants experienced happy, neutral, or sad moods and "remembered" whether names connoting race (African American, European American) belonged to social categories (criminal, politician, basketball player). Positive mood increased reliance on heuristics, indexed by higher false identification of members of stereotyped groups. Positive mood lowered sensitivity (d'), even among relative experts, and shifted bias (beta) or criterion to be more lenient for stereotypical names. In contrast, sad mood did not disrupt sensitivity and, in fact, revealed the use of a stricter criterion compared with baseline mood. Results support theories that characterize happy mood as a mental state that predisposes reliance on heuristics and sad mood as dampening such reliance.

  13. Mood States as Predictors of Characteristics and Precipitants of Suicidality among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Elaine A.; Becker, Martin A.; Pituch, Keenan A.; Saathoff, Andrea K.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines college students' self-reported mood states during a suicidal crisis and the relationship between mood and indicators of suicidality. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that the moods of hopelessness and anger predicted stronger intent; anxiety/worry predicted weaker thoughts of suicide; hopelessness increased the odds of…

  14. Effects of mindfulness-based psychological care on mood and sleep of leukemia patients in chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixing Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this research was to explore the benefits of mindfulness-based psychological care (MBPC and assess whether the intervention would be beneficial in reducing insomnia and emotional symptoms of leukemia patients receiving chemotherapy. Methods: A randomized control design study was applied in two hematology departments in a hospital in Zhengzhou. Patients in the experimental group received mindfulness-based psychological care(MBPC, and those in the control group received conventional care. Anxiety, depression, and sleeping problems were measured using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed among anxiety, depression, and sleeping problems between the two groups in the post-test (P < 0.05. A significant decrease in anxiety and depression and an improvement in sleep were observed between pre- and post-interventions (P < 0.05 in the experimental group. Conclusions: MBPC significantly improved sleep quality and mood of the experimental group. It is an effective complementary therapy for leukemia treatment that is inexpensive, noninvasive, and associated with relaxation and pain reduction. Keywords: Chemotherapy, Leukemia, Mood, Sleep, Mindfulness

  15. Encoding-related EEG oscillations during memory formation are modulated by mood state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Matti; Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-12-01

    Mood states have a strong impact on how we process incoming information. It has been proposed that positive mood facilitates elaborative, relational encoding, whereas negative mood promotes a more careful, stimulus-driven encoding style. Previous electrophysiological studies have linked successful information encoding to power increases in slow (30 Hz) gamma oscillations, as well as to power decreases in midrange (8-30 Hz) alpha/beta oscillations. Whether different mood states modulate encoding-related oscillations has not been investigated yet. In order to address this question, we used an experimental mood induction procedure and recorded electroencephalograms from 20 healthy participants while they performed a free recall memory task after positive and negative mood induction. We found distinct oscillatory patterns in positive and negative mood. Successful encoding in positive mood was accompanied by widespread power increases in the delta band, whereas encoding success in negative mood was specifically accompanied by frontal power decreases in the beta band. On the behavioral level, memory performance was enhanced in positive mood. Our findings show that mood differentially modulates the neural correlates of successful information encoding and thus contribute to an understanding of how mood shapes different processing styles. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Relationship between uncertainty in illness, mood state and coping style in patients with temporomandibular disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dong-Ye; Ye, Jing-Jing; Zhou, Feng; Li, Jue-jun; Huang, Qiu-yu; Wan, Li-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between uncertainty in illness, mood state and coping style in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in the hospital, in order to identify nursing measures. Methods: Chinese versions of the Mishel Uncertainty In Illness Scale (MUIS), Brief Profile Of Mood States (BPOMS) and Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ) were used to assess uncertainty in illness, mood state and coping style, respectively, in 126 patients with TMD. Results:...

  17. Psychological influence on the psychical state of hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiel-Matusiewicz, K

    2006-09-01

    The great progress that has been made in application of dialyses lets the patients with chronic kidney disorders live in satisfactory somatic state for many years. The patients' quality of life becomes a more often raised issue. The psychological problems accompanying this form of treatment have many aspects that are worth paying attention to, e.g., mood reduction or resignation attitude. The symptoms that usually occur in depression gain special significance in the case of patients treated with dialyses. Loss of appetite in these patients may lead to a prompt occurrence of metabolic disorders. Mood reduction may result in willingness to give up treatment. Depression symptoms are a significant early indication of bad prognosis as to survival of patients treated with dialyses.

  18. "I love you forever (more or less)" - stability and change in adolescents' romantic love status and associations with mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoghli, Hafez; Farnia, Vahid; Joshaghani, Narges; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Experiencing romantic love is an important part of individual development. Here, we investigated stability and change in romantic love and psychological correlates, including mood states, anxiety, and sleep, among Iranian adolescents over a period of 8 months. Two hundred and one adolescents who had taken part in a previous study were contacted; 157 responded. Participants completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic data, current state of love, and mood, including symptoms of depression, anxiety (state and trait), and hypomania. They also completed a sleep and activity log. Of 64 participants formerly in love, 45 were still in love; of 86 participants not in love at baseline, 69 were still not in love (overall stability, 76%); 17 had fallen in love recently while 19 were no longer in love. Significant and important changes in mood and anxiety were observed in that experiencing romantic love was associated with higher anxiety scores. Hypomania scores increased in those newly in love, and decreased in those in a longer-lasting romantic relationship. Sleep and sleep-related variables were not associated with romantic love status. These findings suggest that, among Iranian adolescents, the state of love is fairly stable, and that love status seems to be associated with specific states of mood and anxiety.

  19. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES AND MOOD STATES AFTER DAILY REPEATED PROLONGED EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Väänänen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the physiological responses to daily repeated acute but non-competitive prolonged exercise during a 4-day march and a 2-day cross-country ski event to the cardiorespiratory, autonomic nervous, musculoskeletal and endocrine systems. Mood states were also evaluated after these repeated exercises. The data of these short-term follow-up (reversal field trials was collected from healthy, 23 to 48 year old Finnish male soldiers in 1993 (n=6 and 1994 (n=15 during the "International Four-Day Long-Distance March" in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, and from ten healthy, 22 to 48 year old Finnish male participants in 1995 during a 2-day Finlandia Ski Race in Lahti, Finland. Acute cardiovascular responses were estimated by measuring the heart rate during exercise. The responses of the autonomic nervous system were estimated by measuring the heart rates during the orthostatic test. The musculoskeletal responses were estimated by measuring the perceived pains, flexibility, functional strength, use of elastic energy and oedemic changes of the lower extremities. Hormonal responses were estimated from the urinary excretion of catecholamines, and the concentrations of serum cortisol, testosterone, luteinizing (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. Mood states were assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire. Daily walking time was 7-10 hours while the skiing time was 3 hours. Average heart rate during walking was 59% and skiing 87% of maximum heart rate. Morning heart rate in the supine position increased progressively through the marching period but not through the skiing experiment. After the first day, perceived pain increased significantly and remained at a similarly increased level until the end of the exercise period. Leg measurements showed no signs of oedema, decreases in flexibility, or functional strength. Catecholamine excretion rates during marches indicated cumulatively increased

  20. Decision making under uncertainty and information processing in positive and negative mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sachi Nandan; Suar, Damodar

    2014-08-01

    This study examines whether mood states (a) influence decision making under uncertainty and (b) affect information processing. 200 students at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur participated in this study. Positive mood was induced by showing comedy movie clips to 100 participants and negative mood was induced by showing tragedy movie clips to another 100 participants. The participants were administered a questionnaire containing hypothetical situations of financial gains and losses, and a health risk problem. The participants selected a choice for each situation, and stated the reasons for their choice. Results suggested that the participants preferred cautious choices in the domain of gain and in health risk problems and risky choices in the domain of loss. Analysis of the reasons for the participants' choices suggested more fluency, originality, and flexibility of information in a negative mood compared to a positive mood. A negative (positive) mood state facilitated systematic (heuristic) information processing.

  1. Effects of maharishi yoga asanas on mood states, happiness, and experiences during meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Gobec

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context/Background: Many studies showed positive effects of Yoga Asanas. There is no study on Maharishi Yoga Asanas yet. This research replicated and expanded observed improvements on the profile of mood states (POMS as a result of 2-week Maharishi Yoga Asanas course. Thirteen college students taking part in a 4-week course on Maharishi Yoga Asanas were matched with 13 students taking other courses at the university. Aims and Objective: The main objective of the study was to assess the effects of Maharishi Yoga Asanas on mood states, degree of happiness, and experiences in Transcendental Meditation (TM practice. Methods: All students were given two psychological tests and additional question before and after their 4-week course: POMS, Meditation Depth Questionnaire, and question about the degree of happiness. Results: Repeated measure MANOVA showed the 4-week Maharishi Yoga Asanas course resulted in significant increase in happiness during the day and significant improvements in (1 sense of personal self, (2 transpersonal qualities, and (3 transpersonal self during their TM practice. Conclusion: This research shows that Maharishi Yoga Asanas affect more than body and mind. Rather they influence much deeper levels of one's subjectivity including one's transpersonal self.

  2. Effects of Maharishi Yoga Asanas on Mood States, Happiness, and Experiences during Meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobec, Sonja; Travis, Frederick

    2018-01-01

    Many studies showed positive effects of Yoga Asanas. There is no study on Maharishi Yoga Asanas yet. This research replicated and expanded observed improvements on the profile of mood states (POMS) as a result of 2-week Maharishi Yoga Asanas course. Thirteen college students taking part in a 4-week course on Maharishi Yoga Asanas were matched with 13 students taking other courses at the university. The main objective of the study was to assess the effects of Maharishi Yoga Asanas on mood states, degree of happiness, and experiences in Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice. All students were given two psychological tests and additional question before and after their 4-week course: POMS, Meditation Depth Questionnaire, and question about the degree of happiness. Repeated measure MANOVA showed the 4-week Maharishi Yoga Asanas course resulted in significant increase in happiness during the day and significant improvements in (1) sense of personal self, (2) transpersonal qualities, and (3) transpersonal self during their TM practice. This research shows that Maharishi Yoga Asanas affect more than body and mind. Rather they influence much deeper levels of one's subjectivity including one's transpersonal self.

  3. Impaired sensory processing measured by functional MRI in Bipolar disorder manic and depressed mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Joseph J; Johnson, Casey P; Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Christensen, Gary E; Wemmie, John A; Magnotta, Vincent A

    2017-07-03

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by recurring episodes of depression and mania. Defining differences in brain function during these states is an important goal of bipolar disorder research. However, few imaging studies have directly compared brain activity between bipolar mood states. Herein, we compare functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses during a flashing checkerboard stimulus between bipolar participants across mood states (euthymia, depression, and mania) in order to identify functional differences between these states. 40 participants with bipolar I disorder and 33 healthy controls underwent fMRI during the presentation of the stimulus. A total of 23 euthymic-state, 16 manic-state, 15 depressed-state, and 32 healthy control imaging sessions were analyzed in order to compare functional activation during the stimulus between mood states and with healthy controls. A reduced response was identified in the visual cortex in both the depressed and manic groups compared to euthymic and healthy participants. Functional differences between bipolar mood states were also observed in the cerebellum, thalamus, striatum, and hippocampus. Functional differences between mood states occurred in several brain regions involved in visual and other sensory processing. These differences suggest that altered visual processing may be a feature of mood states in bipolar disorder. The key limitations of this study are modest mood-state group size and the limited temporal resolution of fMRI which prevents the segregation of primary visual activity from regulatory feedback mechanisms.

  4. Bipolar mood state reflected in cortico-amygdala resting state connectivity: A cohort and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Roscoe O; Margolis, Allison; Masters, Grace A; Keshavan, Matcheri; Öngür, Dost

    2017-08-01

    Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), we previously compared cohorts of bipolar I subjects in a manic state to those in a euthymic state to identify mood state-specific patterns of cortico-amygdala connectivity. Our results suggested that mania is reflected in the disruption of emotion regulation circuits. We sought to replicate this finding in a group of subjects with bipolar disorder imaged longitudinally across states of mania and euthymia METHODS: We divided our subjects into three groups: 26 subjects imaged in a manic state, 21 subjects imaged in a euthymic state, and 10 subjects imaged longitudinally across both mood states. We measured differences in amygdala connectivity between the mania and euthymia cohorts. We then used these regions of altered connectivity to examine connectivity in the longitudinal bipolar group using a within-subjects design. Our findings in the mania vs euthymia cohort comparison were replicated in the longitudinal analysis. Bipolar mania was differentiated from euthymia by decreased connectivity between the amygdala and pre-genual anterior cingulate cortex. Mania was also characterized by increased connectivity between amygdala and the supplemental motor area, a region normally anti-correlated to the amygdala in emotion regulation tasks. Stringent controls for movement effects limited the number of subjects in the longitudinal sample. In this first report of rsfMRI conducted longitudinally across mood states, we find that previously observed between-group differences in amygdala connectivity are also found longitudinally within subjects. These results suggest resting state cortico-amygdala connectivity is a biomarker of mood state in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The interplay between sleep and mood in predicting academic functioning, physical health and psychological health: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mark Lawrence; Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Wan, Jacky Ho Yin; Cheung, Shu Fai; Hui, C Harry; Mok, Doris Shui Ying

    2013-04-01

    Existing studies on sleep and behavioral outcomes are mostly correlational. Longitudinal data is limited. The current longitudinal study assessed how sleep duration and sleep quality may be causally linked to daytime functions, including physical health (physical well-being and daytime sleepiness), psychological health (mood and self-esteem) and academic functioning (school grades and study effort). The mediation role of mood in the relationship between sleep quality, sleep duration and these daytime functions is also assessed. A sample of 930 Chinese students (aged 18-25) from Hong Kong/Macau completed self-reported questionnaires online across three academic semesters. Sleep behaviors are assessed by the sleep timing questionnaire (for sleep duration and weekday/weekend sleep discrepancy) and the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (sleep quality); physical health by the World Health Organization quality of life scale-brief version (physical well-being) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (daytime sleepiness); psychological health by the depression anxiety stress scale (mood) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (self-esteem) and academic functioning by grade-point-average and the college student expectation questionnaire (study effort). Structural equation modeling with a bootstrap resample of 5000 showed that after controlling for demographics and participants' daytime functions at baseline, academic functions, physical and psychological health were predicted by the duration and quality of sleep. While some sleep behaviors directly predicted daytime functions, others had an indirect effect on daytime functions through negative mood, such as anxiety. Sleep duration and quality have direct and indirect (via mood) effects on college students' academic function, physical and psychological health. Our findings underscore the importance of healthy sleep patterns for better adjustment in college years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of progressive muscle relaxation and autogenic relaxation on young soccer players' mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Hanafi Ahmad Yusof, Hazwani

    2011-06-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic relaxation (AGR) on moods of young soccer players. sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3) received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States- Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players' mood states.

  7. The Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Autogenic Relaxation on Young Soccer Players’ Mood States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Hanafi@Ahmad Yusof, Hazwani

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic relaxation (AGR) on moods of young soccer players. Methods Sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3) received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States- Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Results Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. Conclusion These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players’ mood states. PMID:22375225

  8. A review of empirically supported psychological therapies for mood disorders in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollon, Steven D; Ponniah, Kathryn

    2010-10-01

    The mood disorders are prevalent and problematic. We review randomized controlled psychotherapy trials to find those that are empirically supported with respect to acute symptom reduction and the prevention of subsequent relapse and recurrence. We searched the PsycINFO and PubMed databases and the reference sections of chapters and journal articles to identify appropriate articles. One hundred twenty-five studies were found evaluating treatment efficacy for the various mood disorders. With respect to the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), and behavior therapy (BT) are efficacious and specific and brief dynamic therapy (BDT) and emotion-focused therapy (EFT) are possibly efficacious. CBT is efficacious and specific, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) efficacious, and BDT and EFT possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence following treatment termination and IPT and CBT are each possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence if continued or maintained. IPT is possibly efficacious in the treatment of dysthymic disorder. With respect to bipolar disorder (BD), CBT and family-focused therapy (FFT) are efficacious and interpersonal social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) possibly efficacious as adjuncts to medication in the treatment of depression. Psychoeducation (PE) is efficacious in the prevention of mania/hypomania (and possibly depression) and FFT is efficacious and IPSRT and CBT possibly efficacious in preventing bipolar episodes. The newer psychological interventions are as efficacious as and more enduring than medications in the treatment of MDD and may enhance the efficacy of medications in the treatment of BD. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Practitioner review: maternal mood in pregnancy and child development--implications for child psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Monk, Catherine; Fitelson, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    The empirical base suggesting a link between prenatal maternal anxiety, stress or depression and cognitive, behavioral, and biological outcomes in the infant and child has increased dramatically in the past 10 years. In this review, we consider the relevance of prenatal maternal mood for child mental health practitioners; the empirical base for a likely causal impact of the link between prenatal anxiety, depression, or stress and child outcomes; the degree to which the available evidence is sufficient for informing or altering clinical practice; and the possible role of prenatal interventions for promoting child health and development. A selective review of PubMed, Cochrane Library and other sources was undertaken. Clinically significant links between maternal prenatal distress and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes have been reported; predictions to stress physiology, immunology, and neurodevelopment have been reported but the effect sizes and clinical significance is less clear. Several candidate mechanisms have been proposed, with some supporting evidence. Many behavioral treatments for prenatal maternal distress exist, but their application to promoting child health is largely unknown. Research on maternal prenatal distress is a good example of translational research and offers a strong paradigm for promoting interdisciplinary clinical research on child health and development. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  10. Older adults' attentional deployment: Differential gaze patterns for different negative mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeyer, Ineke; Sanchez, Alvaro; De Raedt, Rudi

    2017-06-01

    Older adults are characterized by an attentional preference for positive over negative information. Since this positivity effect is considered to be an emotion regulation strategy, it should be more pronounced when emotion regulation is needed. In contrast to previous studies that focused on the effects of sad mood on attention, we used a stressor to activate emotion regulation and evaluate the effects of different types of mood state changes. Moreover, we evaluated mood effects on attentional processes using a paradigm that allows disentangling between different attentional engagement and disengagement processes. Sixty older adults were randomly assigned to receive a stressor or a control task. Before and after this manipulation, mood state levels (happy, sad, nervous, calm) were assessed. Next, attentional processing of happy, sad, and angry faces was investigated using an eye-tracking paradigm in which participants had to either engage their attention towards or disengage their attention away from emotional stimuli. Changes in different mood state levels were associated with different attentional disengagement strategies. As expected, older adults who increased in sad mood level showed a larger positivity effect as evidenced by a longer time to disengage attention from happy faces. However, older adults who received the tension induction and who decreased in calm mood level were characterized by longer times to disengage attention from sad faces. The stressor was only partially effective as it led to changes in calm mood, but not in nervous mood. These results suggest that older adults may deploy a positivity effect in attention (i.e., longer times to disengage from positive information) in order to regulate sad mood, but that this effect may be hampered during the confrontation with stressors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A qualitative study exploring the experience of people with IBD and elevated symptoms of anxiety and low mood and the type of psychological help they would like.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Cheryl; Ohlsen, Ruth; Hayee, Bu'Hussain; Chalder, Trudie

    2017-09-26

    People with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of developing anxiety and low mood. We sought to explore the experience of people with IBD and moderate-severe symptoms of anxiety/low mood to identify psychological processes which could be targeted in psychological interventions, as well as the kind of psychological support preferred. Twenty-five participants with IBD and moderate-severe symptoms of anxiety/low mood were recruited for interview. Template analysis was utilised to analyse interview data. We explored the situations, cognitions and behaviour linked to symptoms of anxiety and low mood by people with IBD, as well as the kind of psychological help preferred. Two themes were identified within participants accounts of symptoms of anxiety; 'under performance' and 'preventing an accident'. Two further themes were identified for symptoms of low mood; 'lack of understanding' and 'stigma'. Expertise and understanding was the main theme identified for the type of psychological help desired. The analysis highlights situations, cognitions and behaviour linked to anxiety and low mood by people with IBD and the type of psychological support desired. Our findings link to the knowledge and competencies set for psychological therapist working with long-term conditions.

  12. Relationship between uncertainty in illness, mood state and coping style in patients with temporomandibular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-ye Yang

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Both uncertainty in illness and mood state were related to coping style. These data suggest that nurses should be trained to offer appropriate guidance to help decrease patients' uncertainty in illness and relieve their negative emotions.

  13. Causal Attributions of Success and Failure and Mood States in Football Players

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joanna Szczepaniak; Monika Guszkowska

    2016-01-01

    .... The research was carried out using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) by D.M. McNair, M. Lorr, and L.F. Droppleman and a specially designed questionnaire concerning the causal attributions of success and failure...

  14. Adult and geriatric normative data and validation of the profile of mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenhuis, D L; Yamamoto, C; Luchetta, T; Terrien, A; Parmentier, A

    1999-01-01

    The Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman) is widely used to assess mood states. However, the utility of the POMS has been restricted by the lack of normative data from the general population. We report on our adult (N = 400) and geriatric (N = 170) POMS standardization samples. Both groups were age-, gender-, and race-stratified according to 1990 census data. We also report on convergent and discriminant validity of POMS scales, using a multitrait, multimethod paradigm.

  15. How to measure mood in nutrition research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersley, Richard; Reid, Marie; Atkin, Stephen L

    2014-12-01

    Mood is widely assessed in nutrition research, usually with rating scales. A core assumption is that positive mood reinforces ingestion, so it is important to measure mood well. Four relevant theoretical issues are reviewed: (i) the distinction between protracted and transient mood; (ii) the distinction between mood and emotion; (iii) the phenomenology of mood as an unstable tint to consciousness rather than a distinct state of consciousness; (iv) moods can be caused by social and cognitive processes as well as physiological ones. Consequently, mood is difficult to measure and mood rating is easily influenced by non-nutritive aspects of feeding, the psychological, social and physical environment where feeding occurs, and the nature of the rating system employed. Some of the difficulties are illustrated by reviewing experiments looking at the impact of food on mood. The mood-rating systems in common use in nutrition research are then reviewed, the requirements of a better mood-rating system are described, and guidelines are provided for a considered choice of mood-rating system including that assessment should: have two main dimensions; be brief; balance simplicity and comprehensiveness; be easy to use repeatedly. Also mood should be assessed only under conditions where cognitive biases have been considered and controlled.

  16. Factors contributing to depressive mood states in everyday life: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Rachel; Fuller Tyszkiewicz, Matthew D

    2016-08-01

    Although accumulated evidence suggests that fluctuations in depressed mood are common among individuals with depression, and may be associated with onset, duration, and severity of illness, a systematic appraisal of putative predictors of depressed mood is lacking. A systematic search for relevant studies in the literature was conducted using PsycInfo and PubMed databases via EbscoHost in February 2016. The search was limited to articles using the experience sampling method, an approach suitable for capturing in situ fluctuations in mood states. Forty-two studies met inclusion criteria for the review, from which three key risk factors (poor sleep, stress, and significant life events) and two protective factors (physical activity and quality of social interactions) were identified. The majority of papers supported concurrent and lagged associations between these putative protective/risk factors and depressed mood. Despite support for each of the proposed protective/risk factors, few studies evaluated multiple factors in the same study. Moreover, the time course for the effects of these predictors on depressed mood remains largely unknown. The present review identified several putative risk and protective factors for depressed mood. A review of the literature suggests that poor sleep, negative social interactions, and stressful negative events may temporally precede spikes in depressed mood. In contrast, exercise and positive social interactions have been shown to predict subsequent declines in depressed mood. However, the lack of multivariate models in which the unique contributions of various predictors could be evaluated means that the current state of knowledge prevents firm conclusions about which factors are most predictive of depressed mood. More complex modeling of these effects is necessary in order to provide insights useful for clinical treatment in daily life of the depressed mood component of depressive disorders. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by

  17. Effects of mood state on impulsivity in pathological buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Jennifer; Darancó, Stefaniá; Moshagen, Morten

    2016-10-30

    Pathological buying is characterized by irrepressible buying behaviour and its negative consequences. A possible mechanism contributing to its development and maintenance is that buying episodes act as a maladaptive strategy to cope with negative emotions. Accordingly, pathological buying has been repeatedly associated with impulsivity, in particular with the tendency to experience strong reactions under negative affect. Relying on an experimental mood induction procedure, the present study tested in a sample of 100 individuals (a) whether individuals with pathological buying symptoms respond more impulsively in the Go/No-Go Task (as a measure of the behavioural inhibition aspect of impulsivity) and (b) whether this association is more pronounced in a negative mood. While controlling for comorbidities, the results show that pathological buying is associated with faster responses and a larger number of commission errors. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that the association between pathological buying and performance the Go/No-Go Task was stronger in the negative mood condition. The present study thus shows that pathological buying is associated with deficits in the behavioural inhibition component of impulsivity. These deficits are most pronounced when mood is negative; in turn, this provides an explanation for the occurrence of excessive buying episodes following negative affect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of cholinesterase inhibiting sage (Salvia officinalis) on mood, anxiety and performance on a psychological stressor battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David O; Pace, Sonia; Haskell, Crystal; Okello, Edward J; Milne, Anthea; Scholey, Andrew B

    2006-04-01

    Salvia officinalis (sage) has previously been shown both to possess in vitro cholinesterase inhibiting properties, and to enhance mnemonic performance and improve mood in healthy young participants. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 30 healthy participants attended the laboratory on three separate days, 7 days apart, receiving a different treatment in counterbalanced order on each occasion (placebo, 300, 600 mg dried sage leaf). On each day mood was assessed predose and at 1 and 4 h postdose. Each mood assessment comprised completion of Bond-Lader mood scales and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and after 20 min performance of the Defined Intensity Stress Simulator (DISS) computerized multitasking battery. In a concomitant investigation, an extract of the sage leaf exhibited dose-dependent, in vitro inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and, to a greater extent, butyrylcholinesterase. Both doses of sage led to improved ratings of mood in the absence of the stressor (that is, in pre-DISS mood scores) postdose, with the lower dose reducing anxiety and the higher dose increasing 'alertness', 'calmness' and 'contentedness' on the Bond-Lader mood scales. The reduced anxiety effect following the lower dose was, however, abolished by performing the DISS, with the same dose also being associated with a reduction of alertness during performance. Task performance on the DISS battery was improved for the higher dose at both postdose sessions, but reduced for the lower dose at the later testing session. The results confirm previous observations of the cholinesterase inhibiting properties of S. officinalis, and improved mood and cognitive performance following the administration of single doses to healthy young participants.

  19. Influence of consumption of a high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meal on the physiological cortisol and psychological mood response in men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie G Lemmens

    Full Text Available Consumption of meals with different macronutrient contents, especially high in carbohydrates, may influence the stress-induced physiological and psychological response. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of consumption of a high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meal on the physiological cortisol response and psychological mood response. Subjects (n = 38, 19 m/19f, age =25 ± 9 yrs, BMI  = 25.0 ± 3.3 kg/m² came to the university four times, fasted, for either condition: rest-protein, stress-protein, rest-carbohydrate, stress-carbohydrate (randomized cross-over design. Stress was induced by means of a psychological computer-test. The test-meal was either a high-protein meal (En% P/C/F 65/5/30 or a high-carbohydrate meal (En% P/C/F 6/64/30, both meals were matched for energy density (4 kJ/g and daily energy requirements (30%. Per test-session salivary cortisol levels, appetite profile, mood state and level of anxiety were measured. High hunger, low satiety (81 ± 16, 12 ± 15 mm VAS confirmed the fasted state. The stress condition was confirmed by increased feelings of depression, tension, anger, anxiety (AUC stress vs. rest p 0.1. Consumption of the test-meals increased cortisol levels in men in all conditions (p < 0.01, and in women in the rest-protein and stress-protein condition (p < 0.03. Men showed higher cortisol levels than women (AUC nmol·min/L p < 0.0001. Consumption of meals with different macronutrient contents, i.e. high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate, does not influence the physiological and psychological response differentially. Men show a higher meal-induced salivary cortisol response compared with women.

  20. Disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, and mood state in female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa FORTES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, mood, and disordered eating in female adolescents. Methods Three hundred and seventy one adolescents aged between 12 and 16 years of age participated in this research. The Body Shape Questionnaire, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Brunel Mood Scale, and the Eating Attitudes Test - 26 were used to assess, respectively, body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, mood state, and disordered eating. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to determine the relationship between the independent variables and the Eating Attitudes Test subscale scores. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to compare the Eating Attitudes Test subscale scores according to body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, and mood state classifications. Results The findings showed that body dissatisfaction (p=0.001, perfectionism (p=0.04, and mood state (p=0.05 were associated with disordered eating in the female adolescents evaluated. Despite the statistically significant results obtained for all independent variables, it is worth mentioning that body dissatisfaction was the main determinant of disordered eating in the multiple regression model. Conclusion It can be concluded that body dissatisfaction explains the variance in disordered eating; however, it is also important to note that perfectionism and mood state are also associated to the disordered eating in female adolescents, although to a lesser extent.

  1. Vitamins and psychological functioning: a mobile phone assessment of the effects of a B vitamin complex, vitamin C and minerals on cognitive performance and subjective mood and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David O; Veasey, Rachel C; Watson, Anthony W; Dodd, Fiona L; Jones, Emma K; Tiplady, Brian; Haskell, Crystal F

    2011-01-01

    Despite being widely consumed, the effects of multi-vitamin supplements on psychological functioning have received little research attention. Using a mobile phone testing paradigm, 198 males (30-55 years) in full-time employment took part in this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups trial assessing the effects of a multi-vitamin/mineral on cognitive performance and psychological state/mood. Participants completed two cognitive tasks and a number of visual analogue scales (VAS) before and after a full day's work, on the day before, and 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after, commencing their treatment. Participants in the vitamin/mineral group rated themselves as having greater 'physical stamina' across assessments and weeks. They also rated themselves as having had greater 'concentration' and 'mental stamina' during the working day at the assessment carried out after a day's work, but not at the time of the assessment completed prior to work. Participants in this group also reported greater subjective 'alertness' on Bond-Lader mood scales during the post-work assessment on day 14 and both the pre and post-work assessments on day 28. These findings complement the results from the laboratory-based, randomised-controlled trial in the same cohort and suggest that healthy members of the general population may benefit from augmented levels of vitamins/minerals via direct dietary supplementation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Dinâmicas sociais e estados de humor Social dynamics and mood states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Rebustini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar as relações das dinâmicas sociais (família, amigos e escola; i.e., três fatores sociais sobre os estados de humor. A pesquisa foi realizada com uma equipe feminina de voleibol (14/15 anos. Aplicou-se o teste POMS (Profile of Mood States para mensurar os estados de humor. Foi utilizada uma escala de 1 (muito mal a 5 (muito bem para que as atletas avaliassem cada um dos três fatores. Os resultados apontaram correlações significativas entre as escalas e os estados de humor; e diferenças significativas entre os níveis de intensidade apontados na escala dos três fatores e os estados de humor. Os resultados indicam clara interferência das dinâmicas sociais sobre os estados de humor, portanto, as interferências sociais não podem ser descartadas na preparação do atleta.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of social dynamics (family, friends and school; i.e., three social factors on mood states. The survey was conducted with a women's volleyball team (14/15 years. The POMS test (Profile of Mood States was employed to measure the team's mood states. The athletes assessed the three factors by the use of a Likert scale ranging from 1 (very bad to 5 (very good. Results showed significant correlations between scales and mood states, and significant differences between the intensity levels representing their moods for each of the three factors. The results show clear interference of social dynamics on the mood states. Therefore, social interference cannot be ignored during an athlete's training program.

  3. The effects of group music therapy on mood states and cohesiveness in adult oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldon, E G

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the efficacy of a music therapy protocol on mood states and levels of group cohesiveness in adult oncology patients. Eleven oncology patients in 2 groups (ages 30 to 84 years) took part in the study over a 10-week period of time (10 participants completed the study). During that period, participants took part in 8 music therapy sessions consisting of 2 types of interventions: (a) 4 "music making" sessions (where the mechanism for change included the process of making music) and (b) 4 "music responding" sessions (where the mechanism included the process of responding to music). The two types of music therapy sessions and their effectiveness on improving mood states and group cohesiveness were examined. The Profile of Mood States-Short Form (POMS-SF) was used to assess changes in participants' mood states. A content analysis, attendance records, and a questionnaire were used to assess levels of group cohesiveness. Results showed significant improvement in mood state scores (from presession levels to postsessions levels) after involvement in all music therapy sessions. Similar significant findings were found within each of the "music making" and "music responding" conditions but no differences were found when comparisons were made between those conditions. No statistically significant effects were found with respect to group cohesiveness measures. Study implications and future research directions are discussed.

  4. Variation in normal mood state influences sensitivity to dynamic changes in emotional expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Margaret C; Arlegui-Prieto, Maritxu

    2016-03-01

    Normal social functioning depends on the ability to efficiently and accurately detect when someone's facial expression changes to convey positive or negative emotion. While observer mood state has been shown to influence emotion recognition, how variations in normal mood might influence sensitivity to the dynamic emergence of expressions has not yet been addressed. To investigate this, we modified an existing face-morphing paradigm in which a central face gradually changes from neutral to expressive (angry, sad, happy, surprised). Our sample comprised healthy young adults, and current mood state was measured using the PANAS-X. Participants pressed a key as soon as they (1) noticed a physical change in expression (perceptual sensitivity-novel task element), and (2) could clearly conceptualize which expression was emerging (conceptual sensitivity). A final unspeeded response required participants to explicitly label the expression as a measure of recognition accuracy. We measured the percentage morph (expression intensity) at which a perceptual and conceptual change was detected, where greater intensity equates to poorer sensitivity. Increased positive mood reduced perceptual and conceptual sensitivity to angry and sad expressions only (a mood incongruency effect). Of particular interest, increased negative mood decreased conceptual sensitivity for all expressions, but had limited impact on perceptual sensitivity. Thus, heightened negative mood is particularly detrimental for effectively decoding someone else's mood change. This may reflect greater introspection and consumption of attentional resources directed toward the negative self, leaving fewer resources to process emotional signals conveyed by others. This could have important consequences for human social interaction. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The role of life events and psychological factors in the onset of first and recurrent mood episodes in bipolar offspring: results from the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemner, S M; Mesman, E; Nolen, W A; Eijckemans, M J C; Hillegers, M H J

    2015-01-01

    Life events are an established risk factor for the onset and recurrence of unipolar and bipolar mood episodes, especially in the presence of genetic vulnerability. The dynamic interplay between life events and psychological context, however, is less studied. In this study, we investigated the impact of life events on the onset and recurrence of mood episodes in bipolar offspring, as well as the effects of temperament, coping and parenting style on this association. Bipolar offspring (n = 108) were followed longitudinally from adolescence to adulthood. Mood disorders were assessed with: the Kiddie Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime Version or the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders; life events with the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule; and psychological measures using the Utrecht Coping List, Temperament and Character Inventory and short-EMBU (memories of upbringing instrument). Anderson-Gill models (an extension of the Cox proportional hazard model) were utilized. Life events were associated with an increased risk for first and, although less pronounced, subsequent mood episodes. There was a large confounding effect for the number of previous mood episodes; findings suggest a possible kindling effect. Passive coping style increased the risk of mood episode onset and recurrent episodes, but also altered the effect of life events on mood disorders. Harm avoidance temperament was associated with mood episode recurrence. Life events are especially a risk factor in the onset of mood disorders, though less so in recurrent episodes. Psychological features (passive coping and harm-avoidant temperament) contribute to the risk of an episode occurring, and also have a moderating effect on the association between life events and mood episodes. These findings create potential early intervention strategies for bipolar offspring.

  6. CHARACTERIZING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STATE PRODUCED BY LSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KATZ, MARTIN M.; AND OTHERS

    THE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPONENTS OF LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE (LSD) PRODUCED PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES ARE INVESTIGATED. THE SUBJECTS WERE PAID VOLUNTEERS FROM THE PATUXENT INSTITUTION, A TREATMENT CENTER FOR EMOTIONALLY UNSTABLE CRIMINAL OFFENDERS. IN ONE STUDY, GROUPS OF 23 SUBJECTS RECEIVED LSD, AN AMPHETAMINE, OR A PLACEBO. IN THE SECOND STUDY, 11…

  7. BMI at early puerperium: Body image, eating attitudes and mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mento, Carmela; Le Donne, Maria; Crisafulli, Sabrina; Rizzo, Amelia; Settineri, Salvatore

    2017-05-01

    The present study was aimed to verify if body weight could influence self-perception, in terms of body image, mood states, dissatisfaction with physical appearance and risk of eating disorders. In particular, we evaluated the differences between women of normal weight vs. overweight and obese during the delicate phase of puerperium to verify if there were different emotional structures, linked to BMI. Thirty-two women, 16 normal-weight and 16 overweight or obese, belonging to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the University Hospital, were individually interviewed. The Body Uneasiness Test (BUT), the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) were used for the evaluation. Findings showed that the BMI in puerperium is significantly correlated to mood states and body perception. Furthermore, significant differences emerged in eating attitudes and behaviours, in specific aspects related to the weight gain phobia and the body shape perception, symptoms classically associated with the risk of developing an eating disorder.

  8. Informal face-to-face interaction improves mood state reflected in prefrontal cortex activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ichiro eWatanabe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress with wearable sensors has enabled researchers to capture face-to-face interactions quantitatively and given great insight into human dynamics. One attractive field for applying such sensors is the workplace, where the relationship between the face-to-face behaviors of employees and the productivity of the organization has been investigated. One interesting result of previous studies showed that informal face-to-face interaction among employees, captured by wearable sensors that the employees wore, significantly affects their performance. However, the mechanism behind this relationship has not yet been adequately explained, though experiences at the job scene might qualitatively support the finding. We hypothesized that informal face-to-face interaction improves mood state, which in turn affects the task performance. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the change of mood state before and after break time for two groups of participants, one that spent their breaks alone and one that spent them with other participants, by administering questionnaires and taking brain activity measurements. Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested a significant relationship between mood state and brain activity. Here, we show that face-to-face interaction during breaks significantly improved mood state, which was measured by Profiles of Mood States (POMS.We also observed that the verbal WM task performance of participants who did not have face-to-face interaction during breaks decreased significantly. In this paper, we discuss how the change of mood state was evidenced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC activity accompanied by working memory (WM tasks measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS.

  9. “I love you forever (more or less” – stability and change in adolescents’ romantic love status and associations with mood states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Bajoghli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Experiencing romantic love is an important part of individual development. Here, we investigated stability and change in romantic love and psychological correlates, including mood states, anxiety, and sleep, among Iranian adolescents over a period of 8 months. Method: Two hundred and one adolescents who had taken part in a previous study were contacted; 157 responded. Participants completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic data, current state of love, and mood, including symptoms of depression, anxiety (state and trait, and hypomania. They also completed a sleep and activity log. Results: Of 64 participants formerly in love, 45 were still in love; of 86 participants not in love at baseline, 69 were still not in love (overall stability, 76%; 17 had fallen in love recently while 19 were no longer in love. Significant and important changes in mood and anxiety were observed in that experiencing romantic love was associated with higher anxiety scores. Hypomania scores increased in those newly in love, and decreased in those in a longer-lasting romantic relationship. Sleep and sleep-related variables were not associated with romantic love status. Conclusion: These findings suggest that, among Iranian adolescents, the state of love is fairly stable, and that love status seems to be associated with specific states of mood and anxiety.

  10. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for mood and anxiety disorders in childhood and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    history of any anxiety and mood disorder, parental history of self-harming behaviour, advanced paternal age, gender, urban dwelling, economic deprivation, family dissolution, and childhood adversity were used to predict diagnosis of both anxiety and mood disorders from ages 10 to 21 years. Results: Binary...... by simultaneously testing a range of established psychosocial risk factors. Method: A national birth cohort of the Danish population born in 1984 and tracked over the course of the first 21 years of their life was used in the current study (n = 54,458). Psychosocial risk factors including paternal and maternal...... logistic regression analysis showed that being female and a parental history of a mood or anxiety disorder are the strongest predictors of both disorders. Economic deprivation, and family dissolution also increase likelihood of both disorders. Urban dwelling and childhood adversity are predictors...

  11. [Changes in positive mood states by analytic and creative information processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, J H; Schmitz, B B

    1993-01-01

    Reviews concerning research on the influence of mood on behavior show (a) that mainly the influence of mood on behavior was investigated and (b) that achievements in memory and cognitive tasks were of central concern (Fiedler, 1988; Isen, 1987). Social behavior was analyzed as a function of these factors. Recent reviews restrict themselves to positive feeling states. Summarizing, Fiedler (1988) describes the information processing style in positive feeling states as "loosening" to capture its qualitative aspects. This study investigates the opposite direction of influence, i.e. the effect of cognitive style on positive feeling states. This study restricts itself to positive feeling states. The compatibility thesis which postulates a necessary interaction of feeling state and information processing style is tested. Equivalent states and productions have to go together to generate the mood effects. In a 2 x 2 x 5 mixed design 70 female students (non-psychologists) served as subjects. Using a 20-minute mood induction procedure (autobiographical recollection methodology) a positive or neutral feeling state was elicited in half of the participants. During the next 10 minutes half of each group worked either on a verbal creativity test (Schoppe, 1975) or on an intelligence test (Amthauer, 1973) to establish an creative or analytic style of information processing. Repeated sampling of a measurement repetition factor served as baseline assessments, manipulation checks, and measurements of the feeling states during the task completion of the creativity or intelligence test. The feeling states were assessed by means of a short version (BSK-1982) of the "Eigenschaftswörterliste" (Janke & Debus, 1978). The results confirm the compatibility thesis. Only the group in which a positive feeling state and a creative processing style interact reported a positive mood throughout the task completion. Unexpectedly, a slight deterioration of mood was found in the group with a neutral

  12. Fatigue states after cancer treatment occur both in association with, and independent of, mood disorder: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davenport Tracey

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent fatigue is recognised as one of the most common, ongoing symptoms reported by patients following cancer treatment and may have profound effects on the quality of life. However, recent cross-sectional studies also highlight the close relationship between cancer related fatigue (CRF and diagnoses of depression or anxiety disorder. There is currently limited information about the relationships between these conditions over time. We sought to examine the longitudinal relationships between fatigue and mood disorder in women treated with adjuvant therapy for early stage breast cancer. Methods Women who had recently completed adjuvant therapy for Stage I or II breast cancer (n = 212 were sent a questionnaire with established case thresholds for clinically-significant fatigue and psychological disorder, as well as a questionnaire assessing disability. Potentially relevant variables linked to fatigue states, including age, treatment modality, menopausal status, and hematological indices were recorded. The illness outcomes were assessed over 48 months of follow-up. Results The 176 women who responded to the questionnaire (84% had a mean age of 55 (range 24–83 years and had completed adjuvant treatment on average 10 (range 4.7 – 16.3 months previously. Radiotherapy had been administered, either alone (50% of women or in combination with chemotherapy (36%. Responses from 87 women (48% indicated a significant fatigue state (termed here post-cancer fatigue; PCF, and from 59 women (33% responses indicated significant psychological distress. Thirty-four women (19% were cases of fatigue alone (i.e. unaccompanied by psychological disorder, whereas 52 (30% were cases of both disorders. Multivariate analysis did not reveal any association between demographic, clinical or laboratory variables, and caseness for PCF. Self-reported functional disability was significantly associated with fatigue. Follow-up at 24, 36 and 48 months

  13. [The state of the psychological contract and its relation with employees' psychological health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Francisco Javier; Silla, Inmaculada; Peiró, José María; Fortes-Ferreira, Lina

    2006-05-01

    In the present paper the role of the state of the psychological contract to predict psychological health results is studied in a sample of 385 employees of different Spanish companies. Results indicate that the state of the psychological contract significantly predicts life satisfaction, work-family conflict and well-being beyond the prediction produced by the content of the psychological contract. In addition, trust and fairness, two dimensions of the state of psychological contract, all together contribute to explain these psychological health variables adding value to the role as predictor of fulfillment of the psychological contract. The results support the approach argued by Guest and colleagues.

  14. Culture and Validity of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised and Profile of Mood States in a New Zealand Student Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.

    2003-01-01

    New Zealand students' performance was examined on assessments of psychopathology and mood as compared to normative data from the United States. New Zealand university students (N=137) completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and Profile of Mood States (POMS). Mean performances differed significantly from normative data for each…

  15. Effect of Mood States on the Breadth of Spatial Attentional Focus: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Hiroki; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine the processing stage that is responsible for the effect of mood states on the breadth of attentional focus, we recorded event-related potentials from 18 students who performed a flanker task involving adjacent letters. To induce a specific mood state, positive, neutral, or negative affective pictures were presented repeatedly…

  16. The effects of perceived stress, traits, mood states, and stressful daily events on salivary cortisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanEck, M; Berkhof, H; Nicolson, N; Sulon, J

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the effects of perceived stress and related individual characteristics, mood states, and stressful daily events on salivary cortisol levels. Forty-one ''high stress'' and 46 ''low stress'' subjects were selected on the basis of Perceived Stress Scale scores from a sample of male,

  17. Depressive Mood States and Their Cognitive and Personality Correlates in College Students: They Improve over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jane L.; Whitaker, Dani J.

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 30% of 171 college students reported some dysphoria. Depressed mood states were associated with dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem problems; not with gender or self-reported problem-solving ability. First-year students reported highest levels of dysphoria, but there appeared to be consistent, gradual improvements, such that by…

  18. The Effects of Temporary Mood States on Views of the World and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Robert; Bollenbach, Amy

    The cognitive theory of depression advanced by Beck proposes that a negative view of the self, the world and the future is a condition that is responsible for depression. Recent data, however, have suggested that the relationship between cognition and affect is a reciprocal one in which each influences the other. Temporary mood states were induced…

  19. Negative mood-induction modulates default mode network resting-state functional connectivity in chronic depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renner, F.; Siep, N.; Arntz, A.; van de Ven, V.; Peeters, F.P.M.L.; Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.; Huibers, M.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sad mood on default mode network (DMN) resting-state connectivity in persons with chronic major depressive disorder (cMDD). METHODS: Participants with a diagnosis of cMDD (n=18) and age, gender and education level matched

  20. Mood states and motor performance: a study with high performance voleybol athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenamar Fiorese Vieira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n1p62 The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between the sporting performance and mood states of high performance volleyball athletes. Twenty-three adult athletes of both sexes were assessed. The measurement instrument adopted was the POMS questionnaire. Data collection was carried out individually during the state championships. Dada were analyzed using descriptive statistics; the Friedman test for analysis of variance and the Mann-Whitney test for differences between means. The results demonstrated that both teams exhibited the mood state profi le corresponding to the “iceberg” profile. In the male team, vigor remained constant throughout all phases of the competition, while in the female team this element was unstable. The male team’s fatigue began low, during the training phase, with rates that rose as the competition progressed, with statistically significant differences between the fi rst and last matches the team played. In the female team, the confusion factor, which was at a high level during training, reduced progressively throughout the competition, with a difference that was signifi cant to p ≤ 0.05. With relation to performance and mood profi le, the female team exhibited statistically significant differences between the mean vigor and fatigue factors of high and low performance athletes. It is therefore concluded that the mood state profi le is a factor that impacts on the motor performance of these high performance teams.

  1. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionnaire as an indicator of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overtraining syndrome (OTS) is largely a diagnosis of exclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the compact Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionnaire as an early and accurate indicator for the diagnosis of OTS and the reliability of such findings in a group of athletes diagnosed with OTS, in comparison with a ...

  2. Measuring Recovery in Elite Rugby Players: The Brief Assessment of Mood, Endocrine Changes, and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, David A.; Kilduff, Liam P.; Finn, Charlotte; Jones, Rhys M.; Bracken, Richard M.; Mellalieu, Stephen D.; Owen, Nic; Crewther, Blair T.; Cook, Christian J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is demand in applied sport settings to measure recovery briefly and accurately. Research indicates mood disturbance as the strongest psychological predictor of mental and physical recovery. The Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM) is a shortened version of the Profile of Mood States that can be completed in less than 30 s. The purpose of…

  3. Cortisol, testosterone and mood state variation during an official female football competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Natalina; Palmeira-DE-Oliveira, Ana; Pereira, Ana; Crisóstomo, Luís; Travassos, Bruno; Costa, Aldo M

    2016-06-01

    Endogenous hormones are essential on the control of physiological reactions and adaptations during sport performance. This study aims to compare the mood state and the salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone during an official female association football tournament. Twenty female football players (22.85±4.2 years) from the Portuguese women's national team were included in the study. Mood, salivary cortisol and testosterone levels were examined in five moments over the championship (M1, neutral measures; M2-M5, on every match day). Saliva samples were collected before breakfast and immediately after each match. Mood was measured by the profile of mood states questionnaire (POMS); hormone levels were measure by immunoassay methods. Iceberg Profiles of POMS were observed during all the moments of evaluation (M2-M5), showing a decrease in vigor and an increase in tension and depression in both team defeats (M2 and M5). There is no relationship between the hormones levels and the outcome of the competition, once cortisol and testosterone decrease from pre-match to post-match in both wins (M2 and M5) and defeats (M3 and M4). For testosterone the observed decrease is significantly different (Pmood states behavior. Cortisol and testosterone decrease after match and throughout the tournament, independently of the match outcome. The absence of hormone fluctuations related to competition performance points out that top-level professional football players training systematically and regularly seem to be very well adapted to competition stress effect.

  4. Short-Term Psychological Effects of Interactive Video Game Technology Exercise on Mood and Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, William D.; Newton, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Recent interest in interactive video game technology (IVGT) has spurred the notion that exercise from this technology may have meaningful physiological and psychological benefits for children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term psychological effects of interactive video game exercise in young adults and whether…

  5. Hydration status affects mood state and pain sensation during ultra-endurance cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, Nicole E; Ganio, Matthew S; Wiersma, Lenny D; Kavouras, Stavros A; Gray, Michelle; McDermott, Brendon P; Adams, J D; Binns, Ashley P; Judelson, Daniel A; McKenzie, Amy L; Johnson, Evan C; Muñoz, Colleen X; Kunces, Laura J; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory-based studies indicate mild dehydration adversely affects mood. Although ultra-endurance events often result in mild to moderate dehydration, little research has evaluated whether the relationship between hydration status and mood state also exists in these arduous events. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate how hydration status affected mood state and perceptual measures during a 161 km ultra-endurance cycling event. One hundred and nineteen cyclists (103 males, 16 females; age = 46 ± 9 years; height = 175.4 ± 17.9 cm; mass = 82.8 ± 16.3 kg) from the 2011 and 2013 Hotter'N Hell events participated. Perceived exertion, Thermal, Thirst, and Pain sensations, Brunel Profile of Mood States, and urine specific gravity (USG) were measured pre- (~1 h before), mid- (~97 km), and post-ride. Participants were classified at each time point as dehydrated (USG ≥ 1.022) or euhydrated (USG ≤ 1.018). Independent of time point, dehydrated participants (USG = 1.027 ± 0.004) had decreased Vigour and increased Fatigue, Pain, Thirst, and Thermal sensations compared to euhydrated participants (USG = 1.012 ± 0.004; all P findings indicate dehydration may adversely affect mood state and perceptual ratings during ultra-endurance cycling.

  6. Foulds' "general instability" and "psychopathy" 16PF scales and their relationship to psychiatric mood state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, A; McIver, D

    1978-04-01

    Previous research examined "general instability" and "psychopathy" scales, derived from the 16PF, in terms of Foulds' criteria of content, group differentiation, change over time, and score distributions. When the external criterion of a newly validated measure of psychiatric mood state (the DSSI/sAD) was used, it was confirmed in both a patient and a normal group that the "general instability" scale is related significantly to symptomatology, while the "psychopathy" scale is relatively independent of present state.

  7. Examining techniques for measuring the effects of nutrients on mental performance and mood state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Dye, Louise; Siobhan Mitchell, E; Layé, Sophie; Saunders, Caroline; Boyle, Neil; Schuermans, Jeroen; Sijben, John

    2016-09-01

    Intake of specific nutrients has been linked to mental states and various indices of cognitive performance although the effects are often subtle and difficult to interpret. Measurement of so-called objective variables (e.g. reaction times) is often considered to be the gold standard for assessing outcomes in this field of research. It can, however, be argued that data on subjective experience (e.g. mood) are also important and may enrich existing objective data. The aim of this review is to evaluate methods for measuring mental performance and mood, considering the definition of subjective mood and the validity of measures of subjective experience. A multi-stakeholder expert group was invited by ILSI Europe to come to a consensus around the utility of objective and subjective measurement in this field, which forms the basis of the paper. Therefore, the present review reflects a succinct overview of the science but is not intended to be a systematic review. The proposed approach extends the traditional methodology using standard 'objective' measurements to also include the consumers' subjective experiences in relation to food. Specific recommendations include 1) using contemporary methods to capture transient mood states; 2) using sufficiently sensitive measures to capture effects of nutritional intervention; 3) considering the possibility that subjective and objective responses will occur over different time frames; and 4) recognition of the importance of expectancy and placebo effects for subjective measures. The consensus reached was that the most informative approach should involve collection and consideration of both objective and subjective data.

  8. Short-Term Psychological Effects of Interactive Video Game Technology Exercise on Mood and Attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    William D Russell; Mark Newton

    2008-01-01

      Recent interest in interactive video game technology (IVGT) has spurred the notion that exercise from this technology may have meaningful physiological and psychological benefits for children and adolescents...

  9. Auditory beat stimulation and its effects on cognition and mood states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila eChaieb

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Auditory beat stimulation may be a promising new tool for the manipulation of cognitive processes and the modulation of mood-states. Here we aim to review the literature examining the most current applications of auditory beat stimulation and its targets. We give a brief overview of research on auditory steady-state responses and its relationship to auditory beat stimulation. We have summarized relevant studies investigating the neurophysiological changes related to auditory beat stimulation and how they impact upon the design of appropriate stimulation protocols. Focusing on binaural beat stimulation, we then discuss the role of monaural and binaural beat frequencies in cognition and mood-states, in addition to their efficacy in targeting disease symptoms. We aim to highlight important points concerning stimulation parameters and try to address why there are often contradictory findings with regard to the outcomes of auditory beat stimulation.

  10. The role of life events and psychological factors in the onset of first and recurrent mood episodes in bipolar offspring : results from the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemner, S. M.; Mesman, E.; Nolen, W. A.; Eijckemans, M. J. C.; Hillegers, M. H. J.

    Background Life events are an established risk factor for the onset and recurrence of unipolar and bipolar mood episodes, especially in the presence of genetic vulnerability. The dynamic interplay between life events and psychological context, however, is less studied. In this study, we investigated

  11. Two Days' Sleep Debt Causes Mood Decline During Resting State Via Diminished Amygdala-Prefrontal Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Yuki; Katsunuma, Ruri; Yoshimura, Michitaka; Mishima, Kazuo

    2017-10-01

    Sleep debt (SD) has been suggested to evoke emotional instability by diminishing the suppression of the amygdala by the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Here, we investigated how short-term SD affects resting-state functional connectivity between the amygdala and MPFC, self-reported mood, and sleep parameters. Eighteen healthy adult men aged 29 ± 8.24 years participated in a 2-day sleep control session (SC; time in bed [TIB], 9 hours) and 2-day SD session (TIB, 3 hours). On day 2 of each session, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed, followed immediately by measuring self-reported mood on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State subscale (STAI-S). STAI-S score was significantly increased, and functional connectivity between the amygdala and MPFC was significantly decreased in SD compared with SC. Significant correlations were observed between reduced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and reduced left amygdala-MPFC functional connectivity (FCL_amg-MPFC) and between reduced FCL_amg-MPFC and increased STAI-S score in SD compared with SC. These findings suggest that reduced MPFC functional connectivity of amygdala activity is involved in mood deterioration under SD, and that REM sleep reduction is involved in functional changes in the corresponding brain regions. Having adequate REM sleep may be important for mental health maintenance.

  12. Impulse Control in Negative Mood States, Emotional Eating, and Food Addiction are Associated with Lower Quality of Life in Adolescents with Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Meredith H; Nadler, Evan P; Mackey, Eleanor R

    2017-10-16

    Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome to evaluate in adolescents with severe obesity, yet intrapersonal predictors of QoL are understudied. The current study assessed whether difficulty with impulse control when experiencing a negative mood (negative urgency) is associated with poorer QoL, mediated by more emotional eating and food addiction. Participants consisted of 69 primarily female (71%), minority (76%) adolescents aged 13-21 (M age = 16.5, SD = 1.5) with severe obesity presenting for prebariatric surgery psychological evaluations. Structural Equation Modeling was used to appraise a model of the association of adolescent report of negative urgency with more emotional eating (Emotional Eating Scale for Children) and food addiction (Yale Food Addiction Scale) and poorer weight-related QoL (Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids). Greater difficulty controlling behavior when experiencing a negative mood was significantly associated with poorer weight-related QoL, and this relationship was mediated by an association with emotional eating and food addiction such that adolescents with severe obesity who reported more difficulties with impulse control in negative mood states were more likely to report more emotional eating and food addiction, which was in turn associated with lower QoL. Intrapersonal factors, including impulse control in negative mood states, are associated with lower QoL in adolescents with severe obesity. Interventions aimed at reducing frequency of negative affect, reducing impulsivity in negative mood states, and improving coping skills that are not eating based may contribute to improved QoL and merit further study.

  13. Mood states and health behaviours in paramedical first-year students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, R; Oxtoby, R; Schomer, H H

    1990-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare first-year students enrolled in an Integrated Course at a Nursing College (n = 103) with first-year paramedical students from the following disciplines: Logopaedics (n = 12); Physiotherapy (n = 24); Occupational Therapy (n = 18); BSc Nursing (n = 12); Radiography (n = 27), on the Profile of Mood States (POMS), Health Behaviour Assessment Scale (HBAS) and Matric scores. The Integrated Nursing students revealed significantly lower Matric scores than the other students (p less than 0.0001), and showed significant differences on other variables, indicating higher negative mood states and less healthy life-styles. Recommendations are made regarding a possible alternative nurse training programme with emphasis on clinical skills in addition to the heavily academic 4-year Diploma course. A prophylactic stress management programme emphasising healthy life-styles commencing at the start of the training, is proposed.

  14. Acute and medium term effects of a ten-week running intervention on mood state in apprentices

    OpenAIRE

    Katrin eWalter; Birte evon Haaren; Simone eLoeffler; Stefan eHey; Sascha eHaertel; Carl-Philipp eJansen; Christian eWerner; Juergen eStumpp; Klaus eBoes

    2013-01-01

    Exercise and physical activity have proven benefits for physical and psychological well-being. However, it is not clear if healthy young adults can enhance mood in everyday life through regular exercise. Earlier studies mainly showed positive effects of acute exercise and exercise programs on psychological well-being in children, older people and in clinical populations. Few studies controlled participants´ physical activity in daily life, performed besides the exercise program, which ca...

  15. Yerba Mat? (Ilex paraguariensis) Metabolic, Satiety, and Mood State Effects at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Atcheson, Roisin

    2017-01-01

    Yerba Mat? (YM), has become a popular herb ingested for enhancing metabolic health and weight-loss outcomes. No studies have tested the combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects of YM during exercise. We tested whether YM ingestion affects fatty acid oxidation (FAO), profile of mood state score (POMS), and subjective appetite scale (VAS), during prolonged moderate exercise. Twelve healthy active females were randomized to ingest either 2 g of YM or placebo (PLC) in a repeated-measu...

  16. Effects of Maharishi Yoga Asanas on Mood States, Happiness, and Experiences during Meditation

    OpenAIRE

    Gobec, Sonja; Travis, Frederick

    2018-01-01

    Context/Background: Many studies showed positive effects of Yoga Asanas. There is no study on Maharishi Yoga Asanas yet. This research replicated and expanded observed improvements on the profile of mood states (POMS) as a result of 2-week Maharishi Yoga Asanas course. Thirteen college students taking part in a 4-week course on Maharishi Yoga Asanas were matched with 13 students taking other courses at the university. Aims and Objective: The main objective of the study was to assess the effec...

  17. Effects of maharishi yoga asanas on mood states, happiness, and experiences during meditation

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Gobec; Frederick Travis

    2018-01-01

    Context/Background: Many studies showed positive effects of Yoga Asanas. There is no study on Maharishi Yoga Asanas yet. This research replicated and expanded observed improvements on the profile of mood states (POMS) as a result of 2-week Maharishi Yoga Asanas course. Thirteen college students taking part in a 4-week course on Maharishi Yoga Asanas were matched with 13 students taking other courses at the university. Aims and Objective: The main objective of the study was to assess the effec...

  18. Recreational music-making modulates immunological responses and mood states in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Masahiro; Wachi, Masatada; Utsuyama, Masanori; Bittman, Barry; Hirokawa, Katsuiku; Kitagawa, Masanobu

    2009-06-01

    Given that previous studies have shown that recreational music-making has benefits for younger individuals, we explored two questions. (1) Could a recreational music-making protocol improve mood and modulate immunological responses in a direction opposite to that associated with chronic stress in older adults? (2) Would the protocol affect older and younger participants differently? Two groups of volunteers demarcated at age 65 years underwent identical one-hour recreational music-making interventions. Pre-and post-intervention data were collected using blood samples and mood state questionnaires. Data from 27 older and 27 younger volunteers were analyzed for cytokine production levels, natural killer cell activity, plasma catecholamines, and numbers of T cells, T cell subsets, B cells, and natural killer cells. Exercise expenditure was also recorded. In the older group, we found significant increases in the number of lymphocytes, T cells, CD4+ T cells, memory T cells, and production of interferon-gamma and interleukin-6. In the younger group, modulation was non-significant. Worthy of note was the specific immunological changes in the direction opposite to that expected with chronic stress in the older group. The increase in Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma and unchanged Th2 cytokine IL-4 and IL-10 levels in the older group suggests a shift to a Th1-dominant status, a shift opposite to that expected with stress. However, the immunological changes were not statistically different between the two groups. Mood states improved in both groups, but were also not statistically different between groups. Although no statistically significant difference was found between the two age groups, the improvement in immunological profile and mood states in the older group and the low level of energy required for participation suggest this music-making protocol has potential as a health improvement strategy for older individuals.

  19. Gastro oesophageal reflux disease (GORD)-related symptoms and its association with mood and anxiety disorders and psychological symptomology: a population-based study in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Livia; Stuart, Amanda L; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A; Girardi, Paolo; Williams, Lana J

    2013-07-24

    Psychopathology seems to play a role in reflux pathogenesis and vice versa, yet few population-based studies have systematically investigated the association between gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and psychopathology. We thus aimed to investigate the relationship between GORD-related symptoms and psychological symptomatology, as well as clinically diagnosed mood and anxiety disorders in a randomly selected, population-based sample of adult women. This study examined data collected from 1084 women aged 20-93 yr participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Mood and anxiety disorders were identified using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Research Version, Non-patient edition (SCID-I/NP), and psychological symptomatology was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). GORD-related symptoms were self-reported and confirmed by medication use where possible and lifestyle factors were documented. Current psychological symptomatology and mood disorder were associated with increased odds of concurrent GORD-related symptoms (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.5, and OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.7-5.6, respectively). Current anxiety disorder also tended to be associated with increased odds of current GORD-related symptoms (p = 0.1). Lifetime mood disorder was associated with a 1.6-fold increased odds of lifetime GORD-related symptoms (adjusted OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4) and lifetime anxiety disorder was associated with a 4-fold increased odds of lifetime GORD-related symptoms in obese but not non-obese participants (obese, age-adjusted OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.8-9.0). These results indicate that psychological symptomatology, mood and anxiety disorders are positively associated with GORD-related symptoms. Acknowledging this common comorbidity may facilitate recognition and treatment, and opens new questions as to the pathways and mechanisms of the association.

  20. Effects of morning caffeine' ingestion on mood States, simple reaction time, and short-term maximal performance on elite judoists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souissi, Makram; Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Atheymen, Rim; Hakim, Ahmed; Sahnoun, Zouhair

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ergogenic effect of caffeine ingestion on mood state, simple reaction time, and muscle power during the Wingate test recorded in the morning on elite Judoists...

  1. Vegetarian diets are associated with healthy mood states: a cross-sectional study in seventh day adventist adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beezhold, Bonnie L; Johnston, Carol S; Daigle, Deanna R

    2010-01-01

    .... We examined associations between mood state and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake as a result of adherence to a vegetarian or omnivorous diet in a cross-sectional study of 138 healthy Seventh Day...

  2. Effects of noise on a computational model for disease states of mood disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias Huber, Martin; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Braun, Hans Albert; Moss, Frank

    2000-03-01

    Nonlinear dynamics are currently proposed to explain the progressive course of recurrent mood disorders starting with isolated episodes and ending with accelerated irregular (``chaotic") mood fluctuations. Such a low-dimensional disease model is attractive because of its principal accordance with biological disease models, i.e. the kindling and biological rhythms model. However, most natural systems are nonlinear and noisy and several studies in the neuro- and physical sciences have demonstrated interesting cooperative behaviors arising from interacting random and deterministic dynamics. Here, we consider the effects of noise on a recent neurodynamical model for the timecourse of affective disorders (Huber et al.: Biological Psychiatry 1999;46:256-262). We describe noise effects on temporal patterns and mean episode frequencies of various in computo disease states. Our simulations demonstrate that noise can cause unstructured randomness or can maximize periodic order. The frequency of episode occurence can increase with noise but it can also remain unaffected or even can decrease. We show further that noise can make visible bifurcations before they would normally occur under deterministic conditions and we quantify this behavior with a recently developed statistical method. All these effects depend critically on both, the dynamic state and the noise intensity. Implications for neurobiology and course of mood disorders are discussed.

  3. Mood states preceding and following compulsive buying episodes: an ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Mitchell, James E; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Johnson, Joshua; Claes, Laurence; de Zwaan, Martina

    2012-12-30

    This study examined the extent to which patterns of mood and daily stress experienced by individuals with compulsive buying (CB) are associated with CB episodes by using Ecological Momentary Assessment. The comparison of mood and the impact of daily stress on days on which CB occurred to those days on which CB episodes did not occur did not reveal any significant differences. Within-day analysis indicated that negative affect increased significantly and positive affect decreased significantly prior to a CB episode. There was also evidence of a significant decrease in negative affect following a CB episode. Positive affect did not change significantly after a CB episode. The findings suggest that CB episodes hold negative reinforcing properties for individuals with CB. Treatment of patients with CB should focus on functional assessment of the affective antecedents and consequences of CB episodes and the identification of alternative, more functional behaviors to deal with these affective states. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hypohydration and acute thermal stress affect mood state but not cognition or dynamic postural balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Brett R; Sollanek, Kurt J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Lieberman, Harris R; Kenefick, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    Equivocal findings have been reported in the few studies that examined the impact of ambient temperature (T a) and hypohydration on cognition and dynamic balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of acute exposure to a range of ambient temperatures (T(a) 10-40 °C) in euhydration (EUH) and hypohydration (HYP) states on cognition, mood and dynamic balance. Thirty-two men (age 22 ± 4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.05 m, body mass 85.4 ± 10.8 kg) were grouped into four matched cohorts (n = 8), and tested in one of the four T(a) (10, 20, 30, 40 °C) when EUH and HYP (-4 % body mass via exercise-heat exposure). Cognition was assessed using psychomotor vigilance, 4-choice reaction time, matching to sample, and grammatical reasoning. Mood was evaluated by profile of mood states and dynamic postural balance was tested using a Biodex Balance System. Thermal sensation (TS), core (T core) and skin temperature (T(sk)) were obtained throughout testing. Volunteers lost -4.1 ± 0.4 % body mass during HYP. T sk and TS increased with increasing T(a), with no effect of hydration. Cognitive performance was not altered by HYP or thermal stress. Total mood disturbance (TMD), fatigue, confusion, anger, and depression increased during HYP at all T(a). Dynamic balance was unaffected by HYP, but 10 °C exposure impaired balance compared to all other T(a). Despite an increase in TMD during HYP, cognitive function was maintained in all testing environments, demonstrating cognitive resiliency in response to body fluid deficits. Dynamic postural stability at 10 °C appeared to be hampered by low-grade shivering, but was otherwise maintained during HYP and thermal stress.

  5. The influence of game location and outcome on behaviour and mood states among professional rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polman, Remco; Nicholls, Adam R; Cohen, Jeannette; Borkoles, Erika

    2007-11-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between home and away matches on mood. In addition, the relationships between game location, game outcome, behavioural factors, and mood were investigated among 12 professional English rugby league players competing in the Super League. Participants completed daily diaries for 27 days. The diary consisted of six analogue scales measuring mood (relaxed-tense, energetic-weary, depressed-elated, tired-alert, anxious-calm, cheerful-miserable) as well as behavioural factors and self-rated performance. There were no significant differences in self-reported mood states leading up to home or away matches except for players feeling more tired when playing away. Significant relationships between mood and behaviours (e.g. sleep and eating) and subjective performance were observed. The outcome of the match was found to influence mood, with a defeat resulting in decreased mood. Our results show that game location did not influence mood and therefore does not provide an explanation for the home advantage.

  6. Parenting stress as a mediator of parents' negative mood state and behavior problems in children with newly diagnosed cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geest, Ivana M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Passchier, Jan; van den Hoed-Heerschop, Corry; Pieters, Rob; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of parents' negative mood state and parenting stress on behavior in children with newly diagnosed cancer. A total of 123 parents (n=58 fathers, n=65 mothers) of 67 children with newly diagnosed cancer completed three questionnaires separately at the same time measuring parents' negative mood state, parenting stress, and child behavior problems. Parents' negative mood state was weakly correlated to more child behavior problems (r=0.31, pparenting stress were strongly correlated to more child behavior problems (r=0.61, pparents' negative mood state and child behavior problems (c=0.29, p=0.02 (fathers); c=0.25, p=0.04 (mothers)) became non-significant after mediating for parenting stress (c'=0.003, p=0.98 (fathers); c'=0.10, p=0.42 (mothers)). The indirect effect of parents' negative mood state and child behavior problems was only significant for fathers (95% CI [0.12; 0.51]), indicating that parenting stress mediates the effect between fathers' negative mood state and child behavior problems. This is the first study to demonstrate the mediational role of parenting stress in fathers of a child with newly diagnosed cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Perceived Sleep Quality, Mood States, and Their Relationship With Performance Among Brazilian Elite Athletes During a Competitive Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Ricardo; Bevilacqua, Guilherme G; Andrade, Alexandro

    2017-04-01

    Brandt, R, Bevilacqua, GG, and Andrade, A. Perceived sleep quality, mood states, and their relationship with performance among Brazilian elite athletes during a competitive period. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1033-1039, 2017-We described the perceived sleep quality and mood states of elite athletes during a competitive period, and clarified their relationship to athletes' sport performance. Participants were 576 Brazilian elite athletes (404 men and 172 women) of individual and team sports. Mood states were evaluated using the Brunel Mood Scale, whereas perceived sleep quality was evaluated using a single question ("How would you evaluate the quality of your sleep in the last few days?"). Evaluations of mood state and sleep quality were performed up to 60 minutes before national and international sports competitions began. Descriptive and inferential statistics (including logistic regression) were used to evaluate the relationship of sleep quality and mood states with performance (i.e., winning or losing). Athletes typically had good sleep quality and mood states similar to the Iceberg profile (i.e., high vigor and low tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and mental confusion). The Wald test revealed that sleep, anger, tension, and vigor predicted athletes' performance. Specifically, poor sleep quality and low vigor and anger decreased the odds of winning, whereas higher tension increased these odds. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test indicated that the results were sufficiently generalizable. Overall, we observed a significant relationship between sleep and mood states, which in turn both significantly influenced athletes' sports performance. Thus, coaching staff and athletes should monitor athletes' sleep quality before competitions to ensure athletes are in the optimal condition for performance.

  8. The Effects of Emotional Target and Mood State of Participants on Attentional Blink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Shan Chan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that attentional blink (AB, a failure to report targets temporally close to each other, can be attenuated separately by (1 emotionally significant test stimuli (T2 and (2 the emotional state of the observer. In the present study, we asked whether and how the (1 and (2 interact. Participants were induced with either positive or negative music and asked to complete an AB task which consisted of low-arousal positive, neutral and negative words as T2. We found low arousal negative words significantly reduced AB more than did other words, while no main nor interaction effect for mood was observed. However, on repeating the experiment and replacing low arousal words with high-arousal ones we not only were able to replicate the finding of an advantage of negative words over others, but detected an effect for the mood of the observer: participants who were induced to become happier using music performed better in detecting T2 across lags and word categories than did participants who became sadder. Our findings suggest an interaction of arousal level of emotional target with the induced mood of participants although the underlying mechanisms responsible for this effect need further investigation.

  9. Mood, anxiety, and personality disorders among first and second-generation immigrants to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Kagotho, Njeri; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    A careful examination of the multigenerational relationship between immigrant status and mental disorders can provide important information about the robustness and nature of the immigrant-mental health link. We examine immigrant status as a protective factor against mental illness, assess intergenerational effects, examine differences across race/ethnicity, and report the prevalence of mood, anxiety, and personality disorders of immigrants across major world regions. We employ data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and compare first (n = 5,363) and second-generation (n = 4826) immigrants from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America to native-born Americans (n = 24,461) with respect to mental disorders. First-generation immigrants are significantly less likely than native-born Americans to be diagnosed with a mood, anxiety, or personality disorder, though the prevalence of mental health diagnoses increases among second generation immigrants. Similar results were observed for immigrants from major world regions as the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was lower among immigrants from Africa, Latin America, Europe, and Asia compared to native-born Americans. Findings provide evidence in support of the notion that the immigrant paradox may be extended to include mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in the United States. PMID:25223256

  10. Psilocybin biases facial recognition, goal-directed behavior, and mood state toward positive relative to negative emotions through different serotonergic subreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kometer, Michael; Schmidt, André; Bachmann, Rosilla; Studerus, Erich; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-12-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 2A receptors have been associated with dysfunctional emotional processing biases in mood disorders. These receptors further predominantly mediate the subjective and behavioral effects of psilocybin and might be important for its recently suggested antidepressive effects. However, the effect of psilocybin on emotional processing biases and the specific contribution of 5-HT2A receptors across different emotional domains is unknown. In a randomized, double-blind study, 17 healthy human subjects received on 4 separate days placebo, psilocybin (215 μg/kg), the preferential 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (50 mg), or psilocybin plus ketanserin. Mood states were assessed by self-report ratings, and behavioral and event-related potential measurements were used to quantify facial emotional recognition and goal-directed behavior toward emotional cues. Psilocybin enhanced positive mood and attenuated recognition of negative facial expression. Furthermore, psilocybin increased goal-directed behavior toward positive compared with negative cues, facilitated positive but inhibited negative sequential emotional effects, and valence-dependently attenuated the P300 component. Ketanserin alone had no effects but blocked the psilocybin-induced mood enhancement and decreased recognition of negative facial expression. This study shows that psilocybin shifts the emotional bias across various psychological domains and that activation of 5-HT2A receptors is central in mood regulation and emotional face recognition in healthy subjects. These findings may not only have implications for the pathophysiology of dysfunctional emotional biases but may also provide a framework to delineate the mechanisms underlying psylocybin's putative antidepressant effects. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronobiology and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Selvi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Living organizms show cyclic rhythmicity in a variety of physiological, hormonal, behavioral, and psychological processes. Sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone levels, mood and cognition display a circadian rhythm in humans. Delays, advances or desynchronizations of circadian rhythm are known to be strongly associated with mental illness especially mood disorders such as bipolar disorder, major depression and seasonal affective disorder. Furthermore, some of the mood stabilizers, sleep deprivation and light treatment are employed to treat mood disorders by shifting circadian rhythm. This paper reviews the relationship between mood disorders and circadian rhythm, and describes treatment options by altering circadian rhythm.

  12. Autonomic nervous system dynamics for mood and emotional-state recognition significant advances in data acquisition, signal processing and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    This monograph reports on advances in the measurement and study of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dynamics as a source of reliable and effective markers for mood state recognition and assessment of emotional responses. Its primary impact will be in affective computing and the application of emotion-recognition systems. Applicative studies of biosignals such as: electrocardiograms; electrodermal responses; respiration activity; gaze points; and pupil-size variation are covered in detail, and experimental results explain how to characterize the elicited affective levels and mood states pragmatically and accurately using the information thus extracted from the ANS. Nonlinear signal processing techniques play a crucial role in understanding the ANS physiology underlying superficially noticeable changes and provide important quantifiers of cardiovascular control dynamics. These have prognostic value in both healthy subjects and patients with mood disorders. Moreover, Autonomic Nervous System Dynamics for Mood and ...

  13. Effects of a commercial product containing guaran? on psychological well-being, anxiety and mood: a single-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestrini, Gianluca Ivan; Marino, Franca; Cosentino, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Background Guaran? (Paulinia cupana) seed extracts are increasingly popular worldwide for their stimulant, cognitive and behavioral effects. To assess the effects on psychological well-being, anxiety and mood of a commercially available guaran? preparation taken regularly over several days according to the labelled dosages and instructions, 27 healthy volunteers were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Results Guaran? 350 mg ? 3 daily just...

  14. The Influence of Coinfection on Mood States in HTLV-1-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cezira Fantini Nogueira-Martins; Jorge Casseb; Augusto Cesar Penalva de Oliveira; Maria Rita Polo Gascón; Claudio Garcia Capitão

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to discuss the influence of coinfection on mood states (depression and anxiety) in Human T Lymphotropic virus type 1 HTLV-1-infected patients. A cross-sectional study was performed with a sample obtained through a nonprobabilistic technique. A total of 130 patients in treatment at the HTLV Ambulatory of Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas participated in the research, of whom 63 had HAM/TS and 67 were asymptomatic. A sociodemographic survey and the Beck Anxi...

  15. The effects of reversing sleep-wake cycles on mood states, sleep, and fatigue on the crew of the USS John C. Stennis

    OpenAIRE

    Sawyer, Tiffoney L.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This study investigates the effects of reversing sleep-wake cycles on mood, sleep, and fatigue of the crewmembers and Air Wing 9 of the USS JOHN C. STENNIS (CVN-74). It also reviews the research conducted in sleep deprivation, circadian rhythms, shiftwork, fatigue, and mood. The effects of reversing sleep-wake cycle on mood of the crewmembers were analyzed by assessing a repeated administration of the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Moo...

  16. Identity and psychological ownership in chronic illness and disease state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnilowicz, W

    2011-03-01

    Psychological ownership is rarely considered in health discourse related to chronic illness or disease state. Construction of identity is an important consideration within this framework. This autoethnographic study explores psychological ownership and identity related to prostate cancer and chronic illness. Conclusions about the nature of psychological ownership and identity were gathered from the relevant literature and personal experience. Themes include the patient-healthcare professional relationship and that psychological ownership is personal and grounded in an individual's sense of identity, control and perceived capacity to control illness or disease. Personal reflection through autoethnography guides discussion of psychological ownership and identity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Causal Attributions of Success and Failure and Mood States in Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepaniak Joanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to determine the causal attributions of success and failure in a football match in a group of football players, as well as to investigate the association of the players’ attributions with their level of achievement and the relationships between their causal attributions and affective states. Material and methods. The study involved 75 football players, including 44 players from the first league and 31 players from the third league. The research was carried out using the Profile of Mood States (POMS by D.M. McNair, M. Lorr, and L.F. Droppleman and a specially designed questionnaire concerning the causal attributions of success and failure. Results. It was found that the football players who participated in the study tended to attribute success to internal causes and failure to external causes. More frequent use of external attributions most likely had an adverse impact on the mood state of the players. Conclusion. Information concerning the attributions that a given player makes can be useful for coaches, as it can help them develop the athlete’s mental abilities more effectively. Beliefs related to attributions can be modified. It is worth considering the benefits of encouraging internal attributions in the case of success and external attributions in situations of failure.

  18. Normobaric Hypoxia and Submaximal Exercise Effects on Running Memory and Mood State in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; Gerhart, Hayden D; Stavres, Jon; Fennell, Curtis; Draper, Shane; Glickman, Ellen L

    2017-07-01

    An acute bout of exercise can improve cognitive function in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. However, limited research supports the improvement of cognitive function and mood state in women. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hypoxia and exercise on working memory and mood state in women. There were 15 healthy women (age = 22 ± 2 yr) who completed the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4th Edition (ANAM), including the Running Memory Continuous Performance Task (RMCPT) and Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in normoxia (21% O2), at rest in normoxia and hypoxia (12.5% O2), and during cycling exercise at 60% and 40% Vo2max in hypoxia. RMCPT was not significantly impaired at 30 (100.3 ± 17.2) and 60 (96.6 ± 17.3) min rest in hypoxia compared to baseline in normoxia (97.0 ± 17.0). However, RMCPT was significantly improved during exercise (106.7 ± 20.8) at 60% Vo2max compared to 60 min rest in hypoxia. Following 30 (-89.4 ± 48.3) and 60 min of exposure to hypoxia (-79.8 ± 55.9) at rest, TMD was impaired compared with baseline (-107.1 ± 46.2). TMD was significantly improved during exercise (-108.5 ± 42.7) at 40% Vo2max compared with 30 min rest in hypoxia. Also, RMCPT was significantly improved during exercise (104.0 ± 19.1) at 60% Vo2max compared to 60 min rest in hypoxia (96.6 ± 17.3). Hypoxia and an acute bout of exercise partially influence RMCPT and TMD. Furthermore, a moderate-intensity bout of exercise (60%) may be a more potent stimulant for improving cognitive function than low-intensity (40%) exercise. The present data should be considered by aeromedical personnel performing cognitive tasks in hypoxia.Seo Y, Gerhart HD, Stavres J, Fennell C, Draper S, Glickman EL. Normobaric hypoxia and submaximal exercise effects on running memory and mood state in women. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):627-632.

  19. Defining bipolar mood states with quantitative measurement of inhibition/activation and emotional reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Chantal; M'Bailara, Katia; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Lajnef, Mohamed; Leboyer, Marion

    2010-12-01

    Mood state heterogeneity in bipolar disorder leads to confusion in diagnosis and therapeutic strategies. Recently, the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) showed that two-thirds of bipolar-depressed patients had concomitant manic symptoms, these characteristics being linked to a more severe form of bipolar disorder. Moreover, manic symptoms occurring during bipolar depression are associated with mood switches induced by antidepressant. It is thus important to best characterize mood episodes with mixed features in order to improve our understanding of the etiopathology and to choose the most appropriate treatment. As dimensional approach can better describe phenomena that are distributed continuously without clear boundaries, we used the MATHYS scale, constructed on a dimensional approach. The aim of the study is to determine whether two dimensions (activation/inhibition and emotional reactivity) improve assessment of bipolar states in which both manic and depressive symptoms are associated. We included 189 bipolar patients and 90 controls. Bipolar patients were distinguished between those with a major depressive episode without manic symptoms, a major depressive episode with manic symptoms, a mixed state and a manic state. The MATHYS scale provides a total score, quantifying an inhibition/activation process, and a score for emotional reactivity (intensity of emotions). We demonstrated that there is a continuum ranging from inhibition to activation (respectively from major depressive episodes without manic symptoms to manic states), with a gradual increase in the severity of the activation. Regarding emotional reactivity, results are quiet different since only major depressive episodes without manic symptoms are characterized by emotional hypo-reactivity while major depressive episodes with manic symptoms, manic and mixed states exhibited emotional hyper-reactivity. The MATHYS scale, providing a score for inhibition

  20. Are moods motivational states? A study on effort-related cardiovascular response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Burgo, Joana; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2009-12-01

    Based on the mood-behavior-model (Gendolla, 2000), this study tested the idea that moods only have effects on effort mobilization in settings that directly call for this and in which people can thus use their moods as task-relevant information. Fifty university students were randomly assigned to a 2 (Mood: negative vs. positive) x 2 (Memorizing: intentional vs. incidental) x 2 (Time: mood induction vs. task performance) mixed model design. Effort mobilization was operationalized as systolic blood pressure (SBP) reactivity. As expected, in the intentional-memorizing condition, SBP reactivity was stronger in a negative mood than in a positive mood. Mood had no impact in the incidental-memorizing condition, which did not call for effort mobilization.

  1. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.

  2. Mood states of soccer players in the english leagues: reflections of an increasing workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Thatcher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to assess whether the demands of the modern English competitive soccer season would be reflected in the mood states of professional soccer players. Sixty-nine male participants either activity competing in English soccer leagues or resident in England were recruited and grouped accordingly as professional soccer players, university level soccer players, Sunday league soccer players, or non-sporting controls. On three separate occasions; at the beginning, at the middle, and finally towards the end of the English soccer season, participants completed both the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire as well as a questionnaire related to their teams’ performance in addition to their perceived life stress. Results showed the POMS scores to differ over the season in relation to the groups’ standard of competition. ANOVAs demonstrated this pattern to be significant for the dependent measures of tension, depression, and confusion with significant group by time interactions (95% level of confidence. At the outset of the season professionals had the most positive POMS profile, however, as the season progressed they showed the greatest change towards a negative profile. These results indicate that English soccer is placing professional players at a predisposition of demonstrating POMS commensurate with negative adaptation to training, having important implications for their long-term performance and health.

  3. Does Testosterone Modulate Mood States and Physical Performance in Young Basketball Players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloski, Bernardo; Aoki, Marcelo S; de Freitas, Camila G; Schultz de Arruda, Ademir F; de Moraes, Helena S; Drago, Gustavo; Borges, Thiago O; Moreira, Alexandre

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to examine and compare mood states profile and physical performance during different training phases between 2 groups of adolescent basketball players that were differentiated according to baseline testosterone concentration (T). The basketball players were submitted to an intensified training period (OVL) followed by a tapering period (TP). Twenty-three young male basketball players initiated the study. Experimental criteria data were used to stratify 16 players into high-testosterone (HTC) or low-testosterone (LTC) concentration groups. All the 16 athletes undertook 5 weeks of OVL followed by a 3-week TP. Saliva sampling, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IRL1) test and the T-test were conducted at the beginning (T1), after OVL (T2), and after TP (T3). A similar increase in internal training load was observed during OVL when compared with TP in both groups (p 0.05); however, LTC displayed a higher score for fatigue (p 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that LTC athletes may be more susceptible to changes in mood states during intensified training periods. In addition, data indicate that a periodized training program successfully improved the physical performance (endurance and agility) of young basketball players; however, this improvement was not affected by testosterone level.

  4. The relationship between mood and sleep in different female reproductive states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffol, Elena; Kalleinen, Nea; Urrila, Anna Sofia; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Partonen, Timo; Polo-Kantola, Päivi

    2014-06-16

    Sleep is disrupted in depressed subjects, but it also deteriorates with age and possibly with the transition to menopause. The nature of interaction between mood, sleep, age and reproductive state is not well-defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between mood and sleep among healthy women in different reproductive states. We analyzed data from 11 younger (20-26 years), 21 perimenopausal (43-51 years) and 29 postmenopausal (58-71 years) healthy women who participated in a study on menopause, sleep and cognition. The 21-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered to assess mood. Subjective sleep quality was assessed with the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire (BNSQ). Objective sleep was measured with all-night polysomnography (PSG) recordings. Perimenopausal and younger women were examined during the first days of their menstrual cycle at the follicular phase. Among younger women, less arousals associated with higher BDI total scores (p = 0.026), and higher SWS percentages with more dissatisfaction (p = 0.001) and depressive-somatic symptoms (p = 0.025), but with less depressive-emotional symptoms (p = 0.001). In specific, less awakenings either from REM sleep or SWS, respectively, associated with more punishment (p = 0.005; p = 0.036), more dissatisfaction (p sleep efficiencies (p = 0.022) and shorter total sleep times (p = 0.024) associated with higher BDI scores, longer sleep latencies with more depressive-somatic symptoms (p = 0.032) and longer REM latencies with more dissatisfaction (p = 0.017). In postmenopausal women, higher REM percentages associated with higher BDI total scores (p = 0.019) and more depressive-somatic symptoms (p = 0.005), and longer SWS latencies with more depressive-somatic symptoms (p = 0.030). Depressive symptoms measured with the total BDI scores associated with sleep impairment in both perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. In younger women, specific BDI factors revealed minor associations, suggesting

  5. Quantitative EEG and its Correlation with Cardiovascular, Cognition and mood State: an Integrated Study in Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyuan; Hu, Bin; Chen, Wenjuan; Moore, Philip; Xu, Tingting; Dong, Qunxi; Liu, Zhenyu; Luo, Yuejia; Chen, Shanguang

    2014-12-01

    The focus of the study is the estimation of the effects of microgravity on the central nervous activity and its underlying influencing mechanisms. To validate the microgravity-induced physiological and psychological effects on EEG, quantitative EEG features, cardiovascular indicators, mood state, and cognitive performances data collection was achieved during a 45 day period using a -6°head-down bed rest (HDBR) integrated approach. The results demonstrated significant differences in EEG data, as an increased Theta wave, a decreased Beta wave and a reduced complexity of brain, accompanied with an increased heart rate and pulse rate, decreased positive emotion, and degraded emotion conflict monitoring performance. The canonical correlation analysis (CCA) based cardiovascular and cognitive related EEG model showed the cardiovascular effect on EEG mainly affected bilateral temporal region and the cognitive effect impacted parietal-occipital and frontal regions. The results obtained in the study support the use of an approach which combines a multi-factor influential mechanism hypothesis. The changes in the EEG data may be influenced by both cardiovascular and cognitive effects.

  6. Recreational music-making modulates natural killer cell activity, cytokines, and mood states in corporate employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachi, Masatada; Koyama, Masahiro; Utsuyama, Masanori; Bittman, Barry B; Kitagawa, Masanobu; Hirokawa, Katsuiku

    2007-02-01

    With growing evidence linking job stress to illness, finding an effective means of stress management has become a challenging international endeavor. Although music therapy has attracted the attention of various fields as a promising method for alleviating stress, lack of standardization and paucity of data have served as impediments to widespread utilization. The effects of a Recreational Music-Making (RMM) group drumming protocol was evaluated on Japanese male corporate employees. A total of 20 volunteers participated in a one-hour RMM session while 20 volunteers engaged in leisurely reading for one hour (controls). After a six-month interval, the groups switched activities and underwent one session each. Pre- and post-intervention data were collected using mood state questionnaires and blood samples. Individual and group mean values for natural killer (NK) cell activity, NK cell percentage, and cytokine gene expression were analyzed. NK cell activity in the RMM group increased among individuals with low pre-intervention levels, and decreased among those with high pre-intervention levels. A significant correlation was established between changes in NK cell activity and the changes in the level of gene expressions for interferon-gamma and interleukin-10. The RMM group demonstrated enhanced mood, lower gene expression levels of the stress-induced cytokine interleukin-10, and higher NK cell activity when compared to the control. Based upon documented changes in NK cell activity, coupled with gene expression changes for interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, and improved mood, this RMM protocol has significant potential for utilization in the corporate wellness environment.

  7. Treating insomnia improves mood state, sleep, and functioning in bipolar disorder: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Allison G; Soehner, Adriane M; Kaplan, Kate A; Hein, Kerrie; Lee, Jason; Kanady, Jennifer; Li, Descartes; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Ketter, Terence A; Neylan, Thomas C; Buysse, Daniel J

    2015-06-01

    To determine if a treatment for interepisode bipolar disorder I patients with insomnia improves mood state, sleep, and functioning. Alongside psychiatric care, interepisode bipolar disorder I participants with insomnia were randomly allocated to a bipolar disorder-specific modification of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBTI-BP; n = 30) or psychoeducation (PE; n = 28) as a comparison condition. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, the end of 8 sessions of treatment, and 6 months later. This pilot was conducted to determine initial feasibility and generate effect size estimates. During the 6-month follow-up, the CBTI-BP group had fewer days in a bipolar episode relative to the PE group (3.3 days vs. 25.5 days). The CBTI-BP group also experienced a significantly lower hypomania/mania relapse rate (4.6% vs. 31.6%) and a marginally lower overall mood episode relapse rate (13.6% vs. 42.1%) compared with the PE group. Relative to PE, CBTI-BP reduced insomnia severity and led to higher rates of insomnia remission at posttreatment and marginally higher rates at 6 months. Both CBTI-BP and PE showed statistically significant improvement on selected sleep and functional impairment measures. The effects of treatment were well sustained through follow-up for most outcomes, although some decline on secondary sleep benefits was observed. CBTI-BP was associated with reduced risk of mood episode relapse and improved sleep and functioning on certain outcomes in bipolar disorder. Hence, sleep disturbance appears to be an important pathway contributing to bipolar disorder. The need to develop bipolar disorder-specific sleep diary scoring standards is highlighted. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The Association Between Insomnia Symptoms and Mood Changes During Exercise Among Patients Enrolled in Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Codie R; Horsley, Kristin J; Morse, Erin; Aggarwal, Sandeep; Bacon, Simon L; Campbell, Tavis S

    2015-01-01

    Insomnia symptoms (ie, difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, and early awakenings) are common among patients with cardiovascular disease and may interfere with the beneficial impact of exercise on mood state. This study investigated the association of insomnia symptom severity with mood disturbance and with changes in mood state during exercise in a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) population. Insomnia symptom severity was measured using the Insomnia Severity Index upon admission to a 12-week CR program (n = 57). The Physical Activity Affect Scale was administered before and during a single bout of moderate intensity exercise to measure changes in mood state. Indices of mood disturbance included depressive symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and pre-exercise mood state (Physical Activity Affect Scale). Greater severity of insomnia symptoms was associated with less pleasant mood overall (r = -0.45, P positive affect (r = -0.39, P = .003), and worse fatigue (r = 0.36, P = .005); greater insomnia symptom severity also predicted greater improvements during exercise in both overall mood state (b = 0.26, standard error = 0.10, P = .009) and tranquility (b = 0.09, standard error = 0.04, P = .04), following statistical adjustment for demographic variables and pre-exercise mood state. Although CR patients reporting insomnia symptoms tend to experience daytime mood disturbance, they may benefit from mood-elevating properties of exercise. Future research is needed to help optimize mood during exercise, which may have implications for improving psychological distress and CR adherence.

  9. The Effects of Binge Drinking on College Students’ Next-Day Academic Test-Taking Performance and Mood State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Jonathan; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Greece, Jacey A; Littlefield, Caroline A; Almeida, Alissa; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael; Bliss, Caleb A.; Hunt, Sarah; Hermos, John

    2010-01-01

    Aim To assess the effects of binge drinking on students’ next-day academic test-taking performance. Design A placebo-controlled cross-over design with randomly assigned order of conditions. Participants were randomized to either alcoholic beverage (mean =.12 g% breath alcohol concentration [BrAC]) or placebo on the first night and then received the other beverage a week later. The next day, participants were assessed on test-taking, neurocognitive performance and mood state. Participants 193 college students (≥ 21 years) recruited from greater Boston. Setting The trial was conducted at the General Clinical Research Center at the Boston Medical Center. Measurements The Graduate Record Exams © (GREs) and a quiz on a lecture presented the previous day measured test-taking performance; the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES3) and the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) measured neurocognitive performance; and, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) measured mood. Findings Test-taking performance was not affected the morning after alcohol administration, but mood state and attention/reaction time were. Conclusion Drinking to a level of .12 g% BrAC does not affect next-day test-taking performance, but does affect some neurocognitive measures and mood state. PMID:20403018

  10. The effects of binge drinking on college students' next-day academic test-taking performance and mood state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Jonathan; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Greece, Jacey A; Littlefield, Caroline A; Almeida, Alissa; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael; Bliss, Caleb A; Hunt, Sarah; Hermos, John

    2010-04-01

    To assess the effects of binge drinking on students' next-day academic test-taking performance. A placebo-controlled cross-over design with randomly assigned order of conditions. Participants were randomized to either alcoholic beverage [mean = 0.12 g% breath alcohol concentration (BrAC)] or placebo on the first night and then received the other beverage a week later. The next day, participants were assessed on test-taking, neurocognitive performance and mood state. A total of 196 college students (>or=21 years) recruited from greater Boston. The trial was conducted at the General Clinical Research Center at the Boston Medical Center. The Graduate Record Examinations(c) (GREs) and a quiz on a lecture presented the previous day measured test-taking performance; the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES3) and the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) measured neurocognitive performance; and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) measured mood. Test-taking performance was not affected on the morning after alcohol administration, but mood state and attention/reaction-time were affected. Drinking to a level of 0.12 g% BrAC does not affect next-day test-taking performance, but does affect some neurocognitive measures and mood state.

  11. Exploring measurement invariance by gender in the profile of mood states depression subscale among cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Smith, Tenbroeck

    2017-01-01

    The Profile of Mood States-Short Form (POMS-SF) is a well-validated tool commonly used in medical/clinical research. Less attention has been paid to the measurement invariance of the POMS-the degree to which the structure and items behave similarly for different groups (e.g., women and men). This study investigated the measurement invariance of the POMS Depression subscale across gender groups in a sample of cancer survivors. The POMS Depression subscale has 8 items (Unhappy, Sad, Blue, Hopeless, Discouraged, Miserable, Helpless, and Worthless). Invariance was measured using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. This study used data from American Cancer Society Studies of Cancer Survivors-II, a population-based survey of adult cancer survivors (n = 9170). We found factor structures and factor loadings were invariant for gender groups, but moderate differential item functioning (DIF) in the question containing the word blue. With regard to cancer survivors' gender, we found the Depression subscale of the POMS-SF had configural invariance, and partial metric and scalar invariance. This suggests that results should be interpreted with caution, especially when gender is considered important. More broadly, our finding suggests that questions with the word blue may introduce DIF into other measures of depressive mood. More research is needed to replicate these findings in other samples and with other instruments.

  12. Psychological states and neuropsychological performances in chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, L E; Pollina, D A; Scheffer, S R; Krupp, L B

    1999-01-01

    The neuropsychiatric sequelae of chronic Lyme disease remains unclear. This study sought to characterize the psychological status of a group of participants who met criteria for post-Lyme syndrome (PLS). These measures were then used to examine the influence of psychological status on neuropsychological performances. Thirty PLS participants completed a structured psychiatric interview, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Lyme Symptom Checklist, and a battery of neuropsychological tests. As a group, the PLS participants did not appear to have an elevated incidence of psychiatric disorders, and psychiatric history was not useful for understanding neuropsychological performances or symptom reports. The mood of the PLS participants was characterized by lowered levels of positive affect (PA) and typical levels of negative affect. This combination can be distinguished from depression and is consistent with previous findings of affect patterns in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome. PA was also linked to both total symptom severity and severity of cognitive complaints, but not to duration of illness, neurological manifestations at initial diagnosis, or treatment history. Relative to published normative data, neuropsychological performances were not in the impaired range on any measure. Neither psychological status nor symptom report were useful for understanding any aspect of cognitive functioning. It is concluded that decreased PA is the most useful marker of psychological functioning in PLS.

  13. Comfort Foods and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Comfort Foods and Mood Tracy Sbrocco, Ph.D. Assoc. Prof. Dept Medical & Clinical Psychology Uniformed Services University QuickTime™ and a...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Dept Medical & Clinical Psychology Uniformed Services University Bethesda, MD 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Overview • Stress & eating • Does food improve mood? • Emotional eating • Comfort Foods

  14. Vegetarian diets are associated with healthy mood states: a cross-sectional study in Seventh Day Adventist adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The physical health status of vegetarians has been extensively reported, but there is limited research regarding the mental health status of vegetarians, particularly with regard to mood. Vegetarian diets exclude fish, the major dietary source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), critical regulators of brain cell structure and function. Omnivorous diets low in EPA and DHA are linked to impaired mood states in observational and experimental studies. Methods We examined associations between mood state and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake as a result of adherence to a vegetarian or omnivorous diet in a cross-sectional study of 138 healthy Seventh Day Adventist men and women residing in the Southwest. Participants completed a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaires. Results Vegetarians (VEG:n = 60) reported significantly less negative emotion than omnivores (OMN:n = 78) as measured by both mean total DASS and POMS scores (8.32 ± 0.88 vs 17.51 ± 1.88, p = .000 and 0.10 ± 1.99 vs 15.33 ± 3.10, p = .007, respectively). VEG reported significantly lower mean intakes of EPA (p vegetarian diet profile does not appear to adversely affect mood despite low intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:20515497

  15. Vegetarian diets are associated with healthy mood states: a cross-sectional study in Seventh Day Adventist adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Carol S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical health status of vegetarians has been extensively reported, but there is limited research regarding the mental health status of vegetarians, particularly with regard to mood. Vegetarian diets exclude fish, the major dietary source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, critical regulators of brain cell structure and function. Omnivorous diets low in EPA and DHA are linked to impaired mood states in observational and experimental studies. Methods We examined associations between mood state and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake as a result of adherence to a vegetarian or omnivorous diet in a cross-sectional study of 138 healthy Seventh Day Adventist men and women residing in the Southwest. Participants completed a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS, and Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaires. Results Vegetarians (VEG:n = 60 reported significantly less negative emotion than omnivores (OMN:n = 78 as measured by both mean total DASS and POMS scores (8.32 ± 0.88 vs 17.51 ± 1.88, p = .000 and 0.10 ± 1.99 vs 15.33 ± 3.10, p = .007, respectively. VEG reported significantly lower mean intakes of EPA (p p p p p p p p p p Conclusions The vegetarian diet profile does not appear to adversely affect mood despite low intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

  16. Vegetarian diets are associated with healthy mood states: a cross-sectional study in seventh day adventist adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beezhold, Bonnie L; Johnston, Carol S; Daigle, Deanna R

    2010-06-01

    The physical health status of vegetarians has been extensively reported, but there is limited research regarding the mental health status of vegetarians, particularly with regard to mood. Vegetarian diets exclude fish, the major dietary source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), critical regulators of brain cell structure and function. Omnivorous diets low in EPA and DHA are linked to impaired mood states in observational and experimental studies. We examined associations between mood state and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake as a result of adherence to a vegetarian or omnivorous diet in a cross-sectional study of 138 healthy Seventh Day Adventist men and women residing in the Southwest. Participants completed a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaires. Vegetarians (VEG:n = 60) reported significantly less negative emotion than omnivores (OMN:n = 78) as measured by both mean total DASS and POMS scores (8.32 +/- 0.88 vs 17.51 +/- 1.88, p = .000 and 0.10 +/- 1.99 vs 15.33 +/- 3.10, p = .007, respectively). VEG reported significantly lower mean intakes of EPA (p vegetarian diet profile does not appear to adversely affect mood despite low intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

  17. Fatigue and Mood States in Nursing Home and Nonambulatory Home-Based Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younus, Zilfah; Vaughn, Caila B; Sanai, Shaik Ahmed; Kavak, Katelyn S; Gupta, Sahil; Nadeem, Muhammad; Teter, Barbara E; Noyes, Katia; Zivadinov, Robert; Edwards, Keith; Coyle, Patricia K; Goodman, Andrew; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressively disabling condition of the central nervous system. We sought to evaluate and compare mood states in patients with MS with increased disability residing in nursing homes and those receiving home-based care. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the New York State Multiple Sclerosis Consortium to identify patients with MS using a Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of 7.0 or greater. The nursing home group was compared with home-based care patients regarding self-reported levels of loneliness, pessimism, tension, panic, irritation, morbid thoughts, feelings of guilt, and fatigue using independent-samples t tests and χ 2 tests. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate risk-adjusted differences in mood states. Ninety-four of 924 patients with EDSS scores of at least 7.0 lived in a nursing home (10.2%). Nursing home patients were less likely to use disease-modifying therapy and had higher mean EDSS scores compared with home-based patients. However, nursing home patients were less likely than home-based patients to report fatigue (odds ratio [OR] for no fatigue, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.1-7.2), feeling tense (OR for no tension, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7), and having feelings of pessimism (OR for no pessimism, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8). The nursing home patients with MS were less likely to report fatigue, pessimism, and tension than those receiving home-based care. Further studies should examine ways of facilitating a greater degree of autonomy and decision-making control in MS patients receiving home-based care.

  18. Psychology and the "At risk mental state".

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, P

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade there have been orchestrated efforts to detect and intervene during the earliest stages of psychotic illness. This article reviews some of the literature and highlights the current and future contributions of psychology to a rapidly expanding area of research and clinical practice.

  19. A longitudinal functional connectivity analysis of the amygdala in bipolar I disorder across mood states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, Michael A; Fleck, David E; Eliassen, James C; Smith, Matt S; DelBello, Melissa P; Adler, Caleb M; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    Objective Bipolar I disorder is characterized by affective symptoms varying between depression and mania. The specific neurophysiology responsible for depression in bipolar I disorder is unknown, but prior neuroimaging studies suggest impairments in corticolimbic regions that are responsible for regulating emotion. The amygdala seems to play a central role in this network and is responsible for appraisal of emotional stimuli. To further understand the role of the amygdala in the generation of mood symptoms, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine a group of patients with bipolar I disorder longitudinally. Methods fMRI was used to study regional brain activation in 15 bipolar I disorder patients followed for up to one year. Patients received an fMRI scan during an initial manic episode and a subsequent depressive episode. During the scans, patients performed an attentional task that incorporated emotional pictures. Fifteen healthy comparison subjects were also scanned at baseline and then at four months. Wholebrain functional connectivity analysis was performed using the left and right amygdala as seed regions. Results Significant changes in amygdala functional connectivity were found between the manic and depressed phases of illness. The right amygdala was significantly more positively correlated with the left inferior frontal gyrus during mania and with the right insula during depression. There were no significant differences in left amygdala correlations across mood states in the bipolar I disorder group. Conclusions In the transition from a manic/mixed episode to a depressive episode, subjects with bipolar I disorder showed unique changes in cortical–amygdala functional connectivity. Increased connectivity between the insula and right amygdala may generate excessive positive feedback, in that both of these regions are involved in the appraisal of emotional stimuli. Increased correlation between the right amygdala and the inferior

  20. Standardizing the administration of the Profile of Mood States (POMS): development of alternative word lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, R R; Ewing, S J

    1989-01-01

    Although standard administration procedures are essential for valid inference making, current Profile and Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971) protocol forces each examiner, when asked for assistance, to provide subjects extemporaneously with a word or phase that is: (a) synonymous with the original item, (b) located nowhere else on the instrument, and (c) more meaningful to the subject than the original item. The purpose of this article is to describe an empirically based extension of current POMS protocol designed to augment uniformity in administration procedures by providing examiners with a standardized list of alternatives to be referred to when questions concerning the meaning of POMS items arise. A multiphase survey procedure was employed to generate and refine alternative items. A series of alpha (internal consistency) reliabilities, calculated for the POMS subscales after each alternative was substituted, revealed little change in subscale homogeneity resulting from the substitution of the alternatives.

  1. Mood states and motor performance: a study with high performance voleybol athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Nickenig Vissoci

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between the sporting performance and mood states of high performance volleyball athletes. Twenty-three adult athletes of both sexes were assessed. The measurement instrument adopted was the POMS questionnaire.1 Data collection was carried out individually during the state championships. Dada were analyzed using descriptive statistics; the Friedman test for analysis of variance and the Mann-Whitney test for differences between means. The results demonstrated that both teams exhibited the mood state profi le corresponding to the “iceberg” profi le. In the male team, vigor remained constant throughout all phases of the competition, while in the female team this element was unstable. The male team’s fatigue began low, during the training phase, with rates that rose as the competition progressed, with statistically significant differences between the first and last matches the team played. In the female team, the confusion factor, which was at a high level during training, reduced progressively throughout the competition, with a difference that was significant to p ≤ 0.05. With relation to performance and mood profile, the female team exhibited statistically significant differences between the mean vigor and fatigue factors of high and low performance athletes. It is therefore concluded that the mood state profi le is a factor that impacts on the motor performance of these high performance teams. Resumo Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo investigar a relação entre desempenho esportivo e o estado de humor de atletas de voleibol de alto rendimento. Foram avaliados 23 sujeitos de ambos os sexos da categoria adulta. O instrumento de medida utilizado foi o questionário POMS1. A coleta dos dados foi realizada de forma individual, durante o campeonato estadual. Para análise dos dados, utilizou-se a estatística descritiva, o teste de Friedman para análise de variância e o de Mann

  2. The Influence of Coinfection on Mood States in HTLV-1-Infected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón, Maria Rita Polo; Capitão, Claudio Garcia; Nogueira-Martins, Maria Cezira Fantini; Casseb, Jorge; Penalva Oliveira, Augusto Cesar

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to discuss the influence of coinfection on mood states (depression and anxiety) in Human T Lymphotropic virus type 1 HTLV-1-infected patients. A cross-sectional study was performed with a sample obtained through a nonprobabilistic technique. A total of 130 patients in treatment at the HTLV Ambulatory of Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas participated in the research, of whom 63 had HAM/TS and 67 were asymptomatic. A sociodemographic survey and the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories were used. The results indicated a prevalence of 7.2% for HTLV-1/HIV co-infection, 7.2% for HTLV-1/HCV, and 4.0% for HTLV-1/HIV/HCV. It is possible that the presence of a co-infection causes greater fear and concern about the future than asymptomatic HTLV-1 infection, increasing the observed degree of depression and anxiety.

  3. Neural state and trait bases of mood-incongruent memory formation and retrieval in first-episode major depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingen, G.A. van; Eijndhoven, P.F.P. van; Cremers, H.R.; Tendolkar, I.; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Mood-congruent cognitive biases constitute critical factors for the vulnerability to depression and its maintenance. One important aspect is impaired memory for positive information during depression and after recovery. To elucidate its state (during depression only) and trait (during depression and

  4. Tell me your apps and I will tell you your mood: Correlation of apps usage with Bipolar Disorder State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez-Lozano, Jorge; Frost, Mads; Osmani, Venet

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar Disorder is a disease that is manifested with cycling periods of polar episodes, namely mania and depression. Depressive episodes are manifested through disturbed mood, psychomotor retardation, behaviour change, decrease in energy levels and length of sleep. Manic episodes are manifested...... through elevated mood, psychomotor acceleration and increase in intensity of social interactions. In this paper we report results of a clinical trial with bipolar patients that amongst other aspects, investigated whether changes in general behaviour of patients due to onset of a bipolar episode, can...... behaviour before the psychiatric evaluation and after the psychiatric evaluation. The results show that patients have strong correlation of patterns of app usage with different aspects of their self-reported state including mood, sleep and irritability. While, on the other hand, the patients’ application...

  5. Estimating mood variation from MPF of EMG during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinase, Yuta; Venture, Gentiane

    2013-01-01

    The information on the mood included in behavior is classified into nonverbal information, and is included in behavior without necessarily being based on the intention of an agent. Consequently, it is considered that we can estimate the mood from the measurement of the behavior. In this work, we estimate the mood from the surface electromyogram (EMG) information of the muscles of the upper limb during walking. Identification of emotion and mood using EMG information has been done with a variety of methods until now. In addition, it is known that human walking includes information that is specific to the individual and be affected by mood. Therefore, it is thought that the EMG analysis of walking is effective in the identification of human mood. In this work, we made a subject walk in the various mood states and answer psychological tests that measure the mood. We use two types of tasks (music listening and numerical calculation) for evoking different moods. Statistical features of EMG signals are calculated using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). These statistical features are related with psychological test scores, using regression analysis. In this paper, we have shown the statistical significance of the linear model to predict the variation of mood based on the information on the variation in MPF of EMG data of the muscles of the upper limb during walking with different moods. This shows the validity of such a mapping. However, since the interpretability of the model is still low, it cannot be said that the model is able to accurately represent the mood variation. Creating a model with high accuracy is a key issue in the future.

  6. The clinical obesity maintenance model: an integration of psychological constructs including mood, emotional regulation, disordered overeating, habitual cluster behaviours, health literacy and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Jayanthi; Smith, Evelyn; Hay, Phillipa

    2013-01-01

    Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM). It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided.

  7. The Clinical Obesity Maintenance Model: An Integration of Psychological Constructs including Mood, Emotional Regulation, Disordered Overeating, Habitual Cluster Behaviours, Health Literacy and Cognitive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi Raman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM. It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided.

  8. Effects of stressful daily events on mood states : Relationship to global perceived stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, M; Nicolson, NA; Berkhof, J

    1998-01-01

    This study used experience sampling methodology to examine the relationship between stressful daily events and mood. Eighty-five male white-collar workers completed self-reports 10 times a day for 5 days. Controlling for individual differences in mood levels, multilevel regression analyses showed

  9. Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

    OpenAIRE

    Zinchenko, Yury P.

    2013-01-01

    This issue is dedicated to the 80th anniversary of O.K. Tikhomirov’s birth (1933 —2001). O.K. Tikhomirov was a professor of psychology at Lomonosov Moscow State University. He is widely known for the development of the Personal Meanings Theory of thinking that creatively extended and synthesized leading conceptions of Russian national psychology: cultural-historical and activity-based methodological approaches. At the same time, O.K.Tikhomirov was an expert in diverse Western psychological th...

  10. Clinical utility of resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging for mood and cognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, T; Hanakawa, T

    2017-07-01

    Although functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has long been used to assess task-related brain activity in neuropsychiatric disorders, it has not yet become a widely available clinical tool. Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has been the subject of recent attention in the fields of basic and clinical neuroimaging research. This method enables investigation of the functional organization of the brain and alterations of resting-state networks (RSNs) in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Rs-fMRI does not require participants to perform a demanding task, in contrast to task fMRI, which often requires participants to follow complex instructions. Rs-fMRI has a number of advantages over task fMRI for application with neuropsychiatric patients, for example, although applications of task fMR to participants for healthy are easy. However, it is difficult to apply these applications to patients with psychiatric and neurological disorders, because they may have difficulty in performing demanding cognitive task. Here, we review the basic methodology and analysis techniques relevant to clinical studies, and the clinical applications of the technique for examining neuropsychiatric disorders, focusing on mood disorders (major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder) and dementia (Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment).

  11. Disentangling Working Memory Functioning in Mood States of Bipolar Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia H. Santos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM deficits are often reported in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD. However, it is not clear about the nature of these WM deficits (update or serial order processes and their association with each BD states (euthymic, mania, and depressive. This review investigated the association between BD patient's states and the functioning of WM components. For this purpose, we carried out a systematic review fulfilling a search in the databases Medline, Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science using specific terms in the abstracts of the articles that generated 212 outcomes in the restricted period from 2005 to 2016. Twenty-three papers were selected, completely read, and analyzed using PICOS strategy. The mood episodes predicted deficits in different components of WM in BD patients (the phonological loop or visuospatial sketchpad and were associated with different WM processes (updating and serial recall. Lower cognitive scores persist even in remission of symptoms. This result suggests that WM deficit apparently is stage-independent in BD patients. Furthermore, findings suggest that the neutral point on Hedonic Detector component of WM could be maladjusted by BD.

  12. Disentangling Working Memory Functioning in Mood States of Bipolar Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soraggi-Frez, Carolina; Santos, Flávia H; Albuquerque, Pedro B; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F

    2017-01-01

    Working memory (WM) deficits are often reported in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD). However, it is not clear about the nature of these WM deficits (update or serial order processes) and their association with each BD states (euthymic, mania, and depressive). This review investigated the association between BD patient's states and the functioning of WM components. For this purpose, we carried out a systematic review fulfilling a search in the databases Medline, Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science using specific terms in the abstracts of the articles that generated 212 outcomes in the restricted period from 2005 to 2016. Twenty-three papers were selected, completely read, and analyzed using PICOS strategy. The mood episodes predicted deficits in different components of WM in BD patients (the phonological loop or visuospatial sketchpad) and were associated with different WM processes (updating and serial recall). Lower cognitive scores persist even in remission of symptoms. This result suggests that WM deficit apparently is stage-independent in BD patients. Furthermore, findings suggest that the neutral point on Hedonic Detector component of WM could be maladjusted by BD.

  13. Disentangling Working Memory Functioning in Mood States of Bipolar Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soraggi-Frez, Carolina; Santos, Flávia H.; Albuquerque, Pedro B.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2017-01-01

    Working memory (WM) deficits are often reported in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD). However, it is not clear about the nature of these WM deficits (update or serial order processes) and their association with each BD states (euthymic, mania, and depressive). This review investigated the association between BD patient's states and the functioning of WM components. For this purpose, we carried out a systematic review fulfilling a search in the databases Medline, Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science using specific terms in the abstracts of the articles that generated 212 outcomes in the restricted period from 2005 to 2016. Twenty-three papers were selected, completely read, and analyzed using PICOS strategy. The mood episodes predicted deficits in different components of WM in BD patients (the phonological loop or visuospatial sketchpad) and were associated with different WM processes (updating and serial recall). Lower cognitive scores persist even in remission of symptoms. This result suggests that WM deficit apparently is stage-independent in BD patients. Furthermore, findings suggest that the neutral point on Hedonic Detector component of WM could be maladjusted by BD. PMID:28491042

  14. Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they're in a bad mood. A mood disorder is different. It affects a person's everyday emotional ... ten people aged 18 and older have mood disorders. These include depression and bipolar disorder (also called ...

  15. Mood and anxiety regulation by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: A potential pathway to modulate aggression and related behavioral states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciotto, Marina R; Lewis, Alan S; van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Mineur, Yann S

    2015-09-01

    The co-morbidity between smoking and mood disorders is striking. Preclinical and clinical studies of nicotinic effects on mood, anxiety, aggression, and related behaviors, such as irritability and agitation, suggest that smokers may use the nicotine in tobacco products as an attempt to self-medicate symptoms of affective disorders. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in circuits regulating mood and anxiety is beginning to be elucidated in animal models, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of nicotine on aggression-related behavioral states (ARBS) are still not understood. Clinical trials of nicotine or nicotinic medications for neurological and psychiatric disorders have often found effects of nicotinic medications on ARBS, but few trials have studied these outcomes systematically. Similarly, the increase in ARBS resulting from smoking cessation can be resolved by nicotinic agents, but the effects of nicotinic medications on these types of mental states and behaviors in non-smokers are less well understood. Here we review the literature on the role of nAChRs in regulating mood and anxiety, and subsequently on the closely related construct of ARBS. We suggest avenues for future study to identify how nAChRs and nicotinic agents may play a role in these clinically important areas. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sniffing the mood for cooperation: Personality and odor induced affective states effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchlewska Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores situational and dispositional underpinnings of cooperative behavior. According to psychological research, cooperation is strongly related to affective states (Forgas, 1998 and personality dimensions (Volk, Thöni, & Ruigrok, 2011. In an experimental study we examined the conditions under which people cooperate with each other. The dispositional traits of co-workers (personality, the contribution to a collaborative effort, and a situational factor – ambient odor condition were taken into consideration. A one-way ANOVA revealed that compared to a malodorous condition, both the pleasant odor condition and the natural odor condition showed higher rates of cooperation. Further analysis indicated that only malodors influenced affective states which in turn determined social decisions. Although we found effects for the participants’ agreeableness and the coworker’s contribution to a joint work, they appeared to play a less critical role than affective states induced by the experimental odor conditions tested here.

  17. Clinical application of brain imaging for the diagnosis of mood disorders: the current state of play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, J B; Rauch, S L; Drevets, W C

    2013-05-01

    In response to queries about whether brain imaging technology has reached the point where it is useful for making a clinical diagnosis and for helping to guide treatment selection, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recently written a position paper on the Clinical Application of Brain Imaging in Psychiatry. The following perspective piece is based on our contribution to this APA position paper, which specifically emphasized the application of neuroimaging in mood disorders. We present an introductory overview of the challenges faced by researchers in developing valid and reliable biomarkers for psychiatric disorders, followed by a synopsis of the extant neuroimaging findings in mood disorders, and an evidence-based review of the current research on brain imaging biomarkers in adult mood disorders. Although there are a number of promising results, by the standards proposed below, we argue that there are currently no brain imaging biomarkers that are clinically useful for establishing diagnosis or predicting treatment outcome in mood disorders.

  18. The effect of ramadan fasting on physical performances, mood state and perceived exertion in young footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chtourou, Hamdi; Hammouda, Omar; Souissi, Hichem; Chamari, Karim; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2011-09-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of Ramadan fasting on the profile of mood state and perceived exertion in young soccer players and aerobic and anaerobic performances during the Yo-Yo, repeated sprint ability (RSA) and the Wingate tests. Twenty junior male soccer players completed the Yo-Yo, the RSA, and the Wingate tests on three different occasions: one-week before Ramadan (BR), the second week (SWR) and the fourth week (ER) of Ramadan. The total distance (TD) covered and the estimated maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) during the Yo-Yo test were recorded. During the RSA test, peak power (PP) during each sprint, the percentage of decrement of PP (PD) and total work (Wtotal) were calculated. During the Wingate test, peak (P(peak)) and mean (P(mean)) powers and fatigue index (FI) were recorded. TD and MAV (P=0.01) during the Yo-Yo test and PP (P=0.01, P=0.004, P=0.001, P=0.01, P=0.03 for sprints 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively) and Wtotal (P=0.02) during the RSA test were significantly higher during BR than ER. Furthermore, muscle fatigue during the RSA test increased significantly from BR to ER (P=0.01). P(peak) and P(mean) during the Wingate test decreased significantly from BR to SWR and ER (Psoccer players.

  19. Bipolar disorder and related mood states are not associated with endothelial function of small arteries in adults without heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Brian; Abosi, Oluchi; Schmitz, Samantha; Myers, Janie; Pierce, Gary L; Fiedorowicz, Jess G

    2017-12-19

    Individuals with bipolar disorder are at increased risk for adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. This study aimed to assess endothelial function and wave reflection, a risk factor for CVD, as measured by finger plethysmography in bipolar disorder to investigate whether CVD risk was higher in bipolar disorder and altered during acute mood episodes. We hypothesized that EndoPAT would detect a lower reactive hyperemia index (RHI) and higher augmentation index (AIX) in individuals with bipolar disorder compared with controls. Second, we predicted lower RHI and higher AIX during acute mood episodes. Reactive hyperemia index and augmentation index, measures of microvascular endothelial function and arterial pressure wave reflection respectively, were assessed using the EndoPAT 2000 device in a sample of 56 participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar I disorder with 82 measures spanning different mood states (mania, depression, euthymia) and cross-sectionally in 26 healthy controls. RHI and AIX were not different between adults with and without bipolar disorder (mean age 40.3 vs. 41.2years; RHI: 2.04±0.67 vs. 2.05±0.51; AIX@75 (AIX adjusted for heart rate of 75): 1.4±19.7 vs. 0.8±22.4). When modeled in linear mixed models with a random intercept (to account for repeated observations of persons with bipolar disorder) and adjusting for age and sex, there were no significant differences between those with bipolar disorder and controls (p=0.89 for RHI; p=0.85 for AIX@75). Microvascular endothelial function and wave reflection estimated by finger plethysmography were unable to detect differences between adults with and without bipolar disorder or changes with mood states. Future research is necessary to identify more proximal and sensitive, yet relevant, biomarkers of abnormal mood-related influences on CVD risk or must target higher risk samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The illusion of the positive: the impact of natural and induced mood on older adults' false recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Lisa; Hess, Thomas M; Elliot, Tonya

    2012-11-01

    Recent research suggests that affective and motivational processes can influence age differences in memory. In the current study, we examine the impact of both natural and induced mood state on age differences in false recall. Older and younger adults performed a version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Roediger & McDermott, 1995 , Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 803) false memory paradigm in either their natural mood state or after a positive or negative mood induction. Results indicated that, after accounting for age differences in basic cognitive function, age-related differences in positive mood during the testing session were related to increased false recall in older adults. Inducing older adults into a positive mood also exacerbated age differences in false memory. In contrast, veridical recall did not appear to be systematically influenced by mood. Together, these results suggest that positive mood states can impact older adults' information processing and potentially increase underlying cognitive age differences.

  1. Profile of mood states and stress-related biochemical indices in long-term yoga practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudo Nobuyuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown the short-term or intermediate-term practice of yoga to be useful for ameliorating several mental disorders and psychosomatic disorders. However, little is known about the long-term influences of yoga on the mental state or stress-related biochemical indices. If yoga training has a stress-reduction effect and also improves an individual's mental states for a long time, long-term yoga practitioners may have a better mental state and lower stress-related biochemical indices in comparison to non-experienced participants. This study simultaneously examined the differences in mental states and urinary stress-related biochemical indices between long-term yoga practitioners and non-experienced participants. Methods The participants were 38 healthy females with more than 2 years of experience with yoga (long-term yoga group and 37 age-matched healthy females who had not participated in yoga (control group. Their mental states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire. The level of cortisol, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and biopyrrin in urine were used as stress-related biochemical indices. Results The average self-rated mental disturbance, tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, and fatigue scores of the long-term yoga group were lower than those of the control group. There was a trend toward a higher vigor score in the long-term yoga group than that in the control group. There were no significant differences in the scores for depression and confusion in the POMS between the two groups. The urine 8-OHdG concentration showed a trend toward to being lower in the long-term yoga group in comparison to the control group. There were no significant differences in the levels of urine biopyrrin or cortisol. Conclusions The present findings suggest that long-term yoga training can reduce the scores related to mental health indicators such as self-rated anxiety, anger, and fatigue.

  2. Personal determinants of positive states and stress in psychology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Kozhukhar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report study results of personality characteristics as predictors of positive states (active, optimistic, emotional, subjective comfort and stress experience in adults with one higher education and ongoing training in Psychology. The respondents were 107 people aged 23 to 52 years. Diagnostic methods we used were: "SMIL" (L. Sobchik, Optimism and Activity Scale (adapted by E. Vodopyanova, C. Izard Differential Emotions Scale (adapted by A. Leonova, Subjective Comfort Scale (adapted by A. Leonova, PSM-25 Scale by Lemyr-Tessier-Fillion. The regression analysis revealed that in subjects ongoing training in Psychology, basic predictor of positive emotions and stress experience is anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed three types of subjects by their positive states experiences, which differ primarily by the level of baseline anxiety and related personality characteristics. The group of risk comprised Psychology students with a tendency to depression and negative emotions and specific personality profile.

  3. Comparing the Age Related Mood Profile of Veteran Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Rostami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basketball, as an exciting team sport, is very popular among athletes with disabilities. Among psychological skills, mood states as an important variable have been of special interest to researchers. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate and compare profile of mood states (BRUMS of disabled former soldiers who play basketball in different age groups. Methodology: After getting permit to conduct the research, 28 disabled basketball players completed the demographic survey and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS questionnaire. BRUMS consisted of 24 items in subscales of stress, anger, depression, fatigue, confusion and vigor. The one-way analysis of variance test was used for the data analysis. The significance level was set at P≤0.05. SPSS Statistics 22.0 was used for the analysis of data. Results: The results showed that mood states become less negative with age. However, scores showed a rising trend in the 35-39 age groups (mood of anger with P=0/02 fatigue with P=0/03 and confusion with P=0/04. Conclusion: It seems that examining the psychological variables in relation to age can help develop more effective strategies in physical and mental training programs for disabled players. Keywords: Mood States, Basketball Players, veteran with disabilities, Age

  4. The concept of human functional state in Russian applied Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Leonova, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The concept of human functional states (HFS) is considered in the framework of activity regulation approach developed in Russian applied psychology. Aimed at the analysis of changes in regulatory mechanisms of on-going activity, structural methods for multilevel assessment of workers states are discussed. Three diff erent strategies of data integration are proposed regarding the types of essential practical problems. Their usability is exemplifi ed with the help of two empirical studies conce...

  5. Oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage in psychological stress states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    age-related somatic disorders. The overall aim of the PhD project was to investigate the relation between psychopathology, psychological stress, stress hormone secretion and oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage, as measured by the urinary excretion of markers of whole-body DNA/RNA oxidation (8......-oxodG and 8-oxoGuo, respectively). The main hypothesis was that psychological stress states are associated with increased DNA/RNA damage from oxidation. In a study of 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 healthy controls matched for age and gender, we found that 8-oxodG/8-oxoGuo excretion was increased...... between the 24 h urinary cortisol excretion and the excretion of 8-oxodG/8-oxoGuo, determined in the same samples. Collectively, the studies could not confirm an association between psychological stress and oxidative stress on nucleic acids. Systemic oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage was increased...

  6. Monitoring of psychological well-being in outpatients with diabetes: effects on mood, HbA(1c), and the patient's evaluation of the quality of diabetes care: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwer, F.; Snoek, F. J.; van der Ploeg, H. M.; Adèr, H. J.; Heine, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    To investigate whether monitoring and discussing psychological well-being in outpatients with diabetes improves mood, glycemic control, and the patient's evaluation of the quality of diabetes care. This study was a randomized controlled trial of 461 outpatients with diabetes who were randomly

  7. Personality Does not Influence Exercise-Induced Mood Enhancement Among Female Exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew M; Milton, Karen E; Terry, Peter C

    2005-09-01

    The present study investigated the influence of personality on exercise-induced mood changes. It was hypothesised that (a) exercise would be associated with significant mood enhancement across all personality types, (b) extroversion would be associated with positive mood and neuroticism with negative mood both pre- and post-exercise, and (c) personality measures would interact with exercise-induced mood changes. Participants were 90 female exercisers (M = 25.8 yr, SD = 9.0 yr) who completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) once and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) before and after a 60-minute exercise session. Median splits were used to group participants into four personality types: stable introverts (n = 25), stable extroverts (n = 20), neurotic introverts (n = 26), and neurotic extroverts (n = 19). Repeated measures MANOVA showed significant mood enhancement following exercise across all personality types. Neuroticism was associated with negative mood scores pre- and post-exercise but the effect of extroversion on reported mood was relatively weak. There was no significant interaction effect between exercise-induced mood enhancement and personality. In conclusion, findings lend support to the notion that exercise is associated with improved mood. However, findings show that personality did not influence this effect, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood. Key PointsResearch in general psychology has found that stable personality trait are associated changes in mood states. Ninety females exercisers completed a personality test and mood scales before and after exercise. Results indicated mood changes were not associated with personality, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood.

  8. Effects of a 12-hour shift on mood states and sleepiness of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Sartini Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of a 12-hour shift on mood states and sleepiness at the beginning and end of the shift. METHOD Quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study.It was conducted with 70 neonatal intensive care unit nurses. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS, and a socio-demographic profile questionnaire were administered. RESULTS When the KSS and BRUMS scores were compared at the beginning of the shift associations were found with previous sleep quality (p ≤ 0.01, and quality of life (p ≤ 0.05. Statistical significant effects on BRUMS scores were also associated with previous sleep quality, quality of life, liquid ingestion, healthy diet, marital status, and shift work stress. When the beginning and end of the shift were compared, different KSS scores were seen in the group of all nurses and in the night shift one. Significant vigor and fatigue scores were observed within shift groups. CONCLUSION A good night’s sleep has positive effects on the individual`s mood states both at the beginning and the end of the shift. The self-perception of a good quality of life also positively influenced KSS and BRUMS scores at the beginning and end of the shift. Proper liquid ingestion led to better KSS and BRUMS scores.

  9. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Adolescent Problems, Coping Efficacy, and Mood States Using a Mobile Phone App: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Rachel; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda

    2016-11-29

    Mobile technologies have the potential to be used as innovative tools for conducting research on the mental health and well-being of young people. In particular, they have utility for carrying out ecological momentary assessment (EMA) research by capturing data from participants in real time as they go about their daily lives. The aim of this study was to explore the utility of a mobile phone app as a means of collecting EMA data pertaining to mood, problems, and coping efficacy in a school-based sample of Irish young people. The study included a total of 208 participants who were aged 15-18 years, 64% female (113/208), recruited from second-level schools in Ireland, and who downloaded the CopeSmart mobile phone app as part of a randomized controlled trial. On the app, participants initially responded to 5 single-item measures of key protective factors in youth mental health (formal help-seeking, informal help-seeking, sleep, exercise, and sense of belonging). They were then encouraged to use the app daily to input data relating to mood states (happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and worry), daily problems, and coping self-efficacy. The app automatically collected data pertaining to user engagement over the course of the 28-day intervention period. Students also completed pen and paper questionnaires containing standardized measures of emotional distress (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale; DASS-21), well-being (World Health Organization Well-Being Index; WHO-5), and coping (Coping Strategies Inventory; CSI). On average the participants completed 18% (5/28) of daily ratings, and engagement levels did not differ across gender, age, school, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, or nationality. On a scale of 1 to 10, happiness was consistently the highest rated mood state (overall mean 6.56), and anger was consistently the lowest (overall mean 2.11). Pearson correlations revealed that average daily ratings of emotional states were associated with standardized measures of

  10. The relationship between mood state and perceived control in contingency learning: effects of individualist and collectivist values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msetfi, Rachel M.; Kornbrot, Diana E.; Matute, Helena; Murphy, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived control in contingency learning is linked to psychological wellbeing with low levels of perceived control thought to be a cause or consequence of depression and high levels of control considered to be the hallmark of mental healthiness. However, it is not clear whether this is a universal phenomenon or whether the value that people ascribe to control influences these relationships. Here we hypothesize that values affect learning about control contingencies and influence the relationship between perceived control and symptoms of mood disorders. We tested these hypotheses with European university samples who were categorized as endorsing (or not) values relevant to control—individualist and collectivist values. Three online experimental contingency learning studies (N1 = 127, N2 = 324, N3 = 272) were carried out. Evidence suggested that individualist values influenced basic learning processes via an effect on learning about the context in which events took place. Participants who endorsed individualist values made control judgments that were more in line with an elemental associative learning model, whilst those who were ambivalent about individualist values made judgments that were more consistent with a configural process. High levels of perceived control and individualist values were directly associated with increased euphoric symptoms of bipolar disorder, and such values completely mediated the relation between perceived control and symptoms. The effect of low perceived control on depression was moderated by collectivist values. Anxiety created by dissonance between values and task may be a catalyst for developing mood symptoms. Conclusions are that values play a significant intermediary role in the relation between perceived control and symptoms of mood disturbance. PMID:26483707

  11. The relationship between mood state and perceived control in contingency learning: Effects of individualist and collectivist values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Msetfi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Perceived control in contingency learning is linked to psychological wellbeing with low levels of perceived control thought to be a cause or consequence of depression and high levels of control considered to be the hallmark of mental healthiness. However, it is not clear whether this is a universal phenomenon or whether the value that people ascribe to control influences these relationships. Here we hypothesize that values affect learning about control contingencies and influence the relationship between perceived control and symptoms of mood disorders. We tested these hypotheses with European university samples who were categorized as endorsing (or not values relevant to control - individualist and collectivist values. Three online experimental contingency learning studies (N1 = 127, N2 = 324, N3 = 272 were carried out. Evidence suggested that individualist values influenced basic learning processes via an effect on learning about the context in which events took place. Participants who endorsed individualist values made control judgments that were more in line with an elemental associative learning model, whilst those who were ambivalent about individualist values made judgments that were more consistent with a configural process. High levels of perceived control and individualist values were directly associated with increased euphoric symptoms of bipolar disorder, and such values completely mediated the relation between perceived control and symptoms. The effect of low perceived control on depression was moderated by collectivist values. Anxiety created by dissonance between values and task may be a catalyst for developing mood symptoms. Conclusions are that values play a significant intermediary role in the relation between perceived control and symptoms of mood disturbance.

  12. The relationship between mood state and perceived control in contingency learning: effects of individualist and collectivist values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msetfi, Rachel M; Kornbrot, Diana E; Matute, Helena; Murphy, Robin A

    2015-01-01

    Perceived control in contingency learning is linked to psychological wellbeing with low levels of perceived control thought to be a cause or consequence of depression and high levels of control considered to be the hallmark of mental healthiness. However, it is not clear whether this is a universal phenomenon or whether the value that people ascribe to control influences these relationships. Here we hypothesize that values affect learning about control contingencies and influence the relationship between perceived control and symptoms of mood disorders. We tested these hypotheses with European university samples who were categorized as endorsing (or not) values relevant to control-individualist and collectivist values. Three online experimental contingency learning studies (N 1 = 127, N 2 = 324, N 3 = 272) were carried out. Evidence suggested that individualist values influenced basic learning processes via an effect on learning about the context in which events took place. Participants who endorsed individualist values made control judgments that were more in line with an elemental associative learning model, whilst those who were ambivalent about individualist values made judgments that were more consistent with a configural process. High levels of perceived control and individualist values were directly associated with increased euphoric symptoms of bipolar disorder, and such values completely mediated the relation between perceived control and symptoms. The effect of low perceived control on depression was moderated by collectivist values. Anxiety created by dissonance between values and task may be a catalyst for developing mood symptoms. Conclusions are that values play a significant intermediary role in the relation between perceived control and symptoms of mood disturbance.

  13. Recreational music-making: an integrative group intervention for reducing burnout and improving mood states in first year associate degree nursing students: insights and economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittman, Barry B; Snyder, Cherie; Bruhn, Karl T; Liebfreid, Fran; Stevens, Christine K; Westengard, James; Umbach, Paul O

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of providing exemplary undergraduate nursing education cannot be underestimated in an era when burnout and negative mood states predictably lead to alarming rates of academic as well as career attrition. While the multi-dimensional nature of this complex issue has been extensively elucidated, few rational strategies exist to reverse a disheartening trend recognizable early in the educational process that subsequently threatens to undermine the future viability of quality healthcare. This controlled prospective crossover study examined the impact of a 6-session Recreational Music-making (RMM) protocol on burnout and mood dimensions as well as Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in first year associate level nursing students. A total of 75 first year associate degree nursing students from Allegany College of Maryland (ACM) participated in a 6-session RMM protocol focusing on group support and stress reduction utilizing a specific group drumming protocol. Burnout and mood dimensions were assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Profile of Mood States respectively. Statistically significant reductions of multiple burnout and mood dimensions as well as TMD scores were noted. Potential annual cost savings for the typical associate degree nursing program (16,800 dollars) and acute care hospital (322,000 dollars) were projected by an independent economic analysis firm. A cost-effective 6-session RMM protocol reduces burnout and mood dimensions as well as TMD in associate degree nursing students.

  14. Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

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    Zinchenko, Yury P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This issue is dedicated to the 80th anniversary of O.K. Tikhomirov’s birth (1933 —2001. O.K. Tikhomirov was a professor of psychology at Lomonosov Moscow State University. He is widely known for the development of the Personal Meanings Theory of thinking that creatively extended and synthesized leading conceptions of Russian national psychology: cultural-historical and activity-based methodological approaches. At the same time, O.K.Tikhomirov was an expert in diverse Western psychological theories, and the person who brought Russian psychological traditions to America and Europe. The extensive special section presents papers written by foreign and Russia colleagues of O.K. Tikhomirov as well as researchers who continue their working the frames of his scientific school. It opens with the review article “Contribution of Oleg K. Tikhomirov to the methodology, theory and experimental practice of psychology” by Julia D. Babaeva and colleagues. A very personal report by Yulia Solovieva and Luis Quintanar, illustrated with unique photos, tell us about O.K. Tikhomirov’s academic and educational work at Autonomous University of Puebla (UAP in Mexico.

  15. The influence of positive mood on different aspects of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth A; Kerns, John G

    2011-02-01

    Some evidence suggests that positive mood influences cognitive control. The current research investigated whether positive mood has differential effects on two aspects of cognitive control, working memory and prepotent response inhibition. In Study 1, following either a positive or neutral mood induction, participants completed the Running Memory Span (RMS), a measure primarily of working memory storage capacity, and the Stroop task, a measure of prepotent response inhibition. Results were that the positive mood group performed worse on the RMS task but not on the Stroop task. In Study 2, participants completed the RMS and another measure of prepotent response inhibition, the Flanker task. Results were that when in a positive mood state participants performed worse on the RMS but not on the Flanker task. Overall, this research suggests that positive mood has differential effects on cognitive control, impairing working memory but having no effect on prepotent response inhibition. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  16. Adult mood disorders and childhood psychological trauma Transtornos do humor no adulto e trauma psicológico na infância

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    Maria Lucrécia Scherer Zavaschi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between adult mood disorders and childhood psychological trauma in a developing country. METHOD: Adults with and without mood disorders were assessed in a case-control study using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Assessment of childhood trauma included physical and sexual abuse, frequent exposure to violence, and parental loss. RESULTS: In two independent multivariate analyses, after adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found a higher odds ratio for frequent exposure to violence in the community (p = .037 and for physical abuse by parents or caregivers during childhood/adolescence (p = .012 in the group with mood disorders than in the control group. In secondary analyses splitting the mood disorder group in two subgroups (manic episode, and major depressive episodes/ dysthymia, only manic patients showed significantly higher rates of frequent exposure to violence in the community (p = 0.01 and physical abuse during childhood (p = 0.02 than did patients in the control group. In addition, maniac patients had significantly higher rates of sexual abuse than did controls (p = .03. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings document an association between violence during childhood and adult mood disorders, especially for manic patients, in a developing country.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre transtornos de humor no adulto e trauma psicológico na infância em um país em desenvolvimento. MÉTODO: Adultos com e sem transtorno de humor foram avaliados em um estudo de caso-controle utilizando a Mini Entrevista Neuropsiquiátrica Internacional. A avaliação de trauma infantil incluiu abuso físico e sexual, exposição freqüente à violência e perda dos pais. RESULTADOS: Em duas análises multivariadas independentes, após o ajuste para fatores potenciais de confusão, encontramos uma razão de chance mais alta de exposição freqüente à violência na comunidade (p = 0,037 e de abuso f

  17. MOOD PROFILING DURING OLYMPIC QUALIFYING JUDO COMPETITION: A CASE STUDY TESTING TRANSACTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS

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    Matthew J. Stevens

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study investigated relationships between personality, mood states changes, coping strategies, self-set goals, and self-efficacy in an elite judo player. A transactional perspective of psychological responses over time was used to guide data analysis. The ambient mood is proposed to contribute to the interpretation of, and reaction to, events during competition, which lead to subsequent emotional responses. A male international Judo player completed a number of self-report measures before and during a 4-contest tournament. Measures included the EPQ, MCOPE, Brunel Mood Scale, self-set goals, and self-efficacy for goal attainment. State measures were completed after every contest. Results indicated high scores of self-efficacy to achieve performance goals and outcome goals. Pre-competition mood results indicated high scores on the Vigor and Anger subscales with moderate scores for Tension, and zero scores for Depressed mood, a mood profile that remained relatively stable after winning his first two contests. After losing his third contest, he reported symptoms of Depressed mood and indicated using self-blame as coping strategy during the contest. Before the fourth contest, he coped by using planning and increasing effort. These coping strategies were associated with reductions in Depressed mood and increases in Vigor. After finding out his next contest was against a former World Championship bronze medalist, self-set goals became performance and process with no outcome goal. On losing this contest, scores on the Anger and Depression subscales increased sharply, Fatigue scores increased slightly and Tension and Vigor reduced. Self-blame was used as a coping strategy when experiencing unpleasant emotions. Findings suggest that self-blame was associated with negative psychological states comprising depressed mood. Increasing effort and planning were associated with positive psychological states. Collectively, findings emphasize the value of

  18. Emotional state and time perception: effects of film-induced mood

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    Sylvie eDroit-Volet

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research into emotion and time perception has been designed to study the time perception of emotional events themselves (e.g., facial expression. Our aim was to investigate the effect of emotions per se on the subsequent time judgment of a neutral, non-affective event. In the present study, the participants were presented with films inducing a specific mood and were subsequently given a temporal bisection task. More precisely, the participants were given two temporal bisection tasks, one before and the other after viewing the emotional film. Three emotional films were tested: one eliciting fear, another sadness and a neutral control film. In addition, the direct mood experience was assessed using the Brief Mood Introspective Scale (BMIS that was administered to the participants at the beginning and the end of the session. The results showed that the perception of time did not change after viewing either the neutral control films or the sad films although the participants reported being sadder and less aroused after than before watching the sad film clips. In contrast, the stimulus durations were judged longer after than before viewing the frightening films that were judged to increase the emotion of fear and arousal level. In combination with findings from previous studies, our data suggest that the selective lengthening effect after watching frightening films was mediated by an effect of arousal on the speed of the internal clock system.

  19. The psychologizing of Chinese healing practices in the United States.

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    Barnes, L L

    1998-12-01

    This paper explores ways in which Chinese healing practices have undergone acculturation in the United States since the early 1970s. Reacting to what is perceived as biomedicine's focus on the physiological, those who describe themselves as favoring a holistic orientation often use the language of "energy blockage" to explain illness, whether thought of as "physical," "emotional," or "spiritual." Acupuncture in particular has been appropriated as one modality with which to "unblock" such conditions, leading to its being used by some practitioners in conjunction with more psychotherapeutic approaches which include valuing the verbalizing of feelings. Some non-Chinese practitioners in the United States, returning to older Chinese texts to develop "an American acupuncture," are reinserting diagnoses eliminated from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) by the People's Republic of China as "superstition." The assumption has been that many such diagnostic categories refer to psychological or spiritual conditions, and therefore may be useful in those American contexts which favor this orientation. Among these categories are those drawn from traditions of demonology in Chinese medicine. What was once a religious category in China turns psychological in the American setting. At the same time, many who use these terms have, since the late 1960s, increasingly conflated the psychological and the religious, the latter being reframed as "spiritual." Thus, this indigenization of Chinese practices is a complex synthesis which can be described as simultaneously medical, psychotherapeutic, and religious.

  20. Differential psychological impact of internet exposure on Internet addicts.

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    Michela Romano

    Full Text Available The study explored the immediate impact of internet exposure on the mood and psychological states of internet addicts and low internet-users. Participants were given a battery of psychological tests to explore levels of internet addiction, mood, anxiety, depression, schizotypy, and autism traits. They were then given exposure to the internet for 15 min, and re-tested for mood and current anxiety. Internet addiction was associated with long-standing depression, impulsive nonconformity, and autism traits. High internet-users also showed a pronounced decrease in mood following internet use compared to the low internet-users. The immediate negative impact of exposure to the internet on the mood of internet addicts may contribute to increased usage by those individuals attempting to reduce their low mood by re-engaging rapidly in internet use.

  1. The Effect of Green Exercise on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate and Mood State in Primary School Children

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    Michael J. Duncan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was exploratory and sought to examine the effect on blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR and mood state responses in primary school children of moderate intensity cycling whilst viewing a green environment compared to exercise alone. Following ethics approval and parental informed consent, 14 children (seven boys, seven girls, Mean age ± SD = 10 ± 1 years undertook two, 15 min bouts of cycling at a moderate exercise intensity in a counterbalanced order. In one bout they cycled whilst viewing a film of cycling in a forest setting. In the other condition participants cycled with no visual stimulus. Pre-, immediately post-exercise and 15 min post-exercise, BP, HR and Mood state were assessed. Analysis of variance, indicated significant condition X time interaction for SBP (p = 0.04. Bonferroni post-hoc pairwise comparisons indicated that systolic blood pressure (SBP 15 min post exercise was significantly lower following green exercise compared to the control condition (p = 0.01. There were no significant differences in diastolic blood pressure (DBP (all p > 0.05. HR immediately post exercise was significantly higher than HR pre exercise irrespective of green exercise or control condition (p = 0.001. Mood scores for fatigue were significantly higher and scores for vigor lower 15 min post exercise irrespective of green exercise or control condition (both p = 0.0001. Gender was not significant in any analyses (p > 0.05. Thus, the present study identifies an augmented post exercise hypotensive effect for children following green exercise compared to exercise alone.

  2. The Effect of Green Exercise on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate and Mood State in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J.; Clarke, Neil D.; Birch, Samantha L.; Tallis, Jason; Hankey, Joanne; Bryant, Elizabeth; Eyre, Emma L. J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was exploratory and sought to examine the effect on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and mood state responses in primary school children of moderate intensity cycling whilst viewing a green environment compared to exercise alone. Following ethics approval and parental informed consent, 14 children (seven boys, seven girls, Mean age ± SD = 10 ± 1 years) undertook two, 15 min bouts of cycling at a moderate exercise intensity in a counterbalanced order. In one bout they cycled whilst viewing a film of cycling in a forest setting. In the other condition participants cycled with no visual stimulus. Pre-, immediately post-exercise and 15 min post-exercise, BP, HR and Mood state were assessed. Analysis of variance, indicated significant condition X time interaction for SBP (p = 0.04). Bonferroni post-hoc pairwise comparisons indicated that systolic blood pressure (SBP) 15 min post exercise was significantly lower following green exercise compared to the control condition (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (all p > 0.05). HR immediately post exercise was significantly higher than HR pre exercise irrespective of green exercise or control condition (p = 0.001). Mood scores for fatigue were significantly higher and scores for vigor lower 15 min post exercise irrespective of green exercise or control condition (both p = 0.0001). Gender was not significant in any analyses (p > 0.05). Thus, the present study identifies an augmented post exercise hypotensive effect for children following green exercise compared to exercise alone. PMID:24699030

  3. Estados de humor de velejadores durante o Pré-Panamericano Mood states sail athletes during the Pre-Panamerican

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    Ricardo Brandt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi avaliar os estados de humor de velejadores após regatas do Pré-Panamericana de Vela, bem como fatores associados. A amostra foi composta por 18 atletas de ambos os sexos, que foram avaliados por meio da Escala de Humor de Brunel. Os atletas apresentaram elevada tensão e fadiga, associadas a altos níveis de vigor. Homens apresentaram maior vigor e fadiga, e menor tensão, depressão e raiva do que as mulheres, porém sem diferenças estatísticamente significativas. Quanto à classe, velejadores de classes individuais apresentaram maior tensão, depressão e confusão do que os de classes com dois tripulantes, porém sem diferenças estatísticamente significativas. Os estados de humor apresentados pelos atletas após regatas do Pré-Panamericano de Vela podem ser considerados diferente do ideal para o rendimento esportivo, porém ainda existe pouco domínio teórico dos estados de humor de velejadores para análises mais aprofundadas.The purpose of this research was to evaluate de mood states after regattas of sail during Pre-Panamerican, as well associated factors. Sample was composed by 18 athletes of both sexes that were evaluated by the Brunel Mood Scale. The athletes presented high tension and fatigue, associated with high levels of vigor. The men present higher vigor and fatigue, and low tension, depression and angry than the women, but the differences were no significant. About the class, the athletes of individual classes showed high tension, depression and confusion than the ones of the classes with two athletes, but there were no significant differences. The mood states presented by the athletes after the regattas of sail of the Pre-Panamerican can be considered different from the ideal to sporting performance, but already there is a little bit theory about the mood states of sail athletes to do a deep analysis.

  4. [Mood induction procedures: a critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilet, A-L

    2008-06-01

    For a long period in the history of psychological research, emotion and cognition have been studied independently, as if one were irrelevant to the other. The renewed interest of researchers for the study of the relations between cognition and emotion has led to the development of a range of laboratory methods for inducing temporary mood states. This paper aims to review the main mood induction procedures allowing the induction of a negative mood as well as a positive mood, developed since the pioneer study of Schachter and Singer [Psychol Rev 69 (1962) 379-399] and to account for the usefulness and problems related to the use of such techniques. The first part of this paper deals with the detailed presentation of some of the most popular mood induction procedures according to their type: simple (use of only one mood induction technique) or combined (association of two or more techniques at once). The earliest of the modern techniques is the Velten Mood Induction Procedure [Behav Res Ther 6 (1968) 473-482], which involves reading aloud sixty self-referent statements progressing from relative neutral mood to negative mood or dysphoria. Some researchers have varied the procedure slightly by changing the number of the statements [Behav Res Ther 21 (1983) 233-239, Br J Clin Psychol 21 (1982) 111-117, J Pers Soc Psychol 35 (1977) 625-636]. Various other mood induction procedures have been developed including music induction [Cogn Emotion 11 (1997) 403-432, Br J Med Psychol 55 (1982) 127-138], film clip induction [J Pers Soc Psychol 20 (1971) 37-43, Cogn Emotion 7 (1993) 171-193, Rottenberg J, Ray RR, Gross JJ. Emotion elicitation using films. In: Coan JA, Allen JJB, editors. The handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007], autobiographical recall [J Clin Psychol 36 (1980) 215-226, Jallais C. Effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur les structures de connaissances de type script. Thèse de doctorat non publi

  5. Exposure assessment of arc welders to extremely low frequency magnetic field: its relationship with the secretion of paratormone hormone and mood states

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    Roohalah Hajizadeh

    2016-09-01

    .44. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that continuous welding can be considered as an exposure source to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. More accurate and comprehensive laboratory and field studies are needed to prove the hypothesis of the potential impact of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on people’s psychological states and mood through changes of parathyroid hormone level.

  6. Hospital nurses' individual priorities, internal psychological states and work motivation.

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    Toode, K; Routasalo, P; Helminen, M; Suominen, T

    2014-09-01

    This study looks to describe the relationships between hospital nurses' individual priorities, internal psychological states and their work motivation. Connections between hospital nurses' work-related needs, values and work motivation are essential for providing safe and high quality health care. However, there is insufficient empirical knowledge concerning these connections for the practice development. A cross-sectional empirical research study was undertaken. A total of 201 registered nurses from all types of Estonian hospitals filled out an electronic self-reported questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman's correlation were used for data analysis. In individual priorities, higher order needs strength were negatively correlated with age and duration of service. Regarding nurses' internal psychological states, central hospital nurses had less sense of meaningfulness of work. Nurses' individual priorities (i.e. their higher order needs strength and shared values with the organization) correlated with their work motivation. Their internal psychological states (i.e. their experienced meaningfulness of work, experienced responsibility for work outcomes and their knowledge of results) correlated with intrinsic work motivation. Nurses who prioritize their higher order needs are more motivated to work. The more their own values are compatible with those of the organization, the more intrinsically motivated they are likely to be. Nurses' individual achievements, autonomy and training are key factors which influence their motivation to work. The small sample size and low response rate of the study limit the direct transferability of the findings to the wider nurse population, so further research is needed. This study highlights the need and importance to support nurses' professional development and self-determination, in order to develop and retain motivated nurses. It also indicates a need to value both nurses and nursing in

  7. Yerba Maté (Ilex paraguariensis) Metabolic, Satiety, and Mood State Effects at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise.

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    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Atcheson, Roisin

    2017-08-15

    Yerba Maté (YM), has become a popular herb ingested for enhancing metabolic health and weight-loss outcomes. No studies have tested the combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects of YM during exercise. We tested whether YM ingestion affects fatty acid oxidation (FAO), profile of mood state score (POMS), and subjective appetite scale (VAS), during prolonged moderate exercise. Twelve healthy active females were randomized to ingest either 2 g of YM or placebo (PLC) in a repeated-measures design. Participants rested for 120 min before performing a 30-min cycling exercise corresponding to individuals' crossover point intensity (COP). FAO, determined using indirect calorimetry, was significantly higher during the 30-min exercise in YM vs. PLC (0.21 ± 0.07 vs. 0.17 ± 0.06 g/min, p eating, and desire to eat were all reduced (p effect for any of the measured variables, nor was there any interaction effects between YM treatment and time. Combining YM intake with prolonged exercise at targeted "fat-loss"' intensities augments FAO and improves measures of satiety and mood state. Such positive combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects may provide an important role for designing future fat and weight-loss lifestyle interventions.

  8. Effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with mild exercise, on cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood state, and plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorris, T; Harris, R C; Swain, J; Corbett, J; Collard, K; Dyson, R J; Dye, L; Hodgson, C; Draper, N

    2006-03-01

    Sleep deprivation has a negative effect on cognitive and psychomotor performance and mood state, partially due to decreases in creatine levels in the brain. Therefore, creatine supplementation should lessen the negative effects of sleep deprivation. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with mild exercise, on cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood state, and plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol. Subjects were divided into a creatine group (n=10) and a placebo group (n=9). They took 5 g of creatine monohydrate or a placebo, dependent on their group, four times a time a day for 7 days, immediately prior to the experiment. The study was double blind. Subjects undertook tests of random movement generation (RMG), verbal and spatial recall, choice reaction time, static balance and mood state pre-test (0 h), after 6, 12 and 24 h of sleep deprivation, with intermittent exercise. They were tested for plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol at 0 and 24 h. At 24 h, the creatine group demonstrated significantly less change in performance from 0 h (delta) in RMG, choice reaction time, balance and mood state. There were no significant differences between groups in plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol. Norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations were significantly higher at 24 h than 0 h, but cortisol were lower. Following 24-h sleep deprivation, creatine supplementation had a positive effect on mood state and tasks that place a heavy stress on the prefrontal cortex.

  9. Cognitive and mood assessment in stroke research: focused review of contemporary studies.

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    Lees, Rosalind; Fearon, Patricia; Harrison, Jennifer K; Broomfield, Niall M; Quinn, Terence J

    2012-06-01

    International guidelines recommend cognitive and mood assessments for stroke survivors; these assessments also have use in clinical trials. However, there is no consensus on the optimal assessment tool(s). We aimed to describe use of cognitive and mood measures in contemporary published stroke trials. Two independent, blinded assessors reviewed high-impact journals representing: general medicine (n=4), gerontology/rehabilitation (n=3), neurology (n=4), psychiatry (n=4), psychology (n=4), and stroke (n=3) January 2000 to October 2011 inclusive. Journals were hand-searched for relevant, original research articles that described cognitive/mood assessments in human stroke survivors. Data were checked for relevance by an independent clinician and clinical psychologist. Across 8826 stroke studies, 488 (6%) included a cognitive or mood measure. Of these 488 articles, total number with cognitive assessment was 408 (83%) and mood assessment tools 247 (51%). Total number of different assessments used was 367 (cognitive, 300; mood, 67). The most commonly used cognitive measure was Folstein's Mini-Mental State Examination (n=180 articles, 37% of all articles with cognitive/mood outcomes); the most commonly used mood assessment was the Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression(n=43 [9%]). Cognitive and mood assessments are infrequently used in stroke research. When used, there is substantial heterogeneity and certain prevalent assessment tools may not be suited to stroke cohorts. Research and guidance on the optimal cognitive/mood assessment strategies for clinical practice and trials is required.

  10. The associations between body dissatisfaction, body figure, self-esteem, and depressed mood in adolescents in the United States and Korea: A moderated mediation analysis.

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    Choi, Eunsoo; Choi, Injae

    2016-12-01

    The perception of one's body image becomes particularly important in adolescence. Body dissatisfaction has been associated with negative psychological functioning, such as self-esteem and depression. Previous findings showed that the decreased self-esteem due to body dissatisfaction explained the association between negative attitude toward body and psychological well-being in different cultural contexts. The present study examined adolescents from the US (N = 1002) and Korea (N = 3993) and replicated and extended the previous findings regarding body dissatisfaction and associated psychological outcomes. The results showed that body dissatisfaction predicted higher depressed mood and that self-esteem mediated this association for both American and Korean adolescents. Notably, the indirect effect of body dissatisfaction and perceived body image on depressed mood via self-esteem was greater for American adolescents than for Korean adolescents. The implications of the cultural difference in the significance of self-esteem in mediating the body dissatisfaction and depressed mood are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Second Language Acquisition of Korean Evidentiality in Expressions of Psychological State of Mind

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    Rhoades-Ko, Yun-Hee

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the second language acquisition of the evidentiality requirement in the Korean psychological state of mind expressions. When an experiencer of the psychological state of mind is different from the speaker, Korean language requires an evidential expression to the psychological predicate so that the speaker indicates the source…

  12. Exercise but not metformin improves health-related quality of life and mood states in older adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Liliana C; Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M; Martins, Raul A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this cohort study is to analyse the effect of three types of treatment: (i) exercise training with multicomponent exercise (E); (ii) pharmacologic treatment with oral hypoglycaemic drug - metformin (M); and (iii) a combined therapy - exercise and metformin (E + M) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and mood states in older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with comorbidity in an early stage of the disease. Participants (n = 284) underwent 1 of the following 3 conditions: (i) E (n = 59) trained three times/week; (ii) M (n = 30) used 850 mg of metformin twice daily; and (iii) E + M (n = 195) combined exercise and metformin. Furthermore, participants completed baseline and 2-year follow-up evaluations including a Shortform Health Survey 36, Profile of Mood States - Short-form, the health history questionnaires, anthropometric, and blood biochemistry. E and E + M revealed improved mood states, with large effect size on the vigour domain, and moderate effect size in the anger and total mood disturbance (TMD) domains (P  0.05). Metformin had no significant effect on the self-referred HRQoL in T2D participants aged above 60 years, in an early stage of the disease. The E and E + M were the most effective long-term therapies to improve mood states and HRQoL in older adults with T2D.

  13. An Experimental Examination of the Interaction between Mood Induction Task and Personality Psychopathology on State Emotion Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Lauren M.; Naugle, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    While emotion dysregulation has been investigated as a key variable in the development and persistence of personality psychopathology, few studies have explored state emotion dysregulation among individuals with personality disorders (PDs). The current study addresses this void in the literature through a laboratory investigation of state emotion dysregulation among participants with and without PDs. To facilitate this goal, participants were matched to pairs based on similar personality features and were randomized to one of two behavioral analogues; either the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task-Computerized (PASAT-C) or an interpersonally based mood induction. As hypothesized, PD participants in the PASAT-C reported significantly more difficulty with impulsivity and emotion regulation strategies. Contrary to expectations, the PD group in the interpersonal task demonstrated significantly less difficulty with non-acceptance of emotion and emotional clarity and significantly greater positive affect compared to non-PD participants. Implications for these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25760929

  14. The Concept of Human Functional State in Russian Applied Psychology

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    Anna B. Leonova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of human functional states (HFS is considered in the framework of activity regulation approach developed in Russian applied psychology. Aimed at the analysis of changes in regulatory mechanisms of on-going activity, structural methods for multilevel assessment of workers’ states are discussed. Three different strategies of data integration are proposed regarding the types of essential practical problems. Their usability is exemplified with the help of two empirical studies concerned with reliability of fire-fighters’ work in the Chernobyl Zone and effects of interruptions in computerized office environment. A general framework for applied HFS research is proposed in order to develop new ecologically valid psychodiagnostic procedures that can help to create efficient stress-management programs for enhancing human reliability and performance in complex job environment.

  15. Twelve-month and lifetime prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of anxiety and mood disorders in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Wittchen, Hans-Ullrich

    2012-09-01

    Estimates of 12-month and lifetime prevalence and of lifetime morbid risk (LMR) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) anxiety and mood disorders are presented based on US epidemiological surveys among people aged 13+. The presentation is designed for use in the upcoming DSM-5 manual to provide more coherent estimates than would otherwise be available. Prevalence estimates are presented for the age groups proposed by DSM-5 workgroups as the most useful to consider for policy planning purposes. The LMR/12-month prevalence estimates ranked by frequency are as follows: major depressive episode: 29.9%/8.6%; specific phobia: 18.4/12.1%; social phobia: 13.0/7.4%; post-traumatic stress disorder: 10.1/3.7%; generalized anxiety disorder: 9.0/2.0%; separation anxiety disorder: 8.7/1.2%; panic disorder: 6.8%/2.4%; bipolar disorder: 4.1/1.8%; agoraphobia: 3.7/1.7%; obsessive-compulsive disorder: 2.7/1.2. Four broad patterns of results are most noteworthy: first, that the most common (lifetime prevalence/morbid risk) lifetime anxiety-mood disorders in the United States are major depression (16.6/29.9%), specific phobia (15.6/18.4%), and social phobia (10.7/13.0%) and the least common are agoraphobia (2.5/3.7%) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (2.3/2.7%); second, that the anxiety-mood disorders with the earlier median ages-of-onset are phobias and separation anxiety disorder (ages 15-17) and those with the latest are panic disorder, major depression, and generalized anxiety disorder (ages 23-30); third, that LMR is considerably higher than lifetime prevalence for most anxiety-mood disorders, although the magnitude of this difference is much higher for disorders with later than earlier ages-of-onset; and fourth, that the ratio of 12-month to lifetime prevalence, roughly characterizing persistence, varies meaningfully in ways consistent with independent evidence about differential persistence of these disorders

  16. Multivitamin and protein supplement use is associated with positive mood states and health behaviors in US Military and Coast Guard personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Krista G; McGraw, Susan M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 60% of Armed Forces personnel regularly consume dietary supplements (DSs). We investigated the association of mood and health behaviors with multiple classes of DSs in military and Coast Guard personnel (N = 5536). Participants completed a survey of DS use and the Quick Mood Scale to assess mood domains of wakeful-drowsiness, relaxed-anxious, cheerful-depressed, friendly-aggression, clearheaded-confused, and well coordinated-clumsy. Supplements were categorized as multivitamin/minerals (MVM), individual vitamin/minerals, protein/amino acid supplements (PS), combination products (C), herbals (H), purported steroid analogs, (S) and other (O). One-way analyses of covariance assessed associations of DSs and perceived health behavior with mood controlling for age. Logistic regression determined associations between DS use and health behavior. Users of MVM and PS reported feeling significantly (P mood states, health, eating habits, and fitness, we hypothesize these associations are not causal, and DS intake does not alter these parameters per se. Preexisting differences in mood and other health-related behaviors and outcomes between users versus nonusers of DSs could be a confounding factor in studies of DSs.

  17. Uncertainty, mood states, and symptom distress in patients with primary brain tumors: analysis of a conceptual model using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Chiang, Hui-Hsun; Acquaye, Alvina A; Vera-Bolanos, Elizabeth; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2013-08-01

    Patients with primary brain tumors (PBTs) face uncertainty related to prognosis, symptoms, treatment response, and toxicity. The authors of this report examined the direct/indirect relations among patients' uncertainty, mood states, and symptoms. In total, 186 patients with PBTs were accrued at various points in the illness trajectory. Data-collection tools included an investigator-completed clinician checklist, a patient-completed demographic data sheet, the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale-Brain Tumor Form (MUIS-BT), the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory-Brain Tumor Module (MDASI-BT), and the Profile of Mood States-Short Form (POMS-SF). Structural equation modeling was used to explore correlations among variables. Participants were primarily white (80%) men (53%) with a variety of brain tumors. They ranged in age from 19 to 80 years (mean ± standard deviation, 44.2 ± 12.6 years). Lower functional status and earlier point in the illness trajectory were associated with greater uncertainty (P Uncertainty (P uncertainty on perceived symptom severity also was mediated significantly by mood states. The results from the study clearly demonstrated distinct pathways for the relations between uncertainty-mood states-symptom severity for patients with PBTs. Uncertainty in patients with PBTs is higher for those who have a poor performance status and directly impacts negative mood states, which mediate patient-perceived symptom severity. This conceptual model suggests that interventions designed to reduce uncertainty or that target mood states may help lessen patients' perception of symptom severity, which, in turn, may result in better treatment outcomes and quality of life. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  18. Effect of Post-Exercise Whole Body Vibration with Stretching on Mood State, Fatigue, and Soreness in Collegiate Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin J. Merrigan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Static stretching (SS during whole body vibration (WBV has been suggested for exercise recovery. The purpose was to compare post-exercise self-ratings of fatigue (FAT, mood state (BAM, soreness (SOR, and perceived exertion (RPE between SS and WBV+SS in swimmers (9 women, mean ± SD: 19.3 ± 1.3 year, 171 ± 5.7 cm, 67.6 ± 7.2 kg, 26.6 ± 4.1 %body fat (%BF; 10 men, mean ± SD: 19.7 ± 1.0 year, 183 ± 5.5 cm, 77.1 ± 4.2 kg, 13.1 ± 2.2 %BF. Athletes were divided by sex, event (sprint, distance, and assigned to SS or WBV+SS. Both conditions consisted of SS performed on the WBV platform with or without WBV (50 Hz, 6 mm. Sessions consisted of: pre and post measures of BAM, FAT, SOR; the condition; and RPE. Mixed factorial ANOVA were run. A significant condition by pre/post interaction was observed (p = 0.035. Post hoc analyses showed WBV+SS elicited lower post-exercise ratings of FAT (p = 0.002 and the BAM affective states, of tension (p = 0.031, and fatigue (p = 0.087. RPE did not differ between conditions. Of interest is the decrease in tension and fatigue noted by the BAM. Mood state can be indicative of how athletes adapt to training volume and intensity.

  19. The influence of motivational and mood states on visual attention: A quantification of systematic differences and casual changes in subjects' focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttermann, Stefanie; Memmert, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A great number of studies have shown that different motivational and mood states can influence human attentional processes in a variety of ways. Yet, none of these studies have reliably quantified the exact changes of the attentional focus in order to be able to compare attentional performances based on different motivational and mood influences and, beyond that, to evaluate their effectivity. In two studies, we explored subjects' differences in the breadth and distribution of attention as a function of motivational and mood manipulations. In Study 1, motivational orientation was classified in terms of regulatory focus (promotion vs. prevention) and in Study 2, mood was classified in terms of valence (positive vs. negative). Study 1 found a 10% wider distribution of the visual attention in promotion-oriented subjects compared to prevention-oriented ones. The results in Study 2 reveal a widening of the subjects' visual attentional breadth when listening to happy music by 22% and a narrowing by 36% when listening to melancholic music. In total, the findings show that systematic differences and casual changes in the shape and scope of focused attention may be associated with different motivational and mood states.

  20. [Construction and validation of a dimensional scale for mood disorders: multidimensional assessment of thymic states (MAThyS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, C; M'baïlara, K; Poinsot, R; Falissard, B

    2007-10-01

    The heterogeneity of mood episodes in bipolar disorders makes it difficult in some cases to define appropriate therapeutic strategies. Therefore, we proposed a new tool based on a dimensional approach, with five a priori subscales (emotional reactivity, thought processes, psychomotricity, motivation and sense perception) expected to help define subgroups of mood episodes predictive of the response to treatment. This study was designed to validate this multidimensional assessment of thymic states (MAThyS) scale. One hundred and ninety six subjects were included: 44 controls and 152 bipolar patients in various states: euthymic, manic or depressed. The MAThyS is a visual analog scale consisting of 20 items, ranging from inhibition to excitation. These items corresponded to five dimensions, namely: emotional reactivity, thought processes, psychomotricity, motivation and sense perception. They were selected since they represent clinically relevant quantitative traits. Confirmatory analyses demonstrated a good validity for this scale, fair convergent and divergent validity (multitrait multimethod analyses (MTMM)), good internal consistency both at global and dimensional level (Alpha Cronbach ranging from 0.70 to 0.93). The MathyS scale is moderately correlated with both the Montgomery and Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) (depression score; r=-0.45) and the mania rating scale (MAS) (manic score; r=0.56). Some dimensions were linked (emotional reactivity and thought processes, r=0.71; psychomotricity and motivation, r=0.70). Analysing the divergent validity of items led us to redefine three of them. Following this validation step, exploratory analyses suggest that a four-dimension factorial structure is more appropriate. However, the statistical model is very close to the clinically relevant five-dimensional model. Further studies are needed to explore the relevance of retaining this dimension as a useful descriptive element.

  1. The State of the Psychology Health Service Provider Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Daniel S.; Kohout, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous efforts to describe the health service provider or clinical workforce in psychology have been conducted during the past 30 years. The American Psychological Association (APA) has studied trends in the doctoral education pathway and the resultant effects on the broader psychology workforce. During this period, the creation and growth of…

  2. Internet-delivered psychological treatments for mood and anxiety disorders: a systematic review of their efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip K Arnberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Greater access to evidence-based psychological treatments is needed. This review aimed to evaluate whether internet-delivered psychological treatments for mood and anxiety disorders are efficacious, noninferior to established treatments, safe, and cost-effective for children, adolescents and adults. METHODS: We searched the literature for studies published until March 2013. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs were considered for the assessment of short-term efficacy and safety and were pooled in meta-analyses. Other designs were also considered for long-term effect and cost-effectiveness. Comparisons against established treatments were evaluated for noninferiority. Two reviewers independently assessed the relevant studies for risk of bias. The quality of the evidence was graded using an international grading system. RESULTS: A total of 52 relevant RCTs were identified whereof 12 were excluded due to high risk of bias. Five cost-effectiveness studies were identified and three were excluded due to high risk of bias. The included trials mainly evaluated internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (I-CBT against a waiting list in adult volunteers and 88% were conducted in Sweden or Australia. One trial involved children. For adults, the quality of evidence was graded as moderate for the short-term efficacy of I-CBT vs. waiting list for mild/moderate depression (d = 0.83; 95% CI 0.59, 1.07 and social phobia (d = 0.85; 95% CI 0.66, 1.05, and moderate for no efficacy of internet-delivered attention bias modification vs. sham treatment for social phobia (d =  -0.04; 95% CI -0.24, 0.35. The quality of evidence was graded as low/very low for other disorders, interventions, children/adolescents, noninferiority, adverse events, and cost-effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: I-CBT is a viable treatment option for adults with depression and some anxiety disorders who request this treatment modality. Important questions remain before broad

  3. In the winning mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke de Vries

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to test the role of mood in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara et al., 1994. In the IGT, participants can win or lose money by picking cards from four different decks. They have to learn by experience that two decks are overall advantageous and two decks are overall disadvantageous. Previous studies have shown that at an early stage in this card-game, players begin to display a tendency towards the advantageous decks. Subsequent research suggested that at this stage, people base their decisions on conscious gut feelings (Wagar and Dixon, 2006. Based on empirical evidence for the relation between mood and cognitive processing-styles, we expected and consistently found that, compared to a negative mood state, reported and induced positive mood states increased this early tendency towards advantageous decks. Our results provide support for the idea that a positive mood causes stronger reliance on affective signals in decision-making than a negative mood.

  4. Negative mood state enhances the susceptibility to unpleasant events: neural correlates from a music-primed emotion classification task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajin; Chen, Jie; Yang, Jiemin; Ju, Enxia; Norman, Greg J; Ding, Nanxiang

    2014-01-01

    Various affective disorders are linked with enhanced processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, this link is likely a result of the dominant negative mood derived from the disorder, rather than a result of the disorder itself. Additionally, little is currently known about the influence of mood on the susceptibility to emotional events in healthy populations. Event-Related Potentials (ERP) were recorded for pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures while subjects performed an emotional/neutral picture classification task during positive, neutral, or negative mood induced by instrumental Chinese music. Late Positive Potential (LPP) amplitudes were positively related to the affective arousal of pictures. The emotional responding to unpleasant pictures, indicated by the unpleasant-neutral differences in LPPs, was enhanced during negative compared to neutral and positive moods in the entire LPP time window (600-1000 ms). The magnitude of this enhancement was larger with increasing self-reported negative mood. In contrast, this responding was reduced during positive compared to neutral mood in the 800-1000 ms interval. Additionally, LPP reactions to pleasant stimuli were similar across positive, neutral and negative moods except those in the 800-900 ms interval. Negative mood intensifies the humans' susceptibility to unpleasant events in healthy individuals. In contrast, music-induced happy mood is effective in reducing the susceptibility to these events. Practical implications of these findings were discussed.

  5. Negative mood state enhances the susceptibility to unpleasant events: neural correlates from a music-primed emotion classification task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various affective disorders are linked with enhanced processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, this link is likely a result of the dominant negative mood derived from the disorder, rather than a result of the disorder itself. Additionally, little is currently known about the influence of mood on the susceptibility to emotional events in healthy populations. METHOD: Event-Related Potentials (ERP were recorded for pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures while subjects performed an emotional/neutral picture classification task during positive, neutral, or negative mood induced by instrumental Chinese music. RESULTS: Late Positive Potential (LPP amplitudes were positively related to the affective arousal of pictures. The emotional responding to unpleasant pictures, indicated by the unpleasant-neutral differences in LPPs, was enhanced during negative compared to neutral and positive moods in the entire LPP time window (600-1000 ms. The magnitude of this enhancement was larger with increasing self-reported negative mood. In contrast, this responding was reduced during positive compared to neutral mood in the 800-1000 ms interval. Additionally, LPP reactions to pleasant stimuli were similar across positive, neutral and negative moods except those in the 800-900 ms interval. IMPLICATIONS: Negative mood intensifies the humans' susceptibility to unpleasant events in healthy individuals. In contrast, music-induced happy mood is effective in reducing the susceptibility to these events. Practical implications of these findings were discussed.

  6. Negative Mood State Enhances the Susceptibility to Unpleasant Events: Neural Correlates from a Music-Primed Emotion Classification Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajin; Chen, Jie; Yang, Jiemin; Ju, Enxia; Norman, Greg J.; Ding, Nanxiang

    2014-01-01

    Background Various affective disorders are linked with enhanced processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, this link is likely a result of the dominant negative mood derived from the disorder, rather than a result of the disorder itself. Additionally, little is currently known about the influence of mood on the susceptibility to emotional events in healthy populations. Method Event-Related Potentials (ERP) were recorded for pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures while subjects performed an emotional/neutral picture classification task during positive, neutral, or negative mood induced by instrumental Chinese music. Results Late Positive Potential (LPP) amplitudes were positively related to the affective arousal of pictures. The emotional responding to unpleasant pictures, indicated by the unpleasant-neutral differences in LPPs, was enhanced during negative compared to neutral and positive moods in the entire LPP time window (600–1000 ms). The magnitude of this enhancement was larger with increasing self-reported negative mood. In contrast, this responding was reduced during positive compared to neutral mood in the 800–1000 ms interval. Additionally, LPP reactions to pleasant stimuli were similar across positive, neutral and negative moods except those in the 800–900 ms interval. Implications Negative mood intensifies the humans' susceptibility to unpleasant events in healthy individuals. In contrast, music-induced happy mood is effective in reducing the susceptibility to these events. Practical implications of these findings were discussed. PMID:24587070

  7. Tracking potentiating states of dissociation: An intensive clinical case study of sleep, daydreaming, mood, and depersonalization/derealization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Lara Poerio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined in real time the role of sleep and daydreaming as potentiating states for subsequent dissociation in depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD. Research and theory suggests that dissociation may be exacerbated and maintained by a labile sleep-wake cycle in which ‘dream-like’ mentation intrudes into waking life and fuels dissociative symptoms. We explore and extend this idea by examining the state of daydreaming in dissociation. Daydreaming is a state of consciousness between dreaming and waking cognition that involves stimulus-independent and task-unrelated mentation. We report the results of a unique intensive N=1 study with an individual meeting diagnostic criteria for DDD. Using experience-sampling methodology, the participant rated (six times daily for 40 days current daydreaming, mood, and dissociative symptoms. At the start of each day sleep quality and duration was also rated. Daydreaming was reported on 45% of occasions and significantly predicted greater dissociation, in particular when daydreams were repetitive and negative (but not fanciful in content. These relationships were mediated by feelings of depression and anxiety. Sleep quality but not duration was a negative predictor of daily dissociation and also negatively predicted depression but not anxiety. Findings offer initial evidence that the occurrence and content of daydreams may act as potentiating states for heightened, in the moment, dissociation. The treatment implications of targeting sleep and daydreaming for dissociative disorders are discussed.

  8. Tracking Potentiating States of Dissociation: An Intensive Clinical Case Study of Sleep, Daydreaming, Mood, and Depersonalization/Derealization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerio, Giulia L.; Kellett, Stephen; Totterdell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study examined in real time the role of sleep and daydreaming as potentiating states for subsequent dissociation in depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD). Research and theory suggests that dissociation may be exacerbated and maintained by a labile sleep-wake cycle in which “dream-like” mentation intrudes into waking life and fuels dissociative symptoms. We explore and extend this idea by examining the state of daydreaming in dissociation. Daydreaming is a state of consciousness between dreaming and waking cognition that involves stimulus-independent and task-unrelated mentation. We report the results of a unique intensive N = 1 study with an individual meeting diagnostic criteria for DDD. Using experience-sampling methodology, the participant rated (six times daily for 40 days) current daydreaming, mood, and dissociative symptoms. At the start of each day sleep quality and duration was also rated. Daydreaming was reported on 45% of occasions and significantly predicted greater dissociation, in particular when daydreams were repetitive and negative (but not fanciful) in content. These relationships were mediated by feelings of depression and anxiety. Sleep quality but not duration was a negative predictor of daily dissociation and also negatively predicted depression but not anxiety. Findings offer initial evidence that the occurrence and content of daydreams may act as potentiating states for heightened, in the moment, dissociation. The treatment implications of targeting sleep and daydreaming for dissociative disorders are discussed. PMID:27582722

  9. Tracking Potentiating States of Dissociation: An Intensive Clinical Case Study of Sleep, Daydreaming, Mood, and Depersonalization/Derealization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerio, Giulia L; Kellett, Stephen; Totterdell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study examined in real time the role of sleep and daydreaming as potentiating states for subsequent dissociation in depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD). Research and theory suggests that dissociation may be exacerbated and maintained by a labile sleep-wake cycle in which "dream-like" mentation intrudes into waking life and fuels dissociative symptoms. We explore and extend this idea by examining the state of daydreaming in dissociation. Daydreaming is a state of consciousness between dreaming and waking cognition that involves stimulus-independent and task-unrelated mentation. We report the results of a unique intensive N = 1 study with an individual meeting diagnostic criteria for DDD. Using experience-sampling methodology, the participant rated (six times daily for 40 days) current daydreaming, mood, and dissociative symptoms. At the start of each day sleep quality and duration was also rated. Daydreaming was reported on 45% of occasions and significantly predicted greater dissociation, in particular when daydreams were repetitive and negative (but not fanciful) in content. These relationships were mediated by feelings of depression and anxiety. Sleep quality but not duration was a negative predictor of daily dissociation and also negatively predicted depression but not anxiety. Findings offer initial evidence that the occurrence and content of daydreams may act as potentiating states for heightened, in the moment, dissociation. The treatment implications of targeting sleep and daydreaming for dissociative disorders are discussed.

  10. Time to talk about work-hour impact on anesthesiologists: The effects of sleep deprivation on Profile of Mood States and cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Haleh; Bissonnette, Bruno; Tumin, Dmitry; Thung, Arlyne; Rice, Julie; Barry, N'Diris; Tobias, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    A physician's fatigue raises significant concerns regarding personal and patient safety. Effects of sleep deprivation on clinical performance and the quality of patient care are major considerations of today's health care environment. To evaluate the impact of partial sleep deprivation after a 17-h overnight call (3 pm-7 am) on the mood status and cognitive skills of anesthesiologists in an academic clinical hospital setting, as compared to these parameters during regular working hours. Taking circadian rhythm into account, the following measures were assessed in 21 pediatric anesthesiologists at two time points over the course of the study; (i) between 7 and 8 am on a regular non call day, and (ii) between 7 and 8 am after a 17-h in-house call (3 pm-7 am). Six mood states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States. A Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) score was obtained as the sum of all mood scores minus vigor. The total score provides a global estimate of affective state. Simple cognitive tests were similarly administered to assess cognitive skills. A two-tailed paired t-test was used to compare data between regular and post call days. A P sleep deprivation affects the total mood status of anesthesiologists and impacts their cognitive skills. These findings are particularly relevant in a context of increased work expectation, particularly on clinical performance in our modern medical system. Such observations suggest that there may be changes that impact the safety of our patients and the quality of health care that is provided. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effects of olfactory stimulation from the fragrance of the Japanese citrus fruit yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) on mood states and salivary chromogranin A as an endocrinologic stress marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tamaki; Asakura, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the soothing effects of fragrance from yuzu, a Japanese citrus fruit (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka), with salivary chromogranin A (CgA) used as an endocrinologic stress marker reflecting sympathetic nervous system activity. Twenty healthy women (mean age, 20.5 ± 0.1 years) participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover study. Participants were examined on two separate occasions-once using the yuzu scent and once using unscented water as a control-in the follicular phase. This experiment measured salivary CgA and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) as a psychological index before and after the aromatic stimulation. Ten-minute inhalation of the yuzu scent significantly decreased salivary CgA. At 30 minutes after the inhalation period, the salivary CgA level further decreased. In addition, POMS revealed that inhalation of the aromatic yuzu oil significantly decreased total mood disturbance, a global measure of affective state, as well as four subscores of emotional symptoms (tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, and confusion), as long as 30 minutes after the olfactory stimulation. Yuzu's aromatic effects may alleviate negative emotional stress, which, at least in part, would contribute to the suppression of sympathetic nervous system activity.

  12. Surgery of the mind, mood, and conscious state: an idea in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, R Aaron; Taghva, Alexander; Liu, Charles Y; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have sought a physical means of altering disordered behavior and consciousness. This quest has spawned numerous innovations in neurosurgery and the neurosciences, from the earliest prehistoric attempts at trepanation to the electrocortical and anatomic localization of cerebral function that emerged in the 19th century. At the start of the 20th century, the overwhelming social impact of psychiatric illness intersected with the novel but imperfect understanding of frontal lobe function, establishing a decades-long venture into the modern origin of psychosurgery, the prefrontal lobotomy. The subsequent social and ethical ramifications of the widespread overuse of transorbital lobotomies drove psychosurgery to near extinction. However, as the pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric illness was established, numerous concomitant technical and neuroscientific innovations permitted the incremental development of a new paradigm of treating the disordered mind. In this article, we retrospectively examine these early origins of psychosurgery and then look to the recent past, present, and future for emerging trends in surgery of the psyche. Recent decades have seen a revolution in minimalism, noninvasive imaging, and functional manipulation of the human cerebrum that have created new opportunities and treatment modalities for disorders of the human mind and mood. Early contemporary efforts were directed at focal lesioning of abnormal pathways, but deep-brain stimulation now aims to reversibly alter and modulate those neurologic activities responsible for not only psychiatric disorders, but also to modulate and even to augment consciousness, memory, and other elements of cerebral function. As new tools become available, the social and medical impact of psychosurgery promises to revolutionize not only neurosurgery, but also humans' capability for positively impacting life and society. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. Surgery of the mind, mood, and conscious state: an idea in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, R Aaron; Taghva, Alexander; Liu, Charles Y; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2012-01-01

    Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have sought a physical means of altering disordered behavior and consciousness. This quest has spawned numerous innovations in neurosurgery and the neurosciences, from the earliest prehistoric attempts at trepanation to the electrocortical and anatomic localization of cerebral function that emerged in the 19th century. At the start of the 20th century, the overwhelming social impact of psychiatric illness intersected with the novel but imperfect understanding of frontal lobe function, establishing a decades-long venture into the modern origin of psychosurgery, the prefrontal lobotomy. The subsequent social and ethical ramifications of the widespread overuse of transorbital lobotomies drove psychosurgery to near extinction. However, as the pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric illness was established, numerous concomitant technical and neuroscientific innovations permitted the incremental development of a new paradigm of treating the disordered mind. In this article, we retrospectively examine these early origins of psychosurgery and then look to the recent past, present, and future for emerging trends in surgery of the psyche. Recent decades have seen a revolution in minimalism, noninvasive imaging, and functional manipulation of the human cerebrum that have created new opportunities and treatment modalities for disorders of the human mind and mood. Early contemporary efforts were directed at focal lesioning of abnormal pathways, but deep-brain stimulation now aims to reversibly alter and modulate those neurologic activities responsible for not only psychiatric disorders, but also to modulate and even to augment consciousness, memory, and other elements of cerebral function. As new tools become available, the social and medical impact of psychosurgery promises to revolutionize not only neurosurgery, but also humans' capability for positively impacting life and society. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Do Non-Reflective Thinkers Apply Extreme Personal Meanings to their Activated Moods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Alyson L; Haigh, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    The integrative cognitive model of mood swings proposes that mood symptoms are driven by extreme, self-referent appraisals. For example, if activated mood is appraised positively, this prompts selection of mood regulation strategies that act to up-regulate mood. Appraisals are driven by fast and automatic Type 1 cognitive processes, which, left unchecked, can cause activated mood to escalate. It was hypothesized that greater propensity to override these automatic processes by engaging in reflective (Type 2) thinking would be negatively associated with extreme appraisals of activation and activation. Study 1 (n = 150) was a cross-sectional survey consisting of measures of activation, extreme appraisals, and an objective performance-based measure of the propensity to engage in reflective thought (cognitive reflection test; CRT). In Study 2 (n = 241) participants completed these measures plus three alternative measures of effortful cognitive engagement (CRT-2, Need for Cognition and Actively Open-Minded Thinking). In Study 1, propensity to engage in reflective thought (higher CRT scores) was not significantly associated with activated mood or extreme appraisals, but activated mood and extreme appraisals were positively correlated. In study 2, the association between activation and extreme appraisals was replicated. Predicted associations between alternative measures of reflective thinking, activated mood, and extreme appraisals were not found. Extreme appraisals of internal states may be a psychological mechanism underlying activated mood. Propensity to reflect on and override default cognitions was unrelated to these extreme appraisals and activated mood. Further research in a clinical sample using mood-relevant measures of reflective thinking is warranted.

  15. The psychological distance of memories: Examining causal relations with mood and self-esteem in young, middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Burcu; Freund, Alexandra M

    2017-03-01

    Three studies examined the self-enhancement function of autobiographical memory (measured with subjective temporal distance of memories). Participants recalled a memory of an attained and a failed goal and rated the subjective distance between each memory and the present. Study 1 showed that young adults with higher self-esteem felt closer to memories of attained goals and farther from failure memories than those with lower self-esteem. In Study 2, young, middle-aged and older adults with higher self-esteem felt closer to success memories, whereas self-esteem was unrelated to the temporal distance of failure memories. In both studies, feeling closer to success memories (and far from failure) led to enhanced mood. In Study 3, state self-esteem was experimentally manipulated. The manipulation had no effect on young and older adults, but middle-aged adults whose self-esteem was decreased, felt closer to success memories than failure memories. Results are discussed in relation to the temporal self-appraisal theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The psychological states and their peculiarities of teenagers with evident and hidden form of intellectual giftedness

    OpenAIRE

    Dubrovina, S.

    2010-01-01

    In the article the results of learning the peculiarities of psychological states of gifted teenagers are examined on the basis of the conception by A.O. Prokhorov. The distinctions in endurance of unequiponderous psychological states of students with evident and hidden form of intellectual giftedness and usual teenagers.

  17. The State of Ethical Training for Counseling Psychology Doctoral Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Linda S.; Ranft, Victor A.

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed 50 student representatives from American Psychological Association-accredited doctoral programs in professional psychology on exposure to and type of ethics education, and perception of preparedness to deal with ethical dilemmas. Found that 94% of programs required training in ethics and that most students felt prepared for legal and…

  18. The State of Multiculturalism and Diversity in Undergraduate Psychology Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Milton A.; Shannon, Casey R.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, diversity and multiculturalism have received considerable attention in the field of psychology. While there have been notable efforts to ensure these important areas are addressed in undergraduate psychology training, little is known about this undertaking. The present study examined how diversity and multiculturalism…

  19. Modulation of brain resting-state networks by sad mood induction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harrison, Ben J; Pujol, Jesus; Ortiz, Hector; Fornito, Alex; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

    2008-01-01

    ...) signal observed in functional MRI resting-state studies. In humans, these slow BOLD variations are thought to reflect an underlying or intrinsic form of brain functional connectivity in discrete neuroanatomical systems...

  20. The state-of-art in Health Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Oblitas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the scientific background of Health Psychology are discussed, including the conceptual definition, as well as the bio-psycho-social model that characterizes it. The relation between health and behavior is described in order to have a better understanding of health and illness, as well as about the pathogenic and immunology issues related to behavior. The main contributions of Health Psychology to improve life quality and health are described. Moreover, medical psychology, psychosocial coping of illness, as well as intervention strategies, are discussed. Health Psychology becomes a good alternative for the understanding of health and illness mechanisms, as well as for the prevention process and illness treatment related to psychological components.

  1. Regime switching state-space models applied to psychological processes: handling missing data and making inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamaker, E.L.; Grasman, R.P.P.P.

    2012-01-01

    Many psychological processes are characterized by recurrent shifts between distinct regimes or states. Examples that are considered in this paper are the switches between different states associated with premenstrual syndrome, hourly fluctuations in affect during a major depressive episode, and

  2. Effect of an interactive therapeutic robotic animal on engagement, mood states, agitation and psychotropic drug use in people with dementia: a cluster-randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Wendy; Beattie, Elizabeth; Draper, Brian; Shum, David; Thalib, Lukman; Jones, Cindy; O'Dwyer, Siobhan; Mervin, Cindy

    2015-08-12

    Apathy, agitated behaviours, loneliness and depression are common consequences of dementia. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of a robotic animal on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in people with dementia living in long-term aged care. A cluster-randomised controlled trial with three treatment groups: PARO (robotic animal), Plush-Toy (non-robotic PARO) or Usual Care (Control). The nursing home sites are Australian Government approved and accredited facilities of 60 or more beds. The sites are located in South-East Queensland, Australia. A sample of 380 adults with a diagnosis of dementia, aged 60 years or older living in one of the participating facilities will be recruited. The intervention consists of three individual 15 min non-facilitated sessions with PARO or Plush-Toy per week, for a period of 10 weeks. The primary outcomes of interest are improvement in agitation, mood states and engagement. Secondary outcomes include sleep duration, step count, change in psychotropic medication use, change in treatment costs, and staff and family perceptions of PARO or Plush-Toy. Video data will be analysed using Noldus XT Pocket Observer; descriptive statistics will be used for participants' demographics and outcome measures; cluster and individual level analyses to test all hypotheses and Generalised Linear Models for cluster level and Generalised Estimation Equations and/or Multi-level Modeling for individual level data. The study participants or their proxy will provide written informed consent. The Griffith University Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study (NRS/03/14/HREC). The results of the study will provide evidence of the efficacy of a robotic animal as a psychosocial treatment for the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Findings will be presented at local and international conference meetings and published in peer-reviewed journals. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number ACTRN

  3. Effects of melody and lyrics on mood and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousou, S D

    1997-08-01

    137 undergraduate Le Moyne College students volunteered in a study on music and its effects on mood and memory. In a 2 x 3 between-subjects design, there were 2 lyric conditions (Happy and Sad Lyrics) and 3 music conditions (No Music, Happy Music, and Sad Music). Participants were asked to listen to instrumental music or mentally to create a melody as they read lyrics to themselves. The study tested cued-recall, self-reported mood state and psychological arousal. Analysis suggested that mood of participants was influenced by the music played, not the lyrics. Results also showed those exposed to No Music had the highest score on the recall test. Personal relevance to the lyrics was not correlated with memory.

  4. Effects of a 12-hour shift on mood states and sleepiness of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Tadeu Sartini; Moreira, Clarice Zinato; Guo, James; Noce, Franco

    2017-03-09

    To assess the effect of a 12-hour shift on mood states and sleepiness at the beginning and end of the shift. Quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study.It was conducted with 70 neonatal intensive care unit nurses. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS), Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), and a socio-demographic profile questionnaire were administered. When the KSS and BRUMS scores were compared at the beginning of the shift associations were found with previous sleep quality (p ≤ 0.01), and quality of life (p ≤ 0.05). Statistical significant effects on BRUMS scores were also associated with previous sleep quality, quality of life, liquid ingestion, healthy diet, marital status, and shift work stress. When the beginning and end of the shift were compared, different KSS scores were seen in the group of all nurses and in the night shift one. Significant vigor and fatigue scores were observed within shift groups. A good night's sleep has positive effects on the individual`s mood states both at the beginning and the end of the shift. The self-perception of a good quality of life also positively influenced KSS and BRUMS scores at the beginning and end of the shift. Proper liquid ingestion led to better KSS and BRUMS scores. Evaluar el efecto de un turno de 12 horas en estados de ánimo y somnolencia al principio y al final del turno. Estudio cuantitativo, transversal y descriptivo.Se realizó con 70 enfermeras de unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales. Se administró la Escala de Humor Brunel (BRUMS), la Escala de Somnolencia de Karolinska (KSS) y un cuestionario de perfil sociodemográfico. Cuando se compararon las puntuaciones de KSS y BRUMS al comienzo del turno se encontraron asociaciones con calidad de sueño previa (p ≤ 0,01) y calidad de vida (p ≤ 0,05). Los efectos estadísticos significativos en las puntuaciones de BRUMS también se asociaron con la calidad previa del sueño, la calidad de vida, la ingestión de líquidos, la dieta saludable, el

  5. Impacto da síndrome pré-menstrual no estado de humor de atletas Impact of premenstrual syndrome in the mood state of athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenamar Fiorese Vieira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Têm sido relatadas alterações negativas no estado de humor em algumas mulheres durante o ciclo menstrual, sobretudo naquelas que apresentam síndrome pré-menstrual (SPM. No entanto, existe uma lacuna na literatura a respeito das alterações no estado de humor durante o ciclo menstrual em atletas com SPM. OBJETIVO: Investigar o impacto da SPM no estado de humor de atletas ao longo do ciclo menstrual. MÉTODOS: Fizeram parte da amostra 57 atletas de diferentes esportes, de uma cidade do noroeste do Paraná. Utilizou-se um diário de sintomas, baseado nos critérios do American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist (ACOG, 2000, e o questionário Profile of Mood States (POMS. As atletas utilizaram o diário e responderam ao questionário ao longo de dois ciclos menstruais. Para análise dos dados foram usados os testes de Shapiro Wilk, de Friedman, de Wilcoxon e o teste U de Mann-Whitney, adotando-se P INTRODUCTION: Negative alterations in mood states have been related to some women through the menstrual cycle, mainly on those who show premenstrual syndrome (PMS. However, there is a gap in the literature about the alterations in the mood states during the menstrual cycle in athletes with PMS. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the impact of PMS in the mood state of athletes through the menstrual cycle. METHODS: Were part of the sample 57 athletes from different sports, from a northeast city of Paraná. As instruments were used a Symptoms Dairy, based on the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist criteria (ACOG, 2000, and the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire. The athletes answered the instruments through two menstrual cycles. For the data analysis were used the Shapiro-Wilk test, Friedman test, Wilcoxon test and Mann-Whitney test, adopting P < 0,05. RESULTS: It was verified that only athletes with PMS showed a raise in total humor alteration from the last week to the last day, with a significant difference on the 1º

  6. Defining bipolar mood states with quantitative measurement of inhibition/activation and emotional reactivity.

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Chantal; M'Bailara, Katia; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Lajnef, Mohamed; Leboyer, Marion

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The MATHYS scale, providing a score for inhibition/activation process and a score for emotional reactivity, is clearly useful to distinguish bipolar depressive episodes without manic symptoms from those with manic symptoms. This last type of depression appears to belong to a broad spectrum of mixed state. To go further we need to explore if these two types of depression are underlined by different mechanisms and what is the most appropriate treatment for each of them.

  7. The Association Between Trait Gratitude and Self-Reported Sleep Quality Is Mediated by Depressive Mood State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Kotzin, Megan D; Waugaman, Debby L; Killgore, William D S

    2017-01-27

    It has been shown that higher levels of trait gratitude are associated with better self-reported sleep quality, possibly due to differences in presleep cognitions. However previous studies have not taken into account the role of depressive symptoms in this relationship. In this study, 88 nonclinical 18-29-year-olds completed the Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test (GRAT) as a measure of trait gratitude. The Glasgow Content of Thought Inventory (GCTI) was used to measure the intrusiveness of cognitions prior to sleep onset, the Motivation and Energy Inventory (MEI) assessed daytime fatigue, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess self-reported sleep quality. The BDI-II assessed self-reported depressive symptoms. Consistent with previous work, GRAT scores were positively associated with higher daytime energy and greater number of hours of sleep per night. Importantly, however, we further observed that depressive symptoms mediated the relationships between gratitude scores and sleep metrics. Depressive mood state appears to mediate the association between gratitude and self-reported sleep quality metrics. We suggest, as one plausible model of these phenomena, that highly grateful individuals have lower symptoms of depression, which in turn leads to fewer presleep worries, resulting in better perceived sleep quality. Future work should aim to disentangle the causal nature of these relationships in order to better understand how these important variables interact.

  8. STATE AND OUTLOOK OF PSYCHOLOGY STUDENTS ORGANIZATION IN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Benito

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychology students are currently weakly organized in Argentina. The reasons for that maybe found in the circumstances of the local academic life and the changing social, economicand political realities the country went through in the last decades. In the meantime, thequality of the Psychology courses is poorer than its neighbouring Latinamerican countriesand it’s even more distanced from the world centres of academic reference. Nowadays,there are two developments encouraging the reflection and action of the students about that: the COBAND Project and the National Association of Psychology Students of Argentina (ANEPSI Argentina. Besides that, a magazine is published to endorse the creation of scientific reading habits among students. However, many challenges appear on the way to a Psychology more responsible to science and society.

  9. A Grand Research Design for the Investigation of Psychological States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Frederick C.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the models of Man postulated by the major contemporary schools of psychology by constructing measures specially designed to elicit the relationships postulated by such schools. (Author/RK)

  10. Psychological Characteristics of Adolescent Steroid Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Kent F.; Kleiman, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    Used Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory and Profile of Mood States to assess psychological characteristics in 72 adolescent males: 24 adolescent athletes who reported steroid use, 24 athletes with no steroid use, and 24 nonathletes. Although some personality variables differentiated between athletes and nonathletes, no personality variables…

  11. Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a person’s risk for health complications. However, treating mood disorders can have positive effects on treatment outcomes and recovery from co-occurring disorders as well. Studies focusing on conditions that frequently co-occur and how they affect one another may lead to more targeted screening ...

  12. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Farmingdale State College Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell-Carter, Marya, Ed.; Gonder, Jennifer, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference on the Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations, sponsored by the Psychology Department of Farmingdale State College. The conference theme for 2014 was:" Infusing Issues of Racial, Religious, and Sexuality Diversity Across the Undergraduate Curriculum." The Conference featured a keynote…

  13. Correlation between prefrontal cortex activity during working memory tasks and natural mood independent of personality effects: an optical topography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryuta; Sato, Hiroki; Katura, Takusige; Matsuda, Ryoichi; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2013-04-30

    Interactions between mood and cognition have drawn much attention in the fields of psychology and neuroscience. Recent neuroimaging studies have examined a neural basis of the mood-cognition interaction that which emphasize the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Although these studies have shown that natural mood variations among participants are correlated with PFC activity during cognitive tasks, they did not control for personality differences. Our aim in this study was to clarify the relationship between natural mood and PFC activity by partialling out the effects of personality. Forty healthy adults completed self-report questionnaires assessing natural mood (the Profile of Mood States) and personality (the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and the Behavioral Inhibition/Activation Systems scales). They performed verbal and spatial working memory (WM) tasks while their PFC activity was measured using optical topography, a non-invasive, low-constraint neuroimaging tool. Correlation analysis showed that the level of negative mood was inversely associated with PFC activity during the verbal WM task, which replicated our previous findings. Furthermore, the negative correlation between negative mood and PFC activity remained significant after controlling for participants' personality traits, suggesting that natural mood is an independent contributing factor of PFC activity during verbal WM tasks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Response styles, bipolar risk, and mood in students: The Behaviours Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Claire; Dodd, Alyson L; Collins, Alan

    2015-12-01

    An Integrative Cognitive Model of mood swings and bipolar disorder proposes that extreme positive and negative appraisals about internal states trigger ascent and descent behaviours, contributing to the onset and maintenance of mood swings. This study investigated the reliability and validity of a new inventory, the Behaviours Checklist (BC), by measuring associations with appraisals, response styles to positive and negative affect, bipolar risk, mania, and depression. Correlational analogue study. Students (N = 134) completed the BC alongside measures of appraisals, response styles to positive and negative mood, mania, depression, and hypomanic personality (bipolar risk). The BC was of adequate reliability and showed good validity. Ascent behaviours and appraisals predicted bipolar risk, whereas descent behaviours and appraisals were associated with depression. Appraisals, ascent, and descent behaviours may play an important role in the development and maintenance of mood swings. Limitations and research recommendations are outlined. Extreme positive and negative appraisals of internal states, and subsequent behavioural responses (ascent and descent behaviours), are associated with bipolar risk and bipolar mood symptoms in a student sample. These processes are involved with mood dysregulation in clinical populations as well as bipolar risk in students, with implications for mood management. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  15. The Effect of Acute Rhodiola rosea Ingestion on Exercise Heart Rate, Substrate Utilisation, Mood State, and Perceptions of Exertion, Arousal, and Pleasure/Displeasure in Active Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Neil D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of acute Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) ingestion on substrate utilisation, mood state, RPE, and exercise affect. Ten males (mean age ± S.D. = 26 ± 6 years) completed two 30-minute cycling trials at an intensity of 70% of V˙O2max⁡ following ingestion of either 3 mg·kg−1 body mass of R. rosea or placebo using a double-blind, crossover design. During exercise, heart rate and RPE were recorded. Participants completed measures of mood state and exercise affect before and after exercise. Expired air samples were taken during exercise to determine substrate utilisation. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that RPE was significantly lower at 30 minutes into exercise versus placebo (P = 0.003). Perceptions of arousal (P = 0.05) and pleasure were significantly higher after exercise with R. rosea compared to placebo (P = 0.003). Mood state scores for vigor were also higher in R. rosea condition compared to placebo (P = 0.008). There were no significant differences in energy expenditure, carbohydrate, or fat oxidation between conditions (P > 0.05). Ingestion of R. rosea favourably influenced RPE and exercise affect without changes in energy expenditure or substrate utilization during 30-minute submaximal cycling performance. PMID:26464892

  16. The Effect of Acute Rhodiola rosea Ingestion on Exercise Heart Rate, Substrate Utilisation, Mood State, and Perceptions of Exertion, Arousal, and Pleasure/Displeasure in Active Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of acute Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea ingestion on substrate utilisation, mood state, RPE, and exercise affect. Ten males (mean age ± S.D. = 26 ± 6 years completed two 30-minute cycling trials at an intensity of 70% of V˙O2max⁡ following ingestion of either 3 mg·kg−1 body mass of R. rosea or placebo using a double-blind, crossover design. During exercise, heart rate and RPE were recorded. Participants completed measures of mood state and exercise affect before and after exercise. Expired air samples were taken during exercise to determine substrate utilisation. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that RPE was significantly lower at 30 minutes into exercise versus placebo (P=0.003. Perceptions of arousal (P=0.05 and pleasure were significantly higher after exercise with R. rosea compared to placebo (P=0.003. Mood state scores for vigor were also higher in R. rosea condition compared to placebo (P=0.008. There were no significant differences in energy expenditure, carbohydrate, or fat oxidation between conditions (P>0.05. Ingestion of R. rosea favourably influenced RPE and exercise affect without changes in energy expenditure or substrate utilization during 30-minute submaximal cycling performance.

  17. Teaching Psychology at the United States Military Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Johnston

    Psychology instruction through the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership at the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, is described, along with faculty development and teaching philosophy. Courses offered by the department are part of an integrated curriculum in the behavioral sciences, with the central focus being leadership development.…

  18. Within-person relationships between mood and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, March L; Fisher, Cynthia D; Ashkanasy, Neal M; Rowe, Patricia A

    2012-05-01

    State mood has been proposed as a facilitator of creative behavior. Whereas positive mood compared to neutral mood generally facilitates creative performance, mood effects are weaker and less consistent when positive mood is compared to negative mood. These inconsistent results may be due to focusing only on mood valence, while neglecting or confounding mood activation. The current study is based on the dual-pathway model, which describes separate roles for mood valence and mood activation in facilitating creativity. We used experience sampling methodology to investigate the concurrent and lagged effects of mood valence and activation on creative process engagement (CPE) within-person over time among individuals working on a long-term project requiring creativity. We also investigated the moderating effects of individual differences in goal orientation and supervisory support on within-person mood-creativity relationships. As expected, we found that activating positive and activating negative moods were positively associated with concurrent CPE, whereas deactivating moods of both valences were negatively related to CPE. Activating negative mood had a significant lagged effect on CPE, whereas activating positive mood did not. We also found that activating positive mood was more strongly related to concurrent CPE among individuals with high rather than low learning goal orientation. Further, activating positive mood interacted with prove goal orientation and supervisory support for creativity, such that activating positive mood had the strongest association with CPE when both prove goal orientation and supervisory support were high. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Evidence of disturbed sleep and mood state in well-trained athletes during short-term intensified training with and without a high carbohydrate nutritional intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killer, S C; Svendsen, I S; Jeukendrup, A E; Gleeson, M

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have investigated the effects of exercise training on sleep physiology in well-trained athletes. We investigated changes in sleep markers, mood state and exercise performance in well-trained cyclists undergoing short-term intensified training and carbohydrate nutritional intervention. Thirteen highly-trained male cyclists (age: 25 ± 6y, [Formula: see text]O 2max : 72 ± 5 ml/kg/min) participated in two 9-day periods of intensified training while undergoing a high (HCHO) or moderate (CON) carbohydrate nutritional intervention before, during and after training sessions. Sleep was measured each night via wristwatch actigraphy. Mood state questionnaires were completed daily. Performance was assessed with maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]. Percentage sleep time fell during intensified training (87.9 ± 1.5 to 82.5 ± 2.3%; p < 0.05) despite an increase in time in bed (456 ± 50 to 509 ± 48 min; p = 0.02). Sleep efficiency decreased during intensified training (83.1 ± 5.3 to 77.8 ± 8.6%; p < 0.05). Actual sleep time was significantly higher in CON than HCHO throughout intensified training. Mood disturbance increased during intensified training and was higher in CON than HCHO (p < 0.05). Performance in the [Formula: see text] exercise protocol fell significantly with intensified training. The main findings of this study were that 9-days of intensified training in highly-trained cyclists resulted in significant and progressive declines in sleep quality, mood state and maximal exercise performance.

  20. Stress biomarkers, mood states and sleep during a major competition: success and failure athlete’s profile of high-level swimmers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOUNIR eCHENNAOUI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate stress markers, mood states and sleep indicators in high-level swimmers during a major 7-days competition according to the outcomes. Nine swimmers (6 men and 3 women (age: 22 ± 2 years and 22 ± 4 years, respectively were examined. Before (PRE and after (POST each race (series, semi-finals and finals, salivary concentrations of cortisol, α-amylase (sAA and chromogranin-A (CgA were determined. Mood states were assessed by the profile of mood state (POMS questionnaire completed before and after the 7-days, and self-reported sleep diaries were completed daily. In the failure group, cortisol and sAA significantly increased between PRE-POST measurements (p<0.05, while sCgA was not changed. Significant overall decrease of cortisol (-52.6% and increase of sAA (+68.7% was shown in the failure group. In this group, fatigue, confusion and depression scores and sleep duration before the finals increased. The results in the success group show tendencies for increased cortisol and sCgA concentrations in response to competition, while sAA was not changed. Cortisol levels before the semi-finals and finals and sCgA levels before the finals were positively correlated to the fatigue score in the failure group only (r=0.89. sAA levels before and after the semi-finals were negatively correlated to sleep duration measured in the subsequent night (r=-0.90. In conclusion, the stress of the competition could trigger a negative mood profile and sleep disturbance which correspond to different responses of biomarkers related to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system activity, cortisol, sAA and CgA.

  1. Social correlates of health status, quality of life, and mood states in patients treated with cannabidiol for epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaflarski, Magdalena; Hansen, Barbara; Bebin, E Martina; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2017-05-01

    Social characteristics, such as socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity, play a role in the treatment and outcomes of patients with epilepsy (PWE), but little is known about how these factors affect patients receiving cannabidiol (CBD) to treat seizures. This exploratory study examined the sociodemographic profile of patients treated with CBD (n=80) and associations between social factors and patient-centered outcomes - overall health status, Quality of Life in Epilepsy-89 (QOLIE-89), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) - in this population. Associations were examined using Pearson correlations and multiple ordinary-least-squares regression (alpha=0.1). The sample was predominantly white (96%) and non-Hispanic/Latino (96%); 76% of patients had family incomes of $40,000+/year. Some patients/families reported experiencing food scarcity (13%), not being able to make ends meet (6%), or not being able to afford antiepileptic medications (8%). The patients' health ratings declined with age and income (p≤0.014), and there was a statistically significant interaction (p<0.055) between these variables: for example, a higher-income 10-year-old had a predicted health rating of 3 ("very good"), followed by a higher-income 40-year-old with a rating of 2 ("good"), a low-income 10-year-old with a rating of 1 ("fair"), and a low-income 40-year-old with a rating of 0 ("poor"). This is the first study reporting the social profile of patients taking pharmaceutical grade CBD for the treatment of epilepsy. The results suggest that despite free access to this treatment some patients may not be accessing CBD because of their socioeconomic situation or race/ethnicity. Larger, diverse samples and longitudinal data are needed to more accurately model social factors and patient-centered outcomes in PWE receiving CBD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Cannabinoids and Epilepsy". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Children's hospitalizations with a mood disorder diagnosis in general hospitals in the united states 2000-2006

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    Lasky Tamar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mood disorders including depression and bipolar disorders are a major cause of morbidity in childhood and adolescence, and hospitalizations for mood disorders are the leading diagnosis for all hospitalizations in general hospitals for children age 13 to 17. We describe characteristics of these hospitalizations in the U.S. focusing on duration of stay, charges, and geographic variation. Methods The Kids' Inpatient Database was analyzed to calculate hospitalization rates for 2000, 2003, and 2006. For each year, information was available for over 2 million hospitalizations, representing 6.3 to 6.5 million hospital stays annually in acute care, non-psychiatric hospitals. Results The rate of pediatric hospitalizations with a principal diagnosis of a mood disorder was 12.4/10,000 in 2000, 13.0 in 2003, and 12.1 in 2006. In the same period, the incidence of hospitalizations for depressive disorders decreased from 9.1 to 6.4/10,000 children while the incidence of hospitalizations for bipolar disorders increased from 3.3 to 5.7/10,000 children. The mean length of stay increased from 7.1 to 7.7 days, while inflation-adjusted hospital charges increased from $10,600 in 2000, to $13,700 in 2003, to $16,300 in 2006. The proportion of mood disorder stays paid by government increased from 35.3% to 45.2%. The Western region experienced the lowest rates (9.9/10,000, 11.6 and 10.2 in 2000, 2003 and 2006 while the Midwest had the highest rates (26.4, 27.6, and 25.4. Conclusions Mood disorders are a major reason for hospitalization during development, especially in adolescence. Mood disorder hospitalizations remained relatively constant from 2000-2006, but diagnoses of depressive disorders decreased while diagnoses of bipolar disorders increased. Hospitalization rates vary widely by region of the country.

  3. The Role of Psychological Needs for Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness and Money-luxury in State Authenticity

    OpenAIRE

    Renwick, Louisa Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of psychological needs on states of authenticity. Self-determination theory proposes three basic psychological needs, for autonomy, competence and relatedness (Deci & Ryan, 1985). The theory states that satisfaction of these basic needs leads to internalisation, integration, and feelings of authenticity. These three needs were therefore investigated in the present study. Previous theory and research has proposed the existence of various...

  4. EFFECT OF BETA 1, 3/1, 6 GLUCAN ON UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION SYMPTOMS AND MOOD STATE IN MARATHON ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Talbott

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This was a placebo-controlled, double-blind study designed to evaluate the effect of a commercially available dietary supplement on upper-respiratory tract symptoms (URTI and mood state. Seventy-five marathon runners (35 men, 40 women ranging in age from 18-53 years, mean age: 36 ± 9, self-administered placebo, 250 mg or 500 mg of BETA 1,3/1,6 GLUCAN (commercial name Wellmune WGP® daily during the 4 week post-marathon trial period following the 2007 Carlsbad Marathon. Subjects filled out the profile of mood state (POMS assessment and a questionnaire style health log measuring health status and URTI symptoms after 2- and 4-week treatment administrations. During the course of the 4-week study, subjects in the treatment groups (250 mg and 500 mg BETA-GLUCAN per day reported significantly fewer URTI symptoms, better overall health and decreased confusion, fatigue, tension, and anger, and increased vigor based on the POMS survey compared to placebo. BETA-GLUCAN may prevent URTI symptoms, and improve overall health and mood following a competitive marathon

  5. HEART RATE, MOOD STATES, AND RATING OF PERCEIVED EXERTION AMONG ELDERLY SUBJECTS DURING 3.5 HOURS OF RECREATIONAL ALPINE SKIING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Krautgasser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A decline in physiological functioning and mental wellbeing is common with advancing age. However, these changes may vary among elderly individuals. Physical activity and the response of the elderly to exercise during recreational activities, i.e., recreational alpine skiing, may serve as a catalyst for the improvement of wellbeing and general health. Purpose: The aim of the study was to assess the heart rate (HR response modulations in a group of elderly recreational alpine skiers during 3.5h of skiing. In addition, each group's perceived responses of mood state (MS and rating of perceived exertion (RPE were collected to determine possible contributions to changes in wellbeing as a result of recreational skiing. Methods: Forty-nine healthy elderly participants (mean age: 63±6 yrs, weight: 75.4+13.1 kg, height: 170.5+9.1 cm, BMI: 26+3.2 with at least basic alpine skiing ability participated in a 3.5h ski test. GPS data (GPS Garmin Forerunner 301 were used to monitor altitude and HR and were recorded continuously during the 3.5h of skiing. During skiing, participants were asked at three different times to report RPE and MS. Results: The time spent on the lift during the 3.5h skiing ranged from 21-58% followed by recovery breaks of 17-53% and time spent in downhill skiing ranged from 12-40%. Participants completed 9-23 downhill runs in 3.5h. Average intensities during 3.5 h downhill runs for over 80% of the group were between 50-80% of maximal heart rate (HRmax (220-age. Peak heart rate (HRpeak values during downhill runs for 35% of the group were between 60-70% of HRmax. Statistical analysis revealed numerous significant differences between RPE and MS values for the three different sampling times. The MS in general remained positive and even increased in the categories of happiness and sociability despite an increase in fatigue. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the duration and intensity of skiing was appropriate and yielded

  6. UEffect of acute sleep deprivation on concentration and mood states with a controlled effect of experienced stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kajtna

    2011-05-01

    Conclusions: As previous studies have shown, mood changes rather than decreased concentration occur after acute sleep deprivation – cognitive abilities seem to be more resistant to sleep deprivation. Further studies with longer sleep deprivation should show how long it takes to disrupt our concentration and higher cognitive abilities.

  7. Mood Effects of Alcohol and Expectancies during the Menstrual Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Vincent J.; Freitag, Wendy J.

    This research attempted to develop a profile of women's moods across the menstrual cycle and to determine alcohol's effects upon those moods. The Profile of Mood States was used to measure mood in 96 female college students who were heavy drinkers. Subjects were randomly assigned to the cells of the balanced placebo design with equal numbers in…

  8. Electronic monitoring of self-reported mood: the return of the subjective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Abigail; Grof, Paul

    2016-12-01

    This narrative review describes recent developments in the use of technology for utilizing the self-monitoring of mood, provides some relevant background, and suggests some promising directions. Subjective experience of mood is one of the valuable sources of information about the state of an integrated mind/brain system. During the past century, psychiatry and psychology moved away from subjectivity, emphasizing external observation, precise measurement, and laboratory techniques. This shift, however, provided only a limited improvement in the understanding of mood disorders, and it appears that self-monitoring of mood has the potential to enrich our knowledge, particularly when combined with the advances in technology. Modern technology, with its ability to transfer information from the individual directly to the researcher via electronic applications, enables us now to study mood regulation more thoroughly. Frequent subjective ratings can be helpful in identifying individualized treatment with effective mood stabilizers and recognizing subtypes of mood disorders. The variability of subjective ratings may also help us estimate the increased risk of recurrence and guide a tailored treatment.

  9. Epilepsy and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mood disorders are the most common psychiatric comorbid disorder that affects quality of life and prognosis in epilepsy. The relation between depression and epilepsy is bidirectional. Not only the risk of having a depression among epilepsy cases is more than the healthy control cases, but also the risk of having epilepsy among depressive cases is more than the healthy control cases. People diagnosed with epilepsy are five times more likely than their peers to commit suicide. Moreover it seems that some epilepsy types like temporal lobe epilepsy have a much higher risk (25 times for suicide. Risk of suicide in epilepsy, which is independent from depression, increases more with the presence of depression. The common pathway between epilepsy, depression and suicide is hypofrontality and irregularity of serotonin metabolism. Contrary to depression, data on relationship between bipolar disorder and epilepsy is limited. However, mood disorder, mixed episodes with irritable character and mania are more frequent than assumed. As a matter of fact, both disorders share some common features. Both are episodic and can become chronic. Kindling phenomenon, irregularities in neurotransmitters, irregularities in voltage gate ion channels and irregularities in secondary messenger systems are variables that are presented in the etiologies of both disorders. Anticonvulsant drugs with mood regulatory effects are the common points of treatment. Understanding their mechanisms of action will clarify the pathophysiological processes. In this article, the relationhip between epilepsy and mood disorders, comorbidity, secondary states and treatment options in both cases have been discussed.

  10. Mood and anxiety problems in perinatal Indigenous women in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Angela; Duncan, Vicky; Peacock, Shelley; Bowen, Rudy; Schwartz, Laura; Campbell, Diane; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2014-02-01

    We conducted a review of research literature related to anxiety, depression, and mood problems in Indigenous women in Canada, the United States (including Hawaii), Australia, and New Zealand. Quantitative and qualitative research studies published between 1980 and March 2010 were reviewed. The initial search revealed 396 potential documents, and after being checked for relevance by two researchers, data were extracted from 16 quantitative studies, one qualitative research article, and one dissertation. Depression is a common problem in Indigenous pregnant and postpartum women; however, the prevalence and correlates of anxiety and mood disorders are understudied. The review identified four key areas where further research is needed: (a) longitudinal, population-based studies; (b) further validation and modification of appropriate screening tools; (c) exploration of cultural diversity and meaning of the lived experiences of antenatal and postpartum depression, anxiety, and mood disorders; and (d) development of evidence-informed practices for researchers and practitioners through collaborations with Aboriginal communities to better understand and improve mental health of women of childbearing age.

  11. Mood effects on dominated choices: Positive mood induces departures from logical rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M. de; Holland, R.W.; Corneille, O.; Rondeel, E.W.M.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated the role of mood states in dominated behavioral choices. Past research has shown that mood effects on judgment and decision-making can be pervasive. Yet, the role of mood in dominated choices has so far been neglected. The present research represents a first empirical

  12. Reported exposure to trauma among adult patients referred for psychological services at the Free State Psychiatric Complex, Bloemfontein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurisa van Zyl

    2017-10-01

    Objective: The study aimed to explore and describe the extent and nature of reported potentially traumatic events and associated variables in adult patients referred for psychological services at the Free State Psychiatric Complex (FSPC, Bloemfontein. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, demographic information, diagnostic morbidity and co-morbidity, and presence and type of reported trauma exposure reported by patients during the initial assessment were obtained from files of adult patients seen during a one-year period (2010 at the out-patient unit and the in-patient affective ward at the FSPC. Data were captured on data record forms by the researchers and analysed by means of descriptive statistics, univariate analysis and logistic regression (SAS version 9.1. Results: Of the 192 adults (71.9% White and 67.2% female referred for psychological services,75.5% were diagnosed with mood disorders, 17.2% with anxiety disorders, 22.4% with substance-related disorders and 20.9% with cluster B personality disorders or traits. A total of 145 (75.5% reported past trauma exposure. The most frequently reported types of trauma exposure were traumatic death/injury of a loved one (37.0%, physical assault (24.5%, witnessed/threatened violence (19.3%, and sexual assault (17.7%. Women were more likely to have been exposed to trauma than men (OR 4.02, 95% CI 1.87–8.62, in particular to traumatic death of a loved one (OR 3.13, physical assault (OR 4.08, or sexual assault (OR 5.43. Conclusions: The findings of this study contribute to current data regarding the prevalence of exposure to trauma and its possible association with mental illness. The importance of comprehensive trauma exposure screening in routine psychiatric interviewing practices is highlighted.

  13. Mood patterns based on momentary assessment of positive and negative moods over a day and coronary artery calcification in the CARDIA study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kroenke, Candyce H; Seeman, Teresa; Matthews, Karen; Adler, Nancy; Epel, Elissa

    2012-01-01

    .... Using momentary assessment, we evaluated associations between average positive and negative mood states and diurnal mood patterns, with prevalent and incident coronary artery calcification (CAC...

  14. Pick-a-mood; development and application of a pictorial mood-reporting instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Desmet, P.M.A.; Vastenburg, M.H.; Van Bel, D.; Romero Herrera, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents ‘Pick-A-Mood’ (PAM), a cartoon-based pictorial instrument for reporting and expressing moods. The use of cartoon characters enables people to unambiguously and visually express or report their mood in a rich and easy-to-use way. PAM consists of three characters that each express eight different mood states, representing four main mood categories: energized-pleasant (excited and cheerful), energized-unpleasant (irritated and tense), calm-pleasant (relaxed and calm), and cal...

  15. Soccer training: high-intensity interval training is mood disturbing while small sided games ensure mood balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Okba; Haddad, Monoem; Majed, Lina; Ben Khalifa, Wissam; Hamza, Marzougui; Chamari, Karim

    2017-05-09

    BACKGROUNDː The aim of the study was to compare the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) versus small-sided games (SSG) in soccer on both the physiological responses and the mood state of players. Sixteen professional soccer players took part in the study (age: 24.1±0.9 years). Testing of players was conducted on separate days in a randomized and counter-balanced order (each training session: 28-min: 4x4 minutes work with 3-min of passive recovery in-between). Effort: HIIT: intermittent 15-s runs at 110% maximal aerobic speed with 15-s of passive recovery in-between. SSG: 4 versus 4 players on a 25x35m pitch size with full-involvement play. Psychological responses before- and after- each training-session were assessed using the profile of mood-state (POMS: Tension, Depression, Anger, Vigor, Fatigue, and Confusion). The players' heart rate (HR) was continuously measured, whereas ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate concentration ([La]) were collected ~3-min after each training-session. HIIT and SSG showed no significant difference in HR, RPE and [La] responses. The HIIT compared with SSG resulted in: an increased total mood disturbance (p<0.001), tension (p<0.05), fatigue (p<0.01) and a decreased vigor (p<0.001). Both HIIT and SSG sessions induced similar physiological responses, in contrast, HIIT produced a mood disturbance while SSG ensured mood balance. Practitioners could choose between these two exercises according to the objective of their training, keeping in mind the mood-related advantages of the SSG shown in the present study.

  16. Predictors of self-reported negative mood following a depressive mood induction procedure across previously depressed, currently anxious, and control individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Martin C; Dobson, Keith S; Quigley, Leanne

    2014-09-01

    symptomatology was a significant predictor and occurrence of recent negative events was a marginally significant predictor of greater negative mood shift following the depressive mood induction for previously depressed individuals. None of the examined variables predicted change in mood following the depressive mood induction for currently anxious or control individuals. These results suggest that anxiety symptoms and experience with negative events may increase risk for experiencing depressive mood states among individuals with a vulnerability to depression. The generalizability of the present results to individuals with comorbid depression and anxiety is limited. Future research employing appropriate statistical approaches for confirmatory research is needed to test and confirm the present results. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  17. UEffect of acute sleep deprivation on concentration and mood states with a controlled effect of experienced stress

    OpenAIRE

    Tanja Kajtna; Vita Štukovnik; Leja Dolenc Grošelj

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sleep is a biological function, which enables and allows regeneration, rest and preparation for further activity and also allows for previous activity and experience to organize and merge with our pre-existing experience. Sleep deprivation impairs several aspects of human functioning and the main purpose of our article was to verify if acute one night sleep deprivation (already) leads to changes in concentration and mood with a controlled effect of stress. Methods: We applied a...

  18. Twelve-month and lifetime prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of anxiety and mood disorders in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Wittchen, Hans-Ullrich

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of 12-month and lifetime prevalence and of lifetime morbid risk (LMR) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) anxiety and mood disorders are presented based on US epidemiological surveys among people aged 13+. The presentation is designed for use in the upcoming DSM-5 manual to provide more coherent estimates than would otherwise be available. Prevalence estimates are presented for the age groups proposed by DSM-5 workg...

  19. Effects of sucrose drinks on macronutrient intake, body weight, and mood state in overweight women over 4 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Marie; Hammersley, Richard; Duffy, Maresa

    2010-08-01

    The long-term effects of sucrose on appetite and mood remain unclear. Normal weight subjects compensate for sucrose added blind to the diet (Reid et al., 2007). Overweight subjects, however, may differ. In a single-blind, between-subjects design, soft drinks (4x25cl per day; 1800kJ sucrose sweetened versus 67kJ aspartame sweetened) were added to the diet of overweight women (n=53, BMI 25-30, age 20-55) for 4 weeks. A 7-day food diary gave measures of total energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients. Mood and hunger were measured by ten single Likert scales rated daily at 11.00, 14.00, 16.00, and 20.00. Activity levels were measured by diary and pedometer. Baseline energy intake did not differ between groups. During the first week of the intervention energy intake increased slightly in the sucrose group, but not in the aspartame group, then decreased again, so by the final week intake again did not differ from the aspartame group. Compensation was not large enough to produce significant changes in the composition of the voluntary diet. There were no effects on hunger or mood. It is concluded that overweight women do not respond adversely to sucrose added blind to the diet, but compensate for it by reducing voluntary energy intake. Alternative explanations for the correlation between sugary soft drink intake and weight gain are discussed. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Music and emotion / mood

    OpenAIRE

    古賀, 弘之

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to create a new kind of problem in the area of "music and emotion" research. Before surveying and reviewing articles about mood responses for music, I redefined "feeling" and "mood" for the purpose of this article. From the reviewed articles. I inferred that mood induction studies were effective to induce positive or negative moods in subjects. Recent studies, however, suggest that negative music not only induces negative mood but positive mood as well. Thus, f...

  1. Testing an mHealth momentary assessment Routine Outcome Monitoring application: a focus on restoration of daily life positive mood states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim van Os

    Full Text Available Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM is used as a means to enrich the process of treatment with feedback on patient outcomes, facilitating patient involvement and shared decision making. While traditional ROM measures focus on retrospective accounts of symptoms, novel mHealth technology makes it possible to collect real life, in-the-moment ambulatory data that allow for an ecologically valid assessment of personalized and contextualized emotional and behavioural adjustment in the flow daily life (mROM.In a sample of 34 patients with major depressive disorder, treated with antidepressants, the combined effect of treatment and natural course was examined over a period of 18 weeks with Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA. EMA consisted of repeated, within-subject, mini-measurements of experience (eg positive affect, negative affect, medication side effects and context (eg stressors, situations, activities at 10 unselected semi-random moments per day, for a period of six days, repeated three times over the 18-week period (baseline, week 6 and week 18.EMA measures of emotional and behavioural adjustment were sensitive to the effects of treatment and natural course over the 18-week period, particularly EMA measures focussing on positive mood states and the ability to use natural rewards (impact of positive events on positive mood states, with standardized effect sizes of 0.4-0.5. EMA measures of activities, social interaction, stress-sensitivity and negative mood states were also sensitive to change over time.This study supports the use of mROM as a means to involve the patient in the process of needs assessment and treatment. EMA data are meaningful to the patient, as they reflect daily life circumstances. Assessment of treatment response with mROM data allows for an interpretation of the effect of treatment at the level of daily life emotional and social adjustment--as an index of health, obviating the need for an exclusive focus on traditional measures

  2. Testing an mHealth momentary assessment Routine Outcome Monitoring application: a focus on restoration of daily life positive mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Jim; Delespaul, Philippe; Barge, Daniela; Bakker, Roberto P

    2014-01-01

    Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) is used as a means to enrich the process of treatment with feedback on patient outcomes, facilitating patient involvement and shared decision making. While traditional ROM measures focus on retrospective accounts of symptoms, novel mHealth technology makes it possible to collect real life, in-the-moment ambulatory data that allow for an ecologically valid assessment of personalized and contextualized emotional and behavioural adjustment in the flow daily life (mROM). In a sample of 34 patients with major depressive disorder, treated with antidepressants, the combined effect of treatment and natural course was examined over a period of 18 weeks with Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). EMA consisted of repeated, within-subject, mini-measurements of experience (eg positive affect, negative affect, medication side effects) and context (eg stressors, situations, activities) at 10 unselected semi-random moments per day, for a period of six days, repeated three times over the 18-week period (baseline, week 6 and week 18). EMA measures of emotional and behavioural adjustment were sensitive to the effects of treatment and natural course over the 18-week period, particularly EMA measures focussing on positive mood states and the ability to use natural rewards (impact of positive events on positive mood states), with standardized effect sizes of 0.4-0.5. EMA measures of activities, social interaction, stress-sensitivity and negative mood states were also sensitive to change over time. This study supports the use of mROM as a means to involve the patient in the process of needs assessment and treatment. EMA data are meaningful to the patient, as they reflect daily life circumstances. Assessment of treatment response with mROM data allows for an interpretation of the effect of treatment at the level of daily life emotional and social adjustment--as an index of health, obviating the need for an exclusive focus on traditional measures of

  3. Psychological state estimation from physiological recordings during robot-assisted gait rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Alexander; Omlin, Ximena; Zimmerli, Lukas; Sapa, Mark; Krewer, Carmen; Bolliger, Marc; Müller, Friedemann; Riener, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Robot-assisted treadmill training is an established intervention used to improve walking ability in patients with neurological disorders. Although it has been shown that attention to the task is a key factor for successful rehabilitation, the psychological state of patients during robot-assisted gait therapy is often neglected. We presented 17 nondisabled subjects and 10 patients with neurological disorders a virtual-reality task with varying difficulty levels to induce feelings of being bored, excited, and overstressed. We developed an approach to automatically estimate and classify a patient's psychological state, i.e., his or her mental engagement, in real time during gait training. We used psychophysiological measurements to obtain an objective measure of the current psychological state. Automatic classification was performed by a neural network. We found that heart rate, skin conductance responses, and skin temperature can be used as markers for psychological states in the presence of physical effort induced by walking. The classifier achieved a classification error of 1.4% for nondisabled subjects and 2.1% for patients with neurological disorders. Using our new method, we processed the psychological state data in real time. Our method is a first step toward real-time auto-adaptive gait training with potential to improve rehabilitation results by optimally challenging patients at all times during exercise.

  4. Problems of the organizational providing of psychological work in divisions of the state traffic Inspectorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrov V. E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the problems of the organizational providing of psychological work in divisions of the state traffic Inspectorate. Detailed the range of tasks that need to be implemented to psychologists, and specifics of the state traffic Inspectorate. The features of carrying out of activities of professional psychological selection of candidates for service, psychological training, prevention and other support activities. Potentially conflicting interaction of inspectors of traffic police with the participants of traffic, the inability to predict traffic situations and the psycho drivers necessitate treatment to psychological knowledge and the application of the constant efforts of specialists-psychologists. It is shown that the replacement of tenured psychologists psychologists state traffic Inspectorate of the territorial body of internal Affairs will not amount to nor the volume of work nor its quality. Psychological work with the personnel of the state traffic Inspectorate should only be carried out by psychologists of this unit. Eventually psychologist in the state traffic Inspectorate has expressed prospects and can not be replaced by the activities of other specialists.

  5. Effects of single moor baths on physiological stress response and psychological state: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier-Jarmer, M.; Frisch, D.; Oberhauser, C.; Immich, G.; Kirschneck, M.; Schuh, A.

    2017-06-01

    Moor mud applications in the form of packs and baths are widely used therapeutically as part of balneotherapy. They are commonly given as therapy for musculoskeletal disorders, with their thermo-physical effects being furthest studied. Moor baths are one of the key therapeutic elements in our recently developed and evaluated 3-week prevention program for subjects with high stress level and increased risk of developing a burnout syndrome. An embedded pilot study add-on to this core project was carried out to assess the relaxing effect of a single moor bath. During the prevention program, 78 participants received a total of seven moor applications, each consisting of a moor bath (42 °C, 20 min, given between 02:30 and 05:20 p.m.) followed by resting period (20 min). Before and after the first moor application in week 1, and the penultimate moor application in week 3, salivary cortisol was collected, blood pressure and heart rate were measured, and mood state (Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire) was assessed. A Friedman test of differences among repeated measures was conducted. Post hoc analyses were performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A significant decrease in salivary cortisol concentration was seen between pre- and post-moor bath in week 1 (Z = -3.355, p = 0.0008). A non-significant decrease was seen between pre- and post-moor bath in week 3. Mood state improved significantly after both moor baths. This pilot study has provided initial evidence on the stress-relieving effects of single moor baths, which can be a sensible and recommendable therapeutic element of multimodal stress-reducing prevention programs. The full potential of moor baths still needs to be validated. A randomized controlled trial should be conducted comparing this balneo-therapeutic approach against other types of stress reduction interventions.

  6. Effects of single moor baths on physiological stress response and psychological state: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier-Jarmer, M.; Frisch, D.; Oberhauser, C.; Immich, G.; Kirschneck, M.; Schuh, A.

    2017-11-01

    Moor mud applications in the form of packs and baths are widely used therapeutically as part of balneotherapy. They are commonly given as therapy for musculoskeletal disorders, with their thermo-physical effects being furthest studied. Moor baths are one of the key therapeutic elements in our recently developed and evaluated 3-week prevention program for subjects with high stress level and increased risk of developing a burnout syndrome. An embedded pilot study add-on to this core project was carried out to assess the relaxing effect of a single moor bath. During the prevention program, 78 participants received a total of seven moor applications, each consisting of a moor bath (42 °C, 20 min, given between 02:30 and 05:20 p.m.) followed by resting period (20 min). Before and after the first moor application in week 1, and the penultimate moor application in week 3, salivary cortisol was collected, blood pressure and heart rate were measured, and mood state (Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire) was assessed. A Friedman test of differences among repeated measures was conducted. Post hoc analyses were performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A significant decrease in salivary cortisol concentration was seen between pre- and post-moor bath in week 1 ( Z = -3.355, p = 0.0008). A non-significant decrease was seen between pre- and post-moor bath in week 3. Mood state improved significantly after both moor baths. This pilot study has provided initial evidence on the stress-relieving effects of single moor baths, which can be a sensible and recommendable therapeutic element of multimodal stress-reducing prevention programs. The full potential of moor baths still needs to be validated. A randomized controlled trial should be conducted comparing this balneo-therapeutic approach against other types of stress reduction interventions.

  7. Measuring generalised expectancies for negative mood regulation in China: The Chinese language Negative Mood Regulation scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guofang; Mearns, Jack; Yang, Xiaohui; Han, Peng; Catanzaro, Salvatore J

    2017-08-06

    Negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE) represent people's confidence that they can alleviate their negative affect or induce a positive emotional state through thought or action. NMRE predict coping behaviour and mood outcomes for individuals under stress. Since 1990, much research documents the reliability and validity of the English language Negative Mood Regulation (NMR) scale as a measure of NMRE. The current research reports two studies developing a Chinese language translation of the NMR (NMR-C) scale that goes beyond literal translation to be a culturally sensitive measure of NMRE in China. In Study 1, 713 college students from both a major city and a rural setting in China were surveyed. Data support the resulting 32-item NMR-C's reliability (alpha = .88) and validity. The NMR-C showed both direct and indirect links to depression and anxiety; coping mediated the indirect effect. In Study 2, 331 prison police officers in three Chinese provinces participated. NMRE buffered the effect of high role pressure, moderating the relationship between prison police role stress and job engagement. Results of the two studies support the reliability and validity of the Chinese language NMR scale and parallel results found with measures of NMRE in the West and in other Asian countries. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. The features of the formation of the socio-psychological climate in the institution of social services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakhtar Valentina Vizitorіvna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the concepts “socio-psychological climate”, “climate” and “organizational culture”. The author analyses approaches to understanding the socio-psychological climate: the socio-psychological phenomenon, the general emotional and psychological mood, the style of people's relationships with direct contact with each other, the social and psychological compatibility of the members of the group. The features of the formation of the socio-psychological climate in the establishment of the social service, factors affecting the state of the socio-psychological climate in the team are considered.

  9. Adult Attachment Style, Hardiness, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Maddi, S. R. (2004). Hardiness: An operationalization of existential cour- age. Journal of Humanistic Psychology , 44, 279–298. doi: 10.1177...but not challenge, predict positive mood. These results suggest that more secure attachment style and psychological hardiness serve as resilience...S. (1978). Pat- terns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hill- sdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Wittig, B. A

  10. Play Practices and Play Moods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...

  11. Cognitive Resilience and Psychological Responses across a Collegiate Rowing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Morgan R; Brooks, M Alison; Koltyn, Kelli F; Kim, Jee-Seon; Cook, Dane B

    2017-11-01

    Student-athletes face numerous challenges across their competitive season. Although mood states have been previously studied, little is known about adaptations in other psychological responses, specifically cognition. The purpose of this study was to characterize cognitive function, mood, sleep, and stress responses at select time points of a season in collegiate rowers. It was hypothesized that during baseline, typical training, and recovery, athletes would show positive mental health profiles, in contrast to decreases in cognition with increases in negative mood and measurements of stress during peak training. Male and female Division I rowers (N = 43) and healthy controls (N = 23) were enrolled and assessed at baseline, typical training, peak training, and recovery. At each time point, measures of cognitive performance (Stroop color-naming task), academic and exercise load, perceived cognitive deficits, mood states, sleep, and stress (via self-report and salivary cortisol) were recorded. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant group-time interactions for perceived exercise load, cognitive deficits, mood states, and perceived stress (P athletes during peak training, the perception of cognitive deficits was positively correlated with mood disturbance (r = 0.54, P performance did not change over the course of the season for either group. Cortisol and sleepiness changed over the course of the season but no significant interactions were observed. These results demonstrate that various psychological responses change over the course of a season, but they also highlight adaptation indicative of cognitive resilience among student-athletes.

  12. Formation and Development of Psychology of Forgiveness in the United States: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pechin Yu.V.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of studies of the phenomenon of forgiveness in modern American psychology. We discuss the works of the leaders of this area: Robert Enright, Everett Worthington, Michael McCullough and others. The features of the American approach in psychology of forgiveness are close connection with the psychology of religion, focus on practical problems of psychotherapy and counseling, interdisciplinary research. Over three decades, a theoretical model of forgiveness and forgiveness research methodology (Enright questionnaire have been developed, as well as several models of therapy, educational programs for teaching forgiveness to children and teenagers, peace reconciliation programs in the areas of ethnic and religious conflicts. On different samples of subjects, the healing effects of forgiveness on the psychological state have been proven (decreased feelings of resentment, anger and revenge, and positive correlation of forgiveness and altruism, the ability to gratitude, relationship satisfaction, improved physical well-being (stabilized blood pressure, boosted immune system were reported

  13. Integrative deficits in depression and in negative mood states as a result of fronto-parietal network dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezicka, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a disorder characterized not only by persistent negative mood, lack of motivation and a "ruminative" style of thinking, but also by specific deficits in cognitive functioning. These deficits are especially pronounced when integration of information is required. Previous research on linear syllogisms points to a clear pattern of cognitive disturbances present in people suffering from depressive disorders, as well as in people with elevated negative mood. Such disturbances are characterized by deficits in the integration of piecemeal information into coherent mental representations. In this review, I present evidence which suggests that the dysfunction of specific brain areas plays a crucial role in creating reasoning and information integration problems among people with depression and with heightened negative mood. As the increasingly prevalent systems neuroscience approach is spreading into the study of mental disorders, it is important to understand how and which brain networks are involved in creating certain symptoms of depression. Two large brain networks are of particular interest when considering depression: the default mode network (DMN) and the fronto-parietal (executive) network (FNP). The DMN network shows abnormally high activity in the depressed population, whereas FNP circuit activity is diminished. Disturbances within the FNP network seem to be strongly associated with cognitive problems in depression, especially those concerning executive functions. The dysfunctions within the fronto-parietal network are most probably connected to ineffective transmission of information between prefrontal and parietal regions, and also to an imbalance between FNP and DMN circuits. Inefficiency of this crucial circuits functioning may be a more general mechanism leading to problems with flexible cognition and executive functions, and could be the cause of more typical symptoms of depression like persistent rumination.

  14. International Students' Psychological and Sociocultural Adaptation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Seda

    2009-01-01

    International students constitute an important cohort in the United States (U.S.) colleges and universities. In order for the U.S. colleges and universities to better accommodate the significant number of international students and to recruit them in the future, it is critical to identify factors that influence these students' acculturation and…

  15. An ethnographic study of tourist psychological states: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even so, if a destination aims to stage an event/festival, then they must to it properly otherwise the negative impact on the attendees' emotional state may influence adversely their perception even towards the destination as a whole. Interestingly, the emotion of “frustration” was found to lead towards a revisit intention, ...

  16. Students' Perception of Causes and Effect of Teachers' Psychological Abuse in Senior Secondary Schools in Borno State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pur, Hamsatu Joseph; Liman, Mukhtar Alhaji; Ali, Domiya G.

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out on the students' perception of the causes and effect of teachers' psychological abuse in senior secondary schools in Borno State, Nigeria. Different forms of psychological abuse, perceptions, causes and effect of psychological abuse were discussed. The main objective of the study is to determine the perception of…

  17. Use of Objective Neurocognitive Measures to Assess the Psychological States that Influence Return to Sport Following Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilaty, Nathan D; Nagelli, Christopher; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the effects of psychological states on human performance, especially with those who have suffered debilitating injury and are attempting to return to sport (RTS). Current research methods measure psychological states through validated questionnaires; however, these outcomes only allow for subjective assessment and may be unintentionally biased. Application of objective neurocognitive measures correlated with psychological states will advance understanding of injury outcomes by identifying human behavior and avoiding vague assumptions from subjective measures.

  18. [Revealing three psychological states before an acting out in 32 patients hospitalized for suicide attempt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevoorde, J

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to reconstruct the psychological state of suicidal subjects at the time of the execution of the gesture according to their thoughts, their emotions, their actions, their fantasy life and consciousness. Thirty-three adult subjects agreed, just days after their suicide attempt, to answer the Interview Method for Suicidal Acts (IMSA). This object of this semi-structured interview is to invite the suicidal to reconstruct mentally and chronologically their suicide attempt. IMSA can follow the thoughts, behavior, consciousness, emotions and activity of the suicidal scenario by helping the patient to reconstruct the phenomenology of his/her actions until the final suicidal gesture. The data were processed using the method of Classification TwoStep on SPSS, based on Schwarz Bayesian criterion. The results highlight three main types of psychological state: (1) a "kinesthetic" psychological state (called "type K") is characterized by a rupture between the subjective sensation of motor movement and effective motility (motor automatism), the presence of a dissociative state, an "empty" feeling of thought and the absence of an external triggering factor; (2) a "cognitive" psychological state (called "type C") is characterized by a significant reflection on the decision to die and infiltration of the morbid thought, an intense fantasy life around the suicidal scenario, a clear state of consciousness, and an absence of loss of motor control; (3) an "emotional" psychological state (called "type E") is characterized by confusing and chaotic emotional processes, the emergence of a dissociative state, and a significant impact of external events on the onset of the suicide attempt. This classification of suicide attempts allows us to identify the different combinations of the suicidal process and opens up new therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora?) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Talbott, Shawn M; Talbott, Julie A; Pugh, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) and Phellodendron (Phellodendron amurense) barks are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional remedies for reducing stress and anxiety. Modern dietary supplements are intended to induce relaxation and reduce stress as well as stress-related eating. Previous studies have shown the combination of Magnolia/Phellodendron (MP) to reduce both cortisol exposure and the perception of stress/anxiety, while improving weight loss in subjects with stress-re...

  20. Is blunted cardiovascular reactivity in depression mood-state dependent? A comparison of major depressive disorder remitted depression and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Kristen; Bylsma, Lauren M; White, Kristi E; Panaite, Vanessa; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    Prior work has repeatedly demonstrated that people who have current major depression exhibit blunted cardiovascular reactivity to acute stressors (e.g., Salomon et al., 2009). A key question regards the psychobiological basis for these deficits, including whether such deficits are depressed mood-state dependent or whether these effects are trait-like and are observed outside of depression episodes in vulnerable individuals. To examine this issue, we assessed cardiovascular reactivity to a speech stressor task and a forehead cold pressor in 50 individuals with current major depressive disorder (MDD), 25 with remitted major depression (RMD), and 45 healthy controls. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure and impedance cardiography were assessed and analyses controlled for BMI and sex. Significant group effects were found for SBP, HR, and PEP for the speech preparation period and HR, CO, and PEP during the speech. For each of these parameters, only the MDD group exhibited attenuated reactivity as well as impaired SBP recovery. Reactivity and recovery in the RMD group more closely resembled the healthy controls. Speeches given by the MDD group were rated as less persuasive than the RMD or healthy controls' speeches. No significant differences were found for the cold pressor. Blunted cardiovascular reactivity and impaired recovery in current major depression may be mood-state dependent phenomena and may be more reflective of motivational deficits than deficits in the physiological integrity of the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ratings of Perceived Exertion and Self-reported Mood State in Response to High Intensity Interval Training. A Crossover Study on the Effect of Chronotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo A. Vitale

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronotype on mood state and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE before and in response to acute high intensity interval exercise (HIIE performed at different times of the day. Based on the morningness–eveningness questionnaire, 12 morning-types (M-types; N = 12; age 21 ± 2 years; height 179 ± 5 cm; body mass 74 ± 12 kg and 11 evening-types (E-types; N = 11; age 21 ± 2 years; height 181 ± 11 cm; body mass 76 ± 11 kg were enrolled in a randomized crossover study. All subjects underwent measurements of Profile of Mood States (POMS, before (PRE, after 12 (POST12 and 24 h (POST24 the completion of both morning (08.00 am and evening (08.00 p.m. training. Additionally, Global Mood Disturbance and Energy Index (EI were calculated. RPE was obtained PRE and 30 min POST HIIE. Two-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparisons test of POMS parameters during morning training showed significant differences in fatigue, vigor and EI at PRE and POST24 between M-types and E-types. In addition, significant chronotype differences were found only in POST12 after the evening HIIE for fatigue, vigor and EI. For what concerns Borg perceived exertion, comparing morning versus evening values in PRE condition, a higher RPE was observed in relation to evening training for M-types (P = 0.0107 while E-types showed higher RPE values in the morning (P = 0.008. Finally, intragroup differences showed that E-types had a higher RPE respect to M-types before (P = 0.002 and after 30 min (P = 0.042 the morning session of HIIE. No significant changes during the evening training session were found. In conclusion, chronotype seems to significantly influence fatigue values, perceived exertions and vigor in relation to HIIE performed at different times of the day. Specifically, E-types will meet more of a burden when undertaking a physical task early in the day. Practical results suggest that performing a HIIE at those times

  2. IFE PsychologIA - Vol 6, No 2 (1998)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daily Assessment of State Anxiety and Mood in African Athletes: Psychological Effects of Training from a Life-quality Perspective · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ... The Effect of Reinforcement, Prompting and Social Initiation as Intervention Strategies on the Abnormal Social Relations of Autistic Children · EMAIL FULL ...

  3. Liver enzymes and psychological well-being response to aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver enzymes and psychological well-being response to aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic hepatitis C. ... Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Gamma – Glutamyltransferase (GGT) , Beck Depression Inventory (BDI ) & Profile of Mood States(POMS) and increase in Rosenberg ...

  4. Guidelines for cognitive behavioral training within doctoral psychology programs in the United States: report of the Inter-organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K; Ronan, George F; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D; Belar, Cynthia D; Berry, Sharon L; Christofff, Karen A; Craighead, Linda W; Dougher, Michael J; Dowd, E Thomas; Herbert, James D; McFarr, Lynn M; Rizvi, Shireen L; Sauer, Eric M; Strauman, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a year-long series of conferences, and developed a consensus on optimal doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology. The recommendations assume solid foundational training that is typical within applied psychology areas such as clinical and counseling psychology programs located in the United States. This article details the background, assumptions, and resulting recommendations specific to doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology, including competencies expected in the areas of ethics, research, and practice. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Mood, music, and caffeine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolij, Jacob; Lorist, Monicque

    2014-01-01

    What we see is affected by how we feel: in positive moods, we are more sensitive to positive stimuli, such as happy faces, but in negative moods we are more sensitive to negative stimuli, such as sad faces. Caffeine is known to affect mood - a cup of coffee results in a more positive mood, but also

  6. Do the psychological effects of vagus nerve stimulation partially mediate vagal pain modulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangos, Eleni; Richards, Emily A; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2017-01-01

    There is preclinical and clinical evidence that vagus nerve stimulation modulates both pain and mood state. Mechanistic studies show brainstem circuitry involved in pain modulation by vagus nerve stimulation, but little is known about possible indirect descending effects of altered mood state on pain perception. This possibility is important, since previous studies have shown that mood state affects pain, particularly the affective dimension (pain unpleasantness). To date, human studies investigating the effects of vagus nerve stimulation on pain perception have not reliably measured psychological factors to determine their role in altered pain perception elicited by vagus nerve stimulation. Thus, it remains unclear how much of a role psychological factors play in vagal pain modulation. Here, we present a rationale for including psychological measures in future vagus nerve stimulation studies on pain.

  7. Negative mood disrupts self- and reward-biases in perceptual matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jie; Ohrling, Erik; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2016-01-01

    There are established effects of self- and reward-biases even on simple perceptual matching tasks [Sui, J., He, X., & Humphreys, G. W. (2012). Perceptual effects of social salience: Evidence from self-prioritization effects on perceptual matching. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Human Perception and Performance, 38, 1105-1117]; however we know little about whether these biases can be modulated by particular interventions, and whether the biases then change in the same way. Here we assessed how the biases alter under conditions designed to induce negative mood. We had participants read a list of self-related negative or neutral mood statements [Velten, E. (1968). A laboratory task for induction of mood states. Behavior Research and Therapy, 6, 473-482] and also listen for 10 min to a passage of negative or neutral music, prior to carrying out perceptual matching with shapes associated to personal labels (self or stranger) or reward (£12 or £1). Responses to the self- and high-reward-associated shapes were selectively slower and less sensitive (d') following the negative mood induction procedures, and the decrease in mood correlated with decreases in the reaction time bias across "high saliency" (self and high-reward) stimuli. We suggest that negative mood may decrease self- and reward-biases through reducing attention to salient external stimuli.

  8. Mood, eating behaviour and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J M G; Healy, H; Eade, J; Windle, G; Cowen, P J; Green, M W; Durlach, P

    2002-04-01

    Obesity is a growing health problem, but most people find dieting unsuccessful. Three studies examine possible reasons for the difficulty and the extent to which dieting-related reductions in cognitive function are associated with mood and well-being. In Study One, 49 female dieters were compared with a control group of 31 matched non-dieters on measures of well-being, mood, eating behaviour (Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire), and attention. Study Two examined two measures of restraint to examine why previous studies find high restrainers are prone to react to emotion. Study Three experimentally manipulated mood using music and the standard Velten Induction Procedure to examine attention in restrainers and emotional eaters. Dieting was found to be associated with deficits in sustained attention. This finding was further supported by the demonstration of a significant impairment in performance following a negative mood induction in high emotional eaters whereas high restrainers were relatively unaffected by the mood challenge. We suggest that different aspects of eating behaviour have dissociable effects on cognitive-affective function. Trait tendencies to restrained eating are associated with attentional deficits, but are not further affected by mood disruption. It is the long-term tendency to eat when emotional that combines with current emotional state to trigger cognitive deficits.

  9. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  10. The Effect of Mood on Problem Finding in Scientific Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Borong; Hu, Weiping; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of different mood states on Creative Science Problem Finding (CSPF). CSPF was measured in terms of Fluency, Flexibility, and Originality. Imagery techniques were used to induce positive or negative mood states in participants, with results suggesting that positive mood led to a significant increase in CSPF…

  11. Factor Analysis of Subjective Psychological Experiences and States of Football Referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš ZEMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between values of components of subjective psychological experiences and states in 26 male football referees before the match and after the match were explored using factor analysis. For evaluation of subjective psychological experiences and states the standardized questionnaire SUPSO was used. The questionnaire was filled in twice by refer ees: before the match and immediately after the match. Four most important factors were described and named. The first factor was called "tendency to discomfort". It relates to referee ́s current mental state being probably a reflection of long - term negativ e circumstances in referee ́s life. It is neither related to the completed match, nor referee ́s temperament . The second factor was called "depression from failure" and it is connected directly to the completed match. It is probably determined by current ref eree ́s physical and mental conditions . The third and fourth factors proved to be consequences of temperament of referees. In conclusion, the two most important factors of current mental state of football referee during the game can probably be influenced b y a systematic psychological preparation . Psychological preparation should therefore become an effective part of the pre - match preparation of football referees.

  12. How psychological and behavioral team states change during positive and negative momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J.R.; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Marin, Ludovic; Van Geert, Paul

    In business and sports, teams often experience periods of positive and negative momentum while pursuing their goals. However, researchers have not yet been able to provide insights into how psychological and behavioral states actually change during positive and negative team momentum. In the current

  13. The Role of the State School Psychology Organizations in the Promotion of Professional Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryzwansky, Walter B.; Wenger, Ralph D.

    1979-01-01

    A survey was conducted to examine the role of state school psychology organizations in advocating for and monitoring the ethical practice of their members. Results revealed that 76 percent of the responding organizations had adopted a code of ethics, while only 43 percent had instituted due process procedures. (Author)

  14. New directions in the psychology of optimal performance in sport: flow and clutch states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Christian; Crust, Lee; Vella, Stewart A

    2017-08-01

    Csikszentmihalyi's conceptualisation of flow is the primary framework for understanding the psychology of optimal experience and performance in sport. However, emerging evidence suggests a more dynamic, multi-state perspective. This review focuses primarily on recent studies highlighting a second, overlapping 'clutch' state which - in addition to flow - underlies optimal performance in sport. We also examine how the nature of goals ('open' or 'fixed') athletes pursue influence the experience of flow and clutch respectively. This new, integrated model of psychological states underlying optimal performance raises questions around conceptualisation and methodology employed in the field to date. These implications are outlined, and recommendations are provided for more critical and accurate measurement of both flow and clutch as overlapping, yet distinct, states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mood improvement in young adult males following supplementation with gold kiwifruit, a high-vitamin C food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Anitra C; Bozonet, Stephanie M; Pullar, Juliet M; Vissers, Margreet C M

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced intakes of fruit and vegetables have been associated with improved psychological well-being. We investigated the potential mood-enhancing effects of kiwifruit, a fruit rich in vitamin C and a number of other important micronutrients. Young adult males (n 35) were supplemented with either half or two kiwifruit/d for 6 weeks. Profile of Mood States questionnaires were completed at baseline and following the intervention. No effect on overall mood was observed in the half a kiwifruit/d group; however, a 35 % (P = 0·06) trend towards a decrease in total mood disturbance and a 32 % (P = 0·063) trend towards a decrease in depression were observed in the two kiwifruit/d group. Subgroup analysis indicated that participants with higher baseline mood disturbance exhibited a significant 38 % (P = 0·029) decrease in total mood disturbance, as well as a 38 % (P = 0·048) decrease in fatigue, 31 % (P = 0·024) increase in vigour and a 34 % (P = 0·075) trend towards a decrease in depression, following supplementation with two kiwifruit/d. There was no effect of two kiwifruit/d on the mood scores of participants with lower baseline mood disturbance. Dietary intakes and body status of specific micronutrients indicated a significant increase in the participants' vitamin C intakes and corresponding plasma levels of the vitamin. The results indicate that enhanced intake of kiwifruit by individuals with moderate mood disturbance can improve overall mood.

  16. Neural correlates of effective and ineffective mood induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Irina; Kellermann, Thilo; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Gur, Ruben C.; Habel, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Emotional reactivity and the ability to modulate an emotional state, which are important factors for psychological well-being, are often dysregulated in psychiatric disorders. Neural correlates of emotional states have mostly been studied at the group level, thereby neglecting individual differences in the intensity of emotional experience. This study investigates the relationship between brain activity and interindividual variation in subjective affect ratings. A standardized mood induction (MI) procedure, using positive facial expression and autobiographical memories, was applied to 54 healthy participants (28 female), who rated their subjective affective state before and after the MI. We performed a regression analysis with brain activation during MI and changes in subjective affect ratings. An increase in positive affective ratings correlated with activity in the amygdala, hippocampus and the fusiform gyrus (FFG), whereas reduced positive affect correlated with activity of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. Activations in the amygdala, hippocampus and FFG are possibly linked to strategies adopted by the participants to achieve mood changes. Subgenual cingulate cortex activation has been previously shown to relate to rumination. This finding is in line with previous observations of the subgenual cingulate’s role in emotion regulation and its clinical relevance to therapy and prognosis of mood disorders. PMID:23576810

  17. Neural correlates of effective and ineffective mood induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Nils; Falkenberg, Irina; Kellermann, Thilo; Eickhoff, Simon B; Gur, Ruben C; Habel, Ute

    2014-06-01

    Emotional reactivity and the ability to modulate an emotional state, which are important factors for psychological well-being, are often dysregulated in psychiatric disorders. Neural correlates of emotional states have mostly been studied at the group level, thereby neglecting individual differences in the intensity of emotional experience. This study investigates the relationship between brain activity and interindividual variation in subjective affect ratings. A standardized mood induction (MI) procedure, using positive facial expression and autobiographical memories, was applied to 54 healthy participants (28 female), who rated their subjective affective state before and after the MI. We performed a regression analysis with brain activation during MI and changes in subjective affect ratings. An increase in positive affective ratings correlated with activity in the amygdala, hippocampus and the fusiform gyrus (FFG), whereas reduced positive affect correlated with activity of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. Activations in the amygdala, hippocampus and FFG are possibly linked to strategies adopted by the participants to achieve mood changes. Subgenual cingulate cortex activation has been previously shown to relate to rumination. This finding is in line with previous observations of the subgenual cingulate's role in emotion regulation and its clinical relevance to therapy and prognosis of mood disorders. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Negative Mood States or Dysfunctional Cognitions: Their Independent and Interactional Effects in Influencing Severity of Gambling Among Chinese Problem Gamblers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Zhuang, Xiao Yu; Jackson, Alun; Dowling, Nicki; Lo, Herman Hay Ming

    2017-09-04

    Gambling-related cognitions and negative psychological states have been proposed as major factors in the initiation and maintenance of problem gambling (PG). While there are a substantial number of studies supporting the role of cognitive dysfunctions in the initiation and maintenance of PG, very few empirical studies have explored the specific role of negative psychological states in influencing PG behaviours. In addition, very few studies have examined the interaction effects of cognitive dysfunctions and negative psychological states in exerting influence on PG behaviours. Therefore, the present study aims to examine the main and interaction effects of gambling-related cognitions and psychological states on the gambling severity among a group of problem gamblers in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional research design was adopted. A purposive sample of 177 problem gamblers who sought treatment from a social service organization in Hong Kong completed a battery of standardised questionnaires. While gambling-related cognitions were found to exert significant effects on gambling severity, negative psychological states (i.e. stress) significantly moderated the relationship between gambling cognitions and gambling severity. In essence, those participants who reported a higher level of stress had more stable and serious gambling problems than those who reported a lower level of stress irrespective of the level of gambling-related cognitions. The findings of the moderating role of negative emotions in the relationship between cognitive distortions and severity of gambling provide insight towards developing an integrated intervention model which includes both cognitive-behavioural and emotion regulation strategies in helping people with PG.

  19. Psychological crisis intervention for the family members of patients in a vegetative state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Hong Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Family members of patients in a vegetative state have relatively high rates of anxiety and distress. It is important to recognize the problems faced by this population and apply psychological interventions to help them. This exploratory study describes the psychological stress experienced by family members of patients in a vegetative state. We discuss the effectiveness of a psychological crisis intervention directed at this population and offer suggestions for future clinical work. METHODS: A total of 107 family members of patients in a vegetative state were included in the study. The intervention included four steps: acquisition of facts about each family, sharing their first thoughts concerning the event, assessment of their emotional reactions and developing their coping abilities. The Symptom Check List-90 was used to evaluate the psychological distress of the participants at baseline and one month after the psychological intervention. Differences between the Symptom Check List-90 scores at the baseline and follow-up evaluations were analyzed. RESULTS: All participants in the study had significantly higher Symptom Check List-90 factor scores than the national norms at baseline. There were no significant differences between the intervention group and the control group at baseline. Most of the Symptom Check List-90 factor scores at the one-month follow-up evaluation were significantly lower than those at baseline for both groups; however, the intervention group improved significantly more than the control group on most subscales, including somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, depression, and anxiety. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that the four-step intervention method effectively improves the mental health of the family members who received this treatment and lessens the psychological symptoms of somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, depression and anxiety.

  20. Psychological crisis intervention for the family members of patients in a vegetative state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Hong; Xu, Zhi-Peng

    2012-01-01

    Family members of patients in a vegetative state have relatively high rates of anxiety and distress. It is important to recognize the problems faced by this population and apply psychological interventions to help them. This exploratory study describes the psychological stress experienced by family members of patients in a vegetative state. We discuss the effectiveness of a psychological crisis intervention directed at this population and offer suggestions for future clinical work. A total of 107 family members of patients in a vegetative state were included in the study. The intervention included four steps: acquisition of facts about each family, sharing their first thoughts concerning the event, assessment of their emotional reactions and developing their coping abilities. The Symptom Check List-90 was used to evaluate the psychological distress of the participants at baseline and one month after the psychological intervention. Differences between the Symptom Check List-90 scores at the baseline and follow-up evaluations were analyzed. All participants in the study had significantly higher Symptom Check List-90 factor scores than the national norms at baseline. There were no significant differences between the intervention group and the control group at baseline. Most of the Symptom Check List-90 factor scores at the one-month follow-up evaluation were significantly lower than those at baseline for both groups; however, the intervention group improved significantly more than the control group on most subscales, including somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, depression, and anxiety. The results of this study indicate that the four-step intervention method effectively improves the mental health of the family members who received this treatment and lessens the psychological symptoms of somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, depression and anxiety.

  1. Automatically predicting mood from expressed emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Katsimerou, C.

    2016-01-01

    Affect-adaptive systems have the potential to assist users that experience systematically negative moods. This thesis aims at building a platform for predicting automatically a person’s mood from his/her visual expressions. The key word is mood, namely a relatively long-term, stable and diffused affective state, as opposed to the short-term, volatile and intense emotion. This is emphasized, because mood and emotion often tend to be used as synonyms. However, since their differences are well e...

  2. The influence of psychological state and motivation on Brain-computer interface performance in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis - a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Femke; Pfurtscheller, G; Birbaumer, Niels; Kübler, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of psychological well-being measured as quality of life, depression, current mood and motivation on brain-computer interface (BCI) performance in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Six participants with most advanced ALS were trained either for a block of

  3. Timing rather than user traits mediates mood sampling on smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noë, Beryl; Turner, Liam D; Linden, David E J; Allen, Stuart M; Maio, Gregory R; Whitaker, Roger M

    2017-09-16

    Recent years have seen an increasing number of studies using smartphones to sample participants' mood states. Moods are usually collected by asking participants for their current mood or for a recollection of their mood states over a specific period of time. The current study investigates the reasons to favour collecting mood through current or daily mood surveys and outlines design recommendations for mood sampling using smartphones based on these findings. These recommendations are also relevant to more general smartphone sampling procedures. N=64 participants completed a series of surveys at the beginning and end of the study providing information such as gender, personality, or smartphone addiction score. Through a smartphone application, they reported their current mood 3 times and daily mood once per day for 8 weeks. We found that none of the examined intrinsic individual qualities had an effect on matches of current and daily mood reports. However timing played a significant role: the last followed by the first reported current mood of the day were more likely to match the daily mood. Current mood surveys should be preferred for a higher sampling accuracy, while daily mood surveys are more suitable if compliance is more important.

  4. Investigation into activation of dysfunctional schemas in euthymic bipolar disorder following positive mood induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Claire L; Lam, Dominic

    2011-06-01

    OBJECTIVES. There are dysfunctional cognitions that may be characteristic of bipolar disorder (BD), and which may be mood-state dependent. However, it has been found that such cognitions may be resilient to minor positive mood increase. The aim of this study is to investigate whether positive mood-induction procedure has the effect of altering the availability of dysfunctional schemas in a group of individuals with BD. DESIGN. The sentence completion task was designed to assess the content of dysfunctional schemas: it was modified for use with positive mood-induction procedure in the current study so that more dysfunctional schematic models would lead to completion of sentence stems by negative constructs, whereas functional schematic models led to completion of sentence stems by positive constructs. METHODS. Using the modified sentence completion task, 30 participants with remitted bipolar I disorder were compared with 30 individuals with no history of affective disorder. Results. At baseline the bipolar group inserted significantly more dysfunctional completions than the control group. Following mood induction, the number of dysfunctional completions was reduced for both groups. The bipolar group still inserted significantly more dysfunctional completions relating to autonomy than the control group following mood induction. However, no significant group by time interactions were identified. CONCLUSIONS. As predicted, participants' reports of dysfunctional attitudes reduced following the mood-induction procedure, although no difference was identified between the groups in terms of the size of this reduction. The bipolar group continued to insert significantly more dysfunctional completions for the factor of autonomy, suggesting that this group has more access to autonomy schemas, regardless of change in mood. This finding may have implications in terms of focus of therapy and relapse prevention work. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Alterations in selected measures of mood with a single bout of dynamic Taekwondo exercise in college-age students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toskovic, N N

    2001-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate and to compare the acute alterations in selected measures of mood profile in novice Taekwondo practitioners while evaluating whether dynamic Taekwondo practice was an appropriate exercise modality for enhancing six psychological state dimensions: Vigor, Anxiety, Depression, Anger, Fatigue, and Confusion. 20 male and female college-age students enrolled in Taekwondo activity class and an additional 20 students enrolled in the lecture-con trol class (ages 18 to 21 years) completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS) inven tory prior to and immediately following one 75-min. session of dynamic Taekwondo or lecture. To examine the exercise effect, a series of 2 x 2 analysis of covariance were performed on mean posttest scores, using pretest scores as the covariate. Analysis indicated that Taekwondo participants reported a significant improvement (pseveral earlier studies indicating that acute exercise may elicit positive changes in affective states and that prolonged exercise is not necessary to produce immediate beneficial alterations of mood.

  6. Thought Speed, Mood, and the Experience of Mental Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronin, Emily; Jacobs, Elana

    2008-11-01

    This article presents a theoretical account relating thought speed to mood and psychological experience. Thought sequences that occur at a fast speed generally induce more positive affect than do those that occur slowly. Thought speed constitutes one aspect of mental motion. Another aspect involves thought variability, or the degree to which thoughts in a sequence either vary widely from or revolve closely around a theme. Thought sequences possessing more motion (occurring fast and varying widely) generally produce more positive affect than do sequences possessing little motion (occurring slowly and repetitively). When speed and variability oppose each other, such that one is low and the other is high, predictable psychological states also emerge. For example, whereas slow, repetitive thinking can prompt dejection, fast, repetitive thinking can prompt anxiety. This distinction is related to the fact that fast thinking involves greater actual and felt energy than slow thinking does. Effects of mental motion occur independent of the specific content of thought. Their consequences for mood and energy hold psychotherapeutic relevance. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  7. Effects of brief and sham mindfulness meditation on mood and cardiovascular variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Fadel; Johnson, Susan K; Gordon, Nakia S; Goolkasian, Paula

    2010-08-01

    Although long-term meditation has been found to reduce negative mood and cardiovascular variables, the effects of a brief mindfulness meditation intervention when compared to a sham mindfulness meditation intervention are relatively unknown. This experiment examined whether a 3-day (1-hour total) mindfulness or sham mindfulness meditation intervention would improve mood and cardiovascular variables when compared to a control group. Eighty-two (82) undergraduate students (34 males, 48 females), with no prior meditation experience, participated in three sessions that involved training in either mindfulness meditation, sham mindfulness meditation, or a control group. Heart rate, blood pressure, and psychologic variables (Profile of Mood States, State Anxiety Inventory) were assessed before and after the intervention. The meditation intervention was more effective at reducing negative mood, depression, fatigue, confusion, and heart rate, when compared to the sham and control groups. These results indicate that brief meditation training has beneficial effects on mood and cardiovascular variables that go beyond the demand characteristics of a sham meditation intervention.

  8. Acute effects of exercise on mood and EEG activity in healthy young subjects: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattari, Eduardo; Portugal, Eduardo; Moraes, Helena; Machado, Sérgio; Santos, Tony M; Deslandes, Andrea C

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography has been used to establish the relationship among cortical activity, exercise and mood, such as asymmetry, absolute and relative power. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the influence of cortical activity on mood state induced by exercise. The Preferred Reporting Items in Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses was followed in this study. The studies were retrieved from MEDLINE/PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and SciELO. Search was conducted in all databases using the following terms: EEG asymmetry, sLORETA, exercise, with affect, mood and emotions. Based on the defined criteria, a total of 727 articles were found in the search conducted in the literature (666 in Pubmed, 54 in ISI Web of Science, 2 in SciELO and 5 in other data sources). Total of 11 studies were selected which properly met the criteria for this review. Nine out of 11 studies used the frontal asymmetry, four used absolute and relative power and one used sLORETA. With regard to changes in cortical activity and mood induced by exercise, six studies attributed this result to different intensities, one to duration, one to type of exercise and one to fitness level. In general, EEG measures showed contradictory evidence of its ability to predict or modulate psychological mood states through exercise intervention.

  9. Psychological states and coping strategies after bereavement among spouses of cancer patients: a quantitative study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Mariko; Akizuki, Nobuya; Fujimori, Maiko; Matsui, Yutaka; Itoh, Kuniaki; Ikeda, Masafumi; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Kinoshita, Taira; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Nagai, Kanji; Kinoshita, Hiroya; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2012-12-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to characterize psychological states and coping strategies after bereavement among spouses of cancer patients in Japan and (2) to explore the factors associated with psychological states in oncology settings. In March 2009, questionnaires to assess spouses' psychological states, coping strategies, and mental health states (GHQ-28) were sent after patients died at the National Cancer Center of Japan. To address the first purpose, exploratory factor analysis, gender comparison, and calculation of correlation with age, time since bereavement, and mental health states were conducted. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to address the second purpose. A total of 821 spouses experiencing bereavement for 7 months to 7 years participated in the study. Psychological states revealed three factor structures: "Anxiety/Depression/Anger", "Yearning", and "Acceptance/Future-Oriented Feelings". Coping strategies also revealed three factor structures: "Distraction", "Continuing Bonds", and "Social Sharing/Reconstruction". Coping strategies represented 18 % to 34 % of each factor associated with psychological states, whereas the characteristics of bereaved spouses and deceased patients represented 6 % and less than 6 %, respectively. More "Distraction and Social Sharing/Reconstruction" and less "Continuing Bonds" were significantly associated coping strategies for achieving "Acceptance/Future-Oriented Feelings" (p strategies after bereavement revealed three factor structures. Coping strategies was the primary, bereaved spouses' characteristics was the secondary, and deceased patients' characteristics was the tertiary factor associated with psychological states. Enhancing "Distraction" and "Social Sharing/Reconstruction", and reducing "Continuing Bonds" might be promising strategies for achieving positive psychological states of the bereaved.

  10. Psychotherapy of mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Angelo; Gaetano, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing acceptance as a major treatment option for mood disorders. Empirically supported treatments for major depression include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioural therapy and, to a lesser extent, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that psychotherapy has a significant and clinically relevant, though not large, effect on chronic forms of depression. Psychotherapy with chronic patients should take into account several important differences between patients with chronic and acute depression (identification with their depressive illness, more severe social skill deficits, persistent sense of hopelessness, need of more time to adapt to better circumstances). Regarding adolescent depression, the effectiveness of IPT and CBT is empirically supported. Adolescents require appropriate modifications of treatment (developmental approach to psychotherapy, involvement of parents in therapy). The combination of psychotherapy and medication has recently attracted substantial interest; the available evidence suggests that combined treatment has small but significant advantages over each treatment modality alone, and may have a protective effect against depression relapse or recurrence. Psychobiological models overcoming a rigid brain-mind dichotomy may help the clinician give patients a clear rationale for the combination of psychological and pharmacological treatment. In recent years, evidence has accumulated regarding the effectiveness of psychological therapies (CBT, family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, psychoeducation) as an adjunct to medication in bipolar disorder. These therapies share several common elements and there is considerable overlap in their actual targets. Psychological interventions were found to be useful not only in the treatment of bipolar depressive episodes, but in all phases of the disorder.

  11. Burnout and Psychological Distress Among Pediatric Critical Care Physicians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoi, Asha N; Kalyanaraman, Meena; Pillai, Aravind; Raghava, Preethi S; Day, Scottie

    2018-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of physician burnout, psychological distress, and its association with selected personal and practice characteristics among pediatric critical care physicians and to evaluate the relationship between burnout and psychological distress. Cross-sectional, online survey. Pediatric critical care practices in the United States. Pediatric critical care physicians. None. A nonrandom sample of 253 physicians completed an online survey consisting of personal and practice characteristics, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the General Health Questionnaire. Nearly half of the participants (49%; 95% CI, 43-55%; n = 124) scored high burnout in at least one of the three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and 21% reported severe burnout. The risk of any burnout was about two times more in women physicians (odds ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.2-3.4). Association between other personal or practice characteristics and burnout was not evident in this study, while regular physical exercise appeared to be protective. One third of all participants (30.5%) and 69% of those who experienced severe burnout screened positive for psychological distress. About 90% of the physicians reporting severe burnout have considered leaving their practice. Burnout is high among pediatric critical care physicians in the United States. About two thirds of the physicians with severe burnout met the screening criteria for psychological distress that suggests possible common mental disorders. Significant percentages of physicians experiencing burnout and considering to leave the profession has major implications for the critical care workforce.

  12. Do psychological states associate with pain and disability in chronic neck pain patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Zacharias; Kapreli, Eleni; Strimpakos, Nikolaos; Oldham, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is one of the most usual neuromusculoskeletal pain conditions which can lead patients to chronic disability. Similarly to other pain conditions, the changed psychological status of these patients is believed to be associated with their pain condition and disability. However, the association between the psychological status of patients with idiopathic neck pain and their pain intensity and disability is minimally explored. This study was aimed at investigating the association between psychological states (anxiety, depression, kinesiophobia, catastrophizing) of patients with chronic idiopathic neck pain and self-reported pain and disability. Forty five patients with idiopathic chronic neck pain (more than 6 months, at least once a week) participated. Their psychological states were assessed by using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, Pain Catastrophizing scale and Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. Self-reported disability was recorded with the Neck Disability Index. Pain intensity was recorded by using a visual analog scale. Neck pain intensity was significantly correlated with anxiety (p< 0.05). Disability was significantly correlated with anxiety, depression and catastrophizing (p< 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that pain-induced disability can be significantly predicted by anxiety and catastrophizing (p< 0.05). It can be concluded that anxiety, depression and catastrophizing of patients with chronic neck pain is associated with their self-reported disability, whereas anxiety is also associated with their pain intensity. Anxiety and catastrophizing may be important predicting markers of patients' self-reported disability.

  13. A cross-cultural examination of the relationship between negative mood states, body image and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytek-Matera, Anna; Schiltz, Lony

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between depression and anxiety symptoms, body image and disordered eating behaviours in Polish and French populations. In addition, our study was also designed to explore durability and intensity of depression and anxiety symptoms in both anorexic groups. Participants were 95 adolescent girls suffering from anorexia nervosa and 95 healthy women. All participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Eating Disorder Inventory. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the depression score of Polish anorexic patients was significantly higher than those of French adolescents. Compared with the control group without eating disorders, both anorexic group experienced significantly higher anxiety and depression symptoms. Anxiety and depression levels were found to have increased with the Polish women's age and Body Mass Index. They were independent of the illness duration for both in Polish and French patients suffering from anorexia nervosa. The results of Pearson's correlations show that, in the Polish group, the higher anxiety is, the higher maturity fears and interoceptive awareness are. Furthermore, in the French group, the higher depression is, the higher bulimia, ineffectiveness, interpersonal distrust, interoceptive awareness and maturity fears are. The results are discussed in terms of the important role of mood and anxiety symptoms in eating disorders.

  14. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  15. Stress and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relaxation Emotions & Relationships HealthyYouTXT Tools Home » Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Many people who go back to smoking ... story: Time Out Times 10 >> share What Causes Stress? Read full story: What Causes Stress? >> share The ...

  16. Mood, memory, and social judgments in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgas, J P; Burnham, D K; Trimboli, C

    1988-04-01

    The influence of positive and negative moods on children's recall and recognition memory and impression-formation judgments was investigated in a two-list experimental design. A total of 161 schoolchildren, 8 to 10 years old, were presented with audiovisual information containing positive and negative details about 2 target children. Each presentation was preceded by happy or sad mood manipulations. One day later, the children were again placed in a happy or sad mood, and their recall and recognition memory and impression-formation judgments were assessed. Results showed that memory was better when (a) the children felt happy during encoding, retrieval, or both; (b) the material was incongruent with learning mood; (c) the 2 target characters were encountered in contrasting rather than in matching mood states; and (d) recall mood matched encoding mood. A happy mood increased the extremity of both positive and negative impression-formation judgments. Results are contrasted with experimental data obtained with normal or depressed adults, and implications are considered for contemporary theories of mood effects on cognition and for social-developmental research.

  17. Mental energy: Assessing the mood dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Patrick J

    2006-07-01

    Conceptualizing mental energy as a mood is impor tant, because these feelings are important to people and can influence behavior in the real world. If a person feels a lack of energy, for example, he or she is more likely to avoid physical or mental work if it is possible to do so. Alternatively, this person may seek to improve feelings of energy by eating, drinking, taking dietary supplements or drugs, sleeping, or engaging in other behaviors. Thus, the measurement of the mood of energy has importance in numerous ways, including public health, work productivity, and ultimately economic growth and productivity. Mood data have limitations, for example, self aware ness and literacy are necessary and faking is possible. The problem of faking is most salient in situations in which there is a strong motivation to fake, such as when psychological testing is used as part of an employment application. Despite these limitations, overwhelming evidence supports the validity for certain measures of the mood of energy such as the POMS vigor scale. This is not to say that mood measures are error free in all situations. Despite some error, however, validity evidence for mood measures is published in the scientific literature weekly. Future research aimed at determining the biological bases for the mood of energy, and its relationships to overlapping phenomena such as cognitive fatigue, should yield results that ultimately help us to understand how to optimize our feelings of energy.

  18. Technology Addiction among Treatment Seekers for Psychological Problems: Implication for Screening in Mental Health Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Aswathy; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Thamilselvan, P.; Marimuthu, P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Technology usage has seen an increase among users. The usage varies from social, personal, and psychological reasons. Users are frequently using to overcome mood states as well as to manage the other psychological states. This work is going to explore the information technology use among subjects with a psychiatric disorder. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 subjects were assessed using background data sheet, internet addiction impairment index, video game use pattern, pornogra...

  19. Acculturation, psychological adjustment, and parenting styles of Chinese immigrant mothers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Cheah, Charissa S L; Calvin, Grace

    2016-10-01

    This study examined whether acculturation to American culture, maintenance of Chinese culture, and their interaction predicted Chinese immigrant parents' psychological adjustment and parenting styles. We hypothesized that American orientation would be associated with more positive psychological well-being and fewer depressive symptoms in immigrant mothers, which in turn would be associated with more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. The examination of the roles of Chinese orientation and the interaction of the 2 cultural orientations in relation to psychological adjustment and parenting were exploratory. Participants were 164 first-generation Chinese immigrant mothers in the United States (Mage = 37.80). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of acculturation on psychological adjustment and parenting. Bootstrapping technique was used to explore the conditional indirect effects of acculturation on parenting as appropriate. American orientation was strongly associated with positive psychological well-being, which was in turn related to more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. Moreover, American and Chinese orientations interacted to predict depressive symptoms, which were in turn associated with more authoritarian parenting. Specifically, American orientation was negatively associated with depressive symptoms only at mean or high levels of Chinese orientation. Results suggest acculturation as a distal contextual factor and psychological adjustment as 1 critical mechanism that transmits effects of acculturation to parenting. Promoting immigrant parents' ability and comfort in the new culture independently or in conjunction with encouraging biculturalism through policy intervention efforts appear crucial for the positive adjustment of Chinese immigrant parents and children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Improving mood with psychoanalytic and cognitive therapies (IMPACT: a pragmatic effectiveness superiority trial to investigate whether specialised psychological treatment reduces the risk for relapse in adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suckling John

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 70% of adolescents with moderate to severe unipolar major depression respond to psychological treatment plus Fluoxetine (20-50 mg with symptom reduction and improved social function reported by 24 weeks after beginning treatment. Around 20% of non responders appear treatment resistant and 30% of responders relapse within 2 years. The specific efficacy of different psychological therapies and the moderators and mediators that influence risk for relapse are unclear. The cost-effectiveness and safety of psychological treatments remain poorly evaluated. Methods/Design Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies, the IMPACT Study, will determine whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or Short Term Psychoanalytic Therapy is superior in reducing relapse compared with Specialist Clinical Care. The study is a multicentre pragmatic effectiveness superiority randomised clinical trial: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy consists of 20 sessions over 30 weeks, Short Term Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy 30 sessions over 30 weeks and Specialist Clinical Care 12 sessions over 20 weeks. We will recruit 540 patients with 180 randomised to each arm. Patients will be reassessed at 6, 12, 36, 52 and 86 weeks. Methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment, explicit inclusion criteria, reliability checks of assessments with control for rater shift, research assessors independent of treatment team and blind to randomization, analysis by intention to treat, data management using remote data entry, measures of quality assurance, advanced statistical analysis, manualised treatment protocols, checks of adherence and competence of therapists and assessment of cost-effectiveness. We will also determine whether time to recovery and/or relapse are moderated by variations in brain structure and function and selected genetic and hormone biomarkers taken at entry. Discussion The objective of this clinical trial is to determine

  1. Delayed mood transitions in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, Jakob

    The hypothesis defended here is that the process of mood-normalizing transitions fails in a significant proportion of patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Such a failure is largely unrelated to the psychological content. Evidence for the hypothesis is provided by the highly variable

  2. The influence of music on mood and performance while driving

    OpenAIRE

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein D.; Dijksterhuis, Chris; de Waard, Dick; Mulder, Ben L. J. M.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; Brookhuis, Karel A.

    2012-01-01

    Mood can influence our everyday behaviour and people often seek to reinforce, or to alter their mood, for example by turning on music. Music listening while driving is a popular activity. However, little is known about the impact of music listening while driving on physiological state and driving performance. In the present experiment, it was investigated whether individually selected music can induce mood and maintain moods during a simulated drive. In addition, effects of positive, negative...

  3. [Correlation between psychological state and emotional intelligence in residents of gynecology, and obstetrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Lira, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is our capacity to acknowledge our own emotions, and the emotions of other people; it also has to do with the way emotions must be understood, and used productively. Given that an altered state of mind can have an impact on emotional intelligence, our objective was to correlate the psychological state with emotional intelligence in residents of gynecology, and obstetrics. We assessed 76 gynecology and obstetrics residents by using What's my M3 and TMMS-24 instruments, in order to know the influence of psychological state on emotional intelligence. In male students of second grade, there was a positive correlation between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and emotional attention (EA), and a negative correlation with emotional clarity (EC). In third grade males, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) correlated positively with EA. In male students of fourth grade there was a positive correlation between OCD and EA. In second grade female students, depression correlated negatively with emotional repair (ER). In third grade female students anxiety, bipolar disorder, and PTSD correlated positively with EA. In fourth grade female students there was a negative correlation between depression and EA, and between anxiety, OCD, and PTSD with EC. Psychological status has a favorable impact on EA and a negative effect on EC and ER.

  4. Influence of 2-Weeks Ingestion of High Chlorogenic Acid Coffee on Mood State, Performance, and Postexercise Inflammation and Oxidative Stress: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C; Goodman, Courtney L; Capps, Christopher R; Shue, Zack L; Arnot, Robert

    2018-01-01

    This study measured the influence of 2-weeks ingestion of high chlorogenic acid (CQA) coffee on postexercise inflammation and oxidative stress, with secondary outcomes including performance and mood state. Cyclists (N = 15) were randomized to CQA coffee or placebo (300 ml/day) for 2 weeks, participated in a 50-km cycling time trial, and then crossed over to the opposite condition with a 2-week washout period. Blood samples were collected pre- and postsupplementation, and immediately postexercise. CQA coffee was prepared using the Turkish method with 30 g lightly roasted, highly ground Hambela coffee beans in 300 ml boiling water, and provided 1,066 mg CQA and 474 mg caffeine versus 187 mg CQA and 33 mg caffeine for placebo. Plasma caffeine was higher with CQA coffee versus placebo after 2-weeks (3.3-fold) and postexercise (21.0-fold) (interaction effect, p coffee versus placebo (p = .01). No differences between CQA coffee and placebo were found for postexercise increases in plasma IL-6 (p = .74) and hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (9 + 13 HODEs) (p = .99). Total mood disturbance (TMD) scores were lower with CQA coffee versus placebo (p = .04). 50-km cycling time performance and power did not differ between trials, with heart rate and ventilation higher with CQA coffee, especially after 30 min. In summary, despite more favorable TMD scores with CQA coffee, these data do not support the chronic use of coffee highly concentrated with chlorogenic acids and caffeine in mitigating postexercise inflammation or oxidative stress or improving 50-km cycling performance.

  5. Crisis states of Helpline subscribers: issues of diagnosis and psychological care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Bannikov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of calls to the Helpline from people who are in crisis state, often with suicidal tendencies, has increased significantly. It is therefore particularly important that a helpline counselor had instant recognition skills of crisis state and the ability to quickly build a strategy for crisis counseling. The study described in the article was focused on crisis state structure of helpline subscribers using developed “Crisis state maps”. The subject of the study was the critical state of the individual subscribers seeking psychological help. We tested the assumption that the strategies and methods of psychological assistance are directly related to the features of crisis. We studied crisis state in 70 subscribers. Of these, 59 were females (12 to 66 years old and 11 males (11 to 40 years old. The average age of women was 34,5 years, of men – 23,4 years. The overall average age was 28,65 years. The study result was the portrait of typical helpline subscriber personality. We show the possible strategies of counseling

  6. [Modern state and prospects of development of medical-and-psychological support of military servicemen of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupov, V V; Ovchinnikov, B V; Korzunin, V A; Nagibovich, O A; Goncharenko, A Yu; Porozhnikov, P A

    2016-01-01

    The authors analysed state and prospects of medical-and-psychological support of military servicemen, which is supposed to consider as a complex of measures aimed at monitoring of professional psychological health, professional-and-psychological expertise, psychophysiological and pharmacological, correction, and medical-and-psychological rehabilitation. Organisation and maintaince of the above mentioned measures should be carried out by specialists of medical--and-psychological support groups and medical-and-psychological correction.

  7. The influence of mood on the processing of syntactic anomalies: Evidence from P600

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, C.T.W.M.; Virgillito, D.; Fitzgerald, D.A.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Tendolkar, I.; Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Chwilla, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    In several domains of psychology it has been shown that mood influences the way in which we process information. So far, little is known about the relation between mood and processes of language comprehension. In the present study we explore, whether, and if so how, mood affects the processing of

  8. The influence of mood on the processing of syntactic anomalies: Evidence from P600

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, C.T.W.M.; Virgillito, D.; Fitzgerald, D.A.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Tendolkar, I.; Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Chwilla, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    In several domains of psychology It has been shown that mood influences the way in which we process information So far little is known about the relation between mood and processes of language comprehension In the present study we explore whether and if so how mood affects the processing of

  9. Music therapy for mood disturbance during hospitalization for autologous stem cell transplantation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassileth, Barrie R; Vickers, Andrew J; Magill, Lucanne A

    2003-12-15

    High-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT) is a commonly used treatment for hematologic malignancies. The procedure causes significant psychological distress and no interventions have been demonstrated to improve mood in these patients. Music therapy has been shown to improve anxiety in a variety of acute medical settings. In the current study, the authors determined the effects of music therapy compared with standard care on mood during inpatient stays for HDT/ASCT. Patients with hematologic malignancy admitted for HDT/ASCT at two sites (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Ireland Cancer Center in Cleveland, Ohio) were randomized to receive music therapy given by trained music therapists or standard care. Outcome was assessed at baseline and every 3 days after randomization using the Profile of Mood States. Of 69 patients registered in the study, follow-up data were available for 62 (90%). During their inpatient stay, patients in the music therapy group scored 28% lower on the combined Anxiety/Depression scale (P = 0.065) and 37% lower (P = 0.01) on the total mood disturbance score compared with controls. Music therapy is a noninvasive and inexpensive intervention that appears to reduce mood disturbance in patients undergoing HDT/ASCT. Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.

  10. Effects of aerobic exercise on the moods in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Baena Extremera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this descriptive study is to evaluate the degree of influence that the practice of aerobic physical activity exerts on the psychological well-being, the mental health and its repercussion in the moods. A sample formed by 63 participant women of the program of Physical Activity for elderly people has been used of the province of Malaga, with ages between the 60 and 79 years and that belongs to three inferior populations to 3,000 inhabitants, in a denominated region «Sierra de las Nieves». The participants complimented a sociodemografic questionnaire standardized and Profile of Moods States, POMS, in group a reduced version of 30 items in four factors: tension (8 ítems, vigor (8 ítems, fatigue (7 ítems and friendship (7 ítems. The results obtained show that the four evaluated moods are not associate with the variables age and practice for physical reasons, whereas if the antiquity of practice of physical activity with the vigor and the variable disease is associate with the tension

  11. Social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers. Risk factors for negative changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzunov, V O; Loganovsky, K N; Krasnikova, L I; Bomko, M O; Belyaev, Yu M; Yaroshenko, Zh S; Domashevska, T Ye

    2016-12-01

    It is generally recognized that the Chornobyl nuclear accident caused strong psychosocial stress affecting the entire population of Ukraine, primarily people involved in recovery operations. But what are the reasons? What is the struc ture of stressors? What are their social, medical and biological consequences, what are strategy and preventive meas ures? Issues that require special research and development. To study social and psychological state of the Chornobyl cleanup workers 1986-1987, and to determine regularities of changes and dangerous risk factors. On the basis of Polyclinic of Radiation Registry, NRCRM, we conducted sample epidemiolog ical study of social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers 1986-1987. We used method of inter viewing based on «questionnaire», specially developed for this purpose. The study was conducted in October 2013 - May 2015. The sample numbered 235 males aged 18-50 at the time of the accident. Their average age was (31.3 ± 5.3) years at the time of the accident and (58.9 ± 5.3) at the time of survey. The results revealed that the Chornobyl nuclear accident and its consequences caused strong social and psychological stress among clean up workers 1986-1987. We have identified a set of factors closely related to the Chornobyl accident, they have caused a sustainable development of mental syndrome - «Anxiety about their own health and the health of family members, especially children». The other set of stressors which are not closely relat ed to the Chornobyl accident but are the result of the social and economic, social and political situation in the coun try. However the former was found to be the cause of such a psychological state as «dissatisfaction with the com pleteness and quality of life». Social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers 1986-1987 is estimated as «poor» and it integrally can be characterized as a state of chronic psychosocial stress. Mental syndrome

  12. Oral perceptions of fat and taste stimuli are modulated by affect and mood induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Platte

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of three clinical psychological variables (non-pathological levels of depression and anxiety, as well as experimentally manipulated mood on fat and taste perception in healthy subjects. After a baseline orosensory evaluation, 'sad', 'happy' and 'neutral' video clips were presented to induce corresponding moods in eighty participants. Following mood manipulation, subjects rated five different oral stimuli, appearing sweet, umami, sour, bitter, fatty, which were delivered at five different concentrations each. Depression levels were assessed with Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI and anxiety levels were assessed via the Spielberger's STAI-trait and state questionnaire. Overall, subjects were able to track the concentrations of the stimuli correctly, yet depression level affected taste ratings. First, depression scores were positively correlated with sucrose ratings. Second, subjects with depression scores above the sample median rated sucrose and quinine as more intense after mood induction (positive, negative and neutral. Third and most important, the group with enhanced depression scores did not rate low and high fat stimuli differently after positive or negative mood induction, whereas, during baseline or during the non-emotional neutral condition they rated the fat intensity as increasing with concentration. Consistent with others' prior observations we also found that sweet and bitter stimuli at baseline were rated as more intense by participants with higher anxiety scores and that after positive and negative mood induction, citric acid was rated as stronger tasting compared to baseline. The observation that subjects with mild subclinical depression rated low and high fat stimuli similarly when in positive or negative mood is novel and likely has potential implications for unhealthy eating patterns. This deficit may foster unconscious eating of fatty foods in sub-clinical mildly depressed populations.

  13. Oral perceptions of fat and taste stimuli are modulated by affect and mood induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platte, Petra; Herbert, Cornelia; Pauli, Paul; Breslin, Paul A S

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of three clinical psychological variables (non-pathological levels of depression and anxiety, as well as experimentally manipulated mood) on fat and taste perception in healthy subjects. After a baseline orosensory evaluation, 'sad', 'happy' and 'neutral' video clips were presented to induce corresponding moods in eighty participants. Following mood manipulation, subjects rated five different oral stimuli, appearing sweet, umami, sour, bitter, fatty, which were delivered at five different concentrations each. Depression levels were assessed with Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) and anxiety levels were assessed via the Spielberger's STAI-trait and state questionnaire. Overall, subjects were able to track the concentrations of the stimuli correctly, yet depression level affected taste ratings. First, depression scores were positively correlated with sucrose ratings. Second, subjects with depression scores above the sample median rated sucrose and quinine as more intense after mood induction (positive, negative and neutral). Third and most important, the group with enhanced depression scores did not rate low and high fat stimuli differently after positive or negative mood induction, whereas, during baseline or during the non-emotional neutral condition they rated the fat intensity as increasing with concentration. Consistent with others' prior observations we also found that sweet and bitter stimuli at baseline were rated as more intense by participants with higher anxiety scores and that after positive and negative mood induction, citric acid was rated as stronger tasting compared to baseline. The observation that subjects with mild subclinical depression rated low and high fat stimuli similarly when in positive or negative mood is novel and likely has potential implications for unhealthy eating patterns. This deficit may foster unconscious eating of fatty foods in sub-clinical mildly depressed populations.

  14. Death and dying course offerings in psychology: a survey of nine Midwestern states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerd, Lizabeth M

    2009-09-01

    The certainty of facing death and bereavement and the complex personal and societal issues involved argue for the importance of death education. The current study addresses a gap in knowledge by beginning to assess the extent of dying, death, and bereavement (DD&B) course offerings by U.S. psychology departments. This article reports on data collected from an initial survey of psychology departments in nine Midwestern states. Approximately 20% of respondents have offered a DD&B course in the last 5 years. Reasons for lack of DD&B courses include faculty and curriculum issues, as well as DD&B topics being covered elsewhere. These issues are discussed, and data are compared with DD&B course coverage in health-related fields.

  15. Guidelines for Cognitive Behavioral Training within Doctoral Psychology Programs in the United States: Report of the Inter-Organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K.; Ronan, George F.; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D.; Belar, Cynthia D.; Berry, Sharon L.; Christofff, Karen A.; Craighead, Linda W.; Dougher, Michael J.; Dowd, E. Thomas; Herbert, James D.; McFarr, Lynn M.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Sauer, Eric M.; Strauman, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a yearlong series of…

  16. Effects of ground trainer use on the psychological and physiological states of students in private pilot training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    Student pilots receiving all instruction in an aircraft and student pilots who received a portion of their flight training in a ground trainer were compared in terms of flying proficiency, psychological (anxiety) states during training, and certain p...

  17. Acute effectiveness of a "fat-loss" product on substrate utilization, perception of hunger, mood state and rate of perceived exertion at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Seijo, Marcos; Larumbe, Eneko; Naclerio, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Achieving fat-loss outcomes by ingesting multi-ingredient mixtures may be further enhanced during exercise. This study tested the acute thermogenic effectiveness of a commercially available multi-ingredient product (Shred-Matrix®), containing Green Tea Extract, Yerba Maté, Guarana Seed Extract, Anhydrous caffeine, Saw palmetto, Fo-Ti, Eleuthero root, Cayenne Pepper, and Yohimbine HCI, on fatty acid oxidation (FAO), perception of hunger, mood state and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) at rest and during 30 min of submaximal exercise. Following institutional ethical approval, twelve healthy recreationally active participants, five females and seven males, were randomized to perform two separate experimental ergometry cycling trials, and to ingest 1.5 g (3 × capsules) of either a multi-ingredient supplement (SHRED) or placebo (PL). Participants rested for 3 h, before performing a 30-min cycling exercise corresponding to their individually-determined intensity based on their maximal fat oxidation (Fatmax). Fatty acid oxidation (FAO) was determined at rest, 3 h before exercise (Pre1), immediately before exercise (Pre2) and during exercise (Post), using expired gasses and indirect calorimetry. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured every 3 min during the 30-min exercise. Additionally both mood state and perception of hunger were assessed at Pre1, Pre2 and Post exercise. A repeated measures ANOVA design and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to analyze potential differences between times and treatment conditions. FAO increased in SHRED from Pre1 to Pre2 [0.56 ± 0.26 to 0.96 ± 0.37, (p = 0.003, d =1.34)] but not in PL [0.67 ± 0.25 to 0.74 ± 0.19, (p = 0.334) d = 0.49], with no differences were found between conditions (p = 0.12, d = 0.49). However, Cohen's d = 0.77 revealed moderate effect size in favor of SHRED from Pre to Post exercise. RPE values were lower in SHRED compared to Pl (phunger were not different between conditions, with no interaction effects

  18. The power of extraverts: testing positive and negative mood regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Hervas

    Full Text Available Extraversion is a personality trait which has been systematically related to positive affect and well-being. One of the mechanisms that may account for these positive outcomes is the ability to regulate the responses to positive, as well as negative, moods. Prior research has found that extraverts' higher positive mood maintenance could explain their higher levels of positive affect. However, research exploring differences between extraverts and introverts in negative mood regulation has yielded mixed results. The aim of the current study was explore the role of different facets of mood regulation displayed by extraverts, ambiverts, and introverts. After been exposed to a sad vs. happy mood induction, participants underwent a mood regulation task. Extraverts and ambiverts exhibited higher positive mood regulation than introverts, but similar mood repair. Thus, this research highlights the importance of positive mood regulation in the psychological functioning of extraverts, and opens new conceptualizations for developing interventions for introverts to improve their positive mood regulation and, hence, overall positive affect and well-being.

  19. Understanding the Relationship between Mood and Creativity: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 62 experimental and 10 non-experimental studies was conducted to evaluate the positive-mood-enhances-creativity generalization. While the results demonstrate that positive mood enhances creativity, the strength of that effect is contingent upon the comparative or referent mood state (i.e., neutral or negative mood) as well as…

  20. Changeability of mood

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstätter, Hermann

    1994-01-01

    Time sampling of emotional experience, several times a day over a period of several weeks (Brandstätter. 1977; Csikszentmihalyi, Larsen & Prescott, 1977; Diener, 1984), provides data which can be analyzed from many different perspectives. This paper focusses on the changeability of mood as a personality characteristic. Everybody would agree that mood changes all the time and that people differ in the frequency of mood changes. This intuitive idea was supported by a number of studies (for e...

  1. Mood dysregulation and stabilization: perspectives from emotional cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Shigeto; Okada, Go; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Liberzon, Israel

    2012-06-01

    Mood is conceptualized as a long-lasting emotional state, which can have profound implications for mental and physical health. The development of neuroimaging methods has enabled significant advances towards elucidating the mechanisms underlying regulation of mood and emotion; however, our understanding of mood and emotion dysregulation in stress-related psychiatric disorders is still largely lacking. From the cognitive-affective neuroscience perspective, achieving deeper, more mechanistic understanding of mood disorders necessitates detailed understanding of specific components of neural systems involved in mood dysregulation and stabilization. In this review, we provide an overview of neural systems implicated in the development of a long-term negative mood state, as well as those related to emotion and emotion regulation, and discuss their proposed involvement in mood and anxiety disorders.

  2. Suicidal Behaviour in Mood Disorders—Who, When, and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isometsä, Erkki

    2014-01-01

    Objective: About one-half to two-thirds of all suicides are by people who suffer from mood disorders; preventing suicides among those who suffer from them is thus central for suicide prevention. Understanding factors underlying suicide risk is necessary for rational preventive decisions. Method: The literature on risk factors for completed and attempted suicide among subjects with depressive and bipolar disorders (BDs) was reviewed. Results: Lifetime risk of completed suicide among psychiatric patients with mood disorders is likely between 5% and 6%, with BDs, and possibly somewhat higher risk than patients with major depressive disorder. Longitudinal and psychological autopsy studies indicate suicidal acts usually take place during major depressive episodes (MDEs) or mixed illness episodes. Incidence of suicide attempts is about 20- to 40-fold, compared with euthymia, during these episodes, and duration of these high-risk states is therefore an important determinant of overall risk. Substance use and cluster B personality disorders also markedly increase risk of suicidal acts during mood episodes. Other major risk factors include hopelessness and presence of impulsive–aggressive traits. Both childhood adversity and recent adverse life events are likely to increase risk of suicide attempts, and suicidal acts are predicted by poor perceived social support. Understanding suicidal thinking and decision making is necessary for advancing treatment and prevention. Conclusion: Among subjects with mood disorders, suicidal acts usually occur during MDEs or mixed episodes concurrent with comorbid disorders. Nevertheless, illness factors can only in part explain suicidal behaviour. Illness factors, difficulty controlling impulsive and aggressive responses, plus predisposing early exposures and life situations result in a process of suicidal thinking, planning, and acts. PMID:24881160

  3. Effects of a Yoga Program on Mood States, Quality of Life, and Toxicity in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Conventional Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Raghavendra Mohan; Raghuram, Nagaratna; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao; Kodaganur, Gopinath S; Bilimagga, Ramesh S; Shashidhara, H P; Diwakar, Ravi B; Patil, Shekhar; Rao, Nalini

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effects of yoga program with supportive therapy counseling on mood states, treatment-related symptoms, toxicity, and quality of life in Stage II and III breast cancer patients on conventional treatment. Ninety-eight Stage II and III breast cancer patients underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) or chemotherapy (CT) or both at a cancer center were randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 45) and supportive therapy counseling (n = 53) over a 24-week period. Intervention consisted of 60-min yoga sessions, daily while the control group was imparted supportive therapy during their hospital visits. Assessments included state-trait anxiety inventory, Beck's depression inventory, symptom checklist, common toxicity criteria, and functional living index-cancer. Assessments were done at baseline, after surgery, before, during, and after RT and six cycles of CT. Both groups had similar baseline scores. There were 29 dropouts 12 (yoga) and 17 (controls) following surgery. Sixty-nine participants contributed data to the current analysis (33 in yoga, and 36 in controls). An ANCOVA, adjusting for baseline differences, showed a significant decrease for the yoga intervention as compared to the control group during RT (first result) and CT (second result), in (i) anxiety state by 4.72 and 7.7 points, (ii) depression by 5.74 and 7.25 points, (iii) treatment-related symptoms by 2.34 and 2.97 points, (iv) severity of symptoms by 6.43 and 8.83 points, (v) distress by 7.19 and 13.11 points, and (vi) and improved overall quality of life by 23.9 and 31.2 points as compared to controls. Toxicity was significantly less in the yoga group (P = 0.01) during CT. The results suggest a possible use for yoga as a psychotherapeutic intervention in breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment.

  4. Effects of a yoga program on mood states, quality of life, and toxicity in breast cancer patients receiving conventional treatment: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Mohan Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the effects of yoga program with supportive therapy counseling on mood states, treatment-related symptoms, toxicity, and quality of life in Stage II and III breast cancer patients on conventional treatment. Methods: Ninety-eight Stage II and III breast cancer patients underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT or chemotherapy (CT or both at a cancer center were randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 45 and supportive therapy counseling (n = 53 over a 24-week period. Intervention consisted of 60-min yoga sessions, daily while the control group was imparted supportive therapy during their hospital visits. Assessments included state-trait anxiety inventory, Beck's depression inventory, symptom checklist, common toxicity criteria, and functional living index-cancer. Assessments were done at baseline, after surgery, before, during, and after RT and six cycles of CT. Results: Both groups had similar baseline scores. There were 29 dropouts 12 (yoga and 17 (controls following surgery. Sixty-nine participants contributed data to the current analysis (33 in yoga, and 36 in controls. An ANCOVA, adjusting for baseline differences, showed a significant decrease for the yoga intervention as compared to the control group during RT ( first result and CT (second result, in (i anxiety state by 4.72 and 7.7 points, (ii depression by 5.74 and 7.25 points, (iii treatment-related symptoms by 2.34 and 2.97 points, (iv severity of symptoms by 6.43 and 8.83 points, (v distress by 7.19 and 13.11 points, and (vi and improved overall quality of life by 23.9 and 31.2 points as compared to controls. Toxicity was significantly less in the yoga group (P = 0.01 during CT. Conclusion: The results suggest a possible use for yoga as a psychotherapeutic intervention in breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment.

  5. Palliative Care Gaps in Providing Psychological Treatment: A Review of the Current State of Research in Multidisciplinary Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Elissa; Niknejad, Bahar; Reid, M C

    2018-03-01

    Patients with advanced illness often have high rates of psychological symptoms. Many multicomponent palliative care intervention studies have investigated the efficacy of overall symptom reduction; however, little research has focused explicitly on how interventions address psychological symptoms associated with serious illness. The current study reviewed 59 multicomponent palliative care intervention articles and analyzed the mental health components of palliative care interventions and their outcomes in order to better understand the current state of psychological care in palliative care. The majority of articles (69.5%) did not provide any details regarding the psychological component delivered as part of the palliative care intervention. Most (54.2%) studies did not specify which provider on the team was responsible for providing the psychological intervention. Studies varied regarding the type of outcome measure utilized; multi-symptom assessment scales were used in 54.2% of studies, mental health scales were employed in 25.4%, quality of life and distress scales were used in 16.9%, and no psychological scales were reported in 28.8%. Fewer than half the studies (42.4%) documented a change in a psychological outcome. The majority of analyzed studies failed to describe how psychological symptoms were identified and treated, which discipline on the team provided the treatment, and whether psychological symptoms improved as a result of the intervention. Future research evaluating the effects of palliative care interventions on psychological symptoms will benefit from using reliable and valid psychological outcome measures and providing specificity regarding the psychological components of the intervention and who provides it.

  6. Metaphysics of the tea ceremony: a randomized trial investigating the roles of intention and belief on mood while drinking tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Radin, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether drinking tea "treated" with good intentions would enhance mood more than drinking ordinary tea, under double-blind, randomized conditions. Each evening, for seven days in a row, volunteers recorded their mood using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. On days three, four, and five of the test, each participant drank 600 mL of oolong tea in the morning and again in the afternoon. One randomly assigned group blindly received tea that had been intentionally treated by three Buddhist monks; the other group blindly received untreated tea from the same source. On the last day of the test, each person indicated what type of tea he/she believed he/she had been drinking. Stratified, random sampling was used to assign 189 adults into two groups matched by age, gender, the psychological trait of neuroticism, and the amount of tea consumed on average per day. All participants were Taiwanese and lived in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, and the test was conducted over the course of one week to reduce mood fluctuations due to changes in local weather and other common influences. Those who drank treated tea showed a greater increase in mood than those who drank untreated tea (Cohen's d = 0.65, P = .02, two-tailed). Change in mood in those who believed that they were drinking treated tea was much better than those who did not believe (Cohen's d = 1.45, P = .00002, two-tailed). Tea treated with good intentions improved mood more than ordinary tea derived from the same source. Belief that one was drinking treated tea produced a large improvement in mood, but only if one was actually drinking the treated tea, indicating that belief and intentional enhancement interact. This also suggests that the esthetic and intentional qualities associated with the traditional tea ceremony may have subtle influences that extend beyond the ritual itself. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural Basis of Psychological Growth following Adverse Experiences: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi X Fujisawa

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, research on the aftereffects of stressful or traumatic events has emphasized the negative outcomes from these experiences. However, the positive outcomes deriving from adversity are increasingly being examined, and such positive changes are described as posttraumatic growth (PTG. To investigate the relationship between basal whole-brain functional connectivity and PTG, we employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and analyzed the neural networks using independent component analysis in a sample of 33 healthy controls. Correlations were calculated between the network connectivity strength and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI score. There were positive associations between the PTGI scores and brain activation in the rostral prefrontal cortex and superior parietal lobule (SPL within the left central executive network (CEN (respectively, r = 0.41, p < 0.001; r = 0.49, p < 0.001. Individuals with higher psychological growth following adverse experiences had stronger activation in prospective or working memory areas within the executive function network than did individuals with lower psychological growth (r = 0.40, p < 0.001. Moreover, we found that individuals with higher PTG demonstrated stronger connectivity between the SPL and supramarginal gyrus (SMG. The SMG is one of the brain regions associated with the ability to reason about the mental states of others, otherwise known as mentalizing. These findings suggest that individuals with higher psychological growth may have stronger functional connectivity between memory functions within the CEN and social functioning in the SMG, and that their better sociality may result from using more memory for mentalizing during their daily social interactions.

  8. The professionalization of psychology within the apartheid state 1948-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenson, Helen; Swartz, Sally

    2011-08-01

    When the National Party came to power in South Africa in 1948 it inherited an ageing colonial psychiatric system underpinned by British-based mental health legislation promulgated in 1916. This situation remained substantially unchanged until the late 1960s, despite the apartheid government's far-reaching attempts to restructure other aspects of the social landscape. The 1966 assassination of South Africa's prime minister by a schizophrenic parliamentary messenger led directly to a series of commissions of enquiry into the management of mental health services, followed by new mental health legislation in 1973 and the compulsory registration of clinical psychologists. The increasing professionalization of psychology, and the apartheid state's policy in relation to the profession, are considered in the light of local and international influences. Unlike the Nazi and Soviet governments, the apartheid state did not seek to create a new psychology and psychiatry in its own image but was instead motivated by a desire to emulate Western models and to identify and control the dangerous individual.

  9. There is an app for that! The current state of mobile applications (apps) for DSM-5 obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ameringen, Michael; Turna, Jasmine; Khalesi, Zahra; Pullia, Katrina; Patterson, Beth

    2017-06-01

    Mental health apps are viewed as a promising modality to extend the reach of mental health care beyond the clinic. They do so by providing a means of assessment, tracking, and treatment through a smartphone. Given that nearly 2/3 of the American population owns a smartphone, mental health apps offer the possibility of overcoming treatment barriers such as geographic location or financial barriers. Unfortunately, the excitement surrounding mental health apps may be premature as the current supporting literature regarding their efficacy is limited. The app marketplace is littered with apps claiming to treat or assess symptoms, but even those created by reputable organizations or those incorporating components of evidence-based treatments have not yet been validated in terms of their efficacy. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of the current state of the mental health app literature by examining published reports of apps designed for DSM-5 anxiety and mood disorders, OCD, and PTSD. The breadth of apps reviewed includes those oriented around assessment, symptom tracking, and treatment as well as "multipurpose" apps, which incorporate several of these components. This review will also present some of the most popular mental health apps which may have clinical utility and could be prescribed to clients. While we discuss many potential benefits of mental health apps, we focus on a number of issues that the current state of the app literature presents. Overall there is a significant disconnect between app developers, the scientific community and health care, leaving the utility of existing apps questionable. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Colour fluctuations in grapheme-colour synaesthesia: The effect of clinical and non-clinical mood changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Collette L; Carmichael, Duncan A; Ruffell, Henry E; Simner, Julia

    2015-08-01

    Synaesthesia is a condition that gives rise to unusual secondary sensations (e.g., colours are perceived when listening to music). These unusual sensations tend to be reported as being stable throughout adulthood (e.g., Simner & Logie, 2007, Neurocase, 13, 358) and the consistency of these experiences over time is taken as the behavioural hallmark of genuineness. Our study looked at the influence of mood states on synaesthetic colours. In Experiment 1, we recruited grapheme-colour synaesthetes (who experience colours from letters/digits) and elicited their synaesthetic colours, as well as their mood and depression states, in two different testing sessions. In each session, participants completed the PANAS-X (Watson & Clark, 1999) and the BDI-II (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996, Manual for Beck Depression Inventory-II), and chose their synaesthetic colours for letters A-Z from an interactive colour palette. We found that negative mood significantly decreased the luminance of synaesthetic colours. In Experiment 2, we showed that synaesthetic colours were also less luminant for synaesthetes with anxiety disorder, versus those without. Additional evidence suggests that colour saturation, too, may inversely correlate with depressive symptoms. These results show that fluctuations in mood within both a normal and clinical range influence synaesthetic colours over time. This has implications for our understanding about the longitudinal stability of synaesthetic experiences, and of how mood may interact with the visual (imagery) systems. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Introducing Mood Swings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; van den Broek, Egon; Markopoulos, P.; Hoonhout, J.; Soute, I.; Read, J.

    2008-01-01

    Mood Swings is introduced: an affective interactive art installation that interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Founded on the integration of a color model and a framework for affective movements, Mood Swings recognizes affective movement characteristics, processes these, and

  12. Long-term effects of a very low-carbohydrate diet and a low-fat diet on mood and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Grant D; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M; Wilson, Carlene J

    2009-11-09

    Very low-carbohydrate (LC) diets are often used to promote weight loss, but the long-term effects on psychological function remain unknown. A total of 106 overweight and obese participants (mean [SE] age, 50.0 [0.8] years; mean [SE] body mass index [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared], 33.7 [0.4]) were randomly assigned either to an energy-restricted (approximately 1433-1672 kcal [to convert to kilojoules, multiply by 4.186]), planned isocaloric, very low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC) diet or to a high-carbohydrate, low-fat (LF) diet for 1 year. Changes in body weight, psychological mood and well-being (Profile of Mood States, Beck Depression Inventory, and Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory scores), and cognitive functioning (working memory and speed of processing) were assessed. By 1 year, the overall mean (SE) weight loss was 13.7 (1.8) kg, with no significant difference between groups (P = .26). Over the course of the study, there were significant time x diet interactions for Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Profile of Mood States scores for total mood disturbance, anger-hostility, confusion-bewilderment, and depression-dejection (P mood states for the LF diet compared with the LC diet. Working memory improved by 1 year (P mood state and affect in overweight and obese individuals. Both diets had similar effects on working memory and speed of processing. Trial Registration anzctr.org.au Identifier: 12606000203550.

  13. Ups and downs in mood and energy: Associations with academic outcomes in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Bullock

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in mood and energy may affect academic outcomes in higher education. With little previous research investigating this relationship it is not known whether mood and energy traits help or hinder academic performance. The current study addresses this gap in the literature by investigating ups (high mood and energy and downs (low mood and energy in a small sample of University students in their first year of a psychology degree. The results suggest that low mood and energy traits may be detrimental to academic performance. High mood and energy traits however, were not associated with academic performance. Implications of the findings, in particular those regarding low mood and energy, are that, unlike the trait itself, the behaviours associated with the trait (e.g., procrastination, distraction, low motivation are amenable to change through psychological interventions. Several of these interventions are discussed. 

  14. Mechanisms involved in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govia, Ishtar O.

    The mental health of ethnic minorities in the United States is of urgent concern. The accelerated growth of groups of ethnic minorities and immigrants in the United States and the stressors to which they are exposed, implores academic researchers to investigate more deeply health disparities and the factors that exacerbate or minimize such inequalities. This dissertation attended to that concern. It used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), the first survey with a national representative sample of Black Caribbeans, to explore mechanisms that involved in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans in the United States. In a series of three studies, the dissertation investigated the role and consequence of (1) chronic discrimination, immigration factors, and closeness to ethnic and racial groups; (2) personal control and social support; and (3) family relations and social roles in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans. Study 1 examined how the associations between discrimination and psychological distress were buffered or exacerbated by closeness to ethnic group and closeness to racial group. It also examined how these associations differed depending on immigration factors. Results indicated that the buffering or exacerbating effect of ethnic and racial group closeness varied according to the type of discrimination (subtle or severe) and were more pronounced among those born in the United States. Using the stress process framework, Study 2 tested moderation and mediation models of the effects of social support and personal control in the association between discrimination and distress. Results from a series of analyses on 579 respondents suggested that personal control served as a mediator in this relationship and that emotional support exerted a direct distress deterring function. Study 3 investigated sex differences in the associations between social roles, intergenerational family relationship perceptions and distress. Results

  15. Progression of nicotine dependence, mood level, and mood variability in adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Thomas M; Hedeker, Donald; Dierker, Lisa C; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-06-01

    Mood processes are theorized to play a role in the initiation and progression of smoking behavior. Available work using real-time assessments in samples of young smokers, including several reports from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns (SECASP) study, has indicated that smoking events acutely improve mood and that escalating smoking frequency may stabilize mood. However, prior analyses have not specifically evaluated within-person change in nicotine dependence, which is conceptually distinguishable from frequent smoking and may be associated with unique mood consequences. The current investigation addressed this question using data from 329 adolescent SECASP participants (9th or 10th grade at recruitment) who contributed mood reports via ecological momentary assessment in up to four 1-week bursts over the course of 24 months. Mixed-effects location scale analyses revealed that within-person increases in scores on the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale were associated with elevations in negative mood level and increased variability of both positive and negative moods. These effects remained when within-person changes in smoking frequency were covaried and were not fully attributable to a subgroup of youth who rapidly escalated their smoking frequency over time. The findings indicate that adolescents tend to show increasing levels of positive mood states, decreasing levels of negative mood, and diminishing mood variability between ages 16 to 18, but progression of nicotine dependence may counteract some of these developmental gains. Emergence of withdrawal symptoms is a likely explanation for the adverse mood effects associated with dependence progression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  17. Objective measurement of mood change induced by contemporary music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J L; Noon, J

    1998-10-01

    A myriad of previous studies from a variety of disciplines has shown several effects of music on mind and body. This study investigated the relationship between different categories of contemporary music (n = 6) and the mood states of a group of students (n = 12), using the Profile of Mood States (POMS), to measure mood before and after exposure to these different pieces of music. When analysed together, all six pieces of music produced an overall change in mood (P = 0.008) as measured by 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). When each category was examined individually, four categories of music produced highly significant changes in mood: the tense category (score -4.0 +/- 1.8 POMS Units; P music produced changes in all mood categories, giving the largest positive mean mood change. By contrast, the popular/independent music, associated with the tense category, produced the largest negative mean mood change. The five POMS mood states were analysed separately for each piece of music. These findings are consistent with previous work. In addition, the finding of the effects of specific music categories on mood may have important implications for therapy in mental health and mental health nursing.

  18. Visual analog rating of mood by people with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Katarina L; Womack, Jennifer L; Harmon, Tyson G; Williams, Sharon W

    2015-08-01

    Considerable attention has been given to the identification of depression in stroke survivors with aphasia, but there is more limited information about other mood states. Visual analog scales are often used to collect subjective information from people with aphasia. However, the validity of these methods for communicating about mood has not been established in people with moderately to severely impaired language. The dual purposes of this study were to characterize the relative endorsement of negative and positive mood states in people with chronic aphasia after stroke and to examine congruent validity for visual analog rating methods for people with a range of aphasia severity. Twenty-three left-hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia were asked to indicate their present mood by using two published visual analog rating methods. The congruence between the methods was estimated through correlation analysis, and scores for different moods were compared. Endorsement was significantly stronger for "happy" than for mood states with negative valence. At the same time, several participants displayed pronounced negative mood compared to previously published norms for neurologically healthy adults. Results from the two rating methods were moderately and positively correlated. Positive mood is prominent in people with aphasia who are in the chronic stage of recovery after stroke, but negative moods can also be salient and individual presentations are diverse. Visual analog rating methods are valid methods for discussing mood with people with aphasia; however, design optimization should be explored.

  19. Help-seeking preferences for psychological distress in primary care: effect of current mental state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kate; Buszewicz, Marta; Weich, Scott; King, Michael

    2008-10-01

    There is much debate over when it is appropriate to intervene medically for psychological distress, and limited evidence on patients' perspectives about a broad range of possible treatment options. It is currently unclear whether preferences may differ for those patients with milder symptoms compared to those experiencing more severe distress. To determine patient preferences for professional, informal, and alternative help for psychological distress in primary care, and the impact of their current mental state on these. Cross-sectional survey in seven general practices across suburban/urban London. Participants were 1357 consecutive general practice attenders aged 18 years and over. The main outcome measure was the General Health Questionnaire 12-item version and a questionnaire on help-seeking preferences. Overall, only 47% of participants reported wanting 'some help' if feeling stressed, worried, or low and it was affecting their daily life. Those currently experiencing mild-to-moderate distress preferred informal sources of help such as friends/family support, relaxation/yoga, exercise/sport, or massage along with general advice from their GP and talking therapies. Self-help (books/leaflets or computer/internet) was not popular at any level of distress, and less favoured by those with mild-to-moderate distress (odds ratio [OR] = 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35 to 0.70). Those experiencing severe distress were much more likely to want talking therapies (OR = 3.43, 95% CI = 2.85 to 4.14), tablets (OR = 3.07, 95% CI = 2.00 to 4.71), and support groups (OR = 3.07, 95% CI = 1.72 to 5.47). People with mild-to-moderate distress appear to prefer informal sources of help and those involving human contact, compared to medication or self-help. This has implications for the implementation of potential interventions for psychological distress in primary care.

  20. The influence of early speech rehabilitation with voice prostheses on the psychological state of laryngectomized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Maddalena, Harry

    2002-01-01

    This survey assessed how early speech rehabilitation influences the emotional state and psychological adjustment of 43 male laryngectomy patients, at three different chronological stages. The first assessment occurred 2-3 days before the operation. The patients filled out a stress questionnaire (SVF) which assessed coping strategies. Exactly 2 weeks after the operation the patients were given a list of adjectives (EWL) which measured their actual emotional state. One day before leaving the hospital the patients were given the Post-laryngectomy Telephone Test (PLTT) which ascertained the quality of speech intelligibility. In addition, patients filled out a questionnaire on postoperative stress and anticipated stigmatisation with regard to their changed voice. Results demonstrated that patients who had early speech rehabilitation felt significantly more active and, in general, felt considerably better than patients who had not received speech rehabilitation training. Patients assessed voice loss as extremely distressing. The postoperative stress and the anticipated stigmatisation on the basis of the changed voice was significantly higher in those patients with good speech intelligibility than in patients with poor speech articulation at hospital discharge. The coping strategies "Giving up and resignation" and "Need for social support" correlated positively with postoperative stress and anticipated stigmatisation. Results show that early speech rehabilitation with voice prostheses had a positive effect on the emotional state of laryngectomy patients. However, the early speech rehabilitation leads to distress in the initial phase in laryngectomy patients. Moreover, patients who habitually tend towards resignation, or need lots of social support should receive psychological support during the early phase of speech rehabilitation training.

  1. Mood congruent tuning of reward expectation in positive mood: evidence from FRN and theta modulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Katharina; Pourtois, Gilles

    2017-05-01

    Positive mood broadens attention and builds additional mental resources. However, its effect on performance monitoring and reward prediction errors remain unclear. To examine this issue, we used a standard mood induction procedure (based on guided imagery) and asked 45 participants to complete a gambling task suited to study reward prediction errors by means of the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and mid-frontal theta band power. Results showed a larger FRN for negative feedback as well as a lack of reward expectation modulation for positive feedback at the theta level with positive mood, relative to a neutral mood condition. A control analysis showed that this latter result could not be explained by the mere superposition of the event-related brain potential component on the theta oscillations. Moreover, these neurophysiological effects were evidenced in the absence of impairments at the behavioral level or increase in autonomic arousal with positive mood, suggesting that this mood state reliably altered brain mechanisms of reward prediction errors during performance monitoring. We interpret these new results as reflecting a genuine mood congruency effect, whereby reward is anticipated as the default outcome with positive mood and therefore processed as unsurprising (even when it is unlikely), while negative feedback is perceived as unexpected. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Mood variability and the psychosocial adjustment of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R; Csikszentmihalyi, M; Graef, R

    1980-12-01

    This research uses a new time sampling method to compare adolescent and adult mood variability. Over 9000 self-reports from 182 people are used to evaluate the widespread theoretical assumption that adolescents experience greater mood variability as part of a syndrome of psychosocial disequilibrium. The findings confirm that adolescents experience wider and quicker mood swings, but do not show that this variability is related to stress, lack of personal control, psychological maladjustment, or social maladjustment within individual teenagers. Rather than representing turmoil, wide mood swings appear to be a natural part of an adolescent peer-oriented life style. However, there are indications that adolescent mood variability interferes with capacity for deep involvement, especially in school.

  3. Investigation of the effects of solid lipid curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Katherine H M; Pipingas, Andrew; Scholey, Andrew B

    2015-05-01

    Curcumin possesses many properties which may prevent or ameliorate pathological processes underlying age-related cognitive decline, dementia or mood disorders. These benefits in preclinical studies have not been established in humans. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined the acute (1 and 3 h after a single dose), chronic (4 weeks) and acute-on-chronic (1 and 3 h after single dose following chronic treatment) effects of solid lipid curcumin formulation (400 mg as Longvida®) on cognitive function, mood and blood biomarkers in 60 healthy adults aged 60-85. One hour after administration curcumin significantly improved performance on sustained attention and working memory tasks, compared with placebo. Working memory and mood (general fatigue and change in state calmness, contentedness and fatigue induced by psychological stress) were significantly better following chronic treatment. A significant acute-on-chronic treatment effect on alertness and contentedness was also observed. Curcumin was associated with significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol and had no effect on hematological safety measures. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the effects of curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population or to examine any acute behavioral effects in humans. Results highlight the need for further investigation of the potential psychological and cognitive benefits of curcumin in an older population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. The evolutionary origins of mood and its disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Bateson, Melissa

    2012-09-11

    The term 'mood' in its scientific usage refers to relatively enduring affective states that arise when negative or positive experience in one context or time period alters the individual's threshold for responding to potentially negative or positive events in subsequent contexts or time periods. The capacity for mood appears to be phylogenetically widespread and the mechanisms underlying it are highly conserved in diverse animals, suggesting it has an important adaptive function. In this review, we discuss how moods can be classified across species, and what the selective advantages of the capacity for mood are. Core moods can be localised within a two-dimensional continuous space, where one axis represents sensitivity to punishment or threat, and the other, sensitivity to reward. Depressed mood and anxious mood represent two different quadrants of this space. The adaptive function of mood is to integrate information about the recent state of the environment and current physical condition of the organism to fine-tune its decisions about the allocation of behavioural effort. Many empirical observations from both humans and non-human animals are consistent with this model. We discuss the implications of this adaptive approach to mood systems for mood disorders in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Frequency of positive states of mind as a moderator of the effects of stress on psychological functioning and perceived health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that individuals reporting more positive affect are healthier and live longer. The aim of this study was to examine if positive states of mind moderates the effect of perceived stress on psychological functioning and perceived health. A cross-sectional sample, n = 382, responded to questions regarding perceived stress, depression, anxiety, perceived health, and frequency of positive states of mind. Using a series of regression analyses, the results confirmed a moderating role of positive states of mind on the association between perceived stress and psychological outcomes. Among people experiencing a high frequency of positive states of mind, perceived stress seems to have a low correspondence with depression, anxiety, and perceived health. But among those reporting a low frequency of positive states of mind, perceived stress was more strongly related and depression, anxiety, and perceived health suggesting a buffering effect of positive states of mind against the negative influence of stress.

  6. [INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL FACTORS ON PERSONAL SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION AND FUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE CNS IN NORTHERN CHILDREN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovleva, N N; Soroko, S I

    2015-06-01

    The results of the socio-psychological and psycho-physiological study of children and adolescents rural secondary school in a remote area of the Arkhangelsk region were studied. It was found that the poor situation of children in families at social risk leads to a decrease in their school performance, motivation to succeed and, in some cases, to reduce their personal social and psychological adaptation. However, in general, the level of personal social and psychological adaptation in the majority of surveyed students is high enough. As complementary social institutions, the family and the school, in some cases, can compensate for a number of adverse social and psychological factors. Pupils from social risk groups functional state of the central nervous system has been significantly reduced compared with children who are brought up in affluent families. In the North adverse social factors may increase the effects of the harsh climatic conditions and are an important risk factor for children's health.

  7. Group Interaction Sustains Positive Moods and Diminishes Negative Moods

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ernest S.; Verlin B. Hinsz

    2015-01-01

    The social interactions of task groups were investigated for their influences on member moods. Initially, participants’ received an induction of positive, negative, or neutral moods via listening to music that continued throughout the experimental session. Moods were measured after the induction. Students then made decisions on four choice dilemmas alone or as members of a four-person group. Subsequently, positive and negative moods were again measured. Positive moods of participants who work...

  8. Transactional stress and coping theory in accounting for psychological states measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buško

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a relative predictive value of some stable individual attributes and the processes of cognitive appraisals and coping with stress in accounting for specific components of anxiety state measures. Self-report instruments for the measurement of selected psychological constructs, i.e. perceived incompetence, externality, stress intensity and duration, situation-specific coping strategies, and the two anxiety state components, were taken in a sample of 449 male military basics trainees, ranging in age from 18-27. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the set of predictors employed could account for statistically, as well as theoretically and practically a significant part of variance in cognitive anxiety component (45,5%, and in visceral-emotional component (32,2% of the anxiety state. The extent of anxiety reactions assessed by both scales could primarily be explained by general perception of personal incompetence, as a relatively stable dimension of general self-concept. Of the ways of coping examined, reinterpretation of stressful events was the only strategy contributing to low level, whereas passivization, wishful thinking, and seeking social support contributed to higher levels of anxiety measured by both scales. The results give partial support to the basic hypotheses on the mediating role of coping in the relationships among particular components of the stress and coping models.

  9. State psychology licensure questions about mental illness and compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Graunke, Bruce; Frese, Frederick J; Jones, James T R; Adkins, Jennifer W; Bassman, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    State licensing boards have obligations to protect the public from impaired professionals and to protect the rights of professionals applying for licensure. Competently functioning professionals who have or have had a mental health diagnosis or are being treated for a mental health condition should not be screened out, according to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). A review of case law shows applicable precedents from discrimination among physicians and lawyers but not, to date, among psychologists. An examination of psychology licensure application materials from all 50 states and the District of Columbia revealed that some states, particularly Alaska, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Missouri, Montana, and New Hampshire, include language that might screen out professionals with lived experience who are currently functioning competently. For comparison, we review a sample of licensure applications for physicians and lawyers and find a similar pattern. Five of the present authors offer ourselves and other published authors as examples of competent licensed psychologists who have lived with mental illnesses. We conclude with recommendations for more inclusive language and protection of confidentiality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Mood, media experiences and advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, F.; van Velthoven, S.; Costa Pereira, F.; Veríssimo, J.; Neijens, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Studying moods and the effects that a mood has is an important topic in research into advertising. But nearly all data on mood effects are gathered in a forced exposure and lab context. In a real-life study we relate in this contribution mood to moments of media consumption. So we analyze at the

  11. Food can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits via a serotonergic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Marijn C W; van Wingen, Guido A; Wittwer, Jonas; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Kloek, Joris; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, tryptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport across the blood-brain-barrier, a limitation that can be mitigated by increasing the tryptophan/LNAA ratio. We therefore tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study (N=32) whether a drink with a favourable tryptophan/LNAA ratio improves mood and modulates specific brain processes as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We show that one serving of this drink increases the tryptophan/LNAA ratio in blood plasma, lifts mood in healthy young women and alters task-specific and resting-state processing in brain regions implicated in mood regulation. Specifically, Test-drink consumption reduced neural responses of the dorsal caudate nucleus during reward anticipation, increased neural responses in the dorsal cingulate cortex during fear processing, and increased ventromedial prefrontal-lateral prefrontal connectivity under resting-state conditions. Our results suggest that increasing tryptophan/LNAA ratios can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mood-dependent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Penelope A; Critchley, Hugo D

    2003-10-01

    Have you ever noticed that when you are in a bad mood the whole world seems to be against you? More negative things seem to happen, and you even remember past episodes of your life in a more negative way than usual. Most of us have experienced this phenomenon, but few will have thought about how this mood might interact with our ability to remember. In a recent paper, Susanne Erk et al. shed light on a possible neural basis for this phenomena.

  13. Chronobiology and mood disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wirz-Justice, Anna

    2003-01-01

    The clinical observations of diurnal variation of mood and early morning awakening in depression have been incorporated into established diagnostic systems, as has the seasonal modifier defining winter depression (seasonal affective disorder, SAD). Many circadian rhythms measured in depressive patients are abnormal: earlier in timing, diminished in amplitude, or of greater variability. Whether these disturbances are of etiological significance for the role of circadian rhythms in mood disorde...

  14. Music feels like moods feel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris eGoffin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While it is widely accepted that music evokes moods, there is disagreement over whether music-induced moods are relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music as such. The arguments against the aesthetic relevance of music-induced moods are: (1 moods cannot be intentionally directed at the music and (2 music-induced moods are highly subjective experiences and are therefore a kind of mind-wandering. This paper presents a novel account of musical moods that avoids these objections. It is correct to say that a listener's entire mood is not relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music. However, the experience of mood consists of having different feelings. Music induces feelings that are intentionally directed at the music and clusters of these feelings can be recognized as typical of a specific mood. Therefore, mood-feelings are relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music.

  15. The impact of strenuous group physical activity on mood states, personal views, body composition, and markers of myocardial damage in overweight/obese adults: the "Step-by-step Italy's coast to coast" trek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Piana, Natalia; Capezzali, Daniela; Mommi, Antonella; Aiello, Cristina; Gatti, Michela; Romani, Giannermete; Buratta, Livia; Battistini, Dalila; Nasini, Giovanni; Reginato, Elisa; Urbani, Lorena; Pazzagli, Chiara; Ferri, Carla; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; De Feo, Pierpaolo

    2014-01-01

    It is clinically relevant to understand whether it is safe to recommend to trained overweight/obese people long-distance treks and whether these experiences could have a negative psychological impact or become even dangerous exposing the trekkers to the risk of clinically silent myocardial damage. To answer these questions we have performed a quantitative/qualitative study comparing the changes in mood profiles, personal views, body composition, and plasma troponin levels of 40 overweight/obese subjects with those of 36 healthy normal weight subjects after the participation in a trek of 388 km from the Adriatic to the Tyrrhenian seas trek: the "Step by step…Italy's coast to coast". The results of this study demonstrate that long-distance treks are a safe activity for trained overweight/obese people which should be recommended because they improve mood, health status, and the relationship of participants with themselves and with the regular practice of exercise with effects similar to those obtained by healthy normal weight subjects.

  16. The Impact of Strenuous Group Physical Activity on Mood States, Personal Views, Body Composition, and Markers of Myocardial Damage in Overweight/Obese Adults: The “Step-by-Step Italy’s Coast to Coast” Trek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mazzeschi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is clinically relevant to understand whether it is safe to recommend to trained overweight/obese people long-distance treks and whether these experiences could have a negative psychological impact or become even dangerous exposing the trekkers to the risk of clinically silent myocardial damage. To answer these questions we have performed a quantitative/qualitative study comparing the changes in mood profiles, personal views, body composition, and plasma troponin levels of 40 overweight/obese subjects with those of 36 healthy normal weight subjects after the participation in a trek of 388 km from the Adriatic to the Tyrrhenian seas trek: the “Step by step…Italy’s coast to coast”. The results of this study demonstrate that long-distance treks are a safe activity for trained overweight/obese people which should be recommended because they improve mood, health status, and the relationship of participants with themselves and with the regular practice of exercise with effects similar to those obtained by healthy normal weight subjects.

  17. Air ions and mood outcomes: a review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological effects of air ions have been reported for more than 80 years in the media and scientific literature. This study summarizes a qualitative literature review and quantitative meta-analysis, where applicable, that examines the potential effects of exposure to negative and positive air ions on psychological measures of mood and emotional state. Methods A structured literature review was conducted to identify human experimental studies published through August, 2012. Thirty-three studies (1957–2012) evaluating the effects of air ionization on depression, anxiety, mood states, and subjective feelings of mental well-being in humans were included. Five studies on negative ionization and depression (measured using a structured interview guide) were evaluated by level of exposure intensity (high vs. low) using meta-analysis. Results Consistent ionization effects were not observed for anxiety, mood, relaxation/sleep, and personal comfort. In contrast, meta-analysis results showed that negative ionization, overall, was significantly associated with lower depression ratings, with a stronger association observed at high levels of negative ion exposure (mean summary effect and 95% confidence interval (CI) following high- and low-density exposure: 14.28 (95% CI: 12.93-15.62) and 7.23 (95% CI: 2.62-11.83), respectively). The response to high-density ionization was observed in patients with seasonal or chronic depression, but an effect of low-density ionization was observed only in patients with seasonal depression. However, no relationship between the duration or frequency of ionization treatment on depression ratings was evident. Conclusions No consistent influence of positive or negative air ionization on anxiety, mood, relaxation, sleep, and personal comfort measures was observed. Negative air ionization was associated with lower depression scores particularly at the highest exposure level. Future research is needed to evaluate the biological

  18. Assessment of the ergogenic effect of caffeine supplementation on mood, anticipation timing, and muscular strength in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Jason; Duncan, Michael J; Wright, Sheila Leddington; Eyre, Emma L J; Bryant, Elizabeth; Langdon, Dominic; James, Rob S

    2013-08-01

    The effect of caffeine to promote improvements in mood, cognition, and exercise performance has been well established in young and athletic adults. However, little is known about whether such nutritional ergogenic aids are effective in enhancing psychological well-being, physiological or cognitive performance in older adults. This study assesses the ergogenic effect of caffeine on mood, perceptual-motor coupling, and muscular strength in an older human population. Following a familiarization session, 12 apparently healthy volunteers (nine females and three males; 69 ± 6 years) completed two laboratory visits. "Pre ingestion" trials of mood state Brunel Mood State Inventory (BRUMS) and coincidence anticipation performance (Bassin anticipation timer) at slow (3 mph) and fast (8 mph) stimulus speeds were completed on both visits. Using a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, participants consumed either caffeine (3 mg/kg body mass) or a placebo. Sixty minutes postingestion participants repeated the trials before completing a set of 10 consecutive repetitions of maximal knee extension using isokinetic dynamometry. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was assessed following the fifth and final repetition. Caffeine ingestion significantly improved mood state scores for vigor by 17% (P = 0.009) and reduced absolute error by 35% (P = 0.045) during coincidence anticipation assessment at 8 mph compared to placebo. There were no other significant effects. Caffeine ingestion failed to augment maximal voluntary contraction of the knee extensors and RPE did not prove to be significantly different to from placebo (P > 0.33 in each case). Acute caffeine ingestion may not be an effective ergogenic aid for improving muscular strength in older adults but could possibly be used as a nutrition supplement for enhancing mood and improving cognitive performance in daily living tasks where interceptive timing skills are required.

  19. [Negative bias on self-referent processing in depression: focused on mood congruent effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Kyoko

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate negative bias on self-referent processing in depression, focused on the mood congruent effects in a natural depressed state and an experimentally induced transient depressed mood state. In Experiment 1, autobiographical memories and self-relevant ratings of personality trait words were examined in a natural depressed state or non-depressed state, which were measured by Beck Depression Inventory. Results revealed the mood congruent effects on both tasks. In Experiment 2, the same tasks as Experiment 1 were conducted in a transient depressed mood state or non-depressed mood state, which were induced through listening music. Unlike Experiment 1, there were no effects in both tasks, and a positive bias was observed in both mood states. It was suggested that transient mood state did not bias self-referent processing in depression, and Beck's schema hypothesis was supported.

  20. Verbal and facial-emotional Stroop tasks reveal specific attentional interferences in sad mood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isaac, L.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Speckens, A.E.M.; Becker, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    Mood congruence refers to the tendency of individuals to attend to information more readily when it has the same emotional content as their current mood state. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether attentional interference occurred for participants in sad mood states for emotionally

  1. [Artistic creativity and bipolar mood disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, Zoltán

    2004-08-15

    Several studies and theories propose a connection between psychopathology and artistic creativity i.e. madness and genius characters share common roots. Employing scientific research data, the objective of this review is to elucidate the frequency of psychopathological alterations among writers and artists and to analyse the possible influence of bipolar mood disorder spectrum on the artistic creativity. Reviewing studies a) on retrospective investigations, based on biographies of famous persons with high creative achievements, b) on psychiatric examinations of living writers and artists, c) on individual examples of geniuses in the light of their mental status and work output correlations, and d) on creative traits and skills of diagnosed psychiatric patient populations. Beyond the practical experiences and impressions being held for ages from ancient times, the scientific observations and surveys indicate that psychopathological symptoms, especially those belonging to the bipolar mood disorder (bipolar I and II), major depression and cyclothymia categories occur more frequently among writers, poets, visual artists and composers, compared to the rates in the general population. Self-reports of writers and artists describe symptoms in their intensively creative periods which are reminiscent and characteristic of hypomanic states. Further, cognitive styles of hypomania (e.g. overinclusive thinking, richness of associations) and originality-prone creativity share many common as indicated by several authors. Among the eminent artists showing most probably manic-depressive or cyclothymic symptoms were: E. Dickinson, E. Hemingway, N. Gogol, A. Strindberg, V. Woolf, Lord Byron (G. Gordon), J. W. Goethe, V. van Gogh, F. Goya, G. Donizetti, G. F. Händel, O. Klemperer, G. Mahler, R. Schumann, and H. Wolf. Based on biographies and other studies, brief descriptions are given in the present article on the personality character of Gogol; Strindberg, Van Gogh, H

  2. Frontal EEG Asymmetry of Mood: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Palmiero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present mini-review was aimed at exploring the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood. With respect to emotion, interpreted as a discrete affective process, mood is more controllable, more nebulous, and more related to mind/cognition; in addition, causes are less well-defined than those eliciting emotion. Therefore, firstly, the rational for the distinction between emotion and mood was provided. Then, the main frontal EEG asymmetry models were presented, such as the motivational approach/withdrawal, valence/arousal, capability, and inhibition asymmetric models. Afterward, the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood was investigated following three research lines, that is considering studies involving different mood induction procedures, dispositional mood (positive and negative affect, and mood alterations in both healthy and clinical populations. In general, results were found to be contradictory, no model is unequivocally supported regardless the research line considered. Different methodological issues were raised, such as: the composition of samples used across studies, in particular, gender and age were found to be critical variables that should be better addressed in future studies; the importance of third variables that might mediate the relationship between frontal EEG asymmetries and mood, for example bodily states and hormonal responses; the role of cognition, namely the interplay between mood and executive functions. In light of these issues, future research directions were proposed. Amongst others, the need to explore the neural connectivity that underpins EEG asymmetries, and the need to include both positive and negative mood conditions in the experimental designs have been highlighted.

  3. Psychology and the politics of same-sex desire in the United States: an analysis of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, Phillip L; Windell, Eric P

    2011-08-01

    Psychological science has assumed an increasingly explicit role in public policies related to same-sex desire in the United States. In this article, we present a historical analysis of the relationship between policy discourse and scientific discourse on homosexuality produced within U.S. psychology over the 20th and early 21st centuries through the lens of three cases: Bowers v. Hardwick (1986), Lawrence v. Texas (2003), and Perry v. Schwarzenegger (2010). Our analysis suggests that, for the majority of its disciplinary history, psychology produced knowledge that supported a status quo of legal and cultural subordination for same-sex-attracted individuals. The discipline's shift in understanding of homosexuality, reflected in a 1975 policy statement of the American Psychological Association, reversed this relationship and opened up space for advocacy for social and political change regarding homosexuality. Our analysis of policy decisions rendered by the courts reveals the increasingly important role psychological science has assumed in challenging the legal subordination of same-sex-attracted individuals, though the basis upon which psychological science has sought to inform policy remains limited. We conclude with a critical discussion of the type of knowledge claims psychologists have traditionally used to advocate for gay and lesbian rights, suggesting the vitality of a narrative approach which can reveal the meaning individuals make of legal subordination and political exclusion.

  4. PSYCHOLOGICAL PREPARATION OF COMPETITIVE JUDOKAS - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Ziv

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 18 on psychological preparation of competitive judokas. These studies were grouped according to the type of study performed - observational, experimental, and case studies. In addition, five psychological categories were identified: (a imagery, (b motivation, (c stress, anxiety, and mood states, (d eating attitudes and weight control, and (e coach/athlete interactions. The main findings of this review are that (a there is a lack of data regarding the use of imagery to improve judo performance; (b goal involvement states of competitive judokas fluctuate and undergo abrupt changes during actual combat, according to the ecological constraints of the situation; (c cortisol levels and somatic and cognitive anxiety tend to increase prior to and during a judo combat; (d weight reduction programs that judokas undergo prior to a judo combat can lead to unpleasant moods, and cultural differences can lead to conflicting results; (e psychological preparation plans should be tailored to each individual judoka, as there can be significant individual differences among the judokas. Based on the findings of our review, a number of research limitations and methodological concerns are discussed

  5. Agreement on Reporting of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Violence among White, Black, and Hispanic Couples in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Field, Craig; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Lipsky, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    This article examines agreement on reports of male-to-female and female-to-male psychological, physical, and sexual violence among White, Black, and Hispanic couples in the United States. Using a probability sample, separate face-to-face interviews were conducted in respondents' homes with both members of 1,025 intact couples living in the 48…

  6. The Effect of Psychological State and Social Support on Nail-Biting in Adolescents: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisman, Fatma Nevin; Tok, Ozlem; Ergun, Ayse

    2017-01-01

    Nail-biting is one of the most common behavioral problems in children. This study aimed to examine factors affecting nail-biting among adolescents and the effects of psychological state and social support on nail-biting. This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and May of 2014 in seven schools in Istanbul (N = 724). Data were…

  7. [Alfred Adler and the psychology of aesthetic surgery in the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, S L

    2002-01-01

    The quest for a psychological theory to explain the effects of aesthetic surgery reached its high point in the 1920s with the adoption of Alfred Adler's theory of the inferiority complex. The basis for this theory was Adler's early work in the psychological response of the body to disease and "degeneration". Aesthetic surgeons sought out the Adlerian model rather than a Freudian one as purely psychological while its roots, and their own theories, were clearly somatic in origin.

  8. Formation and Development of Psychology of Forgiveness in the United States: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Pechin Yu.V.,

    2015-01-01

    We provide an overview of studies of the phenomenon of forgiveness in modern American psychology. We discuss the works of the leaders of this area: Robert Enright, Everett Worthington, Michael McCullough and others. The features of the American approach in psychology of forgiveness are close connection with the psychology of religion, focus on practical problems of psychotherapy and counseling, interdisciplinary research. Over three decades, a theoretical model of forgiveness and forgiveness ...

  9. Effects of Alpha-Lactalbumin or Whey Protein Isolate on Muscle Damage, Muscle Pain, and Mood States Following Prolonged Strenuous Endurance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Qin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of alpha-lactalbumin and whey protein on muscle damage, muscle pain, and mood states during short term recovery following strenuous prolonged exercise. In a two-stage crossover counterbalanced design, 12 endurance male runners were recruited (age: 30.4 ± 2.8 year, height: 172.7 ± 5.6 cm, body mass: 66.7 ± 6.5 kg, VO2max: 58.0 ± 6.9 ml/kg−/min, ran for 90 min at 70% VO2max, and followed by a 4-h recovery. Two treatments (carbohydrate+alpha-lactalbumin, CA; carbohydrate+whey protein isolate, CW were applied during the main trials. During the first 2-h of recovery, CHO was served at the rate of 0.66 g/kg/h and PRO at 0.34 g/kg/h every 30 min. Creatine kinase (CK, interleukin-6 (IL-6, salivary cortisol, rating of muscle pain, pressure pain threshold (PPT, and mood states were evaluated before (Pre-ex, immediately (Post-ex0, 2 h (Post-ex2h and 4 h (Post-ex4h after exercise. 24 h after exercise (Post-ex24h, CK and IL-6, muscle pain, and PPT were evaluated. Compared with Pre-ex, Post-ex24h CK was higher in both trials of CA (398.16 ± 41.37 vs. 184.77 ± 22.68 IU/L, P = 0.039 and CW (418.17 ± 67.86 vs. 202.41 ± 22.26 IU/L, P = 0.037. IL-6 was also higher than Pre-ex at Post-ex0 and Post-ex2h in trials of CA (Post-ex0 vs. Pre-ex0: 7.87 ± 0.74 vs. 1.69 ± 0.23, P < 0.01; Post-ex2h vs. Pre-ex0: 5.39 ± 0.88 vs. 1.69 ± 0.23, P = 0.02 and CW (Post-ex0 vs. Pre-ex0: 8.63 ± 1.06 vs. 1.59 ± 0.19, P < 0.01; Post-ex2h vs. Pre-ex0: 5.75 ± 1.33 vs. 1.59 ± 0.19, P < 0.01. No difference was found in CK and IL-6 between two trials at all time points (all P > 0.05. Compared with Pre-ex0, salivary cortisol was elevated at Post-ex0 in both trials (CA: 0.96 ± 0.13 vs. 0.41 ± 0.05 ng/ml, P < 0.01; CW: 1.15 ± 0.18 vs. 0.43 ± 0.06 ng/ml, P < 0.01 and was lower at Post-ex24h than Pre-ex in CA trial (0.17 ± 0.02 vs. 0.41 ± 0.05 ng/ml, P < 0.01. Compared with CW, PPT was higher at Post-2h in CA trial (31.55 ± 3.09 vs. 26.99

  10. Gender differences in negative mood states in secondary school students: health survey in Catalonia (Spain Diferencias en los estados de ánimo negativo en estudiantes de secundaria según sexo: encuesta de salud en Cataluña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Monteagudo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of negative mood states in adolescents according to gender, to analyze variability among schools, and to evaluate the associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a cluster design was carried out. We administered the High-school students health survey to a sample of 9,340 students (aged 14-16 years in the third and fourth year of Compulsory Secondary Education in Catalonia, Spain, during the 2005-6 academic year. The main outcome measure was evidence of a negative mood state. A multilevel logistic regression model stratified by gender was used to identify the factors associated with negative mood states and to determine variability among distinct schools. Results: Approximately 19% of adolescents reported evidence of a negative mood state, with a higher prevalence in girls (25%. The most significant factors associated with negative mood states were "use of tranquilizers" and "having eating disorders" in girls and "not exercising" and "poor self-perception of health status" in boys. In both genders, variability was found among schools in the prevalence of negative mood states (girls: variance = 0.078; p Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia del estado de ánimo negativo entre alumnos adolescentes según sexo, analizar la variabilidad entre escuelas y evaluar los factores asociados. Métodos: Estudio transversal basado en un muestreo por conglomerados bietápico. Administramos una encuesta de salud a 9340 estudiantes de tercero y cuarto curso de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria de 14 a 16 años de edad, en Cataluña, durante el curso escolar 2005-06. La variable principal fue el estado de ánimo negativo. Se usó un modelo de regresión logística multinivel estratificado por sexo para identificar los factores asociados al estado de ánimo negativo y determinar la variabilidad entre las diferentes escuelas. Resultados: Aproximadamente el 19% de los adolescentes refirieron un estado de

  11. The influence of mood on the process and content of encoding future intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Justin B; Brewer, Gene A; Ball, B Hunter; DeWitt, Michael R; Marsh, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Remembering to perform an intention in the future when some environmental cue is encountered is referred to as event-based prospective memory. The influence of mood on this future-oriented memory is unclear. By experimentally manipulating mood, the current set of experiments sought to examine the influence that differing mood states have on encoding future intentions. Participants were induced into a neutral, positive, or negative mood state at intention formation and returned to their baseline mood before beginning the prospective memory task. Relative to the neutral mood, positive mood facilitated and negative mood impaired intention encoding when neutrally toned cues were used, as evidenced by the proportion of cues subsequently detected. The use of negatively toned cues ameliorated the benefit of the positive mood but not the impairment of the negative mood. Further, reinstatement of the encoding mood during retrieval equated performance for all three mood conditions. Results suggest that encoded mood influences the future accessibility and completion of intended behaviours, perhaps through modulation of associative processing. The current study demonstrates that mood plays a determining role in encoding future intentions.

  12. Changes in the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among male and female current smokers in the United States: 1990-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Renee D; Wall, Melanie M; Choo, Tse; Galea, Sandro; Horowitz, Jonathan; Nomura, Yoko; Zvolensky, Michael J; Hasin, Deborah S

    2014-07-01

    The present study investigated whether the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders has increased over time among current smokers and whether these trends differ by gender and in comparison with nonsmokers. Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (1990) and the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (2001), representative samples of the US adult population. Binomial regression analyses were used to determine differences between mood and anxiety disorders among current smokers in 1990 and 2001 and whether these differed by gender and in comparison with those who were former or never current smokers. Any anxiety disorder, panic attacks, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and dysthymia were all significantly more common among current smokers in 2001 compared with 1990 and except for social anxiety disorder these increases were significantly greater than any trend found in non-smokers. Increases in panic attacks, social anxiety disorder, and dysthymia were more pronounced in female than in male smokers. Major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were not found to increase over time among smokers. The prevalence of several anxiety disorders and dysthymia among current smokers appears to have increased from 1990 to 2001. Future studies are needed to determine whether these trends have continued. If so, interventions aimed at moving the prevalence lower may have limited success if treatment of mental health problems such as anxiety disorders and certain mood disorders are not considered in the development and dissemination of tobacco control programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [The impact of mood alterations on creativity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, Zoltán

    2006-07-20

    Basic elements of artistic (and other) creativity are the technical-professional skill and knowledge, the special talent and ability and the willingness or motivation; one of which being absent results in partially realised creativity like juvenile, frustrated or abandoned types, respectively. Psychometric scales have been developed to measure everyday and eminent creativity, which show that creativity correlates with higher psychoticism, impulsivity and venturesomeness scores and with lower neuroticism and conformity scores of the personality test employed in a general population. Among the psychological components of creativity are the cognitive processes, mood, motivation, and personality traits. Regarding mood, a theory of "inverted U" has been proposed as elevation of mood facilitates creativity to a certain point after what extreme increase has an adverse effect on achievement. Analysing psychopathology and creativity among various professions, higher rates of psychopathology, especially affective symptoms, have been found in art-related professions. Examples of immortal poets, writers, painters, sculptors and composers, having created invaluable cultural treasures for mankind, illustrate that many of them showed signs of mood alterations (unipolar or bipolar affective disorder spectrum) which were expressed in their artistic products.

  14. Inflamed moods: a review of the interactions between inflammation and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblat, Joshua D; Cha, Danielle S; Mansur, Rodrigo B; McIntyre, Roger S

    2014-08-04

    Mood disorders have been recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the leading cause of disability worldwide. Notwithstanding the established efficacy of conventional mood agents, many treated individuals continue to remain treatment refractory and/or exhibit clinically significant residual symptoms, cognitive dysfunction, and psychosocial impairment. Therefore, a priority research and clinical agenda is to identify pathophysiological mechanisms subserving mood disorders to improve therapeutic efficacy. During the past decade, inflammation has been revisited as an important etiologic factor of mood disorders. Therefore, the purpose of this synthetic review is threefold: 1) to review the evidence for an association between inflammation and mood disorders, 2) to discuss potential pathophysiologic mechanisms that may explain this association and 3) to present novel therapeutic options currently being investigated that target the inflammatory-mood pathway. Accumulating evidence implicates inflammation as a critical mediator in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Indeed, elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been repeatedly demonstrated in both major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) patients. Further, the induction of a pro-inflammatory state in healthy or medically ill subjects induces 'sickness behavior' resembling depressive symptomatology. Potential mechanisms involved include, but are not limited to, direct effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on monoamine levels, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, pathologic microglial cell activation, impaired neuroplasticity and structural and functional brain changes. Anti-inflammatory agents, such as acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA), celecoxib, anti-TNF-α agents, minocycline, curcumin and omega-3 fatty acids, are being investigated for use in mood disorders. Current evidence shows improved outcomes in mood disorder patients when anti-inflammatory agents

  15. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Music feels like moods feel

    OpenAIRE

    Kris eGoffin

    2014-01-01

    While it is widely accepted that music evokes moods, there is disagreement over whether music-induced moods are relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music as such. The arguments against the aesthetic relevance of music-induced moods are: (1) moods cannot be intentionally directed at the music and (2) music-induced moods are highly subjective experiences and are therefore a kind of mind-wandering. This paper presents a novel account of musical moods that avoids these objections. It is cor...

  17. Mood and Sharing Condition Effects on the Display of Altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Douglas W.; And Others

    A three-stage developmental model of the socialization of altruism as a reinforcer was tested. The model posits mood as a mediator of helping behavior. The first stage of the model is characterized by a relatively low level of altruistic responding, regardless of mood state, among preschool children; the second by the acquisition, among…

  18. MOOD CHANGES FOLLOWING GOLF AMONG SENIOR RECREATIONAL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydn Jarrett

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Golf has been recommended as a relatively risk-free form of exercise for an ageing population. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of playing a round of golf on mood states in recreational players. Ageing male golfers (N = 34; Age: M = 68.7, SD = 5.4 years completed a mood measure immediately before and after an 18-hole round of golf. Distance walked per game was measured using a pedometer. Results indicate reported scores on Anger, Depression, and Fatigue increased and Vigor reduced following the game. However, it should be noted that although there was an increase in unpleasant mood states, this should be seen in the context of the overall mood profile, which was positive. Pedometer results indicated golfers walked a mean distance of 10.21 km (± 1.11. Results show participants of this age-group engaged in a meaningful exercise session and that mood scores deteriorated following play. Findings from the present study show that elderly golfers experienced mood profiles following golf similar to younger athletes following competition. For golf to be recommended as an activity for promoting physical activity among an aging population, the player's ability to regulate unpleasant mood states should be considered. Future research should investigate the effects of experiencing negative mood states following golf on motivation to participate.

  19. Music mood induction and maintenance while driving : A simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Chris; van der Zwaag, Marjolein; de Waard, Dick; Westerink, Joyce; Brookhuis, Karel; Mulder, Ben L. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    It is common knowledge that mood can influence our everyday behaviour and people often seek to reinforce, or to alter their mood, for example by turning on music. Music listening while driving is a common activity. However, the actual impact of music listening while driving on physical state and

  20. The influence of music on mood and performance while driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein D.; Dijksterhuis, Chris; de Waard, Dick; Mulder, Ben L. J. M.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; Brookhuis, Karel A.

    2012-01-01

    Mood can influence our everyday behaviour and people often seek to reinforce, or to alter their mood, for example by turning on music. Music listening while driving is a popular activity. However, little is known about the impact of music listening while driving on physiological state and driving

  1. MOOD AND PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG MALAYSIAN KARATEKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. K. Wong

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to test the conceptual model by Lane and Terry, the purposes of this study were 1 to assess mood states in non-depressed and depressed young karate athletes; 2 to assess mood states in relation to performance in young karate athletes. The participants were recruited from the 2004 Malaysian Games (72 males, 19.20 ± 1.16 years; 37 females, 18.78 ± 0.88 years. The athletes were divided into winners (medalists and losers. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS was administered prior to the start of competition. MANOVA was employed to treat the data, while Pearson correlations were calculated for mood states in each depressed mood group and by gender. In terms of non-depressed and depressed mood, tension in the females was higher in the depressed group (5.61 ± 3.02 vs. 3.11 ± 1.90, p = 0.026, eta2 = 0.133, as was fatigue (3.64 ± 2.61 vs. 0.89 ± 1.69, p = 0.006, eta2 = 0.199. Tension in the males was higher in the depressed group (4.41 ± 2.52 vs. 1.50 ± 1.55, p < 0.001, eta2 = 0.215, as was anger (1.43 ± 1.88 vs. 0.25 ± 1.00, p = 0.019, eta2 = 0.076. The highest associations among mood subscales were between anger and depression (r = 0.57, and between depression and fatigue ( r = 0.55 in depressed males. The female winning karateka scored higher on anger (3.08 ± 2.96 vs. 1.29 ± 2.24, p = 0.046, eta2 = 0.109. The highest correlations between mood dimensions in depressed females were between depression and anger (r = 0.85 and between depression and confusion (r = 0.85. Contrary to previous research on the influence of depression on anger, only the female winners scored higher on anger. Several negative mood dimensions were higher in both male and female depressed groups, lending some support to the conceptual model advanced by Lane and Terry

  2. Technology and Reflection: Mood and Memory Mechanisms for Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Artie; Tucker, Simon; Crane, John; Whittaker, Steve

    We report a psychologically motivated intervention to explore Technology Mediated Reflection (TMR), the process of systematically reviewing rich digital records of past personal experiences. Although TMR benefits well-being, and is increasingly being deployed, we know little about how one's mood when using TMR influences these benefits. We use theories of memory and emotion-regulation to motivate hypotheses about the relationship between reflection, mood, and well-being when using technology. We test these hypotheses in a large-scale month long real world deployment using a web-based application, MoodAdaptor. MoodAdaptor prompted participants to reflect on positive or negative memories depending on current mood. We evaluated how mood and memory interact during written reflection and measured effects on well-being. We analyzed qualitative and quantitative data from 128 participants who generated 11157 mood evaluations, 5051 logfiles, 256 surveys, and 20 interviews. TMR regulated emotion; when participants reflected on memories with valences opposite to their current mood, their mood became more neutral. However this did not impact overall well-being. Our findings also clarify underlying TMR mechanisms. Moods and memories competed with each other; when positive moods prevailed over negative memories, people demonstrated classic mechanisms shown in prior work to influence well-being. When negative moods prevailed over positive memories, memories became negatively tainted. Our results have implications for new well-being interventions and technologies that capitalize on the interconnectedness of memory and emotion.

  3. Doctoral School Psychology Internships in Non-School Settings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael B.; Kissell, Susan; Bolen, Larry M.

    2003-01-01

    This study reviewed non-school internship centers that indicated they would consider applications from school psychology doctoral students. School psychology interns devoted the majority of their time to individual and group counseling and psychotherapy and assessment and were perceived as having strengths in educational and psychological…

  4. Psychological and Acculturation Correlates of Work Status among Soviet Jewish Refugees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokurov, Andrey; Birman, Dina; Trickett, Edison

    2000-01-01

    Assessed the relationship of work status to acculturation and psychological adaption among refugees from the former Soviet Union, examining life satisfaction, alienation, and work status. Findings underscore the relevance of work status to refugees' life satisfaction and psychological adaptation and suggest the importance of seeking employment in…

  5. Dimensions of mood in mood-dependent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, W R; Myers, D M; Papotto, C

    1999-01-01

    In this investigation of the roles of 2 different dimensions of mood (pleasantness and arousal) in mood-dependent memory (MDM), participants generated words while listening to a selection of independently rated mood music (normative study and Experiment 5). Then they recalled the words while listening to another mood-music selection (Experiments 1-3) or to a verbal-mood scenario (Experiment 4). Changing only the dimension of mood pleasantness from generation to recall decreased memory whether the intended moods were explicitly defined or not. However, changing only arousal decreased memory only when moods were defined. Thus, pleasantness-dependent memory, but not arousal-dependent memory, occurred consistently. Although MDM also occurred with simultaneous changes in both dimensions, the effect was not significantly greater than that of pleasantness-dependent memory. The results are discussed in terms of 2-dimensional theories of emotion as applied to memory.

  6. Actively Coping with Violation: Exploring Upward Dissent Patterns in Functional, Dysfunctional, and Deserted Psychological Contract End States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, René; De Ruiter, Melanie; Van Loon, Joost; Kuijpers, Evy; Van Regenmortel, Tine

    2018-01-01

    Recently, scholars have emphasized the importance of examining how employees cope with psychological contract violation and how the coping process contributes to psychological contract violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Recent work points to the important role of problem-focused coping. Yet, to date, problem-focused coping strategies have not been conceptualized on a continuum from constructive to destructive strategies. Consequently, potential differences in the use of specific types of problem-focused coping strategies and the role these different strategies play in the violation resolution process has not been explored. In this study, we stress the importance of focusing on different types of problem-focused coping strategies. We explore how employee upward dissent strategies, conceptualized as different forms of problem-focused coping, contribute to violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Two sources of data were used. In-depth interviews with supervisors of a Dutch car lease company provided 23 case descriptions of employee-supervisor interactions after a psychological contract violation. Moreover, a database with descriptions of Dutch court sentences provided eight case descriptions of employee-organization interactions following a perceived violation. Based on these data sources, we explored the pattern of upward dissent strategies employees used over time following a perceived violation. We distinguished between functional (thriving and reactivation), dysfunctional (impairment and dissolution) and deserted psychological contract end states and explored whether different dissent patterns over time differentially contributed to the dissent outcome (i.e., psychological contract end state). The results of our study showed that the use of problem-focused coping is not as straightforward as suggested by the post-violation model. While the post-violation model suggests that problem-focused coping will most

  7. Actively Coping with Violation: Exploring Upward Dissent Patterns in Functional, Dysfunctional, and Deserted Psychological Contract End States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Schalk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, scholars have emphasized the importance of examining how employees cope with psychological contract violation and how the coping process contributes to psychological contract violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Recent work points to the important role of problem-focused coping. Yet, to date, problem-focused coping strategies have not been conceptualized on a continuum from constructive to destructive strategies. Consequently, potential differences in the use of specific types of problem-focused coping strategies and the role these different strategies play in the violation resolution process has not been explored. In this study, we stress the importance of focusing on different types of problem-focused coping strategies. We explore how employee upward dissent strategies, conceptualized as different forms of problem-focused coping, contribute to violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Two sources of data were used. In-depth interviews with supervisors of a Dutch car lease company provided 23 case descriptions of employee-supervisor interactions after a psychological contract violation. Moreover, a database with descriptions of Dutch court sentences provided eight case descriptions of employee-organization interactions following a perceived violation. Based on these data sources, we explored the pattern of upward dissent strategies employees used over time following a perceived violation. We distinguished between functional (thriving and reactivation, dysfunctional (impairment and dissolution and deserted psychological contract end states and explored whether different dissent patterns over time differentially contributed to the dissent outcome (i.e., psychological contract end state. The results of our study showed that the use of problem-focused coping is not as straightforward as suggested by the post-violation model. While the post-violation model suggests that problem

  8. A Model of Trust, Moods, and Emotions in Multiagent Systems and its Empirical Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-05

    US 3Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute , Troy, NY-12180, US Abstract We study the interplay of moods, emotions, and trust in decision- making contexts...748, May 2005. [9] Joseph P. Forgas. Mood and judgment: The affect infusion model (AIM). Psychological Bulletin , 117(1):39– 66, January 1995. [10] Jay

  9. Mood and the evaluation of leaders: a replication using an employee sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Birgit; Sanders, Karin

    2004-01-01

    A recently published study in Current Research in Social Psychology (Schyns & Sanders, 2003) focused on the relationship between mood and the perception of leadership. Although this experimental study showed a relationship between mood and the perception of management-by-exception passive, most of

  10. Effects of induced and naturalistic mood on the temporal allocation of attention to emotional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farach, Frank J; Treat, Teresa A; Jungé, Justin A

    2014-01-01

    Building upon recent findings that affective states can influence the allocation of spatial attention, we investigate how state, trait and induced mood are related to the temporal allocation of attention to emotional information. In the present study, 125 unscreened undergraduates completed a modified rapid serial visual presentation task designed to assess the time course of attention to positive and negative information, comparing a neutral baseline mood induction to either a positive or negative mood induction. Induced negative mood facilitated attentional engagement to positive information while decreasing attentional engagement to negative information. Greater naturally occurring negative state mood was associated with faster or more efficient disengagement of attention from negative information in the presence of manipulated negative mood, relative to baseline. The engagement findings were inconsistent with our mood-congruence hypotheses and may be better explained by mood repair or affective counter-regulation theories. In contrast, the disengagement findings for state mood were somewhat consistent with our mood-congruence hypotheses. The relationship between mood and attention to emotional information may differ depending on the combination of attentional mechanism (engagement versus disengagement), aspect of mood (state, trait or induced), stimulus valence (positive versus negative) and timescale (early versus late) under investigation.

  11. The Effect of the Psychological Sense of Community on the Psychological Well-Being in Older Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Pozzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ageing populations across Europe are increasing. Communities have an important role in not only engaging this segment of the population but also in helping them to make them feel “part of something” (local or global in order to favour their psychological well-being. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of volunteering and being connected in one’s community on well-being. The present paper will test an older volunteers’ psychological well-being model. 143 older volunteers completed measures of religiousness, sense of global responsibility, psychological sense of community, generativity, motivation to volunteer and a profile of mood states. Data show that a psychological sense of community has a key role in the study of older volunteerism due to its impact on well-being. Service agencies and administrations can develop campaigns to sustain older volunteerism in order to increase well-being and reduce social costs.

  12. Ethology and the biological correlates of mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrulnik, Boris

    2005-01-01

    The insights of ethology-the science of animal behavior from a biological and psychological point of view-were incorporated in the 1950s by the British developmental psychiatrist, John Bowlby, into his attachment theory, which argued that a secure affective base in infancy was critical to the normal development of perception, cognition, learning, and emotion, in addition to that of physical parameters. The theory was illustrated by Harlow's pioneering experiments with baby monkeys: those raised with a wire-frame "mother" failed to thrive, compared with the more normal development of those deriving comfort contact from a terry-cloth surrogate. Modern neuroscience techniques have confirmed that the absence of sensory stimulation during periods of maximal synaptic expansion provides the substrate for a subsequent mood disorder. Ethology offers a novel "nature plus nurture" approach to the development of abnormal mood, as well as a target for treatment.

  13. Weather change and Mood Disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jun Sato; Hiroyuki Mizoguchi; Kanoko Fukaya

    2011-01-01

      Mood disorder such as depression is serious problem in today's society. Weather change has been known to influence the condition of patients with mood disorder, and the seasonality in the evolvement of depressive symptoms...

  14. Emotion word processing: Does mood make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C. Sereno

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual emotion word processing has been in the focus of recent psycholinguistic research. In general, emotion words provoke differential responses in comparison to neutral words. However, words are typically processed within a context rather than in isolation. For instance, how does one’s inner emotional state influence the comprehension of emotion words? To address this question, the current study examined lexical decision responses to emotionally positive, negative, and neutral words as a function of induced mood as well as their word frequency. Mood was manipulated by exposing participants to different types of music. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions – no music, positive music, and negative music. Participants’ moods were assessed during the experiment to confirm the mood induction manipulation. Reaction time results confirmed prior demonstrations of an interaction between a word’s emotionality and its frequency. Results also showed a significant interaction between participant mood and word emotionality. However, the pattern of results was not consistent with mood-congruency effects. Although positive and negative mood facilitated responses overall in comparison to the control group, neither positive nor negative mood appeared to additionally facilitate responses to mood-congruent words. Instead, the pattern of findings seemed to be the consequence of attentional

  15. The effect of music-induced mood on attentional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Scolaro, Ashley J; Bailey, Kira; Chen, Antao

    2011-06-01

    Attention network theory suggests that there are three separate neural networks that execute the discrete functions of alerting, orienting, and executive attention. Previous research on the influence of mood on attention has shown subtle and inconsistent results. The attention network theory may aid in clarifying the influence of mood on attention. The present study investigated the influence of mood on attentional networks in a normal population. Participants performed the Attention Network Test (ANT), which provides functional measures of alerting, orienting, and executive attention. Positive or negative mood was induced by listening to music with a positive or negative valence, respectively; neutral mood was induced by reading a collection of basic facts about China. The results revealed that negative mood led to a significantly higher alerting efficiency relative to other moods, while there were no significant mood effects on orienting or executive attention efficiency. According to the algorithm underlying the ANT, the higher alerting efficiency in the negative mood condition can be attributed to relatively greater benefits of cueing effects. The findings are discussed in the context of the noradrenergic system and of evolutionary significance. Specifically, the increase in the alerting function during negative mood states may be due to the modulation effect of negative mood on the noradrenergic system, and/or to the survival benefit resulting from an increase in automatic vigilance towards negative information. The current results suggest that as the influence of negative mood on attention appears to specifically consist in an enhanced alerting function, it may not be found in studies where the three attentional networks are not dissociated.

  16. Emotion word processing: does mood make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, Sara C; Scott, Graham G; Yao, Bo; Thaden, Elske J; O'Donnell, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Visual emotion word processing has been in the focus of recent psycholinguistic research. In general, emotion words provoke differential responses in comparison to neutral words. However, words are typically processed within a context rather than in isolation. For instance, how does one's inner emotional state influence the comprehension of emotion words? To address this question, the current study examined lexical decision responses to emotionally positive, negative, and neutral words as a function of induced mood as well as their word frequency. Mood was manipulated by exposing participants to different types of music. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions-no music, positive music, and negative music. Participants' moods were assessed during the experiment to confirm the mood induction manipulation. Reaction time results confirmed prior demonstrations of an interaction between a word's emotionality and its frequency. Results also showed a significant interaction between participant mood and word emotionality. However, the pattern of results was not consistent with mood-congruency effects. Although positive and negative mood facilitated responses overall in comparison to the control group, neither positive nor negative mood appeared to additionally facilitate responses to mood-congruent words. Instead, the pattern of findings seemed to be the consequence of attentional effects arising from induced mood. Positive mood broadens attention to a global level, eliminating the category distinction of positive-negative valence but leaving the high-low arousal dimension intact. In contrast, negative mood narrows attention to a local level, enhancing within-category distinctions, in particular, for negative words, resulting in less effective facilitation.

  17. Sport Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  18. Facts and Fancy. Mood Alteration Through Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Bonnie G.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research suggests that exercise not only reduces undesirable mood states such as anxiety, depression, anger, confusion, and fatigue, but also enhances positive characteristics such as vigor and self esteem. Current research studies are discussed, and the need for additional research is noted. (CJ)

  19. The Changing Mood in America. Eroding Commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Faustine Childress; And Others

    This book examines the current social climate in the United States to determine whether there is an eroding social commitment to equal opportunity for blacks and other minorities and the poor. It is concluded that there is a changing mood in the dominant society, in the black population, and in all three branches of the federal government, and it…

  20. Rural Development and the Contribution of Psychology: A Review of the State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Roberti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Seventy per cent of the world poor population lives in rural areas. Despite efforts to eradicate poverty, results are limited. Rural development is a process to transform production and change institutions; but psychosocial obstacles exist. Our aim was to explore and describe the synergy of rural development and Psychology as presented in 111 papers published between 1985 and 2012. Selected papers on rural issues used psychological concepts such as perception, beliefs, decision, attitudes, and empowerment. Psychology may make useful contributions to territorial rural development

  1. Mood, food, and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minati eSingh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.

  2. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  3. Mood, food, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.

  4. Mood, food, and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity. PMID:25225489

  5. Psychological Impact of Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jennifer; Meng, Chelsea; Eng, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The causes of severe obesity are multifactorial and include metabolic, dietary, physical, and psychological aspects. Additionally, the impact of severe obesity affects more than one's physical health. This article attempts to explore the psychological impact of severe obesity specifically in the areas of mood, eating disorders, sleep disturbance, chronic pain, and quality of life. Additionally, obesity treatment options of lifestyle modification and bariatric surgery that include psychological assessment and/or cognitive behavioral intervention are discussed.

  6. Diurnal Mood Fluctuation and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Donald I.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Studied the nature of diurnal mood variations in 173 persons aged 13 to 82. Results indicated adolescents and young adults tended to report better moods toward evening while middle-aged and elderly persons reported better moods in the morning. Limited findings suggest the opposite trends for depressed psychiatric patients (Author/JA)

  7. The effects of alcohol on mood induced by an emotional film. A study among women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilburg, M.A.L.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol on women's reactions to a negative mood-inducing stimulus. It is hypothesized that, like in men, alcohol also reduces tension or induces positive mood in women. In addition, we explored whether different mood states were

  8. Robot mood is contagious : Effects of robot body language in the imitation game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Broekens, J.; Hindriks, K.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mood contagion is an automatic mechanism that induces a congruent mood state by means of the observation of another person's emotional expression. In this paper, we address the question whether robot mood displayed during an imitation game can (a) be recognized by participants and (b) produce

  9. Robot Mood is Contagious : Effects of Robot Body Language in the Imitation Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Broekens, D.J.; Hindriks, K.V.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mood contagion is an automatic mechanism that induces a congruent mood state by means of the observation of another person's emotional expression. In this paper, we address the question whether robot mood displayed during an imitation game can (a) be recognized by participants and (b) produce

  10. The field of forensic psychology in Israel--the state of the discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Moshe

    2009-12-01

    The process of the establishment of forensic psychology in Israel begins in the eighties; while at the past 6 years after the creation of the Department of Psychology, Law and Ethics--The International Center for Health, Law and Ethics at Haifa University, the field continues to grow rapidly. Today, the development of forensic psychology is reflected in the scientific practice at Haifa University as at others (academic courses for different graduate levels and research concerning professional and ethical issues); as well as in the practical professional development of professional organizations, practice standards and training programs. Now as a specialty, forensic psychology must continue to make an effort to enrich in science and in professional practice, its aid in the administration of justice by assisting legal decision-makers.

  11. Chronobiology and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirz-Justice, Anna

    2003-12-01

    The clinical observations of diurnal variation of mood and early morning awakening in depression have been incorporated into established diagnostic systems, as has the seasonal modifier defining winter depression (seasonal affective disorder, SAD). Many circadian rhythms measured in depressive patients are abnormal: earlier in timing, diminished in amplitude, or of greater variability. Whether these disturbances are of etiological significance for the role of circadian rhythms in mood disorders, or a consequence of altered behavior can only be dissected out with stringent protocols (eg, constant routine or forced desynchrony). These protocols quantify contributions of the circadian pacemaker and a homeostatic sleep process impacting on mood, energy, appetite, and sleep. Future studies will elucidate any allelic mutations in "circadian clock" -related or "sleep"-related genes in depression. With respect to treatment, antidepressants and mood stabilizers have no consistent effect on circadian rhythmicity. The most rapid antidepressant modality known so far is nonpharmacological: total or partial sleep deprivation in the second half of the night. The disadvantage of sleep deprivation, that most patients relapse after recovery sleep, can be prevented by coadministration of lithium, pindolol, serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors, bright light, or a subsequent phase-advance procedure. Phase advance of the sleep-wake cycle alone also has rapid effects on depressed mood, which lasts longer than sleep deprivation. Light is the treatment of choice for SAD and may prove to be useful for nonseasonal depression, alone or as an adjunct to medication. Chronobiological concepts emphasize the important role of zeitgebers to stabilize phase, light being the most important, but dark (and rest) periods, regularity of social schedules and meal times, and use of melatonin or its analogues should also be considered. Advances in chronobiology continue to contribute novel treatments for

  12. The impact of a simulated grand tour on sleep, mood, and well-being of competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastella, M; Roach, G D; Halson, S L; Martin, D T; West, N P; Sargent, C

    2015-12-01

    Professional cycling is considered one of the most demanding of all endurance sports. The three major professional cycling stages races (i.e. Tour de France, Giro d'Italia and Vuelta a España) require cyclists to compete daily covering between ~150-200 km for three consecutive weeks. Anecdotal evidence indicates that such an event has a significant effect on the sleep, mood, and general well-being of cyclists, particularly during the latter stages of the event. The primary aim of this study was to simulate a grand tour and determine the impact a grand tour has on the sleep, mood, and general well-being of competitive cyclists. Twenty-one male cyclists (M±SD, age 22.2±2.7 years) were examined for 39 days across three phases (i.e. baseline, simulated grand tour, and recovery). Sleep was assessed using sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors. Mood and general well-being were assessed using the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) and Visual Analogue Scales (VAS). The amount and quality of sleep as assessed by the wrist activity monitors declined during the simulated grand tour. In contrast, self-reported sleep quality improved throughout the study. Cyclists' mood and general well-being as indicated by vigour, motivation, physical and mental state declined during the simulated tour. Future investigations should examine sleep, mood and well-being during an actual grand tour. Such data could prove instrumental toward understanding the sleep and psychological changes that occur during a grand tour.

  13. Expat University Professors' State of Psychological Well-Being and Academic Optimism towards University Task in UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guanzon Rile Jr.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the state of psychological well-being and academic optimism in relation to university tasks among one hundred sixty-nine (169 professors in selected UAE universities, utilizing mixed quantitative and qualitative research approaches. The quantitative aspect primarily employed descriptive correlation method which used quantifiable data through survey instruments on psychological well-being, academic optimism, and university tasks. The qualitative analysis was used through a focused group discussion among nineteen (19 key informants. Six (6 areas of psychological wellbeing: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations, purpose in life, and selfacceptance were measured through the Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Academic optimism scale measured three (3 subscales: efficacy, trust, and academic emphasis. University tasks were categorized into three (3 major areas: student centered work, professional development work, and community centered work. The moderator variables considered were age, gender, length of teaching experience, length of experience in the UAE, and area of specialization. The results showed that the participants tend towards high scores in the subscales of autonomy, self-acceptance, and purpose in life. The academic optimism scale showed prominent high scores in efficacy and trust. Among the university tasks, student-centered work was the most fulfilled. Using the focused-group discussion, most expat university professors lament on the lack of time, management support, and lack of funding to pursue professional development, particularly research and publication. The regression analysis showed that there is a significant correlation between psychological well-being and academic optimism. Both psychological well-being and academic optimism predicts fulfillment of university tasks.

  14. The influence of psychological state and motivation on brain-computer interface performance in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis - a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Nijboer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the effects of psychological well-being measured as quality of life, depression, current mood and motivation on brain-computer interface (BCI performance in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Six participants with most advanced ALS were trained either for a block of 20 sessions with a BCI based on sensorimotor rhythms (SMR or a block of 10 sessions with a BCI based on event-related potentials (ERP, or both. Questionnaires assessed quality of life and severity of depressive symptoms before each training block and mood and motivation before each training session. The SMR-BCI required more training than the P300-BCI. The information transfer rate was higher with the P300-BCI (3.25 bits/minute than with the SMR-BCI (1.16 bits/minute. Mood and motivation were related to the number of BCI sessions. Motivational factors, specifically challenge and mastery confidence, were positively related to BCI performance (controlled for the number of sessions in tow participants, while incompetence fear was negatively related with performance in one participant. BCI performance was not related to motivational factors in three other participants nor to mood in any of the six participants. We conclude that motivational factors may be related to BCI performance in individual subjects and suggest that motivational factors and well-being should be assessed in standard BCI protocols. We also recommend using P300-based BCI as first choice in severely paralysed patients who present with a P300 evoked potential.

  15. Validity of visual analog scales for assessing psychological states in patients with chronic neck pain. Journal of Musculoskeletal pain

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriadis, Zacharias; Strimpakos, Nikolaos; Kapreli, Eleni; Oldham, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Examination of visual analog scale’s [VAS] validity for assessing psychological states in patients with chronic neck pain.Methods: Forty-five patients with chronic neck pain completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, and Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Anxiety, depression, kinesiophobia, and catastrophizing were additionally assessed by using a VAS for each.Results: Only the anxiety VAS could correlate high enough with its corresponding questio...

  16. [An investigation of psychological state at different stages of occupational AIDS exposure and related influencing factors in Nanning, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Q; Ge, X M; Mo, J C; Li, S S; Chen, C C; Chen, S Y

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the changes in psychological state after occupational exposure in the AIDS occupational exposure population and related influencing factors, and to provide baseline data and a basis for related departments to conduct mental health prevention and intervention for personnel with occupational AIDS exposure. Methods: AIDS risk assessment was performed for all personnel with occupational AIDS exposure in 2014 in Nanning, China, and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) psychological scale was used for psychological state evaluation at 24 hours, 1 week, and 3 months after occupational exposure in all persons who met the research criteria. Results: Most of the persons with occupational AIDS exposure came from secondary and tertiary hospitals (85%) , and nurses accounted for the highest percentage (78.3% ). The age ranged from 21 to 50 years, and the mean age was 31.02 ± 7.92 years. The persons with occupational AIDS exposure aged 20~29 years accounted for the highest percentage (51.6%) , and most persons (76.7%) graduated from junior colleges. Compared with the adult norm, there was significant increases in the total psychological score and the number of positive items after occupational exposure (P<0.05). The scores of all items at 24 hours were significantly higher than those at the other time points, and the scores of all items gradually decreased over time (F=227.24, 267.57, and 287.46, P<0.05). Compared with the adult norm, there were significant increases in the factor points at 24 hours and significant reductions in the factor points at 3 months (P<0.05). Compared with those at 24 hours, the factor scores at 3 months decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Occupational AIDS exposure affects the mental status of related personnel, and the mental status at 24 hours after exposure is poor. Related departments should provide corresponding psychological counseling for the occupational exposure population at different exposure times.

  17. The influence of music on mood and performance while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein D; Dijksterhuis, Chris; de Waard, Dick; Mulder, Ben L J M; Westerink, Joyce H D M; Brookhuis, Karel A

    2012-01-01

    Mood can influence our everyday behaviour and people often seek to reinforce, or to alter their mood, for example by turning on music. Music listening while driving is a popular activity. However, little is known about the impact of music listening while driving on physiological state and driving performance. In the present experiment, it was investigated whether individually selected music can induce mood and maintain moods during a simulated drive. In addition, effects of positive, negative, and no music on driving behaviour and physiological measures were assessed for normal and high cognitive demanding rides. Subjective mood ratings indicated that music successfully maintained mood while driving. Narrow lane width drives increased task demand as shown in effort ratings and increased swerving. Furthermore, respiration rate was lower during music listening compared to rides without music, while no effects of music were found on heart rate. Overall, the current study demonstrates that music listening in car influences the experienced mood while driving, which in turn can impact driving behaviour. PRACTITIONERS SUMMARY: Even though it is a popular activity, little is known about the impact of music while driving on physiological state and performance. We examined whether music can induce moods during high and low simulated drives. The current study demonstrates that in car music listening influences mood which in turn can impact driving behaviour. The current study shows that listening to music can positively impact mood while driving, which can be used to affect state and safe behaviour. Additionally, driving performance in high demand situations is not negatively affected by music.

  18. The paradoxical psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Bolstridge, M; Williams, T M; Williams, L T; Underwood, R; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2016-05-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent serotonergic hallucinogen or psychedelic that modulates consciousness in a marked and novel way. This study sought to examine the acute and mid-term psychological effects of LSD in a controlled study. A total of 20 healthy volunteers participated in this within-subjects study. Participants received LSD (75 µg, intravenously) on one occasion and placebo (saline, intravenously) on another, in a balanced order, with at least 2 weeks separating sessions. Acute subjective effects were measured using the Altered States of Consciousness questionnaire and the Psychotomimetic States Inventory (PSI). A measure of optimism (the Revised Life Orientation Test), the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, and the Peter's Delusions Inventory were issued at baseline and 2 weeks after each session. LSD produced robust psychological effects; including heightened mood but also high scores on the PSI, an index of psychosis-like symptoms. Increased optimism and trait openness were observed 2 weeks after LSD (and not placebo) and there were no changes in delusional thinking. The present findings reinforce the view that psychedelics elicit psychosis-like symptoms acutely yet improve psychological wellbeing in the mid to long term. It is proposed that acute alterations in mood are secondary to a more fundamental modulation in the quality of cognition, and that increased cognitive flexibility subsequent to serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) stimulation promotes emotional lability during intoxication and leaves a residue of 'loosened cognition' in the mid to long term that is conducive to improved psychological wellbeing.

  19. Psychological benefits for cancer patients and their partners participating in mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Kathryn; Garland, Sheila N; Carlson, Linda E

    2010-09-01

    Cancer patients experience many negative psychological symptoms including stress, anxiety, and depression. This distress is not limited to the patient, as their partners also experience many psychological challenges. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) programs have demonstrated clinical benefit for a variety of chronic illnesses, including cancer. This is the first study to report MBSR participation with partners of cancer patients. This study examined the impact of an 8-week MBSR program for 21 couples who attended the program together on outcomes of mood disturbance, symptoms of stress, and mindfulness. Significant reductions for both patients and partners in mood disturbance (pMBSR participation couple's scores on the Profile of Mood States and C-SOSI were more highly correlated with one-another. Post-intervention, partners' mood disturbance scores were significantly positively correlated with patients' symptoms of stress and negatively correlated with patients' levels of mindfulness. Overall, the MBSR program was helpful for improving psychological functioning and mindfulness for both members of the couple. Several avenues of future research are suggested to further explore potential benefits of joint couple attendance in the MBSR program. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Electroencephalogram, cognitive state, psychological disorders, clinical symptom, and oxidative stress in horticulture farmers exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrami, Mansour; Hashemi, Touraj; Malekirad, Ali Akbar; Ashayeri, Hassan; Faraji, Fardin; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the toxicity of organophosphate (OP) pesticides in exposed farmers for electroencephalography, cognitive state, psychological disorders, clinical symptom, oxidative stress, acetylcholinesterase, and DNA damage. A comparative cross-sectional analysis was carried out in 40 horticulture farmers who were exposed to OPs in comparison to a control group containing 40 healthy subjects with the same age and sex and education level. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, DNA damage, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total thiol molecules, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were measured in the blood of subjects. Clinical examination and complete blood test were undertaken in order to record any abnormal sign or symptoms. Cognitive function, psychological symptoms, and psychological distress were examined and recorded. Comparing with controls, the farmers showed higher blood levels of SOD and LPO while their TAC decreased. Farmers showed clinical symptoms such as eczema, breathing muscle weakness, nausea, and saliva secretion. Regarding cognitive function, the orientation, registration, attention and calculation, recall, and language were not significantly different in farmers and controls. Among examinations for psychological distress, only labeled somatization was significantly higher in farmers. The present findings indicate that oxidative stress and inhibition of AChE can be seen in chronically OP-exposed people but incidence of neuropsychological disorders seems a complex multivariate phenomenon that might be seen in long-term high-dose exposure situations. Use of supplementary antioxidants would be useful in the treatment of farmers.

  1. Negative mood reverses devaluation of goal-directed drug-seeking favouring an incentive learning account of drug dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Hogarth, L.; Zhimin, H; Chase, HW; Wills, AJ; Troisi II, J; Leventhal, M.; Mathew, AR; Hitsman, B

    2015-01-01

    Background Two theories explain how negative mood primes smoking behaviour. The stimulus?response (S-R) account argues that in the negative mood state, smoking is experienced as more reinforcing, establishing a direct (automatic) association between the negative mood state and smoking behaviour. By contrast, the incentive learning account argues that in the negative mood state smoking is expected to be more reinforcing, which integrates with instrumental knowledge of the response required to ...

  2. Relationships between tea and other beverage consumption to work performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Janet; Tuckey, Michelle; Einöther, Suzanne J L; Garczarek, Ursula; Garrick, Adam; De Bruin, Eveline A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this research was to examine relationships between tea, coffee and other beverage consumption and associates of work performance and mood among individuals in relatively stressful and cognitively demanding work-place settings. Using a naturalistic, cross-sectional study design, 95 professional and academic staff logged their beverage intake and completed self-reports of associates of work performance (fatigue/exhaustion, mindfulness, work engagement), subjective work performance, mood, work-related strain and recovery four times daily during ten working days. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling in keeping with the hierarchical structure of the data. Tea consumption was associated with increased perceived work performance and reduced tiredness, especially when consumed without milk or sugar. Consumption of non-caffeinated beverages was associated with increased relaxation and recovery from work. In contrast, tea and other caffeinated beverages were found to enhance the negative effects of evening recovery and morning mood on mindfulness during the day. The findings suggest that beverage intake may have a role in optimising work-related psychological states and performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Affect intensity and negative mood regulation (NMR) expectancies: a preliminary Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Seema; Tripathi, Ravikesh

    2012-06-01

    Individuals differ in the intensity with which they typically experience affect as well as in their beliefs regarding their ability to alleviate negative mood states. These variables have been implicated in a range of clinical problems. Most studies utilize a single index of affect intensity. The differential correlates of positive and negative affect intensity, their association with negative mood regulation expectancy and their role as predictors of psychological outcomes have been insufficiently explored. This study aimed at exploring the relationship of affect intensity variables with negative mood regulation (NMR) expectancy, their association with age and gender and examining the role of affect intensity and NMR expectancy as predictors of stress and well being in a community sample of Indian adults. The sample consisted of 206 participants aged between 20 and 60 years. Higher age was associated with higher NMR expectancy but lower positive affect intensity. Positive and negative affect intensity showed differential patterns of association with NMR expectancy. Higher negative affect intensity was associated with lower NMR expectancy whereas higher positive affect intensity was associated with higher NMR expectancy. Affect intensity and NMR expectancy variables jointly predicted 30-39% of variance in perceived stress and well being. Implications for further research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive Performance, Mood, and Neurological Status at High Terrestrial Elevation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banderet, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive and psychomotor performance and mood states, including many critical behavioral functions such as sleep, memory, reasoning, and vigilance, are significantly impaired by ascent to HTE higher than 3,000 m...

  5. The evolutionary origins of mood and its disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nettle, Daniel; Bateson, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The term 'mood' in its scientific usage refers to relatively enduring affective states that arise when negative or positive experience in one context or time period alters the individual's threshold...

  6. Psychotherapy of Mood Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Picardi, Angelo; Gaetano, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing acceptance as a major treatment option for mood disorders. Empirically supported treatments for major depression include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioural therapy and, to a lesser extent, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that psychotherapy has a significant and clinically relevant, though not large, effect on chronic forms of depression. Psychothera...

  7. On being happy and mistaken: mood effects on the fundamental attribution error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgas, J P

    1998-08-01

    Does temporary mood influence the occurrence of the fundamental attribution error (FAE)? Based on recent affect-cognition theorizing and research on attributions, 3 experiments predicted and found that negative moods decrease and positive moods increase the FAE, because of the information-processing consequences of these affective states. In Experiment 1, happy mood enhanced and sad mood reduced dispositional attributions based on coerced essays advocating unpopular opinions. Experiment 2 replicated this effect using an unobtrusive mood induction in a field study. Experiment 3 further confirmed these results and also showed that changes in the FAE were linked to mood-induced differences in processing style, as indicated by memory data and confirmed by mediational analyses. The results are discussed in terms of the cognitive processing strategies that mediate mood effects on attributions. The implications of the findings for everyday inferences and for contemporary theories of affect and cognition are considered.

  8. Mood-congruent/incongruent dichotomy. The need for an advanced mood concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritz, W F

    1983-01-01

    Initially, some arguments are brought forward why, at the present state of differential diagnosis, it is useful to apply the term schizo-affective disorder. The basic considerations concern the consequences of the semantic confusion between mood and affect and how this affects differential diagnosis of functional psychoses. The view is maintained that from an action theoretic model mood states have to be conceptualized as differing forms of pragmatics of reality creation and self-interpretation (in other words, as multilogic of self-observation, self-protection, self-repair, and of the relativistic and reflective structure of inter- and intrapersonal communication). The concept of mood congruency/incongruency is meaningful only as a metaconcept in regard to emotional connotation, perceptive operations, cognitive processes, nonverbal expressions, autonomic parameters, and so on.

  9. Neural Mechanisms of Positive Mood Induced Modulation of Reality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Gill, Jeevit; Slattery, Patrick; Shastri, Aditi; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the neural mechanisms of mood induced modulation of cognition, specifically, on reality monitoring abilities. Reality monitoring is the ability to accurately distinguish the source of self-generated information from externally-presented contextual information. When participants were in a positive mood, compared to a neutral mood, they significantly improved their source memory identification abilities, particularly for self-generated information. However, being in a negative mood had no effect on reality monitoring abilities. Additionally, when participants were in a positive mood state, they showed activation in several regions that predisposed them to perform better at reality monitoring. Specifically, positive mood induced activity within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) was associated with improvements in subsequent identification of self-generated information, and positive mood induced activation within the striatum (putamen) facilitated better identification of externally-presented information. These findings indicate that regions within mPFC, PCC and striatum are sensitive to positive mood-cognition enhancing effects that enable participants to be better prepared for subsequent reality monitoring decision-making. PMID:27895571

  10. Death and Dying Course Offerings in Psychology: A Survey of Nine Midwestern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerd, Lizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The certainty of facing death and bereavement and the complex personal and societal issues involved argue for the importance of death education. The current study addresses a gap in knowledge by beginning to assess the extent of dying, death, and bereavement (DD&B) course offerings by U.S. psychology departments. This article reports on data…

  11. Issues regarding the importance of studying the psychological State of individual students in the education process

    OpenAIRE

    NURMAMATOV A.S.; DURMANOVA G.D.

    2014-01-01

    This academic article attempts to expound on the methods of early childhood education and its unique and important qualities from a pedagogical and psychological point of view. Furthermore, it is important look at every child as an individual with unique qualities and to nurture them.

  12. The psychological roots of populist voting: Evidence from the United States, the Netherlands and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.N.; Rooduijn, M.; Schumacher, G.

    2016-01-01

    What are the psychological roots of support for populist parties or outfits such as the Tea Party, the Dutch Freedom Party or Germany’s Die Linke? Populist parties have as common denominator that they employ an anti-establishment message, which they combine with some ‘host’ ideology. Building on the

  13. On the effect of emotional states on operator thinking. [psychological test for operator selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodkova, A. V.

    1975-01-01

    A combination sonic and electrical skin stimuli stress test is reported that is suitable for the psychological selection of individuals to perform operator functions. The behavior of these people is characterized by a fighting spirit, increased work capacity, minimum expenditure of strength and insignificant fatigue.

  14. The linkages between cultural differences, psychological states, and performance in international mergers and acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Yaakov; Drori, Israel

    2008-01-01

    A model focusing on the role of the individual in national and corporate culture clash situations, during post-merger integration, is presented. The theory of psychological contract is adapted to explain different individual expectations in domestic versus international mergers and acquisitions

  15. An Insider's Look at the Development and Current State of Community Psychology in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Maritza

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the rich history of community psychology in Latin America, describing how the field was systematically built during the second half of the 20th century. Discussed are social and political influences such as the critique of individualistic emphasis dominant at that moment, Paulo Freire's popular education, critical sociology…

  16. Psychology in its Place: Personal Reflections on the State We're In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollin, Gregory J. S.; Hollin, Clive R.

    2009-01-01

    John Radford's original article (Radford, 2008a) asked some hard questions about the content and purpose of a degree in psychology. The original article prompted a number of replies and a rejoinder from Radford (2008b). In the spirit of carrying on the discussion started by Radford and others, this article offers two personal perspectives on our…

  17. Sleep deprivation leads to mood deficits in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A; Louca, Mia

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of 36 h of sleep deprivation on the discrete mood states of anger, depression, anxiety, confusion, fatigue, and vigour in healthy adolescents. Twelve healthy adolescent good sleepers (six male), aged 14-18 years (M = 16.17, standard deviation (SD) = 0.83), spent three consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory of the Centre for Sleep Research: two baseline nights with 10-h sleep opportunities and one night of total sleep deprivation. Every 2 h during wakefulness, they completed the Profile of Mood States - Short Form. Mood across two baseline days was compared to mood at the same clock time (0900 h to 1900 h) following one night without sleep. The subscales of depression, anger, confusion, anxiety, vigour, and fatigue were compared across days. All mood states significantly worsened following one night without sleep. Females showed a greater vulnerability to mood deficits following sleep loss, with greater depressed mood and anxiety following sleep deprivation only witnessed among female participants. While both males and females reported more confusion following sleep deprivation, the magnitude of this effect was greater for females. This study provides empirical support for the notion that sleep loss can causally affect mood states in healthy adolescents, with females having heightened vulnerability. Understanding the detrimental effects of insufficient sleep during adolescence is important, as it is a stage where sleep loss and mood dysregulation are highly prevalent. These findings escalate the importance of promoting sleep for the well-being of adolescents at this critical life phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mood Disorders in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, John G.; Su, Li; Urowitz, Murray B.; Romero-Diaz, Juanita; Gordon, Caroline; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Bernatsky, Sasha; Clarke, Ann E.; Wallace, Daniel J.; Merrill, Joan T.; Isenberg, David A.; Rahman, Anisur; Ginzler, Ellen M.; Petri, Michelle; Bruce, Ian N.; Dooley, M. A.; Fortin, Paul; Gladman, Dafna D.; Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge; Steinsson, Kristjan; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Khamashta, Munther A.; Aranow, Cynthia; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Fessler, Barri J.; Manzi, Susan; Nived, Ola; Sturfelt, Gunnar K.; Zoma, Asad A.; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F.; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Lim, S. Sam; Kalunian, Kenneth C.; Inanc, Murat; Kamen, Diane L.; Peschken, Christine A.; Jacobsen, Soren; Askanase, Anca; Theriault, Chris; Thompson, Kara; Farewell, Vernon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency, clinical and autoantibody associations and outcome of mood disorders in a multi-ethnic/racial, prospective, inception cohort of SLE patients. Methods Patients were assessed annually for mood disorders (4 types as per DSM-IV) and 18 other neuropsychiatric (NP) events. Global disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI) and SF-36 subscale, mental (MCS) and physical (PCS) component summary scores were collected. Time to event, linear and ordinal regressions and multi-state models were used as appropriate. Results Of 1,827 SLE patients, 88.9% were female, 48.9% Caucasian, mean ± SD age 35.1±13.3 years, disease duration 5.6±4.8 months and follow-up 4.73±3.45 years. Over the study 863 (47.2%) patients had 1,627 NP events. Mood disorders occurred in 232/1827 (12.7%) patients and 98/256 (38.3%) events were attributed to SLE. The estimated cumulative incidence of any mood disorder after 10 years was 17.7% (95%CI=[15.1%,20.2%]). There was a greater risk of mood disorder in patients with concurrent NP events (p ≤ 0.01) and lower risk with Asian race/ethnicity (p=0.01) and immunosuppressive drugs (p=0.003). Mood disorders were associated with lower mental health subscale and MCS scores but not with SLEDAI-2K, SDI scores or lupus autoantibodies. Antidepressants were used in 168/232 (72.4%) patients with depression. 126/256 (49.2%) mood disorders resolved in 117/232 (50.4%) patients. Conclusion Mood disorders, the second most frequent NP event in SLE patients, have a negative impact on HRQoL and improve over time. The lack of association with global SLE disease activity, cumulative organ damage and lupus autoantibodies emphasize their multifactorial etiology and a role for non-lupus specific therapies. PMID:25778456

  19. Why People Are in a Generally Good Mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Kanazawa, Satoshi; Suh, Eunkook M; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2015-08-01

    Evidence shows that people feel mild positive moods when no strong emotional events are occurring, a phenomenon known as positive mood offset. We offer an evolutionary explanation of this characteristic, showing that it improves fertility, fecundity, and health, and abets other characteristics that were critical to reproductive success. We review research showing that positive mood offset is virtually universal in the nations of the world, even among people who live in extremely difficult circumstances. Positive moods increase the likelihood of the types of adaptive behaviors that likely characterized our Paleolithic ancestors, such as creativity, planning, mating, and sociality. Because of the ubiquity and apparent advantages of positive moods, it is a reasonable hypothesis that humans were selected for positivity offset in our evolutionary past. We outline additional evidence that is needed to help confirm that positive mood offset is an evolutionary adaptation in humans and we explore the research questions that the hypothesis generates. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. Psychological mechanisms and the ups and downs of personal recovery in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Alyson L; Mezes, Barbara; Lobban, Fiona; Jones, Steven H

    2017-09-01

    Personal recovery is recognized as an important outcome for individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) and is distinct from symptomatic and functional recovery. Recovery-focused psychological therapies show promise. As with therapies aiming to delay relapse and improve symptoms, research on the psychological mechanisms underlying recovery is crucial to inform effective recovery-focused therapy. However, empirical work is limited. This study investigated whether negative beliefs about mood swings and self-referent appraisals of mood-related experiences were negatively associated with personal recovery. Cross-sectional online survey. People with a verified research diagnosis of BD (n = 87), recruited via relevant voluntary sector organizations and social media, completed online measures. Pearson's correlations and multiple regression analysed associations between appraisals, beliefs, and recovery. Normalizing appraisals of mood changes were positively associated with personal recovery. Depression, negative self-appraisals of depression-relevant experiences, extreme positive and negative appraisals of activated states, and negative beliefs about mood swings had negative relationships with recovery. After controlling for current mood symptoms, negative illness models (relating to how controllable, long-term, concerning, and treatable mood swings are; β = -.38), being employed (β = .39), and both current (β = -.53) and recent experience of depression (β = .30) predicted recovery. Due to the cross-sectional design, causality cannot be determined. Participants were a convenience sample primarily recruited online. Power was limited by the sample size. Interventions aiming to empower people to feel able to manage mood and catastrophize less about mood swings could facilitate personal recovery in people with BD, which might be achieved in recovery-focused therapy. Personal recovery is an important outcome for people living with bipolar disorder More positive

  1. The effect of preferred music on mood and performance in a high-cognitive demand occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Mild positive affect has been shown in the psychological literature to improve cognitive skills of creative problem-solving and systematic thinking. Individual preferred music listening offers opportunity for improved positive affect. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of preferred music listening on state-mood and cognitive performance in a high-cognitive demand occupation. Twenty-four professional computer information systems developers (CISD) from a North American IT company participated in a 3-week study with a music/no music/music weekly design. During the music weeks, participants listened to their preferred music "when they wanted, as they wanted." Self-reports of State Positive Affect, State Negative Affect, and Cognitive Performance were measured throughout the 3 weeks. Results indicate a statistically significant improvement in both state-mood and cognitive performance scores. "High-cognitive demand" is a relative term given that challenges presented to individuals may occur on a cognitive continuum from need for focus and selective attention to systematic analysis and creative problem-solving. The findings and recommendations have important implications for music therapists in their knowledge of the effect of music on emotion and cognition, and, as well, have important implications for music therapy consultation to organizations.

  2. Temperament and Mood Detection Using Case-Based Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo Kolawole John; Adekoya Adewale M.; Ekwonna Chinnasa

    2014-01-01

    Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is a branch of AI that is employed to solving problems which emphasizes the use of previous solutions in solving similar new problems. This work presents TAMDS, a Temperament and Mood Detection system which employs Case-Based Reasoning technique. The proposed system is adapted to the field of psychology to help psychologists solve part of the problems in their complex domain. We have designed TAMDS to detect temperament and moods of individuals. A major aim of our s...

  3. Applications of time-series analysis to mood fluctuations in bipolar disorder to promote treatment innovation: a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, E A; Bonsall, M B; Hales, S A; Mitchell, H; Renner, F; Blackwell, S E; Watson, P; Goodwin, G M; Di Simplicio, M

    2016-01-01

    Treatment innovation for bipolar disorder has been hampered by a lack of techniques to capture a hallmark symptom: ongoing mood instability. Mood swings persist during remission from acute mood episodes and impair daily functioning. The last significant treatment advance remains Lithium (in the 1970s), which aids only the minority of patients. There is no accepted way to establish proof of concept for a new mood-stabilizing treatment. We suggest that combining insights from mood measurement with applied mathematics may provide a step change: repeated daily mood measurement (depression) over a short time frame (1 month) can create individual bipolar mood instability profiles. A time-series approach allows comparison of mood instability pre- and post-treatment. We test a new imagery-focused cognitive therapy treatment approach (MAPP; Mood Action Psychology Programme) targeting a driver of mood instability, and apply these measurement methods in a non-concurrent multiple baseline design case series of 14 patients with bipolar disorder. Weekly mood monitoring and treatment target data improved for the whole sample combined. Time-series analyses of daily mood data, sampled remotely (mobile phone/Internet) for 28 days pre- and post-treatment, demonstrated improvements in individuals' mood stability for 11 of 14 patients. Thus the findings offer preliminary support for a new imagery-focused treatment approach. They also indicate a step in treatment innovation without the requirement for trials in illness episodes or relapse prevention. Importantly, daily measurement offers a description of mood instability at the individual patient level in a clinically meaningful time frame. This costly, chronic and disabling mental illness demands innovation in both treatment approaches (whether pharmacological or psychological) and measurement tool: this work indicates that daily measurements can be used to detect improvement in individual mood stability for treatment innovation (MAPP

  4. Does mood affect trading behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaustia, Markku; Rantapuska, Elias

    2012-01-01

    We test whether investor mood affects trading with data on all stock market transactions in Finland, utilizing variation in daylight and local weather. We find some evidence that environmental mood variables (local weather, length of day, daylight saving and lunar phase) affect investors’ direction of trade and volume. The effect magnitudes are roughly comparable to those of classical seasonals, such as the Monday effect. The statistical significance of the mood variables is weak in many case...

  5. Mood dynamics in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Paul J; Little, Max A; McSharry, Patrick E; Goodwin, Guy M; Geddes, John R

    2014-01-01

    The nature of mood variation in bipolar disorder has been the subject of relatively little research because detailed time series data has been difficult to obtain until recently. However some papers have addressed the subject and claimed the presence of deterministic chaos and of stochastic nonlinear dynamics. This study uses mood data collected from eight outpatients using a telemonitoring system. The nature of mood dynamics in bipolar disorder is investigated using surrogate data techniques...

  6. Reciprocal Limbic-Cortical Function and Negative Mood: Converging PET Findings in Depression and Normal Sadness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mayberg, Helen S; Liotti, Mario; Brannan, Stephen K; McGinnis, Scott; Mahurin, Roderick K; Jerabek, Paul A; Silva, J. Arturo; Tekell, Janet L; Martin, Charles C; Lancaster, Jack L; Fox, Peter T

    1999-01-01

    .... Expanding on this theory, this study examined functional interactions between specific limbic and neocortical regions accompanying normal and disease-associated shifts in negative mood state. METHOD...

  7. MOOD DISTURBANCE DURING CYCLING PERFORMANCE AT EXTREME CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Wilson

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of extreme environments on mood state changes in hypoxic conditions and cold conditions in comparison to baseline conditions. The research design involved participants completing a two-hour stationary cycle ergometer ride at a simulated altitude of 2,500 metres, O°C, and normal laboratory conditions at a pace equivalent of lactate threshold. Eight male elite cyclists (Age: M = 26.23 yrs., SD = 6.74 completed the hypoxia- normal cycling trials. Ten male highly trained cyclists (Age: M = 23.34 yrs., SD = 5.45 participated in the cold-normal trials. Mood was assessed before, after one hour, and after two hours using the 24-item Brunel Mood Scale. MANOVA results indicated no significant interaction effect for mood changes over time by environment condition (Wilks' Lambda = .73, p = .32, Eta2 = .05, a significant main effect for mood changes over time (Wilks' Lambda = .61. p < .001, Partial Eta2 = .15 and a significant main effect for differences in mood by condition (Wilks' Lambda = .72, p < .000, Partial Eta2 = .15. Results indicated that increased anger, depression and fatigue were associated with performing at altitude, particularly after two hours of exercise. Collectively, results lend support to the notion that altitude is associated with negative mood states, although it should be noted that environment conditions did not affect the change in mood states over time. We suggest that further research is needed to explore mechanisms that individuals use to regulate negative mood during strenuous exercise.

  8. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baweja R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Raman Baweja, Susan D Mayes, Usman Hameed, James G Waxmonsky Department of Psychiatry, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA Abstract: Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD was introduced as a new diagnostic entity under the category of depressive disorders in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5. It was included in DSM-5 primarily to address concerns about the misdiagnosis and consequent overtreatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. DMDD does provide a home for a large percentage of referred children with severe persistent irritability that did not fit well into any DSM, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV diagnostic category. However, it has been a controversial addition to the DSM-5 due to lack of published validity studies, leading to questions about its validity as a distinct disorder. In this article, the authors discuss the diagnostic criteria, assessment, epidemiology, criticism of the diagnosis, and pathophysiology, as well as treatment and future directions for DMDD. They also review the literature on severe mood dysregulation, as described by the National Institute of Mental Health, as the scientific support for DMDD is based primarily on studies of severe mood dysregulation. Keywords: disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, persistent irritability, temper outbursts 

  9. Circadian mood variations in Twitter content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzogang, Fabon; Lightman, Stafford; Cristianini, Nello

    2017-01-01

    Circadian regulation of sleep, cognition, and metabolic state is driven by a central clock, which is in turn entrained by environmental signals. Understanding the circadian regulation of mood, which is vital for coping with day-to-day needs, requires large datasets and has classically utilised subjective reporting. In this study, we use a massive dataset of over 800 million Twitter messages collected over 4 years in the United Kingdom. We extract robust signals of the changes that happened during the course of the day in the collective expression of emotions and fatigue. We use methods of statistical analysis and Fourier analysis to identify periodic structures, extrema, change-points, and compare the stability of these events across seasons and weekends. We reveal strong, but different, circadian patterns for positive and negative moods. The cycles of fatigue and anger appear remarkably stable across seasons and weekend/weekday boundaries. Positive mood and sadness interact more in response to these changing conditions. Anger and, to a lower extent, fatigue show a pattern that inversely mirrors the known circadian variation of plasma cortisol concentrations. Most quantities show a strong inflexion in the morning. Since circadian rhythm and sleep disorders have been reported across the whole spectrum of mood disorders, we suggest that analysis of social media could provide a valuable resource to the understanding of mental disorder.

  10. Neuroplasticity in mood disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevets, Wayne C.

    2004-01-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropathological studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) have identified abnormalities of brain structure in areas of the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, striatum, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and raphe nucleus. These structural imaging abnormalities persist across illness episodes, and preliminary evidence suggests they may in some cases arise prior to the onset of depressive episodes in subjects at high familial risk for MDD. In other cases, the magnitude of abnormality is reportedly correlated with time spent depressed. Postmortem histopathological studies of these regions have shown abnormal reductions of synaptic markers and glial cells, and, in rare cases, reductions in neurons in MDD and BD. Many of the regions affected by these structural abnormalities show increased glucose metabolism during depressive episodes. Because the glucose metabolic signal is dominated by glutamatergic transmission, these data support other evidence that excitatory amino acid transmission is elevated in limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic circuits during depression. Some of the subject samples in which these metabolic abnormalities have been demonstrated were also shown to manifest abnormally elevated stressed plasma cortisol levels. The co-occurrence of increased glutamatergic transmission and Cortisol hypersecretion raises the possibility that the gray matter volumetric reductions in these depressed subjects are partly accounted for by processes homologous to the dendritic atrophy induced by chronic stress in adult rodents, which depends upon interactions between elevated glucocorticoid secretion and N-meihyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-glutamate receptor stimulation. Some mood-stabilizing and antidepressant drugs that exert neurotrophic effects in rodents appear to reverse or attenuate the gray matter volume abnormalities in humans with mood disorders. These neurotrophic effects may be integrally related to the therapeutic

  11. Sleep Deprivation in Mood Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benedetti, Francesco; Colombo, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    ...: total versus partial, single versus repeated, alone or combined with antidepressant drugs, mood stabilizers, or other chronotherapeutic techniques, such as light therapy and sleep phase advance...