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Sample records for psychological measurement hma279

  1. Attempting Measurement of Psychological Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSalzberger

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Measures of psychological attributes abound in the social sciences as much as measures of physical properties do in the physical sciences. However, there are crucial differences between the scientific underpinning of measurement. While measurement in the physical sciences is supported by empirical evidence that demonstrates the quantitative nature of the property assessed, measurement in the social sciences is, in large part, made possible only by a vague, discretionary definition of measurement that places hardly any restrictions on empirical data. Traditional psychometric analyses fail to address the requirements of measurement as defined more rigorously in the physical sciences. The construct definitions do not allow for testable predications; and content validity becomes a matter of judgment. In order to improve measurement of psychological attributes, it is suggested to, first, readopt the definition of measurement in the physical sciences; second, to devise an elaborate theory of the construct to be measured that includes the hypothesis of a quantitative attribute; and third, to test the data for the structure implied by the hypothesis of quantity as well as predictions derived from the theory of the construct.

  2. Measuring Psychological Critical Thinking: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay; Bodle, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking is widely considered an important skill for psychology majors. However, few measures exist of the types of critical thinking that are specific to psychology majors. Lawson (1999) designed the Psychological Critical Thinking Exam (PCTE) to measure students' ability to "think critically, or evaluate claims, in a way that…

  3. Measuring School Psychology Trainee Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Adam B.; Mcclure, John; Sealander, Karen; Baker, Courtney N.

    2017-01-01

    There is an ever-increasing need for school psychology training programs to demonstrate their ability to produce competent practitioners. One method of addressing this need is through the assessment of self-efficacy. However, little research on self-efficacy in school psychology exists likely due to the lack of a psychometrically sound measure of…

  4. On the conceptual foundations of psychological measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, Andrew; Wilson, Mark; Torres Irribarra, David

    2013-09-01

    Measurement has long been an important element of epistemology in the physical sciences and natural philosophy. More recently, the psychological sciences have developed a variety of techniques that purport to be instances of measurement as well. However, it is not clear how the understanding of measurement invoked in psychological science applications accords with the understanding of measurement found in other scientific disciplines. A sharper focus on conceptual clarity and coherence across the psychological and physical sciences has the potential to add a great deal to efforts to improve such practices. In this paper, we argue that it is possible to formulate a philosophically coherent account of how measurement works in both the physical and the human sciences.

  5. Measure of Psychological Variables in Dancers Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Cantón, Enrique; Universidad de Valencia; Checa, Irene; Centro de Psicologia Teseo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and assess key psychological variables are intervening at different levels of performance in sport dance practice. For this reason, among others, was used the “Cuestionario de Características Psicológicas aplicadas al Rendimiento Deportivo” (Gimeno, Buceta & Pérez-Llantada, 2001). Carrying out an analysis of variance, although not reaching statistically significant differences in the factors Stress Management and Influence of Performance Measurement, if we...

  6. Measures of psychological acculturation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Tomomi

    2006-09-01

    This article reviews conceptual and methodological issues in the measurement of psychological acculturation. The major issues involve the question of dimensionality and the assessment of specific domains of cultural change. Bidimensional scales that cover both overt and internal domains are more informative for the assessment of general levels of psychological acculturation. The validity of such scales must be examined in terms of the actual exposure of individuals to and involvement in each culture, and the influence of sociocultural factors on the course of acculturation. The parallel application of qualitative and quantitative methods may be useful for validity studies. The complementary use of emic and etic approaches will enhance the psychometric soundness of acculturation scales.

  7. The measurement of psychological literacy: a first approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Heritage, Brody; Gasson, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Psychological literacy, the ability to apply psychological knowledge to personal, family, occupational, community and societal challenges, is promoted as the primary outcome of an undergraduate education in psychology. As the concept of psychological literacy becomes increasingly adopted as the core business of undergraduate psychology training courses world-wide, there is urgent need for the construct to be accurately measured so that student and institutional level progress can be assessed and monitored. Key to the measurement of psychological literacy is determining the underlying factor-structure of psychological literacy. In this paper we provide a first approximation of the measurement of psychological literacy by identifying and evaluating self-report measures for psychological literacy. Multi-item and single-item self-report measures of each of the proposed nine dimensions of psychological literacy were completed by two samples (N = 218 and N = 381) of undergraduate psychology students at an Australian university. Single and multi-item measures of each dimension were weakly to moderately correlated. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of multi-item measures indicated a higher order three factor solution best represented the construct of psychological literacy. The three factors were reflective processes, generic graduate attributes, and psychology as a helping profession. For the measurement of psychological literacy to progress there is a need to further develop self-report measures and to identify/develop and evaluate objective measures of psychological literacy. Further approximations of the measurement of psychological literacy remain an imperative, given the construct's ties to measuring institutional efficacy in teaching psychology to an undergraduate audience. PMID:25741300

  8. Models, Metrics, and Measurement in Developmental Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Stein

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental psychology is currently used to measure psychological phenomena and by some, to re-design communities. While we generally support these uses, we are concerned about quality control standards guiding the production of usable knowledge in the discipline. In order to address these issues precisely, we provide an overview of the discipline’s various facets. We distinguish between developmental models and developmental metrics and relate each to different types of quality-control devices. In our view, models are either explanatory or descriptive, and their quality is evaluated in terms of specific types of disciplinary discourse. Metrics are either calibrated measures or soft measures, and their quality is evaluated in terms of specific psychometric parameters. Following a discussion on how developmentalists make metrics, and on a variety of metrics that have been made, we discuss the two key psychometric quality-control parameters, validity and reliability. This sets the stage for a limited and exploratory literature review concerning the quality of a set of existing metrics. We reveal a conspicuous lack of psychometric rigor on the part of some of the most popular developmental approaches and invite remedies for this situation.

  9. Measuring psychological consequences of screening: adaptation of the psychological consequences questionnaire into Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsburger, A. J.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; van As, E.; Cockburn, J.; de Koning, H. J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychometric properties of a Dutch adaptation of an originally Australian instrument measuring the psychological impact of breast cancer screening. METHODS: The three subscales (emotional, physical, social) of the Psychological Consequences Questionnaire (PCQ) underwent

  10. Models, Metrics, and Measurement in Developmental Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Stein

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental psychology is currently used to measure psychologicalphenomena and by some, to re-design communities. While we generally support theseuses, we are concerned about quality control standards guiding the production of usableknowledge in the discipline. In order to address these issues precisely, we provide anoverview of the discipline's various facets. We distinguish between developmentalmodels and developmental metrics and relate each to different types of quality-controldevices. In our view, models are either explanatory or descriptive, and their quality isevaluated in terms of specific types of disciplinary discourse. Metrics are eithercalibrated measures or soft measures, and their quality is evaluated in terms of specificpsychometric parameters. Following a discussion on how developmentalists makemetrics, and on a variety of metrics that have been made, we discuss the two keypsychometric quality-control parameters, validity and reliability. This sets the stage for alimited and exploratory literature review concerning the quality of a set of existingmetrics. We reveal a conspicuous lack of psychometric rigor on the part of some of themost popular developmental approaches and invite remedies for this situation.

  11. Incorporating measurement error in n=1 psychological autoregressive modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, Noemi K.; Houtveen, Jan H.; Hamaker, Ellen L.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement error is omnipresent in psychological data. However, the vast majority of applications of autoregressive time series analyses in psychology do not take measurement error into account. Disregarding measurement error when it is present in the data results in a bias of the autoregressive

  12. Development of cognitive functioning psychological measures for the SEADM

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available , Social Engineering Attack Detection Model (SEADM), by proposing and incorporating a cognitive functioning psychological measure in order to determine the emotional state and decision-making ability of the call centre employee. The cognitive analysis...

  13. Measurement in Psychology: Conceptual Analysis and Synthesis Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Birgitta

    2013-09-01

    The imagined existences of "quantity" in psychology is a prerequisite for measurement. Any person (researcher or subject) may imagine homogeneous concepts as quantities, for example, (perceived) redness, loudness or heaviness of different kinds of objects or events. Conversely, heterogeneous concepts may be merged to imagined quantities such as intelligence or personality, which both are constructed from agreed upon sets of theoretical concepts. Measurement in physics, psychophysics and psychology will be contemplated, comparatively.

  14. Alternative Ways of Measuring Counselees' Jungian Psychological-Type Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Thompson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Instruments measuring Carl Jung's (1921/1971) theory of psychological types have been widely used in various counseling contexts, including career counseling, marital and family therapy, and team building. The most popular measure of types, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), was developed by Katherine C. Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs…

  15. Self-Report Measure of Psychological Abuse of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Anetzberger, Georgia J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested key psychometric properties of the Older Adult Psychological Abuse Measure (OAPAM), one self-report scale of the Older Adult Mistreatment Assessment (OAMA). Design and Methods: Items and theory were developed in a prior concept mapping study. Subsequently, the measures were administered to 226 substantiated clients by 22…

  16. Validation of three Setswana measures for psychological wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Marié Philipina Wissing; Sammy M. Thekiso; Ronel Stapelberg; Leanda van Quickelberge; Pinky Choabi; Christine Moroeng; Alida Nienaber; Q. Michael Temane; Hester H. Vorster

    2010-01-01

    Orientation: From the perspective of positive psychology, it is important to evaluate people’s strengths. There is, however, a lack of validated measures for these purposes in many of the South African official languages. As language is a medium for cultural meanings, measures of mental health should be validated in the mother tongue of the people involved.Research purpose: The aim of this study was therefore to explore the psychometric properties of Setswana versions of three measures of psy...

  17. How Should We Measure Psychological Resilience in Sport Performers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mustafa; Fletcher, David

    2013-01-01

    Psychological resilience is important in sport because athletes must constantly withstand a wide range of pressures to attain and sustain high performance. To advance psychologists' understanding of this area, there exists an urgent need to develop a sport-specific measure of resilience. The purpose of this article is to review psychometric…

  18. Identification and measurement of work-related psychological injury: piloting the psychological injury risk indicator among frontline police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winwood, Peter C; Tuckey, Michelle R; Peters, Roger; Dollard, Maureen F

    2009-09-01

    To develop a self-report measure of work-related psychological injury, the Psychological Injury Risk Indicator (PIRI), with a comparable level of accuracy and reliability to individual clinical assessment by a skilled clinical psychologist. Two pilot studies investigated the responses of a) 34 frontline police officers completing the PIRI measure who were also examined by a highly experienced clinical psychologist and b) 217 officers who completed the PIRI measure and also the General Health Questionnaire 12 measure. The PIRI scale identified both the presence and the level of psychological injury in the clinical group with a remarkably high level of correspondence to concurrent clinical assessment (r = 0.80). The PIRI scale can be used both for the individual assessment of psychological injury and as a potential online screening tool. Its latter use is that it could enable the early identification of evolving psychological injury among workers, facilitating timely and career-preserving intervention.

  19. Validation of three Setswana measures for psychological wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marié Philipina Wissing

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: From the perspective of positive psychology, it is important to evaluate people’s strengths. There is, however, a lack of validated measures for these purposes in many of the South African official languages. As language is a medium for cultural meanings, measures of mental health should be validated in the mother tongue of the people involved.Research purpose: The aim of this study was therefore to explore the psychometric properties of Setswana versions of three measures of psychological wellbeing, namely the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC (the 29-item version (Antonovsky, 1987, Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS (Diener, Emmons, Larson & Griffen, 1985 and Affectometer 2 (AFM (Kammann & Flett, 1983.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was implemented for this study. Questionnaires were translated, back-translated and evaluated in a research-committee approach. A stratified sample of 738 Setswana-speaking participants completed the questionnaires in randomly selected sites of the North West province of South Africa as part of the multi-disciplinary Transition and Health during Urbanisation of South Africans project. Reliability indices, means, standard deviations, ranges of scores, patterns of correlations and factor structures were established for all the scales.Main findings: The present Setswana SWLS and AFM are reliable and valid for use in this group, as is, to some extent, the SOC. The factor structures of the three scales were also consistent with the latent factor structures of the original scales.Practical implications: These validated measures are instruments for use in the clinical, community and work contexts of Setswana-speaking people.

  20. Measuring Emotional Intelligence Enhances the Psychological Evaluation of Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Eva M; Walsh, Rosemary; Andrews, Leanne; McPherson, Susan

    2017-12-01

    The assessment of emotional factors, in addition to other psychosocial factors, has been recommended as a means of identifying individuals with chronic pain who may not respond to certain pain treatments. Systematic reviews of the evidence regarding the prediction of responsiveness to a treatment called the spinal cord stimulator (SCS) have yielded inconclusive results. Emotional intelligence is a term which refers to the ability to identify and manage emotions in oneself and others and has been shown to be inversely associated with emotional distress and acute pain. This study aims to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence, chronic pain, and the more established psychosocial factors usually used for SCS evaluations by clinical psychologists in medical settings. A sample of 112 patients with chronic pain on an acute hospital waiting list for SCS procedures in a pain medicine service were recruited. Psychological measures were completed including: a novel measure of emotional intelligence; usual measures of emotional distress and catastrophizing; and a numerical rating scale designed to assess pain intensity, pain-related distress, and interference. As predicted, findings revealed significant associations between most of the measures analyzed and current pain intensity. When entered into a simultaneous regression analysis, emotional intelligence scores remained the only significant predictor of current pain intensity. There are potential clinical, ethical, and organizational implications of emotional intelligence processes partially predicting pain in patients on a waiting list for a medical procedure. These results may offer new insight, understanding, and evaluation targets for clinical psychologists in the field of pain management.

  1. Piloting Psychology Annual Reviews as a Method of Measuring Psychological Distress and Quality of Life in Paediatric Renal Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, Jade; Wirz, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial distress and poorer quality of life after renal transplantation are common in children and young people. This has implications for medication adherence and survival. Posttransplant psychology annual reviews were introduced in one Paediatric Renal Service in the UK as a means of measuring psychological distress and quality of life, as well as facilitating identification of patients and parents/carers who would benefit from psychological intervention. The process of completing posttransplant psychology annual reviews is discussed within this paper. The posttransplant psychology annual review appointments identified patients experiencing depression and/or anxiety and problems in quality of life. These assessments have led to appropriate referrals to, and engagement with, the renal psychology service as well as with community tier 3 child and adolescent mental health services. The posttransplant psychology annual review will continue to be completed at this UK site and discussions will be undertaken with other paediatric renal transplant services to consider whether these could be introduced at a national level to facilitate collection of longitudinal data regarding long-term psychosocial impact of paediatric renal transplantation and its effect on quality of life.

  2. Piloting Psychology Annual Reviews as a Method of Measuring Psychological Distress and Quality of Life in Paediatric Renal Transplant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Bamford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial distress and poorer quality of life after renal transplantation are common in children and young people. This has implications for medication adherence and survival. Posttransplant psychology annual reviews were introduced in one Paediatric Renal Service in the UK as a means of measuring psychological distress and quality of life, as well as facilitating identification of patients and parents/carers who would benefit from psychological intervention. The process of completing posttransplant psychology annual reviews is discussed within this paper. The posttransplant psychology annual review appointments identified patients experiencing depression and/or anxiety and problems in quality of life. These assessments have led to appropriate referrals to, and engagement with, the renal psychology service as well as with community tier 3 child and adolescent mental health services. The posttransplant psychology annual review will continue to be completed at this UK site and discussions will be undertaken with other paediatric renal transplant services to consider whether these could be introduced at a national level to facilitate collection of longitudinal data regarding long-term psychosocial impact of paediatric renal transplantation and its effect on quality of life.

  3. [Psychological measurement of tactile-kinesthetic perception in early childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiese-Himmel, C; Höch, J; Liebeck, H

    1998-04-01

    The perception theory of Affolter (1987), the theory of sensory integration of Ayres (1979, 1984) as well as the development theory of Piaget (1973) consider sensorimotor experiences as a basis for the child's cognitive development. Tactile-kinesthetic perception has hereby a central position. In the German-speaking psychology, no standardized tests exist to measure the developmental age of tactile-kinesthetic perception in early childhood. The subtests of neuropsychological batteries have not been primarily constructed for young children, therefore they may not portray the age dependence of tactile-kinesthetic perception exactly. That is why we have collected a pool of items, empirically based descriptors of tactile-kinesthetic behavior, to test this perceptual modality. Then we proved it in a series of pretests. The resulting preliminary developmental test contains 7 functions: Localization of touch, pressure sensibility, two-point-discrimination, finger identification, object stereognosis, stereognosis of object properties, and graphesthesia. It was administered to 111 children aged from 3;2 to 6;5 years in kindergarten. Data of the item analysis demonstrated that many items proved to be to easy. Nevertheless, the instrument is useful and measures reliably. The deficits of the experimental test version will now be corrected by a revision. We will start a detailed analysis again using the revised test.

  4. Measuring Linguistic Empathy: An Experimental Approach to Connecting Linguistic and Social Psychological Notions of Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the relationship between Linguistic Empathy and Psychological Empathy by implementing a psycholinguistic experiment that measured a person's acceptability ratings of sentences with violations of Linguistic Empathy and correlating them with a measure of the person's Psychological Empathy. Linguistic Empathy…

  5. The Effect of Positive Peer Reinforcement on Psychological Measures and Guitar Songleading Performance in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of positive peer reinforcement on self-reported psychological measures and songleading performance in beginning guitar students. No differences were found between the control group (n = 21) and the experimental group (n = 20) concerning psychological measures of self-esteem, stress, and…

  6. Psychological correlates of self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among Chinese children—psychological correlates of PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese childr...

  7. Commentary on Stiers and colleagues' guidelines for competency development and measurement in rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Robert L

    2015-05-01

    Comments on the article, "Guidelines for competency development and measurement in rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training," by Stiers et al. (see record 2014-55195-001). Stiers and colleagues have provided a thorough and well-conceived set of guidelines that lay out the competencies expected for graduates of postdoctoral residencies in rehabilitation psychology, accompanied by a set of more specific, observable indicators of the residents' competence level. This work is an important aspect of the broader project of the Rehabilitation Psychology Specialty Council (APA Division 22, the American Board of Rehabilitation Psychology, the Foundation for Rehabilitation Psychology, the Academy of Rehabilitation Psychology, and the Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdocotral Training Programs) to develop overall guidelines for programs providing postdoctoral training in this field (Stiers et al., 2012). (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Measuring psychological flexibility in medical students and residents: a psychometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Palladino, Christie L.; Ange, Brittany; Richardson, Deborah S.; Casillas, Rhonda; Decker, Matt; Gillies, Ralph A.; House, Amy; Rollock, Michael; Salazar, William H.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Zeidan, Ronnie; Stepleman, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Psychological flexibility involves mindful awareness of our thoughts and feelings without allowing them to prohibit acting consistently with our values and may have important implications for patient-centered clinical care. Although psychological flexibility appears quite relevant to the training and development of health care providers, prior research has not evaluated measures of psychological flexibility in medical learners. Therefore, we investigated the validity of our learners’...

  9. Simple Additivity of Stochastic Psychological Processes: Tests and Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    Methods of testing relatively complete (distributional) models of internal psychological processes are described. It is shown that there is a sufficient condition for additive models to imply this property of the likelihood ratio. Also discussed are the examination of hazard rate functions of component processes and change in cumulative…

  10. Initial Validation of an Instrument Measuring Psychology-Specific Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renken, Maggie D.; McMahan, Ethan A.; Nitkova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Psychology-specific epistemological beliefs (EBs) are believed to influence students' approach to and performance in psychology courses. However, empirical research on this topic is limited due in part to a lack of well-validated instruments measuring this construct. The primary objective of this research was to develop and validate the…

  11. Psychological Correlates of Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity among Chinese Children—Psychological Correlates of PA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Jing Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese children (252 males. Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations. The study psychological variables were all positively related to PAQ-C and objective MVPA (r: 0.22–0.63. The associations with PAQ-C were all substantially stronger than those with accelerometry. Beyond the explained variance accounted for by demographics and social desirability, the addition of the psychological correlates accounted for 45% of the variance of the PAQ-C score, while only 13% for accelerometry-based MVPA. The associations of specific variables with the PAQ-C score (age, PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation and preference were somewhat different from those associated with objective MVPA (PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and negatively associated with female gender. This study demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation in association with PA and indicated the difference in level of their associations with different PA measures.

  12. Association between psychological measures and brain natriuretic peptide in heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwers, Corline; Spindler, Helle; Larsen, Mogens Lytken

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a promising marker for heart failure diagnosis and prognosis. Although psychological factors also influence heart failure (HF) prognosis, this might be attributed to confounding by BNP. Our aim was to examine the association between multiple...... psychological markers using a prospective study design with repeated NT-proBNP measurements. Design: The sample comprised 94 outpatients with systolic HF (80% men; mean age=62.2±9.32). The psychological markers (i.e., anxiety, depression and Type D personality), assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression.......6% (BDI) and 21.3% (DS14), respectively. At baseline, none of the psychological risk markers were associated with NT-proBNP levels (all ps≥.05). In the subset of patients with scores on psychological risk markers both at baseline and at 9 months there were no association between anxiety (p=0...

  13. Measuring psychological flexibility in medical students and residents: a psychometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Christie L; Ange, Brittany; Richardson, Deborah S; Casillas, Rhonda; Decker, Matt; Gillies, Ralph A; House, Amy; Rollock, Michael; Salazar, William H; Waller, Jennifer L; Zeidan, Ronnie; Stepleman, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Psychological flexibility involves mindful awareness of our thoughts and feelings without allowing them to prohibit acting consistently with our values and may have important implications for patient-centered clinical care. Although psychological flexibility appears quite relevant to the training and development of health care providers, prior research has not evaluated measures of psychological flexibility in medical learners. Therefore, we investigated the validity of our learners' responses to three measures related to psychological flexibility. Methods Fourth-year medical students and residents (n=275) completed three measures of overlapping aspects of psychological flexibility: (1) Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II); (2) Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire (CFQ); and (3) Mindful Attention and Awareness Questionnaire (MAAS). We evaluated five aspects of construct validity: content, response process, internal structure, relationship with other variables, and consequences. Results We found good internal consistency for responses on the AAQ (α=0.93), MAAS (α=0.92), and CFQ (α=0.95). Factor analyses demonstrated a reasonable fit to previously published factor structures. As expected, scores on all three measures were moderately correlated with one another and with a measure of life satisfaction (ppsychological flexibility construct in a medical education sample. As psychological flexibility is a central concept underlying self-awareness, this work may have important implications for clinical training and practice.

  14. A brief measure of attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Povee, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of mixed methods research in psychology has trailed behind other social science disciplines. Teaching psychology students, academics, and practitioners about mixed methodologies may increase the use of mixed methods within the discipline. However, tailoring and evaluating education and training in mixed methodologies requires an understanding of, and way of measuring, attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology. To date, no such measure exists. In this article we present the development and initial validation of a new measure: Attitudes toward Mixed Methods Research in Psychology. A pool of 42 items developed from previous qualitative research on attitudes toward mixed methods research along with validation measures was administered via an online survey to a convenience sample of 274 psychology students, academics and psychologists. Principal axis factoring with varimax rotation on a subset of the sample produced a four-factor, 12-item solution. Confirmatory factor analysis on a separate subset of the sample indicated that a higher order four factor model provided the best fit to the data. The four factors; ‘Limited Exposure,’ ‘(in)Compatibility,’ ‘Validity,’ and ‘Tokenistic Qualitative Component’; each have acceptable internal reliability. Known groups validity analyses based on preferred research orientation and self-rated mixed methods research skills, and convergent and divergent validity analyses based on measures of attitudes toward psychology as a science and scientist and practitioner orientation, provide initial validation of the measure. This brief, internally reliable measure can be used in assessing attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology, measuring change in attitudes as part of the evaluation of mixed methods education, and in larger research programs. PMID:25429281

  15. Psychometric Properties of Scores on a New Measure of Psychological Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Thompson, Bruce

    Instruments measuring Carl Jung's (1921/1971) theory of psychological types have been widely used in various counseling contexts. The most popular measure of types has been the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (K. Briggs and I. Myers). This measure has been criticized for dichotomous scoring, forced-choice response formats, and differential gender…

  16. Understanding Collective Discontents: A Psychological Approach to Measuring Zeitgeist

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bles, Anne Marthe; Postmes, Tom; Meijer, Rob R.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, several countries around the world developed a collective sense of doom and gloom: Their Zeitgeist could be characterized as one of decline. Paradoxically, in some countries, such as the Netherlands, this collective discontent with society seems to exist despite high levels of individual well-being. Current psychological research informs us about why individuals would feel unduly optimistic, but does not account for a collective sense of decline. The present research develops a novel operationalization of Zeitgeist, referred to as a general factor Z. We conceptualize Zeitgeist as a collective global-level evaluation of the state (and future) of society. Three studies confirm that perceptions of the same societal problems at the personal and collective level differed strongly. Across these studies we found support for a hypothesized latent factor Z, underlying collective-level perceptions of society. This Z-factor predicted people’s interpretation of new information about society that was presented through news stories. These results provide a first step in operationalizing and (ultimately) understanding the concept of Zeitgeist: collectively shared ideas about society. Implications for policy are discussed. PMID:26114943

  17. Psychological impact and recovery after involvement in a patient safety incident: a repeated measures analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gerven, Eva; Bruyneel, Luk; Panella, Massimiliano; Euwema, Martin; Sermeus, Walter; Vanhaecht, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine individual, situational and organisational aspects that influence psychological impact and recovery of a patient safety incident on physicians, nurses and midwives. Design Cross-sectional, retrospective surveys of physicians, midwives and nurses. Setting 33 Belgian hospitals. Participants 913 clinicians (186 physicians, 682 nurses, 45 midwives) involved in a patient safety incident. Main outcome measures The Impact of Event Scale was used to retrospectively measure psychological impact of the safety incident at the time of the event and compare it with psychological impact at the time of the survey. Results Individual, situational as well as organisational aspects influenced psychological impact and recovery of a patient safety incident. Psychological impact is higher when the degree of harm for the patient is more severe, when healthcare professionals feel responsible for the incident and among female healthcare professionals. Impact of degree of harm differed across clinicians. Psychological impact is lower among more optimistic professionals. Overall, impact decreased significantly over time. This effect was more pronounced for women and for those who feel responsible for the incident. The longer ago the incident took place, the stronger impact had decreased. Also, higher psychological impact is related with the use of a more active coping and planning coping strategy, and is unrelated to support seeking coping strategies. Rendered support and a support culture reduce psychological impact, whereas a blame culture increases psychological impact. No associations were found with job experience and resilience of the health professional, the presence of a second victim support team or guideline and working in a learning culture. Conclusions Healthcare organisations should anticipate on providing their staff appropriate and timely support structures that are tailored to the healthcare professional involved in the incident and to the specific

  18. The Social Context of Urban Classrooms: Measuring Student Psychological Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Stacy L.; Mehta, Tara G.; Atkins, Marc S.; Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip D.; Gibbons, Robert D.; Kim, Jong Bae; Chapman, Jason E.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Cua, Grace; Ogle, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Classrooms are unique and complex work settings in which teachers and students both participate in and contribute to classroom processes. This article describes the measurement phase of a study that examined the social ecology of urban classrooms. Informed by the dimensions and items of an established measure of organizational climate, we designed…

  19. Guidelines for competency development and measurement in rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiers, William; Barisa, Mark; Stucky, Kirk; Pawlowski, Carey; Van Tubbergen, Marie; Turner, Aaron P; Hibbard, Mary; Caplan, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    This study describes the results of a multidisciplinary conference (the Baltimore Conference) that met to develop consensus guidelines for competency specification and measurement in postdoctoral training in rehabilitation psychology. Forty-six conference participants were chosen to include representatives of rehabilitation psychology training and practice communities, representatives of psychology accreditation and certification bodies, persons involved in medical education practice and research, and consumers of training programs (students). Consensus education and training guidelines were developed that specify the key competencies in rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training, and structured observation checklists were developed for their measurement. This study continues the development of more than 50 years of thinking about education and training in rehabilitation psychology and builds on the existing work to further advance the development of guidelines in this area. The conference developed aspirational guidelines for competency specification and measurement in rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training (i.e., for studying the outcomes of these training programs). Structured observation of trainee competencies allows examination of actual training outcomes in relation to intended outcomes and provides a methodology for studying how program outcomes are related to program structures and processes so that program improvement can occur. Best practices in applying program evaluation research methods to the study of professional training programs are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Measuring psychological change during cognitive behaviour therapy in primary care: a Polish study using 'PSYCHLOPS' (Psychological Outcome Profiles.

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    Slawomir Czachowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological outcome measures are evolving into measures that depict progress over time. Interval measurement during therapy has not previously been reported for a patient-generated measure in primary care. We aimed to determine the sensitivity to change throughout therapy, using 'PSYCHLOPS' (Psychological Outcome Profiles, and to determine if new problems appearing during therapy diminish overall improvement. METHODS: Responses to PSYCHLOPS, pre-, during- and post-therapy were compared. SETTING: patients offered brief cognitive behaviour therapy in primary care in Poland. RESULTS: 238 patients completed the pre-therapy questionnaire, 194 (81.5% the during-therapy questionnaire and 142 the post-therapy questionnaire (59.7%. For those completing all three questionnaires (n = 135, improvement in total scores produced an overall Effect Size of 3.1 (2.7 to 3.4. We estimated change using three methods for dealing with missing values. Single and multiple imputation did not significantly change the Effect Size; 'Last Value Carried Forward', the most conservative method, produced an overall Effect Size of 2.3 (1.9 to 2.6. New problems during therapy were reported by 81 patients (60.0%: new problem and original problem scores were of similar magnitude and change scores were not significantly different when compared to patients who did not report new problems. CONCLUSION: A large proportion of outcome data is lost when outcome measures depend upon completed end of therapy questionnaires. The use of a during-therapy measure increases data capture. Missing data still produce difficulties in interpreting overall effect sizes for change. We found no evidence that new problems appearing during therapy hampered overall recovery.

  1. Measurement in health psychology: combining theory, qualitative, and quantitative methods to do it right : 6th Methods in Health Psychology Symposium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, G.-J.Y; Dima, A.; Plass, A.M.; Crutzen, R.; Gibbons, C.; Doyle, F.

    2016-01-01

    A recent debate in Health Psychology Review demonstrated the importance of careful attention to measurement and operationalisation of health psychology constructs (Beauchamp, 2016; Brewer, 2016; de Vries, 2016; Schwarzer & McAuley, 2016; Williams & Rhodes, 2016a, 2016b). This need is met by rapid

  2. Validation of the Employment Hope Scale: Measuring Psychological Self-Sufficiency among Low-Income Jobseekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Philip Young P.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The Employment Hope scale (EHS) was designed to measure the empowerment-based self-sufficiency (SS) outcome among low-income job-seeking clients. This measure captures the psychological SS dimension as opposed to the more commonly used economic SS in workforce development and employment support practice. The study validates the EHS and…

  3. Psychological assessment and AIDS research with intravenous drug users: challenges in measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K H; Watters, J K; Case, P

    1988-01-01

    The instruments used for psychological assessment have been under close scrutiny for many years. In particular, ethnic and racial minorities have pointed out that misapplication of instruments standardized to White middle-class norms can result in incorrect assessments. An analogous situation exists with IVDUs. In the work of the present authors with IVDUs, they were found to be a very diverse group. Contrary to common wisdom, they differ by race, ethnicity, age, and drug use profiles. However, their economic circumstances and social stigma make them a special case in terms of psychological assessment. Given the unique characteristics of IVDUs, it behooves researchers to carefully examine the standardized instruments that are available for psychological evaluation. Too often, measures standardized on White middle-class samples lack the value neutrality that makes them applicable across disparate groups. In addition, many such measures are designed with certain presumptions that do not necessarily hold true with this population (e.g., willingness and/or ability to communicate intimate information about one's feelings and psychological states). This article briefly describes some of the challenges encountered in examining standardized instruments for use in the study of IVDUs, their health psychology and AIDS-related behavior. Concerns with self-report biases, literacy, attentional focus, measurement constructs, and drug states confounding psychological states all pose challenges to psychological research with this heterogeneous population. While the need for direct intervention on the sexual and needle-sharing behaviors of IVDUs remains paramount in the combat against the spread of AIDS, researchers must also continue with the further development of basic measurement tools.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Association between psychological measures and brain natriuretic peptide in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Corline; Spindler, Helle; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Eiskær, Hans; Videbæk, Lars; Pedersen, Mette Storgaard; Aagard, Bitten; Pedersen, Susanne S

    2012-06-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a promising marker for heart failure diagnosis and prognosis. Although psychological factors also influence heart failure (HF) prognosis, this might be attributed to confounding by BNP. Our aim was to examine the association between multiple psychological markers using a prospective study design with repeated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) measurements. The sample comprised 94 outpatients with systolic HF (80% men; mean age =62.2 ± 9.3). The psychological markers (i.e., anxiety, depression, and Type D personality), assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Type D Scale (DS14) were assessed only at baseline. Plasma NT-proBNP levels were measured at baseline and at 9 months. The prevalence of anxiety, depression, and Type D personality at baseline was 23.4% (HADS-A), 17.0% (HADS-D), 46.6% (BDI), and 21.3% (DS14), respectively. At baseline, none of the psychological risk markers were associated with NT-proBNP levels (all p >.05). In the subset of patients with scores on psychological risk markers both at baseline and at 9 months, there were no association between anxiety (p =0.44), depression (HADS-D: p =0.90; BDI: p =0.85), and Type D (p =0.63) with NT-proBNP levels using ANOVA for repeated measures. Our findings indicate that measures frequently used in HF to assess psychological risk markers are unconfounded by NT-proBNP. Futher studies are warranted to replicate these findings and examine whether psychological risk markers are independent predictors of prognosis in HF or an artifact that may be attributed to other biological or behavioral mechanisms.

  5. Comparison of multiple psychological distress measures between men and women preparing for in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichman, Christina L; Ehlers, Shawna L; Wichman, Scott E; Weaver, Amy L; Coddington, Charles

    2011-02-01

    To compare multiple measures of psychological distress between men and women preparing for IVF. Retrospective cohort study. Outpatient, academic infertility clinic. One hundred sixty-two consecutive couples presenting for infertility treatment with IVF. Measures were completed as part of a routine, infertility-focused psychological evaluation, including the Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, State-Trait Anger Inventory, and Impact of Events Scale. Scores of above psychological questionnaires. Psychological distress scores were statistically significantly higher among women than men for symptoms of depression, state anxiety, infertility specific distress, and general perceived stress. However, aside from infertility-specific distress (d = .43), effect sizes for the paired differences between females and males ranged from d = .18 to .23. Women consistently scored higher on multiple measures of psychological distress than their male partners in the context of preparing for IVF. Comparison of infertility-specific distress scores yielded the largest statistically and clinically significant difference compared with traditional measures of general depression and anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Conceptualization, Measurement, and Role of Humor as a Character Strength in Positive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim R. Edwards

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In positive psychology, humor has been identified as one of 24 character strengths considered ubiquitously important for human flourishing. Unlike the other strengths, humor was a late addition to this classification system and its status as a strength continues to be somewhat controversial. Therefore, the first purpose of this study was to explore the associations between humor and several outcome variables of relevance to positive psychology (happiness, routes to happiness, resilience, and morality. The second purpose was to explore how best to conceptualize and measure humor as a character strength by comparing the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS Humor Scale with the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ in their ability to predict the outcome variables. A sample of 176 participants completed questionnaires assessing the humor and positive psychology constructs. The results indicated that the humor measures significantly predicted most of the outcome variables, supporting the importance of humor in positive psychology. Furthermore, although the VIA-IS Humor scale and positive humor styles on the HSQ showed considerable overlap, the negative humor styles added significantly to the prediction of outcome variables beyond these positive humor measures, supporting the importance of assessing maladaptive as well as adaptive uses of humor in research on positive psychology. These findings suggest that the HSQ may be a more useful measure than the VIA-IS Humor scale in future research in this field.

  7. The CES-D as a Measure of Psychological Distress Among International Students: Measurement and Structural Invariance Across Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hanna; van Nuenen, Marieke; Rice, Kenneth G

    2017-10-01

    Detecting psychological distress among international students can be challenging given diverse languages, cultural backgrounds, and lack of refined measurement properties of measures tailored to international students. Despite the challenges, ensuring that a psychological distress measure works effectively has considerable potential value for assessment purposes. The current study evaluates the measurement properties of a short 10-item version of Radloff's Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Grounded in long-standing evidence on gender differences in depressive symptoms, specific attention was given to examining measurement invariance of the CES-D Short-form across women and men. Based on a large, two-cohort sample of international students ( N = 468), and through multiple analyses evaluating factor structure and measurement invariance, we derived an even briefer, seven-item single-factor form of the CES-D (CES-D Short-form International) that can be used with international students.

  8. Measuring Reasoning about Teaching for Graduate Admissions in Psychology and Related Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Sternberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching- and teaching-evaluation skills are critically important to professional success in psychology and related disciplines. We explored the possibility of measuring reasoning-about-teaching skills as a supplementary measure for admissions in psychology and related behavioral-sciences disciplines. We tested 103 students for their reasoning about teaching and their reasoning about research, as well as for their cognitive- (abstract reasoning and educational skills. We found that women performed better than men on our reasoning-about-teaching measure, and that factorially, our reasoning-about-teaching measure clustered with our reasoning-about-research measures but not with our measures of abstract cognitive reasoning and educational skills.

  9. Use of Objective Neurocognitive Measures to Assess the Psychological States that Influence Return to Sport Following Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilaty, Nathan D; Nagelli, Christopher; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the effects of psychological states on human performance, especially with those who have suffered debilitating injury and are attempting to return to sport (RTS). Current research methods measure psychological states through validated questionnaires; however, these outcomes only allow for subjective assessment and may be unintentionally biased. Application of objective neurocognitive measures correlated with psychological states will advance understanding of injury outcomes by identifying human behavior and avoiding vague assumptions from subjective measures.

  10. Achieving Consensus in the Measurement of Psychological Adjustment to Cleft Lip and/or Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Nicola Marie; Hammond, Vanessa; Owen, Tina; Kiff, James; Shanly, Angela; Rumsey, Nichola

    2016-07-01

    Psychological adjustment to cleft lip/palate is multifaceted and can fluctuate over time and across different situations. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of adjustment is difficult to capture, and the challenge of achieving consensus among researchers and clinicians regarding key constructs and processes is considerable. Numerous measures have been used in research and clinical audit, resulting in conflicting findings and difficulties in evidencing the value of psychological intervention. The launch of the world's largest cleft lip/palate cohort study has provided an opportunity to standardize data collection across the United Kingdom. To describe the collaborative process used to achieve consensus in the academic and clinical measurement of psychological adjustment to cleft lip/palate. Extensive work based on existing literature and clinical experience has resulted in a conceptual framework comprising six domains of adjustment and corresponding risk/protective factors that are measureable across key developmental time points. Driven by this framework, a core pack of standardized measures has been selected according to psychometric properties, clinical utility, and pragmatic considerations. To date, these measures have been implemented within a UK-wide longitudinal cohort study (at diagnosis, 18 months, 3 years, 5 years, and 8 years) and adopted into the national routine clinical audit protocol for cleft lip/palate at age 5. Further data collection points will follow as the cohorts age. Over time, consistency in data collection will allow researchers to address some of the key unanswered questions in relation to psychological adjustment to cleft lip/palate.

  11. Positive Psychological Functioning: evidence for a new construct and its measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Dolores Merino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the Institute of Happiness conducted one of the most ambitious studies ever done on this subject in Spain. Many different variables were measured: socio-demographics and psychological, (the latter through new instruments and all were applied to a representative sample of 3000 participants of the Spanish population. Study 1 of this research used that database. The objective of this Study was to understand how key psychological resources are organized (Autonomy, Resilience, Self-Esteem, Purpose in life, Enjoyment, Optimism, Curiosity, Creativity, Humor, Environmental mastery and Vitality. The purpose of Study 2 was to replicate the results of Study 1 and to test the psychometrical properties of the new scales used in Study 1, but using a sample of 130 college students. This research proves that key psychological resources are interconnected, forming a second order construct we call Positive Psychological Functioning (PPF, and, it develops a new Spanish scale to assess it. This measure is formed with 11 subscales each containing three items. This scale structure allows a general and a specific assessment of PPF and, in consequence, of human psychological well-being.

  12. Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: A review of imagery measures and a guiding framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David G.; Deeprose, Catherine; Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M.A.; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; Holmes, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Mental imagery is an under-explored field in clinical psychology research but presents a topic of potential interest and relevance across many clinical disorders, including social phobia, schizophrenia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is currently a lack of a guiding framework from which clinicians may select the domains or associated measures most likely to be of appropriate use in mental imagery research. We adopt an interdisciplinary approach and present a review of studies across experimental psychology and clinical psychology in order to highlight the key domains and measures most likely to be of relevance. This includes a consideration of methods for experimentally assessing the generation, maintenance, inspection and transformation of mental images; as well as subjective measures of characteristics such as image vividness and clarity. We present a guiding framework in which we propose that cognitive, subjective and clinical aspects of imagery should be explored in future research. The guiding framework aims to assist researchers in the selection of measures for assessing those aspects of mental imagery that are of most relevance to clinical psychology. We propose that a greater understanding of the role of mental imagery in clinical disorders will help drive forward advances in both theory and treatment. PMID:23123567

  13. Internet pornography use: perceived addiction, psychological distress, and the validation of a brief measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Joshua B; Volk, Fred; Exline, Julie J; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2015-01-01

    The authors aimed to validate a brief measure of perceived addiction to Internet pornography refined from the 32-item Cyber Pornography Use Inventory, report its psychometric properties, and examine how the notion of perceived addiction to Internet pornography might be related to other domains of psychological functioning. To accomplish this, 3 studies were conducted using a sample of undergraduate psychology students, a web-based adult sample, and a sample of college students seeking counseling at a university's counseling center. The authors developed and refined a short 9-item measure of perceived addiction to Internet pornography, confirmed its structure in multiple samples, examined its relatedness to hypersexuality more broadly, and demonstrated that the notion of perceived addiction to Internet pornography is very robustly related to various measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the relation between psychological distress and the new measure persisted, even when other potential contributors (e.g., neuroticism, self-control, amount of time spent viewing pornography) were controlled for statistically, indicating the clinical relevance of assessing perceived addiction to Internet pornography.

  14. Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: a review of imagery measures and a guiding framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David G; Deeprose, Catherine; Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M A; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Holmes, Emily A

    2013-02-01

    Mental imagery is an under-explored field in clinical psychology research but presents a topic of potential interest and relevance across many clinical disorders, including social phobia, schizophrenia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is currently a lack of a guiding framework from which clinicians may select the domains or associated measures most likely to be of appropriate use in mental imagery research. We adopt an interdisciplinary approach and present a review of studies across experimental psychology and clinical psychology in order to highlight the key domains and measures most likely to be of relevance. This includes a consideration of methods for experimentally assessing the generation, maintenance, inspection and transformation of mental images; as well as subjective measures of characteristics such as image vividness and clarity. We present a guiding framework in which we propose that cognitive, subjective and clinical aspects of imagery should be explored in future research. The guiding framework aims to assist researchers in the selection of measures for assessing those aspects of mental imagery that are of most relevance to clinical psychology. We propose that a greater understanding of the role of mental imagery in clinical disorders will help drive forward advances in both theory and treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychometrics of the Psychological Wellbeing and Distress Screener: A Brief Measure of Youth's Bidimensional Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Tyler L.; Bolognino, Sarah J.

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports on the psychometric defensibility of the Psychological Wellbeing and Distress Screener (PWDS), which is a 10-item self-report behavior rating scale for measuring youth's bidimensional (also known as dual-factor or two-continua) mental health. The PWDS was developed using preexisting items within the Health Behavior in…

  16. Positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Jacki; Stoner, Charlotte R; Wenborn, Jennifer; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Moniz-Cook, Esme; Orrell, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Family caregivers of people living with dementia can have both positive and negative experiences of caregiving. Despite this, existing outcome measures predominately focus on negative aspects of caregiving such as burden and depression. This review aimed to evaluate the development and psychometric properties of existing positive psychology measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia to determine their potential utility in research and practice. A systematic review of positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people with dementia was conducted. The databases searched were as follows: PsychINFO, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed. Scale development papers were subject to a quality assessment to appraise psychometric properties. Twelve positive outcome measures and six validation papers of these scales were identified. The emerging constructs of self-efficacy, spirituality, resilience, rewards, gain, and meaning are in line with positive psychology theory. There are some robust positive measures in existence for family caregivers of people living with dementia. However, lack of reporting of the psychometric properties hindered the quality assessment of some outcome measures identified in this review. Future research should aim to include positive outcome measures in interventional research to facilitate a greater understanding of the positive aspects of caregiving and how these contribute to well-being.

  17. Preliminary validation of a questionnaire to measure basic psychological needs in Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pires

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The self-determination theory is a psychological approach to motivation that focuses on causes and consequences of human behavior regulation. According several authors, this theoretical framework could provide important information about the student’s motivational process to physical education class, however, in Portugal does not exists any instrument to measure the basic psychological needs in this domain. So, the main propose of this study is the preliminary adaptation to physical education contexts of Basic Psychological Needs Exercise Scale (Portuguese version: BPNESp, and determine their initial psychometrics properties through an exploratory factor analysis. This propose was accomplished with a sample of 150 students (n=150 from de 2nd and 3rd CEB, aged from 11 to 16 years (M = 13.39, SD = 1.44 with different levels of sports practice. Results revealed a factorial structure just like the original model (12 items grouped in 3 factors, with 4 items hitch factor and presents acceptable values of validity and reliability. Those findings allow us to conclude, that questionnaire can be used in future investigations to measure the basic psychological needs in physical education.

  18. Achieving consensus in the measurement of psychological adjustment to cleft lip and/or palate

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, N. M.; Hammond, V; Owen, T.; Kiff, J.; Shanly, A.; Rumsey, N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychological adjustment to cleft lip/palate is multifaceted, and can fluctuate over time and across different situations. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of adjustment is difficult to capture, and the challenge of achieving consensus among researchers and clinicians regarding key constructs and processes is considerable. Numerous measures have been used in research and clinical audit, resulting in conflicting findings and difficulties in evidencing the value of psycho...

  19. Psychological stress as a measure for treatment response prediction in idiopathic sudden hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Daeyoung; Chao, Janet Ren; Kim, Do Hoon; Yoon, Kyung Hee; Jung, Jae Hoon; Lee, Chang Hyun; Shin, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Min Jae; Park, Chan Hum; Lee, Jun Ho

    2017-11-01

    Early prediction of therapeutic outcomes could reduce exposure to ineffective treatments and optimize clinical outcomes. However, none of the known otologic predictors is amenable to therapeutic intervention for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). The aims of this study were to investigate psychological stress as a potential predictor to discriminate outcomes in ISSNHL. Various psychological measures were conducted including structured interview assessment tools in patients with recently diagnosed ISSNHL before initiating treatment. Using logistic regression analysis, we identified the predictors of treatment response and estimated the probability of treatment response in 50 ISSNHL patients who participated in a clinical trial. Treatment non-responders were significantly differentiated from responders by various psychological problems. The depression subscore of Modified form of Stress Response Inventory (SRI-MF) (p=0.007) and duration of hearing loss (p=0.045) significantly predicted treatment response after controlling other clinical correlates. The same predictors were identified from different treatment response measured using Siegel's criteria. The most discriminative measure for treatment response was SRI-MF depression score with an overall classification accuracy of 73%. We found depressive stress response to be the strong predictor of treatment response in patients with ISSNHL. Our results highlight the potential use of the psychiatric approach as a tool for enhancing therapeutic outcomes. Future stress intervention studies with larger number of ISSNHL patients are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing distress in the community: psychometric properties and crosswalk comparison of eight measures of psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, P J; Sunderland, M; Slade, T; Calear, A L; Carragher, N

    2017-10-02

    Many measures are available for measuring psychological distress in the community. Limited research has compared these scales to identify the best performing tools. A common metric for distress measures would enable researchers and clinicians to equate scores across different measures. The current study evaluated eight psychological distress scales and developed crosswalks (tables/figures presenting multiple scales on a common metric) to enable scores on these scales to be equated. An Australian online adult sample (N = 3620, 80% female) was administered eight psychological distress measures: Patient Health Questionnaire-4, Kessler-10/Kessler-6, Distress Questionnaire-5 (DQ5), Mental Health Inventory-5, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25), Self-Report Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) and Distress Thermometer. The performance of each measure in identifying DSM-5 criteria for a range of mental disorders was tested. Scale fit to a unidimensional latent construct was assessed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Finally, crosswalks were developed using Item Response Theory. The DQ5 had optimal performance in identifying individuals meeting DSM-5 criteria, with adequate fit to a unidimensional construct. The HSCL-25 and SRQ-20 also had adequate fit but poorer specificity and/or sensitivity than the DQ5 in identifying caseness. The unidimensional CFA of the combined item bank for the eight scales showed acceptable fit, enabling the creation of crosswalk tables. The DQ5 had optimal performance in identifying risk of mental health problems. The crosswalk tables developed in this study will enable rapid conversion between distress measures, providing more efficient means of data aggregation and a resource to facilitate interpretation of scores from multiple distress scales.

  1. Psychological maltreatment, coping strategies, and mental health problems: A brief and effective measure of psychological maltreatment in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Gökmen

    2017-06-01

    Psychological maltreatment is an important social and public health problem and associated with a wide range of short and long-term outcomes in childhood to adulthood. Given the importance of investigating mitigating factors on its effect, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the mediating effect of active and avoidant coping strategies on the association between psychological maltreatment and mental health- internalizing and externalizing- problems in adolescents. Participants of the study consisted of 783 adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 18 years (M=15.57, SD=0.88), with 52.9% female and 47.1% male. Several structural equation models were conducted to investigate the mediating role of coping strategies on the effect of psychological maltreatment on adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. Findings from mediation analyses demonstrated the mediating effect of active and avoidant coping strategies on the association between psychological maltreatment and mental health problems. The outcomes support adolescents use more avoidant coping strategies and fewer active coping strategies in the face of psychological maltreatment experiences, and this affects their mental health. Taken together, these results should contribute to the design of prevention and intervention services in order to promote mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Possible use of psychological corrective measures for people with abnormal sexual preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babina S.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the possibility of psychological corrective measures aimed at persons with abnormal sexual preferences. We reviewed domestic and foreign scientific publications described the treatment of sexual disorders and the basic directions of the therapy, and indicated its positive and negative aspects. We have studied progress notes and etiology of "personality disorders and behavior in adulthood" disease class, "disorders of sexual preference" disease subsection and analyzed the efficiency of the psychopharmacological treatment, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and psychotherapy for each violation of sexual preference. The most productive methods of therapeutic intervention are identified. This analysis allows making the most appropriate scheme of psychological correction and treatment for persons with abnormalities of sexual preference.

  3. The importance of risk-aversion as a measurable psychological parameter governing risk-taking behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. J.

    2013-09-01

    A utility function with risk-aversion as its sole parameter is developed and used to examine the well-known psychological phenomenon, whereby risk averse people adopt behavioural strategies that are extreme and apparently highly risky. The pioneering work of the psychologist, John W. Atkinson, is revisited, and utility theory is used to extend his mathematical model. His explanation of the psychology involved is improved by regarding risk-aversion not as a discrete variable with three possible states: risk averse, risk neutral and risk confident, but as continuous and covering a large range. A probability distribution is derived, the "motivational density", to describe the process of selecting tasks of different degrees of difficulty. An assessment is then made of practicable methods for measuring risk-aversion.

  4. Psychological empowerment among urban youth: measure development and relationship to psychosocial functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J; Schotland, Marieka

    2011-08-01

    Although there are an increasing number of youth development programs that aim to empower young people, there is a dearth of psychometrically sound measures that can be used to assess flexible youth-led organizing and participatory research approaches that tackle a wide range of social and community problems. This study developed and tested measures of psychological empowerment (PE) and self-efficacy for research and action among a sample of 439 ethnically diverse adolescents primarily recruited from public high schools in an urban center. Items for the PE measure were generated through an iterative combination of conducting formative research with our target population while also drawing on existing theory and measures in the field. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis of the PE measure, testing four factors: adolescents' motivation to influence their school and community settings; participatory behavior; sociopolitical skills; and perceived control. Psychometric analyses for the PE scales and their correlation with adolescents' report of self-esteem, academic achievement, caring relationships with adults at school, and social support from peers are reported; the implications of the present study for research and practice in the youth development and adolescent psychology field are considered.

  5. Association of CD4+ T cell subpopulations and psychological stress measures in women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Kristina E; Konkle-Parker, Deborah

    2017-09-01

    Psychological stress is a known immunomodulator. In individuals with HIV, depression, the most common manifestation of increased psychological stress, can affect immune function with lower CD4+ T cell counts correlating with higher levels of depression. It is unknown how other forms of psychological stress can impact immune markers in people living with HIV. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine how CD4+ T cell subpopulations correlated with different forms of psychological stress. We recruited 50 HIV-positive women as part of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. We assessed perceived stress, worry, acute anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression through self-report questionnaires and CD4+ T cell subpopulations using flow cytometry. Our sample was 96% African-American with a mean ± SD age and body mass index of 42 ± 8.8 years and 36.6 ± 11.5 kg/m2, respectively. The mean ± SD scores on the psychological measures were as follows: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), 16.5 ± 6.4; Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), 47.7 ± 13.8; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - State (STAIS), 39.1 ± 12.3; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait (STAIT), 40.2 ± 11.4; Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), 15.6 ± 11.4. The mean + SD values for the immune parameters were as follows: regulatory T cells (Treg), 1.25% ± 0.7; T helper 1 (Th1), 14.9% ± 6.1; T helper 2 (Th2), 3.8% ± 2; Th1/Th2 ratio, 4.6 ± 3; and CD4+ T cell count (cells/mm3), 493 ± 251. Treg levels positively correlated with PSS, STAIS, and STAIT. CD4+ T cell count negatively correlated with PSS, PSWQ, STAIS, STAIT, and CES-D. These data suggest that immune function may be impacted by various forms of psychological stress in HIV-positive women. Interventions that target stress reduction may be useful in improving immune parameters and quality of life.

  6. The measurement of psychological constructs in people with osteoarthritis of the knee: a psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Nadina; Moreton, Bryan; Turner, Katie; Walsh, David

    2017-02-01

    Purpose To examine the measurement properties of measures of psychological constructs in people with knee osteoarthritis. Method Participants with osteoarthritis of the knee completed the beck depression inventory (BDI-II), state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), arthritis helplessness index (AHI), fatigue severity scale (FSS), coping strategies questionnaire (CSQ), beliefs about pain control questionnaire (BPCQ), illness perceptions questionnaire-revised (IPQ-R), pain self-efficacy questionnaire (PSEQ) at home as part of a set of measures covering different aspects of osteoarthritis pain. The questionnaires were returned by pre-paid envelope. Rasch analysis was used to check the psychometric properties of the scales in people with osteoarthritis. Results The STAI-SF was an acceptable measure of anxiety and the revised FSS an acceptable measure of fatigue, with removal of items 1 and 2. The BDI subscales were acceptable for measuring negative thoughts and behaviours related to depressive symptomatology with some modifications to the scale. The helplessness scale of the AHI was acceptable as a measure of helplessness. The PSEQ was an acceptable measure of self-efficacy and the CSQ as a measure of cognitive coping strategies. The BPCQ and IPQ-R did not fit the Rasch model. Conclusions These findings indicate that questionnaires need to be checked for their ability to measure psychological constructs in the clinical groups to which they will be applied. Implications for Rehabilitation For people with osteoarthritis, the STAI-SF is an acceptable measure of anxiety and the revised FSS an acceptable measure of fatigue with removal of items 1 and 2. The BDI subscales, but not the total score, are acceptable for measuring depressive symptomatology with some modifications to the scoring of the scale. And helplessness can be measured using the Helplessness subscale of the AHI. The PSEQ was an acceptable measure of self-efficacy and cognitive coping strategies can be measured

  7. Psychological and Pedagogical Measures of Preventing Conflicts of Interest Among Employees of Law Enforcement Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdyuk N.V.,

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers significant characteristics of the phenomenon of corruption resistance of employees of internal affairs agencies as civil servants. The outlined problem of preventing corruption manifestations and conflicts of interests in operational and service activities is characterized by the fact that it exceeds the limits of legal regulation. The possible solution in this case might be the selection of relevant psychological and pedagogical measures of preventing the conflict of interests and the formation of corruption resistance in the personnel of the internal affairs bodies. The article describes the value basis of law enforcement service and personal meanings in the profession.

  8. [Measurement of unemployment-related psychological stress: Validation of the Unemployment Stress (USS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabóné Kapuvári, Virág; Martos, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays the theme of unemployment and the given answers of it are up to date questions in psychology. In spite of this fact, the psychological methods measuring this phenomenon are often missing. That is why the Unemployment Stress Scale (USS) is presented in this article. The aim of our study is to develop a scale called USS and test it's validity and reliability. There were 287 adult unemployed persons asked in this study. Besides the USS we used the Beck Depression Scale, the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT), the Sense of Coherence Scale (Hungarian version) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. According to our results, USS has showed an excellent criterion and construct validity. A useful scale has been formed according to test-retest results. (Cronbach-alfa: 0.88 and 0.86 according to the samples). Moreover our scale has a strong correlation with the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT) and the Beck Depression Scale. These chracteristics of the new scale proved that we fond a factor, independent from the self esteem and the sense of coherence, which represents the stress level in the situation of unemployment. This scale is a professional construction to measure stress contributed to unemployment. The USS can be a useful scale in clinical practice because after measuring with this scale we can protect the personality of the unemployed by representing the actual unemployment stress level. That is why professionals can help earlier in a crisis like this.

  9. Objective techniques for psychological assessment, phase 2. [techniques for measuring human performance during space flight stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortz, E. C.; Saur, A. J.; Nowlis, D. P.; Kendall, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of an initial experiment in a research program designed to develop objective techniques for psychological assessment of individuals and groups participating in long-duration space flights. Specifically examined is the rationale for utilizing measures of attention as an objective assessment technique. Subjects participating in the experiment performed various tasks (eg, playing matrix games which appeared on a display screen along with auditory stimuli). The psychophysiological reactions of the subjects were measured and are given. Previous research of various performance and psychophysiological methods of measuring attention is also discussed. The experiment design (independent and dependent variables) and apparatus (computers and display devices) are described and shown. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  10. Number and measure: Hermann von Helmholtz at the crossroads of mathematics, physics, and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrigol, Olivier

    2003-09-01

    In 1887 Helmholtz discussed the foundations of measurement in science as a last contribution to his philosophy of knowledge. This essay borrowed from earlier debates on the foundations of mathematics (Grassmann/Du Bois), on the possibility of quantitative psychology (Fechner/Kries, Wundt/Zeller), and on the meaning of temperature measurement (Maxwell,Mach.). Late nineteenth-century scrutinisers of the foundations of mathematics (Dedekind, Cantor, Frege, Russell) made little of Helmholtz's essay. Yet it inspired two mathematicians with an eye on physics (Poincaré and Hölder), and a few philosopher-physicists (Mach, Duhem,Campbell). The aim of the present paper is to situate Helmholtz's contribution in this complex array of nineteenth-century philosophies of number, quantity, and measurement. 2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Happy software developers solve problems better: psychological measurements in empirical software engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Graziotin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For more than thirty years, it has been claimed that a way to improve software developers’ productivity and software quality is to focus on people and to provide incentives to make developers satisfied and happy. This claim has rarely been verified in software engineering research, which faces an additional challenge in comparison to more traditional engineering fields: software development is an intellectual activity and is dominated by often-neglected human factors (called human aspects in software engineering research. Among the many skills required for software development, developers must possess high analytical problem-solving skills and creativity for the software construction process. According to psychology research, affective states—emotions and moods—deeply influence the cognitive processing abilities and performance of workers, including creativity and analytical problem solving. Nonetheless, little research has investigated the correlation between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving performance of programmers. This article echoes the call to employ psychological measurements in software engineering research. We report a study with 42 participants to investigate the relationship between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving skills of software developers. The results offer support for the claim that happy developers are indeed better problem solvers in terms of their analytical abilities. The following contributions are made by this study: (1 providing a better understanding of the impact of affective states on the creativity and analytical problem-solving capacities of developers, (2 introducing and validating psychological measurements, theories, and concepts of affective states, creativity, and analytical-problem-solving skills in empirical software engineering, and (3 raising the need for studying the human factors of software engineering by employing a

  12. Happy software developers solve problems better: psychological measurements in empirical software engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziotin, Daniel; Wang, Xiaofeng; Abrahamsson, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    For more than thirty years, it has been claimed that a way to improve software developers' productivity and software quality is to focus on people and to provide incentives to make developers satisfied and happy. This claim has rarely been verified in software engineering research, which faces an additional challenge in comparison to more traditional engineering fields: software development is an intellectual activity and is dominated by often-neglected human factors (called human aspects in software engineering research). Among the many skills required for software development, developers must possess high analytical problem-solving skills and creativity for the software construction process. According to psychology research, affective states-emotions and moods-deeply influence the cognitive processing abilities and performance of workers, including creativity and analytical problem solving. Nonetheless, little research has investigated the correlation between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving performance of programmers. This article echoes the call to employ psychological measurements in software engineering research. We report a study with 42 participants to investigate the relationship between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving skills of software developers. The results offer support for the claim that happy developers are indeed better problem solvers in terms of their analytical abilities. The following contributions are made by this study: (1) providing a better understanding of the impact of affective states on the creativity and analytical problem-solving capacities of developers, (2) introducing and validating psychological measurements, theories, and concepts of affective states, creativity, and analytical-problem-solving skills in empirical software engineering, and (3) raising the need for studying the human factors of software engineering by employing a multidisciplinary viewpoint.

  13. Validation of a scale to measure parental psychological empowerment in the vaccination decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Fadda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Parents’ empowerment is advocated to promote and preserve an informed and autonomous decision regarding their children’ immunization. The scope of this study is to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure parents’ psychological empowerment in their children’s vaccination decision and propose a context-specific definition of this construct. Materials and Methods. Grounding in previous qualitative data, we generated an initial pool of items which was later content and face validated by a panel of experts. A pretest allowed us to reduce the initial pool to 9 items. Convergent and discriminant validity measures included the General Self-Efficacy Scale, a Psychological Empowerment Scale, and the Control Preference Scale. Vaccination-related outcomes such as attitude and intention were also included. Results. Principal Component Analysis revealed a 2-factor structure, with each factor composed of 2 items. The first factor concerns the perceived influence of one’s personal and family experience with vaccination, while the second factor represents the desire not to ask other parents about their experience with vaccination and their lack of interest in other parents’ vaccination opinion. Conclusions. In light of its association with positive immunization- related outcomes, public health efforts should be directed to reinforce parents’ empowerment.

  14. Introduction to the special issue: Advances in methods and measurement in family psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H; Connell, Arin; Doss, Brian; Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Rhoades, Galena K; Trentacosta, Christopher J

    2017-12-01

    This special issue presents a collection of reports that highlight recent advances in methods and measurement and also shed light on the complexity of family psychology. The importance of theory in guiding solid family science is evident throughout these reports. The reports include guides for researchers who incorporate direct observation into their research protocols and the ever-expanding field of tele-health interventions. Advanced analytic approaches are offered in the areas of grid sequence analysis, latent fixed-effects models, and the Factors of Curves Model (FOCUS). These sophisticated analytic approaches may be applied to advance systemic thinking in family psychology. The last set of articles illustrate how complex and innovative methodologies are applied to address important societal issues. Work experiences and marital relationships in African American couples address the importance of spillover effects in contemporary families. The creation of biobehavioral plasticity index has the potential to inform gene x environment contributions to family functioning. Finally, the unique methodological issues that are particularly germane to the diverse nature of stepfamilies and nonresident fathers are addressed. We hope that readers of this special issue will return to these reports as resources and examples of theory-driven methods and measurements. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Measuring the academic, social, and psychological effects of academic service learning on middle school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Valarie A.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an academic service learning project on ninth-grade students' science achievement and attitudes. A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design was used with four classes of one teacher in a rural school. The treatment was an Energy Fair service project. Two treatment classes that were chosen by random assignment (n = 58) were compared to two control classes (n = 64), who performed an alternative assignment. The Energy Fair was conducted for the elementary school students and on a limited basis for fellow students (peers). The academic effect was measured by a teacher-designed end-of-unit ecology test, with a subset of the questions on energy use. Psychological effects were measured by a self-esteem questionnaire, which measured both self-esteem and the satisfaction felt about one's self-esteem. Social effects were measured by three semantic differentials, one each for "adults," "peers," and "elementary students." The teacher was interviewed regarding her observations about the project. Written reflections from both the treatment and control groups were coded and analyzed. Pretest results were divided into thirds of high, medium, and low for all variables to search for the possibility of an attribute-treatment interaction. Analysis of covariance was used to reduce the possibility of pretest bias, to test for significant effects, and to test for a level by treatment interaction. Although the posttest means favored the experimental group, no statistically significant difference was found for academic results. No significant effect was found for either of the psychological measures. No change was found for the social results regarding "adults." A statistically significant effect was found for social results in the categories of "elementary students" and "peers." No statistically significant level by treatment interaction was found. Further research on the effects of academic service learning projects is needed at

  16. Psychological measures as predictors of pilot performance: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, M

    1996-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to review the validity evidence for psychological measures used in pilot selection and to detect possible moderators for the relationship between predictors and pilot performance. A total of 66 independent samples from 50 studies were located and included in the meta-analysis. The best predictors of pilot performance were previous training experience (.30) and combined indexes, a combination of several cognitive and/or psychomotor tests (.37). The next best predictors were tests measuring cognitive (.24) and psychomotor/information-processing abilities (.24), as well as aviation information (.24) and biographical inventories (.23). The personality, intelligence, and academic tests yielded lowest mean validities (.14, .16, and .15, respectively). The analysis indicated that moderators might be operating for all test categories except academics, and the effect of several moderators were examined.

  17. Assessing Psychological Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes: a Critical Comparison of Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Truscott, E; Pouwer, F; Speight, J

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to examine the operationalisation of 'psychological insulin resistance' (PIR) among people with type 2 diabetes and to identify and critique relevant measures. PIR has been operationalised as (1) the assessment of attitudes or beliefs about insulin therapy and (2) hypothetical or actual resistance, or unwillingness, to use to insulin. Five validated PIR questionnaires were identified. None was fully comprehensive of all aspects of PIR, and the rigour and reporting of questionnaire development and psychometric validation varied considerably between measures. Assessment of PIR should focus on the identification of negative and positive attitudes towards insulin use. Actual or hypothetical insulin refusal may be better conceptualised as a potential consequence of PIR, as its assessment overlooks the attitudes that may prevent insulin use. This paper provides guidance on the selection of questionnaires for clinical or research purpose and the development of new, or improvement of existing, questionnaires.

  18. Individual and work-unit measures of psychological demands and decision latitude and the use of antihypertensive medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, S; Andersen, J H; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyse whether psychological demands and decision latitude measured on individual and work-unit level were related to prescription of antihypertensive medication. METHODS: A total of 3,421 women and 897 men within 388 small work units completed a questionnaire concerning psychological...... working conditions according to the job strain model. Mean levels of psychological demands and decision latitude were computed for each work unit to obtain exposure measures that were less influenced by reporting bias. Dispensed antihypertensive medication prescriptions were identified in The Danish....... Supplementary analyses of 21 months follow-up were conducted. RESULTS: Among women, increasing psychological demands at individual (adjusted OR 1.54; 95 % CI 1.02-2.33) and work-unit level (adjusted OR 1.41; 95 % CI 1.04-1.90) was significantly associated with purchase of antihypertensive medication...

  19. Exploring the limits of implicit attitude measures from social psychology to study language attitudes:contextualizing the P-IAT

    OpenAIRE

    Rosseel, Laura; Geeraerts, Dirk; Speelman, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of the matched guise technique in the 1960s (Lambert et al. 1960), there has been little methodological innovation in the field of language attitude research (Speelman et al. 2013). In social psychology, by contrast, a considerable number of new methods to measure implicit attitudes has been developed in the past two decades (Gawronski & De Houwer 2014). It is only recently that sociolinguistics has started to explore the potential of some of these social psychological ...

  20. Psychological Skills Development and Maintenance in Professional Soccer Players: An Experimental Design with Follow Up Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miçoogullari, Bülent Okan

    2016-01-01

    Psychological skills training and Psychological well-being (PWB) are two essential concepts not only for general mental health but also for athletic performance in sport settings. However, the effects of problems in Sport Training Scale (PSTS) on sport performance and general psychological well-being have not been systematically examined through…

  1. A Measure of Severe Psychological Abuse Normed on a Nationally Representative Sample of Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follingstad, Diane R.

    2011-01-01

    A psychological abuse scale representing truly egregious psychological actions that could occur between adult intimate partners was constructed. To insure that the component behaviors would be viewed as highly problematic, the likely malignant intent of the actions was included in item descriptions. Fourteen categories of psychological abuse were…

  2. Development of a questionnaire measuring Attitudes towards Psychological Online Interventions-the APOI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Johanna; Sautier, Leon; Kriston, Levente; Berger, Thomas; Meyer, Björn; Späth, Christina; Köther, Ulf; Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Klein, Jan Philipp; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-11-15

    Only a minority of people suffering from depression receive adequate treatment. Psychological Online Interventions (POIs) could help bridge existing treatment gaps and augment the effectiveness of current treatments. Apart from effectiveness, user acceptance of POIs must be achieved if such interventions are to be broadly implemented in existing health-care. Valid measurement tools examining attitudes towards POIs are lacking. Therefore, we examined the dimensionality of attitudes towards POIs, developed a novel questionnaire, the Attitudes towards Psychological Online Interventions Questionnaire (APOI), and gathered data to examine its reliability. We recruited a sample of 1004 adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms from a range of sources. We constructed a set of 35 items based on literature review as well as expert and patient queries. The initial items were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in a randomly selected subsample. A final set of 16 items was subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to cross-validate the factor structure in a separate subsample. The EFA revealed four dimensions: "Scepticism and Perception of Risks", "Confidence in Effectiveness", "Technologization Threat" and "Anonymity Benefits". The model fit in the CFA was excellent relating to all applied indices (χ(2)=105.816, p=.651; SRMR=.042; RMSEA=.013; CFI=.994) and the APOI total scale showed acceptable to good internal consistency. Further research with the APOI might facilitate the development and dissemination of POIs and, ultimately, help improve the quality of care for people experiencing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Physiological and psychological individual differences influence resting brain function measured by ASL perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, M; Coen, S J; Farmer, A D; Aziz, Q; Williams, S C R; Alsop, D C; Fukudo, S; O'Gorman, R L

    2014-09-01

    Effects of physiological and/or psychological inter-individual differences on the resting brain state have not been fully established. The present study investigated the effects of individual differences in basal autonomic tone and positive and negative personality dimensions on resting brain activity. Whole-brain resting cerebral perfusion images were acquired from 32 healthy subjects (16 males) using arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI. Neuroticism and extraversion were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised. Resting autonomic activity was assessed using a validated measure of baseline cardiac vagal tone (CVT) in each individual. Potential associations between the perfusion data and individual CVT (27 subjects) and personality score (28 subjects) were tested at the level of voxel clusters by fitting a multiple regression model at each intracerebral voxel. Greater baseline perfusion in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and cerebellum was associated with lower CVT. At a corrected significance threshold of p individual autonomic tone and psychological variability influence resting brain activity in brain regions, previously shown to be associated with autonomic arousal (dorsal ACC) and personality traits (amygdala, caudate, etc.) during active task processing. The resting brain state may therefore need to be taken into account when interpreting the neurobiology of individual differences in structural and functional brain activity.

  4. Measures of psychophysiological arousal among resettled traumatized Iraqi refugees seeking psychological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Chippendale, Kerenze; Heriseanu, Andreea; Lujic, Sanja; Atto, John; Raphael, Beverley

    2012-06-01

    Resettled refugees living in Western countries frequently report high levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. This study sought to measure levels of physiological arousal in a group of resettled Iraqi refugees in Australia receiving psychological treatment. A continuous recording of electrocardiogram (ECG) data was used to examine baseline heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in refugees (n = 25) and healthy age- and sex-matched controls (n = 23). Descriptively, PTSD (48%) was the most commonly noted disorder followed equally by major depressive episode (36%) and dysthymia (36%) in the refugees. Examination of the physiological data indicated that the refugee group had increased resting HR compared with healthy controls (78.84 vs. 60.08 beats per minute, p education included in the model. This finding highlights the importance of examining levels of arousal in refugees presenting with mental health complaints to provide appropriate treatment strategies. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  5. Rasch analysis of measurement instruments capturing psychological personal factors in persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Claudio; Schulenberg, Stefan E; Buchanan, Erin M; Prodinger, Birgit; Geyh, Szilvia

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the metric properties of distinct measures of psychological personal factors comprising feelings, beliefs, motives, and patterns of experience and behaviour assessed in the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI), using Rasch methodology. SwiSCI Pathway 2 is a community-based, nationwide, cross-sectional survey for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) (n = 511). The Rasch partial credit model was used for each subscale of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), Appraisal of Life Events Scale (ALE), Purpose in Life test - Short Form (PIL-SF), and the Big Five Inventory-K (BFI-K). The measures were unidimensional, with the exception of the positive affect items of the PANAS, where pairwise t-tests resulted in 10% significant cases, indicating multidimensionality. The BFI-K subscale agreeableness revealed low reliability (0.53). Other reliability estimates ranged between 0.61 and 0.89. Ceiling and floor effects were found for most measures. SCI-related differential item functioning (DIF) was rarely found. Language DIF was identified for several items of the BFI-K, PANAS and the ALE, but not for the PIL-SF. A majority of the measures satisfy the assumptions of the Rasch model, including unidimensionality. Invariance across language versions still represents a major challenge.

  6. Defining and measuring blood donor altruism: a theoretical approach from biology, economics and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R; Ferguson, E

    2014-02-01

    While blood donation is traditionally described as a behaviour motivated by pure altruism, the assessment of altruism in the blood donation literature has not been theoretically informed. Drawing on theories of altruism from psychology, economics and evolutionary biology, it is argued that a theoretically derived psychometric assessment of altruism is needed. Such a measure is developed in this study that can be used to help inform both our understanding of the altruistic motives of blood donors and recruitment intervention strategies. A cross-sectional survey (N = 414), with a 1-month behavioural follow-up (time 2, N = 77), was designed to assess theoretically derived constructs from psychological, economic and evolutionary biological theories of altruism. Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and co-operation were also assessed at time 1 and a measure of behavioural co-operation at time 2. Five theoretical dimensions (impure altruism, kinship, self-regarding motives, reluctant altruism and egalitarian warm glow) of altruism were identified through factor analyses. These five altruistic motives differentiated blood donors from non-donors (donors scored higher on impure altruism and reluctant altruism), showed incremental validity over TPB constructs to predict donor intention and predicted future co-operative behaviour. These findings show that altruism in the context of blood donation is multifaceted and complex and, does not reflect pure altruism. This has implication for recruitment campaigns that focus solely on pure altruism. © 2013 The Authors. Vox Sanguinis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. on behalf of International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  7. A comparison of three different scoring methods for self-report measures of psychological aggression in a sample of college females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Cornelius, Tara L; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-01-01

    Psychological aggression in females' dating relationships has received increased empirical attention in recent years. However, researchers' have used numerous measures of psychological aggression and various scoring methods with these measures, making it difficult to compare across studies on psychological aggression. In addition, research has yet to examine whether different scoring methods for psychological aggression measures may affect the psychometric properties of these instruments. This study examined three self-report measures of psychological aggression within a sample of female college students (N = 108), including their psychometric properties when scored using frequency, sum, and variety scores. Results showed that the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2) had variable internal consistency depending on the scoring method used and good validity; the Multidimensional Measure of Emotional Abuse (MMEA) and the Follingstad Psychological Aggression Scale (FPAS) both had good internal consistency and validity across scoring methods. Implications of these findings for the assessment of psychological aggression and future research are discussed.

  8. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale as a Positive Psychology Measure for People with Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Mayu; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Chan, Fong; Catalano, Denise; Hunter, Celeste; Bengtson, Kevin; Rahimi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the measurement structure of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) as a positive psychology measure for people with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) using confirmatory factor analysis. The participants consisted of 274 Canadians with SCI living in the community. The result indicated that the…

  9. Assessment tools in obesity - psychological measures, diet, activity, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beechy, Laura; Galpern, Jennie; Petrone, Andrew; Das, Sai Krupa

    2012-08-20

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity has led to an increased need for measurement tools for research, management and treatment of the obese person. The physical size limitations imposed by obesity, variations in body composition from that of normal weight, and a complex psychopathology all pose tremendous challenges to the assessment of an obese person. There is little published research regarding what tools can be used with confidence. This review is designed to provide researchers and clinicians with a guide to the current and emerging measurement tools specifically associated with obesity research and practice. Section 1 addresses psychological measures of well being. Sections 2, 3, and 4 focus on the assessment of food intake, activity, and body composition. All sections address basic challenges involved in the study and management of obesity, and highlight methodological issues associated with the use of common assessment tools. The best available methods for use in the obese both in research and clinical practice are recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring psychological, social, and environmental influences on leisure-time physical activity among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Nicola W; Oldenburg, Brian; Sallis, James F; Turrell, Gavin

    2007-02-01

    Many of the self-administered scales for measuring physical activity (PA) influences were originally developed for vigorous-intensity exercise, focus on only one domain of influence, and have not been evaluated for both reliability and validity using population-based samples. This study describes the factorial validity and internal reliability of scales for measuring individual-level psychological, social, and environmental influences on leisure-time PA among adults in the general population. Constructs were identified from a literature review and formative research with a socio-economically diverse sample. Items were generated using previously developed scales and interview data. New items were pre-tested using reliability and principal components analyses, with data collected from a mail survey sent to a randomly selected population-based sample. Qualitative feedback was obtained from a convenience sample and expert panel. A second mail survey provided data for principal components and reliability analyses. Twenty-eight scales were factorially derived and 24 had acceptable or marginally acceptable levels of internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha values ranging from 0.65 to 0.91. The 24 scales are suitable for researchers and practitioners interested in measuring individual-level influences on PA that are consistent with Social Cognitive Theory. More research is required to assess predictive validity, sensitivity to change and test/re-test reliability.

  11. Transactional stress and coping theory in accounting for psychological states measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buško

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a relative predictive value of some stable individual attributes and the processes of cognitive appraisals and coping with stress in accounting for specific components of anxiety state measures. Self-report instruments for the measurement of selected psychological constructs, i.e. perceived incompetence, externality, stress intensity and duration, situation-specific coping strategies, and the two anxiety state components, were taken in a sample of 449 male military basics trainees, ranging in age from 18-27. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the set of predictors employed could account for statistically, as well as theoretically and practically a significant part of variance in cognitive anxiety component (45,5%, and in visceral-emotional component (32,2% of the anxiety state. The extent of anxiety reactions assessed by both scales could primarily be explained by general perception of personal incompetence, as a relatively stable dimension of general self-concept. Of the ways of coping examined, reinterpretation of stressful events was the only strategy contributing to low level, whereas passivization, wishful thinking, and seeking social support contributed to higher levels of anxiety measured by both scales. The results give partial support to the basic hypotheses on the mediating role of coping in the relationships among particular components of the stress and coping models.

  12. Recent self-harm and psychological measures in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. Randall

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of self-harm risk is a common, difficult, and perplexing task for many physicians, especially those working in emergency departments (ED. Attempts have been made to determine objective methods for assessing patients with suicidal ideation or self-harm though there is still a lack of knowledge about objective assessments of these patients. A study was conducted where 181 suicidal patients were enrolled in two EDs within the city of Edmonton, Canada. Initial interviews were conducted in the ED which collected basic demographics and medical history as well as psychometric measures including the Beck Hopelessness Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, Drug Abuse Screening Test 10, and CAGE questionnaire. The results of these measures were compared between those who presented to the ED with self-harm and those who presented only with ideation. Those with recent self-harm scored lower on many of the scales and subscales of distress and impulsivity measured compared to those with no recent self-harm. Possible explanations for this difference include differences in psychological traits between the two groups and possible cathartic effects of self-harm. The lower scores obtained by those that present with self-harm may complicate attempts to use psychometric tools to determine future self-harm risk.

  13. Measuring Work Engagement, Psychological Empowerment, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior Among Health Care Aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Liane; Berta, Whitney; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Rohit Dass, Adrian; Laporte, Audrey; Reid, R Colin; Squires, Janet; Taylor, Deanne

    2016-04-01

    Health care aides (HCAs) provide most direct care in long-term care (LTC) and home and community care (HCC) settings but are understudied. We validate three key work attitude measures to better understand HCAs' work experiences: work engagement (WEng), psychological empowerment (PE), and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB-O). Data were collected from 306 HCAs working in LTC and HCC, using survey items for WEng, PE, and OCB-O adapted for HCAs. Psychometric evaluation involved confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Predictive validity (correlations with measures of job satisfaction and turnover intention) and internal consistency reliability were examined. CFA supported a one-factor model of WEng, a four-factor model of PE, and a one-factor model of OCB-O. HCC workers scored higher than LTC workers on Self-determination (PE) and lower on Impact, demonstrating concurrent validity. WEng and PE correlated with worker outcomes (job satisfaction, turnover intention, and OCB-O), demonstrating predictive validity. Reliability and validity analyses indicated sound psychometric properties overall. Study results support psychometric properties of measures of WEng, PE, and OCB-O for HCAs. Knowledge of HCAs' work attitudes and behaviors can inform recruitment programs, incentive systems, and retention/training strategies for this vital group of care providers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Doctoral Training in Statistics, Measurement, and Methodology in Psychology: Replication and Extension of Aiken, West, Sechrest, and Reno's (1990) Survey of PhD Programs in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Leona S.; West, Stephen G.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2008-01-01

    In a survey of all PhD programs in psychology in the United States and Canada, the authors documented the quantitative methodology curriculum (statistics, measurement, and research design) to examine the extent to which innovations in quantitative methodology have diffused into the training of PhDs in psychology. In all, 201 psychology PhD…

  15. The Relationship among Self-Report and Measured Report of Psychological Abuse, and Depression for a Sample of Women Involved in Intimate Relationships with Male Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Virginia; Warner, Kelly; Trahan, Courtenay; Miscavage, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…

  16. Review of Positive Psychology Outcome Measures for Chronic Illness, Traumatic Brain Injury and Older Adults: Adaptability in Dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Charlotte R; Orrell, Martin; Spector, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Despite positive psychology being increasingly recognised as an important agent in well-being, there is a lack of standardised outcome measures for psychosocial dementia research. This review assessed positive psychology outcome measures using standardised criterion in populations that were identified as having shared characteristics. It aimed to identify robust measures that were suitable for potential adaption or use within a dementia population. The review identified 16 positive psychology outcome measures (and 8 further psychometric assessments of these) within the constructs of resilience, self-efficacy, religiousness/spirituality, life valuation, sense of coherence, autonomy, resourcefulness and a combined measure (CASP-19). Scale development studies were subject to a quality assessment, and most were found to be lacking information on reproducibility and responsiveness. A wide range of measures within the constructs of positive psychology was identified as having potential utility for psychosocial research within a dementia population. Examples included the CD-RISC, GSWB, SWLS, MPAQ, RSOA and CASP-19. It is recommended that such scales are further adapted or validated for people with dementia. Underreporting of appropriate psychometric analyses hampered this review, and it is recommended that future authors endeavour to report such analyses. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Emotional Prosody Measurement (EPM): a voice-based evaluation method for psychological therapy effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Egon L

    2004-01-01

    The voice embodies three sources of information: speech, the identity, and the emotional state of the speaker (i.e., emotional prosody). The latter feature is resembled by the variability of the F0 (also named fundamental frequency of pitch) (SD F0). To extract this feature, Emotional Prosody Measurement (EPM) was developed, which consists of 1) speech recording, 2) removal of speckle noise, 3) a Fourier Transform to extract the F0-signal, and 4) the determination of SD F0. After a pilot study in which six participants mimicked emotions by their voice, the core experiment was conducted to see whether EPM is successful. Twenty-five patients suffering from a panic disorder with agoraphobia participated. Two methods (story-telling and reliving) were used to trigger anxiety and were compared with comparable but more relaxed conditions. This resulted in a unique database of speech samples that was used to compare the EPM with the Subjective Unit of Distress to validate it as measure for anxiety/stress. The experimental manipulation of anxiety proved to be successful and EPM proved to be a successful evaluation method for psychological therapy effectiveness.

  18. Using Action Verbs as Learning Outcomes: Applying Bloom's Taxonomy in Measuring Instructional Objectives in Introductory Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevid, Jeffrey S.; McClelland, Nate

    2013-01-01

    We used a set of action verbs based on Bloom's taxonomy to assess learning outcomes in two college-level introductory psychology courses. The action verbs represented an acronym, IDEA, comprising skills relating to identifying, defining or describing, evaluating or explaining, and applying psychological knowledge. Exam performance demonstrated…

  19. Psychometric properties of two measures of psychological well-being in adult growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell-Jones David L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychometric properties of two measures of psychological well-being were evaluated for adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD: the General Well-being Index, (GWBI – British version of the Psychological General Well-being Index, and the 12-item Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ12. Methods Reliability, structure and other aspects of validity were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 157 adults with treated or untreated GHD, and sensitivity to change in a randomised placebo-controlled study of three months' growth hormone (GH withdrawal from 12 of 21 GH-treated adults. Results Very high completion rates were evidence that both questionnaires were acceptable to respondents. Factor analyses did not indicate the existence of useful GWBI subscales, but confirmed the validity of calculating a GWBI Total score. However, very high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96, N = 152, probably indicated some item redundancy in the 22-item GWBI. On the other hand, factor analyses confirmed the validity of the three W-BQ12 subscales of Negative Well-being, Energy, and Positive Well-being, each having excellent internal reliability (alphas of 0.86, 0.86 and 0.88, respectively, N from 152 to 154. There was no sign of item redundancy in the highly acceptable Cronbach's alpha of 0.93 (N = 148 for the whole W-BQ12 scale. Whilst neither questionnaire found significant differences between GH-treated and non-GH-treated patients, there were correlations (for GH-treated patients with duration of GH treatment for GWBI Total (r = -0.36, p = 0.001, N = 85, W-BQ12 Total (r = 0.35, p = 0.001, N = 88 and for all W-BQ12 subscales: thus the longer the duration of GH treatment (ranging from 0.5 to 10 years, the better the well-being. Both questionnaires found that men had significantly better overall well-being than women. The W-BQ12 was more sensitive to change than the GWBI in the GH-Withdrawal study. A significant between

  20. Evaluation of Sleeping Comfort of Bed Mattresses using Physiological and Psychological Response Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Masataka; Kamijo, Masayoshi; Yoshida, Hiroaki

    The purpose of this study is to create a method of evaluating the quality of sleep based on the elastic properties of bed mattresses through measurement of physiological and psychological responses while sleeping. We gathered Profile of Mood States (POMS) results before and after sleep, and investigated changes in subjects' moods according to sleep. A total of 4 bed mattresses with different degrees of elasticity were prepared. They were all pocket coil mattresses. We conducted polysomnography (PSG) testing on subjects with a bioamplifier while they slept in each bed mattress, so that sleeping depth indicating the quality of sleep could be estimated. PSG is a comprehensive recording of the biophysiological changes that occur during sleep. As a result, the sleep depth of bed mattress with a high degree of elasticity increased in the PSG evaluation. Because the hip sinks in deeply from the waist, it is not easy to turn over on mattresses with a low degree of elasticity. We have therefore considered that the sleep depth of the subjects became shallow as a result. We have concluded that it is possible to estimate the quality of sleep through analysis of PSG and POMS results.

  1. Measurement of Organisation-Professional Conflict in the industrial psychology profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette Lourens

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Professionals, employed in organisations, operate within professional andorganisational contexts serving different stakeholders. Subsequently, professionals mayexperience tension or conflict between their role as professional and employee.Research purpose: To establish the measurement of the perceptions and experiences ofindustrial psychology (IP professionals, employed in South African organisations, withregard to Organisation-Professional Conflict (OPC as well as the antecedents associated withthis phenomenon.Motivation for the study: Although the extent to which professionals experience OPC is welldocumentedfor medical and accountancy professionals, the extent to which IP professionalsexperience this phenomenon remains unclear.Research design, approach and method: A structured questionnaire was developed andapplied as a cross-sectional survey to all registered South African IP professionals employedin organisations. Responses based on the N = 143 self-selecting respondents were captured andutilised for statistical analysis.Main findings: OPC in the IP profession can be considered as the incongruence betweenprofessional organisational roles and duties, and their responsibility to adhere to professionalobligations. Professional autonomy and strategic alignment were found to mitigate theoccurrence of OPC, whereas power tension and compromise of professionalism seem toexacerbate the occurrence thereof.Practical/managerial implications: The research might create an awareness of the existenceof OPC amongst the respective stakeholders. Knowledge of OPC may have implications forprofessionals who render their professional services to organisations.Contribution/value-add: The findings may inform formal professional associations, industrialpsychologists employed by organisations, their employing organisations, and the governingboard, about the nature and extent of OPC.

  2. Stevens’ forgotten crossroads: The divergent measurement traditions in the physical and psychological sciences from the mid-20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A McGrane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The late 19th and early 20th Centuries saw the consolidation in physics of the three main traditions that predominate in discussions of measurement theory. These are: (i the systematic tradition pioneered by Maxwell; (ii the representational tradition pioneered by Campbell; and (iii the operational tradition pioneered by Bridgman (1927. These divergent approaches created uncertainty about the nature of measurement in the physical sciences and provided Stevens (1946 with an opportunity and rationale to, in effect, reinvent the definition of scientific measurement. Stevens appropriated the representational and operational traditions as the sole basis for his definition of measurement, excluding any place for the systematic approach. In committing to Stevens’ path, the psychological sciences were blinded to the advances made in metrology, the establishment of the International System (SI and the standard units contained within this system. These advances were only possible due to the deep conceptual and instrumental connections between the system of physical units and the body of physical theory and laws developed over the preceding centuries. It is argued that if the psychological sciences are to ever achieve equivalent methodological advances, they must bridge this ‘metrological gap’ created by Stevens’ measurement crossroads and understand the ways in which the systematic approach advanced measurement. This means that psychological measurement needs to be de-abstracted, rid of operational rules for numerical assignment and set upon a foundation of quantitative theory, definition and law. In the absence of such theoretical foundations, claims of measurement in the psychological sciences remain a methodological chimera.

  3. The development and preliminary psychometric properties of two positive psychology outcome measures for people with dementia: the PPOM and the EID-Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Charlotte R; Orrell, Martin; Long, Maria; Csipke, Emese; Spector, Aimee

    2017-03-21

    Positive psychology research in dementia care has largely been confined to the qualitative literature because of the lack of robust outcome measures. The aim of this study was to develop positive psychology outcome measures for people with dementia. Two measures were each developed in four stages. Firstly, literature reviews were conducted to identify and operationalise salient positive psychology themes in the qualitative literature and to examine existing measures of positive psychology. Secondly, themes were discussed within a qualitative study to add content validity for identified concepts (n = 17). Thirdly, draft measures were submitted to a panel of experts for feedback (n = 6). Finally, measures were used in a small-scale pilot study (n = 33) to establish psychometric properties. Salient positive psychology themes were identified as hope, resilience, a sense of independence and social engagement. Existing measures of hope and resilience were adapted to form the Positive Psychology Outcome Measure (PPOM). Due to the inter-relatedness of independence and engagement for people with dementia, 28 items were developed for a new scale of Engagement and Independence in Dementia Questionnaire (EID-Q) following extensive qualitative work. Both measures demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (α = .849 and α = .907 respectively) and convergent validity. Two new positive psychology outcome measures were developed using a robust four-stage procedure. Preliminary psychometric data was adequate and the measures were easy to use, and acceptable for people with dementia.

  4. Comparison of the validity of four fall-related psychological measures in a community-based falls risk screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Delilah S; Ellis, Rebecca; Kosma, Maria; Fabre, Jennifer M; McCarter, Kevin S; Wood, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    We examined the measurement properties offall-related psychological instruments with a sample of 133 older adults (M age = 74.4 years, SD = 9.4). Measures included the Comprehensive Falls Risk Screening Instrument, Falls-efficacy Scale-International (FES-I), Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC), modified Survey ofActivities and Fear ofFalling in the Elderly (mSAFFE), Consequences of Falling (CoF), Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), and 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The FES-I, ABC, mSAFFE, and CoF were significantly correlated with each othe, with SF-36, and with mobility. The ABC and mSAFFE were significantly correlated with PASE. The ABC differentiated between fallers and nonfallers and predicted total falls risk. Findings can assist with the selection of psychological instruments in a falls risk screening context.

  5. Measuring the Psychological Distance between an Organization and Its Members—The Construction and Validation of a New Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There exists a lack of specific research methods to estimate the relationship between an organization and its employees, which has long challenged research in the field of organizational management. Therefore, this article introduces psychological distance concept into the research of organizational behavior, which can define the concept of psychological distance between employees and an organization and describe a level of perceived correspondence or interaction between subjects and objects. We developed an employee-organization psychological distance (EOPD scale through both qualitative and quantitative analysis methods. As indicated by the research results based on grounded theory (10 employee in-depth interview records and 277 opening questionnaires and formal investigation (544 questionnaires, this scale consists of six dimensions: experiential distance, behavioral distance, emotional distance, cognitive distance, spatial-temporal distance, and objective social distance based on 44 items. Finally, we determined that the EOPD scale exhibited acceptable reliability and validity using confirmatory factor analysis. This research may establish a foundation for future research on the measurement of psychological relationships between employees and organizations.

  6. Development of a psychological test to measure ability-based emotional intelligence in the Indonesian workplace using an item response theory

    OpenAIRE

    Fajrianthi; Zein RA

    2017-01-01

    Fajrianthi,1 Rizqy Amelia Zein2 1Department of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2Department of Personality and Social Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia Abstract: This study aimed to develop an emotional intelligence (EI) test that is suitable to the Indonesian workplace context. Airlangga Emotional Intelligence Test (Tes Kecerdasan Emosi Airlangga [TKEA]) was designed to measure three EI domains: 1) emotional appraisal, 2) emotio...

  7. Measuring psychological outcomes following pediatric intensive care unit hospitalization: psychometric analysis of the Children's Critical Illness Impact Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennick, Janet E; Johnston, C Celeste; Lambert, Sylvie D; Rashotte, Judy M; Schmitz, Norbert; Earle, Rebecca J; Stevens, Bonnie J; Tewfik, Ted; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon

    2011-11-01

    Critically ill children are at risk for psychological sequelae following pediatric intensive care unit hospitalization. This article reports on the psychometric testing of the first self-report measure of psychological distress for 6-12-yr-old children post-pediatric intensive care unit hospitalization: The Children's Critical Illness Impact Scale. This 23-item scale takes approximately 15 mins for children to complete. Psychometric testing based on Classic Test Theory and guidelines for health measurement scale development. The pediatric intensive care units of four Canadian pediatric hospitals and the ear, nose, and throat clinic of one participating hospital. A total of 172 children (pediatric intensive care unit group, n = 84; ear, nose, and throat group, n = 88) aged 6-12 yrs and their parents. None. We assessed the factor structure, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability of the Children's Critical Illness Impact Scale and conducted contrasted group comparisons and convergent and concurrent validation testing. Fit indices and internal consistency were best for a three-factor solution, suggesting three dimensions of psychological distress: 1) worries about getting sick again, 2) feeling things have changed, and 3) feeling anxious and fearful about hospitalization. As expected, Children's Critical Illness Impact Scale scores were positively correlated with child anxiety and medical fear scores. The ear, nose, and throat group scores were higher than expected. Higher Children's Critical Illness Impact Scale scores in older children may reflect a better understanding of the situation and its complexity and meaning, and younger children's tendency to provide more positive self-evaluation. The Children's Critical Illness Impact Scale is a promising new self-report measure of psychological distress with demonstrated reliability and validation testing in 6-12-yr-old children post-pediatric intensive care unit hospitalization. This new measure has potential

  8. Development of a Scale to Measure Residents' Psychological Empowerment in Chinese Urban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Chen, Xiaojuan; Chen, Yongsheng

    2011-01-01

    The present study combined the literature analysis with the empirical study and proposed a Chinese local conception of psychological empowerment, which was defined as a process of personality-oriented, self-motivated, and proactive control with the aim of community members' citizen participation. Its basic dimension comprised an inclination to…

  9. No Regrets? Measuring the Career Benefits of a Psychology Placement Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, Elisabeth; Reddy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We report an analysis of whether a psychology placement provides significant benefit to graduates' careers. Destination of Leavers from Higher Education (DLHE) survey data six months post-graduation suggested that placement programme graduates across the university are significantly more likely to be (1) in work and (2) in graduate-level jobs. For…

  10. Measuring Lifestyle and Attachment: An Empirical Investigation Linking Individual Psychology and Attachment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Paul R.; Peluso, Jennifer P.; Buckner, Janine P.; Kern, Roy M.; Curlette, William

    2009-01-01

    P. R. Peluso, J. P. Peluso, J. F. White, and R. M. Kern (2004) reviewed the theoretical constructs underlying the similarities between lifestyle and attachment style. Specifically, they suggested that the individual psychology construct of lifestyle (or style of life) and attachment style should be empirically investigated. The present research…

  11. Evaluation of Psychological Measures Used in the Health Examination Survey of Children Ages 6-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sells, S. B.

    In this report the psychological procedures used in the Health Examination Survey conducted between June 1963 and December 1965 for children ages 6 through 11 are critically evaluated. In his analysis, the author combines his own professional competence with the information obtained in an extensive survey of literature pertaining to the four…

  12. Development and Validation of a Brief Measure of Psychological Resilience: An Adaptation of the Response to Stressful Experiences Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa, Gabriel M; Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; Johnston, Scott L

    2016-03-01

    Resilience helps determine how people respond to stress. The Response to Stressful Events Scale (RSES) is an existing 22-item measure of resilience. We investigate the psychometric properties of the RSES and develop a 4-item measure of resilience using the most discriminating items from the RSES. Among two samples of military personnel presenting to mental health clinics, we see that the abbreviated resilience measure displays comparable internal consistency and test-retest reliability (versus the existing RSES). Among a sample of deployed military personnel, the abbreviated scale relates to validated measures of psychological strain. The 4-item abbreviated RSES measure is a brief, reliable, and valid measure of resilience. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Identifying psychological distress at key stages of the cancer illness trajectory: a systematic review of validated self-report measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Lucy; Hill, Kate; Neilly, Liz; Bennett, Michael I; Higginson, Irene J; Murray, Scott A; Stark, Dan

    2011-03-01

    To enable study of psychological distress along the cancer journey, we need to be able to select and map validated measures through the cancer trajectory. To examine the performance of self-report measures for identifying clinically significant levels of psychological distress across the cancer patient trajectory. Electronic searches of Medline, PsychInfo, CINAHL, EmBase, The Cochrane Library, AMED, BNI, ASSIA, and Web of Science were undertaken. Only studies of self-report measures that used validated diagnostic tools for psychiatric diagnosis as the criterion measure were included. We then further limited our focus to those papers that specified a trajectory stage. Forty-eight different self-report measures were reported in the 85 papers identified. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was the most frequently reported measure (23 times). Several other measures were reported between two and four times, but most (37) measures were reported only once. Twenty-two of the 85 included papers reported measure performance by trajectory stage. Best performing measures based on validation data available could be identified for each trajectory stage: for pretreatment, the HADS for identifying depression; during treatment, the HADS and Mental Health Inventory-5 (MHI-5) together for identifying clinically significant distress; post-treatment, the HADS for identifying depression; and at recurrence and during the palliative phase, the Brief Edinburgh Depression Scale (BEDS) for identifying depression. No single measure had evidence to support use throughout the illness trajectory in a longitudinal study, but the HADS, in combination with the MHI-5, was supported during the cancer treatment phase, and BEDS in the palliative care phase. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The psychological importance of collective assembly: Development and validation of the Tendency for Effervescent Assembly Measure (TEAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Shira; Valenti, Jennifer; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Young, Ariana F

    2017-11-01

    Although previous research suggests that connection to large, mostly anonymous groups is important for the fulfillment of psychological needs and a sense of psychological well-being, no measure exists to assess individual differences in this area. In 5 studies, we developed and provided support for the validity of the Tendency for Effervescent Assembly Measure (TEAM). Utilizing data from student and community samples, we conducted exploratory factor analyses to guide item selection for the scale (Study 1), evaluated the structure of the scale in an independent sample (Study 2), examined the convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the scale (Study 3), and assessed measurement invariance of the scale across different demographic groups (Study 4). Study 5 explored the role of social needs fulfillment in effervescent assembly, as well as examined the relationship of the scale with recent collective effervescence experiences. Results revealed that our final 11-item scale was unidimensional, with excellent internal consistency and good test-retest reliability over 2 months. Measurement invariance was established across gender, ethnicity, and religion, providing support for the validity of the measure across demographic subgroups. Importantly, the TEAM predicted decreased loneliness, increased positive feelings, a sense of meaning in one's life, self-awareness, and spiritual transcendence, above and beyond the effects of the big 5 factors of personality and collective and relational interdependence. Furthermore, results suggested that positive outcomes associated with the TEAM are because of social need fulfillment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The association between waiting for psychological therapy and therapy outcomes as measured by the CORE-OM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Alison; Burdett, Mark; Lewis, Helen

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the impact of waiting for psychological therapy on client well-being as measured by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) global distress (GD) score. Global distress scores were retrieved for all clients referred for psychological therapy in a secondary care mental health service between November 2006 and May 2013 and who had completed a CORE-OM at assessment and first session. GD scores for a subgroup of 103 clients who had completed a CORE-OM during the last therapy session were also reviewed. The study sample experienced a median wait of 41.14 weeks between assessment and first session. The relationship between wait time from referral acceptance to assessment, and assessment GD score was not significant. During the period between assessment and first session no significant difference in GD score was observed. Nevertheless 29.1% of the sample experienced reliable change; 16.0% of clients reliably improved and 13.1% reliably deteriorated whilst waiting for therapy. Demographic factors were not found to have a significant effect on the change in GD score between assessment and first session. Waiting time was associated with post-therapy outcomes but not to a degree which was meaningful. The majority of individuals (54.4%), regardless of whether they improved or deteriorated whilst waiting for therapy, showed reliable improvement at end of therapy as measured by the CORE-OM. The majority of GD scores remained stable while waiting for therapy; however, 29.1% of secondary care clients experienced either reliable improvement or deterioration. Irrespective of whether they improved, deteriorated or remained unchanged whilst waiting for therapy, most individuals who had a complete end of therapy assessment showed reliable improvements following therapy. There was no significant difference in GD score between assessment and first session recordings. A proportion of clients (29.1%) showed reliable change, either improvement or

  16. [Evaluation on the Chinese version of adolescent fat intake behavior of psychological measurement scale and its reliability and validity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mingzhu; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Xianhong; Wu, Xian; Gu, Fang; Qu, Xuping; Xu, Liangwen

    2014-03-01

    To develop a suitable fat intake behavior of psychological measurement scales for the Chinese adolescents and evaluate its validity and reliability. According to the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling principle, a total of 3 600 junior students were recruited from the classes in 12 selected high schools in Hangzhou, Wuhan and Xi'an from March to May, 2012. Based on introducing and translating the original scale abroad, Chinese version of adolescent fat intake behavior of psychological measurement scales was utilized in field investigations. The reliability was assessed, using Cronbach's α and split-half reliability; while exploratory factor analysis used to test its validity, with entries-dimension correlation coefficient (IIC), correlation coefficient between the scores and the dimension, and the dimension of correlation coefficient test content validity. The valid subject of the study was 3 448(of whom males were 52.4% (1 806/3 448) and female were 47.6% (1 642/3 448)), while the mean age was (14.85 ± 1.46) years old. The internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α) for total scale score and four domains were 0.922,0.933, 0.660, 0.773 and 0.869 respectively, whose split-efficacy reliability were separately 0.927, 0.933, 0.790, 0.624 and 0.889. Data from the exploratory factor analysis revealed the following dimensions:the entries were all inclusive, with the cumulative contribution rate at 59.453%, 56.062% and 52.668%, respectively. The results of IIC showed that in the four dimensions, the contained entries between Spearman correlation coefficient have statistically significant, with the r value range of 0.584-0.793, 0.665-0.818, 0.654-0.765 and 0.622-0.747 severely, while other dimensions from weak to moderate relationships, the r value ranged from -0.028 to 0.614. The reliability and validity of the adolescent fat intake behavior of psychological measurement scales (Chinese version) were good, and could be used to measure the fat intake behavior of

  17. Using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones for psychological research: Reaction time measurement reliability and interdevice variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2008-11-01

    Mobile telephones have significant potential for use in psychological research, possessing unique characteristics-not least their ubiquity--that may make them useful tools for psychologists. We examined whether it is possible to measure reaction times (RTs) accurately using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones. We ran simple and choice RT experiments on two widely available mobile phones, a Nokia 6110 Navigator and a Sony Ericsson W810i, using a wireless application protocol (WAP) connection to access the Internet from the devices. RTs were compared within subjects with those obtained using a Linux-based millisecond-accurate measurement system. Results show that measured RTs were significantly longer on mobile devices, and that overall RTs and distribution of RTs varied across devices.

  18. Life style: progress in measuring life style and its relation with other psychological concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Sánchez López

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on life styles ha ve driven us to consider three studies which analyse the concept and its relationship with other psychological variables. The first study presents an analysis of the activities carried out by a person, asan operational definition of life styles using ADIT self-registering (Self-Registeringof Time Distribution, SRTD, considering individuals who interact with subject in those activities. In the second study, modifications to the original self-record are suggested; eg, the sectionthat registers where and with whom are carried out the activities was eliminated. In the third study, the relationships among life styles, life satisfaction and personality variables are analysed. Therewere 84 persons in the sample assigned to 6 groups, depending on the relationships among these three concepts, as was previously suggested by other studies

  19. The reading grade level of common measures in child and adolescent clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Scott A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Lopez-Williams, Andy; Chacko, Anil

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide easily accessible readability information for 49 parent- and 35 child- and adolescent-report measures commonly used by clinicians and researchers. There is a great deal of variability in reading ability required across measures. The majority of parent-report measures (65%) required reading ability above the 8th grade level. The average child-/adolescent-report measure required reading ability above the 6th grade level. Given the potential contribution of readability to a measure's reliability, validity, and overall utility, examining and accounting for readability should be a more common practice in test construction and administration.

  20. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.

  1. A Developmental Examination of the Psychometric Properties and Predictive Utility of a Revised Psychological Self-Concept Measure for Preschool-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of psychological self-concept in early childhood relies on the development of psychometrically sound instruments. From a developmental perspective, the current study revised an existing measure of young children's psychological self-concepts, the Child Self-View Questionnaire (CSVQ, Eder, 1990), and examined its psychometric properties using a sample of preschool-aged children assessed at approximately 4 years old with a follow-up at age 5 (N = 111). The item compositions ...

  2. The Influence of Urban Natural and Built Environments on Physiological and Psychological Measures of Stress— A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Beil

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Environments shape health and well-being, yet little research has investigated how different real-world environmental settings influence the well-known determinant of health known as stress. Using a cross-over experimental design; this pilot study investigated the effect of four urban environments on physiological and psychological stress measures. Participants (N = 15 were exposed on separate days to one of the four settings for 20 min. These settings were designated as Very Natural; Mostly Natural; Mostly Built and Very Built. Visitation order to the four settings was individually randomized. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase; as well as self-report measures of stress; were collected before and after exposure to each setting. Gender was included as a variable in analysis; and additional data about environmental self-identity, pre-existing stress, and perceived restorativeness of settings were collected as measures of covariance. Differences between environmental settings showed greater benefit from exposure to natural settings relative to built settings; as measured by pre-to-post changes in salivary amylase and self-reported stress; differences were more significant for females than for males. Inclusion of covariates in a regression analysis demonstrated significant predictive value of perceived restorativeness on these stress measures, suggesting some potential level of mediation. These data suggest that exposure to natural environments may warrant further investigation as a health promotion method for reducing stress.

  3. The Influence of Urban Natural and Built Environments on Physiological and Psychological Measures of Stress—A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beil, Kurt; Hanes, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Environments shape health and well-being, yet little research has investigated how different real-world environmental settings influence the well-known determinant of health known as stress. Using a cross-over experimental design; this pilot study investigated the effect of four urban environments on physiological and psychological stress measures. Participants (N = 15) were exposed on separate days to one of the four settings for 20 min. These settings were designated as Very Natural; Mostly Natural; Mostly Built and Very Built. Visitation order to the four settings was individually randomized. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase; as well as self-report measures of stress; were collected before and after exposure to each setting. Gender was included as a variable in analysis; and additional data about environmental self-identity, pre-existing stress, and perceived restorativeness of settings were collected as measures of covariance. Differences between environmental settings showed greater benefit from exposure to natural settings relative to built settings; as measured by pre-to-post changes in salivary amylase and self-reported stress; differences were more significant for females than for males. Inclusion of covariates in a regression analysis demonstrated significant predictive value of perceived restorativeness on these stress measures, suggesting some potential level of mediation. These data suggest that exposure to natural environments may warrant further investigation as a health promotion method for reducing stress. PMID:23531491

  4. Comorbidity structure of psychological disorders in the online e-PASS data as predictors of psychosocial adjustment measures: psychological distress, adequate social support, self-confidence, quality of life, and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asadi, Ali M; Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny

    2014-10-28

    A relative newcomer to the field of psychology, e-mental health has been gaining momentum and has been given considerable research attention. Although several aspects of e-mental health have been studied, 1 aspect has yet to receive attention: the structure of comorbidity of psychological disorders and their relationships with measures of psychosocial adjustment including suicidal ideation in online samples. This exploratory study attempted to identify the structure of comorbidity of 21 psychological disorders assessed by an automated online electronic psychological assessment screening system (e-PASS). The resulting comorbidity factor scores were then used to assess the association between comorbidity factor scores and measures of psychosocial adjustments (ie, psychological distress, suicidal ideation, adequate social support, self-confidence in dealing with mental health issues, and quality of life). A total of 13,414 participants were assessed using a complex online algorithm that resulted in primary and secondary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) diagnoses for 21 psychological disorders on dimensional severity scales. The scores on these severity scales were used in a principal component analysis (PCA) and the resulting comorbidity factor scores were related to 4 measures of psychosocial adjustments. A PCA based on 17 of the 21 psychological disorders resulted in a 4-factor model of comorbidity: anxiety-depression consisting of all anxiety disorders, major depressive episode (MDE), and insomnia; substance abuse consisting of alcohol and drug abuse and dependency; body image-eating consisting of eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorders; depression-sleep problems consisting of MDE, insomnia, and hypersomnia. All comorbidity factor scores were significantly associated with psychosocial measures of adjustment (Psocial support, self-confidence, and quality of life. This

  5. Optimizing technical precision of measurement in computerized psychological assessment on Windows platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOACHIM HÄUSLER

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Reaction times and response latencies are required to measure a variety of ability and personality traits. If reaction times are used to measure rather elementary cognitive tasks, the inter-individual variance in the measured reaction times are usually small in the sense that the central 50 percent of a norm population range within less than 100ms. Technical measurement errors therefore have the potential to seriously affect the validity of diagnostic judgments based on such measures. Thus the target of this paper is to investigate the magnitude of possible errors of measurement due to technical reasons and to suggest ways to prevent or at least consider those in the diagnostic process.In Study I a highly precise 'artificial respondent' was applied to simulate reactions corresponding to a given percentile rank on 3 different tests (DG-Lokation CORPORAL, Alertness TAP-M, RT/S9 Vienna Test System on 11 different computer systems. The result output of the tests was compared to the reaction times, actually provided by the artificial respondent. Results show, that there are detectable errors of measurement - depending on the hardware and software specifications of the computer system used. In the test DG-Lokation these bias caused an offset in the tests main variable of up to 20 percentile ranks.In Study II a self-calibration unit which is part of the Vienna Test System (Version 6.40 was investigated, using the same experimental setup. After calibration, the bias detected can be reduced to the magnitude of about 1 percentile rank on all computer systems tested.It thus can be concluded, that time critical computer based tests typically bear the risk of technical errors of measurement. Depending on how the test is programmed, the errors arising on some computer configurations can cause even severe changes in diagnostic judgment formation. In contrast, self-calibration proved to be an effective tool to permitting the user not only to control but also to

  6. A pilot twin study of psychological measures of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jane; Hever, Tracey; Hewitt, Lisa; Ball, Claire; Taylor, Eric; Rubia, Katia; Thapar, Anita

    2002-11-01

    There has been much interest in the genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and molecular genetic studies are now underway. The success of genetic studies will depend on how well the phenotype is defined. Twin studies using parent and teacher rated questionnaires or interviews all appear to yield highly heritable measures. Nevertheless, there is evidence to suggest that parent measures are subject to rater bias. Consequently there has been much interest in obtaining more objective measures of related traits such as attention span and impulsiveness using, computerised neuropsychological tasks. However there have been few twin studies examining the genetic contribution to these neuropsychological measures. The present study aims to investigate whether performance on the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) and Continuous Performance Task (CPT) is genetically influenced in childhood. 20 monozygotic (MZ) and 20 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs were randomly selected from the Greater Manchester Twin Register. Preliminary data suggest that MZ twins perform more similarly than DZ twins on the MFFT, but not the CPT. Future work needs to examine whether other neuropsychological measures commonly used in research on ADHD are genetically influenced using larger twin samples.

  7. Resisting the Seduction of the Global Education Measurement Industry: Notes on the Social Psychology of PISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert

    2015-01-01

    The question I raise in this paper is why measurement systems such as PISA have gained so much power in contemporary education policy and practice. I explore this question from the bottom up by asking what might contribute to the ways in which people invest in systems such as PISA, that is, what are the beliefs, assumptions and desires that lead…

  8. Positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stansfeld, J.; Stoner, C.R.; Wenborn, J.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.; Moniz-Cook, E.; Orrell, M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Family caregivers of people living with dementia can have both positive and negative experiences of caregiving. Despite this, existing outcome measures predominately focus on negative aspects of caregiving such as burden and depression. This review aimed to evaluate the development and

  9. Assessment tools in obesity- psychological measures, diet, activity, and body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity has led to an increased need for measurement tools for research, management and treatment of the obese person. The physical size limitations imposed by obesity, variations in body composition from that of normal weight, and a complex psychopathology a...

  10. The Measurement of Psychological Maltreatment: Early Data on the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Barbara; Becker-Lausen, Evvie

    1995-01-01

    The Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, a self-report measure yielding a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, was administered to 1,198 college students and 17 subjects with Multiple Personality Disorder. Results revealed the scale's strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…

  11. Utility of Demographic and Psychological Measures for the Prediction of Army Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    the environment accounted for more variance for both White and Black students than any of the other variables in the study ( Kerlinger , 1973). Several...analagous to a multiple correlation between the equation obtained in the screening sample and the measures in the calibaration sample ( Kerlinger ...service in the United States (pp. 80-128). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Kerlinger , F. N. (1973). Foundations of behavorial research. New

  12. The RAND Online Measure Repository for Evaluating Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury Programs. The RAND Toolkit, Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Psychology, 1988, 44 (4): 215–227. Beidel DC, Turner SM, Morris TL. “A New Inventory to Assess Childhood Social Anxiety and Phobia: The Social Phobia and...Anxiety Inventory for Children.” Psychological Assessment, 1995, 7: 73–79. Bernstein DP, Fink L. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: A Retrospective Self...Assessment Resources, 1995. Britt TW. “The Stigma of Psychological Problems in a Work Environment: Evidence from the Screening of Service Members

  13. Modelling and measuring the irrational behaviour of agents in financial markets: Discovering the psychological soliton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhesi, Gurjeet; Ausloos, Marcel

    2016-07-01

    Following a Geometrical Brownian Motion extension into an Irrational Fractional Brownian Motion model, we re-examine agent behaviour reacting to time dependent news on the log-returns thereby modifying a financial market evolution. We specifically discuss the role of financial news or economic information positive or negative feedback of such irrational (or contrarian) agents upon the price evolution. We observe a kink-like effect reminiscent of soliton behaviour, suggesting how analysts' forecasts errors induce stock prices to adjust accordingly, thereby proposing a measure of the irrational force in a market.

  14. Use of measurement theory for operationalization and quantification of psychological constructs in systems dynamics modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitkov-Norris, Elena; Yeghiazarian, Ara

    2016-11-01

    The analytical tools available to social scientists have traditionally been adapted from tools originally designed for analysis of natural science phenomena. This article discusses the applicability of systems dynamics - a qualitative based modelling approach, as a possible analysis and simulation tool that bridges the gap between social and natural sciences. After a brief overview of the systems dynamics modelling methodology, the advantages as well as limiting factors of systems dynamics to the potential applications in the field of social sciences and human interactions are discussed. The issues arise with regards to operationalization and quantification of latent constructs at the simulation building stage of the systems dynamics methodology and measurement theory is proposed as a ready and waiting solution to the problem of dynamic model calibration, with a view of improving simulation model reliability and validity and encouraging the development of standardised, modular system dynamics models that can be used in social science research.

  15. Operationalizing and Measuring (a Kind of Free Will (and Responsibility. Towards a New Framework for Psychology, Ethics, and Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lavazza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Free will is usually defined by three conditions: (1 the ability to do otherwise; (2 control of one’s own choices; (3 responsiveness to reasons. The compatibility of free will with determinism lies at the heart of the philosophical debate at the metaphysical level. This debate, while being increasingly refined, has not yet reached a conclusion. Recently, neuroscience and empirical psychology have tried to settle the problem of free will with a series of experiments that go in the direction of so-called illusionism: free will as the conscious control of our behavior cannot exist, being a mere illusion. But even in this case, the experimental results are challenged at various levels. Considering that in most moral and legal systems, the subject’s liability derives from their freedom, the usefulness of preserving the concept of freedom – which incidentally responds to a very strong commonsensical intuition – suggests the need for an operational solution. This could be done by resorting to the concepts of capacity and cognitive control, which are measured by a set of well-established neuropsychological tests. Our preliminary proposal is to create an index, the first step towards a specific quantification and measurement of free will, to be used especially in ethical and legal contexts. Theoretical premises, practical difficulties and objections to this approach are also discussed and addressed.

  16. TopoToolbox: Using Sensor Topography to Calculate Psychologically Meaningful Measures from Event-Related EEG/MEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Tian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The open-source toolbox “TopoToolbox” is a suite of functions that use sensor topography to calculate psychologically meaningful measures (similarity, magnitude, and timing from multisensor event-related EEG and MEG data. Using a GUI and data visualization, TopoToolbox can be used to calculate and test the topographic similarity between different conditions (Tian and Huber, 2008. This topographic similarity indicates whether different conditions involve a different distribution of underlying neural sources. Furthermore, this similarity calculation can be applied at different time points to discover when a response pattern emerges (Tian and Poeppel, 2010. Because the topographic patterns are obtained separately for each individual, these patterns are used to produce reliable measures of response magnitude that can be compared across individuals using conventional statistics (Davelaar et al. Submitted and Huber et al., 2008. TopoToolbox can be freely downloaded. It runs under MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc. and supports user-defined data structure as well as standard EEG/MEG data import using EEGLAB (Delorme and Makeig, 2004.

  17. TopoToolbox: using sensor topography to calculate psychologically meaningful measures from event-related EEG/MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xing; Poeppel, David; Huber, David E

    2011-01-01

    The open-source toolbox "TopoToolbox" is a suite of functions that use sensor topography to calculate psychologically meaningful measures (similarity, magnitude, and timing) from multisensor event-related EEG and MEG data. Using a GUI and data visualization, TopoToolbox can be used to calculate and test the topographic similarity between different conditions (Tian and Huber, 2008). This topographic similarity indicates whether different conditions involve a different distribution of underlying neural sources. Furthermore, this similarity calculation can be applied at different time points to discover when a response pattern emerges (Tian and Poeppel, 2010). Because the topographic patterns are obtained separately for each individual, these patterns are used to produce reliable measures of response magnitude that can be compared across individuals using conventional statistics (Davelaar et al. Submitted and Huber et al., 2008). TopoToolbox can be freely downloaded. It runs under MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.) and supports user-defined data structure as well as standard EEG/MEG data import using EEGLAB (Delorme and Makeig, 2004).

  18. Shame and Guilt: Relationships of Test of Self-Conscious Affect Measures With Psychological Adjustment and Gender Differences in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Ghorbani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In numerous studies conducted in Western societies, shame as measured by the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA has correlated with maladjustment whereas the TOSCA Guilt Scale has predicted adjustment. The present investigation sought to determine if such linkages would also appear in the Muslim cultural context of Iran. Iranian university students (N = 132 responded to Shame and Guilt Scales from the third version of the TOSCA, along with an array of personality measures. Shame correlated negatively with adjustment and positively with maladjustment. Guilt displayed an opposite pattern of relationships. As in previous Western investigations, women scored higher than men on guilt, but the expected female elevation in shame failed to appear. Shame, nevertheless, interacted with gender to predict relationships with poorer psychological functioning in women, but not in men. These data most importantly confirmed that the TOSCA Shame and Guilt Scales in Iran display implications similar to those observed in the West and that gender differences in Iran may deserve additional research attention.

  19. The STarT Back Screening Tool and Individual Psychological Measures: Evaluation of Prognostic Capabilities for Low Back Pain Clinical Outcomes in Outpatient Physical Therapy Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Mark D.; Fritz, Julie M.; Robinson, Michael E.; Asal, Nabih R.; Nisenzon, Anne N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychologically informed practice emphasizes routine identification of modifiable psychological risk factors being highlighted. Objective The purpose of this study was to test the predictive validity of the STarT Back Screening Tool (SBT) in comparison with single-construct psychological measures for 6-month clinical outcomes. Design This was an observational, prospective cohort study. Methods Patients (n=146) receiving physical therapy for low back pain were administered the SBT and a battery of psychological measures (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire physical activity scale and work scale [FABQ-PA and FABQ-W, respectively], Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], 11-item version of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia [TSK-11], and 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]) at initial evaluation and 4 weeks later. Treatment was at the physical therapist's discretion. Clinical outcomes consisted of pain intensity and self-reported disability. Prediction of 6-month clinical outcomes was assessed for intake SBT and psychological measure scores using multiple regression models while controlling for other prognostic variables. In addition, the predictive capabilities of intake to 4-week changes in SBT and psychological measure scores for 6-month clinical outcomes were assessed. Results Intake pain intensity scores (β=.39 to .45) and disability scores (β=.47 to .60) were the strongest predictors in all final regression models, explaining 22% and 24% and 43% and 48% of the variance for the respective clinical outcome at 6 months. Neither SBT nor psychological measure scores improved prediction of 6-month pain intensity. The SBT overall scores (β=.22) and SBT psychosocial scores (β=.25) added to the prediction of disability at 6 months. Four-week changes in TSK-11 scores (β=−.18) were predictive of pain intensity at 6 months. Four-week changes in FABQ-PA scores (β=−.21), TSK-11 scores (β=−.20) and SBT overall scores (β=−.18) were predictive of

  20. The STarT back screening tool and individual psychological measures: evaluation of prognostic capabilities for low back pain clinical outcomes in outpatient physical therapy settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneciuk, Jason M; Bishop, Mark D; Fritz, Julie M; Robinson, Michael E; Asal, Nabih R; Nisenzon, Anne N; George, Steven Z

    2013-03-01

    Psychologically informed practice emphasizes routine identification of modifiable psychological risk factors being highlighted. The purpose of this study was to test the predictive validity of the STarT Back Screening Tool (SBT) in comparison with single-construct psychological measures for 6-month clinical outcomes. This was an observational, prospective cohort study. Patients (n=146) receiving physical therapy for low back pain were administered the SBT and a battery of psychological measures (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire physical activity scale and work scale [FABQ-PA and FABQ-W, respectively], Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], 11-item version of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia [TSK-11], and 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]) at initial evaluation and 4 weeks later. Treatment was at the physical therapist's discretion. Clinical outcomes consisted of pain intensity and self-reported disability. Prediction of 6-month clinical outcomes was assessed for intake SBT and psychological measure scores using multiple regression models while controlling for other prognostic variables. In addition, the predictive capabilities of intake to 4-week changes in SBT and psychological measure scores for 6-month clinical outcomes were assessed. Intake pain intensity scores (β=.39 to .45) and disability scores (β=.47 to .60) were the strongest predictors in all final regression models, explaining 22% and 24% and 43% and 48% of the variance for the respective clinical outcome at 6 months. Neither SBT nor psychological measure scores improved prediction of 6-month pain intensity. The SBT overall scores (β=.22) and SBT psychosocial scores (β=.25) added to the prediction of disability at 6 months. Four-week changes in TSK-11 scores (β=-.18) were predictive of pain intensity at 6 months. Four-week changes in FABQ-PA scores (β=-.21), TSK-11 scores (β=-.20) and SBT overall scores (β=-.18) were predictive of disability at 6 months. Physical therapy treatment was

  1. A Developmental Examination of the Psychometric Properties and Predictive Utility of a Revised Psychological Self-Concept Measure for Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of psychological self-concept in early childhood relies on the development of psychometrically sound instruments. From a developmental perspective, the current study revised an existing measure of young children's psychological self-concepts, the Child Self-View Questionnaire (CSVQ, Eder, 1990), and examined its psychometric properties using a sample of preschool-aged children assessed at approximately 4 years old with a follow-up at age 5 (N = 111). The item compositions of lower-order dimensions were revised, leading to improved internal consistency. Factor Analysis revealed three latent psychological self-concept factors (i.e., Sociability, Control, and Assurance) from the lower-order dimensions. Measurement invariance by gender was supported for Sociability and Assurance, not for Control. Test-retest reliability was supported by stability of the psychological self-concept measurement model during the preschool years, although some evidence of increasing differentiation was obtained. Validity of children's scores on the three latent psychological self-concept factors was tested by investigating their concurrent associations with teacher-reported behavioral adjustment on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale – Short Form (SCBE-SF, LaFreniere & Dumas, 1996). Children who perceived themselves as higher in Sociability at 5 years old displayed less internalizing behavior and more social competence; boys who perceived themselves as higher in Control at age 4 exhibited lower externalizing behavior; children higher in Assurance had greater social competence at age 4, but displayed more externalizing behavior at age 5. Implications relevant to the utility of the revised psychological self-concept measure are discussed. PMID:26098231

  2. A developmental examination of the psychometric properties and predictive utility of a revised psychological self-concept measure for preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J

    2016-02-01

    Accurate assessment of psychological self-concept in early childhood relies on the development of psychometrically sound instruments. From a developmental perspective, the current study revised an existing measure of young children's psychological self-concepts, the Child Self-View Questionnaire (CSVQ; Eder, 1990), and examined its psychometric properties using a sample of preschool-age children assessed at approximately 4 years old with a follow-up at age 5 (N = 111). The item compositions of lower order dimensions were revised, leading to improved internal consistency. Factor analysis revealed 3 latent psychological self-concept factors (i.e., sociability, control, and assurance) from the lower order dimensions. Measurement invariance by gender was supported for sociability and assurance, not for control. Test-retest reliability was supported by stability of the psychological self-concept measurement model during the preschool years, although some evidence of increasing differentiation was obtained. Validity of children's scores on the 3 latent psychological self-concept factors was tested by investigating their concurrent associations with teacher-reported behavioral adjustment on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale-Short Form (SCBE-SF; LaFreniere & Dumas, 1996). Children who perceived themselves as higher in sociability at 5 years old displayed less internalizing behavior and more social competence; boys who perceived themselves as higher in control at age 4 exhibited lower externalizing behavior; children higher in assurance had greater social competence at age 4, but displayed more externalizing behavior at age 5. Implications relevant to the utility of the revised psychological self-concept measure are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Effects of a museum-based social prescription intervention on quantitative measures of psychological wellbeing in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Linda J; Lockyer, Bridget; Camic, Paul M; Chatterjee, Helen J

    2018-01-01

    To assess psychological wellbeing in a novel social prescription intervention for older adults called Museums on Prescription and to explore the extent of change over time in six self-rated emotions ('absorbed', 'active', 'cheerful', 'encouraged', 'enlightened' and 'inspired'). Participants ( n = 115) aged 65-94 years were referred to museum-based programmes comprising 10 weekly sessions, by healthcare and third sector organisations using inclusion criteria (e.g. socially isolated, able to give informed consent, not in employment, not regularly attending social or cultural activities) and exclusion criteria (e.g. unable to travel to the museum, unable to function in a group situation, unlikely to be able to attend all sessions, unable to take part in interviews and complete questionnaires). In a within-participants' design, the Museum Wellbeing Measure for Older Adults (MWM-OA) was administered pre-post session at start-, mid- and end-programme. A total of 12 programmes, facilitated by museum staff and volunteers, were conducted in seven museums in central London and across Kent. In addition to the quantitative measures, participants, carers where present, museum staff and researchers kept weekly diaries following guideline questions and took part in end-programme in-depth interviews. Multivariate analyses of variance showed significant participant improvements in all six MWM-OA emotions, pre-post session at start-, mid- and end-programme. Two emotions, 'absorbed' and 'enlightened', increased pre-post session disproportionately to the others; 'cheerful' attained the highest pre-post session scores whereas 'active' was consistently lowest. Museums can be instrumental in offering museum-based programmes for older adults to improve psychological wellbeing over time. Participants in the study experienced a sense of privilege, valued the opportunity to liaise with curators, visit parts of the museum closed to the public and handle objects normally behind glass

  4. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR

  5. A life-course and time perspective on the construct validity of psychological distress in women and men. Measurement invariance of the K6 across gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyer Richard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress is a widespread indicator of mental health and mental illness in research and clinical settings. A recurrent finding from epidemiological studies and population surveys is that women report a higher mean level and a higher prevalence of psychological distress than men. These differences may reflect, to some extent, cultural norms associated with the expression of distress in women and men. Assuming that these norms differ across age groups and that they evolve over time, one would expect gender differences in psychological distress to vary over the life-course and over time. The objective of this study was to investigate the construct validity of a psychological distress scale, the K6, across gender in different age groups and over a twelve-year period. Methods This study is based on data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey (C-NPHS. Psychological distress was assessed with the K6, a scale developed by Kessler and his colleagues. Data were examined through multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Increasing levels of measurement and structural invariance across gender were assessed cross-sectionally with data from cycle 1 (n = 13019 of the C-NPHS and longitudinally with cycles 1 (1994-1995, 4 (2000-2001 and 7 (2006-2007. Results Higher levels of measurement and structural invariance across gender were reached only after the constraint of equivalence was relaxed for various parameters of a few items of the K6. Some items had a different pattern of gender non invariance across age groups and over the course of the study. Gender differences in the expression of psychological distress may vary over the lifespan and over a 12-year period without markedly affecting the construct validity of the K6. Conclusions This study confirms the cross-gender construct validity of psychological distress as assessed with the K6 despite differences in the expression of some symptoms in women and in men over

  6. Military Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS...TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS.

  7. Measurement Invariance Testing of a Three-Factor Model of Parental Warmth, Psychological Control, and Knowledge across European and Asian/Pacific Islander American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Luk, Jeremy W.; King, Kevin M.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by...

  8. Measuring Psychological Trauma in the Workplace: Psychometric Properties of the Italian Version of the Psychological Injury Risk Indicator—A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Magnavita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the Psychological Injury Risk Indicator (PIRI and to validate its psychometric properties. Methods. Workers from 24 small companies were invited to self-complete the PIRI before undergoing their routine medical examination at the workplace. All participants (841 out of 845, 99.6% were also asked to report occupational injuries and episodes of violence that had occurred at the workplace in the previous 12 months and were given the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12 to complete. Results. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure, “sleep problems,” “recovery failure,” “posttraumatic stress symptoms,” and “chronic fatigue,” which were the same subscales observed in the original version. The internal consistency was excellent (alpha = 0.932. ROC curve analysis revealed that the PIRI was much more efficient than GHQ12 in diagnosing workers who had suffered trauma (workplace violence or injury in the previous year, as it revealed an area under the curve (AUC of 0.679 (95% CI: 0.625–0.734 for the PIRI, while for the GHQ12 the AUC was 0.551 (not significant. Conclusions. This study, performed on a large population of workers, provides evidence of the validity of the Italian version of the PIRI.

  9. Measurement Invariance Testing of a Three-Factor Model of Parental Warmth, Psychological Control, and Knowledge across European and Asian/Pacific Islander American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by a community sample of 325 adolescents (242 Europeans and 83 APIs). Results indicated that one item did not load on mother psychological control for API American youth. After removing this item, we found metric invariance for all parenting dimensions, providing support for cross-cultural consistency in the interpretation of parenting items. Scalar invariance was found for father parenting, whereas three mother parenting items were non-invariant across groups at the scalar level. After taking into account several minor forms of measurement non-invariance, non-invariant factor means suggested that API Americans perceived lower parental warmth and knowledge but higher parental psychological control than European Americans. Overall, the degree of measurement non-invariance was not extensive and was primarily driven by a few parenting items. All but one parenting item included in this study may be used for future studies across European and API American youth.

  10. The influence of psychological, social and contextual factors on the expression and measurement of awareness in early-stage dementia: testing a biopsychosocial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Linda; Nelis, Sharon M; Martyr, Anthony; Roberts, Judith; Whitaker, Christopher J; Markova, Ivana S; Roth, Ilona; Woods, Robert T; Morris, Robin G

    2012-02-01

    Insufficient attention has been paid to the influence of psychological and social factors on discrepancy-based measures of awareness. The present study tested a biopsychosocial model of awareness in early-stage dementia by gathering evidence regarding the relative contributions of neuropsychological, individual psychological and social factors to the level of scoring on measures used to index awareness. Awareness was assessed in relation to memory, activities of daily living and social functioning in 101 individuals with early-stage dementia participating in the Memory Impairment and Dementia Awareness (MIDAS) Study. People with dementia (PwD) and carers also completed measures of individual psychological and social variables, and PwD completed measures of neuropsychological functioning. Scores on discrepancy-based indices of awareness and on the self-ratings and informant ratings contributing to these indices were associated with a range of factors including neuropsychological functioning of PwD, individual traits and dispositions and current affective functioning of PwD, socio-demographic characteristics of PwD and carers, carer well-being and carer perceptions of PwD and of quality of relationship with PwD. Patterns of association varied across domains of functioning. The findings support the relevance of a biopsychosocial approach to understanding the factors that influence unawareness of impairment in dementia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Predicting Commitment Forms From Psychological Contract Breach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measures to be taken by management at equilibrating employees' psychological contract breach, reducing labour turnover and increasing commitment are suggested. Keywords: Mergers, acquisition, Commitment, psychological contract breach, and psychological contract violation, human resource management.

  12. Propensity Score Techniques and the Assessment of Measured Covariate Balance to Test Causal Associations in Psychological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Valerie S.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Anthony, James C.

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in using propensity score (PS) statistical techniques to address questions of causal inference in psychological research. Many PS techniques exist, yet few guidelines are available to aid applied researchers in their understanding, use, and evaluation. In this study, the authors give an overview of available…

  13. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ...

  14. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  15. Neural activity in the reward-related brain regions predicts implicit self-esteem: A novel validity test of psychological measures using neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuma, Keise; Kennedy, Kate; Fitzjohn, Alexander; Sedikides, Constantine; Shibata, Kazuhisa

    2018-03-01

    Self-esteem, arguably the most important attitudes an individual possesses, has been a premier research topic in psychology for more than a century. Following a surge of interest in implicit attitude measures in the 90s, researchers have tried to assess self-esteem implicitly to circumvent the influence of biases inherent in explicit measures. However, the validity of implicit self-esteem measures remains elusive. Critical tests are often inconclusive, as the validity of such measures is examined in the backdrop of imperfect behavioral measures. To overcome this serious limitation, we tested the neural validity of the most widely used implicit self-esteem measure, the implicit association test (IAT). Given the conceptualization of self-esteem as attitude toward the self, and neuroscience findings that the reward-related brain regions represent an individual's attitude or preference for an object when viewing its image, individual differences in implicit self-esteem should be associated with neural signals in the reward-related regions during passive-viewing of self-face (the most obvious representation of the self). Using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) on functional MRI (fMRI) data, we demonstrate that the neural signals in the reward-related regions were robustly associated with implicit (but not explicit) self-esteem, thus providing unique evidence for the neural validity of the self-esteem IAT. In addition, both implicit and explicit self-esteem were related, although differently, to neural signals in regions involved in self-processing. Our finding highlights the utility of neuroscience methods in addressing fundamental psychological questions and providing unique insights into important psychological constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Validation of the internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its link to academic performance and psychological adjustment among Asian American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Miller, Matthew J; Yip, Pansy

    2015-04-01

    There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Development of a psychological test to measure ability-based emotional intelligence in the Indonesian workplace using an item response theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrianthi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fajrianthi,1 Rizqy Amelia Zein2 1Department of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2Department of Personality and Social Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia Abstract: This study aimed to develop an emotional intelligence (EI test that is suitable to the Indonesian workplace context. Airlangga Emotional Intelligence Test (Tes Kecerdasan Emosi Airlangga [TKEA] was designed to measure three EI domains: 1 emotional appraisal, 2 emotional recognition, and 3 emotional regulation. TKEA consisted of 120 items with 40 items for each subset. TKEA was developed based on the Situational Judgment Test (SJT approach. To ensure its psychometric qualities, categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA and item response theory (IRT were applied to test its validity and reliability. The study was conducted on 752 participants, and the results showed that test information function (TIF was 3.414 (ability level = 0 for subset 1, 12.183 for subset 2 (ability level = -2, and 2.398 for subset 3 (level of ability = -2. It is concluded that TKEA performs very well to measure individuals with a low level of EI ability. It is worth to note that TKEA is currently at the development stage; therefore, in this study, we investigated TKEA’s item analysis and dimensionality test of each TKEA subset. Keywords: categorical confirmatory factor analysis, emotional intelligence, item response theory 

  18. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Ae; Song, Chorong; Oh, Yun-Ah; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Son, Ki-Cheol

    2017-09-20

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV), prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD) method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS). Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln) ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2-3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  19. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  20. Higher stress scores for female medical students measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Khadija Qamar; Muhammad Rizwan Bash Kiani; Aisha Ayyub; Atif Ahmed Khan; Mohammad Osama

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the stress level of medical students and the relationship between stress and academic year. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at an undergraduate medical school with a five-year curriculum, in Pakistan, from January 2014 to April 2014. Medical students in the first four years were included in the study. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), a self-administered questionnaire, was distributed to the students. A total of 445 medic...

  1. Relationships between Myers-Briggs type indicator measure of psychological type and neo measure of big five personality factors in Polish University students: a preliminary cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacyk, Jerome J; Livingston, Mary M; Robbins, James E

    2008-10-01

    English-language versions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Form G) measure of psychological type and the NEO-FFI measure of the Big Five personality factors were completed by 57 Polish university students fluent in the English language. The pattern of correlations between MBTI and NEO-FFI scales for the Polish sample was compared to the pattern of correlations for measures of these same constructs reported for Americans. Four of the five significant relationships between MBTI and NEO-FFI scales reported in the American sample were also recorded in the Polish sample: MBTI Extraversion-Introversion with NEO Extraversion, MBTI Sensing-Intuition and MBTI Judging-Perceiving with NEO-Openness, and MBTI Judging-Perceiving with NEO Conscientiousness. Pending replication with a larger, more representative sample, this preliminary study supports the validity of psychological type in Polish society.

  2. Social and psychological climate of educational institution as a measure of consistency of leadership style and type of organizational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Kotlyar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe process and results of a study conducted on the basis of state educational institutions of Moscow (a secondary school and a school with advanced study of foreign languages. We demonstrate the possibility of using the analysis of social and psychological environment as an indicator of leadership style consistency and type of organizational culture of educational institution. We revealed an educational trend that the real organizational culture with a predominance of one type of its elements, the desired profile will tend to the mixed type. We mapped out a plan for further research on the topic.

  3. Analysis of the interplay between depression, anxiety, and psychological resources in adolescence using self-report measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Riso, Daniela; Bobbio, Andrea; Chessa, Daphne; Lis, Adriana; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Following recent literature which stresses the importance of broadening the conceptualization of mental functioning in youth, this paper aims to investigate structural relations between indicators of anxiety, depressive symptoms, and psychological resources in non-referred Italian adolescents, as captured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; Goodman 2001 ), the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS; Spence 1998 ) and the Children Depression Inventory (CDI; Kovacs 1992 ). A hierarchical model which considers both the interplays and overlaps between these instruments is tested by means of Confirmatory Factor Analysis, in order to explore the possibility to use the three tools within a meaningful screening battery. First, validity and reliability of SDQ, SCAS, and CDI is successfully controlled thanks to three appropriate preliminary studies, an evidence not already acquired in the Italian context for the adolescent population. Then, the focal study devises and tests a model that merges indicators of the SDQ, SCAS, and CDI scales into four correlated factors, that is, Psychological Resources, Externalized behavior problems, Internalized Fear and Internalized Anxious Misery. Overall, findings corroborate the combined use of SDQ, SCAS, and CDI as a screening battery for the assessment of mental functioning in youth adopting a dimensional rather than a categorical approach.

  4. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  5. Higher stress scores for female medical students measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10 in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Qamar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the stress level of medical students and the relationship between stress and academic year. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at an undergraduate medical school with a five-year curriculum, in Pakistan, from January 2014 to April 2014. Medical students in the first four years were included in the study. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10, a self-administered questionnaire, was distributed to the students. A total of 445 medical students completed the questionnaire. The average stress score was 19.61 (SD = 6.76 with a range from 10 to 43. Stress was experienced by 169 students (41.7%. The scores of female students were higher than scores of males, indicating a higher stress level (P = 0.011. The relationship between stress and academic year was insignificant (P = 0.392.

  6. Higher stress scores for female medical students measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Khadija; Kiani, Muhammad Rizwan Bash; Ayyub, Aisha; Khan, Atif Ahmed; Osama, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the stress level of medical students and the relationship between stress and academic year. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at an undergraduate medical school with a five-year curriculum, in Pakistan, from January 2014 to April 2014. Medical students in the first four years were included in the study. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), a self-administered questionnaire, was distributed to the students. A total of 445 medical students completed the questionnaire. The average stress score was 19.61 (SD=6.76) with a range from 10 to 43. Stress was experienced by 169 students (41.7%). The scores of female students were higher than scores of males, indicating a higher stress level (P=0.011). The relationship between stress and academic year was insignificant (P=0.392).

  7. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  8. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  9. German Military Psychology 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, *WEST GERMANY, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, APTITUDE TESTS, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHIATRY, MILITARY PROCUREMENT, CLASSIFICATION, SELECTION, PILOTS, AVIATION MEDICINE.

  10. The impact of diagnosis: measuring the psychological response to being diagnosed with serious or potentially lethal cardiac disease in young competitive athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Irfan M; Price, David E; Ewing, Alex; Rao, Ashwin L; Harmon, Kimberly G; Drezner, Jonathan A

    2016-02-01

    To determine the psychological impact of athletes diagnosed with cardiac disease. Athletes diagnosed with cardiovascular disorders were recruited to complete the Impact of Event Scale (IES), a validated tool measuring responses to a traumatic event. IES scoring =0-88 (33=significant stress reaction). Subscales include: intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal. 30 athletes (53% male, 83% Caucasian, median age 18.0, median age at diagnosis 15.7) participated. Diagnoses included: 6 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 9 Wolff Parkinson White, 4 Long QT syndrome, 3 atrial septal defect, 2 supraventricular tachycardia and 6 other. For the group, the mean IES-Revised (IES-R) score=16.6 (SD=12.1), subscales: intrusion 6.6 (SD=4.3), avoidance=7.4 (SD=6.5), hyperarousal=2.7 (SD=3.5). Higher risk individuals included: permanently disqualified athletes (pathletes requiring daily medication (pathletes undergoing medical management instead of definitive therapy (pathletes (college=17.8, high school=13.3; p=0.369) and African-American individuals (African-American=25.8, Caucasian=14.8 p=0.061), although not statistically significant. Athletes with cardiomyopathy (IES-R=24) and channelopathy (IES-R=28) reported the highest IES results. Athletes with high IES-R scores were most likely to psychologically respond through avoidance of feelings/situations/ideas. Athletes diagnosed with potentially lethal cardiac disorders are at risk for significant psychological distress. These athletes tend to avoid thoughts, feelings and conversations associated with their diagnosis and should be offered consistent emotional support to mitigate psychological morbidity. Currently, there are no recommendations to guide physicians on how to support an athlete that is newly diagnosed with a potentially career altering heart condition. Proper planning and use of appropriate support mechanisms can be useful for emotionally vulnerable athletes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  11. The College Adjustment Questionnaire: A Measure of Students' Educational, Relational, and Psychological Adjustment to the College Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Maeve B.; Shirley, Lauren A.; Park, Stacey S.; Nolen, Julian P.; Gibbons, Alyssa M.; Rosén, Lee A.

    2018-01-01

    Several instruments exist to measure college adjustment: the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ; Baker & Siryk, 1989), the College Adjustment Rating Scale (Zitzow, 1984), and the College Adjustment Scales (Anton & Reed, 1991). Of these, the SACQ is the most widely used and takes a multifaceted approach to measuring college…

  12. Psychological Needs, Engagement, and Work Intentions: A Bayesian Multi-Measurement Mediation Approach and Implications for HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuck, Brad; Zigarmi, Drea; Owen, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the utility of self-determination theory (SDT) within the engagement-performance linkage. Design/methodology/approach: Bayesian multi-measurement mediation modeling was used to estimate the relation between SDT, engagement and a proxy measure of performance (e.g. work intentions) (N =…

  13. Sport Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  14. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  15. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nicole A; Wilcox, Gisela; Walker, Karen Z; Ashton, John F; Cox, Marc B; Stojanovska, Lily

    2008-01-01

    To examine the estrogenic and androgenic activity of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) and its effect on the hormonal profile and symptoms in postmenopausal women. Fourteen postmenopausal women completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. They received 3.5 g/day of powered Maca for 6 weeks and matching placebo for 6 weeks, in either order, over a total of 12 weeks. At baseline and weeks 6 and 12 blood samples were collected for the measurement of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin, and the women completed the Greene Climacteric Scale to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms. In addition, aqueous and methanolic Maca extracts were tested for androgenic and estrogenic activity using a yeast-based hormone-dependent reporter assay. No differences were seen in serum concentrations of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin between baseline, Maca treatment, and placebo (P > 0.05). The Greene Climacteric Scale revealed a significant reduction in scores in the areas of psychological symptoms, including the subscales for anxiety and depression and sexual dysfunction after Maca consumption compared with both baseline and placebo (P Maca as no physiologically significant activity was observed in yeast-based assays employing up to 4 mg/mL Maca extract (equivalent to 200 mg/mL Maca). Preliminary findings show that Lepidium meyenii (Maca) (3.5 g/d) reduces psychological symptoms, including anxiety and depression, and lowers measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women independent of estrogenic and androgenic activity.

  16. A Preliminary Report on a New Measure: Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and Its Psychological Correlates among Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Burrola, Kimberly S.; Steger, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation is a preliminary report on a new measure of internalization of the model minority myth. In 3 studies, there was evidence for the validation of the 15-item Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4), with 2 subscales. The Model Minority Myth of Achievement Orientation referred to the myth of Asian Americans'…

  17. Outcome Rating Scale and Session Rating Scale in Psychological Practice: Clinical Utility of Ultra-Brief Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Alistair; Hemsley, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The validity and reliability of the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Session Rating Scale (SRS) were evaluated against existing longer measures, including the Outcome Questionnaire-45, Working Alliance Inventory, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Quality of Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and General Self-efficacy Scale. The measures…

  18. Using Noninvasive Brain Measurement to Explore the Psychological Effects of Computer Malfunctions on Users during Human-Computer Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne M. Hirshfield

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s technologically driven world, there is a need to better understand the ways that common computer malfunctions affect computer users. These malfunctions may have measurable influences on computer user’s cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses. An experiment was conducted where participants conducted a series of web search tasks while wearing functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and galvanic skin response sensors. Two computer malfunctions were introduced during the sessions which had the potential to influence correlates of user trust and suspicion. Surveys were given after each session to measure user’s perceived emotional state, cognitive load, and perceived trust. Results suggest that fNIRS can be used to measure the different cognitive and emotional responses associated with computer malfunctions. These cognitive and emotional changes were correlated with users’ self-report levels of suspicion and trust, and they in turn suggest future work that further explores the capability of fNIRS for the measurement of user experience during human-computer interactions.

  19. Psychology is a Developmental Science

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Gary; Partridge, Ty; Mosack, Victoria; Lambdin, Charles

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we argue that psychology should be understood as a developmental science, and we place the discipline squarely in the realm of the natural sciences. The case is made that scientific progress in psychology has been (and still is) impeded by prolonged misadventures down conceptual dead ends such as biological reductionism, the nature/nurture debate, evolutionary psychology, and the persistent insistence on emphasizing dependent variables that defy observation and measurement, such...

  20. Psychological Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Gideon Conway

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.

  1. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The multidimensional mortality awareness measure and model: development and validation of a new self-report questionnaire and psychological framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Oona; McDermott, Mark R; Lafreniere, Kathryn D

    2015-01-01

    For each of eight literature-identified conceptual dimensions of mortality awareness, questionnaire items were generated, producing 89 in all. A total of 359 participants responded to these items and to questionnaires measuring health attitudes, risk taking, rebelliousness, and demographic variables. Multivariate correlational analyses investigated the underlying structure of the item pool and the construct validity as well as the reliability of the emergent empirically derived subscales. Five components, rather than eight, were identified. Given the item content of each, the associated mortality awareness subscales were labeled as legacy, fearfulness, acceptance, disempowerment, and disengagement. Each attained an acceptable level of internal reliability. Relationships with other variables supported the construct validity of these empirically derived subscales and more generally of this five-factor model. In conclusion, this new multidimensional measure and model of mortality awareness extends our understanding of this important aspect of human existence and supports a more integrative and optimistic approach to mortality awareness than previously available.

  3. Relationship between consistency and differentiation J.L. Holland's vocational personality patterns and the intensity of particular psychological features measures

    OpenAIRE

    Paszkowska-Rogacz, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Tested hypothesis derived from J. L. Holland’s (1997) theory of vocational choice: relations between combination of levels personality dimensions (Consistency, and Differentiation) and three work related personal variables (Self-Control, Acquiescence and Pragmatism). Holland’s Vocational Preference Inventory – VPI (Polish version 1998 by Nosal, Piskorz i Świąt-nicki) was used to identify consistent-inconsistent and differentiated-undifferentiated vocational patterns. Measures of Self-Control ...

  4. Measuring the Quality of Care for Psychological Health Conditions in the Military Health System: Candidate Quality Measures for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms SSDS Self-Stigma of Depression Scale SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor STAR*D Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression ...Candidate Quality Measures for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder C O R P O R A T I O N Report Documentation Page Form...Candidate Quality Measures for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  5. Myths and Misconceptions in Popular Psychology: Comparing Psychology Students and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…

  6. A cross-over from Sport Psychology to the Psychology of Music: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this research was to evaluate whether the cross-over from Sport Psychology to the Psychology of Music in terms of the knowledge base, intervention Psychological Skills Training (PST) protocols and psychometric measurements was meaningful. A second aim was to ascertain whether the psychological ...

  7. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  8. How to consistently link extraversion and intelligence to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene: on defining and measuring psychological phenotypes in neurogenetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Jan; Mueller, Erik M; Hennig, Jürgen; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2012-02-01

    The evidence for associations between genetic polymorphisms and complex behavioral/psychological phenotypes (traits) has thus far been weak and inconsistent. Using the well-studied Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene as an example, we demonstrate that using theoretical models to guide phenotype definition and measuring the phenotypes of interest with a high degree of specificity reveals strong gene-behavior associations that are consistent with prior work and that would have otherwise gone unnoticed. Only after statistically controlling for irrelevant portions of phenotype variance did we observe strong (Cohen's d = 0.33-0.70) and significant associations between COMT Val158Met and both cognitive and affective traits in a healthy male sample (N = 201) in Study 1: Carriers of the Met allele scored higher in fluid intelligence (reasoning) but lower in both crystallized intelligence (general knowledge) and the agency facet of extraversion. In Study 2, we conceptually replicated the association of COMT Val158Met with the agency facet of extraversion after partialing irrelevant phenotype variance in a female sample (N = 565). Finally, through reanalysis of a large published data set we showed that Met allele carriers also scored higher in indicators of fluid intelligence after partialing verbal fluency. Because the Met allele codes for a less efficient variant of the enzyme COMT, resulting in higher levels of extrasynaptic prefrontal dopamine, these observations provide further support for a role for dopamine in both intelligence and extraversion. More importantly, the present findings have important implications for the definition of psychological phenotypes in neurogenetic research.

  9. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale measures a continuum from well-being to depression: Testing two key predictions of positive clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddaway, Andy P; Wood, Alex M; Taylor, Peter J

    2017-04-15

    Two core but untested predictions of Positive Clinical Psychology (PCP) are that (1) Many psychiatric problems can be understood as one end of bipolar continua with well-being, and (2) that reducing psychiatric symptoms will provide an equal (near linear) decrease in risk for several other psychiatric variables, irrespective of position on continua. We test these predictions in relation to a purported well-being/depression continuum, as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D), a popular measure of depressive experiences in research and clinical practice. A large (N=4138), diverse sample completed the CES-D, which contains a mixture of negatively worded and positively worded items (e.g., "I felt sad," "I enjoyed life"). The latter are conventionally reverse scored to compute a total score. We first examined whether purportedly separate well-being and depression CES-D factors can be reconceptualised as a bipolar well-being/depression continuum. We then characterised the (linear or nonlinear) form of the relationship between this continuum and other psychiatric variables. Both predictions were supported. When controlling for shared method bias amongst positively worded items, a single factor well-being/depression continuum underlies the CES-D. Baseline levels on this continuum are found to have near linear relationships with changes in anxiety symptoms, aggression, and substance misuse over time, demonstrating that moving from depression to well-being on the CES-D provides an equal decrease in risk for several other psychological problems irrespective of position on the continuum. The CES-D does not measure well-being as comprehensively as established scales of well-being. Results support calls for mental health services to jointly focus on increasing well-being and reducing distress, and point to the value of early intervention and instilling resilience in order to prevent people moving away from high levels of well-being. Copyright

  10. Entrepreneurship Psychological Characteristics of Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Dehghanzadeh; Golrasteh Kholasehzadeh; Masoumeh Birjandi; Ensieh Antikchi; Mohamad Reza Sobhan; Hossein Neamatzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Nurses are full partners with other health care professionals. Until fairly recently the scope of nurses potential in entrepreneurship has not been widely recognized. The present study tries to evaluate entrepreneurship psychological characteristics among nurses. The survey instrument included scales measuring entrepreneurship psychological characteristics including locus of control, need for achievement, risk taking propensity, ambiguity tolerance, and innovation, among nurses in the Shahid ...

  11. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  12. Deployment psychology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    breaking fashion, brings into a single compendium the growing body of literatures, since Yerkes's work, which point to the ... [they] reflect on how they have changed”.3 From the outset of this text, there is a very real and palpable sense .... embedded and enmeshed. At times, Deployment psychology appears to ignore the.

  13. The feasibility of ambulatory biosensor measurement of salivary alpha amylase: Relationships with self-reported and naturalistic psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Theodore F; Shetty, Vivek; Zigler, Corwin M; Glover, Dorie A; Elashoff, David; Murphy, Debra; Yamaguchi, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in biosensor technology allow point-of-use reporting of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels while approaching the precision and accuracy of conventional laboratory-based testing. We deployed a portable prototype sAA biosensor in 54 healthy, male dental students during a low stress baseline and during final exams. At baseline, participants completed the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). At baseline and the exam week, participants provided saliva samples at 10 AM, 1 PM, and 5 PM, and rated concurrent subjective distress. Although subjective distress was higher during exams compared to baseline, sAA levels did not differ between baseline and exams. Higher sAA levels were related to higher concurrent subjective distress, and higher depressive and social isolation symptoms on the BSI were related to lower sAA during exams. Results from this study, in combination with previous validation data, suggest that the sAA biosensor is a promising tool for point-of-use measures of exposure to stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. No psychological distress in sportsmen aged 45 years and older after cardiovascular screening, including cardiac CT : The Measuring Athlete’s Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, M. M.; Braber, T. L.; Prakken, N. H J; Doevendans, P. A F M; Backx, F. J G; Grobbee, D. E.; Rienks, R.; Nathoe, H. M.; Bots, M. L.; Velthuis, B. K.; Mosterd, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged ≥45 years. Methods Coronary artery

  15. No psychological distress in sportsmen aged 45 years and older after cardiovascular screening, including cardiac CT : The Measuring Athlete's Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, M. M.; Braber, T. L.; Prakken, N. H. J.; Doevendans, P. A. F. M.; Backx, F. J. G.; Grobbee, D. E.; Rienks, R.; Nathoe, H. M.; Bots, M. L.; Velthuis, B. K.; Mosterd, A.

    Background Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged >= 45 years. Methods Coronary

  16. A two-year follow-up study of risk of depression according to work-unit measures of psychological demands and decision latitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynderup, Matias; Mors, Ole; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if high psychological demands and low decision latitude at work increase the risk of depression.......The aim of this study was to examine if high psychological demands and low decision latitude at work increase the risk of depression....

  17. Vulnerabilidad en Mujeres Prostituidas: Medidas de Protección Legal (Psychological Vulnerability on Prostituted Women: Legal Protection Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gutiérrez García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender-based violence has moved from being understood as a private matter to social problem. This manifestation of discrimination, inequality and power of men over women in the context of relationships is condemn in our country by the Law on Integral Protection Measures against Gender Violence 1/2004 of December 28.However, prostitution which has its foundations in the same patriarchal structure has no specific legislation that highlights this fact and condemns it. In our paper, taking as an example the Organic Law 1/2004, we developed a proposal justified on the actions that should be carried out at this respect. We mainly focus on three issues: equal education; discourage demand and protection and assistance to victims. We also bear in mind the need of social intolerance and legal condemnation in relation to the people who get benefits from the exploitation of others. La violencia de género ha pasado de ser considerada un asunto privado a entenderse como un problema social. Esta manifestación de discriminación, desigualdad y poder de los hombres sobre las mujeres en el marco de las relaciones de pareja es condenada en nuestro país por la Ley Orgánica de Medidas de Protección Integral contra la Violencia de Género 1/2004 de 28 de diciembre.Sin embargo, la prostitución, que hunde sus cimientos en la misma estructura patriarcal en la que se asienta la violencia de género, carece de una legislación específica que ponga de manifiesto esta relación y la condene. En este trabajo tomando como ejemplo la Ley Orgánica 1/2004 de medidas de protección integral contra la violencia de género, elaboramos una propuesta justificada sobre las actuaciones que deberían abordarse al hacer frente a esta problemática. Nos centramos principalmente en tres cuestiones que consideramos básicas: educación en igualdad; desincentivación de la demanda; protección y ayuda a las víctimas. Además, resulta imprescindible la construcción de entorno

  18. Embodiment in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A

    2012-10-01

    Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. LEARNING THEORY AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , *ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), LEARNING, LEARNING, BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY, ANXIETY, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, MENTAL DISORDERS...PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), THERAPY.

  20. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  1. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2018-01-01

    of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...

  2. Measurement of acute psychological stress

    OpenAIRE

    Arza Valdés, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    La incidencia de la ansiedad, depresión, epilepsia, esclerosis múltiple, estrés patológico, así como otras enfermedades relacionadas con el estrés, ha aumentado significativamente en los últimos años, probablemente debido los cambios drásticos en el modo de vida actual. Según la OMS, los problemas tanto sociales como médicos asociados al estrés están claramente en aumento, afectando seriamente la salud mental y el bienestar no sólo de adultos, sino también de jóvenes y niños. Actualmente hay ...

  3. Validating a Psychology as a Helping Profession Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasio, Amy Herstein; Wendorf, Craig A.; Yoder, Natalie F.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an 11-item Psychology as a Helping Profession (PHP) scale that measured aspects of personal growth/helping skills and applied helping. The scale was only weakly correlated with Friedrich's (1996) Psychology as Science (PAS) scale, implying that the 2 scales measure different conceptions of the nature of psychology. Psychology majors…

  4. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  5. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  6. [Adolescent psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemerle, Sophie

    2005-05-31

    Adolescence is a transitional period dominated by puberty modifications. These modifications must come with a psychological work leading towards increased self containing from parents and also towards the choice of an own life orientation. In order to do so, adolescent must satisfy his needs to be able to change. This process will not run smoothly. The troubled adolescent will express himself with groans or acting out more than with words. This modus operandi is typical of that age. The general practitioner will be in the front line in being attentive to the adolescent and his parents needs.

  7. Psychological literacy: proceed with caution, construction ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdoch DD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Douglas D Murdoch Department of Psychology, Mount Royal University, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Psychological literacy is the ethical application of psychological skills and knowledge. This could benefit individuals in their personal, occupational, and civic lives and subsequently benefit society as a whole. We know that psychology has a wide-ranging impact on society. The potential benefits of a psychologically literate citizenry in improved parenting, better business practices, enlightened legislation, and many other areas make this a desirable goal. It has been proposed that this should become the primary goal of an undergraduate psychology education to benefit the majority who do not go on to graduate school and even those who only take a few psychology courses. This idea has significant merit and warrants further investigation and development. However, there are major concerns that need to be addressed. First, what are uniquely psychological skills and knowledge? Many of the skills psychology undergraduates acquire are generic to university and not specific to psychology. Second, psychology can be as harmful when misapplied as it can be beneficial when ethically applied. Third, psychology departments will need to address pragmatic as well as ethical issues, including issues of competency, boundaries, accountability, and confidentiality. Fourth, the available empirical evidence to direct such efforts is primarily at the anecdotal, case example, and pilot study stages. Significant improvements are needed in measuring psychological literacy, choice of outcome measures, and research methodologies before these advantages can be realized in an empirically supported manner. Currently, best practices in the undergraduate curriculum are the mindful and purposeful design of courses and experiential opportunities. It is proposed that psychological literacy is best conceptualized as a meta-literacy and that it should become a goal of psychology

  8. The Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire: evaluation of a brief questionnaire to measure physical activity, dietary control, maintenance of a healthy weight, and psychological antecedents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traina SB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Shana B Traina,1 Susan D Mathias,2 Hilary H Colwell,2 Ross D Crosby,2–4 Charles Abraham5 1Patient-Reported Outcomes, Janssen Global Services, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USA; 2Health Outcomes Solutions, Winter Park, FL, USA; 3Biomedical Statistics & Methodology, Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, Fargo, ND, USA; 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USA; 5Psychology Applied to Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, UK Background: This study assessed measurement properties of the 17-item Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire (DIAB-Q, which measures intention to engage in self-care behaviors, including following a diabetes diet and engaging in appropriate physical activity. Methods: The DIAB-Q includes questions based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Items were developed using published literature, input from health care professionals, and qualitative research findings in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. In Stage I of the study, 23 adults with T2DM were interviewed to evaluate the content and clarity of the DIAB-Q. In Stage II 1,015 individuals with T2DM completed the DIAB-Q and supplemental questionnaires, including the Short Form-36 acute (SF-36, section III of the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities questionnaire, and self-administered items relevant to the treatment and management of T2DM (eg, blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] at baseline and 3–7 days later. Once the DIAB-Q scale structure was determined, its test–retest reliability, construct validity, and known-groups validity were evaluated, and minimal clinically important change was estimated. Results: In Stage I, the 23 respondents surveyed generally reported that the DIAB-Q was clear and comprehensive and endorsed questions as relevant to their intentions to engage in diabetes

  9. Loneliness and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J; Cochran, S D

    1991-05-01

    Research on relationships between loneliness and psychological symptoms has generally shown significant positive associations across a wide spectrum of psychopathologies. However, such results may be artificial, to some extent, given the high intercorrelations of typical psychopathology measures. In the current study, we examined associations between psychological symptoms, assessed by the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90; Derogatis, Lipman, & Covi, 1973) and loneliness, as measured by the UCLA-R Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980), in college students. Using partial correlations to control for the confounding influence of generalized distress, relationships between loneliness and individual dimensions of distress were examined. Results indicate a significant association between loneliness and interpersonal sensitivity (low self-esteem) and depression. Other dimensions of distress were not significantly related to loneliness. In addition, no sex differences in patterns of association were observed. Results support the notion that self-blame and self-devaluation are strong correlates of loneliness.

  10. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  11. The Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire: evaluation of a brief questionnaire to measure physical activity, dietary control, maintenance of a healthy weight, and psychological antecedents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traina, Shana B; Mathias, Susan D; Colwell, Hilary H; Crosby, Ross D; Abraham, Charles

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed measurement properties of the 17-item Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire (DIAB-Q), which measures intention to engage in self-care behaviors, including following a diabetes diet and engaging in appropriate physical activity. The DIAB-Q includes questions based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Items were developed using published literature, input from health care professionals, and qualitative research findings in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In Stage I of the study, 23 adults with T2DM were interviewed to evaluate the content and clarity of the DIAB-Q. In Stage II 1,015 individuals with T2DM completed the DIAB-Q and supplemental questionnaires, including the Short Form-36 acute (SF-36), section III of the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities questionnaire, and self-administered items relevant to the treatment and management of T2DM (eg, blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c]) at baseline and 3-7 days later. Once the DIAB-Q scale structure was determined, its test-retest reliability, construct validity, and known-groups validity were evaluated, and minimal clinically important change was estimated. In Stage I, the 23 respondents surveyed generally reported that the DIAB-Q was clear and comprehensive and endorsed questions as relevant to their intentions to engage in diabetes-related self-care activities. Most subjects in Stage II were male, Caucasian, and married. Mean age was 63 years. Factor analysis revealed six psychological constructs (Behavior, Planning, Intention, Perceived Behavioral Control, Attitude, and Subjective Norm). Test-retest reliability was acceptable (≥0.70) for all scales, except Perceived Behavioral Control. Construct validity was demonstrated based on correlations with diabetes-specific items/scales and the SF-36. Known-groups validity was confirmed for Behavior, Planning, and Intention when respondents were

  12. Polycultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-03

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.

  13. Psychological career meta-capacities in relation to employees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the relationship dynamics between employees' psychological career meta-capacities (measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory) and their retention-related dispositions (measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Organisation-related Commitment Scale).

  14. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ANTARCTIC LIVING,

    Science.gov (United States)

    POLAR REGIONS, ECOLOGY), (*ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), POLAR REGIONS), (*NAVAL PERSONNEL, ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY )), LEADERSHIP, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , EMOTIONS , PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), ACCLIMATIZATION, STRESS( PSYCHOLOGY )

  15. California Psychological Inventory Dominance Scale Measurement Equivalence: General Population Normative and Indian, U.K., and U.S. Managerial Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulas, John T.; Thompson, Richard C.; Anderson, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    The California Psychological Inventory's Dominance scale was investigated for inconsistencies in item-trait associations across four samples (one American normative and three culturally dissociated manager groupings). The Kim, Cohen, and Park procedure was used, enabling simultaneous multigroup comparison in addition to the traditional…

  16. Standards for educational and psychological testing

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Developed jointly by the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education, Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (Revised 2014) addresses professional and technical issues of test development and use in education, psychology, and employment. It includes changes in federal law and measurement trends affecting validity, testing individuals with disabilities or different linguistic backgrounds, and new types of tests, as well as new uses of existing tests.

  17. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  18. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  19. Psychology's Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph; Simonsohn, Uri

    2018-01-04

    In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced. In describing how the renaissance has unfolded, we attempt to describe different points of view fairly but not neutrally, so as to identify the most promising paths forward. In so doing, we champion disclosure and preregistration, express skepticism about most statistical solutions to publication bias, take positions on the analysis and interpretation of replication failures, and contend that meta-analytical thinking increases the prevalence of false positives. Our general thesis is that the scientific practices of experimental psychologists have improved dramatically.

  20. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-01-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  1. Psychological strain between nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Obročníková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to identify differences in perception of work (mental workload among nurses providing acute and chronic nursing care. Design: Study design is cross-sectional and descriptive. Methods: The sample of respondents consisted of 97 nurses working in departments Neurology, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit of the hospital St. James in Bardejov, University Hospital of L. Pasteur in Košice and University Hospital J. A. Reiman in Prešov. To measure psychological strain, Meister's questionnaire for neuropsychological strain was used. Results: Increased psychological strain was observed in nurses providing acute care versus nurses providing chronic care, particularly in job satisfaction, long-term tolerance, time constraints, high responsibility, nervousness, fatigue and satiety. In comparison with the population norm, nurses in acute care achieved significantly higher indicators of factor I (strain and gross score as nurses in neurological care. A statistically significant relationship between psychological stress and age of nurses working in anesthesiology and intensive care departments was confirmed. Nurses with long term practical experience are exposed to intense mental stress (especially in the areas of strain and monotony. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest the reality that variable qualities of work related strain among nurses can lead to physical and emotional exhaustion.

  2. Psychological literacy: proceed with caution, construction ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Douglas D

    2016-01-01

    Psychological literacy is the ethical application of psychological skills and knowledge. This could benefit individuals in their personal, occupational, and civic lives and subsequently benefit society as a whole. We know that psychology has a wide-ranging impact on society. The potential benefits of a psychologically literate citizenry in improved parenting, better business practices, enlightened legislation, and many other areas make this a desirable goal. It has been proposed that this should become the primary goal of an undergraduate psychology education to benefit the majority who do not go on to graduate school and even those who only take a few psychology courses. This idea has significant merit and warrants further investigation and development. However, there are major concerns that need to be addressed. First, what are uniquely psychological skills and knowledge? Many of the skills psychology undergraduates acquire are generic to university and not specific to psychology. Second, psychology can be as harmful when misapplied as it can be beneficial when ethically applied. Third, psychology departments will need to address pragmatic as well as ethical issues, including issues of competency, boundaries, accountability, and confidentiality. Fourth, the available empirical evidence to direct such efforts is primarily at the anecdotal, case example, and pilot study stages. Significant improvements are needed in measuring psychological literacy, choice of outcome measures, and research methodologies before these advantages can be realized in an empirically supported manner. Currently, best practices in the undergraduate curriculum are the mindful and purposeful design of courses and experiential opportunities. It is proposed that psychological literacy is best conceptualized as a meta-literacy and that it should become a goal of psychology undergraduate education but not necessarily the goal. PMID:27540315

  3. Criminal tendencies and psychological testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobchik L. N.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods of psychological diagnostics closer to the psychology main research areas, which involve measuring the accuracy and statistical reliability. A set of methods that includes questionnaires should be complemented with projective tests in which the stimulus material is verbal in nature. The article presents the results of surveys of different groups of persons in conflict with the law, as well as screening tests contingent of youth groups and adolescents. High performance, spontaneously manifested aggressiveness, traits, emotional immaturity, low self-control and primitive-the requirement of the hierarchy of values at statistically significant level are identified in the data psychodiagnostic study, thus allowing to allocate the risk of wrongful conduct and to develop preventive measures of psycho-pedagogical and social nature. Psychological testing is an effective tool in the study of criminal predisposici and gives the key to a science-based approach in the development of preventive measures aimed at reducing crime.

  4. Psychology of psychology? A theoretization of psychological science through historical and socio-anthropological analysis of Psychology as institution

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Žužek-Kres

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.

  5. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  6. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  7. Socioeconomic status in Brazilian psychological research: I. validity, measurement, and application Status socioeconômico na pesquisa psicológica brasileira: I. validade, mensuração e aplicação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo de Castro Ribas Jr.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This review has several objectives: To describe and discuss theoretical conceptions of the construct of socioeconomic status (SES and to argue for its vital role in psychological research; to present and analyze procedures employed to measure SES and trends in their utilization; and to review and discuss the use of SES measures in Brazilian psychological literature. The relative position of individuals, families, and groups in a given hierarchy (frequently converted into a score produced by a scale is what has usually been called SES. The main indicators and procedures used to measure SES are discussed in regard to its advantages and disadvantages. A review of the literature offers evidence of the importance of the SES in different psychological processes. A systematic evaluation of articles from the PsycARTICLES database was conducted and revealed that the percentage of articles published annually that employed socioeconomic status increased steadily and substantially from 1988 through 2000 and that SES has been consistently applied more in some research areas (e.g., developmental, clinical, social psychology. A content analysis of the use of SES in articles published from 1981 through 2001 in three prominent Brazilian psychology journals was conducted showing that reliable SES measures are not commonly used in the Brazilian psychological literature. The results of these reviews and analyses are discussed in terms of their implications for further progress of psychological literature, especially in Brazil, with regard SES.Esta revisão teve os seguintes objetivos: descrever e discutir concepções teóricas acerca do constructo status socioeconômico (SSE e argumentar no sentido de seu papel vital na pesquisa psicológica; apresentar e analisar procedimentos empregados para medir SSE e tendências em sua utilização; rever e discutir a utilização de medidas de SSE na literatura psicológica brasileira. A posição relativa de indiv

  8. Cultural Psychology and Deconstructing Developmental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Crafter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at points of convergence and divergence between the different branches of cultural psychology and Burman's ideas in Deconstructing Developmental Psychology (DDP). The paper discusses the relationship between the developing ideas in cultural psychology over time and some of the shared theoretical and conceptual criticisms put forward in DDP. This takes into account some of the differences between symbolic approach, activity theory and an individualistic approach to cultural ps...

  9. Sport psychology: psychologic issues and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Christopher M

    2006-08-01

    This article has briefly highlighted the area of sport psychology as it relates to performance psychology skills (mental training), including a historical overview and current topics overview. The use of mental training skills may be of interest to the practicing physical medicine and rehabilitation professional in the treatment of his or her patients. It is important that the physical medicine professional recognize what sport or performance psychology represents within the paradigm of psychologic interventions. Referring to an individual based on his or her training (licensed psychologist versus mental training consultant) is essential for the appropriate management of psychologic issues related to performance. The issues related to the psychologic rehabilitation of the injured athlete are of importance to the medical staff; the overview of affective responses can assist in understanding the normal and adaptive responses of the injured athlete. Finally, a brief description of a psychologist's role within a sports medicine and rehabilitation practice is presented. The psychologic issues that are present in the world of sport and elite performance are numerous, and not all are mentioned in this article. Issues of eating disorders, substance abuse, and psychologic health with athletes should be further explored within the physical medicine and rehabilitation discipline as well as in the sports medicine discipline. The ever-evolving psychologic dynamics of individuals involved in sport and elite performance are intriguing and unique. A specialized knowledge base, training, and experience in providing psychologic services are required to treat this unique population. Counseling and clinical issues of the athlete and elite performer require further attention in the realm of psychologic interventions, including further exploration of the efficacy of interventions for performance enhancement. The field of applied sport psychology may offer the physical medicine

  10. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesi...

  11. Psychological typology of Sasang medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ah Jung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study briefly reviewed and summarized published studies related to the Sasang typology in order to investigate the common psychological characteristics in each type and suggest conceptual and methodological implications for future research. A total of 44 articles written in Korean between 1990 and 2014, and that used objective measures of personality, were selected from two Korean database for this study. The number of publications, type of scale used, and distribution of each Sasang type were reviewed and summarized. From these works, it was found that there was significant common ground between the classification of Sasang types, which is rooted in Eastern concepts, and the psychological features and types revealed by objective personality measures used in Western psychology. On the basis of these findings, the degree of overlap between Eastern and Western personality typologies was highlighted, and further considerations for developing a more valid and objective classification method, and the limitations of the existing searching method and scope were discussed.

  12. Psychological typology of Sasang medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seung-Ah

    2015-03-01

    This study briefly reviewed and summarized published studies related to the Sasang typology in order to investigate the common psychological characteristics in each type and suggest conceptual and methodological implications for future research. A total of 44 articles written in Korean between 1990 and 2014, and that used objective measures of personality, were selected from two Korean database for this study. The number of publications, type of scale used, and distribution of each Sasang type were reviewed and summarized. From these works, it was found that there was significant common ground between the classification of Sasang types, which is rooted in Eastern concepts, and the psychological features and types revealed by objective personality measures used in Western psychology. On the basis of these findings, the degree of overlap between Eastern and Western personality typologies was highlighted, and further considerations for developing a more valid and objective classification method, and the limitations of the existing searching method and scope were discussed.

  13. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  14. Reproducibility in Psychological Science: When Do Psychological Phenomena Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo E. Iso-Ahola

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1 scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative; (2 non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3 statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4 psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons. The human mind is unreproducible from one situation to another. Psychological phenomena are not particles that can decisively be tested and discovered. Therefore, a declaration that a phenomenon is not real is not only theoretically and empirically unjustified but runs counter to the propositional and provisional nature of scientific knowledge. There are only “temporary winners” and no “final truths” in scientific knowledge. Psychology is a science of subtleties in human affect, cognition and behavior. Its phenomena fluctuate with conditions and may sometimes be difficult to detect and reproduce empirically. When strictly applied, reproducibility is an overstated and even questionable concept in psychological science. Furthermore, statistical measures (e.g., effect size are poor indicators of the theoretical importance and relevance of phenomena (cf. “deliberate practice” vs. “talent” in expert performance, not to mention whether phenomena are real or unreal. To better understand psychological phenomena, their theoretical and empirical properties should be examined via multiple parameters and criteria. Ten such parameters are suggested.

  15. Reproducibility in Psychological Science: When Do Psychological Phenomena Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso-Ahola, Seppo E

    2017-01-01

    Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1) scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative); (2) non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical) and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3) statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4) psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons. The human mind is unreproducible from one situation to another. Psychological phenomena are not particles that can decisively be tested and discovered. Therefore, a declaration that a phenomenon is not real is not only theoretically and empirically unjustified but runs counter to the propositional and provisional nature of scientific knowledge. There are only "temporary winners" and no "final truths" in scientific knowledge. Psychology is a science of subtleties in human affect, cognition and behavior. Its phenomena fluctuate with conditions and may sometimes be difficult to detect and reproduce empirically. When strictly applied, reproducibility is an overstated and even questionable concept in psychological science. Furthermore, statistical measures (e.g., effect size) are poor indicators of the theoretical importance and relevance of phenomena (cf. "deliberate practice" vs. "talent" in expert performance), not to mention whether phenomena are real or unreal. To better understand psychological phenomena, their theoretical and empirical properties should be examined via multiple parameters and criteria. Ten such parameters are suggested.

  16. Psychological and Sociological Determinants of Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the psychological and sociological determinants of academic achievement of school-going adolescents. Six self-report measures were administered randomly to 280 senior secondary III students in Ibadan. Results showed that the six psychological and sociological factors (motivation, anxiety, and ...

  17. Utah Youth Suicide Study: Psychological Autopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskos, Michelle; Olson, Lenora; Halbern, Sarah; Keller, Trisha; Gray, Doug

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a psychological autopsy study to further understand youth suicide in Utah. While traditional psychological autopsy studies primarily focus on the administration of psychometric measures to identify any underlying diagnosis of mental illness for the suicide decedent, we focused our interviews to identify which contacts in the…

  18. Interdisciplinary Aspects of Learning: Physics and Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleg, Yavoruk

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with interdisciplinary aspects of learning in the case of physics and psychology. It describes the lab-based academic course focused on: observation and experimentation; discovery of new scientific facts; measurement; identification of errors; the study of psychological characteristics of people (time perception, the reaction…

  19. Impact on Children's Psychological Functioning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The participants in the experimental group were recruited from communities facing living space and personal privacy challenges, while the participants in the comparison group came from privileged communities with relatively adequate living space. The children's psychological functioning dimensions measured were ...

  20. Psychology of family business

    OpenAIRE

    Taylyakova, Feruzahon

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the basic psychological characteristics of family businesses. The author describes the psychological properties that contribute to improve individual and family businesses. The article also discusses mental properties adversely affect the development of a family business.

  1. Professional psychology in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagulha, T; Dana, R H

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the history and current status of professional psychology in Portugal where a unique perspective combines training, research, and practical contributions from Europe and the Americas with their own history of psychological tradition and expertise. Training in professional psychology includes Social Psychology and Educational and Vocational Guidance specializations in addition to Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy and Counseling for the professional degree, Licenciatura. Advanced degrees are offered in Environmental Psychology, Career Development, Social Cognition, and other areas, primarily for academic positions. Research in all of these areas is expected to have applied outcomes that contribute to individual well being and an improved quality of life for the entire population. The result has been a rapid development of an indigenous professional psychology to address mental health, social, and environmental concerns that compel psychological attention and resources worldwide as well as those problems of local and national origins.

  2. Psychological Stress and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients learn to cope with psychological stress. Such support can reduce levels of depression, anxiety, and disease- and treatment-related symptoms among patients. Approaches can include the ...

  3. The relationships between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate, team commitment and intention to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon A. Munyaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The relationship between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment in a manufacturing organisation could have a significant impact on employee intention to quit.Research purpose: To determine the relationship between five positive organisational behaviour variables (authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment and their ultimate influence on an individual’s intention to quit. Thus, it is preceded by the determination of the structural invariance of the measurement instruments when applied to a South African sample.Justification for the study: The study sought to fill the gap in the literature in relation to understanding the effect of the relationship between psychological capital, authentic leadership, psychological climate and team commitment on the behaviour of employees in a manufacturing organisation and how this influences their decision to quit. Such a study has not previously been conducted in the South African manufacturing sector.Research design, approach and method: Utilising a non-experimental correlational approach, a self-administered composite questionnaire consisting of five psychological scales was distributed to 204 employees in the junior to senior management level at a global tyre manufacturing organisation in South Africa. Multivariate data analysis included the structural equation modelling.Main findings: There is a significantly strong positive relationship between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment. Authentic leadership has a significant influence on psychological capital and psychological climate. This results in a positive impact on organisational commitment, leading to employees’ intention to quit.Practical/managerial implications: Manufacturing organisations need to develop and implement collaborative leadership intervention strategies aimed at improving

  4. Psychology in its Place

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, John

    2008-01-01

    In 1996 Graham Richards published Putting Psychology in its Place: An introduction from a critical historical perspective. Here, I seek to consider what is or should be the ‘place’ of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education, and not just from a historical perspective. This raises issues about several contexts in which Psychology finds itself. In the Higher Education context itself, Psychology continues to be in demand. But what is offered in first degrees is largely dictat...

  5. PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND. DEVELOPMENT. Oladipo, S.E. PhD. Dept. of Counselling Psychology, Tai Solarin University of Education,. Ijagun, Ogun State. Abstract. Using the archival method of investigation, this paper explores the subject of psychological empowerment (particularly in relation to youths) ...

  6. What is Political Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  7. School Psychology in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Anders

    1987-01-01

    Describes education system of Denmark and reviews background and development of school psychology in that country. Discusses organization of school psychology work and practice. Explains qualifications and training of school psychologists and describes professional organizations, wages, and problems in school psychology. (NB)

  8. Intro through Internet Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Sandra K.; Kelliher, Thomas P.

    Psychology and computer science were clustered into a course in "Internet Psychology" with the goal of enabling students to use electronic networks responsibly and creatively and to understand the principles of psychology as they operate in the electronic context. Fourteen students from a variety of majors registered for the class.…

  9. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  10. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  11. Do psychological variables affect early surgical recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Mavros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined the effect of psychological variables on surgical recovery, but no definite conclusion has been reached yet. We sought to examine whether psychological factors influence early surgical recovery. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO databases to identify studies examining the association of preoperative psychological variables or interventions with objectively measured, early surgical outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 16 eligible studies, 15 of which reported a significant association between at least one psychological variable or intervention and an early postoperative outcome. However, most studies also reported psychological factors not influencing surgical recovery and there was significant heterogeneity across the studies. Overall, trait and state anxiety, state anger, active coping, subclinical depression, and intramarital hostility appeared to complicate recovery, while dispositional optimism, religiousness, anger control, low pain expectations, and external locus of control seemed to promote healing. Psychological interventions (guided relaxation, couple support visit, and psychiatric interview also appeared to favor recovery. Psychological factors unrelated to surgical outcomes included loneliness, perceived social support, anger expression, and trait anger. CONCLUSION: Although the heterogeneity of the available evidence precludes any safe conclusions, psychological variables appear to be associated with early surgical recovery; this association could bear important implications for clinical practice. Large clinical trials and further analyses are needed to precisely evaluate the contribution of psychology in surgical recovery.

  12. Do psychological variables affect early surgical recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavros, Michael N; Athanasiou, Stavros; Gkegkes, Ioannis D; Polyzos, Konstantinos A; Peppas, George; Falagas, Matthew E

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the effect of psychological variables on surgical recovery, but no definite conclusion has been reached yet. We sought to examine whether psychological factors influence early surgical recovery. We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO databases to identify studies examining the association of preoperative psychological variables or interventions with objectively measured, early surgical outcomes. We identified 16 eligible studies, 15 of which reported a significant association between at least one psychological variable or intervention and an early postoperative outcome. However, most studies also reported psychological factors not influencing surgical recovery and there was significant heterogeneity across the studies. Overall, trait and state anxiety, state anger, active coping, subclinical depression, and intramarital hostility appeared to complicate recovery, while dispositional optimism, religiousness, anger control, low pain expectations, and external locus of control seemed to promote healing. Psychological interventions (guided relaxation, couple support visit, and psychiatric interview) also appeared to favor recovery. Psychological factors unrelated to surgical outcomes included loneliness, perceived social support, anger expression, and trait anger. Although the heterogeneity of the available evidence precludes any safe conclusions, psychological variables appear to be associated with early surgical recovery; this association could bear important implications for clinical practice. Large clinical trials and further analyses are needed to precisely evaluate the contribution of psychology in surgical recovery.

  13. ["Are measures infinite or do they have an expiry date?" - interlocution and challenges between Law and Psychology in the juridical context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Erica Quinaglia; Brandi, Caroline Quinaglia Araújo Costa Silva

    2014-09-01

    The Psychosocial Section of the Criminal Executions Court of the Federal District Court of Justice assists people who are under civil commitment, namely a legal sentence that labels them as sick people and criminals. In the juridical context, there are two options facing them: outpatient treatment or internment in a secure hospital facility and psychiatric treatment. In these options, requirements, such as tests to verify the cessation of danger, duration of imprisonment and existence of a relative who can shelter them, are examined to permit a favorable judicial decision of conditional release leading to removal from the sphere of justice. This is a third possible path. Through the analysis of an emblematic case, this article seeks to examine the sentence imposed on these people. The intention is, therefore, to give voice to the unimputable and/or the semi-imputable, people who are considered wholly or partially unable to respond to the illicit nature of the act they have committed, according to the Brazilian Criminal Code. The interlocution and the challenges between law and psychology in the juridical context emerge as a possibility by them of building another discourse, a line of thought that seeks the acquisition of autonomy and responsibility.

  14. High Personal Activity and its Sociological MeasurementReview of the book:Muzykant V.L. Psychology and Sociologyin Advertising. M.: RIOR-INFRA-M, 2012. 217 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I B Lapshin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of the book Psychology and Sociology in Advertising, systematizing the latest developments in sociology and psychology, which can be used in designing and applying the strategy of brand building.

  15. Trauma and Psychological Distress among Ethnically Diverse Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Jeanne L.; Watson, Susan B.; Patron, David J.

    2016-01-01

    An association has been found between traumatic experiences and psychological distress; however, the impact of ethnicity on psychological distress is less clear. The present study examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and measures of psychological distress among a multiethnic sample of community college students. A total of 389…

  16. Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 2014 Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Educational Research Association (AERA), 2014

    2014-01-01

    Developed jointly by the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education, "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" (Revised 2014) addresses professional and technical issues of test development and use in education, psychology, and…

  17. Avoidance motivation in psychological problems and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtforth, Martin Grosse

    2008-03-01

    Avoidance of aversive experiences is common to all human beings. However, when avoidance is too strong, it might be associated with impaired psychological functioning and psychopathology. This article examines the role of avoidance motivation in psychological problems and psychotherapy from conceptual, assessment, and empirical perspectives. The concept of avoidance motivation is introduced, and measures of the intensity and satisfaction of avoidance motivation that the author developed are presented. Empirical findings generated using these measures are also reported. The findings address the role of avoidance motivation in relation to well-being, psychological problems, and psychotherapy outcome. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed and avenues for further research explored.

  18. Autonomic response to an experimental psychological stressor in healthy subjects: measurement of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and pituitary-adrenal parameters: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U

    1990-01-01

    of the stressor. As a measure of parasympathetic nervous function, the beat-to-beat variation of heart rate, expressed as the mean successive square difference (MSSD), was employed. Four to 14 months later, the investigation was repeated, and resting values of all measures were found to be stable. The increments...

  19. Test Review: C. R. Reynolds and B. Livingston "CMOCS--Children's Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms." Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily M.; Dennison, Andrea; Ewing, Heidi K.; de Carvalho, Catharina F.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the Children's Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms (CMOCS), a self-report screening measure of obsessive and compulsive thoughts and behaviors in children and adolescents aged 8 through 19 years. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population over their lifetime. The…

  20. Psychological distress among women with newly diagnosed breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Birgitte; Bistrup, Pernille Envold; Johansen, Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Psychological distress is common in the cancer continuum. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of distress and to investigate the related problems and the characteristics of women with breast cancer who experienced psychological distress at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: We...... thermometer' to measure psychological distress and the accompanying 'problem list' to identify related problems. Logistic regression models with 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the associations between psychological distress, age, social support and domains on the problem list. RESULTS...

  1. Kurt Lewin, psychological constructs and sources of brain cognitive activity

    OpenAIRE

    Duch, Włodzisław

    2017-01-01

    Understanding mind-brain-environment relations is one of the key topics in psychology. Kurt Lewin, inspired by theoretical physics, tried to establish topological and vector psychology analyzing patterns of interaction between the individual and her/his environment. The time is ripe to reformulate his ambitious goals, searching for ways to interpret objectively measured brain processes in terms of suitable psychological constructs. Connecting cognitive and social psychology constructs to neur...

  2. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Marital Adjustment and Psychological Distress in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries. PMID:28082761

  4. The relationship between Counseling Psychology and Positive Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Vossler, Andreas; Steffen , Edith; Joseph, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to explore the relation between the professional specialty of counseling psychology and positive psychology. Following a brief historical overview of counseling psychology, we explore its theoretical convergence with positive psychology and examine how the ideas from positive psychology have been received by counseling psychologists. We argue that although counseling psychology has its roots in ideas that are consistent with positive psychology, the profession has d...

  5. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesirable behavior. The traditional psychological model attempts to satisfy the scientific interest and partly practical interest, while avoiding emancipatory interest. But I believe modern socio-historical models of psychology to be significant precisely owing to the inclusion of emancipatory interest. The difference between these two models of psychology is most obvious in their perception of identity i.e. individuality. Conventional perceptions follow the logic of "possessive individualism" in which the individual is seen as an autonomous bearer and owner of his/her psychological states and processes. The conventional model of identity supports the modernist concept of the individual as being focused on his/her self or personal identity. Socio-historical models, on the other hand, see the individual as a being embedded in social relations and social interactions, and one who builds and expresses his/her individuality through the reflection on social interactions, discursive practices, and response to the hierarchy of power and social mechanisms of control. According to this model, identity evolves through a series of social constructions which are embodied in the individual and represent him/her in society. Identity thus becomes a notion that combines individuality and social context, subjectivation and objectivation of the individual, and historical and biographical time.

  6. On the Problem of the Development of Patristic Psychology in the Context of Modern Psychological Research: Christmas Meeting at the Psychological Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serova O.E

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Provides an overview of meaningful moments of discussion that took place at the round table "Patristic psychology – the basis of self-Orthodox civilization" – the scientific and practical measures aimed at deepening the discussion of the methodological foundations of the analysis of the psychological aspects of the patristic heritage as an important factor in the formation of moral-oriented tendencies of modern psychology and teaching practice, jointly prepared by the staff of the Psychological Institute of RAO and the Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

  7. The psychological context of quality of life: a psychometric analysis of a novel idiographic measure of bladder cancer patients' personal goals and concerns prior to surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganstern, Bradley Andrew; Bochner, Bernard; Dalbagni, Guido; Shabsigh, Ahmad; Rapkin, Bruce

    2011-02-15

    Over the past two decades, there has been an increasing focus on quality of life outcomes in urological diseases. Patient-reported outcomes research has relied on structured assessments that constrain interpretation of the impact of disease and treatments. In this study, we present content analysis and psychometric evaluation of the Quality of Life Appraisal Profile. Our evaluation of this measure is a prelude to a prospective comparison of quality of life outcomes of reconstructive procedures after cystectomy. Fifty patients with bladder cancer were interviewed prior to surgery using the Quality of Life Appraisal Profile. Patients also completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and demographics. Analysis included content coding of personal goal statements generated by the Appraisal Profile, examination of the relationship of goal attainment to content, and association of goal-based measures with QLQ-C30 scales. Patients reported an average of 10 personal goals, reflecting motivational themes of achievement, problem solving, avoidance of problems, maintaining desired circumstances, letting go of roles and responsibilities, acceptance of undesirable situations, and attaining milestones. 503 goal statements were coded using 40 different content categories. Progress toward goal attainment was positively correlated with relationships and activities goals, but negatively correlated with health concerns. Associations among goal measures provided evidence for construct validity. Goal content also differed according to age, gender, employment, and marital status, lending further support for construct validity. QLQ-C30 functioning and symptom scales were correlated with goal content, but not with progress toward goal attainment, suggesting that patients may calibrate progress ratings relative to their specific goals. Alternately, progress may reflect a unique aspect of quality of life untapped by more standard scales. The Brief Quality of Life Appraisal Profile was associated with

  8. Predictors of psychological distress in patients starting IVF treatment: infertility-specific versus general psychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Uschi; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Enzlin, Paul; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2010-06-01

    The distress that couples experience in IVF treatment is well-documented though research exploring factors that might contribute to the distress is scarce and the role of infertility-specific versus more general psychological characteristics in predicting psychological distress remains unexplored. This exploratory study aimed to describe, explore and test a self-constructed conceptual framework designed to understand the relative impact of infertility-specific and general psychological characteristics, in predicting psychological distress. Validated self-report questionnaires that measured the concepts of the encompassing framework (personality characteristics self-criticism and dependency, attachment in the partner relationship, child wish, coping, intrusiveness, infertility-related stress and general psychological distress) were completed by 106 women and 102 men before starting the first IVF/ICSI treatment at a university hospital-based fertility centre. Data were analysed by hierarchical multivariate linear regression analysis and path analysis. The overall conceptual psychological framework explained 55% of the variance in psychological distress. The strongest predictors of psychological distress were general psychological characteristics: passive and active coping, self-criticism and dependency and intrusiveness. A path analysis confirmed the framework and highlighted the mediating role of coping and intrusiveness. In the final analysis, none of the infertility-specific variables significantly predicted psychological distress. The current study of patients starting IVF-treatment demonstrated that general psychological characteristics, specifically active and passive coping, personality characteristics, dependency and self-criticism and intrusiveness, are more important in predicting the variability in psychological distress than infertility-specific concerns. The results raise important questions for infertility counselling. However, the cross

  9. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Lane

    2008-01-01

    DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the th...

  10. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  11. Entrepreneurship Psychological Characteristics of Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghanzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Kholasehzadeh, Golrasteh; Birjandi, Masoumeh; Antikchi, Ensieh; Sobhan, Mohamad Reza; Neamatzadeh, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Nurses are full partners with other health care professionals. Until fairly recently the scope of nurses potential in entrepreneurship has not been widely recognized. The present study tries to evaluate entrepreneurship psychological characteristics among nurses. The survey instrument included scales measuring entrepreneurship psychological characteristics including locus of control, need for achievement, risk taking propensity, ambiguity tolerance, and innovation, among nurses in the Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran in 2013. In this study average of entrepreneurship psychological characteristics of nurses which are higher than standard mark. The majority of the nurses have average entrepreneurship (20.4%). It means that they have some strong entrepreneurship. The result show that average of the need for achievement is 34.5%, the locus of control 33.8%, risk taking propensity 33.2%, ambiguity tolerance 34.2%, and innovation 41.6%. The results indicate that the 4 dimensions of the need for achievement, risk taking, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Innovation were significant. However, the locus of control is not significant at a 0.05 significance level. In terms, entrepreneurially nurses are comparatively more innovative, have risk taking attitudes, need for achievement, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Innovation. Results largely support significant positive relationships between psychological traits and entrepreneurial orientations.

  12. Entrepreneurship Psychological Characteristics of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Dehghanzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nurses are full partners with other health care professionals. Until fairly recently the scope of nurses potential in entrepreneurship has not been widely recognized. The present study tries to evaluate entrepreneurship psychological characteristics among nurses. The survey instrument included scales measuring entrepreneurship psychological characteristics including locus of control, need for achievement, risk taking propensity, ambiguity tolerance, and innovation, among nurses in the Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran in 2013. In this study average of entrepreneurship psychological characteristics of nurses which are higher than standard mark. The majority of the nurses have average entrepreneurship (20.4%. It means that they have some strong entrepreneurship. The result show that average of the need for achievement is 34.5%, the locus of control 33.8%, risk taking propensity 33.2%, ambiguity tolerance 34.2%, and innovation 41.6%. The results indicate that the 4 dimensions of the need for achievement, risk taking, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Innovation were significant. However, the locus of control is not significant at a 0.05 significance level. In terms, entrepreneurially nurses are comparatively more innovative, have risk taking attitudes, need for achievement, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Innovation. Results largely support significant positive relationships between psychological traits and entrepreneurial orientations.

  13. Psychological Intervention of Murophobia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yihun, A; Anand, P; Abebe, F

    2011-01-01

    .... Especially in a country like Ethiopia, where awareness, orientation to mental health and its psychological treatment is undergoing its infancy on account of several reasons, the neurotic disorders...

  14. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  15. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  17. Autonomic response to an experimental psychological stressor in healthy subjects: measurement of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and pituitary-adrenal parameters: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U

    1990-01-01

    significantly during the 15 min of stress. Afterwards, however, the concentrations of both hormones increased, resulting in a total and significant increase averaging 19% and 23%, respectively. Plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) did not rise significantly, but it was only measured before and at the end...

  18. Psychological typology of Sasang medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Seung-Ah

    2015-01-01

    This study briefly reviewed and summarized published studies related to the Sasang typology in order to investigate the common psychological characteristics in each type and suggest conceptual and methodological implications for future research. A total of 44 articles written in Korean between 1990 and 2014, and that used objective measures of personality, were selected from two Korean database for this study. The number of publications, type of scale used, and distribution of each Sasang typ...

  19. Public Image of Counseling Psychology: What Introductory Psychology Textbooks Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, David N.; Vrochopoulos, Sam; Burton, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Examines the adequacy of descriptions of counseling psychology and its professionals in introductory psychology textbooks compared to the descriptions of other applied areas of psychology. Results indicate that counseling psychology is less represented than industrial or organizational and clinical psychology and more represented than school…

  20. Positive Psychology: Considerations and Implications for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…

  1. The psychological context of quality of life: a psychometric analysis of a novel idiographic measure of bladder cancer patients' personal goals and concerns prior to surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabsigh Ahmad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past two decades, there has been an increasing focus on quality of life outcomes in urological diseases. Patient-reported outcomes research has relied on structured assessments that constrain interpretation of the impact of disease and treatments. In this study, we present content analysis and psychometric evaluation of the Quality of Life Appraisal Profile. Our evaluation of this measure is a prelude to a prospective comparison of quality of life outcomes of reconstructive procedures after cystectomy. Methods Fifty patients with bladder cancer were interviewed prior to surgery using the Quality of Life Appraisal Profile. Patients also completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and demographics. Analysis included content coding of personal goal statements generated by the Appraisal Profile, examination of the relationship of goal attainment to content, and association of goal-based measures with QLQ-C30 scales. Results Patients reported an average of 10 personal goals, reflecting motivational themes of achievement, problem solving, avoidance of problems, maintaining desired circumstances, letting go of roles and responsibilities, acceptance of undesirable situations, and attaining milestones. 503 goal statements were coded using 40 different content categories. Progress toward goal attainment was positively correlated with relationships and activities goals, but negatively correlated with health concerns. Associations among goal measures provided evidence for construct validity. Goal content also differed according to age, gender, employment, and marital status, lending further support for construct validity. QLQ-C30 functioning and symptom scales were correlated with goal content, but not with progress toward goal attainment, suggesting that patients may calibrate progress ratings relative to their specific goals. Alternately, progress may reflect a unique aspect of quality of life untapped by more standard scales. Conclusions The

  2. Validation of the four-dimensional symptom questionnaire (4DSQ) and prevalence of psychological symptoms in orthopedic shoulder patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorevaar, Rinco C. T.; Terluin, Berend; van't Riet, Esther; Madden, Kim; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.

    Psychological problems are common in shoulder patients. A validated psychological questionnaire measuring clinically relevant psychological symptoms (including distress, depression, anxiety, and somatization) in shoulder patients is lacking. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a

  3. Global measures of outcome in a controlled comparison of pharmacological and psychological treatment of panic disorder and agoraphobia in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, D M; Power, K G; Simpson, R J; Swanson, V; Anstee, J A

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Panic disorder, with and without agoraphobia, is a prevalent condition which presents primarily in general practice. Previous clinical outcome studies have been conducted mainly in specialist university departments or hospital settings, and have tended to employ complex rating scales that are not well suited for use as outcome measures in primary care. AIM: To evaluate the outcome, in a primary care setting, of fluvoxamine versus cognitive behaviour therapy, each used alone and in combination in a double-blind placebo-controlled framework, balanced for therapist contact. METHOD: A total of 149 patients satisfying DSMIII-R criteria for panic disorder were randomly allocated to receive one of the following: fluvoxamine, placebo, fluvoxamine plus cognitive behaviour therapy, placebo plus cognitive behaviour therapy, and cognitive behaviour therapy alone. These five treatment groups represent the minimum number acceptable for such a comparison to be made. All patients received an identical schedule of contact over 13 weeks. Measures of symptom severity, general health and social disruption were taken at entry point and end point; measures of change in symptoms were taken at end point only. Outcome was reported in terms of brief global ratings of severity of illness and change in symptoms, and of ratings of general health and social disruption that are suitable for use in general practice. RESULTS: All active treatment groups showed statistically significant advantages over placebo over a range of outcome ratings. The groups employing cognitive behaviour therapy showed the most robust and consistent response. CONCLUSION: The brief global measures reported here proved adequate to the task of assessing treatment outcome. Results indicate that treatments including cognitive behaviour therapy can be effective in the treatment of panic disorder and agoraphobia in primary care. PMID:9167318

  4. Psychological aspects of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyca, Rafał; Filip, Rafał; Walczak, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Pain is defined "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage". Pain is a sensation of the body, and is always an unpleasant emotional experience. The role of psychology is auxiliary and supplemental to medicine. This is an aid addressed to the patient, physician and patient's caregivers: professional caregivers, family members and significant others. At each stage of the diagnostic and therapeutic process, psychology offers help, both from the cognitive and practical aspects. The objective of the article is to present important psychological aspects of studies concerning pain, and the psychological methods and techniques of pain treatment. Pain is the leading reason for patients seeking medical care and is one of the most disabling, burdensome, and costly conditions. Pain accompanies many diseases, each one of which generates unique/separate diagnostic, therapeutic and research problems. DEPRESSION AND RELATED PSYCHICAL DISORDERS: There is a significant relationship between depression and pain symptoms, as well as between pain and suicidal thoughts. Patients with a long history of pain disorders also have increased depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as suicidal thoughts. Patients with more severe depression and anxiety symptoms also have an increase in pain problems. The intensity of pain correlates with the intensity of psychopathological symptoms - both with mood lowering and with anxiety symptoms and worry. Active pain coping strategies strive to function in spite of pain, or to distract oneself from pain, are associated with adaptive functioning. Passive strategies involve withdrawal or relinquishing control to an external force or agent and are related to greater pain and depression. Pain catastrophizing is a negatively distorted perception of pain as awful, horrible and unbearable. Catastrophizing is strongly associated with depression and pain. Studies in which

  5. Psychological empowerment, job insecurity and employee engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius W. Stander

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The psychological empowerment of employees might affect their engagement. However, psychological empowerment and employee engagement might also be influenced by job insecurity.Research purposes: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological empowerment, job insecurity and employee engagement.Motivation for the study: Employee engagement results in positive individual and organisational outcomes and research information about the antecedents will provide valuable information for the purposes of diagnosis and intervention.Research design, approach and method: A correlational design was used. Survey design was conducted among 442 employees in a government and a manufacturing organisation. The measuring instruments included the Psychological Empowerment Questionnaire, the Job Insecurity Inventory, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale.Main findings: Statistically significant relationships were found between psychological empowerment, job insecurity and employee engagement. A multivariate analysis of variance showed that affective job insecurity had a main effect on three dimensions of psychological empowerment (viz. competence, meaning and impact and on employee engagement. Affective job insecurity moderated the effect of psychological empowerment on employee engagement.Practical implications: The implication of the results is that interventions that focus on the psychological empowerment of employees (viz. meaningfulness, competence, self-determination and impact will contribute to the engagement (vigour, dedication and absorption of employees. If job insecurity is high, it is crucial to attend to the psychological empowerment of employees.Contribution: This study contributes to knowledge about the conditions that precede employee engagement, and shows that the dimensions of psychological empowerment (namely experienced meaningfulness, competence, impact and self-determination play an important role

  6. Discursive social psychology now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ian

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Psychologism and Instructional Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…

  8. Simulation and psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...

  9. European Psychology Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA SCHÖN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID compiled an extensive list of European psycho-logical organizations, comprised of university departments, research institutions, professional associa-tions and publishing houses. The list is available on the ZPID website, together with a web mapping applet that indicates the exact geographical location of the organizations.

  10. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  11. Industrial Psychology in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montmollin, Maurice

    1977-01-01

    The current status of French industrial psychology is evaluated. Within the social and economic context of contemporary France, varying ideologies and scarce resources have created a gap between applied and academic industrial psychology. Personnel practices and systems and organizational research are noted. (Editor)

  12. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include…

  13. Editorial overview: Evolutionary psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangestad, S.W.; Tybur, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Functional approaches in psychology - which ask what behavior is good for - are almost as old as scientific psychology itself. Yet sophisticated, generative functional theories were not possible until developments in evolutionary biology in the mid-20th century. Arising in the last three decades,

  14. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  15. Discursive and scientific psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Derek

    2012-09-01

    I begin with the origins of Loughborough University's Discourse and Rhetoric Group (DARG), and in particular discursive psychology (DP). Rather than attempting to summarize DP, versions of which are plentiful, the article attempts to clarify various relationships and tensions between DP and other kinds of social psychology, particularly experimental. Common sense psychology is defined as DP's topic rather than rival; the aim is to study how people deploy everyday psychological notions and manage psychological business within talk and text, and what they accomplish by such deployments, rather than trying, as experimental psychology is often characterized as doing, to replace it all with something purportedly better. Claims for DP being particularly interpretative rather than scientific are rejected, by appeal to an 'interpretative gap' between phenomena, data, analysis, and conclusions that all research must manage, that gap being often much larger in quantitative and experimental work. The importance of pursuing causal explanations of psychological phenomena is questioned, and the importance asserted, of discovering, through rigorous empirical and conceptual analysis, the normative bases of human conduct and accountability. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  16. The correlates of psychological health among the Turkish unemployed: psychological burden of financial help during unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgiç, Reyhan; Yılmaz, Nilgün

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the major determinants of psychological health during unemployment. With this in mind, 438 (17% female and 83% male) unemployed individuals were contacted through Turkey's State Employment Office. It was expected that the relationship between duration of unemployment and psychological wellbeing would be nonlinear. Additionally it was hypothesized that perceived social support would moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological health. Further, we suggested that self-esteem would be related to psychological health and moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological health. The results supported the curvilinearity hypothesis of the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health as measured by General Health Questionnaire. However, social support was not found to moderate the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health. The hypothesis that self-esteem would moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological distress was not supported, although self-esteem was a strong negative determinant of psychological distress during unemployment. Regression analysis showed that the best predictors of psychological health were self-esteem, perceived social support and perceived adequacy of financial aid received from relatives. Interestingly, perceived adequacy of the financial aid was negatively related to psychological health. This result was contradictory with the previous literature pointing out that financial aid reduces the effects of poverty due to unemployment. The findings of this study are important since the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health was nonlinear, indicating that relevant services should be especially careful to intervene to increase social support and self-esteem during these critical times. The other results and limitations are discussed.

  17. Development of a psychological test to measure ability-based emotional intelligence in the Indonesian workplace using an item response theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajrianthi; Zein, Rizqy Amelia

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an emotional intelligence (EI) test that is suitable to the Indonesian workplace context. Airlangga Emotional Intelligence Test (Tes Kecerdasan Emosi Airlangga [TKEA]) was designed to measure three EI domains: 1) emotional appraisal, 2) emotional recognition, and 3) emotional regulation. TKEA consisted of 120 items with 40 items for each subset. TKEA was developed based on the Situational Judgment Test (SJT) approach. To ensure its psychometric qualities, categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) and item response theory (IRT) were applied to test its validity and reliability. The study was conducted on 752 participants, and the results showed that test information function (TIF) was 3.414 (ability level = 0) for subset 1, 12.183 for subset 2 (ability level = −2), and 2.398 for subset 3 (level of ability = −2). It is concluded that TKEA performs very well to measure individuals with a low level of EI ability. It is worth to note that TKEA is currently at the development stage; therefore, in this study, we investigated TKEA’s item analysis and dimensionality test of each TKEA subset. PMID:29238234

  18. Development of a psychological test to measure ability-based emotional intelligence in the Indonesian workplace using an item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajrianthi; Zein, Rizqy Amelia

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an emotional intelligence (EI) test that is suitable to the Indonesian workplace context. Airlangga Emotional Intelligence Test (Tes Kecerdasan Emosi Airlangga [TKEA]) was designed to measure three EI domains: 1) emotional appraisal, 2) emotional recognition, and 3) emotional regulation. TKEA consisted of 120 items with 40 items for each subset. TKEA was developed based on the Situational Judgment Test (SJT) approach. To ensure its psychometric qualities, categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) and item response theory (IRT) were applied to test its validity and reliability. The study was conducted on 752 participants, and the results showed that test information function (TIF) was 3.414 (ability level = 0) for subset 1, 12.183 for subset 2 (ability level = -2), and 2.398 for subset 3 (level of ability = -2). It is concluded that TKEA performs very well to measure individuals with a low level of EI ability. It is worth to note that TKEA is currently at the development stage; therefore, in this study, we investigated TKEA's item analysis and dimensionality test of each TKEA subset.

  19. Risky driving in fog : psychological explanations

    OpenAIRE

    CAVALLO, V; CARO, S; DORE, J; COLOMB, M; DUMONT, E

    2007-01-01

    Fog doubles the risk of accidents and modifies driving behaviour in a way that leads to greater risk-taking. Traffic studies indicate that most drivers adopt excessive speeds and insufficient headways in foggy conditions. Yet our understanding of the psychological processes underlying this common but unsuitable behaviour, and the effectiveness of road safety measures, remain limited. Two main hypotheses have been put forward. The first one, stemming from social psychology, evokes a deteriorat...

  20. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  1. PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, Robert Wilhelm; Scholz, Sabine; van Rijn, Hedderik; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available.

  2. Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

  3. Psychological distress: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridner, Sheila H

    2004-03-01

    The term 'distress' is frequently used in nursing literature to describe patient discomfort related to signs and symptoms of acute or chronic illness, pre- or post-treatment anxiety or compromised status of fetuses or the respiratory system. 'Psychological distress' may more accurately describe the patient condition to which nurses respond than does the term 'distress'. Psychological distress is seldom defined as a distinct concept and is often embedded in the context of strain, stress and distress. This creates confusion for nurses attempting to manage the care of people experiencing psychological distress. This paper is a concept analysis of psychological distress based on Walker and Avant's (1995) criteria that identifies the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of psychological distress based upon the findings of the literature review. In addition, empirical references are identified and constructed cases presented. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, CINAHL, Ovid, PsychINFO, and Cancer Lit databases over the last 50 years. The purposes of this concept analysis were: (1) to establish the concept of psychological distress as a clear and distinct concept, separate from strain, stress and distress, and (2) to provide nurses with a base of knowledge from which to plan effective clinical interventions. Content analysis of the literature revealed that, although used frequently in health care literature, the origin of the concept of psychological distress has not been clearly articulated and is ill-defined. Psychological distress is a serious problem faced by many of the people whom nurses encounter on a daily basis. An understanding of the concept of psychological distress will help nurses ameliorate this problem in patients. Nursing research related to the exploration of psychological distress is also needed.

  4. The Influence of a Psychology and Law Class on Legal Attitudes and Knowledge Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Cindy E.; Maeder, Evelyn M.; Bornstein, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    Students in an undergraduate psychology and law course and an introductory psychology course completed a variety of measures, at both the beginning and end of the semester, to assess their knowledge of and attitudes toward psycholegal topics. The psychology and law course improved students' knowledge of psychological topics concerning the legal…

  5. The impact of a sport psychology education intervention on physiotherapists

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Caroline A.; Walker, Natalie C.; Green, Alison J.K.; Rostron, Claire L

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of an online sport psychology education module on the attitudes and behaviours of qualified sports physiotherapists in the UK. Ninety-five sport physiotherapists studied either a sport psychology module or a control module, and their attitudes and behaviours towards sport psychology were measured prior to studying the module and at three points over a six-month period following its completion. It was found that those who had studied the spor...

  6. The psychology of computer programming

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, Gerald Marvin

    1998-01-01

    This landmark 1971 classic is reprinted with a new preface, chapter-by-chapter commentary, and straight-from-the-heart observations on topics that affect the professional life of programmers. Long regarded as one of the first books to pioneer a people-oriented approach to computing, The Psychology of Computer Programming endures as a penetrating analysis of the intelligence, skill, teamwork, and problem-solving power of the computer programmer. Finding the chapters strikingly relevant to today's issues in programming, Gerald M. Weinberg adds new insights and highlights the similarities and differences between now and then. Using a conversational style that invites the reader to join him, Weinberg reunites with some of his most insightful writings on the human side of software engineering. Topics include egoless programming, intelligence, psychological measurement, personality factors, motivation, training, social problems on large projects, problem-solving ability, programming language design, team formati...

  7. Can administrative claim file review be used to gather physical therapy, occupational therapy, and psychology payment data and functional independence measure scores? Implications for rehabilitation providers in the private health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Viivi; Jaglal, Susan; Boschen, Kathryn; Walker, Jan; Verrier, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Rehabilitation costs for spinal-cord injury (SCI) are increasingly borne by Canada's private health system. Because of poor outcomes, payers are questioning the value of their expenditures, but there is a paucity of data informing analysis of rehabilitation costs and outcomes. This study evaluated the feasibility of using administrative claim file review to extract rehabilitation payment data and functional status for a sample of persons with work-related SCI. Researchers reviewed 28 administrative e-claim files for persons who sustained a work-related SCI between 1996 and 2000. Payment data were extracted for physical therapy (PT), occupational therapy (OT), and psychology services. Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores were targeted as a surrogate measure for functional outcome. Feasibility was tested using an existing approach for evaluating health services data. The process of administrative e-claim file review was not practical for extraction of the targeted data. While administrative claim files contain some rehabilitation payment and outcome data, in their present form the data are not suitable to inform rehabilitation services research. A new strategy to standardize collection, recording, and sharing of data in the rehabilitation industry should be explored as a means of promoting best practices.

  8. Measuring European selves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antalikova, Radka

    Taking the perspective of cross-cultural psychology, the current thesis sets out to investigate self in a European context. For this purpose, the thesis first thoroughly reviews the most prominent conceptualizations of self in cross-cultural psychology, specifically focusing on disentangling...... to the field of cross-cultural psychology, specifically highlighting the utility of autobiographical memories as measures of self....

  9. Assessment of psychological pain in suicidal veterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Reist

    results build upon our earlier findings and recent literature supporting psychological pain as a potentially important construct. Systematically evaluating psychological pain along with additional measures of suicidality could improve risk assessment and more effectively guide clinical resource allocation toward prevention.

  10. The psychological imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Tateo

    Full Text Available Abstract: The commentary presents an epistemological reflection about Dialogical Self theory. First, the theoretical issues of DS about the relationship between individuality, alterity and society are discussed, elaborating on the articles of this special issue. Then, it is presented the argument of psychologist's ontological fallacy, that is the attitude to moving from the study of processes to the study of psychological entities. Finally a development toward new research directions is proposed, focusing on the study of higher psychological functions and processes, taking into account complex symbolic products of human activity and developing psychological imagination.

  11. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  12. Psychological career resources and subjective work experiences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the psychological career resources (as measured by the. Psychological Career Resources Inventory) and the subjective work experiences of a sample of working adults (as measured by a fouritem global work experiences scale). The research also aimed ...

  13. Ecological psychology and social psychology: continuing discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Eric P

    2012-06-01

    What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011).

  14. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  15. PTSD and Psychological Debriefing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahmoud Mirzamani

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a personal, community or national crisis or disaster there is a need to provide some form of early intervention and crisis support. The essential components of successful early interventions include planning, education, training and support for those affected. The goal of all early interventions should be to maximize the likelihood of a positive mental health outcome using the person’s own adaptive coping mechanisms and support structures. Psychological debriefing (PD has been described as an intervention conducted by trained professionals shortly after a catastrophe, allowing victims to talk about their experience and receive information on “normal” types of reactions to such an event. Psychological debriefing has been developed and has been at the centre of significant levels of controversy during the past 15 years. Talking through traumatic or stressful events may help the psychological recovery of those who have suffered psychological insults.

  16. Operational Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Al

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

  17. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  18. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  19. Discursive psychology and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Ann

    2012-09-01

    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  1. Diet and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M

    1996-09-01

    This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders.

  2. Psychological reactance theory (3)

    OpenAIRE

    Fukada, Hiromi

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe psychological reactance theory in detail and discuss and refine the theory. The paper consists of following two parts. 9. Effects of reactance 10. Attitudinal freedoms

  3. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  4. Internet research in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Samuel D; Mason, Winter

    2015-01-03

    Today the Internet plays a role in the lives of nearly 40% of the world's population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges, but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society.

  5. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...

  6. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual

  7. The Developing Transpersonnel Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Prabowo, Hendro

    2009-01-01

    The progress of transpersonal psychology is related to the other science. The most higher potention in understanding transpersonal psychology is in consciousness level. In Islam, it has been called as qolbu and fitrah, in Christian it has been called as spirit, and in Hindu it has been called as atman. There is no differences in the terminology of transpersonal and spiritual. The connection condition that makes us related one to another can be explained also in quantum phsysics. This paper wa...

  8. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY IN COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    LUIS FLÓREZ-ALARCÓN

    2006-01-01

    An historical analysis about the evolution of health psychology in Colombia is made, taking as starting point someinvestigations carried out in the field of the behavioral medicine in the decade of the 70’s, and concluding with thedescription of 25 investigation groups that right now exist in many universities of the country, which carry out researchactivities in psychology and health. It is underlined that the development of this investigation field and practice inpsychology have been bound ...

  9. Integrative Psychology: the Return to the Subject of Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Kozlov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative, make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of psychic reality.

  10. Integrative psychology: the return to the subject of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative), make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of ps...

  11. Psychological Literacy: A Multifaceted Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Julie A.; Skinner, Rebecca; Worsnop, Francesca; Collins, Elizabeth; Banyard, Philip; Kitching, Helen J.; Watt, Roger; Goodson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The concept of psychological literacy has grown in importance within psychology education at all levels, in the UK and globally, in recent years. Increasingly, psychology educators and policy makers are seeking to emphasise the relevance and usefulness of psychology within everyday life, within the workplace, and as an element of global…

  12. Introducing Positive Psychology to SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…

  13. Perspectives on Computerized Psychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, James N.

    1985-01-01

    Psychological assessment, a subspecialty of psychology has served as one of the earliest proving grounds of automated technology. This Special Series highlights some of the advances in computerized psychological assessment methods and discusses some of the lingering issues and contemporary problems with automated psychological assessment…

  14. Research status and development tendency of medical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-yi ZHANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study aims to review the research status and development tendency of military medical psychology in China and abroad and proposes the development of medical psychology research in the Chinese military.Methods A literature search method was adopted to find and review major literature on military medical psychology,from basic studies,discipline construction,professional teaching,to the service force in the last 10 years.Results The last 10 years witnessed much development in the medical psychological branches,such as physiological psychology,mental measurement,psychological counseling,and treatment.With these developments,military medical psychology achieved much with regard to the reserve of talented men,the mental measurement for officers and soldiers,mental intervention for military stress,and psychological rehabilitation after stress.Conclusion Thus,future studies on military medical psychology should focus on intensifying the training of medical psychology experts to promote the study on the etiology of military mental diseases and on the prevention and treatment of mental disorders caused by wars.

  15. Psychological controversies in gastroparesis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Sally; Hebbard, Geoff; Knowles, Simon R

    2017-02-21

    To systematically review literature addressing three key psychologically-oriented controversies associated with gastroparesis. A comprehensive search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases was performed to identify literature addressing the relationship between gastroparesis and psychological factors. Two researchers independently screened all references. Inclusion criteria were: an adult sample of gastroparesis patients, a quantitative methodology, and at least one of the following: (1) evaluation of the prevalence of psychopathology; (2) an outcome measure of anxiety, depression, or quality of life; and (3) evidence of a psychological intervention. Case studies, review articles, and publications in languages other than English were excluded from the current review. Prevalence of psychopathology was evaluated by three studies (n = 378), which found that combined anxiety/depression was present in 24% of the gastroparesis cohort, severe anxiety in 12.4%, depression in 21.8%-23%, and somatization in 50%. Level of anxiety and depression was included as an outcome measure in six studies (n = 1408), and while limited research made it difficult to determine the level of anxiety and depression in the cohort, a clear positive relationship with gastroparesis symptom severity was evident. Quality of life was included as an outcome measure in 11 studies (n = 2076), with gastroparesis patients reporting lower quality of life than population norms, and a negative relationship between quality of life and symptom severity. One study assessed the use of a psychological intervention for gastroparesis patients (n = 120) and found that depression and gastric function were improved in patients who received psychological intervention, however the study had considerable methodological limitations. Gastroparesis is associated with significant psychological distress and poor quality of life. Recommendations for future studies and the development of psychological interventions are

  16. [Ibn Sina--psychology and psychological disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerić, I; Mehić-Basara, N

    1997-01-01

    Ebu Ali Husein Ibn Ali Ibn Sina (or Avicenna) was primarily a philosopher with amusing knowledge, who dealt in all aspects of art of medicine, astronomer, poet, musician and psychologist. This giant with an encyclopedic knowledge has dealt in almost all scientific branches or praxis with the great success. Numerous statements of his have been cornerstone of many sciences for centuries; and some of them are (in the era of computers and Internet) still current. The best known treatise on medicine of his is El-Kanun, consisting of five volumes, wherein all medical achievements (including psychology, psychiatry and neurology) of that period were described clearly. In his psychology, Ibn Sina (Avicenna) analyses the essence of human soul, mind, psychical streams, intellectum, dreams and prophecy, man's desires etc. in details. It is unnecessary to point out how much these items are actual in the contemporary psychology. Ibn al-Nefis has described systematically the symptoms and recovery of "head sick" (including headaches, cerebral sick like cranitis, letargy, coma, demency, melancholy, insomnia, nightmares, epilepsy, appoplexy, paralysis, spasm and many others) in his Mujez al-Kanun, that is synopsis of Ibn Sina Kanun. We need much time to see magnificance of this philosopher, that is best known as the great one among the physicians. His writings could be found in whole Bosnia, but there were many few that would study him and his works. It is out task to enable the future generations not only to know those works exist, but, also, to realize the essence of this marvelous genius; because there are very few people that can be compared to him.

  17. Use of eye-tracking technology in sport psychology

    OpenAIRE

    A.E. Gorovaya; E. Yu. Korobeinikova

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the possibilities of application of eye movements tracking technology in sports psychology. Eye tracking enables highly accurate measurement and analysis of eye movements to determine the direction of the gaze of a man. The relevance of this kind of methods to sports psychology is the high degree of ecological validity, relevance of psychological research methods to content and forms of the real sports activities. We describe types and features of the technology, provide examples o...

  18. Psychological distress and in vitro fertilization outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Lauri A.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Katz, Patricia K.; Millstein, Susan G.; Nachtigall, Robert D.; Bleil, Maria E.; Adler, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether psychological distress predicts IVF treatment outcome as well as whether IVF treatment outcome predicts subsequent psychological distress. Design Prospective cohort study over an 18-month period. Setting Five community and academic fertility practices. Patients Two hundred and two women who initiated their first IVF cycle. Interventions Women completed interviews and questionnaires at baseline and at 4, 10, and 18 months follow-up. Main Outcome Measures IVF cycle outcome and psychological distress. Results Using a binary logistic model including covariates (woman’s age, ethnicity, income, education, parity, duration of infertility, and time interval), pre-treatment depression and anxiety were not significant predictors of the outcome of the first IVF cycle. Using linear regression models including covariates (woman’s age, income, education, parity, duration of infertility, assessment point, time since last treatment cycle, and pre-IVF depression or anxiety), experiencing failed IVF was associated with higher post-IVF depression and anxiety. Conclusions IVF failure predicts subsequent psychological distress, but pre-IVF psychological distress does not predict IVF failure. Instead of focusing efforts on psychological interventions specifically aimed at improving the chance of pregnancy, these findings suggest that attention be paid to helping patients prepare for and cope with treatment and treatment failure. PMID:22698636

  19. Environmental stress, psychological stress and allostatic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael S; Bond, Malcolm J; Hecker, Jane R

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism by which chronic caregiving stress results in poor health is not well understood. The objective was to determine whether such a mechanism may be allostatic load, a novel concept specifying physiological systems that may suffer cumulative wear and tear following chronic stress, leading collectively to poor health. The study examines the association of allostatic load with environmental and psychological stress in the contexts of dementia caregiving and relinquishment of care, and is a 2-year longitudinal comparison of three groups: 80 new dementia spouse caregivers, 120 veteran caregivers, and 60 non-caregivers. Data comprised allostatic load markers and environmental and psychological stress measures. Cross-lagged analyses produced a statistically significant association between psychological stress and one allostatic load component (primary mediators). Psychological stress was a better predictor of primary mediators than environmental stress. Primary mediators rose with time for caregivers, but not for non-caregivers. A greater rise was evident for caregivers who had relinquished their role by the second year, although the level of psychological stress actually declined. Primary mediators are a key component of the relationship between allostatic load and prior stress. When allostatic load is treated as an outcome of stress, it is important to distinguish environmental and psychological stress.

  20. Psychological characteristics of male university athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJKUMAR SHARMA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate and compare the psychological characteristics of University maleathletes. A sample of 80 male athletes of Volleyball (n=15, Basketball (n=15, Football (n=25 and Cricket(n=25 filled out questionnaire measures assessing their psychological competencies at their different level ofparticipation.. The Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28 prepared and developed by Smith et al. 1995 was used tomeasure the psychological characteristics in the form of personal coping resources of university athletes.. Toassess the psychological characteristics of University male athletes of different games, the means, standarddeviations, t-ratios and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA were computed. The level of significant was set at .05levels. The results of research study showed that University male athletes of different team games and levels aswhole had similarity on seven dimensions of psychological characteristics i.e. Coping with adversity, Peakingunder pressure, Goal setting and mental Preparation, Concentration, Freedom from worry, Confidence andachievement motivation, and Coach-ability. Inter-university and All India level male athletes expressedsignificance difference on Goal setting and mental Preparation only The results also showed that Basketballplayers apparently are not free from worry about disappointing a coach or parent and teammates in next time.Finally, the results highlight the importance of psychological competencies for the team games players at theirdifferent level of participation.

  1. The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer L.; Blazek, Melissa A.; Raley, Amber B.; Washington, Christi

    2005-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the…

  2. Soviet psychology and psychophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAZRAN, G

    1958-11-14

    Pavlov's experiments, begun long before the revolution, have always been generously supported by the Soviet state. However, their far-reaching ontological and methodological implication gained an official and commanding position to Soviet biomedical and psychosocial (as distinct from socioeconomic) sciences only in 1950 with the Resolution of the 28 June-4 July Joint Pavlovian Session of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and Academy of Medical Sciences. In the biomedical sciences, present-day Soviet Pavlovianism may best be conceived of as (i) a doctrine of nervism (a Russian term)-the ubiquity of neural control of bodily reactions (neural, neurosomatic, neurovisceral, and neurohumoral) and (ii) a doctrine of what might be called concomitantism (my term )-the ready and radical modification of these reactions by concomitant reactions; or, viewed more generally and somewhat differently, as (iii) a far-reaching physicalistic psychosomaticism or, rather, a neuroviscerosomaticism. Psychophysiology-or higher nervous activity-is the key discipline here. With scores of research institutes, it is indeed a very well-established, wide-scoped, and faradvanced faradvanced science that, in both present achievements and future capabilities, is a challenge to American and Western equivalents. On the other hand, in the psychosocial sciences and the key discipline of psychology proper, unmitigated Pavlovian physicalism and objectivism is met head on by (i) the unbending postulate of dialectical materialism of "the specific emergent efficacy of consciousness and subjective conscious categories" as well as by (ii) the simple consideration that a consistent Pavlovianism is a fully autarchic psychology and needs no other science of psychology on top of it. A large portion of current Soviet psychological theory in psychology proper is thus primarily a textual and exegetic collation and conciliation of the views of Pavlov with those of Marx, Engels, and Lenin (until recently and, to some

  3. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  4. The psychological present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, L J

    1992-01-01

    The present paper compares behavior-analytic and cognitive treatments of the concept of psychological history with regard to its role in current action. Both treatments take the position that the past bears some responsibility for the present, and are thereby obligated to find a means of actualizing the past in the present. Both do so by arguing that the past is brought to bear in the present via the organism. Although the arguments of the two positions differ on this issue, neither provides a complete account. An unconventional treatment of psychological history is proposed, the logic of which is exemplified in anthropological, biological, and psychological perspectives. The unconventional treatment in psychological perspective holds that (a) the organism's interaction with its environment, not the organism itself, changes with experience; and (b) the past interactions of an organism exist as, and only as, the present interactions of that organism. This solution to the problem of psychological history provides obligations and opportunities for analysis that are not available when the more conventional positions of cognitivism and behavior analysis are adopted.

  5. The psychological impact of living with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Allan; Olsen, Mette Zander; Perrild, Hans J D

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The descriptive findings from the Danish sample of the second Diabetes, Attitudes, Wishes, and Needs (DAWN2) study are presented, with specific focus on the psychological impact of living with diabetes and quality of life for people with diabetes and family members of people...... with diabetes. METHOD: 502 people with diabetes over the age of 18 and 122 family members completed questionnaires online, by telephone or in person, including validated measures of diabetes-related distress, emotional well-being and quality of life as well as other measures of psychological well-being. RESULTS......: People with diabetes reported that living with diabetes was a psychological burden, with individuals taking insulin medication or diagnosed with type 1 diabetes reporting the most distress. Half of all family members sampled reported that living with diabetes impacted them negatively. CONCLUSION...

  6. Psychological characteristics of BDSM practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismeijer, Andreas A J; van Assen, Marcel A L M

    2013-08-01

    It has been generally thought that the practice of bondage-discipline, dominance-submission, sadism-masochism (BDSM) is in some form associated with psychopathology. However, several more recent studies suggest a relative good psychological health of BDSM practitioners. The aim of this study was to compare scores of BDSM practitioners and a control group on various fundamental psychological characteristics. For this aim, 902 BDSM and 434 control participants completely filled out online questionnaires. Associations were examined using χ(2) tests of independence with φ and Cramer's V as effect size measures and eta or Pearson's correlation. Group differences were tested using analysis of covariance, with partial η(2) as effect size measure. A priori contrasts were tested using α = 0.01 to correct for multiple testing; for all other tests we used α = 0.05, two tailed. The study used Big Five personality dimensions (NEO Five-Factor Inventory), attachment styles (Attachment Styles Questionnaire), rejection sensitivity (Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire), and subjective well-being (World Health Organization-Five Well-being Index). The results mostly suggest favorable psychological characteristics of BDSM practitioners compared with the control group; BDSM practitioners were less neurotic, more extraverted, more open to new experiences, more conscientious, less rejection sensitive, had higher subjective well-being, yet were less agreeable. Comparing the four groups, if differences were observed, BDSM scores were generally more favorably for those with a dominant than a submissive role, with least favorable scores for controls. We conclude that BDSM may be thought of as a recreational leisure, rather than the expression of psychopathological processes. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. International psychology and scientific psychology: at the crossroads for the future of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, J.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of psychology as a science and the newly emerging field of international psychology are at a crossroads in terms of a conflict that has developed in their views. By means of comparative analysis, this article examines how the proponents of international psychology describe their area, how that description conflicts with the concept of psychology as a science, and what that conflict means for the development of psychology as an overall discipline. The analysis reveals weaknesses...

  8. Lest we forget that industrial and organisational psychology is psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJW Strümpfer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The tie between industrial/organisational psychology (IOP and general psychology should be taken seriously. The origin of the split into separate academic departments is discussed. Four IOP topics are presented which are rooted in psychology or where the psychological quality is strong, making the tie-in clear: motivation, leadership, assessment, and appreciative inquiry; by way of illustration, proponents are referred to. Specialisation and professionalisation often bring undue emphasis on technology. IOP cannot be human resource management. Suggestions are made about bringing IOP and psychology closer within teaching programmes and internships. Appreciative images of what IOP, hand-in-hand with psychology, could be like, are put forward.

  9. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  10. [Clinical psychology in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdy, E

    1998-11-08

    What is health- and clinical psychology? How do they fit into the healthcare system as disciplines and branches of professional practice? This overviews presents the theoretical sources of the profession, its components and interdisciplinary relations. Outlined are the criteria of being a profession, within the framework of the developmental history of clinical psychology in Hungary and abroad. Also discussed are specific aspects of practical care, both within and beyond healthcare as primary prevention (mental hygiene). In addition, we deal with the current problems of clinical psychology, international and specifically Hungarian, as well as its potential for development. Our main message is that the answer to present day challenges is activity based upon on integrated care model. This uses the framework of primary care and is capable of bringing about the reconciliation and integration of biological and psycho-social interventions. A crucial aspect of this is the role of team-work and, above all, that of the clinical psychologist.

  11. Sociogenomic Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657

  12. Psychology, replication & beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Keith R

    2016-06-01

    Modern psychology is apparently in crisis and the prevailing view is that this partly reflects an inability to replicate past findings. If a crisis does exists, then it is some kind of 'chronic' crisis, as psychologists have been censuring themselves over replicability for decades. While the debate in psychology is not new, the lack of progress across the decades is disappointing. Recently though, we have seen a veritable surfeit of debate alongside multiple orchestrated and well-publicised replication initiatives. The spotlight is being shone on certain areas and although not everyone agrees on how we should interpret the outcomes, the debate is happening and impassioned. The issue of reproducibility occupies a central place in our whig history of psychology.

  13. Advancing family psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-02-01

    To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  15. A Social Psychological Perspective:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Westerling, Allan

    2008-01-01

    institutionalised individualism and interconnectedness. The focus is on the vertical and horizontal relationships within the socio-cultural psychological framework combining positioning theory with the  life course perspectives. Moreover there is focus on the diaspora processes for the South Asian young adults....... The paper analyses the discourses of intergenerational care as they intersect with everyday life practices and psychological realities of persons. The results indicate changes in the care pattern and deals with the dilemmas of solidarity, which are in contrast to dominant discourses of generations...... of agency with the changing societal structures and the diaspora context is confirmed. Key words: intergenerational care, individualisation, social network analysis, socio-cultural psychology, modernisation...

  16. Psychological correlates of optimism in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R L; Haemmerlie, F M; Ray, D M

    2003-04-01

    This study assessed optimism held by 300 college students at a midwestern university using Scheier and Carver's Life Orientation Test. Optimism ratings were compared to measures of psychological functioning. Analysis showed that optimism was significantly associated with all of the adjustment measures (social, academic, personal, and goal commitment) assessed with Baker and Siryk's Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire, higher self-esteem measured with Rosenberg's Self-esteem scale, and with lower ratings of loneliness as assessed with the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale.

  17. Genetics and educational psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert; Walker, Sheila O

    2003-03-01

    Molecular genetics, one of the most energetic and exciting areas of science, is slowly but surely coming to educational psychology. We review recent molecular genetic research on learning disabilities as a sign of things to come in educational psychology. We also consider some misconceptions about genetics that have slowed the acceptance of genetics in educational psychology. Diverse samples of children with learning disabilities have been studied, primarily in the UK and the USA. Linkage analysis can detect genes that have large effects on learning disabilities. Association analysis can detect genes of much smaller effect size, which is important because common disorders such as learning disabilities are likely to be influenced by many genes as well as by many environmental factors. For reading disability, replicated linkages have been identified on chromosomes 6, 15 and 18. A gene responsible for a rare type of language impairment has recently been identified. For common language impairment, linkages on chromosomes 16 and 19 have recently been reported. More than 200 genetic disorders, most extremely rare, include mental retardation among their symptoms, and chromosomal abnormalities are a major cause of mental retardation. Although finding specific genes associated with learning disabilities is unlikely to have much of a direct application for teachers in the classroom, such findings will have far-reaching implications for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of learning disabilities and for research in educational psychology. Educational psychology has been slower to accept evidence for the importance of genetics than other areas of psychology in part because of misconceptions about what it means to say that genetics is important for common complex disorders such as learning disabilities.

  18. The psychology of creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    The psychology of creativity is nowadays a thriving field of investigation, but also a discipline in crisis. This is the premise for the critical reading of past and present work within this area proposed here. The presentation follows the typical headings of a research article, beginning...... in order to help us develop a stronger psychology of creativity in the decades to come. In the end, six main points are placed on a hypothetical agenda for future (creative) creativity re-search. In this sense, a critical reading is actually the first step in the process of being constructive and calling...

  19. Psychological Aspects of Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available "nHuman beings have always experienced disasters. A disaster may be brief,but its psychological effects may last for many years. These psychological effects are increasingly well documented."nDisasters affect not only those immediately involved, but also those whoknow the victims. This is perhaps particularly so when the victims arechildren. Commonly when adults hear news of disasters they ask first: What about the children? Of course, typically it is worse for the parents."nIn this article the definition and classification of disaster and the effects ofdisaster on survivors and their relatives will be discussed.

  20. Psychology of programming

    CERN Document Server

    Hoc, J-M

    1991-01-01

    Psychology provides a backdrop for most of the study of human*b1computer interaction. In this volume the psychological issues that pertain to programming, rather than systems design, are examined in four sections: Theoretical and Methodological Issues; Language Design and Skill Acquisition; Expert Programming; and the Future.****The book was inspired by working groups in France and the United Kingdom but also includes work by major North American figures (such as Curtis and Soloway). It is the first comprehensive work on this topic since the early 1980s.

  1. PSYCHOLOGY: FOR WHOM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO TRUJILLO

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay invites to rethink the place of psychology as a science looking to clarify its reaches and itslimits thorough the light of complexity of human being. Starting from biological, psychological andsocial interactive constitution of people, some questions are drawn related to the Western scientificparadigm and its determination of the possibilities of complex thought. From there, some suggestivealternatives are the presented and the five reflexion nuclei are the formulated from which the discipline´sdevelopment can be foreseen, all of them concerning unity and diversity coexisting in human complexity.

  2. Psychological models of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.

  3. The Healthy Aging Brain Care (HABC) Monitor: validation of the Patient Self-Report Version of the clinical tool designed to measure and monitor cognitive, functional, and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Patrick O; Alder, Catherine A; Khan, Babar A; Stump, Timothy; Boustani, Malaz A

    2014-01-01

    Primary care providers need an inexpensive, simple, user-friendly, easily standardized, sensitive to change, and widely available multidomain instrument to measure the cognitive, functional, and psychological symptoms of patients suffering from multiple chronic conditions. We previously validated the Caregiver Report Version of the Healthy Aging Brain Care Monitor (HABC Monitor) for measuring and monitoring the severity of symptoms through caregiver reports. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Patient Self-Report Version of the HABC Monitor (Self-Report HABC Monitor). Cross-sectional study. Primary care clinics affiliated with a safety net urban health care system in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. A total of 291 subjects aged ≥65 years with a mean age of 72.7 (standard deviation 6.2) years, 76% female, and 56% African Americans. Psychometric validity and reliability of the Self-Report HABC Monitor. Among 291 patients analyzed, the Self-Report HABC Monitor demonstrated excellent fit for the confirmatory factor analysis model (root mean square error of approximation =0.030, comparative fit index =0.974, weighted root mean square residual =0.837) and good internal consistency (0.78-0.92). Adequate convergent-divergent validity (differences between the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status test-based cognitive function impairment versus nonimpairment groups) was demonstrated only when patients were removed from analysis if they had both cognitive function test impairment and suspiciously perfect self-report HABC Monitor cognitive floor scores of 0. The Self-Report HABC Monitor demonstrates good reliability and validity as a clinically practical multidimensional tool for measuring symptoms. The tool can be used along with its caregiver version to provide useful feedback (via monitoring of symptoms) for modifying care plans. Determining the validity of HABC Monitor scores from patients who self-report a perfect cognitive score of

  4. Psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience in combination with meditation and other spiritual practices produces enduring positive changes in psychological functioning and in trait measures of prosocial attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Roland R; Johnson, Matthew W; Richards, William A; Richards, Brian D; Jesse, Robert; MacLean, Katherine A; Barrett, Frederick S; Cosimano, Mary P; Klinedinst, Maggie A

    2017-09-01

    Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences with participant-attributed increases in well-being. However, little research has examined enduring changes in traits. This study administered psilocybin to participants who undertook a program of meditation/spiritual practices. Healthy participants were randomized to three groups (25 each): (1) very low-dose (1 mg/70 kg on sessions 1 and 2) with moderate-level ("standard") support for spiritual-practice (LD-SS); (2) high-dose (20 and 30 mg/70 kg on sessions 1 and 2, respectively) with standard support (HD-SS); and (3) high-dose (20 and 30 mg/70kg on sessions 1 and 2, respectively) with high support for spiritual practice (HD-HS). Psilocybin was administered double-blind and instructions to participants/staff minimized expectancy confounds. Psilocybin was administered 1 and 2 months after spiritual-practice initiation. Outcomes at 6 months included rates of spiritual practice and persisting effects of psilocybin. Compared with low-dose, high-dose psilocybin produced greater acute and persisting effects. At 6 months, compared with LD-SS, both high-dose groups showed large significant positive changes on longitudinal measures of interpersonal closeness, gratitude, life meaning/purpose, forgiveness, death transcendence, daily spiritual experiences, religious faith and coping, and community observer ratings. Determinants of enduring effects were psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience and rates of meditation/spiritual practices. Psilocybin can occasion enduring trait-level increases in prosocial attitudes/behaviors and in healthy psychological functioning. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00802282.

  5. Characteristics of Psychology Students Who Serve as Research Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlow, Laura A.; Meinz, Elizabeth J.

    2017-01-01

    Participation in undergraduate research has been shown to provide a wide array of benefits across many disciplines of study; however, relatively less is known about the impact of this experience on Psychology majors specifically. We collected measures of Psychology students' (N = 229) knowledge of the major (career, core, and…

  6. Psychological Assessment of Aviators Captured in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutker, Patricia B.; Allain, Albert N.

    1995-01-01

    Psychological assessments were administered to 33 World War II aviators who had been prisoners of war (POWs). Aviators showed fewer effects of captivity than age-similar, generally less well-educated, nonaviator POWs, but appeared less psychologically robust than Vietnam War POWs. Implications for the measurement of psychopathology are discussed.…

  7. Psychological type and the pulpit: An empirical enquiry concerning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychological type and the pulpit: An empirical enquiry concerning preachers and the SIFT method of biblical hermeneutics. LJ Francis, A Robbins, A Village. Abstract. A sample of 389 experienced preachers completed a measure of psychological type. They then read Mark 1:29–39 and recorded their evaluations of the ...

  8. Ambivalence over Expressing Emotion: Psychological and Physical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Robert A.; King, Laura

    Ambivalence about expressing emotion has been suggested as mediating the relationship between inhibition and psychological and psychosomatic distress. A study was conducted to examine the relationship of ambivalence over emotional expression to psychological and physical well-being through the "personal striving" framework. Measures of…

  9. Identifying Predictors of Negative Psychological Reactions to Stalking Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew C.; Kercher, Glen A.

    2009-01-01

    Victims of stalking often experience a number of negative psychological problems including such things as fear, symptoms of depression, and anger. However, research on factors that lead to these outcomes is limited. The goal of this study was to first identify distinct subgroups of stalking victims based on measures of psychological problems…

  10. Psychological Distress in Norwegian Nurses and Teachers over Nine Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Nerdrum

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychological distress have been found to be high and influence negatively nurses’ and teachers’ work. In this nine-year project, we present the first longitudinal study comparing psychological distress from 1467 students and young professionals in nursing and teaching. Psychological distress was measured with GHQ 12 at the start and the end of their studies and three and six years after graduation. Both descriptive statistics and estimated models were used to assess psychological distress over time. Psychological distress increased significantly in both groups during education. The reduction of psychological distress was significant among the nurses, and they clearly showed a “healthy worker effect” when coming into clinical work. The teachers had a small and non-significant reduction in the same period and did not show a positive effect after starting pedagogical work.

  11. New Parents' Psychological Adjustment and Trajectories of Early Parental Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rongfang; Kotila, Letitia E; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2016-02-01

    Trajectories of parental involvement time (engagement and child care) across 3, 6, and 9 months postpartum and associations with parents' own and their partners' psychological adjustment (dysphoria, anxiety, and empathic personal distress) were examined using a sample of dual-earner couples experiencing first-time parenthood (N = 182 couples). Using time diary measures that captured intensive parenting moments, hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that patterns of associations between psychological adjustment and parental involvement time depended on the parenting domain, aspect of psychological adjustment, and parent gender. Psychological adjustment difficulties tended to bias the 2-parent system toward a gendered pattern of "mother step in" and "father step out," as father involvement tended to decrease, and mother involvement either remained unchanged or increased, in response to their own and their partners' psychological adjustment difficulties. In contrast, few significant effects were found in models using parental involvement to predict psychological adjustment.

  12. New Parents’ Psychological Adjustment and Trajectories of Early Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rongfang; Kotila, Letitia E.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2016-01-01

    Trajectories of parental involvement time (engagement and child care) across 3, 6, and 9 months postpartum and associations with parents’ own and their partners’ psychological adjustment (dysphoria, anxiety, and empathic personal distress) were examined using a sample of dual-earner couples experiencing first-time parenthood (N = 182 couples). Using time diary measures that captured intensive parenting moments, hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that patterns of associations between psychological adjustment and parental involvement time depended on the parenting domain, aspect of psychological adjustment, and parent gender. Psychological adjustment difficulties tended to bias the 2-parent system toward a gendered pattern of “mother step in” and “father step out,” as father involvement tended to decrease, and mother involvement either remained unchanged or increased, in response to their own and their partners’ psychological adjustment difficulties. In contrast, few significant effects were found in models using parental involvement to predict psychological adjustment. PMID:27397935

  13. PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. [Modern state and prospects of development of medical-and-psychological support of military servicemen of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupov, V V; Ovchinnikov, B V; Korzunin, V A; Nagibovich, O A; Goncharenko, A Yu; Porozhnikov, P A

    2016-01-01

    The authors analysed state and prospects of medical-and-psychological support of military servicemen, which is supposed to consider as a complex of measures aimed at monitoring of professional psychological health, professional-and-psychological expertise, psychophysiological and pharmacological, correction, and medical-and-psychological rehabilitation. Organisation and maintaince of the above mentioned measures should be carried out by specialists of medical--and-psychological support groups and medical-and-psychological correction.

  15. Psychological Strategies in Managing Television Commercial Efficacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By employing 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, eight advert pieces were designed to reflect the levels of the independent variables. Standardized psychological instruments were used to measure the dependent variable. The result of the 2 x 2 x 2 analysis of variance (ANOVA) computed showed significant main effect of each of the ...

  16. Psychological Distress in Acute Low Back Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, William S; Hartvigsen, Jan; Woiszwillo, Mary J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the measurement scales and levels of psychological distress reported among published studies of acute low back pain (LBP) in the scientific literature. DATA SOURCES: Peer-reviewed scientific literature found in 8 citation index search engines (CINAHL, Embase, MANTIS, Ps...

  17. Childhood obesity: medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

  18. Childhood obesity : medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was

  19. The importance of psychological characteristics in potentially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from the importance of aerobic conditioning, long distance running requires a great deal of mental toughness. The purpose of this study was to compare talented, ... Sport psychological skill levels were measured with the Athletic Copings Skills Inventory (ACSI-28). The Australian Talent Search Protocol was used to ...

  20. The GRE Subject Test in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    Specific and detailed instructions to implement an environmental engineering approach to the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) Subject Test for Psychology are outlined. Focus is on helping students prepare for this test. Some universities use the GRE as a measure of achievement and aptitude and as a criterion test. In truth, such a test does not…

  1. Optimal assembly of psychological and educational tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1998-01-01

    The advent of computers in psychological and educational measurement has led to the need for algorithms for optimal assembly of tests from item banks. This paper reviews optimal test assembly literature and introduces the contributions to this Special Issue. Four approaches to computerized test

  2. Advances in Adolescent Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violato, Claudio; Travis, Leroy

    Adolescence is a multiplicity of events, experiences, behavior, people, and cultural meanings. This book attempts to provide detailed and in-depth analysis of the central issues related to adolescent psychology, while taking this multiplicity into account. A comprehensive representation of the topic is provided through integration of historical,…

  3. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in Víktor Frankl ́s studies, which is the Logotherapy founder. This allows incorporating another perspective to approach positive aspects, from a philosophical and anthropological focus. Although the ways adopted by Frank and Seligman are different, both considered main aspects of human existence. Nevertheless, they investigated in different countries (from Europe and EE.UU.; in different circumstances (concentration camps, deaths, tortures; vs. academic context; in different historical periods and different social contexts (a country that lost the war and other that gave freedom to Europeans. In this work is used the concept life sense as the focus in professional formation and psychotherapy approach. 

  4. FORENSIC CRIMINOLOGY - FUGITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    Forensic Criminology – Fugitive Psychology, 2010 Security Summit (Regional Security Exhibition & Conference ) a forum hosted by Kenya Security Industry Association, Securi Fast Trainers & Consultants, Fidelity Security Limited at Desmond Tutu Conference Centre, Nairobi Kenya from 4th-5th March, 2010  

  5. Is Psychology a Science?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. Is Psychology a Science ? Kamala V Mukunda. General Article Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 59-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/11/0059-0066. Author Affiliations.

  6. Mindfulness in social psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Papies, E.K.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific interest in mindfulness has grown exponentially in the past decade but, until now, it has typically been approached from a clinical perspective. This volume is the first to take a social-psychological approach to mindfulness research. It provides theoretical and methodological guidance

  7. APA Educational Psychology Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs;…

  8. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...

  9. A Psychology of Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    William James, the turn of the century psychologist, philospher, and educator, was avidly interested in the relationship between psychology and teaching. This paper considers operant conditioning, timing of reinforcers, and programmed instruction--touchstones of B.F. Skinner in the teaching/learning milieu. Of course, materials not just methods…

  10. Rediscovering Differential Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takooshian, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen offered an eye-opening review of how culture means much more than ethnicity within a nation or differences between nations. After developing a much-expanded definition of culture, he concluded, "I have lamented the fact that psychology has focused on some important…

  11. IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is not intended for psychologists alone but for anyone with an interest in the current state of psychology in Africa and what has been accomplished to date in this ... Home environment and social media as correlates of academic underachievement of high ability secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis · EMAIL FULL ...

  12. Narrating psychological distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinken, Jörg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients...

  13. Neuroeconomics and business psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    To determine parameters of the frontal power of executive integration for application in business, this paper reviewed neuroeconomic neuroimaging research and discussion in relation to business psychology. The results are that limbic system (L) is a centre of primary consciousness based on a meso...... programming (NLP)...

  14. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, David C.; Bjorklund, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Describes evolutionary developmental psychology as the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. Outlines basic assumptions and domains of…

  15. Psychological functioning after hysterectomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijma, Klaas

    1984-01-01

    During the past lew years a number of publications regarding the negative effects of hysterectomy have been published in the professional literature as well as in the lay press. This dissertation is a report of a study on the psychological functioning of women after hysterectomy, performed because

  16. Beyond Positive Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2014-01-01

    The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative. PMID:21787036

  17. Advances in Environmental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Nasar, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    When Plenum stopped publishing its edited series—Human Behavior and Environment and Advances in Environment, Behavior and Design—the field of environmental psychology suffered a loss. Scholars could go to one of the edited Plenum books to find state-of-the-art reviews on existing and emerging areas of research. [...

  18. Diseño y validación de la escala CapPsi para medir capital psicológico (Design and Validation of the Cappsi Scale to Measure Psychological Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Omar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio fue el desarrollo y validación de una escala para medir capital psicológico en adultos. Los ítems iniciales se elaboraron sobre la base de la revisión bibliográfica, entrevistas con empleados y consultas con especialistas. Inicialmente se efectuó una prueba piloto que permitió realizar ajustes conceptuales y semánticos de los ítems. La escala fue administrada a 382 empleados, conjuntamente con las medidas de desempeño laboral, comportamientos organizacionales contraproducentes y satisfacción general. Asimismo, se estudió la validez factorial exploratoria y confirmatoria; además de la confiabilidad como consistencia interna a través del coeficiente alpha de Cronbach. Los resultados mostraron la existencia de cuatro factores con satisfactorios niveles de validez y confiabilidad, los que fueron rotulados como: Esperanza (α = .87, Optimismo (α = .91, Resiliencia (α = .84 y Autoeficacia (α = .79. La escala cumple con los criterios psicométricos exigidos y puede ser empleada como herramienta de diagnóstico y gestión organizacional. ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was the development and validation of a scale to measure psychological capital in adults.The initial items were developed on the basis of the bibliographical review, interviews with employees and consultations with specialists. Initially a pilot test was carried out which allowed conceptual and semantic adjustments of the items. The scale was administered to 382 employees, together with the measures of job performance, organizational self-defeating behaviors and overall satisfaction. Also, it is studied the exploratory and confirmatory factorial validity; in addition to the re liability and internal consistency through Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The results showed the existence of four factors with satisfactory levels of validity and reliability, which were labeled as: Hope (α = .87, Optimism (α = .91, Resilience (

  19. Core References in Introductory Social Psychology and Developmental Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the core references in introductory textbooks in two sub-disciplines of psychology: social psychology and developmental psychology. One research question was the extent to which the common references in these textbooks present the trends in contemporary research in each sub-discipline. An analysis…

  20. Methodological Foundations of Military Psychology and Psychological Security

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey V. Leonov; Veraksa, Aleksander N.; Yuri P. Zinchenko

    2011-01-01

    The article is devoted to the history of development of military psychology from psychological and philosophical positions. The transition stage in development of military psychology from classical to postclassical type of rationality is focused. Analysis of combat activity as self-regulation system is presented. The latest technologies in solving key problems of military science are discussed.

  1. Methodological Foundations of Military Psychology and Psychological Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Leonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of development of military psychology from psychological and philosophical positions. The transition stage in development of military psychology from classical to postclassical type of rationality is focused. Analysis of combat activity as self-regulation system is presented. The latest technologies in solving key problems of military science are discussed.

  2. Sport Psychology: An Emerging Domain in the Counseling Psychology Profession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Trent A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Surveyed counseling psychologists on their involvement in sport psychology research, training, and practice; their affiliation with sport psychology professional organizations; and their attitudes toward current professional sport psychology issues. Found that counseling psychologists were minimally involved, and had received little formal…

  3. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  4. Hypertension awareness and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Batty, G David; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kivimaki, Mika

    2010-09-01

    There is conflicting evidence regarding the association of hypertension with psychological distress, such as anxiety and depressive symptoms. The association may be because of a direct effect of the raised blood pressure, adverse effects of treatment, or the consequences of labeling. In a representative study of 33 105 adults (aged 51.7+/-12.1 years; 45.8% men), we measured levels of psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and collected blood pressure, data on history of hypertension diagnosis, and medication usage. Awareness of hypertension was confirmed through a physician diagnosis or the use of antihypertensive medication, and unaware hypertension was defined by elevated clinic blood pressure (systolic/diastolic > or =140/90 mm Hg) without previous treatment or diagnosis. In comparison with normotensive participants, an elevated risk of distress (General Health Questionnaire score > or =4) was observed in aware hypertensive participants (multivariable adjusted odds ratio: 1.57 [95% CI: 1.41 to 1.74]) but not in unaware hypertensives (odds ratio: 0.91 [95% CI: 0.78 to 1.07]). Antihypertensive medication and comorbidity were also associated with psychological distress, although this did not explain the greater risk of distress in aware hypertensives. We observed a weak curvilinear association between systolic blood pressure and distress, which suggested that distressed participants were more likely to have low or highly elevated blood pressure. These findings suggest that labeling individuals as hypertensive, rather than having elevated blood pressure, per se, may partially explain the greater levels of distress in patients treated for hypertension.

  5. Comorbid Psychological Conditions in Pediatric Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Hope L; Slater, Shalonda K

    2016-02-01

    Children and adolescents with chronic daily headaches (CDH) often have comorbid psychological conditions, though their prevalence is unclear. Pediatric patients with CDH may have higher rates of disorders such as anxiety and depression. However, some researchers have found that scores on depression and anxiety screening measures for pediatric patients with migraine are within reference range. Barriers to identify patients with psychiatric disorders have included limited validated screening tools and lack of available mental health resources. Several validated screening tools have recently been used in studies of pediatric patients with CDH. Once identified, treatment of comorbid psychological conditions may lead to improved functioning and headache outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Infertility as a psychological problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Podolska, Magdalena Z; Bidzan, Mariola

    2011-01-01

    .... The objective of the following paper is to discuss the dilemmas of couples undergoing infertility treatment, related psychological problems, and to determine the need for psychological and therapeutic support...

  7. Behavior Analysis and Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Edward K.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examines relationships between the fields of behavior analysis and developmental psychology, surveying the influence of behavior-analytic research within developmental psychology and investigating the integration of the two approaches with respect to metatheory and methodology. (Author/MP)

  8. The psychology behind the crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amalia PANDELICA; Ionut PANDELICA

    2010-01-01

    .... The paperis grounded on the premise that the psychology of the crisis is an important componentof the present international context and psychological factors play an important part inthe alteration of consumer’s behavior...

  9. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  10. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  11. The history of psychological categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roger

    2005-03-01

    Psychological terms, such as 'mind', 'memory', 'emotion' and indeed 'psychology' itself, have a history. This history, I argue, supports the view that basic psychological categories refer to historical and social entities, and not to 'natural kinds'. The case is argued through a wide ranging review of the historiography of western psychology, first, in connection with the field's extreme modern diversity; second, in relation to the possible antecedents of the field in the early modern period; and lastly, through a brief introduction to usage of the words 'soul', 'mind', 'memory' and 'emotion'. The discussion situates the history of psychology within a large historical context, questions assumptions about the continuity of meaning, and draws out implications for the philosophical and social constitution of 'psychology' and 'the psychological' from the existing literature. The historical evidence, this paper concludes, does not support the conventional presumption that modern psychological terms describe 'natural kinds'.

  12. American Psychological Association annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Psychological essentialism: development and adaptation the scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agadullina E.R.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the development and approbation of the scale of psychological essentialism (belief in invariability of group membership. The results of confirmatory factor analysis conducted on eight different groups (ethnic (Russians / Tajiks / Jews, gender groups (men / women, homosexuals (gay / lesbians and religious groups (Orthodox / Muslim (n = 897, demonstrated the good fit to empirical data. The multi-group confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the different groups measured on the scale, can be compared with each other within a single category. The scale shows good convergent and discriminant validity. On the one hand, psychological essentialism associated with group entitativity, group identification, right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation and justification the social hierarchy; on the other hand there are not correlation between the psychological essentialism and open to experience and attitude to novelty.

  14. Toward an Integrative Theory of Psychological Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    According to theories of "psychological defense," humans are motivated to protect themselves against various types of psychological threat, including death awareness, uncertainty, and other inherently anxiety-provoking experiences. Protective mechanisms include strengthening close relationships; maintaining appraisals of self-worth, accomplishment, and agency; and cultivating meaningful views of the world. Thus, defensiveness theories incorporate research from many areas of psychology (e.g., information-processing biases, attitudes, and interpersonal and intergroup relations), to help explain why people think, feel, and act in the diverse ways that they do. Currently, the study of psychological defense is hindered by contradictory empirical results and a proliferation of theories that make very similar predictions. This article examines a cross-section of defensiveness theories and research, highlighting conclusions that can be drawn and areas where conceptual and research problems linger. It suggests that the field needs methodological innovation (e.g., more reliable and valid manipulations and measures of unconscious constructs, more diverse methodological approaches), a more complete and reliable body of data, and some fresh new ideas from psychological scientists across disciplines. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Social Justice and School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite attention in other social sciences and within other areas of psychology, social justice has received minimal attention in school psychology literature. The two studies by Shriberg et al. (2008) and McCabe and Rubinson (2008) represent significant developments in exploring school psychology's commitment to social justice. In this…

  16. Tucson Early Education Psychological Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergan, John R.; And Others

    This report describes the Tucson Early Education Psychological Services (TEEPS) program during its third year of operation. TEEPS is based on the position that the quality of psychological services in the public schools can be increased by establishing educational systems in which the functions of psychology in education are embodied in system…

  17. Manitoba's School Psychology, Circa 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Barry; Bednarczyk, George; Hanson, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    While the geographic landscape of Manitoba has changed very little since the last review of school psychology in Manitoba was published 15 years ago, the school psychology landscape here has changed considerably, and we continue to be alive, well, and flourishing. Two previous articles in the "Canadian Journal of School Psychology"…

  18. Educational Psychology: The Distinctive Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…

  19. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  20. Realism, Relativism, and Evolutionary Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.

    Against recent attempts to forge a reconciliation between constructionism and realism, I contend that, in psychology at least, stirring up conflict is a more fruitful strategy. To illustrate this thesis, I confront a school of psychology with strong realist leanings, evolutionary psychology, with

  1. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  2. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  3. A Positive Psychology That Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Shane L.; Magyar-Moe, Jeana L.

    2006-01-01

    The Major Contribution intended to situate positive psychology in counseling psychology's past and future and in the complex world we live and work in today. The four reactions (Frazier, Lee,& Steger; Gerstein; Linley; Mollen, Ethington,& Ridley) provide new insights into how counseling psychology has and will contribute to the study of human…

  4. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  5. Psychological Literacy Weakly Differentiates Students by Discipline and Year of Enrolment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, Brody; Roberts, Lynne D.; Gasson, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Psychological literacy, a construct developed to reflect the types of skills graduates of a psychology degree should possess and be capable of demonstrating, has recently been scrutinized in terms of its measurement adequacy. The recent development of a multi-item measure encompassing the facets of psychological literacy has provided the potential for improved validity in measuring the construct. We investigated the known-groups validity of this multi-item measure of psychological literacy to examine whether psychological literacy could predict (a) students’ course of enrolment and (b) students’ year of enrolment. Five hundred and fifteen undergraduate psychology students, 87 psychology/human resource management students, and 83 speech pathology students provided data. In the first year cohort, the reflective processes (RPs) factor significantly predicted psychology and psychology/human resource management course enrolment, although no facets significantly differentiated between psychology and speech pathology enrolment. Within the second year cohort, generic graduate attributes (GGAs) and RPs differentiated psychology and speech pathology course enrolment. GGAs differentiated first-year and second-year psychology students, with second-year students more likely to have higher scores on this factor. Due to weak support for known-groups validity, further measurement refinements are recommended to improve the construct’s utility. PMID:26909058

  6. Mindfulness and its Role in Physical and Psychological Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazak, Michael; Critelli, Joseph; Martin, Luci; Miranda, Vanessa; Purdum, Michael; Powers, Catherine

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the relationships of mindfulness, a form of focused self-awareness, with physical and psychological health. Mindfulness was measured in terms of four stable forms of awareness: Observe, an awareness of internal and external stimuli; Describe, an ability to verbally express thoughts clearly and easily; Act with Awareness, the tendency to focus on present tasks with undivided attention; and Accept without Judgment, the tendency to take a nonjudgmental attitude toward one's own thoughts and emotions. These aspects of mindfulness were explored in relation to both physical health, which consisted of heart rate variability, a measure of overall cardiovascular health, and psychological health, which consisted of flourishing, existential well-being, negative affect, and social well-being in a sample of 506 undergraduate students. Individuals high in mindfulness showed better cardiovascular health and psychological health. © 2011 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2011 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  7. Psychological aspects of literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livija Knaflič

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Literacy is a complex cultural and social phenomenon with multiple effects on both, the individual and social levels. This article presents multidimensional model of literacy with linguistic, cognitive, socio-cultural, developmental and educational dimensions. A use of literacy is a literacy event and it means the use and/or presence of all dimensions of literacy. The use of new technologies and the emergence of digital literacy brought about a new meaning of literacy. There are two main processes to stress: (a the writing (text is more and more dominated by images and (b the book is going to be replaced by the screen. These facts raise at least two questions: what is the future of literacy and what are psychological, social and cultural effects of these changes? The aim of this article is to present a psychological view of literacy skills with a very modest aspiration to offer a better understanding of library users and non users.

  8. Gestalt psychology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, I

    2000-01-01

    Graz gestalt psychology was introduced into Italy after World War I with Vittorio Benussi's emigration to Padua. His earliest adherent, Cesare Musatti, defended Graz theory, but after Benussi's premature death became an adherent of the Berlin gestalt psychology of Wertheimer-Köhler-Koffka. He trained his two most important students, Fabio Metelli and Gaetano Kanizsa, in orthodox Berlin theory. They established rigid "schools" in Padua and Trieste. The structure of Italian academics allowed for such strict orthodoxy, quite unlike the situation in America, where scientific objectivity mitigated against schools. In the 1960s, some of the students of Metelli and Kanizsa (above all Bozzi) initiated a realist movement-felt in Kanizsa's late work-that was quite independent of that of J. J. Gibson. Finally, more recently, Benussi and Graz theorizing have been embraced again, sentimentally, as a predecedent to Kanizsa-Bozzi. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Psychology, economics and incentives.

    OpenAIRE

    Biel, P. R.

    2005-01-01

    This PhD. Thesis deals with the effects that psychological phenomena may have on the incentives of agents participating in economic interaction. In particular, I focus on how individuals' preference for certain distributions of welfare among others may affect their effort and other strategic decisions in a variety of contexts. The thesis consists of five chapters. The first one introduces the study. The next two chapters are theoretical and study the effects that aversion to inequity may have...

  10. Psychologically Motivated Text Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Shutova, Ekaterina; Lichtenstein, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Natural language processing techniques are increasingly applied to identify social trends and predict behavior based on large text collections. Existing methods typically rely on surface lexical and syntactic information. Yet, research in psychology shows that patterns of human conceptualisation, such as metaphorical framing, are reliable predictors of human expectations and decisions. In this paper, we present a method to learn patterns of metaphorical framing from large text collections, us...

  11. The Smartphone Psychology Manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey

    2012-05-01

    By 2025, when most of today's psychology undergraduates will be in their mid-30s, more than 5 billion people on our planet will be using ultra-broadband, sensor-rich smartphones far beyond the abilities of today's iPhones, Androids, and Blackberries. Although smartphones were not designed for psychological research, they can collect vast amounts of ecologically valid data, easily and quickly, from large global samples. If participants download the right "psych apps," smartphones can record where they are, what they are doing, and what they can see and hear and can run interactive surveys, tests, and experiments through touch screens and wireless connections to nearby screens, headsets, biosensors, and other peripherals. This article reviews previous behavioral research using mobile electronic devices, outlines what smartphones can do now and will be able to do in the near future, explains how a smartphone study could work practically given current technology (e.g., in studying ovulatory cycle effects on women's sexuality), discusses some limitations and challenges of smartphone research, and compares smartphones to other research methods. Smartphone research will require new skills in app development and data analysis and will raise tough new ethical issues, but smartphones could transform psychology even more profoundly than PCs and brain imaging did. © The Author(s) 2012.

  12. Evolutionary developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-02-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection with the study of human development, focusing on the epigenetic effects that occur between humans and their environment in a way that attempts to explain how evolved psychological mechanisms become expressed in the phenotypes of adults. An evolutionary developmental perspective includes an appreciation of comparative research and we, among others, argue that contrasting the cognition of humans with that of nonhuman primates can provide a framework with which to understand how human cognitive abilities and intelligence evolved. Furthermore, we argue that several aspects of childhood (e.g., play and immature cognition) serve both as deferred adaptations as well as imparting immediate benefits. Intense selection pressure was surely exerted on childhood over human evolutionary history and, as a result, neglecting to consider the early developmental period of children when studying their later adulthood produces an incomplete picture of the evolved adaptations expressed through human behavior and cognition.

  13. Psychological work characteristics, psychological workload and associated psychological and cognitive requirements of train drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, Ilona; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers and to define the psychological and cognitive requirements of their work. A systematic literature search was performed, and expert interviews were conducted. The following work demands were

  14. Five Facets of Mindfulness and Psychological Health: Evaluating a Psychological Model of the Mechanisms of Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David B.; Bravo, Adrian J.; Roos, Corey R.

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on determining the psychological mechanisms underlying the broad effects of mindfulness on psychological health. Mindfulness has been posited to be related to the construct of reperceiving or decentering, defined as a shift in perspective associated with decreased attachment to one’s thoughts and emotions. Decentering is proposed to be a meta-mechanism that mobilizes four psychological mechanisms (cognitive flexibility, values clarification, self-regulation, and exposure), which in turn are associated with positive health outcomes. Despite preliminary support for this model, extant studies testing this model have not examined distinct facets of mindfulness. The present study used a multidimensional measure of mindfulness to examine whether this model could account for the associations between ive facets of mindfulness and psychological symptoms (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, alcohol-related problems) in a sample of college students (N = 944). Our findings partially support this model. We found significant double-mediated associations in the expected directions for all outcomes (stress, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms) except alcohol-related problems, and for each of the facets of mindfulness except observing. However, decentering and the specific mechanisms did not fully mediate the associations among mindfulness facets and psychological health outcomes. Experimental and ecological momentary assessment designs are needed to understand the psychological processes that account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness. PMID:26504498

  15. Five Facets of Mindfulness and Psychological Health: Evaluating a Psychological Model of the Mechanisms of Mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David B; Bravo, Adrian J; Roos, Corey R; Pearson, Matthew R

    2015-10-01

    There has been an increasing focus on determining the psychological mechanisms underlying the broad effects of mindfulness on psychological health. Mindfulness has been posited to be related to the construct of reperceiving or decentering, defined as a shift in perspective associated with decreased attachment to one's thoughts and emotions. Decentering is proposed to be a meta-mechanism that mobilizes four psychological mechanisms (cognitive flexibility, values clarification, self-regulation, and exposure), which in turn are associated with positive health outcomes. Despite preliminary support for this model, extant studies testing this model have not examined distinct facets of mindfulness. The present study used a multidimensional measure of mindfulness to examine whether this model could account for the associations between ive facets of mindfulness and psychological symptoms (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, alcohol-related problems) in a sample of college students ( N = 944). Our findings partially support this model. We found significant double-mediated associations in the expected directions for all outcomes (stress, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms) except alcohol-related problems, and for each of the facets of mindfulness except observing. However, decentering and the specific mechanisms did not fully mediate the associations among mindfulness facets and psychological health outcomes. Experimental and ecological momentary assessment designs are needed to understand the psychological processes that account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness.

  16. Sex and sexuality teaching in UK clinical psychology courses

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, E; Butler, C A; Marriott, C

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of clinical psychology training courses that measured levels of training in sex and sexuality. Findings suggest there is inconsistent provision in terms of quantity and breadth of coverage.

  17. Statistical Reform in School Psychology Research: A Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Hariharan; Rogers, H. Jane

    2007-01-01

    Statistical reform in school psychology research is discussed in terms of research designs, measurement issues, statistical modeling and analysis procedures, interpretation and reporting of statistical results, and finally statistics education.

  18. A Grand Research Design for the Investigation of Psychological States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Frederick C.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the models of Man postulated by the major contemporary schools of psychology by constructing measures specially designed to elicit the relationships postulated by such schools. (Author/RK)

  19. Assessment of Perceived Parental Psychological Control in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: There is no validated self-report measure of parental psychological control in the Chinese culture. The reliability and validity of the Chinese Paternal Psychological Control Scale (CPPCS) and Chinese Maternal Psychological Control Scale (CMPCS) were examined. Method: A total of 3,017 Chinese secondary school students responded to the…

  20. Reducing Racism, Sexism, and Homophobia in College Students by Completing a Psychology of Prejudice Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Walzer, Amy S.

    2008-01-01

    Students enrolled in Psychology of Prejudice and Introductory Psychology courses completed measures of racism, sexism, and attitudes toward homosexuals at the beginning and end of the term. We predicted that those who took part in the Psychology of Prejudice class would have significantly reduced prejudice as a result of the course experience. We…

  1. Cultural Psychology and Its Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cultural Psychology is a radical new look in psychology that studies how persons and social-cultural worlds mutually constitute one another. With the increase of globalization and multicultural exchanges, cultural psychology becomes the psychological science for the 21st century. Encounters...... Psychology series aims to highlight and develop new ideas that advance our understanding of these issues. This first volume in the series features an address by Prof. Jaan Valsiner, which is followed by ten commentary chapters and his response to them. In his lecture, Valsiner explores what Niels Bohr......’s revolutionary principle of ‘complementarity’ can contribute to the development of a cultural psychology that takes time, semiotics, and human feeling seriously. Commentators further discuss how complementarity can act as an epistemology for psychology; a number of new methodological strategies for incorporating...

  2. The application of the psychological contract to workplace safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Arlene; Hutton, Dorothy M

    2006-01-01

    Psychological contracts of safety are conceptualized as the beliefs of individuals about reciprocal safety obligations inferred from implicit or explicit promises. Although the literature on psychological contracts is growing, the existence of psychological contracts in relation to safety has not been established. The research sought to identify psychological contracts in the conversations of employees about safety, by demonstrating reciprocity in relation to employer and employee safety obligations. The identified safety obligations were used to develop a measure of psychological contracts of safety. The participants were 131 employees attending safety training sessions in retail and manufacturing organizations. Non-participant observation was used to collect the data during safety training sessions. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Categories for coding were established through identification of language markers that demonstrated contingencies or other implied obligations. Direct evidence of reciprocity between employer safety obligations and employee safety obligations was found in statements from the participants demonstrating psychological contracts. A comprehensive list of perceived employer and employee safety obligations was compiled and developed into a measure of psychological contracts of safety. A small sample of 33 safety personnel was used to validate the safety obligations. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY: Implications of these findings for safety and psychological contract research are discussed.

  3. Stigma and psychological distress in suicide survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scocco, Paolo; Preti, Antonio; Totaro, Stefano; Ferrari, Alessandro; Toffol, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Suicide bereavement is frequently related to clinically significant psychological distress and affected by stigma. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between psychological distress by psychopathological domains and stigma, in a sample of individuals bereaved by suicide (suicide survivors). The data were collected between January 2012 and December 2014 and included information on sociodemographic variables (gender, age, marital status and education level) and responses to the Stigma of Suicide Survivor scale (STOSSS) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). One hundred and fifty-five suicide survivors completed the evaluation and were included in the study. Levels of psychological distress in suicide survivors, as measured by BSI, were positively related to levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors, as measured by STOSSS. The association was not affected by age and gender, or by marital status, education level, days from suicide or a personal history of suicide attempt. Participants with higher scores on almost all subscales of the BSI, particularly the interpersonal sensitivity and paranoid ideation subscales, reported the highest levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors. Levels of distress in subjects bereaved by the suicide of a relative or friend were positively associated with levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors. Specific interventions dedicated to the bereavement of suicide survivors might help to alleviate not only psychological distress but also stigma towards loss by suicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Credentialing high school psychology teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kenneth A

    2014-09-01

    The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula (American Psychological Association, 2013b) require a teacher with considerable psychology content knowledge to teach high school psychology courses effectively. In this study, I examined the initial teaching credential requirements for high school psychology teachers in the 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Thirty-four states (the District of Columbia is included as a state) require the social studies credential to teach high school psychology. An analysis of the items on standardized tests used by states to validate the content knowledge required to teach social studies indicates little or no presence of psychology, a reflection of psychology's meager presence in the social studies teacher preparation curricula. Thus, new teachers with the social studies teaching credential are not prepared to teach high school psychology according to the National Standards. Approval of The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History (National Council for the Social Studies, 2013) presents an opportunity to advocate for establishing a psychology credential in the 34 states. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Validation of the Psychological Work Maturity Scale in Chinese employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jiajin; Wang, Lei

    2010-12-01

    Psychological work maturity is an important concept in situational leadership theory. The present research revised the Psychological Work Maturity Scale for use in Chinese organizations. Three samples of full-time employees (Ns = 205, 266, and 283) from different companies and industries participated in the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a single-factor structure fit the data. The scale had acceptable reliabilities, convergent and criterion-related validities, and was shown to be an appropriate measure of psychological work maturity in Chinese employees. Maturity differences in several demographic variables were not found, but employees with longer tenure in Sample 2 scored higher on maturity, which shows that psychological work maturity may be dependent on personal development in the interaction with the varying situational factors, especially in the work domain. Implications for research and practice on psychological work maturity in China are discussed.

  6. Impact of Stakeholder Psychological Empowerment on Project Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Pintardi Chandra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between psychological empowerment of stakeholders and project success is an important thing that must be known by project manager. This research developed and tested the model to predict how well the impact of stakeholder psychological empowerment on project success. Stakeholder psychological empowerment was defined to have five indicator variables covering intrinsic motivation, opportunity to perform, ability to perform, task behaviors, and contextual behaviors. Meanwhile, project success can be measured by cost performance, time performance, quality performance, profitability, and customer satisfaction. In this study, it was hypothesized that stakeholder psychological empowerment influenced project success. Based on the data obtained from a questionnaire survey carried out to 204 respondents, structural equation modeling (SEM was used for predicting the performance of project success. It was found that stakeholder psychological empowerment influenced project success, especially on the ability to perform of stakeholders.

  7. [Foucault's relevance for psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Juan

    2009-11-01

    In this article, we will attempt to address one of the most outstanding and influential thinkers of the past century: Michel Foucault, Philosopher, Psychologist, and above all (university) Professor. Michel Foucault is certainly versatile: Historian (of madness, clinical practice, imprisonment and sexuality), Archaeologist (of knowledge), Analyst (of discourse and power relations), Psychologist (genealogy of subjectivity) and Philosopher (of power and the subject). With this article, we eventually expect to offer some clues to be able to use the work of Michel Foucault for the problematization of Psychology.

  8. Qualitative Research in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fattah Hanurawan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Qualitative  research  is  a  research  method    studying  subjective meaning of participant’s world about  an object researched. Steps of qualitative research  in  psychology  are:  researchers  select  research  topic,  researchers formulate  research  questions,  researchers  design  the  study,  researchers  collect data, researchers analyses  data,  researchers  generate  findings,  researchers validate findings, and researchers write research report. Some of the qualitative research  designs  are  grounded  research,  phenomenology  research,  case  study research,  and  ethnography  research.  In  some  situations,  researchers  often  meet questions  that  reach  beyond  the  prescription  of  the  APA  ethical  guidelines concerning  human  participants.  Researchers  of  qualitative  research  in psychology  can  generalize  their  research  findings  to  other  people,  times,  or treatments  to  the  degree  to  which  they  are  similar to  other  people,  times,  or treatments in the original research (naturalistic generalization. There are some strategies  for  expanding  qualitative  research  as  a research  approach  so  the methodology  can  be  accepted  as  one  significant  method  in  understanding psychological phenomena. Keywords:qualitative research, psychology.

  9. Revisiting Psychological Mechanisms in the Anthropology of Altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, Joseph; Munira, Shirajum; Jasmin, Khaleda; Hruschka, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Anthropologists have long been interested in the reasons humans choose to help some individuals and not others. Early research considered psychological mediators, such as feelings of cohesion or closeness, but more recent work, largely in the tradition of human behavioral ecology, shifted attention away from psychological measures to clearer observables, such as past behavior, genetic relatedness, affinal ties, and geographic proximity. In this paper, we assess the value of reintegrating psychological measures-perceived social closeness-into the anthropological study of altruism. Specifically, analyzing social network data from four communities in rural Bangladesh (N = 516), we show that perceived closeness has a strong independent effect on helping, which cannot be accounted for by other factors. These results illustrate the potential value of reintegrating proximate psychological measures into anthropological studies of human cooperation.

  10. Psychological need satisfaction, control, and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froreich, Franzisca V; Vartanian, Lenny R; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Grisham, Jessica R; Touyz, Stephen W

    2017-03-01

    Unfulfilled basic psychological needs have been associated with disordered eating behaviours, but the mechanisms underlying that associations are not well understood. This study examined a two-stage path model linking basic psychological need satisfaction to disordered eating behaviours via issues of control. Female university students (N = 323; Mage  = 19.61), community participants (N = 371; Mage  = 29.75), and women who self-reported having been diagnosed with an eating disorder (ED; N = 41; Mage  = 23.88) completed measures of psychological need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy and competence), issues of control (i.e., feelings of ineffectiveness and fear of losing self-control [FLC]), and ED pathology. Path analysis revealed that unsatisfied needs of autonomy and competence were indirectly related to disordered eating behaviours through feelings of ineffectiveness and FLC. The results indicate that issues of control might be one of the mechanisms through which lack of psychological need satisfaction is associated with disordered eating. Although the model was constructed using cross-sectional data, these findings suggest potential targets for prevention and treatment efforts aimed at reducing disordered eating in young females. Our results indicate that young women with chronically unfulfilled basic psychological needs might be vulnerable to developing disordered eating behaviours. The observed patterns suggest that persistent experience of need frustration may engender an internal sense of ineffectiveness and lack of control, which then compels individuals to engage in disordered eating behaviours in an attempt to regain autonomy and competence. Interventions for eating disorders may be most effective when emphasizing the promotion of people's needs for autonomy and competence. Limitations The model was constructed using cross-sectional data. Future experimental and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the temporal sequence from basic

  11. Psychology as a Moral Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...... meaning, and posits psychology as one of the critical methods of organizing normative values in society; at the same time it carefully notes the discipline’s history of being sidetracked by overemphasis on theoretical constructs and physical causes—what the author terms “the psychologizing of morality...

  12. Evolutionary psychology and intelligence research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative variation on a monomorphic design allows us to incorporate heritable individual differences in evolved adaptations. The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, which is one consequence of the integration of evolutionary psychology and intelligence research, can potentially explain why less intelligent individuals enjoy TV more, why liberals are more intelligent than conservatives, and why night owls are more intelligent than morning larks, among many other findings. The general approach proposed here will allow us to integrate evolutionary psychology with any other aspect of differential psychology. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Introducing positive psychology to SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mercer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA. This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, studies of the good language learner, and the concepts related to the self. There are reasons for both encouragement and caution as studies inspired by positive psychology are undertaken. Papers in this special issue of SSLLT cover a range of quantitative and qualitative methods with implications for theory, research, and teaching practice. The special issue serves as a springboard for future research in SLA under the umbrella of positive psychology.

  14. Psychological change over 54 months of cochlear implant use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, J F; Murray, K T; Husarek, S; Westerhouse, K; Woodworth, G; Gantz, B J; Tyler, R S

    1998-06-01

    To determine the long-term psychological outcome of postlingually deafened adults who received multichannel cochlear implants and to relate the psychological outcome to audiological outcome. Thirty-seven recipients of multichannel cochlear implants who participated in a prospective clinical trial completed psychological assessments before implantation and at regularly scheduled follow-ups through 54 mo of implant use. Standardized measures of affect, social function, and personality were used, and scores on these measures were correlated with asymptotic scores on several audiological measures. Evidence of significant improvement on measures of loneliness, social anxiety, and distress were obtained within a year after implantation and throughout the duration of the follow-up period. For measures of assertiveness and marital satisfaction, improvement was apparent only after long-term implant use. Although favorable changes on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Depression Scale were evidenced only in the initial follow-up period, improvements on the MMPI Paranoia and Social Introversion Scales persisted throughout the 54 mo follow-up. Multichannel cochlear implant use is associated with long-term psychological benefit. Correlations between audiological outcome and psychological outcome, however, suggested that the relation between audiological benefit and psychological benefit is not simple.

  15. Forensic psychology and correctional psychology: Distinct but related subfields of psychological science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Tess M S

    2018-02-12

    This article delineates 2 separate but related subfields of psychological science and practice applicable across all major areas of the field (e.g., clinical, counseling, developmental, social, cognitive, community). Forensic and correctional psychology are related by their historical roots, involvement in the justice system, and the shared population of people they study and serve. The practical and ethical contexts of these subfields is distinct from other areas of psychology-and from one another-with important implications for ecologically valid research and ethically sound practice. Forensic psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the law to help resolve legal, contractual, or administrative matters. Correctional psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the justice system to inform the classification, treatment, and management of offenders to reduce risk and improve public safety. There has been and continues to be great interest in both subfields-especially the potential for forensic and correctional psychological science to help resolve practical issues and questions in legal and justice settings. This article traces the shared and separate developmental histories of these subfields, outlines their important distinctions and implications, and provides a common understanding and shared language for psychologists interested in applying their knowledge in forensic or correctional contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Psychological flexibility and mindfulness explain intuitive eating in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairanen, Essi; Tolvanen, Asko; Karhunen, Leila; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Järvelä, Elina; Rantala, Sanni; Peuhkuri, Katri; Korpela, Riitta; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2015-07-01

    The current study investigated whether mindfulness and psychological flexibility, independently and together, explain intuitive eating. The participants were overweight or obese persons (N = 306) reporting symptoms of perceived stress and enrolled in a psychological lifestyle intervention study. Participants completed self-report measures of psychological flexibility; mindfulness including the subscales observe, describe, act with awareness, non-react, and non-judgment; and intuitive eating including the subscales unconditional permission to eat, eating for physical reasons, and reliance on hunger/satiety cues. Psychological flexibility and mindfulness were positively associated with intuitive eating factors. The results suggest that mindfulness and psychological flexibility are related constructs that not only account for some of the same variance in intuitive eating, but they also account for significant unique variances in intuitive eating. The present results indicate that non-judgment can explain the relationship between general psychological flexibility and unconditional permission to eat as well as eating for physical reasons. However, mindfulness skills-acting with awareness, observing, and non-reacting-explained reliance on hunger/satiety cues independently from general psychological flexibility. These findings suggest that mindfulness and psychological flexibility are interrelated but not redundant constructs and that both may be important for understanding regulation processes underlying eating behavior. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Social and Psychological Factors Associated With Adolescent Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jeanette M; Sirard, John R; Larsen, Ross; Bruening, Meg; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, using structural equation modeling, the associations between nominated friend physical activity (PA), friend social support with individual PA-related psychological factors, and adolescent PA. Data were obtained from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity Among Teens), a large cross-sectional study conducted in 20 middle and high schools. The sample consisted of 1951 adolescents (mean age: 14.25 ± 1.96, 54% female, 68% ethnic minorities). PA, parent and friend social support (perceived social support for PA from parents and friends), and psychological measures (PA enjoyment, PA self-efficacy, and PA barriers) were assessed by self-report questionnaires. The SEM analysis consisted of 1 observed variable: friend PA, and 2 latent constructs: psychological factors, perceived social support. The model was a good fit, indicating that there were significant direct effects of both friend PA (P < .01) and psychological factors (P < .0001) on adolescent PA. In addition, psychological factors mediated the association between friend PA and adolescent PA. The results of this model suggest that psychological factors and friend PA are associated with adolescent PA, and that psychological factors may play an important role. Future studies should further examine the association of both friend PA and psychological variables with adolescent PA.

  18. [Psychological aspects of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attali, L

    2016-12-01

    To propose recommendations for women's counseling in abortion request and the psychological experience of orthogenic teams. Bibliographic search in the Medline database, PubMed, Cochrane Database Library, EM Premium bases, ENT Unistra and Cairn from 1990 to 2016. During the pre-abortion consultations, it is recommended to respect the choice of the woman on to see or not the ultrasound images (gradeC) and determine with her the time it needs to perform abortion (professional agreement). Women's satisfaction seems greater when they have the possibility to choose the abortion method (grade B). It is therefore important that both methods are available to all gestational ages (professional agreement). There is no relationship between an increase in psychiatric disorders and induced abortion (NP2). Meetings for professionals are useful and should, to the extent possible, be established (professional agreement). Improving psychological support for women involve listening them and respect their choice. This also involves thinking as a team. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychology of anomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso Benbenaste

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomie is a phenomenon which not only affects daily life but also the quality of institutions and therefore, as studied by economic neo-institutionalism, the possibilities of economic development. So far the treatment of this phenomenon comes predominantly from the sociological theory. In the fi rst part of this paper we recognize some of Emile Durkheim´s contributions, adding Nino´s perspicacious comments as regards “anomia boba” (“dull anomie”.Then we describe, what makes the main purpose of this article, what we believe to be the basic psychological confi guration of a population in which anomie is not perceived as a negative value. That basic confi guration, which takes as a reference observations and data from our own research, consists of the following four characteristics-defi ned psychologically as regressive features: a The individual development represented as opposite to social interest; b tendency to represent the hierarchy as authoritarianism, where there is no difference between authority and authoritarianism; c the primarization of secondary links; d male chauvinism.

  20. Psychological Perspectives on Interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrij, Aldert; Meissner, Christian A; Fisher, Ronald P; Kassin, Saul M; Morgan, Charles A; Kleinman, Steven M

    2017-11-01

    Proponents of "enhanced interrogation techniques" in the United States have claimed that such methods are necessary for obtaining information from uncooperative terrorism subjects. In the present article, we offer an informed, academic perspective on such claims. Psychological theory and research shows that harsh interrogation methods are ineffective. First, they are likely to increase resistance by the subject rather than facilitate cooperation. Second, the threatening and adversarial nature of harsh interrogation is often inimical to the goal of facilitating the retrieval of information from memory and therefore reduces the likelihood that a subject will provide reports that are extensive, detailed, and accurate. Third, harsh interrogation methods make lie detection difficult. Analyzing speech content and eliciting verifiable details are the most reliable cues to assessing credibility; however, to elicit such cues subjects must be encouraged to provide extensive narratives, something that does not occur in harsh interrogations. Evidence is accumulating for the effectiveness of rapport-based information-gathering approaches as an alternative to harsh interrogations. Such approaches promote cooperation, enhance recall of relevant and reliable information, and facilitate assessments of credibility. Given the available evidence that torture is ineffective, why might some laypersons, policymakers, and interrogation personnel support the use of torture? We conclude our review by offering a psychological perspective on this important question.

  1. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  2. Psychological dimensions of Energy Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Tonello, Graciela; Jakovcevic, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious current environmental problems is the depletion of non renewable natural resources. The vast majority of our daily actions involve the consumption of energy and they increase the problem. Environmental psychology studies the psychological motivations that determine pro-ecological behaviour. In this context the aim of this review was to determine which psychological models and variables are better descriptors of residential energy conservation, comparing the predictive ...

  3. German cross-cultural psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Trommsdorff, Gisela

    1986-01-01

    The present study deals with German-language cross-cultural research in different fields of psychology which attempts to achieve one Or more goals of cross-cultural psychology. First, methodological problems are discussed, followed by a selective presentation of cross-cultural research in personality, clinical, ethological, developmental, and social psychology. The theoretical and methodological advancement of these studies is investigated with respect to four approaches - universals in cross...

  4. Transpersonal Psychology: Mapping Spiritual Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwight Judy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The first Journal of Transpersonal Psychology was published in 1969. Since this signal event, transpersonal psychology has emerged as a field of theory and application. A way has been made in Western psychology for the appreciation and study of interior subjective awareness, the domain of spiritual experience. One of the most recent contributions, the Wilber-Combs Lattice, offers a typology to account for both developmental processes throughout the human life span, as well as different qualities of spiritual experience.

  5. Psychological Impact of Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jennifer; Meng, Chelsea; Eng, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The causes of severe obesity are multifactorial and include metabolic, dietary, physical, and psychological aspects. Additionally, the impact of severe obesity affects more than one's physical health. This article attempts to explore the psychological impact of severe obesity specifically in the areas of mood, eating disorders, sleep disturbance, chronic pain, and quality of life. Additionally, obesity treatment options of lifestyle modification and bariatric surgery that include psychological assessment and/or cognitive behavioral intervention are discussed.

  6. Teaching psychology to computing students

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jacqui

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to discuss some observations gained from teaching Psychology to Computing students, highlighting both the wide range of areas where Psychology is relevant to Computing education and the topics that are relevant at different stages of students’ education. The second aim is to consider findings from research investigating the characteristics of Computing and Psychology students. It is proposed that this information could be considered in the de...

  7. Sports Psychology: Maximizing Team Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Fransen, Katrien; Vande Broek, Gert

    2017-01-01

    The application of sport psychology is often overlooked in favor of the more familiar training of physical abilities and technical volleyball skills. Sport psychology interventions are too often perceived as the last call for help if all else has failed to generate success. However, sport psychology is much more than picking up the pieces after a defeat and instead should be regarded as a very useful tool in all stages of the training and coaching process. The present chapter will outline the...

  8. Psychological preparation in sport shooting

    OpenAIRE

    Ledecká, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Title: Psychological preparation in sport shooting Objectives: The objective of this thesis is usage of psychological preparation by sport shooting representation team in Czech Republic. How they are informed about psychological preparation. What it means to them. Which types of regulation they use and how they behave before and after a competition. Methods: A Questionnaire was used as a method for data obtaining. The questionnaire was compiled for the purposes of this Thesis. The researched ...

  9. Psychological stress and recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Barros Gallo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is the most common type of ulcerative disease of the oral mucosa. Despite its worldwide occurrence and the extensive amount of research that has been devoted to the subject, the etiology of RAS remains unclear. Nevertheless, several hereditary, nutritional, infectious and psychological factors have been associated with RAS. The aim of this case-control study was to assess the influence of psychological stress on the manifestation of RAS. METHOD: Fifty patients were enrolled in the trial. Twenty-five RAS patients constituted the study group and another 25 non-RAS patients who were similarly matched for sex, age and socioeconomic status constituted the control group. Each patient was evaluated in terms of the four domains of stress (emotional, physical, social and cognitive using an internationally validated questionnaire, which was comprised of 59 items and measured the frequency and intensity of stress symptoms. The RAS group was interviewed during an active RAS episode. Completed questionnaires were submitted to proper analytical software and interpreted by an expert psychologist. RESULTS: There was a higher level of psychological stress among RAS group patients when compared to the control group (P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Psychological stress may play a role in the manifestation of RAS; it may serve as a trigger or a modifying factor rather than being a cause of the disease.

  10. Cognitive procedures in sports psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Rojšek

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Sport with its emphasised efficiency component clearly reflects cognitive contents and the way they are linked to experience and behaviour. Beliefs, subjective judgements, attitudes, etc. define the attitude to sport, training, competition and results. Their contents can be defined by a psychological examination. We assess their meaning, appropriateness or inappropriateness. They can also be changed by using diverse cognitive-behavioural or reeducative procedures. Psychological work is carried out through systematic psychological preparation, crisis interventions and special psychological preparation within the framework of a training process. Cognitive forms of work represent a significant part of ideomotor, verbal, intellectual and situational training.

  11. Postcoital Dysphoria: Prevalence and Psychological Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Schweitzer, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The findings confirm that PCD is under‐recognized and under‐researched. There appears to be no relationship between PCD and intimacy in close relationships. Further research is necessary to understand the subjective experience of PCD and to inform the development of a reliable measure. Schweitzer RD, O'Brien J, and Burri A. Postcoital dysphoria: Prevalence and psychological correlates. Sex Med 2015;3:229–237.

  12. Role of Psychological Factors on Advertising Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Mohadese Ghayoomi Javinani; Shahab Alddin Shokri

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate effecting psychological factors on advertising effectiveness in case of Samsung Television. In this line, advertising attitude and advertising involvement were measured as indicators of effectiveness. This research is quantitative in its nature and applied in kind. The research population was consisted of 305 respondents who were selected by hazardous sampling. A questionnaire was developed as the research instrument and validity of it was ...

  13. Psychologic Interventions for the Anxious Dental Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlicki, Robert

    1987-01-01

    This article asserts that pharmacologic usage can be reduced by understanding that pain is composed of somatic, affective, and cognitive elements; the dentist should be assertive in addressing and dealing with the emotional and psychological aspects of the anxious and fearful patient. The dentist can measure levels of anxiety and fear through self-report and records of dental care; an easily administered test of dental anxiety, such as the Dental Anxiety Scale; and a structured interview in a...

  14. A randomized control study of psychological intervention to reduce anxiety, amotivation and psychological distress among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coumaravelou Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1 st year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. Results: After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01 and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01 in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Conclusion: Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables.

  15. Psychology Students' Interest in Graduate Training: A Need for Partnership among Undergraduate Psychology and Graduate School Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Terry A.; Solomon, Benjamin G.

    2014-01-01

    An initial point of contact for recruitment of qualified persons into school psychology is undergraduate psychology degree programs. Unfortunately, the discipline of school psychology appears to receive at best only cursory coverage in undergraduate psychology texts, curriculum, and discussion by psychology department faculty even though school…

  16. From psychology of adaptation to psychology of social change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.

    Introducing psychology to first year students comes with its own challenges of presenting it in a clear introductory manner, yet also triggering students to think critically about the theories they are presented with. If we were to think of social psychology as a discipline that mutually influences...

  17. SOCIAL - PSYCHOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL -PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF STOMATOLOGISTS WORK HYGIENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.O. Petrenko

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects the results of influence the conditions of work upon psychological and psychophysiologic status of stomatological staff. The results revealed that labor activity of stomatological staff influences on their functional condition and capacity for work. Changes of psychological, psychophysiologic indices and motoric characteristics proved it.

  18. Counseling Psychology Doctoral Students' Training Experiences in Primary Care Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jared

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on counseling psychology doctoral students' perspectives regarding their practicum training experience in primary care psychology. The four participants included three females and one male. Semi-structured individual and focus group interviews were used to explore participants' experiences. The participants described…

  19. Parental Physical and Psychological Aggression: Psychological Symptoms in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Perrin, Cindy L.; Perrin, Robin D.; Kocur, Jodie L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between various levels of parent-child physical violence and psychological symptoms reported by college students, while controlling for demographic variables, severity and frequency of violence, and co-occurrence of parental psychological aggression. Method: Participants…

  20. The Window on Psychology's Literature: A History of Psychological Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr.; VandenBos, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of scientific information at the end of the 19th century, disciplines sought ways to keep their members abreast of the relevant research. Those pressures were felt in the science of psychology in the United States, where psychologists developed a bibliographic aid, The Psychological Index, in 1895 only a little more than a…

  1. Academic psychology or the lost meaning of psychology as praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Milorad V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic psychology has interpreted the development of neuro-biological sciences, especially neurobiological psychology, as the death of the soul and the disappearance of its hermeneutic dimension. One could ask maliciously why the need to look so deeply for the meaning sought by the Soul and "speech-being", at a time when the secrets of neurons are successfully decoded, as well as their chemical and electrical activity. It would be a huge mistake to think, by following the achievements of the so-called empirical research in psychology and works that can be published only in Serbian journal Psihologija, that the same cognitive schemes can equally well explaine the behavior of individual cells and individual behavior. Fortunately, the subject’s soul, which is believed to have been banished from the "real", "true" science, and biological theories, returns even under the banner of cognitivism. Academic psychology would still have to ask what has always been its primary objective: what constitutes the soul; what types of ideas, what kind of logical diversity constitutes the soul. Psychology does not have to know the answer, but it must be noted that only dynamic psychology seeks one. So, for the sake of psychology as praxis, dynamic psychology should be a syllabus in the education of future psychologists, who would not imitate otorhinolaryngologists or ophthalmologists.

  2. Military Psychology | Ijide | African Journal for the Psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to Jean Piaget (1970), psychology is applicable to all human activities and situations, education and psychotherapy, work and leisure in nearly all sectors of employment particularly in the military (emphasis mine). There are however some individuals who believe that psychology might only be applicable to the ...

  3. Psychopathological Symptoms and Psychological Wellbeing in Mexican Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mariel; de León, Ana Mariela; Martínez, Estela; Peña, Elsa Melissa; Marques, Luana; Gallegos, Julia

    2017-06-01

    College life involves a process of adaptation to changes that have an impact on the psycho-emotional development of students. Successful adaptation to this stage involves the balance between managing personal resources and potential stressors that generate distress. This epidemiological descriptive and transversal study estimates the prevalence of psychopathological symptomatology and psychological well-being among 516 college students, 378 (73.26%) women and 138 (26.74%) men, ages between 17 and 24, from the city of Monterrey in Mexico. It describes the relationship between psychopathological symptomatology and psychological well-being, and explores gender differences. For data collection, two measures were used: The Symptom Checklist Revised and the Scale of Psychological Well-being. Statistical analyses used were t test for independent samples, Pearson's r and regression analysis with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS v21.0). Statistical analyses showed that the prevalence of psychopathological symptoms was 10-13%, being Aggression the highest. The dimension of psychological well-being with the lowest scores was Environmental Mastery. Participants with a higher level of psychological well-being had a lower level of psychopathological symptoms, which shows the importance of early identification and prevention. Gender differences were found on some subscales of the psychopathological symptomatology and of the psychological well-being measures. This study provides a basis for future research and development of resources to promote the psychological well-being and quality of life of university students.

  4. Psychological parameters of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, A; Platsidaki, E; Kouskoukis, C; Christodoulou, C

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory scaling dermatosis. The marked visible appearance of the lesions have a negative impact on body image that leads to decreased self-esteem, hence seriously compromising the patient's quality of life. The clinical picture critically affects the social well-being of the patient since the disease is commonly misunderstood and feared by the social environment as being contagious. The patient feels stigmatized and this further intensifies their lack of self-confidence and self-esteem. Feelings of shame and guilt increase the tendency toward suicidal ideation. The poor quality of life of psoriatic patients has been associated with excessive alcohol consumption, increased smoking and greater use of tranquilizers, sedatives and antidepressants. As far as mental impairment is concerned, a correlation has been found between psychological stress and the clinical severity of symptoms: the more mentally affected the patient, the more severe the dermatologic lesions. Similarly, stressful life events constitute a major risk for the occurrence and recurrence, exacerbating the severity and duration of the symptoms. Depression and anxiety can worsen the disease or cause resistance to treatment or patient's indifference, which in turn can lead to expensive and prolonged treatment. Not least, the disease itself contributes to anxiety, depression and psychological stress, thus creating a "vicious circle" that is difficult to manage. Given that women seem to invest more in their personal appearance than men, it is hardly surprising that female psoriatic patients report higher levels of depression. Similarly, the risk of mental disorders is also higher in younger patients for whom body image plays an equally significant role. The severity of the disease, side effects of therapy and mental disorders are among the causes that have been attributed to sexual dysfunction reported by some psoriatic patients. At the social level, stigma, social rejection

  5. Making Psychology a Science: A Discourse Analysis upon the history of psychology within introductory psychology textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Mowat, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The history of psychology within introductory psychology textbooks is the focus of a discourse analysis (DA), to explore how it constructs the scientific status of the discipline that it is chronicling. Given the importance of Psychology’s scientific status to retain its cultural authority, and the lack of a clear demarcation between science and other forms of knowledge producing activities, there is a need to understand better how psychological knowledge came to be seen as scie...

  6. Psychological wisdom research: commonalities and differences in a growing field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudinger, Ursula M; Glück, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Wisdom represents a fruitful topic for psychological investigations for at least two reasons. First, the study of wisdom emphasizes the search for the continued optimization and the further cultural evolution of the human condition. Second, it exemplifies the collaboration of cognitive, emotional, and motivational processes. The growth and scope of psychological wisdom research over the past few decades demonstrate that it is possible to investigate this complex construct with empirical rigor. Since the 1970s, five main areas have been established: lay definitions of wisdom, conceptualizing and measuring wisdom, understanding the development of wisdom, investigating the plasticity of wisdom, and applying psychological knowledge about wisdom in life contexts.

  7. Psychological diagnosis in sexology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giommi, R

    2003-01-01

    The author presents a model based on verbal and non-verbal instruments in order to elaborate a psychological diagnosis in troubles of sexual behavior. The instruments usually employed are the following: the map aimed at verifying harmony or conflict with significant people; family drawing, another means to check harmony or conflict in the nuclear family; genogram, in order to reconstruct family myths; body drawing aimed at discovering the body parts that give pleasure, uneasiness, annoyance-tickle and the problems connected with genitals; questionnaire on the couple aimed at finding out areas of mutual dissatisfaction; the drawing of the shared space in the couple, represented by the WE area, in order to identify the relational/emotional deficiencies. Using this model we can simplify the anamnesis, focus on the problematic areas, quickly check the unconscious contents and define a diagnosis with the subsequent hypothesis of intervention.

  8. Relationship among self-esteem, psychological reactance, and other personality variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, C E

    1990-06-01

    69 women and 42 men responded to the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory, the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Hong Psychological Reactance Scale, and the Famous Sayings test. Also, subjects rated their happiness using a Likert scale. Men scored significantly higher than did women on the UCLA Loneliness, Hostility, and Psychological Reactance measures, and lower on the Conventional Mores and Social Acquiescence measures. Loneliness scores positively correlated with Psychological Reactance scores and negatively with Self-esteem and Conventional Mores scores and with happiness self-ratings for both sexes. Men who scored higher on Psychological Reactance tended to score lower on Conventional Mores. Happiness ratings correlated negatively with Psychological Reactance for all subjects and positively with Conventional Mores for men subjects only. Women's self-esteem scores correlated positively with self-ratings of happiness and negatively with Psychological Reactance, Hostility, and Fear of Failure. Finally, women's Psychological Reactance scores correlated positively with those on Bass's Fear of Failure scale.

  9. A Contemporary Story of School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Jean; Priestley, Anna

    2012-01-01

    A review of recent school psychology publications was conducted to discover the espoused theory of contemporary school psychology, as distinct from school psychology practice. We considered that identification of the espoused theory of school psychology, the story of school psychology, would support professional reflection and the identification…

  10. Psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth: prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisborg, K; Barklin, A; Hedegaard, M; Henriksen, T B

    2008-06-01

    To study the association between psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth. Prospective follow-up study. Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark,1989-98. A total of 19 282 singleton pregnancies in women with valid information about psychological stress during pregnancy. Information about psychological stress during pregnancy was obtained from questionnaires and measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaires (GHQ). A score was generated by the sum of all the answers, each contributing a value between 0 (low psychological stress) and 3 (high psychological stress). Women with an intermediate level of psychological stress (scores of 7-11) were considered the reference group. Scores of 0-6 were defined as a low level of psychological stress and scores of 12-36 as the highest level. The association between psychological stress and stillbirth was presented as relative risks with 95% CIs. Adjustment for potential confounding factors was carried out by logistic regression analyses. Stillbirth (delivery of a dead fetus at >28 weeks of gestation). There were 66 stillbirths (3.4 per thousand) in the population studied. Compared with women with an intermediate level of psychological stress during pregnancy, women with a high level of stress had 80% increased risk of stillbirth (relative risk = 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.2). Adjustment for maternal age, parity, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking habits, alcohol and caffeine intake during pregnancy, education and cohabitation failed to change the result. The results remained essentially unchanged after exclusion of preterm deliveries. Exclusion of women with complications during pregnancy such as diabetes, hypertension, vaginal bleeding, immunisation and imminent preterm delivery failed to change the results. Likewise, restriction to women's first pregnancy in the cohort did not change the results. Psychological stress during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth.

  11. Psychological targeting as an effective approach to digital mass persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, S C; Kosinski, M; Nave, G; Stillwell, D J

    2017-11-28

    People are exposed to persuasive communication across many different contexts: Governments, companies, and political parties use persuasive appeals to encourage people to eat healthier, purchase a particular product, or vote for a specific candidate. Laboratory studies show that such persuasive appeals are more effective in influencing behavior when they are tailored to individuals' unique psychological characteristics. However, the investigation of large-scale psychological persuasion in the real world has been hindered by the questionnaire-based nature of psychological assessment. Recent research, however, shows that people's psychological characteristics can be accurately predicted from their digital footprints, such as their Facebook Likes or Tweets. Capitalizing on this form of psychological assessment from digital footprints, we test the effects of psychological persuasion on people's actual behavior in an ecologically valid setting. In three field experiments that reached over 3.5 million individuals with psychologically tailored advertising, we find that matching the content of persuasive appeals to individuals' psychological characteristics significantly altered their behavior as measured by clicks and purchases. Persuasive appeals that were matched to people's extraversion or openness-to-experience level resulted in up to 40% more clicks and up to 50% more purchases than their mismatching or unpersonalized counterparts. Our findings suggest that the application of psychological targeting makes it possible to influence the behavior of large groups of people by tailoring persuasive appeals to the psychological needs of the target audiences. We discuss both the potential benefits of this method for helping individuals make better decisions and the potential pitfalls related to manipulation and privacy. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  12. Psychology: Is it applied enough?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, P.J.D.

    2008-01-01

    The question "Is psychology applied enough?" can be regarded in two ways. In the first place, it could refer to the distinction "pure versus applied science", and the reproach that modern scientific experimental psychology has little to offer to the practitioner. It is argued that this distinction

  13. Psychology and Education, Together Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between psychology and education has waxed and waned over the past century. In addition, a core issue for psychologists is how to bridge the gap between theory and practice in applied settings such as schools. While acknowledging the work that has been done, it is apparent that the effective dissemination of psychology to…

  14. Open source in Experimental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmaijer, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Talk on using open-source software in experimental psychology. Presented on 3 March 2015, at the Attention, Brain and Cognitive Development group (http://www.psy.ox.ac.uk/research/attention-brain-and-cognitive-development-group) at the University of Oxford's Department of Experimental Psychology.

  15. Research methods for economic psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranyard, Rob; Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of possible avenues for research in relation to various key economic-psychological problems. Theoretical research mainly comprises (mathematical) modelling of economic psychological processes. The starting point for theoretical research often is literature search

  16. Ethical issues in exercise psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M

    2006-01-01

    Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion.

  17. Educational Psychology: A Future Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Karen R.

    2018-01-01

    In my response to Alexander's (2018) paper marking the 125th anniversary of the American Psychological Association and the field of educational psychology, I have taken the perspective of a member of our discipline from some time in the future who is contributing to a larger work looking back at the history and development of our field (thus, a…

  18. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  19. Interdisciplinarity and Undergraduate Psychology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin-Smith, Ian; Pearson, Elissa; Ranzijn, Rob; Campbell, Alan; Lushington, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    This work identifies the human service sector as an important and growing destination for psychology graduates. It further identifies a number of key themes which flow from that observation and which are important to configuring psychology education in a way which takes account of emerging trends. The major theme identified in the research is the…

  20. Teaching Psychology to Computing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jacqui

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is two-fold. The first aim is to discuss some observations gained from teaching psychology to computing students, highlighting both the wide range of areas where psychology is relevant to computing education and the topics that are relevant at different stages of students' education. The second aim is to consider findings…