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Sample records for psychological job demand

  1. Predicting psychological well-being from job demands and marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies have focused on the extent to which job demands affect psychological well-being. However, few studies, especially in Nigeria, have investigated the psychological well-being of police personnel from peace perspective. This study, therefore, investigated the extent to which psychological well-being can be ...

  2. Job demands, job control, psychological climate, and job satisfaction: a cognitive dissonance perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Karanika-Murray, M.; Michaelides, George; Wood, S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Research into job design and employee outcomes has tended to examine job design in isolation of the wider organizational context, leading to calls to attend to the context in which work is embedded. This study examines the effects of the interaction between job design and psychological climate on job satisfaction.\\ud \\ud Design/approach: Cognitive Dissonance Theory was used to explore the nature of this relationship and its effect on job satisfaction. We hypothesized that psychologic...

  3. The Relationship between Job Demands and Employees' Counterproductive Work Behaviors: The Mediating Effect of Psychological Detachment and Job Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Li, Shuang; Xia, Qing; He, Chao

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relation between job demands and counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs). A cross-sectional sample of 439 coal miners completed a self-report questionnaire that assessed their job demands, psychological detachment, job anxiety, and CWBs in a Chinese context. The conceptual model, based on the stressor-detachment model, was examined using structural equation modeling. The results suggest that psychological detachment mediates not only the relation between job demands and job anxiety but also that between job demands and CWBs. Furthermore, the relation between job demands and CWBs is sequentially mediated by psychological detachment and job anxiety. Our findings validate the effectiveness of the stressor-detachment model. Moreover, we demonstrate that the underlying mechanism of the relation between job demands and CWBs can be explained by psychological detachment and job anxiety.

  4. Antecedents of Psychological Contract Breach: The Role of Job Demands, Job Resources, and Affect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Vantilborgh

    Full Text Available While it has been shown that psychological contract breach leads to detrimental outcomes, relatively little is known about factors leading to perceptions of breach. We examine if job demands and resources predict breach perceptions. We argue that perceiving high demands elicits negative affect, while perceiving high resources stimulates positive affect. Positive and negative affect, in turn, influence the likelihood that psychological contract breaches are perceived. We conducted two experience sampling studies to test our hypotheses: the first using daily surveys in a sample of volunteers, the second using weekly surveys in samples of volunteers and paid employees. Our results confirm that job demands and resources are associated with negative and positive affect respectively. Mediation analyses revealed that people who experienced high job resources were less likely to report psychological contract breach, because they experienced high levels of positive affect. The mediating role of negative affect was more complex, as it increased the likelihood to perceive psychological contract breach, but only in the short-term.

  5. Relationship between job demands and psychological outcomes among nurses: Does skill discretion matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotti, Sara; Converso, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess both the direct and indirect effects (i.e., interacting with various job demands) of skill discretion on various psychological outcomes (i.e., emotional exhaustion, intention to leave, affective well-being, and job satisfaction). Data were collected by a self-reported questionnaire in 3 hospitals in Italy. The sample consisted of 522 nurses. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses were employed. The findings highlighted the direct effect of skill discretion on reducing emotional exhaustion, intention to leave, sustaining affective well-being and job satisfaction. As regards interaction effect, the analyses indicated that skill discretion moderates the negative effect of disproportionate patient expectations on all the considered psychological outcomes. On the other hand, skill discretion was found to moderate the effect of cognitive demands on turnover intention as well as the effect of quantitative demands on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction only in conditions of low job demands. The study revealed some interesting findings, suggesting that skill discretion is not a resource in the pure sense, but that it also has some characteristics of a job demand. The study has relevant practical implications. Particularly, from a job design point of view, the present study suggests that job demands and skill discretion should be balanced carefully in order to sustain job well-being and worker retention. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  6. Psychological job demands as a risk factor for common cold in a Dutch working population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohren, D.C.; Swaen, G.M.H.; Borm, P.J.; Bast, A.J.J.; Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of Psychological Job Demands (PJD) on the occurrence of the clinical symptoms of common cold. METHODS: Subjects, participating in a large prospective cohort study on psychological determinants of fatigue at work, were asked to fill in a questionnaire on the

  7. A Work Psychological Model that Works: Expanding the Job Demands-Resources Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xanthopoulou, D.

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of the current thesis was to test and expand the recently developed Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. The advantage of this model is that it recognizes the uniqueness of each work environment, which has its own specific job demands and job resources. According to the JD-R model,

  8. The Effects of Job Demands and Organizational Resources through Psychological Need Satisfaction and Thwarting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Nicolas; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Huyghebaert, Tiphaine; Colombat, Philippe

    2015-05-20

    In Study 1, we tested a model in which two job demands (i.e., changes in tasks and ambiguities about work) and organizational resources (i.e., interpersonal and informational justice) influence work engagement through the satisfaction of individuals' psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. In Study 2, we examined the indirect effects of the same job demands and organizational resources on burnout through need thwarting. We also examined the mediating role of organizational resources in the relationships of changes in tasks and ambiguities about work to need satisfaction (Study 1) and need thwarting (Study 2). Structural equation modeling performed on cross-sectional data collected from 461 workers in Study 1 and 708 employees in Study 2 provided support for the hypothesized models. Specifically, results revealed that changes in tasks and ambiguities about work have direct and indirect effects (via organizational resources) on psychological need satisfaction and need thwarting, which in turn positively predicted work engagement and burnout, respectively (p < .05). Research implications and study limitations are discussed.

  9. Psychological capital, job demands and organisational commitment of employees in a call centre in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreshona Pillay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The South African call centre industry is growing as call centres are increasingly used as a means of service delivery to customers. Positive psychologists posit that psychological capital could lead to positive outcomes such as organisational commitment of call centre staff.Research purpose: This study investigated the relationship between psychological capital, job demands and organisational commitment and intended to determine whether psychological capital and job demands predict call centre employees’ organisational commitment.Motivation for the study: The study aimed to explore potential links between psychological capital, job demands and organisational commitment of call centre employees. It is premised on previous research that call centre job demands may be related to commitment to the organisation.Research approach, design and method: This cross-sectional study sampled 117 call centre employees from Durban, South Africa, and used a biographical questionnaire, psychological capital questionnaire, the job-demands-resources scale and the organisational commitment questionnaire to collect data.Main findings: Findings indicated a statistically significant relationship between psychological capital and work overload, as well as a practically and statistically significant relationship (medium effect between psychological capital and continuance organisational commitment. The results showed that psychological capital has predictive value for continuance organisational commitment.Practical/managerial implications: Psychological capital has predictive value for continuance organisational commitment. Organisations can develop initiatives to enhance positive psychological states and address this relationship.Contribution: The findings could be beneficial to management and employees in considering ways to boost psychological capital in order to improve organisational commitment.

  10. Retirement as a Relief? The Role of Physical Job Demands and Psychological Job Stress for Effects of Retirement on Self-Rated Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogaard, L.; Henkens, K.; Kalmijn, M.

    This study investigates the relationship between retirement and self-rated health, and how this relationship is moderated by experienced pre-retirement physical job demands and psychological job stress. Two waves of Dutch panel data are analysed, collected between 2003 and 2007, which include

  11. Retirement as a Relief? : The Role of Physical Job Demands and Psychological Job Stress for Effects of Retirement on Self-Rated Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogaard, L.; Henkens, K.; Kalmijn, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between retirement and self-rated health, and how this relationship is moderated by experienced pre-retirement physical job demands and psychological job stress. Two waves of Dutch panel data are analysed, collected between 2003 and 2007, which include

  12. Job demands, health perception and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; de Graaf, J.H.; van Zandbergen, J.W.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background Investigation of the relations between job demands, health and sickness absence is required to design a strategy for the prevention of absence and disability. Aim To study the relationships between (physical and psychological) job demands, health perception and sickness absence. Methods

  13. Income inequality as a moderator of the relationship between psychological job demands and sickness absence, in particular in men: an international comparison of 23 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckenhuber, Johanna; Burkert, Nathalie; Großschädl, Franziska; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether more sickness absence is reported in countries with higher income inequality than elsewhere, and whether the level of income inequality moderates the association between psycho-social job demands and sickness absence. Our analysis is based on the Fifth European Working Conditions Survey that compared 23 European countries. We performed multi-level regression analysis. On the macro-level of analysis we included the Gini-Index as measure of inequality. On the micro-level of analysis we followed the Karasek-Theorell model and included three scales for psychological job demands, physical job demands, and decision latitude in the model. The model was stratified by sex. We found that, in countries with high income inequality, workers report significantly more sickness absence than workers in countries with low income inequality. In addition we found that the level of income inequality moderates the relationship between psychological job demands and sickness absence. High psychological job demands are significantly more strongly related to more days of sickness absence in countries with low income inequality than in countries with high income inequality. As the nature and causal pathways of cross-level interaction effects still cannot be fully explained, we argue that future research should aim to explore such causal pathways. In accordance with WHO recommendations we argue that inequalities should be reduced. In addition we state that, particularly in countries with low levels of income inequality, policies should aim to reduce psychological job demands.

  14. Job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bakker (Arnold); E. Demerouti (Eva)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker &

  15. Specific Relationships between Job Demands, Job Resources and Psychological Outcomes and the Mediating Role of Negative Work-Home Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Peter P. M.; Peeters, Maria C. W.; de Jonge, Jan; Houkes, Inge; Tummers, Gladys E. R.

    2004-01-01

    This study among 115 US and 260 Dutch nurses and nurse assistants tested a theoretically derived model of specific relationships between work characteristics and two theoretically distinct outcomes (i.e., emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction). Furthermore, the mediating role of negative work-home interference (NWI) in this context was…

  16. Job Demands and Job Resources as Predictors of Absence Duration and Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia; de Boer, Elpine; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2003-01-01

    Structural equation modeling of data from 214 employees indicated that job demands uniquely predicted burnout and indirectly predicted length of absence. Job resources (physical, psychological, social, or organizational aspects that reduce job demands or stimulate growth) uniquely predicted organizational commitment and indirectly predicted spells…

  17. Do psychological job demands, decision control and social support predictreturn to work three months after a return-to-work (RTW) programme? The rapid-RTW cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haveraaen, Lise A; Skarpaas, Lisebet S; Berg, John E; Aas, Randi W

    2015-01-01

    Long-term sickness absence is a considerable health and economic problem in the industrialised world. Factors that might predict return to work (RTW) are therefore of interest. To examine the impact of psychosocial work characteristics on RTW three months after the end of a RTW programme. A cohort study of 251 sick-listed employees from 40 different treatment and rehabilitation services in Norway recruited from February to December 2012. The Job Content Questionnaire was used to gather information on the psychosocial work conditions. Full or partial RTW was measured three months after the end of the RTW programme, using data from the national sickness absence register. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between the psychosocial work characteristics and RTW. Having low psychological job demands (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9), high co-worker- (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.5-5.8), and supervisor support (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6-7.3), and being in a low-strain job (low job demands and high control) (OR = 4.6, 95% CI: 1.1-18.6) were predictive of being in work three months after the end of the RTW programme, after adjusting for several potential prognostic factors. Interventions aimed at returning people to work might benefit from putting more emphasise on psychosocial work characteristics in the future.

  18. Influence of job demands and job control on work-life balance among Taiwanese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lee-Peng; Chen, I-Chi; Ng, Hui-Fuang; Lin, Bo-Yen; Kuar, Lok-Sin

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the extent to which the job demands and job control of nurses were related to their work-life balance. The inability to achieve work-life balance is one of the major reasons for the declining retention rate among nurses. Job demands and job control are two major work domain factors that can have a significant influence on the work-life balance of nurses. The study measured the job demands, job control and work-life balance of 2040 nurses in eight private hospitals in Taiwan in 2013. Job demands and job control significantly predicted all the dimensions of work-life balance. Job demands increased the level of work-life imbalance among nurses. While job control showed positive effects on work/personal life enhancement, it was found to increase both work interference with personal life and personal life interference with work. Reducing the level of job demands (particularly for psychological demands) between family and career development and maintaining a proper level of job control are essential to the work-life balance of nurses. Flexible work practices and team-based management could be considered by nursing management to lessen job demand pressure and to facilitate job engagement and participation among nurses, thus promoting a better balance between work and personal life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Downsizing, role demands, and job stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissman, D B; Orris, P; Lacey, R; Hartman, D E

    1999-04-01

    This is a cross-sectional study consisting of self-administered survey instruments to measure psychological distress and stress-inducing work demands after 6 months of rumors about an upcoming corporate downsizing event. The workforce consisted predominantly of white males who were married, college-educated, and nonsmokers. Higher stress levels were seen among older, more educated workers, who had longer company tenure. Role boundary problems, noxious physical environments, and company tenure were retained in the final multivariable model predicting distress level. The ongoing time delay for management to implement the threatened layoff and peer rankings for a new job performance appraisal contributed to a decline in worker solidarity because of concerns about career and job security. These uncertainties reduced worker productivity and effective teamwork.

  20. Job demands, job resources, and work engagement of Japanese employees: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuno, Kanami; Shimazu, Akihito; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nakanishi, Mayuko

    2013-05-01

    Research on the prospective association of job demands and job resources with work engagement is still limited in Asian countries, such as Japan. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prospective association of job demands (i.e., psychological demands and extrinsic effort) and job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward), based on the job demands-control (JD-C) [or demand-control-support (DCS)] model and the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model, with work engagement among Japanese employees. The participants included 423 males and 672 females from five branches of a manufacturing company in Japan. Self-administered questionnaires, including the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (ERIQ), the nine-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), and demographic characteristics, were administered at baseline (August 2009). At one-year follow-up (August 2010), the UWES-9 was used again to assess work engagement. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and work engagement at baseline, higher psychological demands and decision latitude were positively and significantly associated with greater work engagement at follow-up (β = 0.054, p = 0.020 for psychological demands and β = 0.061, p = 0.020 for decision latitude). Having higher psychological demands and decision latitude may enhance work engagement among Japanese employees.

  1. Joint effects of job demands and job resources on vocational teachers’ innovative work behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messmann, G.; Stoffers, J.M.M.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Mulder, R.H.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE - The purpose of this paper is to investigate interactions of job demands and job resources in the facilitation of innovative work behavior (IWB). In particular, the paper aims at researching interactive effects of psychological empowerment and participative safety and their potential to

  2. Nurses' exhaustion: the role of flow at work between job demands and job resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Margherita; Cortese, Claudio G; Colombo, Lara

    2016-01-01

    In the light of the job demands-resources model, this study aimed to detect the mediating role of flow at work between job demands and job resources on one side, and exhaustion on the other. In a historical period where it is necessary to reduce the abandonment of nursing profession, flow is a useful tool to investigate the factors that can promote work motivation and prevent psychological distress. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a hospital, and 279 nurses completed a questionnaire. Analyses conducted are descriptive statistics, alphas, correlations and a structural equations model that considers the mediating role of flow at work. Findings show both the central role of job resources in determining flow at work, and the mediating role of flow at work in decreasing exhaustion, starting from job resources, and in decreasing the effect of job demands on exhaustion. Moreover, flow at work directly decreases exhaustion. Results show the relevance of containing job demands and provide job resources to promote positive experiences at work. To promote flow at work, organizations should offer specific resources, such as supervisors' support, job autonomy, and psychological support to manage the emotional charge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Impact Of Job Demands And Resources On Job Crafting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sang-Hoon Lee; Yuhyung Shin; Seung Ik Baek

    2017-01-01

    ... grounds for transformation and modification of general roles and specific tasks. Based on the job demands-resources model, our hypotheses are tested using empirical data extracted from 172 subjects currently working in organizations...

  4. Psychological Detachment in the Relationship between Job Stressors and Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safstrom, My; Hartig, Terry

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the mediating versus moderating role of psychological detachment in the relationship between job stressors and psychological strain. Our sample consisted of 173 university students invested in challenging programs of advanced professional studies, who could find it difficult to detach from work. Hierarchical regression analyses of cross-sectional survey data affirmed the role of psychological detachment as a mediator in the relationship between job demands and perceived stress. Detachment also mediated the relationship between job demands and satisfaction with life, although the association disappeared when controlling for negative affectivity. Detachment did not mediate relationships between job demands and cognitive failures. Psychological detachment did not moderate any of the investigated relationships. The study contributes to a view of psychological detachment as less subject to individual differences than to the imposition of stressors in the given context.

  5. Professional commitment: Does it buffer or intensify job demands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesje, Kjersti

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether professional commitment can be seen as a moderator in the relationship between job demands and emotional exhaustion among Norwegian nurses. Inspired by the job demands-resources model, this study explores whether having a strong commitment to the nursing profession can be seen as a resource that buffers the effect of job demands on emotional exhaustion or, conversely, intensifies the impact of job demands. A survey that comprised Norwegian nurses who had graduated three years previously (N = 388) was conducted. Multiple regression was performed to test the hypothesis. The results provide support to a buffering effect; thus, individuals with a higher degree of professional commitment conveyed a weaker association between job demands and emotional exhaustion compared with nurses with a lower degree of commitment. Developing a better understanding of the potential buffering effect of professional commitment is of great interest. The present study is the first to utilize professional commitment as a resource within the job demands-resources framework. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Job demands, job resources and safety outcomes: The roles of emotional exhaustion and safety compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Jiang, Li; Yao, Xiang; Li, YongJuan

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model in explaining the relationship of job demands and resources with safety outcomes (i.e., workplace injuries and near-misses). We collected self-reported data from 670 crude oil production workers from three sub-companies of a major oilfield company in China. The results of a structural equation analysis indicated that job demands (psychological and physical demands) and job resources (decision latitude, supervisor support and coworker support) could affect emotional exhaustion and safety compliance, and thus influence the occurrence of injuries and near-misses. The implications of the present findings regarding both the JD-R model and occupational safety research were discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychological Detachment in the Relationship between Job Stressors and Strain

    OpenAIRE

    My Safstrom; Terry Hartig

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the mediating versus moderating role of psychological detachment in the relationship between job stressors and psychological strain. Our sample consisted of 173 university students invested in challenging programs of advanced professional studies, who could find it difficult to detach from work. Hierarchical regression analyses of cross-sectional survey data affirmed the role of psychological detachment as a mediator in the relationship between job demands and perceived stress...

  8. Is the effect of job strain on myocardial infarction risk due to interaction between high psychological demands and low decision latitude?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Diderichsen, Finn; Theorell, T

    1998-01-01

    referents were included in the analysis. Exposure categories of job strain were formed from self reported questionnaire information. The results show that high demands and low decision latitude interact with a synergy index of 7.5 (95% C.I.: 1.8-30.6) providing empirical support for the core mechanism......The objectives are to examine if the excess risk of myocardial infarction from exposure to job strain is due to interaction between high demands and low control and to analyse what role such an interaction has regarding socioeconomic differences in risk of myocardial infarction. The material...... is a population-based case-referent study having incident first events of myocardial infarction as outcome (SHEEP: Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program). The analysis is restricted to males 45-64 yr of age with a more detailed analysis confined to those still working at inclusion. In total, 1047 cases and 1450...

  9. Assessment of job satisfaction, job stress and psychological health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Background: The relationship that exists between job stress and job satisfaction has been investigated across several professional groups. Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological morbidity among journalists in a state in the Southern part of Nigeria. Methods: ...

  10. Assessment of job satisfaction, job stress and psychological health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The relationship that exists between job stress and job satisfaction has been investigated across several professional groups. Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological morbidity among journalists in a state in the Southern part of Nigeria. Methods: The ...

  11. [Application of job demands-resources model in research on relationships between job satisfaction, job resources, individual resources and job demands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocka, Adrianna; Waszkowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between job demands, job resourses, personal resourses and job satisfaction and to assess the usefulness of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in the explanation of these phenomena. The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers. The "Psychosocial Factors" and "Job satisfaction" questionnaires were used to test the hypothesis. The results showed that job satisfaction increased with increasing job accessibility and personal resources (r = 0.44; r = 0.31; p job resources and job demands [F(1.474) = 4.004; F(1.474) = 4.166; p job satisfaction. Moreover, interactions between job demands and job resources [F(3,474) = 2.748; p job demands and personal resources [F(3.474) = 3.021; p job satisfaction. The post hoc tests showed that 1) in low job demands, but high job resources employees declared higher job satisfaction, than those who perceived them as medium (p = 0.0001) or low (p = 0.0157); 2) when the level of job demands was perceived as medium, employees with high personal resources declared significantly higher job satisfaction than those with low personal resources (p = 0.0001). The JD-R model can be used to investigate job satisfaction. Taking into account fundamental factors of this model, in organizational management there are possibilities of shaping job satisfaction among employees.

  12. The predicting role of self-efficacyin the Job Demands-Resources Model: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Perea, María; Salanova Soria, Marisa; Lorente Prieto, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Taking Albert Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory as our starting point, we analysed the predicting role of self-efficacy in the Job Demands-Resources Model. We tested longitudinally the two underlying psychological processes, namely: 1) the motivational process, in which job resources (i.e., job autonomy and social support climate) foster engagement, and 2) the erosion process, in which high job demands (i.e., quantitative overload and role conflict) lead to burnout. Structural equ...

  13. Job Demand in the Cosmetology Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Lawrence M.; Deutermann, William V., Jr.

    In order to determine job demand in the cosmetology industry, a survey was made of a nationally representative stratified random sample of 1,454 beauty salons, barber shops, and unisex salons in July 1991. Salon owners were asked about 1990 and their plans for the future. Survey results were supplemented with information about the industry…

  14. Burnout and engagement in relation with job demands and resources among dental staff in Northern Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, R.C.; Freeman, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives:  To investigate the psychological health - in particular, levels of burnout and engagement, job demands, job resources, and general psychological distress - among dental staff in Northern Ireland. Methods:  Three hundred questionnaires were administered to all dental offices in the

  15. Job demands and health complaints in white and blue collar workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, K. J.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: General health in the working population is thought to depend on working conditions. Objective: This survey studied job demands and health complaints in working white and blue collar employees. We expect physical and psychological job demands to be differentially distributed among white

  16. Psychological demands experienced by recreational endurance athletes

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, Alister; Meijen, Carla; Marcora, Samuele

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify psychological demands that are commonly experienced by endurance athletes so that these demands could inform the design of performance-enhancement psychological interventions for endurance athletes. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 recreational endurance athletes of various sports (running, cycling, and triathlon), distances, and competitive levels to explore the psychological demands of training, competition preparation, and competition participation...

  17. Application of Job Demands-Resources model in research on relationships between job satisfaction, job resources, individual resources and job demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Potocka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between job demands, job resourses, personal resourses and job satisfaction and to assess the usefulness of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model in the explanation of these phenomena. Materials and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers. The "Psychosocial Factors" and "Job satisfaction" questionnaires were used to test the hypothesis. Results: The results showed that job satisfaction increased with increasing job accessibility and personal resources (r = 0.44; r = 0.31; p < 0.05. The analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated that job resources and job demands [F(1.474 = 4.004; F(1.474 = 4.166; p < 0.05] were statistically significant sources of variation in job satisfaction. Moreover, interactions between job demands and job resources [F(3,474 = 2.748; p < 0.05], as well as between job demands and personal resources [F(3.474 = 3.021; p < 0.05] had a significant impact on job satisfaction. The post hoc tests showed that 1 in low job demands, but high job resources employees declared higher job satisfaction, than those who perceived them as medium (p = 0.0001 or low (p = 0.0157; 2 when the level of job demands was perceived as medium, employees with high personal resources declared significantly higher job satisfaction than those with low personal resources (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: The JD-R model can be used to investigate job satisfaction. Taking into account fundamental factors of this model, in organizational management there are possibilities of shaping job satisfaction among employees. Med Pr 2013;64(2:217–225

  18. Job demands and job strain as risk factors for employee wellbeing in elderly care: an instrumental-variables analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Kuusio, Hannamaria; Jokela, Markus; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Pekkarinen, Laura; Noro, Anja; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Kivimäki, Mika; Sinervo, Timo

    2015-02-01

    The association between psychosocial work environment and employee wellbeing has repeatedly been shown. However, as environmental evaluations have typically been self-reported, the observed associations may be attributable to reporting bias. Applying instrumental-variable regression, we used staffing level (the ratio of staff to residents) as an unconfounded instrument for self-reported job demands and job strain to predict various indicators of wellbeing (perceived stress, psychological distress and sleeping problems) among 1525 registered nurses, practical nurses and nursing assistants working in elderly care wards. In ordinary regression, higher self-reported job demands and job strain were associated with increased risk of perceived stress, psychological distress and sleeping problems. The effect estimates for the associations of these psychosocial factors with perceived stress and psychological distress were greater, but less precisely estimated, in an instrumental-variables analysis which took into account only the variation in self-reported job demands and job strain that was explained by staffing level. No association between psychosocial factors and sleeping problems was observed with the instrumental-variable analysis. These results support a causal interpretation of high self-reported job demands and job strain being risk factors for employee wellbeing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. Interaction effects among multiple job demands: an examination of healthcare workers across different contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmieson, Nerina L; Tucker, Michelle K; Walsh, Alexandra J

    2017-05-01

    Simultaneous exposure to time, cognitive, and emotional demands is a feature of the work environment for healthcare workers, yet effects of these common stressors in combination are not well established. Survey data were collected from 125 hospital employees (Sample 1, Study 1), 93 ambulance service employees (Sample 2, Study 1), and 380 aged care/disability workers (Study 2). Hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted. In Sample 1, high cognitive demand exacerbated high emotional demand on psychological strain and job burnout, whereas the negative effect of high emotional demand was not present at low cognitive demand. In Sample 2, a similar pattern between emotional demand and time demand on stress-remedial intentions was observed. In Study 2, emotional demand × time demand and time demand × cognitive demand interactions again revealed that high levels of two demands were stress-exacerbating and low levels of one demand neutralized the other. A three-way interaction on job satisfaction showed the negative impact of emotional demand was exacerbated when both time and cognitive demands were high, creating a "triple disadvantage" of job demands. The results demonstrate that reducing some job demands helps attenuate the stressful effects of other job demands on different employee outcomes.

  20. Job demands as a moderator of the political skill-job performance relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blickle, G.; Kramer, J.; Zettler, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    weeks along with three ratings of target individuals' job demands. Findings - Results support the hypothesis that Holland's enterprising category (i.e. because of its job demands and requisite job competencies to be effective) will moderate the relationship between political skill and job performance......, demonstrating stronger predictability under high enterprising job demands. Research limitations/implications - The present results suggest that political skill is a better predictor of job performance under situations of high enterprising job demands than under conditions of low enterprising job demands......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to determine whether political skill is equally effective in its prediction of job performance for different job demands. Design/methodology/approach - This paper uses self-report sources of employee performance and self-report of political skill after several...

  1. The job demands-resources model of burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Bakker, A.B.; Nachreiner, F.; Schaufeli, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    The job demands-resources (JD-R) model proposes that working conditions can be categorized into 2 broad categories, job demands and job resources. that are differentially related to specific outcomes. A series of LISREL analyses using self-reports as well as observer ratings of the working

  2. Psychological empowerment, job insecurity and employee engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius W. Stander

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The psychological empowerment of employees might affect their engagement. However, psychological empowerment and employee engagement might also be influenced by job insecurity.Research purposes: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological empowerment, job insecurity and employee engagement.Motivation for the study: Employee engagement results in positive individual and organisational outcomes and research information about the antecedents will provide valuable information for the purposes of diagnosis and intervention.Research design, approach and method: A correlational design was used. Survey design was conducted among 442 employees in a government and a manufacturing organisation. The measuring instruments included the Psychological Empowerment Questionnaire, the Job Insecurity Inventory, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale.Main findings: Statistically significant relationships were found between psychological empowerment, job insecurity and employee engagement. A multivariate analysis of variance showed that affective job insecurity had a main effect on three dimensions of psychological empowerment (viz. competence, meaning and impact and on employee engagement. Affective job insecurity moderated the effect of psychological empowerment on employee engagement.Practical implications: The implication of the results is that interventions that focus on the psychological empowerment of employees (viz. meaningfulness, competence, self-determination and impact will contribute to the engagement (vigour, dedication and absorption of employees. If job insecurity is high, it is crucial to attend to the psychological empowerment of employees.Contribution: This study contributes to knowledge about the conditions that precede employee engagement, and shows that the dimensions of psychological empowerment (namely experienced meaningfulness, competence, impact and self-determination play an important role

  3. Job-demand for Learning and Job-related Learning: the Mediating Effect of Job Performance Improvement Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, Mark; Bartram, T.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether job-performance-improvementinitiatives mediate the relationship between individuals’ job-demand for learning and job-related learning. Data were obtained from 115 full-time\\ud employees in a diverse range of occupations. A partial least squares analysis revealed that job-performance-improvement-initiatives mediate partially the effects of job-demand for learning on job-related learning. Several implications\\ud for future research and policy are drawn from the findi...

  4. Perceived job demands relate to self-reported health complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Schreuder, K.J.; Koopmans, P.C.; Groothoff, J.W.

    Background Illness and illness behaviour are important problems in the Dutch workforce. Illness has been associated with job demands, with high demands relating to poorer health. It has not been reported whether subjective health complaints relate to job demands. Aims To investigate whether

  5. Job demands-resources theory: Taking stock and looking forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B; Demerouti, Evangelia

    2017-07-01

    The job demands-resources (JD-R) model was introduced in the international literature 15 years ago (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001). The model has been applied in thousands of organizations and has inspired hundreds of empirical articles, including 1 of the most downloaded articles of the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (Bakker, Demerouti, & Euwema, 2005). This article provides evidence for the buffering role of various job resources on the impact of various job demands on burnout. In the present article, we look back on the first 10 years of the JD-R model (2001-2010), and discuss how the model matured into JD-R theory (2011-2016). Moreover, we look at the future of the theory and outline which new issues in JD-R theory are worthwhile of investigation. We also discuss practical applications. It is our hope that JD-R theory will continue to inspire researchers and practitioners who want to promote employee well-being and effective organizational functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. PENGARUH JOB DEMANDS, JOB RESOURCES DAN PERSONAL RESOURCES TERHADAP WORK ENGAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Restu Ayu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to identify the influence of job demands, job resources and personal resources toward work engagement, define the best predictors of work engagement and the influence of work engagement towards turnover intention. Structural equation modeling was used in this research to estimate the influence of variables simultaneously. This research was conducted to 116 samples of manufacturing employees. The results showed that job demands have direct effect to work engagement. Job demands and personal resources are significant predictors of work engagement. Personal resources are the best predictor of work engagement. Work engagement itself has negative and significant influence to turnover intention. Keywords: work engagement, job demands, job resources, personal resourcesABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis  pengaruh job demands, job resources dan personal resources terhadap work engagement, menentukan variabel yang paling memengaruhi work engagement dan bagaimana pengaruh work engagement terhadap turnover intention. Alat analisis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah structural equation modeling (SEM. SEM digunakan untuk mengestimasi pengaruh variabel secara simultan. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada 116 sampel karyawan manufaktur. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa job demands berpengaruh langsung terhadap work engagement. Job demands dan personal resources berpengaruh signifikan terhadap work engagement, sedangkan job resources merupakan prediktor tertinggi dari work engagement. Work engagement berpengaruh negatif dan signifikan terhadap turnover intention. Kata kunci: work engagement, job demands, job resources, personal resources

  7. High-demand jobs: age-related diversity in work ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluiter, Judith K

    2006-07-01

    High-demand jobs include 'specific' job demands that are not preventable with state of the art ergonomics knowledge and may overburden the bodily capacities, safety or health of workers. An interesting question is whether the age of the worker is an important factor in explanations of diversity in work ability in the context of high-demand jobs. In this paper, the work ability of ageing workers is addressed according to aspects of diversity in specific job demands and the research methods that are needed to shed light upon the relevant associated questions. From the international literature, a body of evidence was elicited concerning rates of chronological ageing in distinct bodily systems and functions. Intra-age-cohort differences in capacities and work ability, however, require (not yet existing) valid estimates of functional age or biological age indices for the specific populations of workers in high-demand jobs. Many studies have drawn on the highly demanding work of fire-fighters, ambulance workers, police officers, medical specialists, pilots/astronauts and submarine officers. Specific job demands in these jobs can be physical, mental or psychosocial in origin but may cause combined task-level loadings. Therefore, the assessment of single demands probably will not reveal enough relevant information about work ability in high-demand jobs and there will be a call for more integrated measures. Existing studies have used a variety of methodologies to address parts of the issue: task analyses for quantifying physical work demands, observations of psychological and physiological parameters, measures of psychosocial work demands and health complaints. Specific details about the work ability of ageing workers in high-demand jobs are scarce. In general, specific demands are more likely to overtax the capacities of older workers than those of younger workers in high-demand jobs, implying greater repercussions for health, although these effects also vary considerably

  8. Job demands and decision control predicted return to work: the rapid-RTW cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Aasen Haveraaen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to help workers with long-term sickness absence return to work (RTW, it is important to understand factors that either impede or facilitate employee’s reintegration into the labour force. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the impact of psychological work characteristics on time-to first RTW in sick listed employees in Norway. Methods The study was designed as a cohort study of 543 employees participating in 50 different RTW programmes. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ was used to gather information on the psychological work conditions. The participants were followed for up to 18 months after they started treatment in the RTW programme. Survival analyses were used to investigate the association between psychological work conditions and time-to first RTW. Results Having high psychological job demands (HR = .654; 95% CI: .513–.832 and low decision control (HR = 1.297; 95% CI: 1.010–1.666 were both independent predictors of delayed RTW. Employees in low-strain jobs (low demands/high control (HR = 1.811; 95% CI: 1.287–2.549 and passive jobs (low demands/low control (HR = 1.599; 95% CI: 1.107–2.309, returned to work earlier compared to employees in high-strain jobs (high demands/low control. No difference was found for active jobs (high demands/high control. Conclusion This study revealed that high psychological demands, low control, and being in a high strain job reduced the probability of early RTW in sick listed employees. RTW programmes should therefore increase the focus on these issues.

  9. Synergistic interaction effect between job control and social support at work on general psychological distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östergren, Per-Olof; Canivet, Catarina; Moghadassi, Mahnaz; Lindeberg, Sara; Karasek, Robert; Isacsson, Sven-Olof

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the interaction between job control and social support at work on common mental disorders. To examine whether there is a synergistic interaction effect between job control and social support at work on general psychological distress and whether it differs by the level of job demands. Methods About 1,940 male and female workers from the Malmö Shoulder and Neck Study were chosen for this cross-sectional study. Job control, social support at work, and job demands were measured by the Swedish version of the Job Content Questionnaire, and general psychological distress was assessed by the General Health Questionnaire. Results A significant excessive risk increase for general psychological distress was observed when workers had both low job control and low social support at work in both men and women. The synergistic effect was stronger in women, when job demands were low (Rothman’s synergy index was 2.16 vs. 1.51 when job demands were high). However, in male workers, while a strong synergistic effect between job control and social support at work was found when job demands were low (synergy index was 9.25), there was an antagonistic effect when job demands were high (synergy index was 0.52). Conclusions There was a synergistic interaction effect between job control and social support at work on general psychological distress, but the synergistic effect or its effect size differed by the level of job demands and gender. An atomic, additive approach to the risk assessment of the psychosocial work characteristics on common mental disorders could be misleading or lead to a risk underestimation. PMID:20582551

  10. How job demands affect absenteeism? The mediating role of work-family conflict and exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, Michela; Guglielmi, Dina; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Violante, Francesco Saverio

    2016-01-01

    To investigate how psychosocial factors (such as job demands and work-family conflict) produce absenteeism in the workplace, using the health impairment process of the job demands-resources model. According to this model, job demands lead to burnout (often measured with the emotional exhaustion component), which in turn could lead to outcomes (such as absenteeism). Work-family conflict (WFC) was also studied, because of contradictory results collected in the existing literature on absenteeism in the workplace, regarding the role of WFC in causing absenteeism. Data were collected on 245 workers using both subjective (questionnaire on psychological risk factors and work-related health) and objective data (sickness leave frequency records). To test the hypothesis that job demands and WFC contribute to absenteeism in the workplace, a subsequent mediation analysis was used, which analysed both (a) the subsequent mediation of WFC and emotional exhaustion and (b) the separate roles played by the mediators proposed (WFC and emotional exhaustion). Job demands affect absenteeism through the subsequent mediation of WFC and emotional exhaustion. In addition, emotional exhaustion mediates the relationship between job demands and absenteeism, while WFC does not. In conclusion, subsequent mediation highlights the role of emotional exhaustion in causing absenteeism; in fact, when emotional exhaustion is included in the analysis, job demands are associated with higher levels of absenteeism. The results of this study suggest that without the concurrent contribution of emotional exhaustion, WFC does not influence absenteeism in the workplace. Our findings are useful for organizations that aim to reduce absenteeism.

  11. The Job Demands-Resources model: Further evidence for the buffering effect of personal resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime A. Tremblay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: In work and organisational psychology, the adverse effects of job demands have often been demonstrated empirically for various indicators of job strain.Research purpose: Using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model as a theoretical framework, the present study examined the role of compassion satisfaction, conceptualised as a personal resource, in buffering the relationship between job demands and job strain.Motivation for the study: Accordingly, four demanding aspects of the job (i.e. role overload, insufficiency, ambiguity and conflict and one personal resource (i.e. compassion satisfaction were used to test the central hypothesis that the interaction between (high job demands and (low personal resources produces the highest levels of anxiety and depression as indicators of job strain.Research design, approach and method: Hypotheses were tested amongst 122 military chaplains.Main findings: Results showed that compassion satisfaction partially moderated the relationship between job demands and job strain. More specifically, when compassion satisfaction was high, the effect of role overload on job strain was significantly reduced. However, the relationships between the other three role stressors and job strain were not offset by compassion satisfaction.Practical/managerial implications: The theoretical and practical implications of these findings for the JD-R model are discussed.Contribution/value-add: Despite the limitations of this study, the present findings still have important implications for future research and practice. Our findings highlight the fact that the empowerment of employees’ personal resources, as outlined in the JD-R model, may not only be of value for employees to thrive, but may also be particularly beneficial in terms of compassion satisfaction being viewed as a protective factor to adverse working conditions.

  12. Job Demands, Job Resources, Burnout, Work Engagement, and Their Relationships: An Analysis Across Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Anja; Elst, Tinne Vander; Baillien, Elfi; Sercu, Maarten; Schouteden, Martijn; De Witte, Hans; Godderis, Lode

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight in the importance of job demands and resources and the validity of the Job Demands Resources Model across sectors. We used one-way analyses of variance to examine mean differences, and multi-group Structural Equation Modeling analyses to test the strength of the relationships among job demands, resources, burnout, and work engagement across the health care, industry, service, and public sector. The four sectors differed in the experience of job demands, resources, burnout, and work engagement, but they did not vary in how (strongly) job demands and resources associated with burnout and work engagement. More attention is needed to decrease burnout and increase work engagement, particularly in industry, service, and the public sector. The Job Demands-Resources model may be helpful in this regard, as it is valid across sectors.

  13. High Job Demands, Still Engaged and Not Burned Out? The Role of Job Crafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakanen, Jari J; Seppälä, Piia; Peeters, Maria C W

    2017-08-01

    Traditionally, employee well-being has been considered as resulting from decent working conditions arranged by the organization. Much less is known about whether employees themselves can make self-initiated changes to their work, i.e., craft their jobs, in order to stay well, even in highly demanding work situations. The aim of this study was to use the job demands-resources (JD-R model) to investigate whether job crafting buffers the negative impacts of four types of job demands (workload, emotional dissonance, work contents, and physical demands) on burnout and work engagement. A questionnaire study was designed to examine the buffering role of job crafting among 470 Finnish dentists. All in all, 11 out of 16 possible interaction effects of job demands and job crafting on employee well-being were significant. Job crafting particularly buffered the negative effects of job demands on burnout (7/8 significant interactions) and to a somewhat lesser extent also on work engagement (4/8 significant interactions). Applying job crafting techniques appeared to be particularly effective in mitigating the negative effects of quantitative workload (4/4 significant interactions). By demonstrating that job crafting can also buffer the negative impacts of high job demands on employee well-being, this study contributed to the JD-R model as it suggests that job crafting may even be possible under high work demands, and not only in resourceful jobs, as most previous studies have indicated. In addition to the top-down initiatives for improving employee well-being, bottom-up approaches such as job crafting may also be efficient in preventing burnout and enhancing work engagement.

  14. Feeling successful as an entrepreneur : A job demands — Resources approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, J.; Gorgievski, M.; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.; Schalk, R.

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study among 277 Dutch entrepreneurs investigates how entrepreneurs’ job demands relate to their work-related strain and work engagement, as well as their feelings of subjective success. As such it contributes to the literature firstly by focusing on psychological rather than

  15. Do high job demands increase intrinsic motivation or fatigue or both? The role of job control and job social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Hagedoorn, M.

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether job control and job social support reduce signs of fatigue and enhance intrinsic motivation among employees facing high job demands. 555 nurses (mean age 35.5 yrs) working at specialized units for patients with different levels of mental deficiency completed surveys regarding: (1)

  16. Fairness perceptions as a moderator in the curvilinear relationships between job demands, and job performance and job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, O

    2001-01-01

    Activation theory suggests that intermediate rather than low or high levels of quantitative job demands benefit job performance and job satisfaction among managers. Using an equity theory framework, I hypothesize that perceptions of effort-reward fairness moderate these inverted U-shaped

  17. Stressful work, psychological job strain, and turnover: A 2-year prospective cohort study of truck drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Croon, Einar M.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Blonk, Roland W. B.; Broersen, Jake P. J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a model that combines existing organizational stress theory and job transition theory, this 2-year longitudinal study examined antecedents and consequences of turnover among Dutch truck drivers. For this purpose, self-reported data on stressful work (job demands and control), psychological

  18. Job crafting, work engagement, and psychological distress among Japanese employees: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraya, Asuka; Shimazu, Akihito; Eguchi, Hisashi; Kamiyama, Kimika; Hara, Yujiro; Namba, Katsuyuki; Kawakami, Norito

    2017-01-01

    Job crafting, an employee-initiated job design/redesign, has become important for employees' well-being. However, most studies on the relationship between job crafting and employees' well-being have been conducted in western countries; thus, it is unclear whether job crafting can be effectively applied to Asian cultures, such as Japan, which emphasizes group harmony. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations of self-reported job crafting with work engagement and psychological distress among employees in Japan. A questionnaire survey through the internet was conducted among all employees of a manufacturing company in Japan. We analyzed the data from 894 respondents, all employees with regular employment. Job crafting, work engagement, and psychological distress were assessed using the Japanese version of the Job Crafting Questionnaire, the Japanese version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ), respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression showed that increasing structural job resources, social job resources, and challenging job demands was significantly and positively associated with work engagement (β = 0.31, p < 0.001; β = 0.14, p < 0.001; β = 0.36, p < 0.001, respectively). For psychological distress, increasing structural job resources was significantly and negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -0.15, p < 0.001). Our study suggests that increasing structural job resources is associated with higher work engagement and lower psychological distress. In addition, increasing social job resources and challenging job demands are also associated with higher work engagement.

  19. Job demands, job resources and work engagement of academic staff in South African higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rothmann

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the work engagement of academics in selected South African higher education institutions as well as the impact of job demands and job resources on their work engagement. Stratified random samples (N = 471 were drawn from academic staff in three higher education institutions in South Africa. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES and the Job Demands-Resources Scale (JDRS were administered. The results confirmed a two-factor structure of work engagement, consisting of vigour and dedication. Six reliable factors were extracted on the JDRS, namely organisational support, growth opportunities, social support, overload, advancement and job insecurity. Job resources (including organisational support and growth opportunities predicted 26% of the variance in vigour and 38% of the variance in dedication. Job demands (overload impacted on dedication of academics at low and moderate levels of organisational support.

  20. Retention of women accountants: The interaction of job demands and job resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Ribeiro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Most CEOs in South Africa are chartered accountants (CAs. Retaining women CAs might therefore lead to an increase in women in leadership. The Job Demands-Resources model presents a framework to investigate organisational job-related factors that promote or deter voluntary turnover of women CAs.Research purpose: The primary objective was to investigate which organisational factors promote or reduce the risk of turnover intentions for South African women CAs. The secondary objective was to investigate the moderating potential of job resources on the relationship between job demands and turnover intentions.Motivation for the study: There is a fair amount of research on the problems associated with the retention of women CAs in public practice but very little is known about how those problems interact with each other, and whether there are factors that could buffer them.Research design, approach, and method: The study consisted of a sample (n = 851 of women CAs in public practice firms nationally in South Africa. We used structural equation modelling together with moderated regression analysis.Main findings: Job demands promote turnover intentions, whereas job resources have a negative effect on turnover intentions. Counter-intuitively a negative direct effect was found between job insecurity and turnover intentions. Statistical support was found for the moderating role of all job resources, except financial advancement, on the relationship between work–family conflict and turnover intentions; and growth opportunities, on the relationship between job insecurity and turnover intentions.Practical/managerial implications: No job resource measured could buffer the impact of job overload on turnover intentions.Contribution: This is the first study to investigate factors that may retain women CAs in public practice audit, tax, and advisory firms (Big Four Accountancy Firms using the JD-R model. Few studies have investigated the buffering

  1. Job Demand and Job Resources related to the turnover intention of public health nurses: An analysis using a Job Demands-Resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Aya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the job demands and job resources of public health nurses based on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, and to build a model that can estimate turnover intention based on job demands and job resources.Method By adding 12 items to the existing questionnaire, the author created a questionnaire consisting of 10 factors and 167 items, and used statistical analysis to examine job demands and job resources in relation to turnover intention.Results Out of 2,668 questionnaires sent, 1993 (72.5%) were returned. Considering sex-based differences in occupational stress, I analyzed women's answers in 1766 (66.2%) mails among the 1798 valid responses. The average age of respondents was 41.0±9.8 years, and the mean service duration was 17.0±10.0 years. For public health nurses, there was a turnover intention of 9.2%. The "job demands" section consisted of 29 items and 10 factors, while the "job resources" section consisted of 54 items and 22 factors. The result of examining the structure of job demands and job resources, leading to turnover intention was supported by the JD-R model. Turnover intention was strong and the Mental Component Summary (MCS) is low in those who had many job demands and few job resources (experiencing 'burn-out'). Enhancement of work engagement and turnover intention was weak in those who had many job resources. This explained approximately 60% of the dispersion to "burn-out", and approximately 40% to "work engagement", with four factors: work suitability, work significance, positive work self-balance, and growth opportunity of job resources.Conclusion This study revealed that turnover intention is strong in those who are burned out because of many job demands. Enhancement of work engagement and turnover intention is weak in those with many job resources. This suggests that suitable staffing and organized efforts to raise awareness of job significance are effective in reducing

  2. The effect of globalization on employee psychological health and job satisfaction in Malaysian workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Mohd Awang; Dollard, Maureen F; Winefield, Anthony H

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of globalization on employee psychological health and job satisfaction via job characteristics (i.e., job demands and job resources) in an emerging economy, that of Malaysia. As external factors are regarded as influences on the working environment, we hypothesized that global forces (increased pressure and competition) would have an impact on burnout and job satisfaction via increased demands (role conflict, emotional demands) and reduced resources (supervisor support, coworkers support). Data were collected using a population based survey among 308 employees in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Participants were approached at home during the weekend or on days off from work. Only one participant was selected per household. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data. Nearly 54% of respondents agreed that they need to work harder, 25% agreed that their job was not secure and 24% thought they had lost power and control on the job due to global trade competition. Consistent with our predictions, demands mediated the globalization to burnout relationship, and resources mediated the globalization to job satisfaction relationship. Together, these results support the idea that external factors influence work conditions and in turn employee health and job satisfaction. We conclude that the jobs demands-resources framework is applicable in an Eastern setting and that globalization is a key antecedent of working environments.

  3. Job Resources Boost Work Engagement, Particularly when Job Demands Are High

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B.; Hakanen, Jari J.; Demerouti, Evangelia; Xanthopoulou, Despoina

    2007-01-01

    This study of 805 Finnish teachers working in elementary, secondary, and vocational schools tested 2 interaction hypotheses. On the basis of the job demands-resources model, the authors predicted that job resources act as buffers and diminish the negative relationship between pupil misbehavior and work engagement. In addition, using conservation…

  4. Testing and extending the triple match principle in the nursing profession: a generational perspective on job demands, job resources and strain at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Tremblay, Melanie; Trépanier, Sarah-Geneviève; Fernet, Claude; Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle

    2014-02-01

    The Triple Match Principle offers insight into the interactive interplay between job demands and job resources in the prediction of work-related strain. The aim of this article was to examine the interplay among job demands, job resources and strain in the nursing profession (the Triple Match Principle) and to gain insight into potential generational differences by investigating generation as a moderator of that interplay. No research has been done to evaluate generational differences in the Triple Match Principle. In a context of nursing shortages, it seems important to examine the relevance of the Triple Match Principle with respect to different generations of nurses. Cross-sectional study. A total of 1254 public healthcare sector nurses in Quebec, Canada, completed a questionnaire in the autumn of 2010. The questionnaire was used to assess cognitive, emotional and physical job demands and resources; psychological distress; psychosomatic complaints; and turnover intention. The results supported the Triple Match Principle and showed that job resources were more likely to buffer the effect of job demands on strain as the degree of match in qualitative dimension among demands, resources and strain increased (33·3% of triple-match interactions, 22·22% of double-match interactions and 16·67% non-match interactions were significant). Moreover, generation played a key role in this interplay, as it increased the number of significant qualitative interactions among job demands, job resources and strain. The results underscore the necessity of providing adequate job resources tailored to the specific job demands nurses face, to counteract the negative effects of those demands. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Psychosocial safety climate buffers effects of job demands on depression and positive organizational behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Garry B; Dollard, Maureen F; Winefield, Anthony H; Dormann, Christian; Bakker, Arnold B

    2013-01-01

    In a general population sample of 2343 Australian workers from a wide ranging employment demographic, we extended research testing the buffering role of psychosocial safety climate (PSC) as a macro-level resource within the health impairment process of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. Moderated structural equation modeling was used to test PSC as a moderator between emotional and psychological job demands and worker depression compared with control and social support as alternative moderators. We also tested PSC as a moderator between depression and positive organizational behaviors (POB; engagement and job satisfaction) compared with control and social support as moderators. As expected we found PSC moderated the effects of job demands on depression and further moderated the effects of depression on POB with fit to the data that was as good as control and social support as moderators. This study has shown that PSC is a macro-level resource and safety signal for workers acting to reduce demand-induced depression. We conclude that organizations need to focus on the development of a robust PSC that will operate to buffer the effects of workplace psychosocial hazards and to build environments conducive to worker psychological health and positive organizational behaviors.

  6. Who Seeks Job Resources, and Who Avoids Job Demands? The Link Between Dark Personality Traits and Job Crafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roczniewska, Marta; Bakker, Arnold B

    2016-10-08

    Although job crafting has been linked repeatedly to positive employee and organizational outcomes, its detrimental side has not been well explored. To understand the way dark personality traits affect the type of crafting in which employees engage, this research focuses on two frameworks: the PEN (psychopathy, extraversion, and neuroticism) framework and the Dark Triad (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism). In Study 1, we collected data on the PEN traits and job crafting from 155 individuals in various occupations. We found that neuroticism was negatively related to seeking structural job resources, whereas psychoticism was negatively related to seeking social job resources. We also found that extraversion was positively related to seeking structural and social job resources and to seeking challenging job demands. In Study 2, we examined how the Dark Triad traits predicted job crafting among police officers (N = 135). The results showed that narcissism was positively related to seeking social job resources and challenges, whereas psychopathy was negatively related to seeking social resources. Age and narcissism were positive predictors of reducing job demands. We conclude that personality plays an important role when choosing how to craft one's job. We discuss the practical implications of these findings.

  7. Engaging leadership in the job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to integrate leadership into the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. Based on self-determination theory, it was argued that engaging leaders who inspire, strengthen, and connect their followers would reduce employee’s levels of burnout and increase their levels

  8. Job control, job demands and social support at work in relation to cardiovascular risk factors in MONICA 1995, Göteborg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, D; Rosengren, A; Dotevall, A; Lappas, G; Wilhelmsen, L

    1999-12-01

    Job control and work environment are related to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but there is limited understanding of the independent risks associated with these factors. To investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and biological risk factors for both sexes for a random population sample in Göteborg, Sweden. A cross-sectional study. We used an age-stratified random sample of men and women aged 25-64 years comprising 1200 men and 1412 women, from which 746 men and 872 women responded to the invitation for screening, which included questionnaires and physical/laboratory investigations in 1995. Women had lower job control than did men (P=0.00001); job demands were equal and social support at work slightly higher among women (P=0.04). Job control was positively related to education and social group. Smoking women had low job control and high job demands. Women with high grades of psychological stress had low job control and low social support at work (P=0.001 and P=0.01). For both sexes job demands were high (P=0.0001) among those who reported high psychological stress. Men with high job control and high social support at work were more physically active during leisure time. Subjects with job strain had low social support (P=0.01). Job-stress factors were not related to biological coronary risk factors. Women had lower job control than did men. Job control was positively related to education, social class and physical activity. Psychosocial factors were not related to biological coronary risk factors.

  9. Burnout and engagement in relation with job demands and resources among dental staff in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Ronald C; Freeman, Ruth

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the psychological health--in particular, levels of burnout and engagement, job demands, job resources, and general psychological distress--among dental staff in Northern Ireland. Three hundred questionnaires were administered to all dental offices in the western part of Northern Ireland. The questionnaire consisted of 'Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI)', 'Job Demands in Dentistry measure', 'Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES)', 'Job Resources in dentistry measure', and 'General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)'. Overall response rate among all staff members was 45% (for general dental practitioners: 65%). Burnout mean scores were unfavourable when compared with MBI manual norm scores, 26% had scores in the 'high' categories of both emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DP). This is an indication of severe burnout risk. Time pressure, financial worries, and difficult patients appeared to be the most prominent work demands (mean scores >3). All job demands' scales correlated significantly (P r work resource. GHQ mean score for all was 1.05 (SD = 0.51). No difference in mean score was found between dentists and other staff (F(1,123) = 1.08, NS). With 'case level' set at a score >3 as a cut-off point, 25% of the subjects have to be considered cases. Burnout is a serious threat for the dental team in this region of Northern Ireland, especially among general dental practitioners. One-quarter of the dentists were categorized as having a serious burnout risk. Dentists appeared to have most trouble with the work environment aspects: time pressure and financial worries. Furthermore, the proportion of those suffering from psychological distress was unusually high. In contrast to these findings, encouraging levels of engagement were identified. It is recommended that attention for burnout risk is given priority by dental associations. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Scheduling Non-Preemptible Jobs to Minimize Peak Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Yaw

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines an important problem in smart grid energy scheduling; peaks in power demand are proportionally more expensive to generate and provision for. The issue is exacerbated in local microgrids that do not benefit from the aggregate smoothing experienced by large grids. Demand-side scheduling can reduce these peaks by taking advantage of the fact that there is often flexibility in job start times. We focus attention on the case where the jobs are non-preemptible, meaning once started, they run to completion. The associated optimization problem is called the peak demand minimization problem, and has been previously shown to be NP-hard. Our results include an optimal fixed-parameter tractable algorithm, a polynomial-time approximation algorithm, as well as an effective heuristic that can also be used in an online setting of the problem. Simulation results show that these methods can reduce peak demand by up to 50% versus on-demand scheduling for household power jobs.

  11. Perceived safety climate, job demands, and coworker support among union and nonunion injured construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Marion; Baltz, Davis; Gassel, Margy; Kirsch, Luz; Vaccaro, Diane

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated injured construction workers' perceptions of workplace safety climate, psychological job demands, decision latitude, and coworker support, and the relationship of these variables to the injury severity sustained by the workers. Injury severity was assessed using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), which evaluates functional limitations. Worker perceptions of workplace variables were determined by two instruments: (a) the Safety Climate Measure for Construction Sites and (b) the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The overall model explained 23% of the variance in injury severity, with unique contributions provided by union status, the Safety Climate Score, and Psychological Job Demands. A positive significant correlation was found between injury severity and the Safety Climate Scores (r = .183, P = .003), and between the Safety Climate Scores and union status (r = .225, P Coworker Support, the responses between union and nonunion workers were very similar, indicating an overall high degree of job satisfaction. However, workers who experienced their workplace as more safe also perceived the level of management (r = -.55, P coworker (r = -.31, P < .001) support as being higher. The findings of this study underscore the critical need for construction managers to alert workers to dangerous work practices and conditions more frequently, and express concern and praise workers for safe work in a manner that is culturally acceptable in this industry. Workplace interventions that decrease the incidence and severity of injuries, but that are flexible enough to meet a variety of potentially competing imperatives, such as production deadlines and client demands, need to be identified.

  12. Learning and strain among newcomers: a three-wave study on the effects of job demands and job control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taris, Toon W; Feij, Jan A

    2004-11-01

    The present 3-wave longitudinal study was an examination of job-related learning and strain as a function of job demand and job control. The participants were 311 newcomers to their jobs. On the basis of R. A. Karasek and T. Theorell's (1990) demand-control model, the authors predicted that high demand and high job control would lead to high levels of learning; low demand and low job control should lead to low levels of learning; high demand and low job control should lead to high levels of strain; and low demand and high job control should lead to low levels of strain. The relation between strain and learning was also examined. The authors tested the hypotheses using ANCOVA and structural equation modeling. The results revealed that high levels of strain have an adverse effect on learning; the reverse effect was not confirmed. It appears that Karasek and Theorell's model is very relevant when examining work socialization processes.

  13. Job satisfaction and psychological health of medical doctors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Employees should be happy at their work, considering the amount of time they devote to it throughout their working life. There is paucity of data on the job satisfaction and psychological health of medical doctors in Nigeria. Objective: To assess the level of job satisfaction and its relationship to psychological ...

  14. Job satisfaction and psychological health of bankers in Calabar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Satisfied employees tend to be healthier and more productive. There is no known study on the overall job satisfaction and psychological health of bank employees in Nigeria. Objective: To assess the level of job satisfaction and its relationship to psychological health among bank employees in a southern city of ...

  15. The Job Demands-Resources Model: An Analysis of Additive and Joint Effects of Demands and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiao; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Taris, Toon W.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the additive, synergistic, and moderating effects of job demands and job resources on well-being (burnout and work engagement) and organizational outcomes, as specified by the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. A survey was conducted among two Chinese samples: 625 blue collar workers and 761 health professionals. A…

  16. Burnout, psychological morbidity, job stress, and job satisfaction in Chinese neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyu; Pu, Juncai; Zhong, Xiaoni; Zhu, Dan; Yin, Dinghong; Yang, Lining; Zhang, Yuqing; Fu, Yuying; Wang, Haiyang; Xie, Peng

    2017-05-02

    To investigate the prevalence of and personal and professional characteristics associated with burnout, psychological morbidity, job stress, and job satisfaction in Chinese neurologists. The China Neurologist Association conducted a national cross-sectional study from September 2014 to March 2015. A questionnaire including the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, the Consultants' Mental Health Questionnaire, and questions assessing personal and professional characteristics, career satisfaction, and current doctor-patient relationships was administered. A total of 693 directors of neurology departments and 6,111 neurologists in 30 Chinese provinces returned surveys. Overall, 53.2% of responding neurologists experienced burnout, 37.8% had psychological morbidity, 50.7% had high levels of job stress, 25.7% had low levels of job satisfaction, 76.9% had poor doctor-patient relationships, and 58.1% regretted becoming a doctor. Factors independently associated with burnout were lower income, more hours worked per week, more nights on call per month, working in public hospitals, psychological morbidity, high levels of job stress, low levels of job satisfaction, and poor doctor-patient relationships. Factors independently associated with psychological morbidity included lower income, more nights on call per month, working in enterprise-owned hospitals, burnout, high levels of job stress, and low levels of job satisfaction. Burnout and psychological morbidity are common in Chinese neurologists. Burnout is the single greatest predictor of neurologists' psychological morbidity, high job stress, and low job satisfaction. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Work Demands-Burnout and Job Engagement-Job Satisfaction Relationships: Teamwork as a Mediator and Moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Basarovska, Vera; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sasho; Angeleska, Nada; Atanasovska, Aneta

    2015-03-15

    Few studies have examined teamwork as mediator and moderator of work demands-burnout and job engagement-job satisfaction relationships in healthcare workers (HCWs) in South-East Europe. To assess mediation and moderation effect of teamwork on the relationship between independent (work demands or job engagement) and dependent (burnout or job satisfaction) variables. Work demands, burnout, job engagement, and job satisfaction were measured with Hospital Experience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and Job Satisfaction Survey, respectively. Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was used for assessment of teamwork. In order to examine role of teamwork as a mediating variable we fit series of regression models for burnout and job satisfaction. We also fit regression models predicting outcome (burnout or job satisfaction) from predictor (work demands or job engagement) and moderator (teamwork) variable. Teamwork was partial mediator of work demands-burnout relationship and full mediator of job engagement-job satisfaction relationship. We found that only job engagement-job satisfaction relationship was moderated by teamwork. Occupational health services should target detection of burnout in HCWs and implementation of organizational interventions in hospitals, taking into account findings that teamwork predicted reduced burnout and higher job satisfaction.

  18. Work Demands-Burnout and Job Engagement-Job Satisfaction Relationships: Teamwork as a Mediator and Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Basarovska, Vera; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sasho; Angeleska, Nada; Atanasovska, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined teamwork as mediator and moderator of work demands-burnout and job engagement-job satisfaction relationships in healthcare workers (HCWs) in South-East Europe. AIM: To assess mediation and moderation effect of teamwork on the relationship between independent (work demands or job engagement) and dependent (burnout or job satisfaction) variables. METHODS: Work demands, burnout, job engagement, and job satisfaction were measured with Hospital Experience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and Job Satisfaction Survey, respectively. Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was used for assessment of teamwork. In order to examine role of teamwork as a mediating variable we fit series of regression models for burnout and job satisfaction. We also fit regression models predicting outcome (burnout or job satisfaction) from predictor (work demands or job engagement) and moderator (teamwork) variable. RESULTS: Teamwork was partial mediator of work demands-burnout relationship and full mediator of job engagement-job satisfaction relationship. We found that only job engagement-job satisfaction relationship was moderated by teamwork. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational health services should target detection of burnout in HCWs and implementation of organizational interventions in hospitals, taking into account findings that teamwork predicted reduced burnout and higher job satisfaction. PMID:27275218

  19. Towards a Job Demands-Resources Health Model: Empirical Testing with Generalizable Indicators of Job Demands, Job Resources, and Comprehensive Health Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Brauchli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model commonly have a heterogeneous focus concerning the variables they investigate—selective job demands and resources as well as burnout and work engagement. The present study applies the rationale of the JD-R model to expand the relevant outcomes of job demands and job resources by linking the JD-R model to the logic of a generic health development framework predicting more broadly positive and negative health. The resulting JD-R health model was operationalized and tested with a generalizable set of job characteristics and positive and negative health outcomes among a heterogeneous sample of 2,159 employees. Applying a theory-driven and a data-driven approach, measures which were generally relevant for all employees were selected. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that the model fitted the data. Multiple group analyses indicated invariance across six organizations, gender, job positions, and three times of measurement. Initial evidence was found for the validity of an expanded JD-R health model. Thereby this study contributes to the current research on job characteristics and health by combining the core idea of the JD-R model with the broader concepts of salutogenic and pathogenic health development processes as well as both positive and negative health outcomes.

  20. BEYOND JOB POSITIONS. A SOCIAL RESPONSE TO THE CHANGES IN JOB DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Pirog

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an analysis of the recent changes in the job market and discuss the process this triggered in the social politics of the welfare states. We examine the economic reasons for the changes in job demand and furthermore explore the associated changes in the social structures. New forms of employment and gratification demand a restructurization in the social politics in order to elasticise the job supply. The mismatch between the demand and supply on the job market may result in unemployment, work outside the norms of the law and a growing deficit of social security. This in turn leads to the situation where the sale of own work force doesn't always result in a dignified life standard. As a result, new ways to support people outside the regular job market need to be found. These new solution are essential in the modern society where the distribution of work is an important issue shaping the social bonds and individual identities.

  1. Self-Efficacy and Workaholism as Initiators of the Job Demands-Resources Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Dina; Simbula, Silvia; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Depolo, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate school principals' well-being by using the job demands-resources (JD-R) model as a theoretical framework. It aims at making a significant contribution to the development of this model by considering not only job demands and job resources, but also the role of personal resources and personal demands as…

  2. The Job Demands-Resources Model in China: Validation and Extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Q.

    2014-01-01

    The Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) Model assumes that employee health and well-being result from the interplay between job demands and job resources. Based on its openheuristic nature, the JD-R model can be applied to various occupational settings, irrespective of the particular demands and resources

  3. Job Insecurity and Innovative Work Behaviour: A Psychological Contract Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Niesen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is considered to be of crucial importance for organisational survival and growth, and in this respect employees play a leading role, as they are the ones who develop innovative ideas. At the same time, the struggle for organisational survival and growth gives rise to perceptions of job insecurity. To date, few studies have explored how employees’ innovative work behaviour (IWB is influenced by the perceived threat of job loss (i.e. job insecurity. As both job insecurity and IWB are increasingly salient in light of organisational change and competition, the present study examines the relationship between job insecurity and IWB, as well as the role of psychological contract breach in explaining this relationship. We hypothesized a negative relation between job insecurity and innovative work behaviour, with psychological contract breach as a mediator in this relationship. Participants were 190 employees from an industrial organisation that had faced restructuring and downsizing for several years. Contrary to our predictions, no direct association was found between job insecurity and the two sub-dimensions of innovative work behaviour (i.e., idea generation and idea implementation. Indirect relationships, however, were found between job insecurity and the two types of IWB through psychological contract breach. Surprisingly, psychological contract breach was positively related to idea generation and idea implementation. These findings shed new light on the relationship between job insecurity and IWB.

  4. Job demand-control and job stress at work: A cross-sectional study among prison staff

    OpenAIRE

    Akbari, Jafar; Akbari, Rouhollah; Shakerian, Mahnaz; Mahaki, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Job stress can impose significant costs to the workplaces and organizations due to some issues such as absenteeism, less productivity, and medical costs. Job overload and lack of decision latitude can lead to job stress. The current study aimed to investigate the job demands and control as predictor of job stress and its relationship, with some of the demographic characteristics of Iranian prison staff. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 171 male employees workin...

  5. The relationship of the job demands-control-support model with vigor across time: testing for reciprocality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon, Galit; Shmuel, Samuel; Shirom, Arie

    2012-11-01

    We used a longitudinal design to investigate the hypotheses that the components of the Job Demands-Control-Support model and changes in their levels over time predict subsequent changes in levels of positive affect of vigor over time, and vice versa. Our study was conducted on a sample of adults working in a variety of occupations (N = 909, 68% men) at three points in time (T1, T2, and T3), over a period of about four years, controlling for neuroticism and other potential confounding variables. Job control at T1 and increase in its levels from T1 to T2 predicted an increase from T2 to T3 in the levels of vigor, whereas for social support, only its level at T1 predicted an increase from T2 to T3 in levels of vigor. An increase from T1 to T2 in levels of job demands predicted an increase from T2 to T3 in levels of vigor only for those rated low on neuroticism. Vigor at T1 predicted an increase from T2 to T3 in levels of job control and social support, but not changes from T2 to T3 in levels of job demands. The reciprocal causal relationship between job resources and vigor exists regardless of the demands of the work environment. © 2012 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2012 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  6. job satisfaction and psychological health of medical doctors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... Satisfied respondents were least likely to have psychological disorder. Conclusion: ... screening instrument designed to detect current diagnosable .... meta-analysis: they reported that correlation between job satisfaction and ...

  7. Psychosocial job characteristics and psychological distress / well-being: the mediating role of personal goal facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanti, Renato; van der Doef, Margot; Maes, Stan; Violani, Cristiano; Lazzari, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of personal goal facilitation through work (PGFW), defined as perceptions of the extent to which one's job facilitates the attainment of one's personal goals, in the association between psychosocial job characteristics and psychological distress and job-related well-being. Questionnaire data from 217 nurses (84% female, with a mean age of 42.7 years, SD=7.2) were analyzed. Participants completed the following measures: the Leiden Quality of Work Questionnaire for Nurses, Workplace Goal Facilitation Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (short version). A cross-sectional study design was applied. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results indicated that unfavorable psychosocial job characteristics (high demands, low control, and low social support) were associated with lower PGFW. Furthermore, personal goal facilitation through work explained significant additional variance (from 2 to 11%) in psychological distress (somatic complaints and emotional exhaustion) and job-related well-being (personal accomplishment, job satisfaction, and work engagement), controlling for demographic indicators and psychosocial job characteristics. Finally, the results provided support for the mediating effects of PGFW between all psychosocial job characteristics and all outcomes, except in the case of depersonalization. This study suggests that hindered personal goal facilitation may be a mechanism through which psychosocial job characteristics have a negative impact on employees' well-being.

  8. Job Satisfaction and Psychological Health of Long Distance Drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional analytical study was designed to assess the level of and factors affecting job satisfaction and psychological health among long distance drivers in Benin City, Edo, Nigeria. A 21-item Job satisfaction questionnaire and the Golberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28) were used for data collection ...

  9. Decision-Making Processes in the Workplace: How Exhaustion, Lack of Resources and Job Demands Impair Them and Affect Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschi, Andrea; Demerouti, Evangelia; Sartori, Riccardo; Weller, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to connect more the I/O and the decision-making psychological domains, by showing how some common components across jobs interfere with decision-making and affecting performance. Two distinct constructs that can contribute to positive workplace performance have been considered: decision-making competency (DMCy) and decision environment management (DEM). Both factors are presumed to involve self-regulatory mechanisms connected to decision processes by influencing performance in relation to work environment conditions. In the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, the present study tested how such components as job demands, job resources and exhaustion can moderate decision-making processes and performance, where high resources are advantageous for decision-making processes and performance at work, while the same effect happens with low job demands and/or low exhaustion. In line with the formulated hypotheses, results confirm the relations between both the decision-making competences, performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role) and moderators considered. In particular, employees with low levels of DMCy show to be more sensitive to job demands toward in-role performance, whereas high DEM levels increase the sensitivity of employees toward job resources and exhaustion in relation to extra-role performance. These findings indicate that decision-making processes, as well as work environment conditions, are jointly related to employee functioning. PMID:28529491

  10. Decision-Making Processes in the Workplace: How Exhaustion, Lack of Resources and Job Demands Impair Them and Affect Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ceschi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to connect more the I/O and the decision-making psychological domains, by showing how some common components across jobs interfere with decision-making and affecting performance. Two distinct constructs that can contribute to positive workplace performance have been considered: decision-making competency (DMCy and decision environment management (DEM. Both factors are presumed to involve self-regulatory mechanisms connected to decision processes by influencing performance in relation to work environment conditions. In the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R model, the present study tested how such components as job demands, job resources and exhaustion can moderate decision-making processes and performance, where high resources are advantageous for decision-making processes and performance at work, while the same effect happens with low job demands and/or low exhaustion. In line with the formulated hypotheses, results confirm the relations between both the decision-making competences, performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role and moderators considered. In particular, employees with low levels of DMCy show to be more sensitive to job demands toward in-role performance, whereas high DEM levels increase the sensitivity of employees toward job resources and exhaustion in relation to extra-role performance. These findings indicate that decision-making processes, as well as work environment conditions, are jointly related to employee functioning.

  11. Decision-Making Processes in the Workplace: How Exhaustion, Lack of Resources and Job Demands Impair Them and Affect Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschi, Andrea; Demerouti, Evangelia; Sartori, Riccardo; Weller, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to connect more the I/O and the decision-making psychological domains, by showing how some common components across jobs interfere with decision-making and affecting performance. Two distinct constructs that can contribute to positive workplace performance have been considered: decision-making competency (DMCy) and decision environment management (DEM). Both factors are presumed to involve self-regulatory mechanisms connected to decision processes by influencing performance in relation to work environment conditions. In the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, the present study tested how such components as job demands, job resources and exhaustion can moderate decision-making processes and performance, where high resources are advantageous for decision-making processes and performance at work, while the same effect happens with low job demands and/or low exhaustion. In line with the formulated hypotheses, results confirm the relations between both the decision-making competences, performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role) and moderators considered. In particular, employees with low levels of DMCy show to be more sensitive to job demands toward in-role performance, whereas high DEM levels increase the sensitivity of employees toward job resources and exhaustion in relation to extra-role performance. These findings indicate that decision-making processes, as well as work environment conditions, are jointly related to employee functioning.

  12. Job demands, job resources, and behavior in times of sickness: An analysis across German nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel; Winter, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2017-03-03

    The concept of presenteeism, that is, employees coming to work despite being sick, has recently received more attention in the literature. Presenteeism not only threatens employees' health but also substantially drains productivity and drives considerable costs. When they are sick, employees have the choice of whether to go to work or to stay at home. Therefore, determinants of (sickness) absenteeism and presenteeism should be examined simultaneously. Nursing homes are faced with a particularly high prevalence of both absenteeism and presenteeism and are therefore a relevant object of investigation. The aim of our study is to analyze the effect of job demands and job resources on absenteeism, presenteeism, and the tendency to choose one behavior (being absent or being present in times of sickness) rather than the other over the last 12 months. To do so, we identify the determinants of absenteeism and/or presenteeism behavior based on theory and existing research about absenteeism, presenteeism, and job demands and job resources. After our empirical analysis, we provide explanations for our findings and offer practical suggestions for how to decrease the frequencies of absenteeism and presenteeism. In this study, a sample of 212 nurses from German nursing homes was used for an ordinal logistic regression analysis. Our results show that role overload significantly increases the frequencies of both absenteeism and presenteeism. A good team climate decreases absenteeism and increases the tendency to choose presenteeism rather than absenteeism, whereas strategic training and development opportunities decrease presenteeism and increase the tendency to choose absenteeism rather than presenteeism.

  13. Psychosocial safety climate moderates the job demand-resource interaction in predicting workgroup distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, Maureen F; Tuckey, Michelle R; Dormann, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) arises from workplace policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety that are largely driven by management. Many work stress theories are based on the fundamental interaction hypothesis - that a high level of job demands (D) will lead to psychological distress and that this relationship will be offset when there are high job resources (R). However we proposed that this interaction really depends on the organizational context; in particular high levels of psychosocial safety climate will enable the safe utilization of resources to reduce demands. The study sample consisted of police constables from 23 police units (stations) with longitudinal survey responses at two time points separated by 14 months (Time 1, N=319, Time 2, N=139). We used hierarchical linear modeling to assess the effect of the proposed three-way interaction term (PSC×D×R) on change in workgroup distress variance over time. Specifically we confirmed the interaction between emotional demands and emotional resources (assessed at the individual level), in the context of unit psychosocial safety climate (aggregated individual data). As predicted, high emotional resources moderated the positive relationship between emotional demands and change in workgroup distress but only when there were high levels of unit psychosocial safety climate. Results were confirmed using a split-sample analysis. Results support psychosocial safety climate as a property of the organization and a target for higher order controls for reducing work stress. The 'right' climate enables resources to do their job. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Job demand-control and job stress at work: A cross-sectional study among prison staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Jafar; Akbari, Rouhollah; Shakerian, Mahnaz; Mahaki, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Job stress can impose significant costs to the workplaces and organizations due to some issues such as absenteeism, less productivity, and medical costs. Job overload and lack of decision latitude can lead to job stress. The current study aimed to investigate the job demands and control as predictor of job stress and its relationship, with some of the demographic characteristics of Iranian prison staff. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 171 male employees working in four prisons located in Ilam, Iran. The sampling method was census and all four prisons’ staff were selected to respond the Job Content Questionnaires. Finally, the data were analyzed using t-test or independent samples test as well as SPSS 20. Results: The highest amount of job demand (mean = 21.28) and the lowest amount of job control on average (9.76) were reported by those staff working in Darehshahr prison. There was also a significant relationship between job post and job control among the prison staff (β = −0.375, P = 0.001). Conclusion: The level of job stress reported by prison staff was high in this study mainly caused by high job demand and low job control, especially in Darehshahr prison staff. PMID:28546980

  15. Job demand-control and job stress at work: A cross-sectional study among prison staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Jafar; Akbari, Rouhollah; Shakerian, Mahnaz; Mahaki, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Job stress can impose significant costs to the workplaces and organizations due to some issues such as absenteeism, less productivity, and medical costs. Job overload and lack of decision latitude can lead to job stress. The current study aimed to investigate the job demands and control as predictor of job stress and its relationship, with some of the demographic characteristics of Iranian prison staff. This study was performed on 171 male employees working in four prisons located in Ilam, Iran. The sampling method was census and all four prisons' staff were selected to respond the Job Content Questionnaires. Finally, the data were analyzed using t-test or independent samples test as well as SPSS 20. The highest amount of job demand (mean = 21.28) and the lowest amount of job control on average (9.76) were reported by those staff working in Darehshahr prison. There was also a significant relationship between job post and job control among the prison staff (β = -0.375, P = 0.001). The level of job stress reported by prison staff was high in this study mainly caused by high job demand and low job control, especially in Darehshahr prison staff.

  16. Daily fluctuations in teachers' well-being: a diary study using the Job Demands-Resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbula, Silvia

    2010-10-01

    The study tests the dynamic nature of the Job Demands-Resources model with regard to both motivational and health impairment processes. It does so by examining whether daily fluctuations in co-workers' support (i.e., a typical job resource) and daily fluctuations in work/family conflict (i.e., a typical job demand) predict day-levels of job satisfaction and mental health through work engagement and exhaustion, respectively. A total of 61 schoolteachers completed a general questionnaire and a daily survey over a period of five consecutive work days. Multilevel analyses provided evidence for both the above processes. Consistently with the hypotheses, our results showed that day-level work engagement mediated the impact of day-level co-workers' support on day-level job satisfaction and day-level mental health, after general levels of work engagement and outcome variables had been controlled for. Moreover, day-level exhaustion mediated the relationship between day-level work/family conflict and day-level job satisfaction and day-level mental health after general levels of exhaustion and outcome variables had been controlled for. These findings provide new insights into the dynamic psychological processes that determine daily fluctuations in employee well-being. Such insights may be transformed into job redesign strategies and other interventions designed to enhance work-related psychological well-being on a daily level.

  17. job satisfaction and psychological health of medical doctors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... mainly due to poor working conditions and poor infrastructural ... The questionnaire contained three sections: 1) respondents' socio-demographic characteristics and work history;. 2) respondents' job satisfaction and. 3) psychological health ..... level and psychological well being of healthcare providers in a ...

  18. PSYCHOLOGICAL VALENCES IN THE DESIGN AND REDESIGN OF JOBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alic BIRCA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the design and redesign of jobs under psychological aspect. For many years, the design and redesign of jobs have been treated more economically, i.e. by reducing staff costs. Although in the short-term, this approach has had positive economic effects, in the long-term the economic effects have been negative. Starting from this point of view, the authors attempt to highlight the problems that the psychological aspects involve in the design and redesign of jobs. Given the psychological aspects in the design of jobs aspects, are taken into consideration, certain problems that can have a far greater impact on organizational performance, may be anticipated and excluded.

  19. The Effect of Job Demand-Control-Social Support Model on Nurses' Job Satisfaction in Specialized Teaching Hospitals, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Negussie, Nebiat; Kaur, Geetinder

    2016-01-01

    Background The job demand-control-social support model has been widely studied in western countries but has not been theoretically addressed on health workers of sub-Saharan African countries. Therefore, this study investigates the relationship between Job Demand-Control-Support Model and job satisfaction in specialized teaching hospitals in Ethiopia. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted from September 2014 to May 2015 in three public specialized teaching hospitals in Ethiopia. Among...

  20. Employees facing high job demands: How to keep them fit, satisfied, and intrinsically motivated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Nagao, DH

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine why some employees faced with high job demands feel fatigued, dissatisfied, and unmotivated, whereas others feel fatigued but satisfied and intrinsically motivated. It is argued and demonstrated that two job conditions, namely job control and job

  1. Beyond the job demand control (-support) model : explaining stress reactions in nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisanti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    Nurses have been identified as having a risk of experiencing stress and burnout. The nature and organization of the job make nursing inherently difficult. Research highlights that occupational stress is largely dependent on psychosocial job characteristics, such as job demands and job resources. The

  2. Perseverative Cognition as an Explanatory Mechanism in the Relation Between Job Demands and Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laethem, Michelle; Beckers, Debby G J; Geurts, Sabine A E; Garefelt, Johanna; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Leineweber, Constanze

    2017-09-12

    The aim of this longitudinal three-wave study was to examine (i) reciprocal associations among job demands, work-related perseverative cognition (PC), and sleep quality; (ii) PC as a mediator in-between job demands and sleep quality; and (iii) continuous high job demands in relation to sleep quality and work-related PC over time. A representative sample of the Swedish working population was approached in 2010, 2012, and 2014, and 2316 respondents were included in this longitudinal full-panel survey study. Structural equation modelling was performed to analyse the temporal relations between job demands, work-related PC, and sleep quality. Additionally, a subsample (N = 1149) consisting of individuals who reported the same level of exposure to job demands during all three waves (i.e. stable high, stable moderate, or stable low job demands) was examined in relation to PC and sleep quality over time. Analyses showed that job demands, PC, and poor sleep quality were positively and reciprocally related. Work-related PC mediated the normal and reversed, direct across-wave relations between job demands and sleep quality. Individuals with continuous high job demands reported significantly lower sleep quality and higher work-related PC, compared to individuals with continuous moderate/low job demands. This study substantiated reciprocal relations between job demands, work-related PC, and sleep quality and supported work-related PC as an underlying mechanism of the reciprocal job demands-sleep relationship. Moreover, this study showed that chronically high job demands are a risk factor for low sleep quality.

  3. Job Insecurity as a Social Psychological Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuykova T.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses a relatively new phenomenon of job insecurity. It provides an analysis of the various interpretations of the phenomenon given by Russian and foreign researchers, focuses on its social economical determinants and consequences for individuals and organizations. The paper concludes with an outline of some possible ways of overcoming the negative consequences of job insecurity — as for individuals, as for organizations, as for the society as a whole.

  4. Physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout: A systematic review of prospective studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanda, Francine Nesello; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; González, Alberto Durán; Gabani, Flávia Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome that results from chronic stress at work, with several consequences to workers’ well-being and health. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. The PubMed, Science Direct, PsycInfo, SciELO, LILACS and Web of Science databases were searched without language or date restrictions. The Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Prospective studies that analyzed burnout as the exposure condition were included. Among the 993 articles initially identified, 61 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 36 were analyzed because they met three criteria that must be followed in prospective studies. Burnout was a significant predictor of the following physical consequences: hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, hospitalization due to cardiovascular disorder, musculoskeletal pain, changes in pain experiences, prolonged fatigue, headaches, gastrointestinal issues, respiratory problems, severe injuries and mortality below the age of 45 years. The psychological effects were insomnia, depressive symptoms, use of psychotropic and antidepressant medications, hospitalization for mental disorders and psychological ill-health symptoms. Job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, new disability pension, job demands, job resources and presenteeism were identified as professional outcomes. Conflicting findings were observed. In conclusion, several prospective and high-quality studies showed physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout. The individual and social impacts of burnout highlight the need for preventive interventions and early identification of this health condition in the work environment. PMID:28977041

  5. Physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout: A systematic review of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Albieri Jodas Salvagioni

    Full Text Available Burnout is a syndrome that results from chronic stress at work, with several consequences to workers' well-being and health. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. The PubMed, Science Direct, PsycInfo, SciELO, LILACS and Web of Science databases were searched without language or date restrictions. The Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Prospective studies that analyzed burnout as the exposure condition were included. Among the 993 articles initially identified, 61 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 36 were analyzed because they met three criteria that must be followed in prospective studies. Burnout was a significant predictor of the following physical consequences: hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, hospitalization due to cardiovascular disorder, musculoskeletal pain, changes in pain experiences, prolonged fatigue, headaches, gastrointestinal issues, respiratory problems, severe injuries and mortality below the age of 45 years. The psychological effects were insomnia, depressive symptoms, use of psychotropic and antidepressant medications, hospitalization for mental disorders and psychological ill-health symptoms. Job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, new disability pension, job demands, job resources and presenteeism were identified as professional outcomes. Conflicting findings were observed. In conclusion, several prospective and high-quality studies showed physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout. The individual and social impacts of burnout highlight the need for preventive interventions and early identification of this health condition in the work environment.

  6. Physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout: A systematic review of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvagioni, Denise Albieri Jodas; Melanda, Francine Nesello; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; González, Alberto Durán; Gabani, Flávia Lopes; Andrade, Selma Maffei de

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome that results from chronic stress at work, with several consequences to workers' well-being and health. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. The PubMed, Science Direct, PsycInfo, SciELO, LILACS and Web of Science databases were searched without language or date restrictions. The Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Prospective studies that analyzed burnout as the exposure condition were included. Among the 993 articles initially identified, 61 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 36 were analyzed because they met three criteria that must be followed in prospective studies. Burnout was a significant predictor of the following physical consequences: hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, hospitalization due to cardiovascular disorder, musculoskeletal pain, changes in pain experiences, prolonged fatigue, headaches, gastrointestinal issues, respiratory problems, severe injuries and mortality below the age of 45 years. The psychological effects were insomnia, depressive symptoms, use of psychotropic and antidepressant medications, hospitalization for mental disorders and psychological ill-health symptoms. Job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, new disability pension, job demands, job resources and presenteeism were identified as professional outcomes. Conflicting findings were observed. In conclusion, several prospective and high-quality studies showed physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout. The individual and social impacts of burnout highlight the need for preventive interventions and early identification of this health condition in the work environment.

  7. Decision-Making Processes in the Workplace: How Exhaustion, Lack of Resources and Job Demands Impair Them and Affect Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrea Ceschi; Evangelia Demerouti; Riccardo Sartori; Joshua Weller

    2017-01-01

    .... In the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, the present study tested how such components as job demands, job resources and exhaustion can moderate decision-making processes and performance, where high resources are advantageous...

  8. Association of Suicidal Ideation with Job Demands and Job Resources: a Large Cross-Sectional Study of Japanese Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yasumasa; Nakata, Akinori; Sakurai, Kenji; Kawahito, Junko

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to identify the association of suicidal ideation with job demands and job resources among Japanese workers. Valid data from questionnaires that were pre-collected from 42,499 workers (34,882 males and 7617 females) were used for multilevel logistic regression analyses. Job demands and job resources were selected as potential predictors of suicidal ideation. Lifestyle variables, support from family and friends, and suffering from depressive or eating disorders were used as covariates. In the employee-level, most job demands and job resources had significant associations with the risk of suicidal ideation in both sexes. High coworker support had a significant negative association with the risk of suicidal ideation in the organization-level, irrespective of their gender. High physical demands and poor physical environment in the organization-level had significant positive associations with increased risk of suicidal ideation only among females. The risk of suicidal ideation among Japanese workers is associated with job demands and job resources in the employee-level, and coworker support in the organization-level may be important as well.

  9. Employability of Psychology Graduates and Their Job Satisfaction in Turkey: An Online Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sümer, Nebi; Helvaci, Elif; Misirlisoy, Mine

    2013-01-01

    The interest in studying psychology has dramatically increased in the recent decades in Turkey. However, only 60% of psychology graduates work in jobs related to psychology. Moreover, there is no data on employability and job distribution of psychology graduates or on their job satisfaction. In the current study, the authors' first aim was to…

  10. Psychological ownership, job satisfaction, and middle manager entrepreneurial behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, M.; Martin, L; Hughes, M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of middle managers’ entrepreneurial behavior for corporate entrepreneurship, there is still a lack of knowledge about its determinants. Knowledge of the role of individual psychological states and work attitudes remains particularly thin. Through an empirical investigation into 136 middle managers in a large Singapore telecommunications firm, this study finds that psychological ownership is positively related to entrepreneurial behavior and job satisfaction within these...

  11. Job Demand and Control Interventions: A Stakeholder-Centered Best-Evidence Synthesis of Systematic Reviews on Workplace Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Williams-Whitt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical and psychological job demands in combination with the degree of control a worker has over task completion, play an important role in reducing stress. Occupational stress is an important, modifiable factor affecting work disability. However, the effectiveness of reducing job demands or increasing job control remains unclear, particularly for outcomes of interest to employers, such as absenteeism or productivity. Objective: This systematic review reports on job demand and control interventions that impact absenteeism, productivity and financial outcomes. Methods: A stakeholder-centered best-evidence synthesis was conducted with researcher and stakeholder collaboration throughout. Databases and grey literature were searched for systematic reviews between 2000 and 2012: Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, TRIP, health-evidence.ca, Rehab+, National Rehabilitation Information Center (NARIC, and Institute for Work and Health. Articles were assessed independently by two researchers for inclusion criteria and methodological quality. Differences were resolved through consensus. Results: The search resulted in 3363 unique titles. After review of abstracts, 115 articles were retained for full-text review. 11 articles finally met the inclusion criteria and are summarized in this synthesis. The best level of evidence we found indicates that multimodal job demand reductions for either at-work or off-work workers will reduce disability-related absenteeism. Conclusion: In general, the impacts of interventions that aim to reduce job demands or increase job control can be positive for the organization in terms of reducing absenteeism, increasing productivity and cost-effectiveness. However, more high quality research is needed to further assess the relationships and quantify effect sizes for the interventions and outcomes reviewed in this study.

  12. Burnout among psychosocial oncologists in Israel: The direct and indirect effects of job demands and job resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Cohen, Miri; Rasmussen, Victoria; Turnell, Adrienne; Butow, Phyllis

    2017-12-19

    Psychosocial oncologists may be particularly vulnerable to burnout. This study aimed to assess burnout among Israeli psychosocial oncologists in relation to the Job Demands-Resources model and the coping strategies model. Participants included 85 of 128 listed psychosocial oncologists currently working with cancer patients. They completed a questionnaire assessing emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, job demands, job resources, work engagement, overcommitment, and perceived value of work. The mean level of burnout was low, whereas 16.3% experienced high levels of emotional exhaustion and only 2.4% experienced high levels of depersonalization. According to mediation analysis, overcommitment, partially mediated job demands-burnout associations, and work engagement mediated the perceived value-burnout association. Job resources and burnout were not related, either directly or indirectly. Significance of results The study extended the Job Demands-Resources model to include perceived value as an additional resource, and work-engagement and overcommitment as coping strategies. Two distinct patterns of associations were found between work characteristics and burnout: the positive-protective pattern (perceived value and work engagement) and the negative pattern (job demands and overcommitment). These two patterns should be considered for further research and for implementing preventive interventions to reduce burnout in the workplace setting.

  13. job satisfaction and psychological health of medical doctors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... Request for reprints to: S . Bello, Department of Community Medicine, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, P.O.Box. 1750 .... between job satisfaction and psychological health was calculated using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS. A total of 215 questionnaires were distributed and.

  14. Psychological obstacles to job or career change in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, L L; Hansson, R O

    1995-11-01

    Four studies involving middle-aged and older workers were conducted to (a) explore perceived obstacles to adaptive job or career changes in later-life, and (b) develop an instrument with which to identify older adults who might be more sensitive to such obstacles. A reliable instrument was developed which reflected three broad categories of perceived risk: (a) age-inappropriateness of the change, (b) potential for age-discrimination, and (c) risk of hastened obsolescence. As evidence for the convergent validity of the instrument, the results indicated a heightened sensitivity to job change obstacles among respondents with: (a) age-sensitized concerns about job and financial security, (b) poorer psychological adjustment to a plateaued career, and (c) poorer psychological and social adjustment to their own aging.

  15. Explaining Employees' Evaluations of Organizational Change with the Job-Demands Resources Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, I. J. Hetty; Bakker, Arnold B.; Euwema, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Departing from the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, the paper examined the relationship between job demands and resources on the one hand, and employees' evaluations of organizational change on the other hand. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 818 faculty members within six faculties of a Dutch university. Data were…

  16. Fatigued and dissatisfied or fatigued but satisfied? Goal orientations and responses to high job demands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Janssen, O.

    2002-01-01

    The present study tested dispositional goal orientation as an explanation for variation in responses to high job demands. Survey data from 322 university employees demonstrated that job demands were positively related to fatigue, for all combinations of goal orientation. In line with our main

  17. High-demand jobs: age-related diversity in work ability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluiter, Judith K.

    2006-01-01

    High-demand jobs include 'specific' job demands that are not preventable with state of the art ergonomics knowledge and may overburden the bodily capacities, safety or health of workers. An interesting question is whether the age of the worker is an important factor in explanations of diversity in

  18. Explaining employees' evaluations of organizational change with the job-demands resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J.H. van Emmerik (Hetty); A.B. Bakker (Arnold); M.C. Euwema (Martin)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Departing from the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, the paper examined the relationship between job demands and resources on the one hand, and employees' evaluations of organizational change on the other hand. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 818 faculty members

  19. Developing a Psychometric Instrument to Measure Physical Education Teachers' Job Demands and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tan; Chen, Ang

    2017-01-01

    Based on the job demands-resources model, the study developed and validated an instrument that measures physical education teachers' job demands-resources perception. Expert review established content validity with the average item rating of 3.6/5.0. Construct validity and reliability were determined with a teacher sample (n = 397). Exploratory…

  20. Job demands, perceptions of effort-reward fairness and innovative work behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, O

    Building on person-environment fit theory and social exchange theory, the relationship between job demands and innovative work behaviour was assumed to be moderated by fairness perceptions of the ratio between effort spent and reward received at work. This interaction of job demands with perceptions

  1. Job demands and resources of workers in a South African agricultural organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris N. Asiwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Understanding the job demands and resources experienced by workers in an agricultural organisation.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Adapted Job Demands and Resources Scale (AJDRS as well as to establish prevalent job demands and resources of employees in an agricultural organisation. Demographic differences were also investigated.Motivation of the study: The agricultural sector of any national economy plays a very important role in the overall welfare of the country. Identifying the prevalent job demands and resources in an agricultural organisation is therefore of paramount importance since the negative consequences of employees experiencing very demanding jobs with few resources have been well documented in stress literature.Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample consisted of 443 employees in an agricultural organisation. The AJDRS was used to measure the research variables.Main findings: The findings of this research show evidence for the factorial validity and reliability of the AJDRS. Statistical differences were found with regard to the job demands and resources experienced by employees in different positions.Practical/managerial implications: Interventions to improve the perceived job demands and resources in the organisation should focus on physical resources (equipment.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to knowledge concerning the job demands and resources that are prevalent in an agricultural organisation in South Africa.

  2. Does job burnout mediate negative effects of job demands on mental and physical health in a group of teachers? Testing the energetic process of Job Demands-Resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baka, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the direct and indirect - mediated by job burnout - effects of job demands on mental and physical health problems. The Job Demands-Resources model was the theoretical framework of the study. Three job demands were taken into account - interpersonal conflicts at work, organizational constraints and workload. Indicators of mental and physical health problems included depression and physical symptoms, respectively. Three hundred and sixteen Polish teachers from 8 schools participated in the study. The hypotheses were tested with the use of tools measuring job demands (Interpersonal Conflicts at Work, Organizational Constraints, Quantitative Workload), job burnout (the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory), depression (the Beck Hopelessness Scale), and physical symptoms (the Physical Symptoms Inventory). The regression analysis with bootstrapping, using the PROCESS macros of Hayes was applied. The results support the hypotheses partially. The indirect effect and to some extent the direct effect of job demands turned out to be statistically important. The negative impact of 3 job demands on mental (hypothesis 1 - H1) and physical (hypothesis 2 - H2) health were mediated by the increasing job burnout. Only organizational constraints were directly associated with mental (and not physical) health. The results partially support the notion of the Job Demands-Resources model and provide further insight into processes leading to the low well-being of teachers in the workplace. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. The Effects of Job Event Stressors and Social Support on Psychological Stress Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    種市, 康太郎; 大塚, 泰正; 小杉, 正太郎

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effects of job event stressors and social support on psychological stress reactions. A total of 2,873 male employees in an industrial research institute completed a Job Events Check List (including job event stressors) and a Job Stress Scale (including social support and psychological stress reactions). Results showed that work support had buffering effects on 5 of the 14 relationships between job event stressors and psychological stress reactions. Non-work support had...

  4. Workplace bullying: A perspective from the Job Demands-Resources model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja van den Broeck

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Workplace bullying is characterised as a counterproductive interpersonal behaviour, yielding severe consequences for both the individual and the organisation. The occurrence of workplace bullying is often attributed to a stressful work environment.Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to test the work environment hypothesis by applying the Job Demands-Resources model to workplace bullying. We expected job demands and job resources to relate to both perpetrators’ and actors’ reports of workplace bullying.Motivation for the study: We aimed to extend the outcomes examined in the Job Demands- Resources model to a specific form of counterproductive interpersonal behaviour, namely workplace bullying. From the point of view of the literature on bullying, we aimed to substantiate the well-known work environment hypothesis with empirical data.Research design, approach and method: We applied structural equation modelling on questionnaire data of a large heterogeneous sample of Flemish employees (N = 749.Main findings: Job demands and job resources interacted in the prediction of perpetrators’ reports of bullying: job demands associated positively to perpetrators’ reports of bullying particularly under the condition of high job resources. Job demands related positively to targets’ reports of bullying, while job resources related negatively. These associations were (partially mediated by emotional exhaustion.Practical/managerial implications: These results suggest that workplace bullying may indeed be reduced by good job design, that is, by limiting the job demands and increasing job resources. Particular prevention plans may be developed for exhausted employees, as they are vulnerable to workplace bullying, in terms of both becoming perpetrators and victims.Contribution/value-add: This study attests to the predictive validity of the JD-R model for perpetrators’ and targets’ reports of workplace bullying. The findings

  5. Determinants of nurses' job satisfaction: the role of work-family conflict, job demand, emotional charge and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Claudio G; Colombo, Lara; Ghislieri, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a research model explaining the causal relationship between certain antecedents (job and emotional charge, supportive management and colleagues), work-family conflict (WFC) and job satisfaction. Many research projects in health organizations have highlighted the link between high WFC and lower levels of job satisfaction. The study of these variables is important in understanding the processes of professional nurse retention. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire administered to 351 professional nurses working in a major North Italian hospital. The questionnaire measures six variables: WFC, job satisfaction, job demand, emotional charge, supportive management and supportive colleagues. The data confirmed the connection between WFC and job satisfaction, and showed the importance of some WFC predictors, such as supportive management, emotional charge and job demand, not only for their connections with WFC but also for their direct associations with job satisfaction. WFC, in health organizations, can contribute to a decrease of nurses' job satisfaction. Nursing management could achieve its aim of reducing WFC through the improvement of support from nurse coordinators, the specific organization of work models, ad hoc family-friendly policies and individual counselling programmes for nurses.

  6. Explaining worker strain and learning: how important are emotional job demands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taris, Toon W; Schreurs, Paul J G

    2009-05-01

    This study examined the added value of emotional job demands in explaining worker well-being, relative to the effects of task characteristics, such as quantitative job demands, job control, and coworker support. Emotional job demands were expected to account for an additional proportion of the variance in well-being. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 11,361 female Dutch home care employees. Hierarchical stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that low control, low support and high quantitative demands were generally associated with lower well-being (as measured in terms of emotional exhaustion, dedication, professional accomplishment and learning). Moreover, high emotional demands were in three out of four cases significantly associated with adverse well-being, in these cases accounting for an additional 1-6% of the variance in the outcome variables. In three out of eight cases the main effects of emotional demands on well-being were qualified by support and control, such that high control and high support either buffered the adverse effects of high emotional demands on well-being or increased the positive effects thereof. All in all, high emotional demands are as important a risk factor for worker well-being as well-established concepts like low job control and high quantitative job demands.

  7. Job Demands and Job Resources in Human Service Managerial Work An External Assessment ThroughWork Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Corin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Managers’ psychosocial working conditions are important for managerial sustainability in the public sector. The job demands-resources (JD-R model is a widely applied and well-recognized framework for measuring psychosocial working conditions. However, there is still a need for methodological contributions including more objective as well as qualitative ways to assess these conditions. In this study, job demands and job resources as well as the balance between them was qualitatively and externally assessed for first-line human service managers using a work content analysis method. Conditions and actions were focused upon with an external perspective. Special attention was paid to concrete examples and consequences of work characteristics with predefined criteria and cut-off points to guide the assessments. The results reveal an imbalance for human service managers between high levels of job demands and the lack of job resources available to meet these demands. Work overload, conflicting and unclear goals and tasks, emotional demands, restricted control, and lack of supervisory and organizational support generally characterized the managerial assignment. The analysis provided concrete explanations of the current work strain in this group of employees, thereby giving both short-term and long-term possibilities for improvement of managerial work and sustainability.

  8. Examining the mediating effect of work-to-family conflict on the associations between job stressors and employee psychological distress: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-08-03

    The mediating effect of work-to-family conflict (WFC) on the associations between eight types of job stressors (measured based on the job demands-control, effort-reward imbalance and organisational justice models) and psychological distress in employees was examined. This study employed a prospective design. An occupational cohort study in Japan (Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity; J-HOPE). 5859 men and 1560 women who were working for 11 firms and participated at three consecutive waves of J-HOPE, at 1-year intervals, from 2010 to 2013. Psychological distress, as measured by Kessler 6 scores. Mediation analysis using data on job stressors at baseline, WFC at 1-year follow-up and psychological distress at 2-year follow-up showed that WFC mediated 39.1% (95% CI 29.1% to 49.1%) and 44.5% (95% CI 31.4% to 51.7%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively, for men. The mediating effect of WFC was smaller for job stressors indicating reduced job resources, compared with job demands and effort. The mediating effect of WFC was somewhat larger for women than it was for men, with WFC mediating 47.5% (95% CI 22.5% to 72.6%) and 64.0% (95% CI 24.3% to 100.0%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively. WFC was a key mediator in the associations between most job stressors and employee psychological distress. Results suggest that policy measures and support from supervisors, to prevent job stressors from adding to WFC, are needed to reduce employee psychological distress. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Understanding well-being and learning of Nigerian nurses: a job demand control support model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Yvonne; van Ruysseveldt, Joris; van Dam, Karen; Mistiaen, Wilhelm; Nikolova, Irina

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated whether Nigerian nurses' emotional exhaustion and active learning were predicted by job demands, control and social support. Limited research has been conducted concerning nurses' work stress in developing countries, such as Nigeria. Accordingly, it is not clear whether work interventions for improving nurses' well-being in these countries can be based on work stress models that are developed in Western countries, such as the job demand control support model, as well as on empirical findings of job demand control support research. Nurses from Nurses Across the Borders Nigeria were invited to complete an online questionnaire containing validated scales; 210 questionnaires were fully completed and analysed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Emotional exhaustion was higher for nurses who experienced high demands and low supervisor support. Active learning occurred when nurses worked under conditions of high control and high supervisor support. The findings suggest that the job demand control support model is applicable in a Nigerian nursing situation; the model indicates which occupational stressors contribute to poor well-being in Nigerian nurses and which work characteristics may boost nurses' active learning. Job (re)design interventions can enhance nurses' well-being and learning by guarding nurses' job demands, and stimulating job control and supervisor support. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Occupational Well-being Among University Faculty: A Job Demands-Resources Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mudrák, Jiří; Zábrodská, Kateřina; Květon, Petr; Jelínek, Martin; Blatný, Marek; Šolcová, Iva; Machovcová, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 58, červenec (2017), s. 1-24 E-ISSN 1573-188X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02098S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-20856S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Academic staff * Job satisfaction * Job stress * Work engagement * Work environment * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations)

  11. High Job Demands and Low Job Control Increase Nurses' Professional Leaving Intentions: The Role of Care Setting and Profit Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendsche, Johannes; Hacker, Winfried; Wegge, Jürgen; Rudolf, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    We investigated how two types of care setting (home care and nursing home) and type of ownership (for-profit vs. public/non-profit) of geriatric care services interacted in influencing registered nurses' intention to give up their profession. In prior research, employment in for-profit-organizations, high job demands, and low job control were important antecedents of nurses' intent to leave. However, the impact of care setting on these associations was inconclusive. Therefore, we tested a mediated moderation model predicting that adverse work characteristics would drive professional leaving intentions, particularly in for-profit services and in nursing homes. A representative German sample of 304 registered nurses working in 78 different teams participated in our cross-sectional study. As predicted, lower job control and higher job demands were associated with higher professional leaving intentions, and nurses reported higher job demands in public/non-profit care than in for-profit care, and in nursing homes compared to home care. Overall, RNs in nursing homes and home care reported similar intent to leave, but in for-profit settings only, nurses working in nursing homes reported higher professional leaving intentions than did nurses in home care, which was linked to lower job control in the for-profit nursing home setting, supporting mediated moderation. Taken together, our results indicate that the interplay of care setting and type of ownership is important when explaining nurses' intentions to give up their profession. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Determinants of Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intent in Home Health Workers: The Role of Job Demands and Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yuri; Lee, Ahyoung A; Zadrozny, Michelle; Bae, Sung-Heui; Kim, Miyong T; Marti, Nathan C

    2017-01-01

    Based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, this study explored the impact of job demands (physical injury and racial/ethnic discrimination) and resources (self-confidence in job performance and recognition by supervisor/organization/society) on home health workers' employee outcomes (job satisfaction and turnover intent). Using data from the National Home Health Aide Survey (N = 3,354), multivariate models of job satisfaction and turnover intent were explored. In both models, the negative impact of demands (physical injury and racial/ethnic discrimination) and the positive impact of resources (self-confidence in job performance and recognition by supervisor and organization) were observed. The overall findings suggest that physical injury and discrimination should be prioritized in prevention and intervention efforts to improve home health workers' safety and well-being. Attention also needs to be paid to ways to bolster work-related efficacy and to promote an organizational culture of appreciation and respect. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Buffering effects of job resources on the association of overtime work hours with psychological distress in Japanese white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Ayako; Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuno, Kanami; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nakanishi, Mayuko; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the buffering effects of job resources, utilizing the job demands-control (or demand-control-support) and effort-reward imbalance models (i.e., job control, workplace social support, and extrinsic reward), on the association of overtime work hours with psychological distress in Japanese employees. A total of 1,198 participants (valid response rate = 93.7 %) from five branches of a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising the scales assessing job resources, psychological distress, and demographic characteristics. We obtained the information on working hours in the most recent month from the personnel records of the surveyed company. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. In a series of analyses, interaction term of overtime work hours with each job resource was included in the model. Significant interaction effect of overtime work hours with job control was observed. Among the low job control group, the long overtime (80 h or more) subgroup had a significantly higher prevalence odds ratio of psychological distress compared to the short overtime (44 h or less) subgroup. No significant association of overtime work hours with psychological distress was found among the high job control group. On the other hand, there was no significant interaction effect of overtime work hours with workplace social support or extrinsic reward. The present findings suggest that high job control has an effect on reducing psychological distress in relation to overtime work hours in Japanese employees.

  14. Managers’ interview invitation decisions about older job applicants: human capital, economic conditions and job demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Mulders, J.; Henkens, K.; Liu, Y.; Schippers, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Older job applicants are vulnerable to stereotype-related bias in the recruitment process. In the current study, we examined how managers’ job interview invitation decisions regarding older job applicants are influenced by applicants’ human capital-related characteristics, general economic

  15. Individual and work-unit measures of psychological demands and decision latitude and the use of antihypertensive medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, S; Andersen, J H; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyse whether psychological demands and decision latitude measured on individual and work-unit level were related to prescription of antihypertensive medication. METHODS: A total of 3,421 women and 897 men within 388 small work units completed a questionnaire concerning psychological...... working conditions according to the job strain model. Mean levels of psychological demands and decision latitude were computed for each work unit to obtain exposure measures that were less influenced by reporting bias. Dispensed antihypertensive medication prescriptions were identified in The Danish....... Supplementary analyses of 21 months follow-up were conducted. RESULTS: Among women, increasing psychological demands at individual (adjusted OR 1.54; 95 % CI 1.02-2.33) and work-unit level (adjusted OR 1.41; 95 % CI 1.04-1.90) was significantly associated with purchase of antihypertensive medication...

  16. Emotional job resources and emotional support seeking as moderators of the relation between emotional job demands and emotional exhaustion : A two-wave panel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Ven, B.; van den Tooren, M.; Vlerick, P.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the relation between emotional job demands and emotional exhaustion was investigated, as was the moderating role of emotional job resources and emotional support seeking on this relation. We hypothesized a positive lagged effect of emotional job demands on emotional exhaustion,

  17. The role of career competencies in the Job Demands: Resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, J.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Brenninkmeijer, V.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of career competencies as a mediator in the Job Demands — Resources model. Structural equation modeling with data from 305 young employed persons aged 16–30 years showed that career competencies are positively related to job resources and work engagement, but not to

  18. The Role of Career Competencies in the Job Demands-Resources Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, J.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Brenninkmeijer, V.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of career competencies as a mediator in the Job Demands - Resources model. Structural equation modeling with data from 305 young employed persons aged 16-30 years showed that career competencies are positively related to job resources and work engagement, but not to

  19. The associations of humorous coping styles, affective states, job demands and job control with the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, S.; De Goede, M.P.M.; Van Doornen, L.J.P.; Van de Schoot, R.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: There is some evidence that job demands and job resources such as job control and humorous coping may contribute to the risk of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related

  20. Resource Scarcity, Effort, and Performance in Physically Demanding Jobs: An Evolutionary Explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitesa, Marko; Thau, Stefan

    2017-10-26

    Based on evolutionary theory, we predicted that cues of resource scarcity in the environment (e.g., news of droughts or food shortages) lead people to reduce their effort and performance in physically demanding work. We tested this prediction in a 2-wave field survey among employees and replicated it experimentally in the lab. In Study 1, employees who perceived resources in the environment to be scarce reported exerting less effort when their jobs involved much (but not little) physical work. In Study 2, participants who read that resources in the environment were scarce performed worse on a task demanding more (carrying books) but not less (transcribing book titles) physical work. This result was found even though better performance increased participants' chances of additional remuneration, and even though scarcity cues did not affect individuals' actual ability to meet their energy needs. We discuss implications for managing effort and performance, and the potential of evolutionary psychology to explain core organizational phenomena. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Family nursing hospital training and the outcome on job demands, control and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Anna Olafia; Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun; Juliusdottir, Sigrun

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a family systems nursing hospital training educational program (ETI program) on nurses' and midwives' perception of job demands, control, and/or support. Of the nurses and midwives who were working in the Women's and Children's Services Division at The National University Hospital in Iceland, 479 participated in the study on three time periods from 2009 to 2011. Scores for the characteristics of job demands and job control were created to categorize participants into four job types (Karasek and Theorell, 1990). These four job types are high strain (high demand, low control), passive (low demand, low control), low strain (low demand, high control), and active (high demand, high control). However, when the data were evaluated based on the proportion of job characteristics as reported by the nurses and the midwives, no significant difference was found over time (2009 to 2011) (χ(2)=5.203, p=.518). However, based on the results from the independent t-tests at time 1, a significant difference was found amongst the high strain job group regarding perceived support from administrators and colleagues among the nurses and midwives who had taken the ETI program compared to those who had not taken the program (χ(2)=2.218, p=.034). This indicates that the health care professionals who characterized their job to be of high demand but with low control evaluated the support from their administrators and colleagues to be significantly higher if they had taken the ETI program than did the nurses and midwives who did not take the ETI program. These findings are promising because they might, in the long run, increase the nurses' and midwives' autonomy and control over their own work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrating Self-Determination and Job Demands-Resources Theory in Predicting Mental Health Provider Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreison, Kimberly C; White, Dominique A; Bauer, Sarah M; Salyers, Michelle P; McGuire, Alan B

    2018-01-01

    Limited progress has been made in reducing burnout in mental health professionals. Accordingly, we identified factors that might protect against burnout and could be productive focal areas for future interventions. Guided by self-determination theory, we examined whether supervisor autonomy support, self-efficacy, and staff cohesion predict provider burnout. 358 staff from 13 agencies completed surveys. Higher levels of supervisor autonomy support, self-efficacy, and staff cohesion were predictive of lower burnout, even after accounting for job demands. Although administrators may be limited in their ability to reduce job demands, our findings suggest that increasing core job resources may be a viable alternative.

  3. Job Demand and Job Satisfaction in Latent Groups of Turnover Intention Among Licensed Nurses in Taiwan Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Hui; Brown, Roger; Bowers, Barbara J; Chang, Wen-Yin

    2015-10-01

    Nurses' turnover intention is not dichotomous; it may reflect intent to leave the profession, intent to leave a type of facility, or intent to leave a specific workplace. In a latent class analysis (LCA) of data from 186 licensed nurses (RNs and LPNs) recruited from 25 nursing homes (NHs) in Taiwan, we classified nurses into turnover intention subgroups based on seven questionnaire items and used a multilevel contrast analysis to characterize the subgroups according to demographic and facility factors, job demand, and job satisfaction. A multilevel probit model was used to examine how job demand and job satisfaction influenced subgroup membership. Three turnover subgroups were identified: high turnover intention (12%), middle turnover intention (57%), and low turnover intention (31%). The high turnover intention subgroup comprised the youngest nurses and had the lowest percentage of registered nurses (RNs); nurses in this subgroup had worked the longest at the current NH and had the greatest likelihood of working at a for-profit facility. Nurses in the middle turnover intention subgroup had the lowest likelihood of working at a for-profit facility. Nurses in the low turnover intention subgroup were primarily RNs and had the shortest work experience in the current facility. Nurses in the high and middle turnover intention subgroups reported lower intrinsic job satisfaction than those with low turnover intention. Extrinsic job satisfaction mediated the relationship between job demand and turnover intention subgroup assignment. The results of this LCA can help target interventions to address heterogeneity of turnover intention and ultimately lessen turnover. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Job Stress Across Gender: The Importance of Emotional and Intellectual Demands and Social Support in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Montero-Simó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse whether any differences exist between the genders with respect to the effect of perceived Job Demands, Control and Support (JDCS model on how individuals reach high levels of job stress. To do this, the perceived risk of suffering an illness or having an accident in the workplace is used as an outcome measure. The study is based on the First Survey on Working Conditions in Andalusia, which has a sample of 5,496 men and 2,779 women. We carry out a multi-sample analysis with structural equation models, controlling for age and sector. The results show that the generation of job stress has a different pattern in men and women. In the case of men, the results show that only one dimension of the job demands stressor is significant (quantitative demands, whose effect on job stress is weakened slightly by the direct effects of control and support. With women, in contrast, emotional and intellectual aspects (qualitative demands are also statistically significant. Moreover, social support has a greater weakening effect on the levels of job stress in women than in men. These results suggest that applying the JDCS model in function of the gender will contribute to a greater understanding of how to reduce the levels of job stress in men and women, helping the design of more effective policies in this area.

  5. The impact of psychological empowerment and organizational commitment on Chines nurses' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Bin; Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Qu, Hui

    2014-11-10

    Abstract Background: Research findings have shown that job satisfaction of Chinese nurses is at a low level. Limited studies have focused on the impact of psychological empowerment and organizational commitment on job satisfaction of Chinese nurses. Aims: The aim of this study is to describe job satisfaction, psychological empowerment and organizational commitment of Chinese nurses and to explore the impact of psychological empowerment and organizational commitment on the nurses' job satisfaction. Methods: A total of 726 nurses were recruited in a convenience sample from 10 tertiary hospitals. Data were collected using four questionnaires including Job Satisfaction Survey, Psychological Empowerment Scale, Organizational Commitment Scale and Demographic Questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, correlation and stepwise multiple regression were used for data analysis. Results: Nurses' job satisfaction, psychological empowerment, and organizational commitment were identified at moderate levels. Nurses' job satisfaction and psychological empowerment were significantly different in terms of age and length of service; nurse job satisfaction varied with respect to marital status. Findings further indicated that nurse job satisfaction was positively correlated with psychological empowerment and organizational commitment. Psychological empowerment, organizational commitment, and marital status were significant predicting factors of nurse job satisfaction. Conclusions: This study provides evidence to help nursing managers and health policy-makers to develop intervention programs aimed at enhancing nurse job satisfaction and retaining nurses.

  6. The impact of psychological empowerment and organisational commitment on Chinese nurses' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Zhou, Wen-Bin; Qu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Research findings have shown that job satisfaction of Chinese nurses is at a low level. Limited studies have focused on the impact of psychological empowerment and organisational commitment on job satisfaction of Chinese nurses. The aim of this study is to describe job satisfaction, psychological empowerment and organisational commitment of Chinese nurses and to explore the impact of psychological empowerment and organisational commitment on the nurses' job satisfaction. A total of 726 nurses were recruited in a convenience sample from 10 tertiary hospitals. Data were collected using four questionnaires including Job Satisfaction Survey, Psychological Empowerment Scale, Organisational Commitment Scale and Demographic Questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, correlation and stepwise multiple regression were used for data analysis. Nurses' job satisfaction, psychological empowerment and organisational commitment were identified at moderate levels. Nurses' job satisfaction and psychological empowerment were significantly different in terms of age and length of service; nurse job satisfaction varied with respect to marital status. Findings further indicated that nurse job satisfaction was positively correlated with psychological empowerment and organisational commitment. Psychological empowerment, organisational commitment and marital status were significant predicting factors of nurse job satisfaction. This study provides evidence to help nursing managers and health policy-makers to develop intervention programs aimed at enhancing nurse job satisfaction and retaining nurses.

  7. The importance of genetic and shared environmental factors for the associations between job demands, control, support and burnout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Blom

    Full Text Available Within occupational health research, one of the most influential models is the Job Demands-Control-Support model. Numerous studies have applied the model to different domains, with both physical and psychological health outcomes, such as burnout. The twin design provides a unique and powerful research methodology for examining the effects of environmental risk factors on burnout while taking familial factors (genetic and shared environment into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of familial factors on the associations of burnout with job demands, control and support. A total of 14,516 individuals from the Swedish Twin Registry, who were born between 1959 and 1986, and who participated in the Study of Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE by responding to a web-based questionnaire in 2005, were included in the analyses. Of these, there were 5108 individuals in complete same-sex twin pairs. Co-twin control analyses were performed using linear mixed modeling, comparing between-pairs effects and within-pair effects, stratified also by zygosity and sex. The results indicate that familial factors are of importance in the association between support and burnout in both women and men, but not between job demands and burnout. There are also tendencies towards familial factors being involved in the association between control and burnout in men. These results offer increased understanding of the mechanisms involved in the associations between work stress and burnout.

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Burnout with Job Demands, Resources, and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Gene M.

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on job demands, resources, and attitudes and their relation with burnout in regard to the COR theory. The version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory used was explored as a moderator of the aforementioned variables. Results suggest that higher demands, lower resources, and lower adaptive organizational attitudes are…

  9. How to Keep Teachers Healthy and Growing: The Influence of Job Demands and Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Arnoud; Yamkovenko, Bogdan; Van Amersfoort, Daniël

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – Education depends on high-quality teachers who are committed to professional development and do not get burned out. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how job demands and resources can affect the health and cognitive development of teachers using the Demand-Induced Strain

  10. Job demands, burnout, and engagement among nurses: A multi-level analysis of ORCAB data investigating the moderating effect of teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Anthony; Spânu, Florina; Băban, Adriana; Panagopoulou, Efharis

    2015-01-01

    According to the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, burnout and engagement are psychological reactions that develop when individual characteristics interact with work characteristics. This study tests the JD-R model using multilevel analysis to test the main and moderating effects of teamwork effectiveness among 1156 nurses in 93 departments from seven European countries. Workload, emotional and organizational demands were positively associated with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and negatively with vigor. Emotional and organizational demands were negatively associated with dedication. Teamwork effectiveness was positively associated with engagement. We found no evidence for the moderating effect of teamwork effectiveness in reducing individual perceptions of demands. PMID:26877971

  11. Personality and leader effectiveness: a moderated mediation model of leadership self-efficacy, job demands, and job autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok-Yee; Ang, Soon; Chan, Kim-Yin

    2008-07-01

    The trait theory of leadership is advanced by a joint investigation of the mediating role of (a) leadership self-efficacy (LSE = leader's perceived capabilities to perform leader roles) in linking neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness with leader effectiveness and (b) the moderating role of job demands and job autonomy in influencing the mediation. Using K. J. Preacher, D. D. Rucker, and A. F. Hayes' (2007) moderated mediation framework, the authors tested the model (over a 2-year period) with matched data from 394 military leaders and their supervisors. Results showed that LSE mediated the relationships for neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness with leader effectiveness. Moderated mediation analyses further revealed that LSE mediated the relationships for (a) all 3 personality variables for only those leaders with low job demands; (b) neuroticism and conscientiousness for only those leaders with high job autonomy; and (c) extraversion, regardless of a leader's level of job autonomy. Results underscore the importance of accounting for leaders' situational contexts when examining the relationships between personality, LSE, and effectiveness.

  12. High quantitative job demands and low coworker support as risk factors for neck pain: Results of a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, G.A.M.; Bongers, P.M.; Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Wal, G. van der; Mechelen, W. van

    2001-01-01

    Study Design. A 3-year prospective cohort study among 1334 workers was conducted. Objective. To determine whether the work-related psychosocial factors of quantitative job demands, conflicting job demands, skill discretion, decision authority, supervisor support, coworker support, and job security

  13. Daily Job Demands and Employee Work Engagement: The Role of Daily Transformational Leadership Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breevaart, Kimberley; Bakker, Arnold B

    2017-03-30

    Using job demands-resources (JD-R) theory, the present study integrates the challenge stressor-hindrance stressor framework and leadership theory to investigate the relationship between daily transformational leadership behavior and employee work engagement. We hypothesized that daily transformational leadership behavior (a) sustains employee work engagement on days characterized by high challenge job demands, and (b) protects work engagement on days characterized by high hindrance job demands. Teachers filled out a short online questionnaire at the end of each workday during a 2-week period (N = 271 × 5.68 days = 1539). Results of latent moderated structural equation modeling showed that teachers' daily challenge demands (workload and cognitive demands) had a positive relationship with work engagement on the days transformational leadership was high (vs. low). In addition, teachers' daily hindrance demands (role-conflict, but not family to work conflict) had a negative relationship with work engagement on the days transformational leadership was low (vs. high). These findings show that the function of transformational leadership behavior changes from day to day, and depends on the type of job demand. We discuss the practical and theoretical implications of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Relationship between musculoskeletal disorders, job demands, and burnout among emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorour, Amany Sobhy; El-Maksoud, Mona M Abd

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) represent one of the most common occupational problems in nursing. MSDs can negatively impact one's quality of life. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between MSDs, job demands, and burnout among emergency nurses. The researchers hypothesized that increased job demands were associated with more MSDs and consequently higher levels of burnout. The study was conducted on a convenience sample of 58 nurses working in the emergency departments of Zagazig University Hospital and Al-Ahrar, Hospital Egypt from October to December 2010, using a cross-sectional analytic design. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire that included the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire, the Job Content Questionnaire, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The results revealed that 32.8% of the nurses were overweight and 17.2% were obese. The most common sites of pain were the neck (67.2%), shoulder (65.5%), and lower back (63.8%). Lower back pain was the most common site affected (72.4%) with a mean 5.1 on a scale ranging from 0 to 13. A positive correlation existed between the scores of job demand and burnout (r = 0.340, p burnout whereas the job demand score was the independent predictor of the number of MSDs. This study documents an increased prevalence of MSDs among emergency nurses, as predicted by increased job demand and associated with a higher level of burnout. Hence, it is important for hospital and nursing administrators to address the factors contributing to job stress and burnout, with emphasis on job satisfaction and work organization to alleviate the burden of psychosocial factors in this setting.

  15. Buffering Effect of Job Resources in the Relationship between Job Demands and Work-to-Private-Life Interference: A Study among Health-Care Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotti, Sara; Converso, Daniela

    2016-12-01

    The present study aims at investigating whether and how (1) job demands and job resources are associated with work-to-private-life interference (WLI) and (2) job resources moderate the relationship between job demands and WLI. Data were collected by a self-report questionnaire from three hospitals in Italy. The sample consisted of 889 health-care workers. All job demands (i.e., quantitative demands, disproportionate patient expectations, and verbal aggression) and job resources (i.e., job autonomy, support from superiors and colleagues, fairness, and organizational support), with the exception of skill discretion, were related to WLI. The effects of quantitative demands on WLI were moderated by support from superiors; fairness and organizational support moderate the effects of all job demands considered. Support from colleagues moderated only verbal aggression. Job autonomy did not buffer any job demands. The present study suggests that the work context has a central importance in relation to the experience of WLI among health-care workers. The results indicated that intervention in the work context may help to contain WLI. Such interventions would especially be aimed at improving the social climate within the unit and quality of the organizational process.

  16. Gender differences in psychological morbidity, burnout, job stress and job satisfaction among Chinese neurologists: a national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Juncai; Zhou, Xinyu; Zhu, Dan; Zhong, Xiaoni; Yang, Lining; Wang, Haiyang; Zhang, Yuqing; Fan, Songhua; Liu, Lanxiang; Xie, Peng

    2017-07-01

    Women are an important part of the medical workforce, yet little is known about gender differences in psychological morbidity, burnout, job stress and job satisfaction among neurologists. This study assessed gender differences in a large national sample of Chinese neurologists. Multivariate analyses were performed to examine associations. A total of 5558 neurologists were included in the analysis. Compared with their male counterparts, female neurologists were generally younger; were less likely to be married or to have children; had higher levels of education; were in practice for a shorter period of time; were less likely to hold senior roles; and had lower incomes. Male and female neurologists worked similar hours and spent a similar number of nights on call. No gender differences were found in psychological morbidity, burnout, and high levels of job stress for female and male, respectively. Women had higher emotional exhaustion scores, while men were more likely to have low levels of job satisfaction. The multivariate analysis showed that factors independently associated with psychological morbidity, burnout, high levels of job stress and low levels of job satisfaction were generally similar for women and men. These findings increase our understanding of gender differences in psychological morbidity, burnout, job stress, and job satisfaction among neurologists. As more women join the medical profession, these differences may be useful in designing medical training and practice.

  17. Relationship between job demand and burnout in nurses: does it depend on work engagement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sierra, Rosa; Fernández-Castro, Jordi; Martínez-Zaragoza, Fermín

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to deepen the understanding of the relationships among job demands, control, social support, burnout and engagement in nurses. Burnout is a prevalent phenomenon among nurses because of the interaction between high demands and low resources, according to the job demands-resources model. A descriptive, correlational design was used in a stratified random sample of 100 nurses recruited from two Spanish hospitals. Job demand, social support, control, engagement, and burnout were measured. Data were analysed by hierarchical regression analysis. Social support is a significant predictor of nurses' engagement and demands is a predictor of nurses' burnout. Work engagement moderates the relationship between job demands and burnout. The process that leads to burnout and the process that leads to engagement are not isolated processes; engagement acts as a moderator of burnout. The prevailing paradigm in combating burnout in nursing can be changed and could be based on the enhancement of nurses' strengths through increasing engagement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Positive Aging in Demanding Workplaces: The Gain Cycle between Job Satisfaction and Work Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Dina; Avanzi, Lorenzo; Chiesa, Rita; Mariani, Marco G; Bruni, Ilaria; Depolo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays organizations have to cope with two related challenges: maintaining an engaged and highly performing workforce and, at the same time, protecting and increasing employees' well-being and job satisfaction under conditions of a generalized increase of job demand, in an increasingly growing older population. According to the motivational process of the JD-R model, a work environment with many organizational resources will foster work engagement, which in turn will increase the likelihood of positive personal and organizational outcomes, such as job satisfaction, performance, and intention to stay. However, it is not clear how this motivational process could work in different age cohorts, as older workers may have different priorities to those of younger colleagues. Postulating the existence of a gain-cycle in the relationship between work engagement and outcomes, in this study we tested a longitudinal moderated mediation model in which job satisfaction increases over time through an increment in work engagement. We hypothesized that this process is moderated by job demand and aging. We collected data in public administrations in Northern Italy in order to measure work engagement and job satisfaction. 556 workers aged between 50 and 64 replied to the survey twice (the first time and 8 months later). The findings confirmed a moderated mediation model, in which job satisfaction at time 1 increased work engagement, which in turn fostered job satisfaction 8 months later, confirming the hypothesized gain-cycle. This relationship was shown to be moderated by the joint influence of job demand intensity and age: higher job demands and younger age are related to the maximum level of level gain cycle, while the same high level of job demands, when associated with older age, appears unable to stimulate a similar effect. The results confirm that, on one hand, older workers cannot be seen as a homogeneous group and, on the other hand, the importance of considering the role

  19. The associations of humorous coping styles, affective states, job demands and job control with the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibe Doosje

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: There is some evidence that job demands and job resources such as job control and humorous coping may contribute to the risk of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related affect, in order to explore their role in the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection.Motivation of the study: This study has been conducted in order to extend our understanding of the role of traditional variables like job demands and job control with humorous coping styles and affective variables with regard to the explanation of the frequency of URTI.Research design, approach and method: A sample of 2094 employees filled out questionnaires assessing job demands, job control, generic (MSHS-C, antecedent-focused and responsefocused humorous coping (QOHC and job-related affect (JAWS.Main findings: Job demands were indirectly related to the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections, mediated by their relationships with job control and negative job-related affect. Generic and response-focused humorous coping were less relevant for the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections than the presumably ‘healthy’ antecedentfocused humorous coping style. The latter showed a negative association with negative jobrelated affect. The frequency of upper respiratory tract infections was better predicted by job control and negative job-related affect than by humorous coping, in the expected directions.Practical/managerial implication: These findings may have practical relevance for the improvement of stress management interventions in organisations.Contribution/value-add: Although it was shown that healthy humorous coping does contribute to decreases in upper respiratory tract infection, job demands, job resources and negative affective state seem the most important predictors.

  20. How are changes in exposure to job demands and job resources related to burnout and engagement? : A longitudinal study among Chinese nurses and police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Q.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Taris, A.W.

    2017-01-01

    This study used a person-centered approach to examine the across-time relationships between job demands and job resources on the one hand and employee well-being (burnout and work engagement) on the other. On the basis of the job demands–resources model and conservation of resources (COR) theory,

  1. Pengaruh Dimensi-Dimensi Job Demands Dan Dimensi-Dimensi Job Resources Terhadap Employee Engagement Di Lonsum Kantor Cabang Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa, Ivi

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition, as a type of planned change, is normally targeted at several levels, that is functional resources, technological capabilities, organizational capabilities and human resources. An organization performance which is not accompanied by development of its human resources will not last. In order to be successful at implementing change, employee engagement is the main key. One of the conceptual model that can explain about employee engagement is the Job Demands-Resources Model (Demerout...

  2. Daily Use of Energy Management Strategies and Occupational Well-being: The Moderating Role of Job Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stacey L.; Zacher, Hannes; de Bloom, Jessica; Verton, Thomas M.; Lentink, Corine R.

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relationships among employees’ use of energy management strategies and two occupational well-being outcomes: job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that employees with high job demands would benefit more from using energy management strategies (i.e., including prosocial, organizing, and meaning-related strategies), compared to employees with low job demands. We tested this proposition using a quantitative diary study. Fifty-four employees provided data twice daily across one work week (on average, 7 daily entries). Supporting the hypotheses, prosocial energy management was positively related to job satisfaction. Moreover, employees with high job demands were less emotionally exhausted when using prosocial strategies. Contrary to predictions, when using organizing strategies, employees with low job demands had higher job satisfaction and lower emotional exhaustion. Under high job demands, greater use of organizing strategies was associated with lower job satisfaction and higher emotional exhaustion. Finally, use of meaning-related strategies was associated with higher emotional exhaustion when job demands were low. With this research, we position energy management as part of a resource investment process aimed at maintaining and improving occupational well-being. Our findings show that this resource investment will be more or less effective depending on the type of strategy used and the existing drain on resources (i.e., job demands). This is the first study to examine momentary effects of distinct types of work-related energy management strategies on occupational well-being. PMID:28912741

  3. Daily Use of Energy Management Strategies and Occupational Well-being: The Moderating Role of Job Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stacey L; Zacher, Hannes; de Bloom, Jessica; Verton, Thomas M; Lentink, Corine R

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relationships among employees' use of energy management strategies and two occupational well-being outcomes: job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that employees with high job demands would benefit more from using energy management strategies (i.e., including prosocial, organizing, and meaning-related strategies), compared to employees with low job demands. We tested this proposition using a quantitative diary study. Fifty-four employees provided data twice daily across one work week (on average, 7 daily entries). Supporting the hypotheses, prosocial energy management was positively related to job satisfaction. Moreover, employees with high job demands were less emotionally exhausted when using prosocial strategies. Contrary to predictions, when using organizing strategies, employees with low job demands had higher job satisfaction and lower emotional exhaustion. Under high job demands, greater use of organizing strategies was associated with lower job satisfaction and higher emotional exhaustion. Finally, use of meaning-related strategies was associated with higher emotional exhaustion when job demands were low. With this research, we position energy management as part of a resource investment process aimed at maintaining and improving occupational well-being. Our findings show that this resource investment will be more or less effective depending on the type of strategy used and the existing drain on resources (i.e., job demands). This is the first study to examine momentary effects of distinct types of work-related energy management strategies on occupational well-being.

  4. Emotional Exhaustion and Job Satisfaction in Airport Security Officers - Work-Family Conflict as Mediator in the Job Demands-Resources Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeriswyl, Sophie; Krause, Andreas; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The growing threat of terrorism has increased the importance of aviation security and the work of airport security officers (screeners). Nonetheless, airport security research has yet to focus on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction as major determinants of screeners' job performance. The present study bridges this research gap by applying the job demands-resources (JD-R) model and using work-family conflict (WFC) as an intervening variable to study relationships between work characteristics (workload and supervisor support), emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction in 1,127 screeners at a European airport. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that (a) supervisor support as a major job resource predicted job satisfaction among screeners; (b) workload as a major job demand predicted their emotional exhaustion; and (c) WFC proved to be a promising extension to the JD-R model that partially mediated the impact of supervisor support and workload on job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  5. High Job Demands, Still Engaged and Not Burned Out? The Role of Job Crafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakanen, Jari J.; Seppälä, Piia; Peeters, Maria C W

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Traditionally, employee well-being has been considered as resulting from decent working conditions arranged by the organization. Much less is known about whether employees themselves can make self-initiated changes to their work, i.e., craft their jobs, in order to stay well, even in highly

  6. The Contribution of Perceived Fit between Job Demands and Abilities to Teachers' Commitment and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogler, Ronit; Nir, Adam E.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims at exploring the common means that may improve organizational effectiveness by focusing on two main facets of organizational qualities: teacher commitment and job satisfaction. Data were collected from 841 randomly sampled teachers employed in 118 elementary schools in Israel. A quantitative questionnaire, which included…

  7. Burnout in Medical Residents: A Study Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job. The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to estimate the burnout rates among medical residents in the largest Greek hospital in 2012 and identify factors associated with it, based on the job demands-resources model (JD-R). Method. Job demands were examined via a 17-item questionnaire assessing 4 characteristics (emotional demands, intellectual demands, workload, and home-work demands' interface) and job resources were measured via a 14-item questionnaire assessing 4 characteristics (autonomy, opportunities for professional development, support from colleagues, and supervisor's support). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to measure burnout. Results. Of the 290 eligible residents, 90.7% responded. In total 14.4% of the residents were found to experience burnout. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that each increased point in the JD-R questionnaire score regarding home-work interface was associated with an increase in the odds of burnout by 25.5%. Conversely, each increased point for autonomy, opportunities in professional development, and each extra resident per specialist were associated with a decrease in the odds of burnout by 37.1%, 39.4%, and 59.0%, respectively. Conclusions. Burnout among medical residents is associated with home-work interface, autonomy, professional development, and resident to specialist ratio. PMID:25531003

  8. The role of psychological flexibility in the demands-exhaustion-performance relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onwezen, M.C.; Veldhoven, van M.J.P.M.; Biron, M.

    2014-01-01

    Employees in the service sector deal with a variety of emotional job demands due to interactions with clients. Emotional job demands often result in heightened levels of emotional exhaustion and decreased levels of performance. The current study aims to explore whether the adaptive behavioural

  9. Job conditions, psychological climate, and affective commitment as predictors of intention to quit among two groups of bank employees in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balogun,, Anthony G.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the extent to which job conditions (job demands and job control, psychological climate, and affective commitment predict turnover intention among Tellers and Interpersonal Relation Officers in some Nigerian Banks and whether affective commitment mediate the relationship between psychological climate and turnover intention. Five hundred and nineteen(tellers = 321, IRO = 198bank employees (266 males and 253 females whose ages ranged from 19 to 65 years with a mean of 34.02 years and SD of 9.54, from 11 commercial banks in Lagos, Nigeria participated in the study. Validated scales were used for data collections. The study hypotheses were tested using hierarchical multiple regression, Baron and Kenny’s (1986 mediation analysis, and t-independent sample analyses. The results revealed significant joint and independent influence of job demands, job control, psychological climate, and affective commitment on turnover intention of bank employees. Furthermore, affective commitment directly and fully mediated the relationship between psychological climate and intention to quit. The results also revealed that interpersonal relation officers (IRO showed higher tendency to quit their jobs than tellers. The researchers therefore suggested the need for bank management to modify or re-design the aspect of the job taxing their employees and invest and create positive climate that would improve their employees’ well-being.

  10. The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Psychological/Physical Health among Malaysian Working Women

    OpenAIRE

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah; Azami, Golnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: The workplace environment has a great influence on employees’ health. Job dissatisfaction has been widely recognised as a workplace stressor that can influence employees’ psychological and physical health statuses. However, job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional concept, and it is necessary to investigate its different facets and their unique consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the nine facets of job satisfaction and psychological...

  11. Directive and nondirective social support in the workplace - is this social support distinction important for subjective health complaints, job satisfaction, and perception of job demands and job control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Tone Langjordet; Eriksen, Hege Randi; Indahl, Aage; Tveito, Torill Helene

    2017-08-01

    Social support is associated with well-being and positive health outcomes. However, positive outcomes of social support might be more dependent on the way support is provided than the amount of support received. A distinction can be made between directive social support, where the provider resumes responsibility, and nondirective social support, where the receiver has the control. This study examined the relationship between directive and nondirective social support, and subjective health complaints, job satisfaction and perception of job demands and job control. A survey was conducted among 957 Norwegian employees, working in 114 private kindergartens (mean age 40.7 years, SD = 10.5, 92.8% female), as part of a randomized controlled trial. This study used only baseline data. A factor analysis of the Norwegian version of the Social Support Inventory was conducted, identifying two factors: nondirective and directive social support. Hierarchical regression analyses were then performed. Nondirective social support was related to fewer musculoskeletal and pseudoneurological complaints, higher job satisfaction, and the perception of lower job demands and higher job control. Directive social support had the opposite relationship, but was not statistically significant for pseudoneurological complaints. It appears that for social support to be positively related with job characteristics and subjective health complaints, it has to be nondirective. Directive social support was not only without any association, but had a significant negative relationship with several of the variables. Nondirective social support may be an important factor to consider when aiming to improve the psychosocial work environment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02396797. Registered 23 March 2015.

  12. Positive aging in demanding workplaces: The gain cycle between job satisfaction and work engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Guglielmi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays organizations have to cope with two related challenges: maintaining an engaged and highly performing workforce and, at the same time, protecting and increasing employees’ well-being and job satisfaction under conditions of a generalized increase of job overload, in an increasingly growing older population. According to the motivational process of the JD-R model, a work environment with many organizational resources will foster work engagement, which in turn will increase the likelihood of positive personal and organizational outcomes, such as job satisfaction, performance, and intention to stay. However, it is not clear how this motivational process could work in different age cohorts, as older workers may have different priorities to those of younger colleagues. Postulating the existence of a gain-cycle in the relationship between work engagement and outcomes, in this study we tested a longitudinal moderated mediation model in which job satisfaction increases over time through an increment in work engagement. We hypothesized that this process is moderated by job workload and aging. We collected data in public administrations in Northern Italy in order to measure work engagement and job satisfaction. 556 workers aged between 50 to 64 replied to the survey twice (the first time and eight months later. The findings confirmed a moderated mediation model, in which job satisfaction at time 1 increased work engagement, which in turn fostered job satisfaction eight months later, confirming the hypothesized gain-cycle. This relationship was shown to be moderated by the joint influence of job demand intensity and age: higher job demands and younger age are related to the maximum level of level gain cycle, while the same high level of job demands, when associated with older age, appears unable to stimulate a similar effect. The results confirm that, on one hand, older workers cannot be seen as a homogeneous group and, on the other hand, the

  13. Burnout in Medical Residents: A Study Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Zis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job. The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to estimate the burnout rates among medical residents in the largest Greek hospital in 2012 and identify factors associated with it, based on the job demands-resources model (JD-R. Method. Job demands were examined via a 17-item questionnaire assessing 4 characteristics (emotional demands, intellectual demands, workload, and home-work demands’ interface and job resources were measured via a 14-item questionnaire assessing 4 characteristics (autonomy, opportunities for professional development, support from colleagues, and supervisor’s support. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was used to measure burnout. Results. Of the 290 eligible residents, 90.7% responded. In total 14.4% of the residents were found to experience burnout. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that each increased point in the JD-R questionnaire score regarding home-work interface was associated with an increase in the odds of burnout by 25.5%. Conversely, each increased point for autonomy, opportunities in professional development, and each extra resident per specialist were associated with a decrease in the odds of burnout by 37.1%, 39.4%, and 59.0%, respectively. Conclusions. Burnout among medical residents is associated with home-work interface, autonomy, professional development, and resident to specialist ratio.

  14. Positive resources for combating job burnout among Chinese telephone operators: Resilience and psychological empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaohong; Liu, Chunqin; Zou, Guiyuan; Li, Guopeng; Kong, Linghua; Li, Ping

    2015-08-30

    Job burnout is a major concern within the service industry. However, there is a lack of research exploring positive resources for combating burnout among telephone operators. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between resilience, psychological empowerment, and job burnout, and the mediating role of psychological empowerment. A cross-sectional survey of 575 telephone operators was conducted in 2 call centers in Shandong Province, China. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess job burnout symptoms, resilience, and psychological empowerment. Hierarchical linear regression was performed to analyze the degree to which resilience and psychological empowerment are associated with job burnout, and the mediating role of psychological empowerment. The results showed that resilience and psychological empowerment had significant "net effects" on job burnout, which may represent positive resources for combating job burnout. Psychological empowerment may partially mediate the relationship between resilience and job burnout. Thus, interventions focused on resilience and psychological empowerment may be useful options for managers concerned about burnout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychological well-being among hospital personnel: the role of family demands and psychosocial work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribà-Agüir, V; Tenías-Burillo, J M

    2004-08-01

    This study investigates the effect of gender role and the psychosocial work environment on the psychological well-being of hospital staff in two general hospitals in the province of Valencia (Spain). A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 313 workers by means of a self-answered questionnaire. The outcome variable (psychological well-being) was evaluated with four dimensions of the "SF-36 Health Survey" (mental health, vitality, limitations in the emotional role and limitations in the social function). The explanatory variables were: characteristics related to gender role, professional characteristics and the psychosocial working environment evaluated according to Karasek and Johnson's demand-control-support model. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated by logistical regression. Those who have very good marital relationship have less risk of presenting bad mental health, OR 0.43 (0.24-0.78), and limitation in the social function, OR 0.43 (0.24-0.77), and in the emotional role, OR 0.35 (0.16-0.74). Those who dedicate more than 30 h a week to domestic chores have a higher risk of limitation of social function, OR 2.48 (1.16-5.31). Those exposed to high psychological demands present a higher probability of having bad mental health, OR 1.77 (1.04-3.00). Those exposed to low job social support have a higher risk of bad mental health, OR 1.86 (1.09-3.19), low vitality, OR 2.21 (1.30-3.77), and limitation in the social function, OR 1.88 (1.10-3.22). Gender role and psychosocial work environment have a negative influence on the psychological well-being of hospital staff.

  16. Characteristics of demand and psychological treatments in a university clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Labrador

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to describe the most common characteristics of patients receiving psychological treatment and the treatments administered. We analyzed a sample of 856 patients at the University Psychology Clinic of the Complutense University of Madrid. Five diagnostic categories accounted for 78.4% of demand: anxiety disorders (31.9%, no diagnosis (15.4%, other problems requiring clinical attention (14.2%, mood disorders (9.5% and adaptive disorders (7.4%. A total of 17.7% presented a comorbid diagnosis and 49.3% had received treatment previously. The mean of assessment and treatment sessions was 3.5 and 12.7, respectively. The most commonly applied techniques included psychoeducation (95.1%, cognitive restructuring (74.8%, relaxation (74.4%, and control of internal dialogue (68.1%.Of the patients that had finished contact with the clinic, 68.3% were a therapeutic success. We discuss the generalization of the results and the implications for the profession and clinical practice.

  17. Interrole conflict and self-efficacy to manage work and family demands mediate the relationships of job and family demands with stress in the job and family domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoktunowicz, Ewelina; Cieslak, Roman; Demerouti, Evangelia

    2017-09-01

    This study derives from Work-Home Resources model (ten Brummelhuis, L. L., & Bakker, A. B. (2012). A resource perspective on the work-home interface: The work-home resources model. American Psychologist, 67(7), 545-556. doi: 10.1037/a0027974 ) and Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, US: Prentice-Hall, Inc.) to investigate mechanisms responsible for the effect of job and family demands on work- and family-related perceived stress. We hypothesized that interrole conflict and self-efficacy to manage work and family demands operate either independently or sequentially transmitting the effects of demands on perceived stress. A sample of 100 employees of various occupations participated in the study conducted online in two waves: Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2) with a three-month interval. Regression analysis with bootstrapping was applied. Interrole conflict (T1) did not mediate the relationships between demands (T1) and perceived stress (T2), whereas self-efficacy (T1) mediated only those between family demands (T1) and stress (T2). However, data supported the sequential mediation hypotheses: Demands (T1) were associated with increased interrole conflict (T1) which in turn decreased self-efficacy (T1) and ultimately resulted in the elevated perceived stress at work and in the family (T2). Demands originating in one domain can impact stress both in the same and other life areas through the sequence of interrole conflict and context-specific self-efficacy.

  18. Factorial invariance, scale reliability, and construct validity of the job control and job demands scales for immigrant workers: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Landsbergis, Paul; Roux, Ana V. Diez; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Shrager, Sandi; Baron, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    Immigrants have a different social context from those who stay in their home country or those who were born to the country that immigrants now live. Cultural theory of risk perception suggests that social context influences one’s interpretation of questionnaire items. We examined psychometric properties of job control and job demand scales with US- and foreign-born workers who preferred English, Spanish, or Chinese (n=3114, mean age=58.1). Across all groups, the job control scale had acceptable Cronbach’s alpha (0.78–0.83) and equivalent factor loadings (ΔCFI<0.01). Immigrants had low alpha (0.42–0.65) for the job demands scale regardless of language, education, or age of migration. Two job-demand items had different factor loadings across groups. Among immigrants, both scales had inconsistent associations with perceived job stress and self-rated health. For a better understanding of immigrants’ job stress, the concept of job demands should be expanded and immigrants’ expectations for job control explored. (149/150 limit) PMID:20582720

  19. Factorial invariance, scale reliability, and construct validity of the job control and job demands scales for immigrant workers: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Landsbergis, Paul A; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Shrager, Sandi; Baron, Sherry

    2011-06-01

    Immigrants have a different social context from those who stay in their home country or those who were born to the country that immigrants now live. Cultural theory of risk perception suggests that social context influences one's interpretation of questionnaire items. We examined psychometric properties of job control and job demand scales with US- and foreign-born workers who preferred English, Spanish, or Chinese (n = 3,114, mean age = 58.1). Across all groups, the job control scale had acceptable Cronbach's alpha (0.78-0.83) and equivalent factor loadings (ΔCFI < 0.01). Immigrants had low alpha (0.42-0.65) for the job demands scale regardless of language, education, or age of migration. Two job-demand items had different factor loadings across groups. Among immigrants, both scales had inconsistent associations with perceived job stress and self-rated health. For a better understanding of immigrants' job stress, the concept of job demands should be expanded and immigrants' expectations for job control explored.

  20. The Associations of Job Stress and Organizational Identification with Job Satisfaction among Chinese Police Officers: The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Lu; Liu, Li; Sui, Guoyuan; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    .... This study aimed to examine the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap...

  1. Work demands, social support, and job satisfaction in eating disorder inpatient settings: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Amanda; Arcelus, Jon; Munir, Fehmidah

    2014-02-01

    In this qualitative study, we aimed to investigate work demands experienced by health-care workers in an adult eating disorder inpatient service. We also aimed to investigate the use of social support and job satisfaction in this setting. Twelve health-care workers from an eating disorder inpatient ward, including nurses, health-care support workers, and occupational therapists, participated in semistructured interviews. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. A number of work demands were discussed relating to therapeutic care, physical care, and organizational demands. Most participants discussed social support at work as being highly valuable, formally and informally, whereas external support was viewed as less important. Despite the challenges of caring for patients with eating disorders, the majority of participants reported good patient-related job satisfaction, but poor job satisfaction in relation to organizational factors. Eating disorder inpatient care is complex and demanding, necessitating effective teamwork, communication, and support systems among health-care workers. Interventions should be developed to target barriers to care, including time constraints, administrative workload, and insufficient allocation of staff. © 2013 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2013 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  2. Job Demands, Engagement, and Turnover Intentions in Polish Nurses: The Role of Work-Family Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dåderman, Anna M.; Basinska, Beata A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poland has lower ratios of employed registered nurses per 1,000 inhabitants than the EU average. Polish nurses work under miserable conditions without assisting personnel, and they reconcile their professional demands with responsibilities for their families; 96% of them are women. Rationale/Aims: This study uses Hobfoll’s conservation of resources (CORs) theory to explain the role of various resources in the improvement of work conditions in the nursing profession. Work-family conflict (WFC) and family work conflict (FWC) threaten to deplete nurses’ resources. This paper set out to (1) examine the extent to which perceived job demands (workload and interpersonal conflicts at work) and engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption) are associated with turnover intentions (the intention to leave the present workplace and the intention to leave the nursing profession); (2) attempt to determine whether levels of WFC and FWC moderate these associations. Design/Method: This study comprised 188 female registered nurses. The inclusion criterion was to live with a partner and/or have children. Results: WFC was moderately related to FWC. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only high job demands and low vigor were significantly associated with turnover intentions. WFC was experienced more intensively than FWC. Job demands, vigor, dedication, and turnover intentions had a strong effect on WFC, while absorption had a strong effect on FWC. However, levels of WFC and FWC did not significantly moderate these associations. Originality/Conclusion: The study produces new knowledge by examining a constellation of job demands, work engagement and WFC, which reflect the management of personal resources. Results from such a constellation in nurses from countries with a post-transformational economic system have not previously been discussed in the light of COR theory. Most importantly, we conclude that WFC does not intensify turnover intentions. PMID:27847481

  3. Job Demands, Engagement, and Turnover Intentions in Polish Nurses: The Role of Work-Family Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Dåderman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poland has lower ratios of employed registered nurses per 1,000 inhabitants than the EU average. Polish nurses work under miserable conditions without assisting personnel, and they reconcile their professional demands with responsibilities for their families; 96% of them are women. Rationale/Aims: This study uses Hobfoll’s Conservation of Resources (COR theory to explain the role of various resources in the improvement of work conditions in the nursing profession. Work-family conflict (WFC and family-work conflict (FWC threaten to deplete nurses’ resources. This paper set out to (1 examine the extent to which perceived job demands (workload and interpersonal conflicts at work and engagement (vigour, dedication and absorption are associated with turnover intentions (the intention to leave the present workplace and the intention to leave the nursing profession; (2 attempt to determine whether levels of WFC and FWC moderate these associations. Design/Method: This study comprised 188 female registered nurses. The inclusion criterion was to live with a partner and/or have children. Results: WFC was moderately related to FWC. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only high job demands and low vigour were significantly associated with turnover intentions. WFC was experienced more intensively than FWC. Job demands, vigour, dedication and turnover intentions had a strong effect on WFC, while absorption had a strong effect on FWC. However, levels of WFC and FWC did not significantly moderate these associations. Originality/Conclusion: The study produces new knowledge by examining a constellation of job demands, work engagement and WFC, which reflect the management of personal resources. Results from such a constellation in nurses from countries with a post-transformational economic system have not previously been discussed in the light of COR theory. Most importantly, we conclude that WFC does not intensify turnover intentions.

  4. Job Demands, Engagement, and Turnover Intentions in Polish Nurses: The Role of Work-Family Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dåderman, Anna M; Basinska, Beata A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poland has lower ratios of employed registered nurses per 1,000 inhabitants than the EU average. Polish nurses work under miserable conditions without assisting personnel, and they reconcile their professional demands with responsibilities for their families; 96% of them are women. Rationale/Aims: This study uses Hobfoll's conservation of resources (CORs) theory to explain the role of various resources in the improvement of work conditions in the nursing profession. Work-family conflict (WFC) and family work conflict (FWC) threaten to deplete nurses' resources. This paper set out to (1) examine the extent to which perceived job demands (workload and interpersonal conflicts at work) and engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption) are associated with turnover intentions (the intention to leave the present workplace and the intention to leave the nursing profession); (2) attempt to determine whether levels of WFC and FWC moderate these associations. Design/Method: This study comprised 188 female registered nurses. The inclusion criterion was to live with a partner and/or have children. Results: WFC was moderately related to FWC. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only high job demands and low vigor were significantly associated with turnover intentions. WFC was experienced more intensively than FWC. Job demands, vigor, dedication, and turnover intentions had a strong effect on WFC, while absorption had a strong effect on FWC. However, levels of WFC and FWC did not significantly moderate these associations. Originality/Conclusion: The study produces new knowledge by examining a constellation of job demands, work engagement and WFC, which reflect the management of personal resources. Results from such a constellation in nurses from countries with a post-transformational economic system have not previously been discussed in the light of COR theory. Most importantly, we conclude that WFC does not intensify turnover intentions.

  5. The Association of Psychological Empowerment and Job Burnout in Operational Staff of Tehran Emergency Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaniyoun, Aram; Shakeri, Khosro; Heidari, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Workers in social service professions are the first candidates for job burnout. The researchers believe this is due to daily exposure to stressful situations and lack of positive conditions in the workplace. It seems that psychological empowerment of staff can affect their job burnout. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between psychological empowerment and job burnout in operational staff of emergency center. This was a descriptive correlational study. A total of 1100 operational staff of emergency center were evaluated, and of which, 285 persons were selected by simple random sampling method. Data were collected using Spritzer's psychological empowerment and Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaires. SPSS software, version 18, was used for data analysis along with descriptive analytical tests. The findings of this study revealed that the majority of units (46%) were in intermediate level in terms of empowerment. Similarly, the majority of cases had intermediate level (77.5%), and a minor percentage (8.4%) had low levels of job burnout. Based on Pearson's correlation test, there was a significant invert correlation between psychological empowerment and job burnout. This inverse and significant relationship was also observed between the four components of psychological empowerment (competence, self-determination, impact, and meaning) and job burnout. According to the results of the study, policy makers and health planners can take some measures in enhancing psychological empowerment to prevent problems associated with job burnout, by identifying stressors and strategies to deal with them.

  6. Psychosocial safety climate as a lead indicator of workplace bullying and harassment, job resources, psychological health and employee engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Rebecca; Dollard, Maureen F; Tuckey, Michelle R; Dormann, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) is defined as shared perceptions of organizational policies, practices and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety, that stem largely from management practices. PSC theory extends the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) framework and proposes that organizational level PSC determines work conditions and subsequently, psychological health problems and work engagement. Our sample was derived from the Australian Workplace Barometer project and comprised 30 organizations, and 220 employees. As expected, hierarchical linear modeling showed that organizational PSC was negatively associated with workplace bullying and harassment (demands) and in turn psychological health problems (health impairment path). PSC was also positively associated with work rewards (resources) and in turn work engagement (motivational path). Accordingly, we found that PSC triggered both the health impairment and motivational pathways, thus justifying extending the JD-R model in a multilevel way. Further we found that PSC, as an organization-based resource, moderated the positive relationship between bullying/harassment and psychological health problems, and the negative relationship between bullying/harassment and engagement. The findings provide evidence for a multilevel model of PSC as a lead indicator of workplace psychosocial hazards (high demands, low resources), psychological health and employee engagement, and as a potential moderator of psychosocial hazard effects. PSC is therefore an efficient target for primary and secondary intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inbound Call Centers and Emotional Dissonance in the Job Demands – Resources Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, Monica; Emanuel, Federica; Zito, Margherita; Ghislieri, Chiara; Colombo, Lara; Cortese, Claudio G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Emotional labor, defined as the process of regulating feelings and expressions as part of the work role, is a major characteristic in call centers. In particular, interacting with customers, agents are required to show certain emotions that are considered acceptable by the organization, even though these emotions may be different from their true feelings. This kind of experience is defined as emotional dissonance and represents a feature of the job especially for call center inbound activities. Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating whether emotional dissonance mediates the relationship between job demands (workload and customer verbal aggression) and job resources (supervisor support, colleague support, and job autonomy) on the one hand, and, on the other, affective discomfort, using the job demands-resources model as a framework. The study also observed differences between two different types of inbound activities: customer assistance service (CA) and information service. Method: The study involved agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company, 352 of whom worked in the CA and 179 in the information service. The hypothesized model was tested across the two groups through multi-group structural equation modeling. Results: Analyses showed that CA agents experience greater customer verbal aggression and emotional dissonance than information service agents. Results also showed, only for the CA group, a full mediation of emotional dissonance between workload and affective discomfort, and a partial mediation of customer verbal aggression and job autonomy, and affective discomfort. Conclusion: This study’s findings contributed both to the emotional labor literature, investigating the mediational role of emotional dissonance in the job demands-resources model, and to call center literature, considering differences between two specific kinds of inbound activities. Suggestions for organizations and practitioners emerged in order to identify

  8. The job demands-resources model of work engagement in South African call centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolandi Janse van Rensburg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: A ‘sacrificial human resource strategy’ is practised in call centres, resulting in poor employee occupational health. Consequently, questions are posed in terms of the consequences of call centre work and which salient antecedent variables impact the engagement and wellbeing of call centre representatives.Research purpose: Firstly, to gauge the level of employee engagement amongst a sample of call centre representatives in South Africa and, secondly, to track the paths through which salient personal and job resources affect this engagement. More specifically, the relationships between sense of coherence, leadership effectiveness, team effectiveness and engagement were investigated, thus testing the Job Demands-Resources model of work engagement.Motivation for the study: To present an application of the Job Demands-Resources model of work engagement in a call centre environment in order to diagnose current ills and consequently propose remedies.Research design: A cross-sectional survey design was used and a non-probability convenient sample of 217 call centre representatives was selected. The measuring instruments comprise the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale to measure engagement, the Team Diagnostic Survey to measure team effectiveness, the leadership practices inventory to gauge leadership effectiveness, and the Orientation to Life Questionnaire to measure sense of coherence. A series of structural equation modelling analyses were performed.Main findings: Contrary to the ‘electronic sweatshop’ image attached to call centre jobs depicted in the literature, results show a high level of employee engagement for call centre representatives in the sample. Also, personal resources such as sense of coherence and job resources such as team effectiveness related significantly to engagement. A non-significant relationship exists between leadership effectiveness and engagement.Practical/managerial implications: Both the content and

  9. Inbound Call Centers and Emotional Dissonance in the Job Demands – Resources Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Molino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotional labor, defined as the process of regulating feelings and expressions as part of the work role, is a major characteristic in call centers. In particular, interacting with customers, agents are required to show certain emotions that are considered acceptable by the organization, even though these emotions may be different from their true feelings. This kind of experience is defined as emotional dissonance and represents a feature of the job especially for call center inbound activities. Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating whether emotional dissonance mediates the relationship between job demands (workload and customer verbal aggression and job resources (supervisor support, colleague support and job autonomy on the one hand, and, on the other, affective discomfort, using the job demands-resources model as a framework. The study also observed differences between two different types of inbound activities: customer assistance service and information service.Method: The study involved agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company, 352 of whom worked in the customer assistance service and 179 in the information service. The hypothesized model was tested across the two groups through multi-group structural equation modeling.Results: Analyses showed that customer assistance service agents experience greater customer verbal aggression and emotional dissonance than information service agents. Results also showed, only for the customer assistance service group, a full mediation of emotional dissonance between workload and affective discomfort, and a partial mediation of customer verbal aggression and job autonomy, and affective discomfort.Conclusion: This study’s findings contributed both to the emotional labor literature, investigating the mediational role of emotional dissonance in the job demands-resources model, and to call center literature, considering differences between two specific kinds of inbound activities

  10. Inbound Call Centers and Emotional Dissonance in the Job Demands - Resources Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, Monica; Emanuel, Federica; Zito, Margherita; Ghislieri, Chiara; Colombo, Lara; Cortese, Claudio G

    2016-01-01

    Emotional labor, defined as the process of regulating feelings and expressions as part of the work role, is a major characteristic in call centers. In particular, interacting with customers, agents are required to show certain emotions that are considered acceptable by the organization, even though these emotions may be different from their true feelings. This kind of experience is defined as emotional dissonance and represents a feature of the job especially for call center inbound activities. The present study was aimed at investigating whether emotional dissonance mediates the relationship between job demands (workload and customer verbal aggression) and job resources (supervisor support, colleague support, and job autonomy) on the one hand, and, on the other, affective discomfort, using the job demands-resources model as a framework. The study also observed differences between two different types of inbound activities: customer assistance service (CA) and information service. The study involved agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company, 352 of whom worked in the CA and 179 in the information service. The hypothesized model was tested across the two groups through multi-group structural equation modeling. Analyses showed that CA agents experience greater customer verbal aggression and emotional dissonance than information service agents. RESULTS also showed, only for the CA group, a full mediation of emotional dissonance between workload and affective discomfort, and a partial mediation of customer verbal aggression and job autonomy, and affective discomfort. This study's findings contributed both to the emotional labor literature, investigating the mediational role of emotional dissonance in the job demands-resources model, and to call center literature, considering differences between two specific kinds of inbound activities. Suggestions for organizations and practitioners emerged in order to identify practical implications useful both to support

  11. The job demands-resources model of work engagement in South African call centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolandi Janse van Rensburg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: A ‘sacrificial human resource strategy’ is practised in call centres, resulting in poor employee occupational health. Consequently, questions are posed in terms of the consequences of call centre work and which salient antecedent variables impact the engagement and wellbeing of call centre representatives.Research purpose: Firstly, to gauge the level of employee engagement amongst a sample of call centre representatives in South Africa and, secondly, to track the paths through which salient personal and job resources affect this engagement. More specifically, the relationships between sense of coherence, leadership effectiveness, team effectiveness and engagement were investigated, thus testing the Job Demands-Resources model of work engagement.Motivation for the study: To present an application of the Job Demands-Resources model of work engagement in a call centre environment in order to diagnose current ills and consequently propose remedies.Research design: A cross-sectional survey design was used and a non-probability convenient sample of 217 call centre representatives was selected. The measuring instruments comprise the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale to measure engagement, the Team Diagnostic Survey to measure team effectiveness, the leadership practices inventory to gauge leadership effectiveness, and the Orientation to Life Questionnaire to measure sense of coherence. A series of structural equation modelling analyses were performed.Main findings: Contrary to the ‘electronic sweatshop’ image attached to call centre jobs depicted in the literature, results show a high level of employee engagement for call centre representatives in the sample. Also, personal resources such as sense of coherence and job resources such as team effectiveness related significantly to engagement. A non-significant relationship exists between leadership effectiveness and engagement.Practical/managerial implications: Both the content and

  12. Retention in physically demanding jobs of individuals with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt Hansen, Bjarke; Kirkeskov, Lilli; Christensen, Robin

    2015-01-01

    to 4 weeks. Participants will be randomised and stratified according to their age and gender before being allocated in a 1:1 ratio to either control or additional occupational medicine intervention. Both groups will receive conventional treatment for their low back pain during the study. All......BACKGROUND: Low back pain is prevalent and is a frequent cause of disability and sick leave among working adults. Individuals with low back pain often consult general practice or other health care providers which often results in a unilateral intervention focussed on their symptoms. Employment...... and feasibility of an occupational medicine intervention for individuals with low back pain in physically demanding jobs. METHODS/DESIGN: We will conduct a randomised controlled trial enrolling 300 participants with difficulty in maintaining physically demanding jobs due to low back pain for a current period of 2...

  13. Life on the line: Job demands, perceived co-worker support for safety, and hazardous work events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nick; Chmiel, Nik; Hershcovis, M Sandy; Walls, Melanie

    2010-10-01

    The present study of 334 United Kingdom trackside workers tested an interaction hypothesis. We hypothesized, drawing on the job demands-resources framework, that perceived support for safety (from senior managers, supervisors, and coworkers) as job resources would weaken the relationship between higher job demands and more frequent hazardous work events. Consistent with social impact theory, we predicted that perceived coworker support for safety would be particularly influential when trackside workers faced higher job demands. Moderated multiple regression showed that, of all three sources of perceived support for safety, perceived coworker support for safety was most important for keeping employees safe in the face of high job demands. © 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Burnout and work engagement among teachers: an application of the job demands-resources model

    OpenAIRE

    Simbula, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The present dissertation focuses on burnout and work engagement among teachers, with especial focus on the Job-Demands Resources Model: Chapter 1 focuses on teacher burnout. It aims to investigate the role of efficacy beliefs using negatively worded inefficacy items instead of positive ones and to establish whether depersonalization and cynism can be considered two different dimensions of the teacher burnout syndrome. Chapter 2 investigates the factorial validity of the instruments u...

  15. Associations of job demands and intelligence with cognitive performance among men in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Guy G; Helms, Michael J; Plassman, Brenda L

    2008-05-06

    To examine the association of job characteristics and intelligence to cognitive status in members of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twins Registry of World War II veterans. Participants (n = 1,036) included individuals with an assessment of intelligence based on Armed Services testing in early adulthood. In late adulthood, these individuals completed the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) and occupational history as part of an epidemiologic study of aging and dementia. Occupational history was coded to produce a matrix of job characteristics. Based on factor analysis, job characteristics were interpreted as reflecting general intellectual demands (GI), human interaction and communication (HC), physical activity (PA), and visual attention (VA). Based on regression analysis of TICS-m score covarying for age, intelligence, and years of education, higher levels of GI and HC were independently associated with higher TICS-m performance, whereas higher PA was independently associated with lower performance. There was an interaction of GI and intelligence, indicating that individuals at the lower range of intellectual aptitude in early adulthood derived greater cognitive benefit from intellectually demanding work. Intellectually demanding work was associated with greater benefit to cognitive performance in later life independent of related factors like education and intelligence. The fact that individuals with lower intellectual aptitude demonstrated a stronger positive association between work and higher cognitive performance during retirement suggests that behavior may enhance intellectual reserve, perhaps even years after peak intellectual activity.

  16. Physical activity, job demand-control, perceived stress-energy, and salivary cortisol in white-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the association between physical activity and perceived job demand, job control, perceived stress and energy, and physiological arousal reflected by morning and evening concentrations of cortisol in saliva among white-collar workers.......The aim of the present study is to examine the association between physical activity and perceived job demand, job control, perceived stress and energy, and physiological arousal reflected by morning and evening concentrations of cortisol in saliva among white-collar workers....

  17. The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Psychological/Physical Health among Malaysian Working Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah; Azami, Golnaz

    2015-01-01

    The workplace environment has a great influence on employees' health. Job dissatisfaction has been widely recognised as a workplace stressor that can influence employees' psychological and physical health statuses. However, job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional concept, and it is necessary to investigate its different facets and their unique consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the nine facets of job satisfaction and psychological health and somatic complaints (i.e., sleep disorders, headache, gastro-intestinal and respiratory problems). This cross-sectional study was conducted among 567 Malaysian women working in the public sector. Data collection was conducted using a series of self-administered questionnaires. The results of this study show that there is a link between job satisfaction and psychological distress as well as four somatic complaints. Satisfaction with the nature of work was the strongest predictor for psychological distress, sleep disorders, headaches and gastro-intestinal problems. From the results of this study, we conclude that there is a link between job satisfaction and the health status of employees. In addition, job satisfaction levels vary across different dimensions and can even differ from an individual's feelings of global job satisfaction. Policies and practices should focus on improving working conditions to enhance the fit of the job and the employee.

  18. Job Satisfaction: I/O Psychology and Organizational Behavior Management Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhinney, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Perspectives on job satisfaction and its relations with job performance among members of the Industrial/Organizational Psychology (IOP) and Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) cultures are identified and compared. Comparisons include vantage points of each culture on the roles of theory and data regarding the definitions of behavior, job…

  19. Job Lists for Entry-Level Psychology Baccalaureates: Occupational Recommendations that Mismatch Qualifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajecki, D. W.

    2008-01-01

    Print and online resources provide lists of job titles they purport as suitable entry-level occupations for psychology baccalaureates. However, when considering current Bureau of Labor Statistics information, many of the recommended job types (e.g., child care worker, residential advisor, statistical assistant) do not require a bachelor's degree,…

  20. Trust in Supervisor and Job Engagement: Mediating Effects of Psychological Safety and Felt Obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Ameer A

    2017-11-17

    In the social context of job engagement, the role of trust in supervisor in predicting engagement of employees has received attention in research. Very limited research, however, has investigated the mechanisms mediating this dynamic relationship. To address this important gap in knowledge, the aim of this study was to examine psychological safety and felt obligation as two psychological mechanisms mediating the effect of trust in supervisor on job engagement. Drawing from job engagement and social exchange theories, the mediating roles of psychological safety and felt obligation in the trust-engagement relationship were empirically investigated in the Malaysian context. Using self-report questionnaires, data were collected from 337 nurses employed in a public hospital located near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Results fully supported the proposed serial multiple mediator model. Trust in supervisor was indirectly related to job engagement via psychological safety followed by felt obligation. This study provides empirical evidence that trust in supervisor makes employees feel psychologically safe to employ and express their selves in their job roles. This satisfaction of the psychological safety need is interpreted by employees as an important socioemotional benefit that, in turn, makes them feel obligated to pay back to their organization through their enhanced level of job engagement. Implications for theory and practice were discussed.

  1. Physical and psychological work demands as potential risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among workers in weaving operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telaprolu, Neeraja; Anne, Sharada Devi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to examine the relationship between perceived physical and psychological work demands and self reported musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among workers involved in weaving operations. Method: The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire and Work Demands Scale, developed and standardized for the present investigation were the tools for data collection. Chi square test was used to assess univariate associations between work demands and reported MSDs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for each of the outcome MSD retaining the variables in the model to adjust for potential confounding. Results: Women were significantly more affected than men in shoulders, wrists/hands, upper back, lower back, and ankle/feet. Perceived physical and psychological demands were significantly associated with MSDs of different body regions. Pulling, pushing, moving, lifting and lowering heavy objects, working while bent or twisted at the waist, and repetitive motions with hands/wrists were the main physical factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 2. Conflicting demands, work is not remunerative, and no sufficient time to get the job done were the main psychological factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 1.68. Gender was found to be a significant factor for shoulders, wrists/hands, lower back, and ankles/feet with odds ratios ranging from 1.71 to 2.14. MSDs occurrence was more probable in the mentioned regions among women as compared to men. Both physical and psychological work demands in the work environment were contributing factors for developing MSDs among workers involved in weaving operations. PMID:25598618

  2. Physical and psychological work demands as potential risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among workers in weaving operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telaprolu, Neeraja; Anne, Sharada Devi

    2014-01-01

    The study was undertaken to examine the relationship between perceived physical and psychological work demands and self reported musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among workers involved in weaving operations. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire and Work Demands Scale, developed and standardized for the present investigation were the tools for data collection. Chi square test was used to assess univariate associations between work demands and reported MSDs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for each of the outcome MSD retaining the variables in the model to adjust for potential confounding. Women were significantly more affected than men in shoulders, wrists/hands, upper back, lower back, and ankle/feet. Perceived physical and psychological demands were significantly associated with MSDs of different body regions. Pulling, pushing, moving, lifting and lowering heavy objects, working while bent or twisted at the waist, and repetitive motions with hands/wrists were the main physical factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 2. Conflicting demands, work is not remunerative, and no sufficient time to get the job done were the main psychological factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 1.68. Gender was found to be a significant factor for shoulders, wrists/hands, lower back, and ankles/feet with odds ratios ranging from 1.71 to 2.14. MSDs occurrence was more probable in the mentioned regions among women as compared to men. Both physical and psychological work demands in the work environment were contributing factors for developing MSDs among workers involved in weaving operations.

  3. The moderating role of decision authority and coworker- and supervisor support on the impact of job demands in nursing homes: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, B.M.; de Jonge, J.; Smit, D.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Pot, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Healthcare workers in nursing homes are faced with high job demands that can have a detrimental impact on job-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction. Job resources may have a buffering role on this relationship. The Demand-Control-Support (DCS) Model offers a theoretical framework to

  4. Job demands and driving anger: The roles of emotional exhaustion and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Wang, Guangxi; Li, Yongjuan; Zhou, Ronggang

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of both hindrance and challenge demands on driving anger within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. We collected self-reported data from 411 office workers driving to and from work each day in five cities in China. The results from a structural equation modeling analysis indicated that both hindrance and challenge demands were positively related to emotional exhaustion, which was in turn positively correlated with driving anger. Moreover, work engagement was positively correlated with driving anger. Implications of the present findings regarding both the JD-R model and driving safety research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychological Detachment from Work during Off-job Time: Predictive Role of Work and Non-work Factors in Japanese Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIMAZU, Akihito; DE JONGE, Jan; KUBOTA, Kazumi; KAWAKAMI, Norito

    2014-01-01

    Psychological detachment from work, an off-job experience of “switching off” mentally, seems to be crucial for promoting employee’s well-being. Previous studies on predictors of psychological detachment mainly focused on job-related factors, and only a few studies focused on family-related and personal factors. This study focuses not only on job-related factors (job demands, job control, workplace support) but also on family-related (family/friend support) and personal factors (workaholism), and examines the relation of these three factors with psychological detachment. Data of 2,520 Japanese employees was randomly split into two groups and then analyzed using cross-validation. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that family/friend support had a positive association with psychological detachment, whereas a subscale of workaholism (i.e. working compulsively) had negative associations with it across the two groups. Results suggest that family/friend support would facilitate psychological detachment whereas workaholism would inhibit it. PMID:24492761

  6. How are changes in exposure to job demands and job resources related to burnout and engagement? A longitudinal study among Chinese nurses and police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiao; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Taris, Toon W

    2017-12-01

    This study used a person-centered approach to examine the across-time relationships between job demands and job resources on the one hand and employee well-being (burnout and work engagement) on the other. On the basis of the job demands-resources model and conservation of resources (COR) theory, increases in demands and decreases in resources across time were expected to result in unfavorable changes in well-being across time. The results of a 2-wave study among 172 nurses and 273 police officers showed several common patterns across both samples: (a) participants who experienced an increase of demands showed a significant increase in burnout, whereas participants who reported having low resources at both measurement times also showed a significant increase in burnout; (b) participants who experienced decreasing resources reported a significant increase in burnout and a significant decrease in engagement; (c) participants who were exposed to chronic low job resources in a highly demanding environment showed a significant increase in burnout; and (d) participants who were exposed to decreased job resources in a highly demanding environment showed a significant increase in burnout. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effects of work-family conflict and job insecurity on psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutambudzi, M; Javed, Z; Kaul, S; Prochaska, J; Peek, M K

    2017-05-23

    Work-family conflict (WFC) and job insecurity are important determinants of workers' mental health. To examine the relationship between WFC and psychological distress, and the co-occurring effects of WFC and job insecurity on distress in US working adults. This study used cross-sectional data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for adults aged 18-64 years. The 2010 NHIS included occupational data from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) sponsored Occupational Health Supplement. Logistic regression models were used to examine the independent and co-occurring effects of WFC and job insecurity on distress. The study group consisted of 12059 participants. In the model fully adjusted for relevant occupational, behavioural, sociodemographic and health covariates, WFC and job insecurity were independently significantly associated with increased odds of psychological distress. Relative to participants reporting WFC only, participants reporting no WFC and no job insecurity had lower odds of moderate and severe distress. Co-occurring WFC and job insecurity was associated with significantly higher odds of both moderate [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.9] and severe (OR = 3.57; 95% CI 2.66-4.79) distress. Rates of WFC and job insecurity were influenced by differing factors in working adults; however, both significantly increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes, particularly when experienced jointly. Future studies should explore the temporal association between co-occurring WFC and job insecurity and psychological distress.

  8. The risk ogf high-risk jobs : psychological health consequences in forensic physicians and ambulance workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, E. van der

    2003-01-01

    The risk of high-risk jobs: Psychological health consequences in forensic doctors and ambulance workers This thesis has shown that forensic physicians and ambulance personnel frequently suffer from psychological complaints as a result of dramatic events and sources of chronic work stress. A

  9. [Relationship of personality with job burnout and psychological stress risk in clinicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Zhou, Dinglun; Yao, Yongcheng; Lan, Yajia

    2015-02-01

    To analyze the job burnout and mental health status of clinicians and the relationship of personality with job burnout and psychological stress, and to investigate the direct or indirect effects of personality on psychological stress. Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Scale (EPQ-RSC), and Kessler 10 Scale were administered to 775 clinicians. Of all clinicians, 29.5% had mild burnout, with a score of 22.7 ± 8.18 for psychological stress risk. The effect of personality on emotional exhaustion and cynicism was greater than that on personal accomplishment. Clinicians with a personality of introversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism suffered a higher risk of psychological stress. Personality had both direct and indirect effects on psychological stress. Neuroticism had the strongest effect on psychological stress, with an effect size of 0.55. Clinicians have a high level of both job burnout and mental psychological stress risk. Personality is significantly correlated with job burnout and psychological stress risk. Measures depending on personality should be taken for effective intervention.

  10. Investigation of the Relationship between Psychological Counselors' Job Satisfaction and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Ahmet; Kadioglu, Fahriye

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between psychological counselors' job satisfaction and self-esteem. The sample of the research consists of 297 psychological counselors who are accessible and working at schools and the center for guidance research in different districts such as Kadikoy, Kartal and Maltepe in…

  11. Psychological contract breach and job attitudes : A meta-analysis of age as a moderator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P. Matthijs; De lange, Annet H.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; Van der Velde, Mandy E. G.

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of age in the relation between psychological contract breach and the development of job attitudes. Based on affective events, social exchange, and lifespan theory, we hypothesized that (1) psychological contract breach would be related negatively to

  12. Age, the psychological contract, and job attitudes : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P. Matthijs; de Lange, Annet H.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.

    Age, the psychological contract, and job attitudes: a meta-analysis P.M. Bal, A H. De Lange, P.G.W Jansen Er M.E G Van der Velde, Gedrag en Organisatie, volume 23, March 2010, nr 1, pp 44-72. The meta-analysis investigated the relations between age and psychological contracts It was expected that

  13. The reciprocal relationship between sickness presenteeism and psychological distress in response to job stressors: evidence from a three-wave cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi; Suzuki, Tomoko; Miyaki, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Sickness presenteeism (SP) is postulated as workers' response to their general state of health; hence, SP is expected to affect workers' future health. In the present study, we examined the reciprocal relationship between SP and health in response to job stressors, with specific reference to psychological distress (PD) as workers' state of health. Methods: We conducted mediation analysis, using data from a three-wave cohort occupational survey conducted at 1-year intervals in Japan; it involved 1,853 employees (1,661 men and 192 women) of a manufacturing firm. We measured SP and PD, using the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and Kessler 6 score, respectively. For job stressors, we considered job demands and control, effort and reward, and procedural and interactional justice. Results: PD mediated 11.5%-36.2% of the impact of job control, reward, and procedural and interactional justice on SP, whereas SP mediated their impact on PD, albeit to a much lesser extent in the range of 3.4%-11.3%. Unlike in the cases of these job stressors related to job resources, neither SP nor PD mediated the impact of job demands or effort. Conclusions: Our results confirmed the reciprocal relationship between SP and PD in response to selected types of job stressors, emphasizing the need for more in-depth analysis of the dynamics of these associations. PMID:28993575

  14. The reciprocal relationship between sickness presenteeism and psychological distress in response to job stressors: evidence from a three-wave cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi; Suzuki, Tomoko; Miyaki, Koichi

    2017-11-25

    Sickness presenteeism (SP) is postulated as workers' response to their general state of health; hence, SP is expected to affect workers' future health. In the present study, we examined the reciprocal relationship between SP and health in response to job stressors, with specific reference to psychological distress (PD) as workers' state of health. We conducted mediation analysis, using data from a three-wave cohort occupational survey conducted at 1-year intervals in Japan; it involved 1,853 employees (1,661 men and 192 women) of a manufacturing firm. We measured SP and PD, using the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and Kessler 6 score, respectively. For job stressors, we considered job demands and control, effort and reward, and procedural and interactional justice. PD mediated 11.5%-36.2% of the impact of job control, reward, and procedural and interactional justice on SP, whereas SP mediated their impact on PD, albeit to a much lesser extent in the range of 3.4%-11.3%. Unlike in the cases of these job stressors related to job resources, neither SP nor PD mediated the impact of job demands or effort. Our results confirmed the reciprocal relationship between SP and PD in response to selected types of job stressors, emphasizing the need for more in-depth analysis of the dynamics of these associations.

  15. The moderating effect of control over work scheduling and overtime on the relationship between workload demands and perceived job risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näswall, Katharina; Burt, Christopher D B; Pearce, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of workload demands on perceived job risk using the Job Demand-Control model as a research framework. The primary objective was to test the hypothesis that employee control over work scheduling and overtime would moderate the relationship between workload demands and perceived job risk. Ninety-six participants working in a variety of industries completed measures of workload demands, and of control over work scheduling and overtime, and a measure of perceived job risk. Workload demands predicted higher perceptions of job risk. However, the results also suggest that control over overtime moderated this relationship, where those with the combination of high workload demands and low control over overtime reported higher levels of perceived risk. The results indicate that the JDC model is applicable to safety research. The results suggest that employee control over workload demands is an important variable to consider in terms of managing workplace safety. The present study also points to important areas for future research to explore in order to further understand the connection between demands and safety.

  16. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands. PMID:27275828

  17. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians' Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2016-06-06

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.

  18. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Mazzetti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.

  19. Investigating the reversed causality of engagement and burnout in job demands-resources theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon T. de Beer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Reversed causality is an area that has not commanded major attention within the South African context, specifically pertaining to engagement, burnout and job demands resources. Therefore, this necessitated an investigation to elucidate the potential effects.Research purpose: To investigate the reversed causal hypotheses of burnout and engagement in job demands-resources theory over time.Motivation for the study: Organisations and researchers should be made aware of the effects that burnout and engagement could have over time on resources and demands.Research design, approach and method: A longitudinal design was employed. The availability sample (n = 593 included participants from different demographic backgrounds. A survey was used to measure all constructs at both points in time. Structural equation modelling techniques were implemented with a categorical estimator to investigate the proposed hypotheses.Main findings: Burnout was found to have a significant negative longitudinal relationship with colleague support and supervisor support, whilst the negative relationship with supervisor support over time was more prominent. Engagement showed only one significant but small, negative relationship with supervisor support over time. All other relationships were statistically non-significant.Practical/managerial implications: This study makes organisations aware of the relationship between burnout and relationships at work over time. Proactive measures to promote relationships at work, specifically supervisor support, should be considered in addition to combatting burnout itself and promoting engagement.Contribution/value-add: This study provides insights and information on reversed causality, namely, the effects that engagement and burnout can have over time.

  20. The moderating role of personal resources in the relationship between psychosocial job demands and health: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerl, Hannes; Stolz, Erwin; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2017-08-28

    The main objective of this research was to investigate the buffering effects of an individual's physical, mental and social resources in the relationship between psychosocial job demands and (1) health symptoms, (2) mental strain and (3) the body mass index (BMI), respectively. We performed moderated regression analysis to examine data from a large cross-sectional survey of an Austrian employee sample (n = 9434). The results revealed a robust association between psychosocial job demands and health symptoms as well as mental strain, but only a weak relationship between psychosocial job demands and BMI. Although the personal resources showed a positive effect on health symptoms and mental strain, only weak evidence was found for the hypothesised interaction with psychosocial job demands. Solely the physical fitness of a person was found to mitigate the impact of psychosocial job demands on health symptoms. In conclusion, personal resources substantially accounted for the prediction of health. However, the interactions between psychosocial job demands and personal resources only slightly contributed to explaining the variation in health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. The impact of psychological capital on job burnout of Chinese nurses: the mediator role of organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiaxi; Jiang, Xihua; Zhang, Jiaxi; Xiao, Runxuan; Song, Yunyun; Feng, Xi; Zhang, Yan; Miao, Danmin

    2013-01-01

    Nursing has a high risk of job burnout, but only a few studies have explored its influencing factors from an organizational perspective. The present study explores the impact of psychological capital on job burnout by investigating the mediating effect of organizational commitment on this relationship. A total of 473 female nurses from four large general hospitals in Xi'an City of China were selected as participants. Data were collected via the Psychological Capital Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Organizational Commitment Scale. Both psychological capital and organizational commitment were significantly correlated to job burnout. Structural equation modelling indicated that organizational commitment partially mediated the relationship between psychological capital and job burnout. The final model revealed a significant path from psychological capital to job burnout through organizational commitment. These findings extended prior reports and shed some light on the influence of psychological capital on job burnout.

  2. Extension of the Job Demands-Resources model in the prediction of burnout and engagement among teachers over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente Prieto, Laura; Salanova Soria, Marisa; Martínez Martínez, Isabel; Schaufeli, Wilmar

    2008-08-01

    Our purpose was to extend the Job Demand-Resources Model (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004) by including personal resources, job demands and job resources to predict burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, depersonalization) and work engagement (vigour and dedication). The sample comprised 274 teachers from 23 secondary schools of the Valencian Community (Spain). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses have revealed: (1) the predictor effect of quantitative overload on exhaustion and dedication at T2, (2) role conflict on cynicism and (3) role ambiguity on dedication. Lastly, the mediating role of burnout and engagement at T2. Practical implications and directions of future research are discussed.

  3. Psychological care demand in clinical practice: treatment and results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Labrador, Francisco Javier; Estupiñá, Francisco José; García Vera, María Paz

    2010-01-01

    With the aim of describing the usual clinical context as opposed to the academic or research context, the characteristics of patients and psychological treatments applied in a sample of 856 patients...

  4. Connecting empowerment-focused HRM and labour productivity to work engagement: the mediating role of job demands and resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Voorde, Karina; Veld, M.F.A.; van Veldhoven, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Integrating the strategic HRM literature with key aspects of the job demands-resources (JDR) model, we propose in this study that empowerment-focused HRM and labour productivity influence work engagement of employees by shaping task-related resources and demands. A total of 311 employees nested

  5. Connecting empowerment-focused HRM and labor productivity to work engagement : The mediating role of job demands and resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Voorde, F.C.; Veld, M.; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Integrating the strategic HRM literature with key aspects of the job demands-resources (JDR) model, we propose in this study that empowerment-focused HRM and labour productivity influence work engagement of employees by shaping task-related resources and demands. A total of 311 employees nested

  6. Associations between job demands, work-related strain and perceived quality of care: a longitudinal study among hospital physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Tanya; Schneider, Anna; Spieß, Erika; Angerer, Peter; Weigl, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    Drawing on a sample of hospital physicians, we attempted to determine prospective associations between three job demands, work-related strain and perceived quality of care. Longitudinal follow-up study with with a 1-year time lag. Physicians of two acute-care hospitals in Germany (one general urban and one children's hospital). Ninety-five physicians filled out a standardized questionnaire. Physicians' evaluations of quality of care at both waves. Our results support the hypothesis that job demands directly influence quality of care irrespective of strain. Specifically, high social stressors (β = -0.15, P = 0.036) and time pressure (β = -0.19, P = 0.031) were associated with decreased quality of care over time. We additionally observed reversed effects from quality of care at baseline to time pressure at follow-up (β = -0.35, P = 0.006). Contrary to expectations, physicians' work-related strain did not mediate the job demands-quality of care-relationship, nor were strain-to-stressor effects observed. Our results corroborate that hospital work environments with high demands have a direct impact on physician-perceived quality of care. In turn, poor care practices contribute to increased job demands. Our findings also emphasize that further understanding is required of how physicians' workplace conditions affect job demands, well-being, and quality of care, respectively.

  7. Perceived Control and Psychological Contract Breach as Explanations of the Relationships Between Job Insecurity, Job Strain and Coping Reactions: Towards a Theoretical Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Elst, Tinne; De Cuyper, Nele; Baillien, Elfi; Niesen, Wendy; De Witte, Hans

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to further knowledge on the mechanisms through which job insecurity is related to negative outcomes. Based on appraisal theory, two explanations-perceived control and psychological contract breach-were theoretically integrated in a comprehensive model and simultaneously examined as mediators of the job insecurity-outcome relationship. Different categories of outcomes were considered, namely work-related (i.e. vigour and need for recovery) and general strain (i.e. mental and physical health complaints), as well as psychological (i.e. job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and behavioural coping reactions (i.e. self-rated performance and innovative work behaviour). The hypotheses were tested using data of a heterogeneous sample of 2413 Flemish employees by means of both single and multiple mediator structural equation modelling analyses (bootstrapping method). Particularly, psychological contract breach accounted for the relationship between job insecurity and strain. Both perceived control and psychological contract breach mediated the relationships between job insecurity and psychological coping reactions, although the indirect effects were larger for psychological contract breach. Finally, perceived control was more important than psychological contract breach in mediating the relationships between job insecurity and behavioural coping reactions. This study meets previous calls for a theoretical integration regarding mediators of the job insecurity-outcome relationship. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Jobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple.......Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple....

  9. Applicative Research on Psychological Demand of Audience and the TAXI for People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Caixia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether TAXI for People from Beijing traffic channel, the only special program customized for taxi driver in Beijing, knows about the psychological feature of the certain taxi group is an important factor that affects the development of program. Based on demand theory of psychology, this article uses the questionnaire method to find out the psychological feature and lifestyle of audience, and discusses the degree to the TAXI for People which meets the psychological demand of taxi driver audience by analysis on the program content. It is said from the research that the TAXI for People basically meets the psychological demand from taxi drivers. However, this program shall focus more on their basic needs and provide the opportunity for the audience to participate in the program and activity.

  10. When does spiritual intelligence particularly predict job engagement? The mediating role of psychological empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Mohsen; Nadali, Iman Zohoorian

    2016-01-01

    Regarding the importance of health care providers such as nurses who are always in stressful environments, it is imperative to better understand how they become more engaged in their work. The purpose of this paper is to focus on health care providers (nurses), and examine how the interaction between spiritual intelligence and psychological empowerment affect job engagement. This descriptive and quantitative study was conducted among nurses at the Faghihi Hospital in Shiraz, Iran in 2010. A sample of nurses (n = 179) completed standard survey questionnaire including spiritual intelligence, psychological empowerment, and job engagement which included 5 questions for each dimensions. For testing the hypotheses of the study, results were analyzed through structural equation modeling (SEM) using LISREL 8.8. SEM revealed that psychological empowerment could fully mediate the relationship between spiritual intelligence and job engagement. However, the correlation between spiritual intelligence and job engagement was significant but weak using Pearson coefficient method. This can imply that psychological empowerment plays a crucial role in the relationship between spiritual intelligence and job engagement. This paper indicates that spiritual intelligence might affect different organizational parameters, directly or indirectly. Therefore, it is recommended that the researchers evaluate probable relationships between spiritual intelligence and other variables.

  11. Work Separation Demands and Spouse Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthner, Dennis K.; Rose, Roderick

    2009-01-01

    Using family resilience and ecological theories, we examine the relationship between partner work-required travel separations and spouse psychological well-being. The study examines the role of work-organization-provided supports for families and of informal support networks, including marital satisfaction, as factors that can reduce the risks for…

  12. Job demands and resources and their associations with early retirement intentions through recovery need and work enjoyment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Schreurs

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Job characteristics play a major role in shaping employees’ early retirement decisions.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the mechanisms through which job characteristics associate with early retirement intention, using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model as a theoretical framework.Motivation of the study: Early retirement presents a threat to existing health and pension systems, and to organisational functioning. Therefore, it is important to examine how workrelated factors contribute to early retirement decisions.Research design, approach and method: Two parallel processes were theorised to shape early retirement intention: a health impairment process (i.e. job demands → recovery need → early retirement intention and a motivational process (i.e. job resources → work enjoyment → early retirement intention. Survey data were collected from a heterogeneous sample of 1812 older workers (age > 45. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses.Main findings: Job demands and job resources were both associated with work enjoyment, which was associated with early retirement intention. Recovery need did not add to the prediction of early retirement intention.Practical/managerial implications: To retain older workers, companies should promote work conditions and practices that keep older workers motivated. Good health may be a necessary condition for retaining older workers, but it does not appear to be a sufficient one.Contribution/value-add: The results suggest that – for early retirement intention – the motivational process is more prominent than the health impairment process.

  13. Using the Job-Demands-Resources model to predict turnover in the information technology workforce – General effects and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hoonakker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High employee turnover has always been a major issue for Information Technology (IT. In particular, turnover of women is very high. In this study, we used the Job Demand/Resources (JD-R model to examine the relationship between job demands and job resources, stress/burnout and job satisfaction/commitment, and turnover intention and tested the model for gender differences. Data were collected in five IT companies. A sample of 624 respondents (return rate: 56%; 54% males; mean age: 39.7 years was available for statistical analyses. Results of our study show that relationships between job demands and turnover intention are mediated by emotional exhaustion (burnout and relationships between job resources and turnover intention are mediated by job satisfaction. We found noticeable gender differences in these relationships, which can explain differences in turnover intention between male and female employees. The results of our study have consequences for organizational retention strategies to keep men and women in the IT work force.

  14. Predicting nurses' well-being from job demands and resources: a cross-sectional study of emotional labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Huei Yin; Hecker, Rob; Martin, Angela

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of job demands and resources as well as emotional labour on job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion among nurses. While emotional labour is a construct that has considerable significance in health care as nurses often need to express organizationally desired emotions, little research has investigated the relationships between emotional labour, job demands and resources in the prediction of nurses' well-being. The questionnaire was distributed to 450 registered nurses (RN) working in a teaching hospital in Taiwan during February 2007, of which 240 valid questionnaires were returned and analysed (53.33% response rate). In addition to descriptive statistics and correlation, structural equation modelling (LISREL 8.8) was conducted. The findings showed that the frequency of interacting with difficult patients positively related to surface acting. Perceived organizational support (POS) positively related to deep acting and negatively to surface acting. The results also showed that surface acting related negatively, and deep acting related positively, to job satisfaction. The frequency of interactions with difficult patients related positively to emotional exhaustion, and negatively to job satisfaction. Perceived organizational support related negatively to emotional exhaustion and positively to job satisfaction. The results suggest that job demands, resources and emotional labour can predict nurses' well-being. The results of the present study indicate that nurses' well-being can be predicted by job demands, resources and emotional labour. There is a need to address organizational support and training programmes to enhance job satisfaction and reduce emotional exhaustion among nurses. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPITAL AND EMOTIONAL LABOR AS DETERMINANTS OF JOB SATISFACTION: A RESEARCH ON BANK EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal TOPCU

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Employees’ contribution to organizations to be succesfull and to reach objectives are considered great. As a natural result, organizations has exponentially started to invest in human capital. By adapting positive psychology to organizational field, it is believed that the happier employees are the more porductive they work. In fact, psychology of employees at workplace has a great significance on organizational attitudes and behaviors towards the job itself, organization, co-workers, and customers. In particular, the effects on job satisfaction,  which is a sum of emotions at workplace, is continously attached more attraction by researchers. Nonetheless, relations among variables are studied at organizations having a normal life cycle. On the other side, extreme cases like moving, downsizing, restructuring are rarely studied. To this end, this study aims at determining the effects of psychological capital and emotional labor on job satisfaction of employees working in a moving bank headquarters. Findings indicate that there is no significant effect of psychological capital and emotional labor on job satifaction due to organizational climate whilst psychological capital has a positive effect on emotional labor.

  16. Occupational noise and myocardial infarction: considerations on the interrelation of noise with job demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Norbert; Backé, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The present analysis aims to differentiate the association of noise on myocardial infarction (MI) by job specific demands using International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO)-88 codes as a proxy. Data of a German case-control study were supplemented by job descriptions (indicated by ISCO-88). It was examined whether the demands in the various occupational groups modify the effect of noise. Noise and occupational groups are combined to form new exposure categories. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to identify effects of combined job-noise categories. For the highest noise range (95-124 dB(A)) we found a significant odds-ratio (OR) of 2.18 (confidence interval [CI] 0.95 = 1.17-4.05) independent of the profession. Some interesting results were found indicating ISCO groups with possible risk. In men, noticeable effects for the exposure category between 62 dB(A) and 84 dB(A) are calculated in the group of legislators and senior officials (ISCO-group 11; OR=1.93; CI (0.95) = 0.50-7.42), the group consisting of life science and health professionals (ISCO-group 22; OR=2.18; CI 0.95 = 0.36-13.1), the group of life science and health associate professionals (ISCO-group 32; OR = 2.03; CI 0.95 = 0.50-8.24), and the group of "precision, handicraft, printing, and related trades workers" (ISCO-group 73; OR = 2.67; CI(0.95) = 0.54-13.0). In the exposure range of 85-94 dB(A), high ORs are calculated for "skilled agricultural, fishery, and forestry workers" (ISCO-group 6; OR = 4.31; CI(0.95) = 0.56-33.3). In women, there are high (nonsignificant) ORs in ISCO-group 1 (OR = 2.43; CI(0.95) = 0.12-50.0), ISCO-group 2 (OR = 1.80; CI 0.95 = 0.31-10.5), and ISCO-group 9 (OR = 2.45; CI(0.95) = 0.63-9.51) for a noise exposure between 62 dB(A) and 84 dB(A). When investigating noise at the workplace in relation to cardiovascular diseases it is important to take the specific requirements of a job into account. Thus, work tasks with high health risks can be

  17. Work-family conflict and enrichment in nurses: between job demands, perceived organisational support and work-family backlash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio G

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how work relationships (perceived organisational support, supervisor and co-worker work-family backlash) and job demands (workload, emotional dissonance) can interact with work-family conflict and work-family enrichment. Despite the extensive literature on the work-family interface, few studies on the nursing profession have considered the role of job demands and work relationships, focusing on both the positive and negative side of the work-family interface. The study involved a sample of 500 nurses working in an Italian hospital. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to test hypotheses. Analyses showed that work-family conflict has a positive relationship with job demands and supervisor backlash, and a negative relationship with perceived organisational support. Work-family enrichment was found to have a negative relationship with job demands and a positive relationship with perceived organisational support. No significant relationships were found between work-family enrichment and both backlash dimensions. The study confirmed the importance of promoting a balance between job demands and resources in order to create favourable conditions for work-family enrichment and to prevent work-family conflict. The findings suggest that it may be advisable for health-care organisations to invest in measures at individual, team and organisational levels, specifically in training and counselling for nurses and supervisors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. THE ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY AND JOB SATISFACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Aydogmus, Ceren; Ergeneli, Azize; CAmgoz, Selin

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a model for the impact of the employees’ psychological empowerment on the relationship between their personality characteristics and job satisfaction. The model was tested on a sample of 221 participants working in education and IT sectors.  For the indicators of participants’ personality, Big Five Model, involving extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness to experience and neuroticsm traits, has been applied in the study. Findings reveal that psychological ...

  19. Psychological effects of relational job characteristics: validation of the scale for hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alda; Castanheira, Filipa; Chambel, Maria José; Amarante, Michael Vieira; Costa, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    This study validates the Portuguese version of the psychological effects of the relational job characteristics scale among hospital nurses in Portugal and Brazil. Increasing attention has been given to the social dimension of work, following the transition to a service economy. Nevertheless, and despite the unquestionable relational characteristics of nursing work, scarce research has been developed among nurses under a relational job design framework. Moreover, it is important to develop instruments that study the effects of relational job characteristics among nurses. We followed Messick's framework for scale validation, comprising the steps regarding the response process and internal structure, as well as relationships with other variables (work engagement and burnout). Statistical analysis included exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The psychological effects of the relational job characteristics scale provided evidence of good psychometric properties with Portuguese and Brazilian hospital nurses. Also, the psychological effects of the relational job characteristics are associated with nurses' work-related well-being: positively with work engagement and negatively concerning burnout. Hospitals that foster the relational characteristics of nursing work are contributing to their nurses' work-related well-being, which may be reflected in the quality of care and patient safety. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Family incivility and job performance: a moderated mediation model of psychological distress and core self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sandy; Tai, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    This study extends the stress literature by exploring the relationship between family incivility and job performance. We examine whether psychological distress mediates the link between family incivility and job performance. We also investigate how core self-evaluation might moderate this mediated relationship. Data from a 2-wave study indicate that psychological distress mediates the relationship between family incivility and job performance. In addition, core self-evaluation moderates the relationship between family incivility and psychological distress but not the relationship between psychological distress and job performance. The results hold while controlling for general job stress, family-to-work conflict, and work-to-family conflict. The findings suggest that family incivility is linked to poor performance at work, and psychological distress and core self-evaluation are key mechanisms in the relationship.

  1. Pre-Employment Psychological Evaluation as a Predictor of Correction Officer Job Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inwald, Robin E.; And Others

    Correctional officers, often subject to sustained job stress and ambiguity, must possess adequate coping skills to deal with a hostile clientele. Psychological screening, therefore, assumes an important role in correctional officer recruitment. Prior to a recruitment drive, 650 employed correctional officers completed an MMPI and a biographical…

  2. Effects of Vice-Principals' Psychological Empowerment on Job Satisfaction and Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermuly, Carsten C.; Schermuly, Rene A.; Meyer, Bertolt

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the relationship between psychological empowerment, job satisfaction, and burnout among vice-principals (VPs) in primary schools. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 103 VPs at 103 different primary schools in Germany were surveyed with a questionnaire that assessed the four dimensions of psychological…

  3. Giving Work a Rain Check: Relationship Between Soldiering and Positive Work Outcomes Within the Job Demands-Resources Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Baran Metin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soldiering is defined as engaging behaviourally or cognitively into non-work-related activities during working hours with no intention of harming the employer, co-workers, and/or clients. The present study will investigate this phenomenon using the Job-Demands Resources Model. The proposed model will consider the influence of job demands and resources on soldiering, as well as the relationship of soldiering with employee wellbeing and performance. The data, collected via online questionnaires across seven European countries, will be analysed using structural equation modelling in order to explore the goodness-of-fit of the proposed model as well as its potential cross cultural variations.

  4. Psychological distress and job stressors among Lebanese workers: experience from a private sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkis, Najla A; Osman, Mona H; Musharrafieh, Umayya M; Issa, Ghassan M

    2012-01-01

    No published data exists on the prevalence of psychological distress (PD) among the Lebanese working population, and its association with job stressors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2003 among Lebanese employees in a private administrative company. All employees (n = 200) received an anonymous questionnaire by mail. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was used to estimate the prevalence of PD. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between GHQ-28 Likert score (0-84) and job stressors and other covariates. The participation rate was 79.3%. PD was identified in 30.0% of the studied population. A significant association was found between PD and lack of moral support, a recent disturbing event, feeling of job insecurity, and inability to be proactive. The results showed a high prevalence of PD in the studied population with significant association with job stressors.

  5. Linking job demands and resources to employee engagement and burnout: a theoretical extension and meta-analytic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Eean R; Lepine, Jeffery A; Rich, Bruce Louis

    2010-09-01

    We refine and extend the job demands-resources model with theory regarding appraisal of stressors to account for inconsistencies in relationships between demands and engagement, and we test the revised theory using meta-analytic structural modeling. Results indicate support for the refined and updated theory. First, demands and burnout were positively associated, whereas resources and burnout were negatively associated. Second, whereas relationships among resources and engagement were consistently positive, relationships among demands and engagement were highly dependent on the nature of the demand. Demands that employees tend to appraise as hindrances were negatively associated with engagement, and demands that employees tend to appraise as challenges were positively associated with engagement. Implications for future research are discussed. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Burnout Among Iowa Hospice Workers: A Test of the Job Demands-Resources Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensland, Meredith; Landsman, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a critical problem for hospice care system, particularly given the potential increase in hospice utilization because of the increasing older adult population. Hospice care requires social workers and other professionals to work in interdisciplinary settings under conditions of prolonged stress. Guided by the Job Demands-Resources (JDR) model, this study sought to: (1) understand Iowa hospice workers' level of burnout, indicated by emotional exhaustion (EE); (2) identify organizational and personal determinants of EE. This web-based study used a cross-sectional survey administered to hospice staff across Iowa. Seventeen hospice organizations participated as study sites, and 244 out of 825 employees, consisting of interdisciplinary clinical workers and administrative personnel, completed the survey. Descriptive, correlational, and regression statistics were used to test study hypotheses. Regarding EE levels, 59% of participants were experiencing low EE, while the other 41% had moderate or high EE. Those lacking empathy, working full-time, and working for larger hospice organizations had greater EE. While findings largely support the JDR model, interactions between demands and resources offer only partial support. Results indicate the importance of hospices fostering supportive work environments and providing employee education about emotional benefits of respect, strategies for displaying workplace respect, and evaluation of respect-related initiatives.

  7. Job strain and psychological distress among employed pregnant Thai women: role of social support and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Finnegan, Lorna; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L

    2014-08-01

    Most Thai women continue to work throughout their pregnancy; however, little is known about job strain and its relation to psychological distress. This study aimed to examine: (1) the direct effects of job strain, perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on psychological distress and (2) the moderating effect of perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping guided this cross-sectional study. Full-time employed pregnant women (N = 300) were recruited from three antenatal clinics in Thailand. Thai versions of the following instruments were used: the State-Anxiety Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (psychological distress), the Job Content Questionnaire (job strain and perceived workplace support), the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (perceived family support), and the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (coping strategies). Job strain with other predictors explained 54% of the variance in psychological distress. In the separate hierarchical multiple linear regression models, two types of coping strategies, seeking social support and wishful thinking, moderated the effects of job strain on psychological distress. Perceived family support had a direct effect in reducing psychological distress. Job strain is a significant contributor to psychological distress. The average levels of seeking social support and wishful thinking were most beneficial in moderating the negative impact of job strain on psychological distress. Since perceived workplace and family support did not have moderating effects, stress management programs for decreasing the levels of job strain should be developed.

  8. Work Demands-Burnout and Job Engagement-Job Satisfaction Relationships: Teamwork as a Mediator and Moderator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Mijakoski

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Occupational health services should target detection of burnout in HCWs and implementation of organizational interventions in hospitals, taking into account findings that teamwork predicted reduced burnout and higher job satisfaction.

  9. Environmental Psychology Effects on Mental Health Job Satisfaction and Personal Well Being of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodeh Tavakkoli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: Environmental psychology as a science could be useful in understanding the dissociation between the man and the environment. The aim of this study was to compare mental health, job satisfaction and well-being of nurses who work in hospital environments with different designs.  Material:This was a quasi-experimental study, in which 250 nurses filled out the mental health, well-being and job satisfaction questionnaires. They were categorized into 3 groups randomly. Group1 included 63 nurses who worked in an environment without any natural elements; group 2 included 100 nurses who worked in an environment with natural elements and group 3 included 87 nurses who worked in an environment without any psychological and ergonomic design. The last group was only stimulated by demonstrating visual stimulus. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey’s pursuit statistical method. Results:The nurses who were working in an environment without any natural elements reported significantly lower scores on mental health, well-being and job satisfaction compared to those who were working in other groups, with the exception of social functioning . Moreover, depression and anxiety were more common in nurses who were working in environments without any natural elements compared to those in the other groups (p<0.05.Conclusions:We can increase job satisfaction, and mental health and well-being of the nurses through the use of natural design and environmental psychology indexes in hospital buildings.

  10. Workplace aggression, psychological distress, and job satisfaction among Palestinian nurses: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Yousef; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Kristensen, Petter; Nijem, Khaldoun; Bjertness, Espen; Stigum, Hein; Bast-Pettersen, Rita

    2016-11-01

    Nurses can be exposed to aggressive behavior from patients, patient's relatives, colleagues and visitors. To determine the prevalence of workplace aggression among Palestinian nurses in the Hebron district and to examine cross-sectional associations between exposure to workplace aggression and the occurrence of psychological distress and job satisfaction. Of 372 nurses eligible for the study, 343 were included (response rate of 92.2%). The sample comprised 62% females and 38% males. The participants responded to questions about their socio-demographic status, workplace aggression (WHO questionnaires), psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-30), and job satisfaction (Generic Job Satisfaction Scale). Ninety-three (27.1%) of the respondents reported exposure to workplace aggression of any kind. Seventeen (5%) reported exposure to physical aggression, 83 (24.2%) reported exposure to verbal aggression, and 25 (7.3%) reported exposure to bullying. The patients and the patients' relatives were the main sources of physical and verbal aggression, whereas colleagues were the main source of bullying. Males reported a higher prevalence of bullying than females. Younger nurses reported a higher prevalence of exposure to physical aggression, verbal aggression and bullying. Verbal aggression was associated with more psychological distress. Bullying was associated with lower job satisfaction. More than a quarter of the nurses reported that they had been subject to some sort of aggression at the workplace. Verbal aggression was associated with higher psychological distress. Workplace bullying was associated with lower job satisfaction. Increased awareness and preventive measures to address this problem among health care workers are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychosocial job strain and productivity in human service workers: A test of the demand-control-support model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dollard, M.F.; Winefield, H.R.; Winefield, A.H.; Jonge, J. de

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the main and interactive effects of the key dimensions of the demand-control-support model in predicting levels of strain (specifically emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and job dissatisfaction) and feelings of productivity and competency (personal

  12. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, F; Heitmann, B L

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...... on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after...

  13. Rank, job stress, psychological distress and physical activity among military personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical fitness is one of the most important qualities in armed forces personnel. However, little is known about the association between the military environment and the occupational and leisure-time dimensions of the physical activity practiced there. This study assessed the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity levels (overall and by dimensions). Methods This a cross-sectional study among 506 military service personnel of the Brazilian Army examined the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity through multiple linear regression using a generalized linear model. Results The adjusted models showed that the rank of lieutenant was associated with most occupational physical activity (β = 0.324; CI 95% 0.167; 0.481); “high effort and low reward” was associated with more occupational physical activity (β = 0.224; CI 95% 0.098; 0.351) and with less physical activity in sports/physical exercise in leisure (β = −0.198; CI 95% −0.384; −0.011); and psychological distress was associated with less physical activity in sports/exercise in leisure (β = −0.184; CI 95% −0.321; −0.046). Conclusions The results of this study show that job stress and rank were associated with higher levels of occupational physical activity. Moreover job stress and psychological distress were associated with lower levels of physical activity in sports/exercises. In the military context, given the importance of physical activity and the psychosocial environment, both of which are related to health, these findings may offer input to institutional policies directed to identifying psychological distress early and improving work relationships, and to creating an environment more favorable to increasing the practice of leisure-time physical activity. PMID:23914802

  14. The Job Demands-Resources model as predictor of work identity and work engagement: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn De Braine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Research shows that engaged employees experience high levels of energy and strong identification with their work, hence this study’s focus on work identity and dedication.Research purpose: This study explored possible differences in the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R as predictor of overall work engagement, dedication only and work-based identity, through comparative predictive analyses.Motivation for the study: This study may shed light on the dedication component of work engagement. Currently no literature indicates that the JD-R model has been used to predict work-based identity.Research design: A census-based survey was conducted amongst a target population of 23134 employees that yielded a sample of 2429 (a response rate of about 10.5%. The Job Demands- Resources scale (JDRS was used to measure job demands and job resources. A work-based identity scale was developed for this study. Work engagement was studied with the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES. Factor and reliability analyses were conducted on the scales and general multiple regression models were used in the predictive analyses.Main findings: The JD-R model yielded a greater amount of variance in dedication than in work engagement. It, however, yielded the greatest amount of variance in work-based identity, with job resources being its strongest predictor.Practical/managerial implications: Identification and work engagement levels can be improved by managing job resources and demands.Contribution/value-add: This study builds on the literature of the JD-R model by showing that it can be used to predict work-based identity.

  15. Effects of emotional dissonance and job burnout on the psychological heath of the nursery teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kwang Il; Lee, Won Jae [Gachon University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This study collected data from 467 nursery teachers and it aimed to investigate the association between mental health and emotional dissonance and job burnout of the day care nursery teachers. Measurement tool was developed, most of the questions having 5-point scale. The data were analyzed structural equation model with the statistical package IBM SPSS 23 and AMOS 21 with 5% percent of significance level. Main results are as follows. First, it was found that emotional dissonance of nursery teachers working in day care centers showed significant effect on the mental health such factors as job-stress (relationships with children and parents and work overload). Second, emotional dissonance were found to have a significant effect on job burnout, too. Third, job burnout had a significant effect on the mental health, job stress and psychological wellbeing. Fourth, job burnout was found to mediate partially on mental health and emotional dissonance. These findings suggest the importance of mental health promotion programs for child care teachers working in the day care centers.

  16. Effects of an ergonomics-based job stress management program on job strain, psychological distress, and blood cortisol among employees of a national private bank in Denpasar Bali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnawati, Susy; Kawakami, Norito; Shimazu, Akihito; Sutjana, Dewa Putu; Adiputra, Nyoman

    2016-08-06

    The present work describes a newly developed ergonomics-based job stress management program - Ergo-JSI (Ergonomics-based Job Stress Intervention) - including a pilot study to ascertain the effects of the program on job strain, psychological distress, and blood cortisol levels among bank employees in Indonesia. A single-group, pre- and post-test experimental study was conducted in a sample of employees in a National Bank in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. The outcomes of the study focused on reductions in job strain index and psychological distress, measured by the Indonesian version of the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ), and improvement in blood cortisol levels following the study.A total of 25 male employees, with an average age of 39, received an eight-week intervention with the Ergo-JSI. Compared to baseline, the job strain index decreased by 46% (p<0.05), and psychological distress decreased by 28% (p<0.05). These changes were accompanied by a 24% reduction in blood cortisol levels (p<0.05). The newly developed Ergo-JSI program may hence be effective for decreasing job strain, psychosocial distress, and blood cortisol among employees in Indonesia.

  17. The impact of anticipation of job loss on psychological distress and worksite blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, P L; Landsbergis, P A; Pieper, C F; Schwartz, J; Dietz, D; Gerin, W; Schlussel, Y; Warren, K; Pickering, T G

    1992-01-01

    The impact of occupational stressful life events on psychological distress and blood pressure was examined among employees of a major New York City brokerage firm undergoing massive layoffs. One hundred thirty-nine employees of the firm, who had participated in a blood pressure screening in 1986, were rescreened during the period of layoffs within their company in 1989. About two-thirds of the 139 employees reported being "somewhat" or "very" anxious or upset in 1989 during the period of layoffs, and psychological distress was significantly elevated among those employees reporting possible or definite layoff or job change and/or difficulty in obtaining a comparable job. However, we found no increase in overall blood pressure level, and no effect of anticipation of job loss on 1989 blood pressure when controlling for 1986 blood pressure level, age, body mass index, work hours, and other demographic variables. On the other hand, employment in a department sold to another employer on the day of screening, as well as employment in a clerical job title, were both associated with significant increases in diastolic blood pressure of about 5 mm Hg.

  18. The Associations of Job Stress and Organizational Identification with Job Satisfaction among Chinese Police Officers: The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Liu, Li; Sui, Guoyuan; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Police officers’ job satisfaction is an important issue for police force management, but insufficient research exists on the topic, especially in China. This study aimed to examine the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning Province of China during the period of September–October 2014. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2514 police officers, and complete responses were obtained from 2226 participants. The associations among variables in relation to job satisfaction were validated by structural equation modeling. Job stress was negatively associated with job satisfaction, while organizational identification and PsyCap were positively associated with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers. PsyCap mediated the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction. Interventions to improve Chinese police officers’ job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. PMID:26633436

  19. The Associations of Job Stress and Organizational Identification with Job Satisfaction among Chinese Police Officers: The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Liu, Li; Sui, Guoyuan; Wang, Lie

    2015-11-30

    Police officers' job satisfaction is an important issue for police force management, but insufficient research exists on the topic, especially in China. This study aimed to examine the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning Province of China during the period of September-October 2014. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2514 police officers, and complete responses were obtained from 2226 participants. The associations among variables in relation to job satisfaction were validated by structural equation modeling. Job stress was negatively associated with job satisfaction, while organizational identification and PsyCap were positively associated with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers. PsyCap mediated the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction. Interventions to improve Chinese police officers' job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap.

  20. The Associations of Job Stress and Organizational Identification with Job Satisfaction among Chinese Police Officers: The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Police officers’ job satisfaction is an important issue for police force management, but insufficient research exists on the topic, especially in China. This study aimed to examine the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning Province of China during the period of September–October 2014. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2514 police officers, and complete responses were obtained from 2226 participants. The associations among variables in relation to job satisfaction were validated by structural equation modeling. Job stress was negatively associated with job satisfaction, while organizational identification and PsyCap were positively associated with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers. PsyCap mediated the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction. Interventions to improve Chinese police officers’ job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap.

  1. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi

    2010-01-01

    groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers...... tailored for each respective job-group. DISCUSSION: The FINALE programme has the potential to provide evidence-based knowledge of significant importance for public health policy and health promotion strategies for employees at high risk for physical deterioration. TRIAL REGISTRATIONS: ISRCTN96241850, NCT...

  2. Psychological services in five South-west Queensland communities--supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buikstra, Elizabeth; Fallon, Anthony B; Eley, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This research gathered information in 2004 about psychological services provided to five rural communities located in South-west Queensland, Australia. Specifically, the aims of the project were to: (i) undertake an audit of existing psychological services; and (ii) determine the need for psychological services as perceived by providers of current services. Potential providers of psychological services were contacted to confirm the nature and extent of their provision of psychological support to target communities. Thirty organisations met the definition of service providers offering assessment or intervention by qualified and/or experienced persons. Data were collected by semi-structured telephone interviews with 44 employees of the service providers. The one main publicly-funded provider of services to the region offered limited services to the communities. Although some counselling was provided by social workers attached to the allied health program, for patients to be supported by the mental health sector of this service, they must have had moderate to severe mental illness. Regular, reliable and accessible psychological support for other conditions was limited largely to services provided by non-government organisations (NGOs) which are often constrained by continuity of funds. Counselling for alcohol and drug misuse, women's issues, sexual abuse, and crisis support were the most commonly identified unmet needs across the target communities. Difficulties in attracting experienced personnel to work in rural communities were reported. This was exacerbated by lack of job security brought about by short term funding to the NGOs. In general, unqualified counsellors were recognised as providing valuable services. There are limited psychological support services provided to these South-west Queensland communities. For available services, there are strict criteria for entry, limited accessibility and availability or lack of continuity owing to short-term funding

  3. Using a Computer Simulation to Improve Psychological Readiness for Job Interviewing in Unemployed Individuals of Pre-Retirement Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysina, Rimma M; Efremova, Galina I; Maksimenko, Zhanna A; Nikiforov, Mikhail V

    2017-05-01

    Unemployed individuals of pre-retirement age face significant challenges in finding a new job. This may be partly due to their lack of psychological readiness to go through a job interview. We view psychological readiness as one of the psychological attitude components. It is an active conscious readiness to interact with a certain aspect of reality, based on previously acquired experience. It includes a persons' special competence to manage their activities and cope with anxiety. We created Job Interview Simulation Training (JIST) - a computer-based simulator, which allowed unemployed job seekers to practice interviewing repeatedly in a stress-free environment. We hypothesized that completion of JIST would be related to increase in pre-retirement job seekers' psychological readiness for job interviewing in real life. Participants were randomized into control (n = 18) and experimental (n = 21) conditions. Both groups completed pre- and post-intervention job interview role-plays and self-reporting forms of psychological readiness for job interviewing. JIST consisted of 5 sessions of a simulated job interview, and the experimental group found it easy to use and navigate as well as helpful to prepare for interviewing. After finishing JIST-sessions the experimental group had significant decrease in heart rate during the post-intervention role-play and demonstrated significant increase in their self-rated psychological readiness, whereas the control group did not have changes in these variables. Future research may help clarify whether JIST is related to an increase in re-employment of pre-retirement job seekers.

  4. Sense of coherence is associated with reduced psychological responses to job stressors among Japanese factory workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urakawa Kayoko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Job stress is associated with adverse health effects. The present study was conducted to examine the association between sense of coherence (SOC, as advocated by Antonovsky, and psychological responses to job stressors among Japanese workers. Methods A self-administered questionnaire containing a Japanese version of the 13-item SOC scale, the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire, and a self-rated health item were distributed to 1968 workers in X Prefecture. Anonymous responses were recovered by postal mail. Results Complete responses were received from 299 workers (response rate 15.2%, 191 males and 108 females who consented to participate in the study. Participants were 186 office clerks, 38 sales representatives, 22 technical engineers, 16 service trade workers, eight information processing workers, eight technical experts, and 21 other workers of various types. SOC scores were associated with age, self-rated health, job title, and marriage status. According to regression analyses stratified by gender, SOC was inversely associated with tension, fatigue, anxiety, depression and subjective symptoms in males, and tension, depression and subjective symptoms in females. SOC was positively associated with vigor in both males and females. Conclusions Having a strong SOC may reduce worker’s negative job stress responses and increase their vigor. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm this finding.

  5. Job Strain in Physical Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Marc A.; Weiser, Sherri; Koenig, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Job stress has been associated with poor outcomes. In focus groups and small-sample surveys, physical therapists have reported high levels of job stress. Studies of job stress in physical therapy with larger samples are needed. Objective: The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the levels of psychological job demands and job control reported by physical therapists in a national sample, (2) to compare those levels with national norms, and (3) to determine whether high demands, low control, or a combination of both (job strain) increases the risk for turnover or work-related pain. Design: This was a prospective cohort study with a 1-year follow-up period. Methods: Participants were randomly selected members of the American Physical Therapy Association (n=882). Exposure assessments included the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), a commonly used instrument for evaluation of the psychosocial work environment. Outcomes included job turnover and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Results: Compared with national averages, the physical therapists reported moderate job demands and high levels of job control. About 16% of the therapists reported changing jobs during follow-up. Risk factors for turnover included high job demands, low job control, job strain, female sex, and younger age. More than one half of the therapists reported work-related pain. Risk factors for work-related pain included low job control and job strain. Limitations: The JCQ measures only limited dimensions of the psychosocial work environment. All data were self-reported and subject to associated bias. Conclusions: Physical therapists’ views of their work environments were positive, including moderate levels of demands and high levels of control. Those therapists with high levels of demands and low levels of control, however, were at increased risk for both turnover and work-related pain. Physical therapists should consider the psychosocial work environment, along with other

  6. Labour Market Interventions as Predictors of Re-employment, Job Seeking Activity and Psychological Distress among the Unemployed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Jukka; Vesalainen, Janne

    1999-01-01

    Finnish job seekers (n=559) were followed up after 1 year (n=401) after 84.3% participated in guidance courses, subsidized employment, vocational training, or some combination. Guidance courses enhanced reemployment. None of the interventions increased job-seeking activity. Training temporarily decreased psychological distress. Deteriorating…

  7. The Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Psychological Health in People with an Intellectual Disability in Competitive Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovski, Pandora; Gleeson, G.

    1997-01-01

    Ratings of job satisfaction and psychological health (self-esteem, stigma, loneliness, and aspirations) were obtained from 31 workers (ages 18 to 41) with a mild intellectual disability. The workers, all in competitive employment settings in Australia, reported they were "happy" with their jobs. Only partial support was found for a…

  8. Effects of the job stress education for supervisors on psychological distress and job performance among their immediate subordinates: a supervisor-based randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Soshi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Nishiuchi, Kyoko; Mineyama, Sachiko; Kawakami, Norito

    2006-11-01

    As job stress is now one of the biggest health-related problems in the workplace, several education programs for supervisors have been conducted to reduce job stress. We conducted a supervisor-based randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of an education program on their subordinates' psychological distress and job performance. The subjects were 301 employees (46 supervisors and 255 subordinates) in a Japanese sake brewery. First, we randomly allocated supervisors to the education group (24 supervisors) and the waiting-list group (22 supervisors). Then, for the allocated supervisors we introduced a single-session, 60-min education program according to the guidelines for employee mental health promotion along with training that provided consulting skills combined with role-playing exercises. We conducted pre- and post-intervention (after 3 months) surveys for all subordinates to examine psychological distress and job performance. We defined the intervention group as those subordinates whose immediate supervisors received the education, and the control group was defined as those subordinates whose supervisors did not. To evaluate the effects, we employed a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Overall, the intervention effects (time x group) were not significant for psychological distress or job performance among both male (p=0.456 and 0.252) and female (p=0.714 and 0.106) subordinates. However, young male subordinates engaged in white-collar occupations showed significant intervention effects for psychological distress (p=0.012) and job performance (p=0.029). In conclusion, our study indicated a possible beneficial effect of supervisor education on the psychological distress and job performance of subordinates. This effect may vary according to specific groups.

  9. Job satisfaction of people with intellectual disabilities: the role of basic psychological need fulfillment and workplace participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P

    2018-05-01

    Knowledge on what contributes to job satisfaction of people with intellectual disabilities is limited. Using self-determination theory, we investigated whether fulfillment of basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, relatedness, competence) affected job satisfaction, and explored associations between workplace participation, need fulfillment and job satisfaction. A total of 117 persons with intellectual disabilities, recruited from a Dutch care organization, were interviewed on need fulfillment at work and job satisfaction. Data on workplace participation was obtained from staff. Questionnaires were based on well-established instruments. Basic psychological need fulfillment predicted higher levels of job satisfaction. Level of workplace participation was not associated with need fulfillment or job satisfaction. Allowing workers with intellectual disabilities to act with a sense of volition, feel effective, able to meet challenges, and connected to others is essential and contributes to job satisfaction. It is needed to pay attention to this, both in selection and design of workplaces and in support style. Implications for rehabilitation Knowledge on factors that contribute to job satisfaction is necessary to improve employment situations and employment success of people with intellectual disabilities. In order to achieve job satisfaction, it is essential that workplaces allow for fulfillment of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence of people with intellectual disabilities. People with intellectual disabilities are able to report on their needs and satisfaction, and it is important that their own perspective is taken into account in decisions regarding their employment situation.

  10. Nursing students' well-being using the job-demand-control model: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, Jouni; Aimala, Anna-Mari; Žvanut, Boštjan

    2016-10-01

    Students' well-being is very important both for students and institutions. However, this field lacks longitudinal research, which focuses on the change of nursing students' well-being during their study. In order to asses such changes the four study types according to Job-Demand-Control-Support-model were used: passive, high-strain, low-strain, and active. A longitudinal design was employed: participants were recruited in 2010/2011 (phase I) and at the end of their study in 2012 (phase II). The study was performed in one school of health care in a university of applied sciences in Finland. The final sample consisted of 135 nursing students (BSc) who started their study either in September 2008 or January 2009, and finished in December 2011 or May 2012. The participants responded to the same close-ended questionnaire in both phases. The majority of the participants experienced the study type as low-strain (phase I: 61.5%; phase II: 48.2%). The distribution according to their study type did not change substantially between both phases, although 42.2% of the participants changed their study type. The major changes of study types were from low-strain to others (21.4%), and from other study types to the active one (12.6%). The results indicate that the majority of students do not change their study type and consequentially their well-being during their study, which is in contrast with previous research. Special attention should be put to the identification of students who change their study type to high-strain or remain in it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. French and British perceptions on stress at work and the role of job demand and enhanced coping resources

    OpenAIRE

    Mellor, Nadine

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this research was first to identify the differences in the perceptions of stress among French and British managers. A second aim was to examine the levels of stress and the role of job demand, support, relationships at work and coping on well-being. Lastly, it was to evaluate the effects of coping resources on well-being. Interviews indicated that differences exist in the understanding of stress. British managers attributed causes of stress more to workload and deadlines, decis...

  12. [Relationships between workers' interpersonal helping behavior, social supports, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor in manufacturing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Yuji; Otsuka, Yasumasa

    2014-01-01

    In the NIOSH Generic Job Stress Model, social support is assumed to moderate the relationship between job stressors and stress responses. However, few studies have investigated how to enhance social support in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between interpersonal helping behavior, social support, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor among Japanese workers. A total of 240 workers in manufacturing companies returned a questionnaire regarding their interpersonal helping behavior, social support, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor (response rate = 96.0%). After excluding 40 participants due to missing responses, data from a total of 200 participants (163 male and 37 female, mean age = 40.3 yr) were used in the final analyses. Interpersonal helping behavior was assessed by the Japanese version of the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale. The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire was used to measure job stressors, psychological stress responses, social support, and vigor. Structured equation modeling was performed to examine the relationships between interpersonal helping behavior, social support, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor. Interpersonal helping behavior had a statistically significant negative effect on psychological stress response through increasing social support. However, interpersonal helping behavior had a statistically significant positive effect on psychological stress response through increasing the quantitative workload. Of these two effects, the former was stronger than the latter. In addition, interpersonal helping behavior had a statistically significant positive effect on vigor through increasing social support. Although interpersonal helping behavior, which helps other workers may increase quantitative workload, leading to high levels of psychological stress responses, that same behavior strengthens trust and team spirit among workers and may

  13. Environmental Psychology Effects on Mental Health Job Satisfaction and Personal Well Being of Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Sodeh; Asaadi, Mohammad Mahdy; Pakpour, Amir H; Hajiaghababaei, Marzieh

    2015-06-01

    Environmental psychology as a science could be useful in understanding the dissociation between the man and the environment. The aim of this study was to compare mental health, job satisfaction and well-being of nurses who work in hospital environments with different designs. This was a quasi-experimental study, in which 250 nurses filled out the mental health, well-being and job satisfaction questionnaires. They were categorized into 3 groups randomly. Group1 included 63 nurses who worked in an environment without any natural elements; group 2 included 100 nurses who worked in an environment with natural elements and group 3 included 87 nurses who worked in an environment without any psychological and ergonomic design. The last group was only stimulated by demonstrating visual stimulus. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey's pursuit statistical method. The nurses who were working in an environment without any natural elements reported significantly lower scores on mental health, well-being and job satisfaction compared to those who were working in other groups, with the exception of social functioning. Moreover, depression and anxiety were more common in nurses who were working in environments without any natural elements compared to those in the other groups (ppsychology indexes in hospital buildings.

  14. Consequences of Job Insecurity on the Psychological and Physical Health of Greek Civil Servants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Nella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the short term consequences of job insecurity associated with a newly introduced mobility framework in Greece. In specific, the study examined the impact of job insecurity on anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic and musculoskeletal symptoms, two months after the announcement of the mobility framework. In addition the study also examined the “spill over” effects of job insecurity on employees not directly affected by the mobility framework. Personal interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted for 36 university administrative employees awaiting repositioning, 36 coworkers not at risk, and 28 administrative employees of a local hospital not at risk. Compared to both control groups the employees in the anticipation phase of labor mobility had significantly worse scores for perceived stress, anxiety, depression, positive affect, negative affect, social support, marital discord, common somatic symptoms, and frequency of musculoskeletal pain. This study highlights the immediate detrimental effects of job insecurity on the physical, psychological, and social functioning of employees. There is a need for the development of front line interventions to prevent these effects from developing into chronic conditions with considerable cost for the individual and society in general.

  15. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) : an instrument for internationally comparative assessments of psychosocial job characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karasek, R.; Brisson, C.; Kawakami, N; Houtman, I.; Bongers, P.; Amick, B

    1998-01-01

    This article consists of three parts. Part 1 discusses the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), designed to measure scales assessing psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, physical demands, and job insecurity. Part 2 reports the cross-national validity, for men and women, of the JCQ

  16. Coming to grips with challenging behaviour: a cluster randomised controlled trial on the effects of a new care programme for challenging behaviour on burnout, job satisfaction and job demands of care staff on dementia special care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwijsen, S A; Gerritsen, D L; Eefsting, J A; Smalbrugge, M; Hertogh, C M P M; Pot, A M

    2015-01-01

    Caring for people with dementia in dementia special care units is a demanding job. Challenging behaviour is one of the factors influencing the job satisfaction and burnout of care staff. A care programme for the challenging behaviour of nursing home residents with dementia might, next to diminishing the challenging behaviour of residents, improve job satisfaction and reduce the care staff's feelings of burnout. To determine the effects of a care programme for the challenging behaviour of nursing home residents with dementia on the burnout, job satisfaction and job demands of care staff. The care programme was implemented according to a stepped wedge design in which care units were randomly divided over five groups with different time points of starting with implementation. 17 Dutch dementia special care units. Care staff members of the 17 units. The care programme consists of an education package and of various structured assessment tools that guide professionals through the multidisciplinary detection, analysis, treatment and evaluation of treatment of challenging behaviour. Burnout, job satisfaction and job demands were measured before implementation, halfway through the implementation process and after all the care units had implemented the care programme. Burnout was measured with the Dutch version of the Maslach burnout inventory (UBOS-C, three subscales); job satisfaction and job demands were measured with subscales of the Leiden Quality of Work Questionnaire. Mixed model analyses were used to determine effects. Care staff could not be blinded for the intervention. Of the 1441 questionnaires, 645 were returned (response 45%, 318 control measurements, 327 intervention measurements) by 380 unique care staff members. Significant effects were found on job satisfaction (0.93, 95% CI 0.48-1.38). On the other outcomes, no significant changes in the scores were found. Positive effects of using the Grip on Challenging behaviour care programme were found on job

  17. Psychological morbidity, job satisfaction and intentions to quit among teachers in private secondary schools in Edo-State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofili, A N; Usiholo, E A; Oronsaye, M O

    2009-01-01

    Teachers are an inseparable corner stone of the society and their satisfaction will affect the quality of service they render. Poor job satisfaction could result in job stress and this could affect their psychological health. This study aims to ascertain the level, causes of job dissatisfaction, intentions to quit and psychological morbidity among teachers in private secondary schools in a developing country. A cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers (392) in private secondary schools in Benin-City, Edo-State Nigeria, between June 2003 to November 2003. A total population of 400 teachers who had spent at least one year in the service were included in the study. The respondents completed a self-administered designed questionnaire and a standard instrument--The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28) The response rate was 98%. Fifty-eight (14.8%) of the respondents had psychological morbidity (GHQ score of 4 and above). One hundred and seventy-eight (45.4%) teachers were very satisfied or satisfied with their jobs. A significant number (45.9%) of teachers would want to quit their jobs. The proportion of teachers with GHQ score 4 and above increased with the level of dissatisfaction but this was not found to be statistically significant. Poor salary was found to be the main cause of job dissatisfaction and major reason for wanting to quit the job. This study shows a low level of job satisfaction among Nigerian teachers. Poor salary was the major cause of job dissatisfaction and intention to quit. Further work need to be done to ascertain the association of psychological morbidity and job dissatisfaction.

  18. The mediating role of psychological capital on the association between occupational stress and job burnout among bank employees in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xirui; Kan, Dan; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie; Wu, Hui

    2015-03-10

    Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women). Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank employees.

  19. The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital on the Association between Occupational Stress and Job Burnout among Bank Employees in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xirui; Kan, Dan; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie; Wu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women). Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank employees. PMID:25764060

  20. Perceived job demands during military deployment : What soldiers say in Afghanistan (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, S.M.; Kamphuis, W.; Delahaij, R.; Euwema, M.

    2012-01-01

    Military deployment is inherently demanding and military organizations have to prepare their personnel for a broad range of operational demands. So far, it remains unclear how perceptions of operational demands differ between distinct military units. Using a cross-sectional design, this study

  1. Coming to grips with challenging behaviour: a cluster randomised controlled trial on the effects of a new care programme for challenging behaviour on burnout, job satisfaction and job demands of care staff on dementia special care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, S.A.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Eefsting, J.A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.; Pot, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Caring for people with dementia in dementia special care units is a demanding job. Challenging behaviour is one of the factors influencing the job satisfaction and burnout of care staff. A care programme for the challenging behaviour of nursing home residents with dementia might, next to

  2. Coming to grips with challenging behaviour: a cluster randomised controlled trial on the effects of a new care programme for challenging behaviour on burnout, job satisfaction and job demands of care staff on dementia special care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, S.A.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Eefsting, J.A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Hertogh, C.M.; Pot, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caring for people with dementia in dementia special care units is a demanding job. Challenging behaviour is one of the factors influencing the job satisfaction and burnout of care staff. A care programme for the challenging behaviour of nursing home residents with dementia might, next to

  3. Perceived job insecurity and perceived employability in relation to temporary and permanent workers' psychological symptoms: a two samples study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirves, Kaisa; De Cuyper, Nele; Kinnunen, Ulla; Nätti, Jouko

    2011-12-01

    To clarify the role of perceived job insecurity and perceived employability in relation to psychological symptoms among permanent and temporary employees in two samples. Sample 1 was representative of the Finnish working population in 2008 (n = 4,330; Study 1). Sample 2 was collected among Finnish university personnel and in two waves (n = 1,212; Study 2). Perceived job insecurity, perceived employability, and psychological symptoms were measured by questionnaires in both studies. Hypotheses were tested with regression analyses. The pattern of results was similar in the two samples. Perceived job insecurity was positively associated with psychological symptoms among permanent workers but not among temporary workers. No such differential relationships were observed for perceived employability, instead perceived employability was negatively associated with psychological symptoms among all respondents. Furthermore, perceived employability did not buffer the positive relation between perceived job insecurity and psychological symptoms. Knowledge about the relationship between contract type and workers' well-being can be enhanced when the combined effects of contract type and job conditions are accounted for.

  4. The moderating role of psychological capital in the relationship between job stress and the outcomes of incivility and job involvement amongst call centre employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah B. Setar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South African call centres were found to rank amongst those with the highest degree of performance monitoring and feedback. This revelation comes at a time when many scholars concur that research has not entirely succeeded in helping organisations overcome the negative aspects of work and enhance the positive aspects of work, such as job involvement. Research purpose: This study sought to examine the relationship between job stress, job involvement and the display of uncivil behaviour amongst call centre employees, whilst also studying the role of psychological capital (PsyCap in this relationship. Motivation for the study: The study was prompted by the scarcity of research in the area of PsyCap and job involvement, none of which has examined relationships between job stress and the outcomes of incivility and job involvement and the moderating role of PsyCap in this relationship, focusing on call centre employees. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative design employed a cross-sectional survey to collect data from 104 South African call centre employees using a biographical data sheet, the PsyCap Questionnaire, Job Stress Scale, Uncivil Workplace Behaviour Scale and the Job Involvement Scale. Main findings: PsyCap and uncivil workplace behaviour were negatively related, whilst PsyCap and job involvement were positively related. Job stress held predictive value for incivility and the hostility subscale. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that PsyCap did not moderate the relationship between job stress and incivility and neither did it moderate the relationship between job stress and job involvement.Practical implications: Organisations should work on minimising stressors within the workplace in order to enhance the PsyCap of employees, which not only lowers the risk of incivility displayed by employees but also ensures greater employee involvement. Contribution/value-add: Although previous studies have examined

  5. Explanation of Psychological Capital Effects on Improvement of Farmers’ Job Satisfaction of the Ardabil County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakil Heidari sraban

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Positive Psychological Capital is defined as the positive and developmental state of an individual as characterized by high self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resiliency. The main purpose of this paper is to explain the psychological capital effects on improvement of village farmer’s job satisfactions in the Ardabil County. The study sample consists of farmers in the Ardabil Province and 380 people were selected by convenience sampling. The sample size was determined based on Cochran's formula and the required data was collected through questionnaires. A questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaires face and content validity were confirmed by professors and experts, and its reliability was confirmed based on Cronbach's alpha (0.71-0.82. For data analysis, the SPSS software was used. The results of Pearson correlation test showed that there was a significant correlation between all research variables and job satisfactions with the reliability of %95. Moreover, the variables of optimism, resiliency and self-efficacy contained %41 of dependent variables in linear multiple regression test. Finally, according to the results of analysis, practical suggestions are presented.

  6. Revisiting the Link between Job Satisfaction and Life Satisfaction: The Role of Basic Psychological Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unanue, Wenceslao; Gómez, Marcos E.; Cortez, Diego; Oyanedel, Juan C.; Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    The link between job satisfaction and life satisfaction has been extensively explored in the relevant literature. However, the great majority of past research has been carried out using cross-sectional analyses, and almost exclusively in the Western world. Moreover, the underlying psychological mechanisms explaining the link are not yet completely understood. Thus, we report the first research to date which uses both cross-sectional and longitudinal data among workers in Chile—a fast-developing Latin American economy—and which aims to tackle previous limitations. Three studies consistently support a positive link between the constructs. Study 1 (N = 636) found that higher job satisfaction predicted higher life satisfaction both contemporaneously and longitudinally, and vice versa, above and beyond several key control variables. Study 2 (N = 725) and Study 3 (N = 703) replicated Study 1 results, but tested for the first time the role of satisfaction of basic psychological needs (as stated by self-determination theory) in the job–life satisfaction link. This is the most novel contribution of our paper. Key implications not only for individual quality of life, but also for companies' human resource practices emerge from our findings. PMID:28536541

  7. Systematic Method for Establishing Officer Grade Requirements Based Upon Job Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christal, Raymond E.

    This report presents interim results of a study developing a methodology for management engineering teams to determine the appropriate grade requirements for officer positions based on job content and responsibilities. The technology reported represents a modification and extension of methods developed between 1963 and 1966. Results indicated that…

  8. How important are exports for job growth in China? : A demand side analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, Bart; Timmer, Marcel P.; de Vries, Gaaitzen J.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the impact of foreign demand on Chinese employment creation by extending the global input–output methodology introduced by Johnson and Noguera (2012). We find that between 1995 and 2001, fast growth in foreign demand was offset by strong increases in labor productivity and the net effect

  9. Comparison of alternative versions of the job demand-control scales in 17 European cohort studies: the IPD-Work consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransson Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Job strain (i.e., high job demands combined with low job control is a frequently used indicator of harmful work stress, but studies have often used partial versions of the complete multi-item job demands and control scales. Understanding whether the different instruments assess the same underlying concepts has crucial implications for the interpretation of findings across studies, harmonisation of multi-cohort data for pooled analyses, and design of future studies. As part of the 'IPD-Work' (Individual-participant-data meta-analysis in working populations consortium, we compared different versions of the demands and control scales available in 17 European cohort studies. Methods Six of the 17 studies had information on the complete scales and 11 on partial scales. Here, we analyse individual level data from 70 751 participants of the studies which had complete scales (5 demand items, 6 job control items. Results We found high Pearson correlation coefficients between complete scales of job demands and control relative to scales with at least three items (r > 0.90 and for partial scales with two items only (r = 0.76-0.88. In comparison with scores from the complete scales, the agreement between job strain definitions was very good when only one item was missing in either the demands or the control scale (kappa > 0.80; good for job strain assessed with three demand items and all six control items (kappa > 0.68 and moderate to good when items were missing from both scales (kappa = 0.54-0.76. The sensitivity was > 0.80 when only one item was missing from either scale, decreasing when several items were missing in one or both job strain subscales. Conclusions Partial job demand and job control scales with at least half of the items of the complete scales, and job strain indices based on one complete and one partial scale, seemed to assess the same underlying concepts as the complete survey instruments.

  10. Psychological distress, burnout level and job satisfaction in emergency medicine: A cross-sectional study of physicians in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yunbei; Wang, Jinguo; Chen, Si; Wu, Zhigang; Cai, Jian; Weng, Zhiliang; Li, Chengdi; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2014-12-01

    Chinese physicians are not only facing heavy work overloads, but also abuse and injury because of patient mistrust of physicians. The primary objective of the present study was to measure psychological distress, burnout levels and job satisfaction among Chinese emergency physicians. All the physicians from the EDs of three large general hospitals were recruited to undertake a questionnaire-based survey from March to April 2012. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire were used. Correlations between job satisfaction and psychological distress and burnout were calculated using the Pearson correlation. An outcome was considered statistically significant if P burnout. All aspects of job satisfaction were significantly lower in the ED physicians compared with a previous report (P Burnout was significantly negatively correlated with intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction in the sampled population. Psychological distress is prevalent in this group of ED physicians, and it deserves attention from the whole society. Burnout and job satisfaction among ED physicians are at a 'moderate' level. Burnout is negatively associated with higher job satisfaction. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  11. The moderating role of decision authority and coworker- and supervisor support on the impact of job demands in nursing homes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Bernadette M; de Jonge, Jan; Smit, Dieneke; Depla, Marja F I A; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2012-07-01

    Healthcare workers in nursing homes are faced with high job demands that can have a detrimental impact on job-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction. Job resources may have a buffering role on this relationship. The Demand-Control-Support (DCS) Model offers a theoretical framework to study how specific job resources can buffer the adverse effects of high demands, and can even activate positive consequences of high demands. The present study tests the moderating (i.e. buffering and activating) effects of decision authority and coworker- and supervisor support that are assumed by the hypotheses of the DCS Model. A national cross-sectional survey was conducted with an anonymous questionnaire. One hundred and thirty six living arrangements that provide nursing home care for people with dementia in the Netherlands. Fifteen healthcare workers per living arrangement. In total, 1147 people filled out the questionnaires (59% response rate). Hierarchical multilevel regression analyses were conducted to test the assumption that the effect of job demands on the dependent variables is buffered or activated the most when both decision authority and social support are high. This moderation is statistically represented by three-way interactions (i.e. demands×authority×support), while lower-order effects are taken into account (i.e. two-way interactions). The hypotheses are supported when three-way interaction effects are found in the expected direction. The dependent variables studied are job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment. The proposed buffering and activation hypotheses of the DCS Model were not supported in our study. Three-way interaction effects were found for emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment, though not in the expected direction. In addition, two-way interaction effects were found for job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Decision authority was found to buffer the adverse effect of job demands and to activate

  12. Job strain and other work conditions: relationships with psychological distress among civil servants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Claudia S; Araya, Ricardo; Werneck, Guilherme L; Chor, Dóra; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2010-03-01

    In developing countries, traditional sources of employment and work practices have changed rapidly and work environment has appeared as an important factor associated with an increased prevalence of mental disorders in these countries. To investigate the association between job strain and other work characteristics with psychological distress, and to estimate the contextual effects of different working environments on psychological distress, using cross-sectional data from an occupational cohort. The subjects were 3,574 non-faculty civil servants working at university campuses in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study). Psychological distress was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Work characteristics were measured by the modified version of the Karasek model and through questions about night shift work and occupational status. After adjusting for age, education, income and other work characteristics, low social support at work and high job strain were associated with psychological distress. For low social support, the association was stronger in men (Prevalence Ratio = 2.02; 95% Confidence Interval 1.6-2.6) than in women (PR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.2-1.4). High job strain was similarly significant in both women (PR = 1.43; 95% CI 1.2-1.7) and men (PR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.0-1.7). Men having a routine non-manual work presented 29% more psychological distress than those undertaking professional roles. Night shift work did not show significant association with psychological distress. In the multilevel analysis, the prevalence of psychological distress did not vary significantly across work units. Job strain and poor support at work seem important psychological stressors in the workplace in Brazil. Our findings are comparable to those found in more developed countries, providing additional evidence of an association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and psychological distress, being thus useful for policymakers in planning and promoting

  13. The impact of psychological capital on mental health among Iranian nurses: considering the mediating role of job burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiri, Mehrdad; Nargesian, Abbas; Dastpish, Farinaz; Sharifi, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The role of nurses in providing high quality healthcare to patients is so important that creating a desirable working environment to enhance their overall performance is unavoidable. This paper aimed to explore the impact of psychological capital on mental health by investigating the mediating effects of job burnout on this relationship. The data used in this research was obtained via a survey conducted among selected Iranian nurses in public hospitals. In total, 450 questionnaires were distributed and 384 were completed and returned. Collected data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Findings showed that there is a significant relationship between psychological capital, job burnout and mental health; also, there is a significant negative relationship between psychological capital and job burnout, and a significant positive relationship between psychological capital and mental health. The results have several important practical implications for human resource management in Iranian public hospitals. According to the results of this study, reducing job burnout is an important factor in enhancing psychological capital and can positively enhance nurses' mental health.

  14. Association of Job Demands with Work Engagement of Japanese Employees: Comparison of Challenges with Hindrances (J-HOPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Miyaki, Koichi; Takahashi, Masaya; Kurioka, Sumiko; Eguchi, Hisashi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Enta, Kazuhiko; Kosugi, Yuki; Sakata, Tomoko; Totsuzaki, Takafumi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recent epidemiological research in Europe has reported that two groups of job demands, i.e., challenges and hindrances, are differently associated with work engagement. The purpose of the present study was to replicate the cross-sectional association of workload and time pressure (as a challenge) and role ambiguity (as a hindrance) with work engagement among Japanese employees. Methods Between October 2010 and December 2011, a total of 9,134 employees (7,101 men and 1,673 women) from 12 companies in Japan were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire comprising the Job Content Questionnaire, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, short 10-item version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, short nine-item version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and demographic characteristics. Multilevel regression analyses with a random intercept model were conducted. Results After adjusting for demographic characteristics, workload and time pressure showed a positive association with work engagement with a small effect size (standardized coefficient [β] = 0.102, Cohen’s d [d] = 0.240) while role ambiguity showed a negative association with a large effect size (β = −0.429, d = 1.011). After additionally adjusting for job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward), the effect size of workload and time pressure was not attenuated (β = 0.093, d = 0.234) while that of role ambiguity was attenuated but still medium (β = −0.242, d = 0.609). Conclusions Among Japanese employees, challenges such as having higher levels of workload and time pressure may enhance work engagement but hindrances, such as role ambiguity, may reduce it. PMID:24614682

  15. Association of job demands with work engagement of Japanese employees: comparison of challenges with hindrances (J-HOPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Miyaki, Koichi; Takahashi, Masaya; Kurioka, Sumiko; Eguchi, Hisashi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Enta, Kazuhiko; Kosugi, Yuki; Sakata, Tomoko; Totsuzaki, Takafumi

    2014-01-01

    Recent epidemiological research in Europe has reported that two groups of job demands, i.e., challenges and hindrances, are differently associated with work engagement. The purpose of the present study was to replicate the cross-sectional association of workload and time pressure (as a challenge) and role ambiguity (as a hindrance) with work engagement among Japanese employees. Between October 2010 and December 2011, a total of 9,134 employees (7,101 men and 1,673 women) from 12 companies in Japan were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire comprising the Job Content Questionnaire, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, short 10-item version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, short nine-item version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and demographic characteristics. Multilevel regression analyses with a random intercept model were conducted. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, workload and time pressure showed a positive association with work engagement with a small effect size (standardized coefficient [β] = 0.102, Cohen's d [d] = 0.240) while role ambiguity showed a negative association with a large effect size (β = -0.429, d = 1.011). After additionally adjusting for job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward), the effect size of workload and time pressure was not attenuated (β = 0.093, d = 0.234) while that of role ambiguity was attenuated but still medium (β = -0.242, d = 0.609). Among Japanese employees, challenges such as having higher levels of workload and time pressure may enhance work engagement but hindrances, such as role ambiguity, may reduce it.

  16. Stress among nurses working in emergency, anesthesiology and intensive care units depends on qualification: a Job Demand-Control survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trousselard, Marion; Dutheil, Frédéric; Naughton, Geraldine; Cosserant, Sylvie; Amadon, Sylvie; Dualé, Christian; Schoeffler, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    The nurse stress literature reports an overwhelming culture of acceptance and expectation of work stressors, ironically linked to the control of the workplace to effectively and proactively manage stress. The stressors involved in delivering "stress management" have been well studied in nursing-related workplaces, especially in acute care settings in accordance with the Karasek Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model. However, little is known about the effects of specificity of an acute care unit and the level of qualifications on stress experienced by nurses. A survey using the JDCS model was conducted among 385 nurses working in three different acute care units (anesthesiology, emergency and intensive care unit) from a university hospital. Specific questions explored variables such as gender, acute care units, level of qualification and working experience. Two hundred questionnaires were returned. A high level of job strain was highlighted without a gender effect and in the absence of isostrain. Nurses from acute care units were located in the high stress quadrant of the JDCS model. Conversely, other nurses were commonly located in the "active" quadrant. Independent of acute care settings, the highest level of education was associated with the highest job strain and the lowest level of control. In an acute care setting, a high level of education was a key factor for high job stress and was associated with a perception of a low control in the workplace, both of which may be predictors of adverse mental health. In particular, the lack of control has been associated with moral distress, a frequently reported characteristic of acute care settings. To enhance the personal and professional outcomes of the advanced registered nurses, strategies for supporting nurses manage daily stressors in acute care are urgently required.

  17. Association of job demands with work engagement of Japanese employees: comparison of challenges with hindrances (J-HOPE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiomi Inoue

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological research in Europe has reported that two groups of job demands, i.e., challenges and hindrances, are differently associated with work engagement. The purpose of the present study was to replicate the cross-sectional association of workload and time pressure (as a challenge and role ambiguity (as a hindrance with work engagement among Japanese employees.Between October 2010 and December 2011, a total of 9,134 employees (7,101 men and 1,673 women from 12 companies in Japan were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire comprising the Job Content Questionnaire, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, short 10-item version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, short nine-item version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and demographic characteristics. Multilevel regression analyses with a random intercept model were conducted.After adjusting for demographic characteristics, workload and time pressure showed a positive association with work engagement with a small effect size (standardized coefficient [β] = 0.102, Cohen's d [d] = 0.240 while role ambiguity showed a negative association with a large effect size (β = -0.429, d = 1.011. After additionally adjusting for job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward, the effect size of workload and time pressure was not attenuated (β = 0.093, d = 0.234 while that of role ambiguity was attenuated but still medium (β = -0.242, d = 0.609.Among Japanese employees, challenges such as having higher levels of workload and time pressure may enhance work engagement but hindrances, such as role ambiguity, may reduce it.

  18. Job control, job demands, social support at work and health among adolescent workers Controle, exigências, apoio social no trabalho e efeitos na saúde de trabalhadores adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida M Fischer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate physical and psychological dimensions of adolescent labor (such as job demands, job control, and social support in the work environment, and their relation to reported body pain, work injuries, sleep duration and daily working hours. METHODS: A total of 354 adolescents attending evening classes at a public school in São Paulo, Brazil, answered questionnaires regarding their living and working conditions (Karasek's Job Content Questionnaire, 1998, and their health status. Data collection took place in April and May 2001. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine relations among variables. RESULTS: Psychological job demands were related to body pain (OR=3.3, higher risk of work injuries (OR=3.0 and reduced sleep duration in weekdays (Monday to Thursday (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar as dimensões físicas e psicológicas do trabalho de adolescentes (demanda de trabalho, controle no trabalho e apoio social e ambiental, relacionando-os a relatos de: dores no corpo, acidentes de trabalho, duração de sono e duração diária da jornada de trabalho. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 354 estudantes do período noturno de escola pública no Município de São Paulo, entre abril e maio de 2001. Esses, responderam a questionário sobre condições de vida, trabalho (escalas Karasek de controle no trabalho e estado de saúde. Foram feitas análises de regressão logística múltipla a fim de determinar a relação entre variáveis. RESULTADOS: As exigências psicológicas mostraram-se associadas aos relatos de dores no corpo (OR=3,3, maiores riscos de ocorrência de acidentes de trabalho (OR=3,0 e redução da duração do sono durante os dias de semana (segunda a quinta-feira (p<0,01. Baixa autoridade de decisão (p=0,03 e maior segurança no emprego (p=0,02 estão relacionadas à maior duração da jornada diária de trabalho. CONCLUSÕES: Concluiu-se que não somente os estressores físicos, mas também os psicol

  19. Job Stressors, Emotional Exhaustion, and Need for Recovery: A Multi-Source Study on the Benefits of Psychological Detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Kuttler, Iris; Fritz, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines psychological detachment (i.e., mentally "switching off") from work during non-work time as a partial mediator between job stressors and low work-home boundaries on the one hand and strain reactions (emotional exhaustion, need for recovery) on the other hand. Survey data were collected from a sample of protestant pastors (N =…

  20. Work-home interference among nurses: reciprocal relationships with job demands and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice; Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B.; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin

    2008-01-01

    Aims: This paper is a report of a study with three aims: (i) to investigate whether emotional, quantitative and physical demands have a causal, negative impact on nurses' health; (ii) to examine whether work-home interference can explain this effect, by playing a mediating role; and (iii) to test

  1. Turnover intention and emotional exhaustion "at the top": adapting the job demands-resources model to leaders of addiction treatment organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Ducharme, Lori J; Roman, Paul M

    2009-01-01

    Compared with the large literature on subordinate employees, there are few studies of emotional exhaustion and turnover intention for organizational leaders. There is little research that has extended the job demands-resources (JD-R) model of emotional exhaustion to leaders. In this study, the authors adapted the JD-R framework to analyze data collected from a sample of 410 leaders of addiction treatment organizations. The authors considered whether two job demands (performance demands and centralization) and two job resources (innovation in decision making and long-range strategic planning) were associated with emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. The authors also examined whether emotional exhaustion fully or partially mediated the associations between the job-related measures and turnover intention. The results supported the partially mediated model. Both job demands were positively associated with emotional exhaustion, and the association for long-range strategic planning was negative. Emotional exhaustion was positively associated with turnover intention. Centralization and innovation in decision making were also directly associated with turnover intention. Future research should continue to examine this theoretical framework among leaders of other types of organizations using more refined measures of demands and resources.

  2. Information and communication technology demands at work: the association with job strain, effort-reward imbalance and self-rated health in different socio-economic strata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadin, Magdalena; Nordin, Maria; Broström, Anders; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Westerlund, Hugo; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2016-10-01

    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is common in modern working life. ICT demands may give rise to experience of work-related stress. Knowledge about ICT demands in relation to other types of work-related stress and to self-rated health is limited. Consequently, the aim of this study was to examine the association between ICT demands and two types of work-related stress [job strain and effort-reward imbalance (ERI)] and to evaluate the association between these work-related stress measures and self-rated health, in general and in different SES strata. This study is based on cross-sectional data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health collected in 2014, from 14,873 gainfully employed people. ICT demands, job strain, ERI and self-rated health were analysed as the main measures. Sex, age, SES, lifestyle factors and BMI were used as covariates. ICT demands correlated significantly with the dimensions of the job strain and ERI models, especially with the demands (r = 0.42; p < 0.01) and effort (r = 0.51; p < 0.01) dimensions. ICT demands were associated with suboptimal self-rated health, also after adjustment for age, sex, SES, lifestyle and BMI (OR 1.49 [95 % CI 1.36-1.63]), but job strain (OR 1.93 [95 % CI 1.74-2.14) and ERI (OR 2.15 [95 % CI 1.95-2.35]) showed somewhat stronger associations with suboptimal self-rated health. ICT demands are common among people with intermediate and high SES and associated with job strain, ERI and suboptimal self-rated health. ICT demands should thus be acknowledged as a potential stressor of work-related stress in modern working life.

  3. Motivational Mechanisms in the Relation between Job Characteristics and Employee Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Anja H; Halvari, Hallgeir

    2017-08-07

    This study investigates the job demands-resources (JD-R) model in relation to work motivation in a self-determination theory (SDT) perspective, with the purpose of developing a model where social-contextual factors are seen in relation to psychological needs in order to explain autonomous work motivation and, in turn, self-reported work performance and somatic symptom burden. SEM-analyses of cross-sectional survey data including 405 waiters/waitresses in Norway were conducted to evaluate the hypothesized model. Results indicate that different job resources have different relations to psychological need satisfaction, and that certain types of job demands (i.e., job challenges) actually may enhance satisfaction of specific psychological needs. In particular, task autonomy had a positive relation to autonomy satisfaction (p job characteristics and autonomous work motivation and between the basic needs and work performance (p job demands and job resources, as well as among the three psychological needs.

  4. Personality Characteristics, Job Stressors, and Job Satisfaction: Main and Interaction Effects on Psychological and Physical Health Conditions of Italian Schoolteachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Pes, Daniela; Capasso, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The study proposed an application of the transactional model of stress in teaching elaborated by Travers and Cooper in 1996, and aimed to investigate the influence of personality characteristics (coping strategies, type A behaviors), situational characteristics (sources of pressure), and perceived job satisfaction in the prediction of teachers' psychophysical health conditions. The Italian version of the Teacher Stress Questionnaire was administered to 621 teachers. Logistic regression was used to evaluate significant main and interaction effects of personality characteristics, situational characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction on teachers' self-reported psychophysical health conditions. The findings highlighted specific coping strategies (focused on the problem, on innovation, and on hobbies and pastimes) and dimensions of job satisfaction (related to intrinsic aspects of job and to employee relations) buffering the negative effects of several job stressors. Type A behaviors and coping strategies focused on mobilized social support, suppression of stress, and not confronting the situation had main and interactions with negative effects on psychophysical health. Findings confirmed the necessity to run multi-factor research to analyze the different combinations of individual and situational variables implicated in negative health outcomes and to highlight the most significant buffering or increasing associations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Managers’ Interview Decisions about Older Job Applicants: Effects of Human Capital-Related Characteristics, General Economic Conditions, and Changes in Job Demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Mulders, J.; Henkens, K.; Liu, Y.; Schippers, J.J.; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    Older job applicants are vulnerable to stereotype related bias in the recruitment process. In the current study, we examined how managers’ job in terview invitation decisions regarding older job applicants are influenced by a pplicants’ human capital-related characteristics, general economic

  6. An exploration of the prevalence and predictors of work-related well-being among psychosocial oncology professionals: An application of the job demands-resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnell, Adrienne; Rasmussen, Victoria; Butow, Phyllis; Juraskova, Ilona; Kirsten, Laura; Wiener, Lori; Patenaude, Andrea; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette; Grassi, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Burnout is reportedly high among oncology healthcare workers. Psychosocial oncologists may be particularly vulnerable to burnout. However, their work engagement may also be high, counteracting stress in the workplace. This study aimed to document the prevalence of both burnout and work engagement, and the predictors of both, utilizing the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, within a sample of psychosocial oncologists. Psychosocial-oncologist (N = 417) clinicians, recruited through 10 international and national psychosocial-oncology societies, completed an online questionnaire. Measures included demographic and work characteristics, burnout (the MBI-HSS Emotional Exhaustion (EE) and Depersonalization (DP) subscales), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and measures of job demands and resources. High EE and DP was reported by 20.2 and 6.6% of participants, respectively, while 95.3% reported average to high work engagement. Lower levels of job resources and higher levels of job demands predicted greater burnout, as predicted by the JD-R model, but the predicted interaction between these characteristics and burnout was not significant. Higher levels of job resources predicted higher levels of work engagement. Burnout was surprisingly low and work engagement high in this sample. Nonetheless, one in five psychosocial oncologists have high EE. Our results suggest that both the positive (resources) and negative (demands) aspects of this work environment have an on impact burnout and engagement, offering opportunities for intervention. Theories such as the JD-R model can be useful in guiding research in this area.

  7. Contemporary demands of psychology in the public sector: Winnicott reflections on the antisocial tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pancini de Sá Antunes Ribeiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is reflect the contemporary demand for psychology in public health services, especially that that refer to children and adolescents, and their guardians, in which the concept of antisocial tendency is the main complaint. To achieve the development of this reflection, we used the psychoanalytic methodology, so that practices of a university extension project allowed the psychoanalytic understanding of the concept of antisocial tendency and its impact on today's public health. From this methodology, the discussion of this work is supported from the concept of antisocial tendency, by Winnicott, and a brief history of the insertion of psychology in the public health, besides the presentation of the university extension project. Thus, the results indicate the possibility of constructing clinical different framings of the psychotherapy in individual setting to manifestations of antisocial tendency in children and adolescents considered antisocial. After the analysis of the concept, of the insertion of psychologists in public health and of the clinical framings proposed by the university extension project, was concluded by the need for a look of psychoanalysis by Winnicott in which the environment is considered in the treatment offered to children and adolescents considered antisocial.

  8. Demanda por grupos, psicologia e controle Group demand, psychology and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahão de Oliveira Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo traz uma reflexão sobre uma capacitação para o trabalho grupal, destinado às equipes das UBSs (Unidades Básica de Saúde do SUS (Sistema Único de Saúde e agentes comunitários de saúde de um município do interior do Estado de São Paulo. Trata-se de analisar o pedido explicitado pela equipe, de mostrar a reflexão a respeito desse pedido, as circunstâncias dos problemas colocados, a experiência dos vários trabalhadores da equipe e a escuta do que se passa do lado da população. Parar para ouvir os parceiros do trabalho e refletir sobre a intervenção fez a equipe trabalhar sua sensibilidade diante das questões da população, do que vem a ser saúde e poder assumir outra postura que não seja a de servir ao controle da população e trabalhar para a construção da sociedade de controle.This article brings a reflection about a training for group work developed with UBSs (Basic Units of Health technical staff from SUS (Unified System of Health and agents of health from a county in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The procedure involves: (1 to analyze the explicit demand form the crew, (2 to show a reflection about this demand, (3 to show the context of the problems, (4 to consider the experience of workers on the crew, and (5 to listen to what happens from population's standpoint. Stop listening to the job partners and reflecting about the intervention made the crew work.

  9. The effect of psychological capital between work-family conflict and job burnout in Chinese university teachers: Testing for mediation and moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jun; Hou, Hanpo; Ma, Ruiyang; Sang, Jinyan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between work-family conflict and job burnout as well as the potential mediation/moderation effects of psychological capital. Participants were 357 university teachers who completed a questionnaire packet containing a work-family conflict scale, psychological capital questionnaire, and Maslach Burnout Inventory-General survey. According to the results, work-family conflict and psychological capital were both significantly correlated with job burnout. In addition, psychological capital cannot mediate-but can moderate-the relationship between work-family conflict and job burnout. Taken together, our findings shed light on the psychological capital underlying the association of work-family conflict and job burnout.

  10. [Physiological, psychological and ergonomic research on jobs in the manufacture of chocolate products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganova, N; Tsvetkov, D; Gancheva, P; Armianov, G; Radneva, R

    1988-01-01

    The investigations include job description and analysis of the activity, functional examinations of basic dynamometric indices (muscle strength and endurance of static effort), the pulse rate and the time of carrying out of one operation and for manufacturing of unit product. Psychological tests for subjective evaluation of the stress and monotony, the type and rate of vertigo, of the psychic status in the presence of monotony, are applied. The ergonomic analysis comprises evaluation of the work place work posture and equipment. The results of the investigations point out that the activity of the basic professions in this production is expressed monotonous, with significant static load of the muscle system and total hypokinesia and hypodynamia. Changes in the working capacity and fatigue are registered in the middle of the working day as well as disturbances in the neuro-vegetative and adaptation mechanisms of the organism and appearance of unfavourable psychic conditions (decreased vigilance, boredom, satiating). Ergonomic incongruities were found in the dimensions and the order of the working place and equipment.

  11. The Predictive Value of Job Demands and Resources on the Meaning of Work and Organisational Commitment across Different Age Groups in the Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthun, Kirsti Sarheim; Innstrand, Siw Tone

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the predictive value of job demands and resources on the meaning of work and organisational commitment across three age groups; young workers (age group of workers (30-49 years) and older workers (>50 years). Data were collected from a survey conducted among university employees (N = 3,066).…

  12. Investigating a 21st Century Paradox: As the Demand for Technology Jobs Increases Why Are Fewer Students Majoring in Information Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Timothy; Gao, Yuan; Sherman, Cherie; Vengerov, Alexander; Klein, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey administered to 322 undergraduate business students enrolled in an introductory Information Systems course at a public liberal arts college located in the northeast US. The goal of this research was to learn, given the increased demand for technology oriented jobs, why fewer students are choosing the…

  13. Job insecurity, work engagement, psychological empowerment and general health of educators in the Sedibeng West District / Violet Deborah Matla

    OpenAIRE

    Matla, Violet Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Organisations are faced with challenges and opportunities due to the constantly changing world of work. These changes lead to organisational members to compete or survive in the dynamic world of work. Job Insecurity, Psychological Empowerment, Work Engagement as well as the employee's well-being are affected by these changes. The South African education environment has been changing since the beginning of the new political dispensation in 1994. The changes include the social, economic,...

  14. Excess heart rate and systolic blood pressure during psychological stress in relation to metabolic demand in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiovascular responses during exercise are matched to the increased metabolic demand, but this may not be the case during psychological stress. No studies to date have tested this hypothesis in youth. Fifty-four youth, ages 13-16 years completed two visits. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressu...

  15. Job Strain and Determinants in Staff Working in Institutions for People with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan: A Test of the Job Demand-Control-Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lee, Tzong-Nan; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Wu, Jia-Ling; Chu, Cordia M.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the job strain of staff working in disability institutions. This study investigated the staff's job strain profile and its determinants which included the worker characteristics and the psychosocial working environments in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study survey was carried out among 1243 workers by means of a self-answered…

  16. Self-reported psychological demands, skill discretion and decision authority at work: A twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, Töres; De Manzano, Örjan; Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ullén, Fredrik

    2016-06-01

    To examine the contribution of genetic factors to self-reported psychological demands (PD), skill discretion (SD) and decision authority (DA) and the possible importance of such influence on the association between these work variables and depressive symptoms. 11,543 participants aged 27-54 in the Swedish Twin Registry participated in a web survey. First of all, in multiple regressions, phenotypic associations between each one of the three work environment variables and depressive symptoms were analysed. Secondly, by means of classical twin analysis, the genetic contribution to PD, SD and DA was assessed. After this, cross-twin cross-trait correlations were computed between PD, SD and DA, on the one hand, and depressive symptom score, on the other hand. The genetic contribution to self-reported PD, DS and DA ranged from 18% for decision authority to 30% for skill discretion. Cross-twin cross-trait correlations were very weak (r values architecture of the phenotypic associations using bivariate twin modelling. However, substantial genetic contribution to these associations seems unlikely. CONCLUSIONS GENETIC CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SELF-REPORTED WORK ENVIRONMENT SCORES WERE 18-30%. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. Job insecurity, union support and the intention to resign membership. A psychological contract perspective tested among union members in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Witte, Hans; Sverke, Magnus; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Goslinga, Sjoerd; Chirumbolo, Antonio; Hellgren, Johnny; Näswall, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of job insecurity among union members. Starting from the dominance of the instrumental motive for union membership, and using psychological contract theory, we hypothesize that the perception of job insecurity will correlate with a lower level of perceived union

  18. Effect of Positive Psychology Elements on Job Pride and Honor with an Emphasis on Mediating Role of Communication among Faculty Members of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein Kamani, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Job pride and honor is affected by various causes. Elements of positive psychology can be pointed out as one of them that in recent years has played an important role in organizational development. Hence, this study is to provide a prediction model about the impact of hope and resilience on job pride and honor with an emphasis on mediator role of…

  19. Strong association of physical job demands with functional limitations among active people: a population-based study in North-eastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, N; Khlat, M

    2009-07-01

    To assess the association between physical job demands (PJD) and physical/cognitive functional limitations, and the role of adverse health behaviours, obesity, and socio-demographic factors as confounders of those associations. The sample included 3,368 active subjects aged 18-64 years, randomly selected from North-eastern France. Subjects completed a post-mailed questionnaire. PJD score was defined as the product of years of employment with the cumulative number of a wide range of high job demands. Data were analysed through the logistic regression models. The physical and cognitive functional limitations affected 16.9 and 28.6% of subjects, respectively. A strong relationship was found between PJD and physical functional limitation: significant odds ratios (OR) adjusted for all the factors studied 1.41 for PJD1-29, 1.72 for PJD30-99, and 2.57 for PJD >or=100 versus PJD0; and between PJD and cognitive functional limitation: OR 1.28 for PJD1-29, 1.60 for PJD30-99, and 2.00 for PJD >or=100 versus PJD0. Adverse health behaviours, obesity and job category were modest confounders of those associations. This study identified a wide range of job demands and individual characteristics related to physical/cognitive functional limitations. Prevention should aim at improving working conditions and adverse health behaviours.

  20. Job Strain and Cognitive Decline: A Prospective Study of the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Agbenyikey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Workplace stress is known to be related with many behavioral and disease outcomes. However, little is known about its prospective relationship with measures of cognitive decline. Objective: To investigate the association of job strain, psychological demands and job control on cognitive decline. Methods: Participants from Framingham Offspring cohort (n=1429, were assessed on job strain, and received neuropsychological assessment approximately 15 years and 21 years afterwards. Results: High job strain and low control were associated with decline in verbal learning and memory. Job strain was associated with decline in word recognition skills. Active job and passive job predicted decline in verbal learning and memory relative to low strain jobs in the younger subgroup. Active job and demands were positively associated with abstract reasoning skills. Conclusions: Job strain and job control may influence decline in cognitive performance.

  1. Thinking of change in terms of gains or losses Promotion versus prevention focus as a moderator in the job demands-resources model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevas Petrou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Promotion and prevention regulatory foci have been established as self-regulation systems with implications for the study of change.Research purpose: The study aimed to test moderating effects of promotion and prevention focus within the job demands-resources model in a context of organisational change. Predictors included job demands and resources whilst outcomes included emotional exhaustion, disengagement and openness to change.Motivation for the study: The study intended to understand whether individual differences in promotion and prevention focus play an important role during the experience of organisational change.Research design, approach and method: A sample of 164 teachers from the Netherlands participated in a quantitative survey design before a new governmental policy was implemented in their schools and 189 different teachers working in the same schools participated in the survey after the implementation of the policy. Cross-sectional moderated regression analyses were used to analyse the data.Main findings: Promotion focus moderated the relationship between job demands and openness to change, whilst both promotion and prevention focus moderated many of the relationships between job resources on the one hand and emotional exhaustion, disengagement and openness to change on the other hand.Practical/managerial implications: Knowing that organisational change can have different meanings for promotion and prevention focused employees, managers can facilitate employee adaptation to change.Contribution/value-add: This research provides a theoretical framework that incorporates self-regulation as a moderator in the job demands-resources model. At the same time, implications for organisational change were co-examined.

  2. A two-year follow-up study of risk of depression according to work-unit measures of psychological demands and decision latitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynderup, Matias; Mors, Ole; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if high psychological demands and low decision latitude at work increase the risk of depression.......The aim of this study was to examine if high psychological demands and low decision latitude at work increase the risk of depression....

  3. The Relationship between Reports of Psychological Capital and Reports of Job Satisfaction among Administrative Personnel at a Private Institution of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to investigate the relationship between administrative personnel's reports of psychological capital (Luthans, Youssef, & Avolio, 2007) and their reports of job satisfaction (Hackman & Oldham, 1980). Specifically, two surveys, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (Luthans, Youssef, &…

  4. Job demands and resting and napping opportunities for nurses during night shifts: impact on sleepiness and self-evaluated quality of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthe, Béatrice; Tirilly, Ghislaine; Gentil, Catherine; Toupin, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this field study is to describe night shift resting and napping strategies and to examine their beneficial effects on sleepiness and quality of work. The study was carried out with 16 nurses working in an intensive care unit. Data collected during 20 night shifts were related to job demands (systematic observations), to the duration and timing of rests and naps taken by nurses (systematic observations, sleep diaries), to sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), and to quality of work scores (visual analog scale). The results showed that the number of rests and naps depended on the job demands. Resting and napping lowered the levels of sleepiness at the end of the shift. There was no direct relationship between sleepiness and the quality of work score. Discussions about the choice of indicators for the quality of work are necessary. Suggestions for implementing regulations for prescribed napping during night shifts are presented.

  5. Veteran teachers’ job satisfaction as a function of personal demands and resources in the relationships with their students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Ietje; Admiraal, Wilfried; van Tartwijk, Jan; Mainhard, Tim; Wubbels, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Many teachers experience their profession as stressful, which can have a negative impact on their job satisfaction, and may result in burnout, absenteeism, and leaving the profession. The relationship with students can have both positive and negative implications for the job satisfaction of

  6. Veteran Teachers' Job Satisfaction as a Function of Personal Demands and Resources in the Relationships with Their Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Ietje; Admiraal, Wilfried; van Tartwijk, Jan; Mainhard, Tim; Wubbels, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Many teachers experience their profession as stressful, which can have a negative impact on their job satisfaction, and may result in burnout, absenteeism, and leaving the profession. The relationship with students can have both positive and negative implications for the job satisfaction of teachers, both early and later in their careers. The…

  7. Employers' Demands for Personal Transferable Skills in Graduates: A Content Analysis of 1000 Job Advertisements and an Associated Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Content analysis of 1,000 job ads in marketing, management, finance, and human resource management showed that ads were significantly more likely to ask for specific personal skills relevant to the job category. A survey of 170 companies that placed the ads indicated their motives for stipulating personal skills; two-thirds conducted formal job…

  8. Job demands and resting and napping opportunities for nurses during night shifts: impact on sleepiness and self-evaluated quality of healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    BARTHE, B?atrice; Tirilly, Ghislaine; Gentil, Catherine; TOUPIN, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this field study is to describe night shift resting and napping strategies and to examine their beneficial effects on sleepiness and quality of work. The study was carried out with 16 nurses working in an intensive care unit. Data collected during 20 night shifts were related to job demands (systematic observations), to the duration and timing of rests and naps taken by nurses (systematic observations, sleep diaries), to sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), and to quality of w...

  9. I Ain't Gonna Make It. Comparing Job Demands-Resources and Attrition Intention Between Senior Teachers and Senior Employees of Six Other Occupational Categories in Flanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Droogenbroeck, Filip; Spruyt, Bram

    2016-07-01

    Teachers are often thought to retire early and have more stress and burnout than other human service professionals. In this article, we investigate attrition intention amongst senior teachers and senior employees of six other blue- and white-collar occupational categories using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. We followed a two-step approach. First, analysis of variance and logistic regression analysis was used to assess differences in the level of job demands, resources, and attrition intention between occupations for male and female employees separately. Subsequently, multiple group path analysis was used to assess the invariance of the JD-R model across occupational groups and genders. We used representative data gathered in Flanders among 6,810 senior employees (45 years or older). Results indicate that there are differences in the determinants of attrition intention between men and women. The differences in attrition intention are minimal between occupations once controlled for job demands and resources. In addition, the JD-R model is largely invariant across white-collar occupations and gender. We provide support for both the energetic and motivational process of the JD-R model. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. The application of subjective job task analysis techniques in physically demanding occupations: evidence for the presence of self-serving bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Bates, Benjamin; Billing, Daniel C; Caputi, Peter; Carstairs, Greg L; Linnane, Denise; Middleton, Kane

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if perceptions of physically demanding job tasks are biased by employee demographics and employment profile characteristics including: age, sex, experience, length of tenure, rank and if they completed or supervised a task. Surveys were administered to 427 Royal Australian Navy personnel who characterised 33 tasks in terms of physical effort, importance, frequency, duration and vertical/horizontal distance travelled. Results showed no evidence of bias resulting from participant characteristics, however participants who were actively involved in both task participation and supervision rated these tasks as more important than those involved only in the supervision of that task. This may indicate self-serving bias in which participants that are more actively involved in a task had an inflated perception of that task's importance. These results have important implications for the conduct of job task analyses, especially the use of subjective methodologies in the development of scientifically defensible physical employment standards. Practitioner Summary: To examine the presence of systematic bias in subjective job task analysis methodologies, a survey was conducted on a sample of Royal Australian Navy personnel. The relationship between job task descriptions and participant's demographic and job profile characteristics revealed the presence of self-serving bias affecting perceptions of task importance.

  11. Psychological capital, subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction amongst educators in the Umlazi region in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hansen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Challenges faced by educators in South Africa are increasing due to their working conditions, which in turn affects the educators’ enthusiasm towards their jobs. Change will likely be witnessed when educators are able to attain a positive and rewarding life, develop and flourish as individuals.Research purpose: This study sought to investigate the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap, subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction and to explore whether PsyCap mediates the relationship between subjective well-being and burnout.Motivation for the study: The study is premised on the fact that enhancing the positive attributes and strengths of educators can have a positive impact not only on their performance and commitment, but also on the satisfaction of students.Research approach, design and method: This cross-sectional study used a biographical questionnaire, PsyCap questionnaire, satisfaction with life scale, burnout inventory and Minnesota job satisfaction questionnaire to collect data from 103 educators.Main findings: Findings indicated statistically significant relationships between PsyCap, subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction. PsyCap was found to mediate the relationship between subjective well-being and burnout.Managerial implications: PsyCap mediates the relationship between subjective well-being and burnout. Organisations can minimise burnout through the enhancement of positive capacities inherent in PsyCap and the aiding potential of subjective well-being.Contribution/value-add: The findings highlighted the aiding potential of subjective wellbeing as well as the possible resources PsyCap, subjective well-being and job satisfaction can provide in times of distress.

  12. Emotional exhaustion and mental health problems among employees doing 'people work': the impact of job demands, job resources, and family-to-work conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daalen, G.; van Daalen, Geertje; Sanders, Karin; Willemsen, Tineke M.; Veldhoven, Marc J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the relationship between four job characteristics and family-to-work conflict on emotional exhaustion and mental health problems. Methods: Multiple regression analyses were performed using data from 1,008 mental health care employees. Separate regression analyses

  13. The impact of changes in job strain and its components on the risk of depression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Peter M; Bielecky, Amber

    2012-01-01

    ... were initially reported. Using a sample (n = 3735) from the Canadian National Population Health Survey, we examined the effects of changes in job control, psychological demands, and social support over a 2-year period on subsequent depression...

  14. Workplace Bullying as a Risk Factor for Musculoskeletal Disorders: The Mediating Role of Job-Related Psychological Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, Michela; Guglielmi, Dina; Balducci, Cristian; Bonfiglioli, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is considered by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work one of the emerging psychosocial risk factors that could negatively affect workers' health. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the process that leads from bullying to negative health (such as musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)), testing the mediating role of job-related strain. Data were collected on 512 workers (62.9% female; mean age = 43.6 years) of a retail chain who filled in a self-report questionnaire after a one-hour training session on work-related stress. Data analyses were performed controlling for potentially confounding variables (i.e., gender, age, organizational role, type of contract, and perceived physical job demands). Preacher and Hayes analytical approach was used to test the indirect relationship between bullying and MSDs. Results showed that work-related strain mediates the relationship between bullying and MSDs considered (low back, upper back, and neck) except for MSDs of the shoulders. Our study confirms the role played by bullying and job-related strain in determining workers' MSDs. PMID:26557693

  15. Workplace Bullying as a Risk Factor for Musculoskeletal Disorders: The Mediating Role of Job-Related Psychological Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Vignoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Workplace bullying is considered by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work one of the emerging psychosocial risk factors that could negatively affect workers’ health. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the process that leads from bullying to negative health (such as musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs, testing the mediating role of job-related strain. Data were collected on 512 workers (62.9% female; mean age = 43.6 years of a retail chain who filled in a self-report questionnaire after a one-hour training session on work-related stress. Data analyses were performed controlling for potentially confounding variables (i.e., gender, age, organizational role, type of contract, and perceived physical job demands. Preacher and Hayes analytical approach was used to test the indirect relationship between bullying and MSDs. Results showed that work-related strain mediates the relationship between bullying and MSDs considered (low back, upper back, and neck except for MSDs of the shoulders. Our study confirms the role played by bullying and job-related strain in determining workers’ MSDs.

  16. Psychological job strain, social support at work and daytime secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in healthy female employees: cross-sectional analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Atsuhiko Ota; Hiroshi Yatsuya; Junji Mase; Yuichiro Ono

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is limited concerning the influences of high psychological job strain and low social support at work on daytime secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which demonstrates anti-cortisol effects. We carried out a cross-sectional study to examine the associations of job strain and social support with daytime secretion amounts of DHEA and cortisol and daytime variation of the cortisol-to-DHEA ratio (C/D ratio) in healthy female workers. Study subjects comprised 115 healthy female nur...

  17. Psychological States and Working Conditions Buffer Beginning Teachers' Intention to Leave the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neve, Debbie; Devos, Geert

    2017-01-01

    The high turnover rates of beginning teachers are an issue of continuing concern in education. However, little is known about the motivational process that encourages beginning teachers to stay in the teaching profession. This study investigated how working conditions (job insecurity, teacher autonomy, collective responsibility, reflective…

  18. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: Background, design and conceptual model of FINALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortensen Ole S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers characterized by high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence. Methods/Design A novel approach of the FINALE programme is that the interventions, i.e. 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 1 exploratory case-control study are tailored to the physical work demands, physical capacities and health profile of workers in each job-group. The RCT among cleaners, characterized by repetitive work tasks and musculoskeletal disorders, aims at making the cleaners less susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders by physical coordination training or cognitive behavioral theory based training (CBTr. Because health-care workers are reported to have high prevalence of overweight and heavy lifts, the aim of the RCT is long-term weight-loss by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and diet. Construction work, characterized by heavy lifting, pushing and pulling, the RCT aims at improving physical capacity and promoting musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. At the industrial work-place characterized by repetitive work tasks, the intervention aims at reducing physical exertion and musculoskeletal disorders by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and participatory ergonomics. The overall aim of the FINALE programme is to improve the safety margin between individual resources (i.e. physical capacities, and

  19. The impact of the academic psychological contract on job performance and satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Tookey, Max

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT What is known as the psychological contract is the ‘promises and the nature of relationships that exists between employee and employer’ (Schein, 1978). While this concept has been researched at some depth with the study of organisational careers, a paucity of research exists in terms of its application to the university environment, with very few studies identifying what the factors of an “academic psychological contract” could be (Krivokapic-Skoko & O’Neill ,2008; Shen, 2010). Th...

  20. Evaluation of the Occupational Life Events/Job Event Stressors and Their Application of Clinical Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    大塚, 泰正; 小杉, 正太郎

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we explained the origin and present situation of research on occupational life events/job event stressors which have scarcely been focused on in the occupational stress research or occupational mental health activity. First, Meyer and Holmes's studies were reviewed and their scales called SRE and SRRS were introduced. Second, the difference between life event and event stressor was argued referring to Dohrenwend and Lazarus's view. Third, many scales which measured occupational ...

  1. Social-Psychological Factors Influencing Recreation Demand: Evidence from Two Recreational Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan W.; Moore, Roger L.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods of estimating demand for recreation areas involve making inferences about individuals' preferences. Frequently, the assumption is made that recreationists' cost of traveling to a site is a reliable measure of the value they place on that resource and the recreation opportunities it provides. This assumption may ignore other…

  2. The importance of job demands and work resources regarding the engagement, the commitment, burnout and the well-being of ambulance service personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Hering, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Research into the stress and demands of ambulance services is dominated by studies which mainly focus on psychologically highly stressful traumatizing emergencies and their pathological consequences such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Little research has been done on specific aspects of working conditions that the ambulance services are enduring and their importance for the characteristics of work-related health as well as for the indicators of commitment. So far, research ai...

  3. Evidence of Validity of the Job Crafting Behaviors Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Silva de Carvalho Chinelato

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractJob crafting behavior refers to the changes made by workers in their job context for adjusting their activities to their preferences. We sought to adapt and collect validity evidences of the Job Crafting Behaviors Scale for the Brazilian context, in a sample of 491 workers, with a mean age of 26.7 years. Factor analysis revealed that the final instrument consisted of three dimensions (increasing structural job resources, increasing social job resources, increasing challenging job demands, which showed good internal consistency indexes. These dimensions showed low or moderate correlations with work engagement, positive psychological capital, positive job affect, and in-role performance. The scale showed evidence of validity, the use of which is recommended for future research on the changes that people make in their jobs.

  4. Analysis of Job Satisfaction and Professional Academic Performance of Graduates in Psychology from a University in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Leonel Rosales-Jaramillo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies conducted in higher education institutions provide important information about professional performance. The present study had as objective to determine the level of job satisfaction, and establish correlation between this construct and extrinsic factors that can intervene in this job satisfaction. This is a descriptive, correlational, probabilistic, and non-experimental work. There is a population of 1207 professionals and the calculated sample was of 307. Theoretical and empirical methods were implemented, such as analysis, synthesis, historical-logical method, literature review, survey, and for the statistical processing, the Chi-squared test was used to cross qualitative variables. It was concluded that there is a strong correlation between the dependent variable and the variables of salary, positions held, and employment sectors. The relation between satisfaction and academic performance is weak. It is recommended to conduct a study with a more extended sample, with the integrator model of satisfaction, and to develop strategies from the pregraduate training to contribute to keep high levels of satisfaction in professional graduates in psychology.

  5. Mediating the effects of work-life conflict between transformational leadership and health-care workers' job satisfaction and psychological wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Fehmidah; Nielsen, Karina; Garde, Anne H; Albertsen, Karen; Carneiro, Isabella G

    2012-05-01

    To explore the mediating effects of work-life conflict between transformational leadership and job satisfaction and psychological wellbeing. The importance of work-life balance for job satisfaction and wellbeing among health-care employees is well-recognized. Evidence shows that transformational leadership style is linked to psychological wellbeing. It is possible that transformational leadership is also associated with employees' perceptions of work-life conflict, thereby influencing their job satisfaction and wellbeing. A longitudinal design was used where staff working within Danish elderly care completed a questionnaire at baseline and 18-month follow-up (N=188). Regression analyses showed that transformational leadership style was directly associated with perceptions of work-life conflict, job satisfaction and psychological wellbeing. Work-life conflict mediated between transformational leadership and wellbeing, but not job satisfaction. The findings suggest transformational leadership style may improve perceptions of work-life balance and employee wellbeing. Managers should adopt transformational leadership styles to reduce work-life conflict and enhance the wellbeing of their staff. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Association of Demanding Kin Relations With Psychological Distress and School Achievement Among Low-Income, African American Mothers and Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Family Routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D

    2016-12-01

    Association of demanding kin relations and family routine with adolescents' psychological distress and school achievement was assessed among 200 low-income, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations were significantly associated with adolescents' psychological distress. Family routine was significantly related to adolescents' school achievement. Demanding kin relations were negatively associated with school achievement for adolescents from families low in routine, but unrelated to achievement for adolescents in families high in routine. Additional research is needed on poor families and their social networks. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  7. One job, one deal…or not : Do generations respond differently to psychological contract fulfillment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lub, X.D.; Bal, P.M.; Blomme, R.J.; Schalk, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates generational differences in the relations between psychological contract fulfillment and work attitudes. Data were collected from a sample of 909 employees in the Dutch service sector. Structural equation modeling analyses were used to test the moderating effects of

  8. One job, one deal . . . or not : Do generations respond differently to psychological contract fulfillment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lub, X.D.; Bal, P.M.; Blomme, R.J.; Schalk, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates generational differences in the relations between psychological contract fulfillment and work attitudes. Data were collected from a sample of 909 employees in the Dutch service sector. Structural equation modeling analyses were used to test the moderating effects of

  9. One job, one deal… or not: do generations respond differently to psychological contract fulfillment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lub, X.D.; Bal, P.M.; Blomme, R.J.; Schalk, M.J.D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates generational differences in the relations between psychological contract fulfillment and work attitudes. Data were collected from a sample of 909 employees in the Dutch service sector. Structural equation modeling analyses were used to test the moderating effects of

  10. The Perceived Relationship Among Personnel Readiness, Job Performance and Work Demands: A Case for Physical Ability Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 32nd Annual Meeting, October 1988, 32(11), 695–699. Lippa , Richard A. (2005). Gender, Nurture, and...characteristics (Powers & Howley, 2004) with females having lower testosterone levels than males ( Lippa , 2005). Currently, the services are revisiting their...Hiring for the Organization not the Job. Academy of Management Excecutive, 5(4). Bunch, Richard W. (2012). Pre-Employment (Post-Offer, Pre

  11. Influencia de la insatisfacción laboral en las demandas de cambio de puesto de trabajo por motivos de salud Influence of the job dissatisfaction in the demands of the job change for reasons of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mansilla Izquierdo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las patologías de los trabajadores como consecuencia directa del trabajo o que padecía anteriormente y se ve agravada por el mismo son diversas, entre otras las patologías musculoesqueléticas y psíquicas. Sin duda todo este ámbito de patología del trabajador se ve influenciada por su nivel de satisfacción/insatisfacción laboral. Objetivo: Conocer si la insatisfacción laboral del trabajador influye en la demanda de adaptación/cambio de puesto de trabajo por motivos de salud. Método: La muestra del presente estudio descriptivo ha estado formada por trabajadores municipales (funcionarios y contratados laborales del Ayuntamiento de Madrid, que han solicitado cambio de puesto de trabajo por motivos de salud. Los instrumentos utilizados han sido: la entrevista, la revisión de informes de especialistas, un cuestionario sociodemográfico y la Escala General de Satisfacción Laboral Resultado: El perfil de que solicita cambio de puesto por motivos de salud con patología psíquica esquelética es mujer de 31 a 50 años casada/en pareja o separada/divorciada, con nivel educativo de Bachiller/Formación Profesional o Universitario Grado Medio, categoría Agente de Movilidad y Grupo C1, C2.Introduction: The conditions of workers as a direct result of work or suffered earlier and exacerbated by it are various, including musculoskeletal diseases and mental health. Without doubt this whole area of worker's disease is influenced by their level of satisfaction / job dissatisfaction. Objective: To determine whether the worker's job satisfaction influences the demand for adaptation / change of job for health reasons. Method: The sample of this descriptive study has been formed by municipal workers (staff and contract work of the City of Madrid, who have applied for change of job for health reasons. Instruments used were: the interview, review of reports of specialists, a sociodemographic questionnaire and the General Job Satisfaction

  12. The mediating role of psychological empowerment on job satisfaction and organizational commitment for school health nurses: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chun; Shih, Chia-Hui; Lin, Shu-Man

    2010-04-01

    The importance of the professional role of school health nurses in promoting children's health in their school environment is widely recognized. However, studies of their working experience have revealed feelings of disempowerment that appear to be related to insufficient support from school managers. In these unsupportive working environments, it seems possible that psychological empowerment may play a mediating role to strengthen employees' satisfaction and commitment to their employing organization. The aim of this study is to test an exploratory model of empowerment in a Taiwanese sample of school health nurses by examining the mediating role of psychological empowerment in the relationship between external factors and work-related attitudes, specifically job satisfaction and organizational commitment. A cross-sectional survey with self-reported questionnaires. Probability proportional sampling was used to generate a randomly selected sample of 500 school health nurses in elementary and junior high schools in Taiwan. A total of 330 valid questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 66%. The exploratory model including all hypothesized variables provided an adequate fit (chi(2)=29.24; df=17; p=.052; adjusted goodness-of-fit index [AGFI]=.96; goodness-of-fit index [GFI]=.98; root-mean-square error of approximation [RMSEA]=.05) for the data and indicated that psychological empowerment did not fully mediate the relationship between organizational empowerment and job satisfaction because of the strong direct effects of organizational empowerment on job satisfaction. The influence of empowerment on organizational commitment was mediated through job satisfaction. Psychological empowerment did not mediate the relationship between external factors and work attitudes, and job satisfaction emerged as an important factor. If school leaders can improve the job satisfaction of school health nurses, this will help them achieve greater commitment and loyalty of

  13. Construction of a new model of job engagement, psychological empowerment and perceived work environment among Chinese registered nurses at four large university hospitals: implications for nurse managers seeking to enhance nursing retention and quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuying; Zheng, Qiulan; Liu, Shiqing; Li, Qiujie

    2016-07-01

    To explore the relationships among perceived work environment, psychological empowerment and job engagement of clinical nurses in Harbin, China. Previous studies have focused on organisational factors or nurses' personal characteristics contributing to job engagement. Limited studies have examined the effects of perceived work environment and psychological empowerment on job engagement among Chinese nurses. A cross-sectional quantitative survey with 923 registered nurses at four large university hospitals in China was carried out. Research instruments included the Chinese versions of the perceived nurse work environment scale, the psychological empowerment scale and the job engagement scale. The relationships of the variables were tested using structural equation modelling. Structural equation modelling revealed a good fit of the model, χ(2) /df = 4.46, GFI = 0.936, CFI = 0.957. Perceived work environment was a significant positive direct predictor of psychological empowerment and job engagement. Psychological empowerment was a significant positive direct contributor to job engagement and had a mediating effect on the relationship between perceived work environment and job engagement. Perceived work environment may result in increased job engagement by facilitating the development of psychological empowerment. For nurse managers wishing to increase nurse engagement and to achieve effective management, both perceived work environment and psychological empowerment are factors that need to be well controlled in the process of nurse administration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Workplace bullying, perceived job stressors, and psychological distress: Gender and race differences in the stress process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attell, Brandon K; Kummerow Brown, Kiersten; Treiber, Linda A

    2017-07-01

    A large body of empirical research documents the adverse mental health consequences of workplace bullying. However, less is known about gender and race differences in the processes that link workplace bullying and poor mental health. In the current study, we use structural equation modeling of survey data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study (N = 2292) and draw on stress process theory to examine coworker support as a buffering mechanism against workplace bullying, and gender and race differences in the relationships between bullying and psychological distress. The results of the analysis indicate that coworker support serves as a protective buffer against workplace bullying, although the buffering effect is relatively small. We also find that the effects of workplace bullying more heavily impact women and persons of color. Specifically, women and African American individuals in our sample were less protected from the buffering mechanism of co-worker social support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The rise and fall of job analysis and the future of work analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Juan I; Levine, Edward L

    2012-01-01

    This review begins by contrasting the importance ascribed to the study of occupational requirements observed in the early twentieth-century beginnings of industrial-organizational psychology with the diminishing numbers of job analysis articles appearing in top journals in recent times. To highlight the many pending questions associated with the job-analytic needs of today's organizations that demand further inquiry, research on the three primary types of job analysis data, namely work activities, worker attributes, and work context, is reviewed. Research on competencies is also reviewed along with the goals of a potential research agenda for the emerging trend of competency modeling. The cross-fertilization of job analysis research with research from other domains such as the meaning of work, job design, job crafting, strategic change, and interactional psychology is proposed as a means of responding to the demands of today's organizations through new forms of work analysis.

  16. Analysis of Job Satisfaction and Professional Academic Performance of Graduates in Psychology from a University in Ecuador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guido Leonel Rosales-Jaramillo; Andrea Yesenia Rodal-Genovez; Viviana Tatiana Chumbi-Toledo; Román Mauricio Buñay-Andrade

    2017-01-01

    .... The present study had as objective to determine the level of job satisfaction, and establish correlation between this construct and extrinsic factors that can intervene in this job satisfaction...

  17. Job Strain and Cognitive Decline: A Prospective Study of the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    W Agbenyikey; Karasek, R; Cifuentes, M.; PA Wolf; Seshadri, S; Taylor JA; AS Beiser; Au, R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Workplace stress is known to be related with many behavioral and disease outcomes. However, little is known about its prospective relationship with measures of cognitive decline. Objective: To investigate the association of job strain, psychological demands and job control on cognitive decline. Methods: Participants from Framingham Offspring cohort (n=1429), were assessed on job strain, and received neuropsychological assessment approximately 15 years and 21 years afterwar...

  18. Exhaustion and lack of psychological detachment from work during off-job time: moderator effects of time pressure and leisure experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Arbeus, Hillevi; Mahn, Christopher; Fritz, Charlotte

    2014-04-01

    Lack of psychological detachment from work during off-job time contributes to the increase in employee exhaustion over time. This study examines the reverse causal path from exhaustion to lack of psychological detachment, suggesting that this reverse process may operate within a relatively short time frame. Specifically, we examine if exhaustion predicts a decrease in psychological detachment from work during off-job time within several weeks. We propose that time pressure at work intensifies and that pleasurable leisure experiences reduce this association between exhaustion and the decrease in psychological detachment. We tested our hypotheses in a short-term prospective study (time lag: 4 weeks) with a sample of 109 employees. Ordinary least square regression analysis indicates that exhaustion predicted a decrease in psychological detachment from work over the course of 4 weeks. This decrease was particularly strong for employees working under time pressure and for employees who did not engage in pleasurable leisure experiences. Our findings suggest that exhausted employees find detachment from work increasingly difficult and therefore might suffer from insufficient recovery-although they need it most. The situation is particularly severe when exhausted employees face high time pressure and a lack of pleasurable leisure experiences.

  19. Workplace bullying in a sample of Italian and Spanish employees and its relationship with job satisfaction, and psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALICIA eARENAS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence rate of workplace bullying in a sample of Italian and Spanish employees, and its differential consequences on employees’ job satisfaction and psychological well-being. The effects of workplace bullying on job satisfaction and psychological well-being were explored taking into account a contextualized approach.Design/Methodology/approach – Cross-sectional study was adopted, in which a sample of 1,151 employees in Italy and 705 in Spain completed a questionnaire. We hypothesized that the relationship between exposure to bullying behaviors and psychological well-being is mediated by job satisfaction, and that this simple mediation model is moderated by the country (moderated mediation.Findings – Results suggest that no particular differences exist in bullying prevalence among Spanish and Italian employees. However, we found scientific confirmation of our hypothesized moderated mediation model. Research limitations/implications – Despite the limitations of the sample studied, findings capture contextual differences in the bullying phenomenon, which may have several implications for further research in this domain, as well as for designing interventions to deal with workplace bullying.Originality/value – Although this study explores bullying in different cultural contexts without investigating specific cultural values, it establishes the roots to assess workplace bullying from a contextualized perspective.

  20. Leisure-time physical activity and some psychological parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participation in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is vital to ensure adequate physical work capacity for the demands of daily living and job performance. Due to work demand, most top and middle level (executive) managerial employees become physically inactive and experience psychological and other health problems ...

  1. The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital on the Association between Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction among Township Cadres in a Specific Province of China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang Guan, Chang-Yue; Li, Yu; Ma, Hong-Lin

    2017-08-28

    Background: Township cadres, considered as basic executors of state policy, play an important role in Chinese society. Their job satisfaction is a vital issue for township management, but there are few studies on this topic in China. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction, and to further examine whether psychological capital (PsyCap) can serve as a mediator between stress and job satisfaction in Chinese township cadres. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of from October 2015 to January 2016 in Liaoning Province of China. The questionnaires, which consisted of an effort-reward imbalance scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) for job satisfaction, and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), as well as questions about demographic characteristics, were distributed to 1800 township cadres and complete responses were received from 1525 participants. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role that psychological capital played in mediating between occupational stress and job satisfaction. Results: In the present study, effort-reward ratio (ERR= 11 × effort/6 × reward) was negatively associated with job satisfaction (r = -0.372, p job satisfaction in township cadres (r = 0.587, p job stress and job satisfaction. Conclusions: Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction among Chinese township cadres. Interventions to improve Chinese township cadres' job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. Interventions need to be verified in further cohort studies. At present, we are only proposing a theoretical model. Intervention effects need to be validated in further cohort studies.

  2. The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital on the Association between Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction among Township Cadres in a Specific Province of China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang Guan, Chang-Yue; Li, Yu; Ma, Hong-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Township cadres, considered as basic executors of state policy, play an important role in Chinese society. Their job satisfaction is a vital issue for township management, but there are few studies on this topic in China. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction, and to further examine whether psychological capital (PsyCap) can serve as a mediator between stress and job satisfaction in Chinese township cadres. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of from October 2015 to January 2016 in Liaoning Province of China. The questionnaires, which consisted of an effort-reward imbalance scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) for job satisfaction, and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), as well as questions about demographic characteristics, were distributed to 1800 township cadres and complete responses were received from 1525 participants. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role that psychological capital played in mediating between occupational stress and job satisfaction. Results: In the present study, effort-reward ratio (ERR= 11 × effort/6 × reward) was negatively associated with job satisfaction (r = −0.372, p job satisfaction in township cadres (r = 0.587, p job stress and job satisfaction. Conclusions: Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction among Chinese township cadres. Interventions to improve Chinese township cadres’ job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. Interventions need to be verified in further cohort studies. At present, we are only proposing a theoretical model. Intervention effects need to be validated in further cohort studies. PMID:28846644

  3. Influencing the psychological well-being of beginning teachers across three years of teaching : Self-efficacy, stress causes, job tension and job discontent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Maulana, Ridwan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the path of influence of support programmes for beginning teachers (BTs) is examined. Longitudinal relationships between self-efficacy and stress causes experienced by BTs and their job tension and discontent are investigated. Differential effects are explored in the relationships

  4. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between job demand-control, effort-reward imbalance and cardiovascular heart disease risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderberg Mia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross-sectional study explored relationships between psychosocial work environment, captured by job demand-control (JDC and effort-reward imbalance (ERI, and seven cardiovascular heart disease (CHD risk factors in a general population. Method The sampled consists of randomly-selected men and women from Gothenburg, Sweden and the city’s surrounding metropolitan areas. Associations between psychosocial variables and biomarkers were analysed with multiple linear regression adjusted for age, smoking, education and occupational status. Results The study included 638 men and 668 women aged 24–71. Analysis between JDC and CHD risk factors illustrated that, for men, JDC was associated with impaired scores in several biomarkers, especially among those in high strain jobs. For women, there were no relationships between JDC and biomarkers. In the analysis of links between ERI and CHD risk factors, most associations tested null. The only findings were raised triglycerides and BMI among men in the fourth quartile of the ERI-ratio distribution, and lowered LDL-cholesterol for women. An complementary ERI analysis, combining high/low effort and reward into categories, illustrated lowered triglycerides and elevated HDL-cholesterol values among women reporting high efforts and high rewards, compared to women experiencing low effort and high reward. Conclusions There were some associations between psychosocial stressors and CHD risk factors. The cross-sectional design did not allow conclusions about causality but some results indicated gender differences regarding sensitivity to work stressors and also how the models might capture different psychosocial dimensions.

  5. Sex Inequalities in Physical and Mental Functioning of British, Finnish, and Japanese Civil Servants: Role of Job Demand, Control and Work Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Chandola, Tarani; Cable, Noriko; Marmot, Michael; Martikainen, Pekka; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2011-01-01

    In general, women report more physical and mental symptoms than men. International comparisons of countries with different welfare state regimes may provide further understanding of the social determinants of sex inequalities in health. This study aims to evaluate (1) whether there are sex inequalities in health functioning as measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and (2) whether work characteristics contribute to the sex inequalities in health among employees from Britain, Finland, and Japan, representing liberal, social democratic, and conservative welfare state regimes, respectively. The participants were 7340 (5122 men and 2218 women) British employees, 2297 (1638 men and 659 women) Japanese employees, and 8164 (1649 men and 6515 women) Finnish employees. All the participants were civil servants aged 40-60 years. We found that more women than men tended to have disadvantaged work characteristics (i.e. low employment grade, low job control, high job demands, and long work hours) but such sex differences were relatively smaller among employees from Finland, where more gender equal policies exist than Britain and Japan. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of women for poor physical functioning was the largest for British women (OR=2.08), followed by for Japanese women (OR=1.72), and then for Finnish women (OR=1.51). The age-adjusted OR of women for poor mental functioning was the largest for Japanese women (OR=1.91), followed by for British women (OR=1.45), and then for Finnish women (OR=1.07). Thus, sex differences in physical and mental health was the smallest in the Finnish population. The larger the sex differences in work characteristics, the larger the sex differences in health and the reduction in the sex differences in health after adjustment for work characteristics. These results suggest that egalitarian and gender equal policies may contribute to smaller sex differences in health, through smaller differences in disadvantaged work characteristics between

  6. Fear of future violence at work and job burnout: A diary study on the role of psychological violence and job control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Portoghese

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: Our findings provided additional evidence that not only being the target of violent behaviors may take an emotional toll. When a worker experiences fear of future violent events at work, he\\she tends to experience stronger levels of emotional exhaustion and cynicism. Job control plays a fundamental role, buffering the way that a person perceives workplace conditions and the choice of coping strategy.

  7. Job strain and binge eating among Brazilian workers participating in the ELSA-Brasil study: does BMI matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena Gralle, Ana Paula Bruno; Barbosa Moreno, Arlinda; Lopes Juvanhol, Leidjaira; Mendes da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus; Prates Melo, Enirtes Caetano; Antunes Nunes, Maria Angélica; Toivanen, Susanna; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2017-05-25

    To assess the association between job strain and binge eating as well as the effect-modifying influence of body mass index (BMI) on this association. A total of 11,951 active civil servants from the multicenter Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) was included in this cross-sectional analysis. Job strain was assessed using the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Binge eating was defined as eating a large amount of food with a sense of lack of control over what and how much is eaten in less than 2 hours at least twice a week. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the association between binge eating and job strain as well as its interaction with BMI. After adjustment, and using low-strain job as the reference category, binge eating was associated with high-strain job (high demand/low control: odds ratio [OR]=1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-1.98), active job (high demand/high control: OR=1.35, 95% CI 1.07-1.70), and passive job (low demand/low control: OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53). Psychological job demands were positively associated with binge eating (OR=1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07), while greater job control and social support at work were each inversely associated with binge eating (OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.97 and OR=0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98, respectively). BMI modified the association between job strain and binge eating: Heavier psychological job demands were associated with higher odds of binge eating among obese participants, while a stronger inverse association between job control and binge eating was seen among slimmer participants. Job strain increases the odds of binge eating and this association is modified by BMI.

  8. Stress in highly demanding IT jobs: transformational leadership moderates the impact of time pressure on exhaustion and work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrek, Christine J; Apostel, Ella; Antoni, Conny H

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate transformational leadership as a potential moderator of the negative relationship of time pressure to work-life balance and of the positive relationship between time pressure and exhaustion. Recent research regards time pressure as a challenge stressor; while being positively related to motivation and performance, time pressure also increases employee strain and decreases well-being. Building on the Job Demand-Resources model, we hypothesize that transformational leadership moderates the relationships between time pressure and both employees' exhaustion and work-life balance such that both relationships will be weaker when transformational leadership is higher. Of seven information technology organizations in Germany, 262 employees participated in the study. Established scales for time pressure, transformational leadership, work-life balance, and exhaustion were used, all showing good internal consistencies. The results support our assumptions. Specifically, we find that under high transformational leadership the impact of time pressure on exhaustion and work-life balance was less strong. The results of this study suggest that, particularly under high time pressure, transformational leadership is an important factor for both employees' work-life balance and exhaustion. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. The career psychological experiences of academic department ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The career psychological experiences of academic department chairpersons at a South African university. ... into the career dilemmas experienced, resulting in their lack of work satisfaction and productivity. Key words: career, task, role, boundaries, confl ict, loss, work stress, non-coping, job demands, role identity ...

  10. Is Job Control a Double-Edged Sword? A Cross-Lagged Panel Study on the Interplay of Quantitative Workload, Emotional Dissonance, and Job Control on Emotional Exhaustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkin, Wladislaw; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut

    2017-01-01

    Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative workload and emotional dissonance as distinct work-related demands on emotional exhaustion over time. Drawing on the job demands-control model, the limited strength model of self-control, and the matching principle we propose that job control can facilitate coping with work-related demands but at the same time may also require employees’ self-control. Consequently, we argue that job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance, which also necessitates self-control. We examine the proposed relations among employees from an energy supplying company (N = 139) in a cross-lagged panel study with a six-month time lag. Our results demonstrate a mix of causal and reciprocal effects of job characteristics on emotional exhaustion over time. Furthermore, as suggested, our data provides evidence for contrasting moderating effects of job control. That is, job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance on emotional exhaustion. PMID:29261116

  11. Is Job Control a Double-Edged Sword? A Cross-Lagged Panel Study on the Interplay of Quantitative Workload, Emotional Dissonance, and Job Control on Emotional Exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Kathrin Konze

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative workload and emotional dissonance as distinct work-related demands on emotional exhaustion over time. Drawing on the job demands-control model, the limited strength model of self-control, and the matching principle we propose that job control can facilitate coping with work-related demands but at the same time may also require employees’ self-control. Consequently, we argue that job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance, which also necessitates self-control. We examine the proposed relations among employees from an energy supplying company (N = 139 in a cross-lagged panel study with a six-month time lag. Our results demonstrate a mix of causal and reciprocal effects of job characteristics on emotional exhaustion over time. Furthermore, as suggested, our data provides evidence for contrasting moderating effects of job control. That is, job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance on emotional exhaustion.

  12. Is Job Control a Double-Edged Sword? A Cross-Lagged Panel Study on the Interplay of Quantitative Workload, Emotional Dissonance, and Job Control on Emotional Exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konze, Anne-Kathrin; Rivkin, Wladislaw; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut

    2017-12-20

    Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative workload and emotional dissonance as distinct work-related demands on emotional exhaustion over time. Drawing on the job demands-control model, the limited strength model of self-control, and the matching principle we propose that job control can facilitate coping with work-related demands but at the same time may also require employees' self-control. Consequently, we argue that job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance, which also necessitates self-control. We examine the proposed relations among employees from an energy supplying company ( N = 139) in a cross-lagged panel study with a six-month time lag. Our results demonstrate a mix of causal and reciprocal effects of job characteristics on emotional exhaustion over time. Furthermore, as suggested, our data provides evidence for contrasting moderating effects of job control. That is, job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance on emotional exhaustion.

  13. [Influence of evaluations and coping behavior in relationships with supervisors on the psychological stress responses of subordinates: A comparison between full-time workers and students working part-time jobs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tomoichiro; Kugihara, Naoki

    2008-06-01

    This research examined workers' and supervisors' evaluations of their relationships and coping behaviors as related to the workers' psychological stress responses. The participants were full-time workers and students working part-time jobs. This study focused on both informal and formal relationships. The results showed that full-time workers who evaluated their informal relationships with their supervisors as being more negative and perceived their supervisors' evaluations as being more positive had greater psychological stress responses. The psychological stress responses of students working part-time jobs were not significantly associated with their evaluations or their supervisors' evaluations. The results for full-time workers indicate that supervisors' positive evaluations of their informal relationships increased the subordinates' psychological stress responses. The proportion of variance attributed to the coping behavior of full-time workers was lower than for students working part-time jobs.

  14. The effects of unemployment and perceived job insecurity: a comparison of their association with psychological and somatic complaints, self-rated health and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griep, Yannick; Kinnunen, Ulla; Nätti, Jouko; De Cuyper, Nele; Mauno, Saija; Mäkikangas, Anne; De Witte, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Research has provided convincing evidence for the adverse effects of both short- and long-term unemployment, and perceived job insecurity on individuals' health and well-being. This study aims to go one critical step further by comparing the association between short- and long-term unemployment, and perceived job insecurity with a diverse set of health and well-being indicators. We compare four groups: (1) secure permanent employees (N = 2257), (2) insecure permanent employees (N = 713), (3) short-term unemployed (N = 662), and (4) long-term unemployed (N = 345) using cross-sectional data from the nationally representative Living Conditions Survey in Finland. Covariance analyses adjusted for background variables support findings from earlier studies that long-term unemployment and perceived job insecurity are detrimental: short-term unemployed and secure permanent employees experienced fewer psychological complaints and lower subjective complaints load, reported a higher self-rated health, and were more satisfied with their life compared to long-term unemployed and insecure permanent employees. Second, whereas unemployment was found to be more detrimental than insecure employment in terms of life satisfaction, insecure employment was found to be more detrimental than unemployment in terms of psychological complaints. No differences were found regarding subjective complaints load and self-rated health. Our findings suggest that (1) insecure employment relates to more psychological complaints than short-term unemployment and secure permanent employment, (2) insecure employment and long-term unemployment relate to more subjective complaints load and poorer health when compared to secure permanent employment, and (3) insecure employment relates to higher life satisfaction than both short- and long-term unemployment.

  15. Demands on new reactor concepts from the of view of organizational psychology and ergonomics. Anforderungen an neue Reaktorkonzepte aus organisationspsychologischer und ergonomischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilpert, B. (Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Forschungsstelle Systemsicherheit); Becker, G. (TUEV Rheinland e.V., Inst. fuer Kerntechnik und Strahlenschutz, Koeln (Germany))

    1994-04-01

    The paper is intended to define the most important aspects of Human Factor Engineering (HFE) which from the points of view of organizational psychology and ergonomics right now have to be made a subject of the discussion about safety criteria and design principles. Room and time only allow to identify the most important principles related to demands on the manufacturers, but not to represent detailed acceptance criteria which, in the first place, will have to be specified by licensing authorities. (orig./DG)

  16. Job Demands-Resources Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Van Wingerden (Jessica)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe main aim of this dissertation was to examine whether positive organizational interventions based on JD-R theory can enhance employees’ work engagement and performance. This thesis presented five empirical intervention studies from different perspectives; (a) a personal resources

  17. Job evaluation in worker fitness determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, S H

    1988-01-01

    work capacity and must be factored into any assessment of job suitability. 6. Psychological and perceptual job demands should be assessed by defining the requirements for multiple-task performance or monitoring and by evaluating the environment for visual or auditory work. Accountability without control in the job should also be identified. 7. Many of the factors that make jobs difficult can be remedied without extensive cost to the employer. The job-evaluation techniques given in this chapter can help to identify the most effective ways to make changes in the job requirements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  18. Reliability (internal consistency) of the job content questionnaire on job stress among office workers of a multinational company in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizura, Husna; Masilamani, Retneswari; Aris, Tahir

    2009-04-01

    This small, cross-sectional study assessed the reliability of 3 scales from the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ)-decision latitude, psychological job demand, and social support-in a group of office workers in a multinational company in Kuala Lumpur. A universal sample of 30 white-collar workers from a department of the company self-administered the English version of the JCQ comprising 21 core items selected from the full recommended version of 49 items on-site. Reliability (internal consistency) was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficients for each scale. Corrected item-total correlation was presented for each and every item. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were acceptable for decision latitude (.76) and social support (.79) but slightly lower for psychological job demand (.64). Values for all item-total correlations for all 3 scales were greater than .3. In conclusion, this study suggests that the JCQ is a reliable scale for assessing job stress in this group of workers.

  19. Job attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D

    2012-01-01

    Job attitudes research is arguably the most venerable and popular topic in organizational psychology. This article surveys the field as it has been constituted in the past several years. Definitional issues are addressed first, in an attempt to clarify the nature, scope, and structure of job attitudes. The distinction between cognitive and affective bases of job attitudes has been an issue of debate, and recent research using within-persons designs has done much to inform this discussion. Recent research has also begun to reformulate the question of dispositional or situational influences on employee attitudes by addressing how these factors might work together to influence attitudes. Finally, there has also been a continual growth in research investigating how employee attitudes are related to a variety of behaviors at both the individual and aggregated level of analysis.

  20. Psychological job strain, social support at work and daytime secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in healthy female employees: cross-sectional analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Atsuhiko; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Mase, Junji; Ono, Yuichiro

    2015-11-10

    Evidence is limited concerning the influences of high psychological job strain and low social support at work on daytime secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which demonstrates anti-cortisol effects. We carried out a cross-sectional study to examine the associations of job strain and social support with daytime secretion amounts of DHEA and cortisol and daytime variation of the cortisol-to-DHEA ratio (C/D ratio) in healthy female workers. Study subjects comprised 115 healthy female nursery school teachers. Area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCG) of salivary DHEA, cortisol and C/D ratio was calculated for estimation of daytime secretion and variation. Social support scores were negatively associated with daytime DHEA secretion (standardized partial regression coefficient = -0.343, P cortisol secretion was additionally adjusted. Social support was not associated with daytime variation of the C/D ratio. Significant association between social support and daytime cortisol secretion was not confirmed. Job strain was not associated with DHEA, cortisol or the C/D ratio. In summary, we found that daytime DHEA secretion was increased in healthy workers with low social support, perhaps independent of daytime cortisol secretion.

  1. Job strain among registered nurses and other hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seago, J A; Faucett, J

    1997-05-01

    The authors describe factors associated with job strain for various job titles in the acute care hospital using the Karasek Job Strain Model, discuss the reliability and validity of the Job Content Questionnaire, and discuss use of the model to enhance the work environment. The Karasek Job Strain Model has been used to describe many occupations in the United States and other countries. Some research indicates that occupations that arouse stress hormones are those in which employees have little job control or must complete psychologically demanding tasks, such as those under time pressure, and these positions can be describe as high-strain jobs. This descriptive correlational study was conducted at five tertiary care hospitals on the West Coast. A purposive volunteer sample of staff members working at least 20 hours per week in the adult medical-surgical and specialty nursing units was recruited. Mean scores for each of the nursing units and the overall mean scores for the staff in the initial analysis fell into the Active Work quadrant of the Karasek Job Strain Model. When nursing job titles were analyzed, registered nurses had significantly higher Decision Latitude scores than did nurse assistants (P Working with nurse assistants to appropriately increase decision latitude related to their work has the potential to enhance the work environment by reducing job strain and improving staff health and morale.

  2. Psychosocial safety climate as a precursor to conducive work environments, psychological health problems, and employee engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Dollard (Maureen); A.B. Bakker (Arnold)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe constructed a model of workplace psychosocial safety climate (PSC) to explain the origins of job demands and resources, worker psychological health, and employee engagement. PSC refers to policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety.

  3. Psychological Strain and Emotional Labor among Police-Officers: A Diary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelderen, Benjamin; Heuven, Ellen; van Veldhoven, Marc; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Croon, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between psychological strain, emotional dissonance and emotional job demands during a working day of 65 Dutch (military) police officers, using a 5-day diary design. We hypothesized that emotional dissonance partly mediated the relationship between psychological strain at the start and at the end of a work…

  4. Job Difficulty Data as an Indicator of Job Complexity,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Military training, *Military personnel, *Research management, * Job analysis, *Aptitudes, Work measurement, Stress (Psychology), Instrumentation, Motivation, Skills, Data acquisition, Sampling, Methodology, Correlation techniques

  5. Youth job market specific features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Yu. Zhuravleva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers youth job market peculiarities, its specific features and regulation means, determines theoretical and application tasks of qualitative and quantitative comparison of vocations, which are highly in demand at the job market.

  6. A cross-sectional study of factors associated with intentions to leave among newly graduated nurses in eight advanced treatment hospitals: job stressors, job readiness, and subjective health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tei-Tominaga, Maki; Miki, Akiko; Fujimura, Kazumi

    2009-05-01

    This study was performed to examine job stressors, job readiness, and subjective health status as factors associated with intentions to leave among newly graduated nurses (NGNs) in advanced treatment hospitals in Japan. From June to August 2007, anonymous self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all NGNs in nine advanced treatment hospitals. The questionnaire items addressed individual attributes, employment characteristics, organizational characteristics, the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire, a novel job readiness scale, and scales for subjective health status (cumulative fatigue and psychological distress) and intentions to leave. The response rate was 73% (n=414), and 377 completed questionnaire data sets from eight hospitals were analyzed. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to investigate the factors associated with intentions to leave and subjective health status. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed 55% of the variance in intentions to leave. "orientation as nurse", subjective health status influenced by psychological job demand, and "supervisor support" were important independent factors of intentions to leave. Psychological job demand and job readiness were also important factors of subjective health status. To intervene in early resignation of NGNs, job stressors should be minimized to improve subjective health status; while simultaneously raising job readiness.

  7. Test performance and self-esteem in relation to experienced stress in Swedish sixth and ninth graders--saliva cortisol levels and psychological reactions to demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats; Theorell, Töres; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-04-01

    To study relations between test performance, academic self-esteem, self-reported stress and saliva cortisol levels in students exposed to test demands at school. 46 randomly selected 6th and 9th graders voluntarily participated in an experimental school test concerning reading and mathematics skills. Cortisol saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min later, before test and after test. Perceived stress was registered with a visual analogue scale (VAS). A standardized self-rating questionnaire for measuring self-esteem was administered together with questions about school stress and psychological reactions when exposed to stress during a test. Experienced stress during the school test was correlated to low test performance and to low self-rated evaluation of self-esteem as well as to an increase of saliva cortisol levels during the test. There were also correlations between certain psychological reactions to demands and different cortisol measures. Children who reported that they applied the procedure "I say to myself: I can solve this task" in a school test situation had a lower morning increase of saliva cortisol. Reported use of the procedure "I get worried and will have problems solving other tasks too"--when referring to a school test situation--was correlated to an increase in cortisol levels during the test situation. Test performance, academic self-esteem, perceived stress and reactions of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) are highly intertwined. Furthermore, certain school stress psychological reactions to performance demands seem to be related to different cortisol reactions.

  8. Job Satisfaction of People With Intellectual Disability: Associations With Job Characteristics and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P

    2018-01-01

    To obtain an understanding of factors associated with job satisfaction of people with intellectual disability (ID), this study investigates the associations of job satisfaction with job characteristics (i.e., job demands, job resources) and personality, using the job demands-resources model. Data were gathered from 117 people and their employment support workers, using structured questionnaires adapted from well-established instruments. Job resources and age were positively associated with job satisfaction. Job demands and personality showed no significant direct associations with job satisfaction. Moderation analyses showed that for people with ID with high conscientiousness, enhanced job demands were associated with reduced job satisfaction, which was not the case for those with low conscientiousness. This study emphasizes the importance of job design.

  9. Stability and Change in the Exposure to Demands and Control: Results of the Longitudinal SMASH Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, A. de; Taris, T.; Kompier, M.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    In 1979 Robert Karasek introduced the job demand-contol (DC model). Through its simplicity and applicability this model has gained “substantial face value” in the theory and practice of occupational health psychology and epidemiology. According to the DC model a psychosocial work environment can be

  10. My strengths count! : Effects of a strengths-based psychological climate on positive affect and job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woerkom, M.; Meyers, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on the argument that research on the link between HRM and performance benefits from investigating how HR practices are envisioned by managers (in terms of underlying philosophies), and how they are perceived by employees (in terms of psychological climates). Our study focuses on

  11. Emotional labor in service work : Psychological flexibility and emotion regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biron, M.; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from job demands–resources theory (Demerouti et al., 2001), this article investigates the effect of psychological flexibility, relative to surface and deep acting, in the relationship between day-level emotional demands and exhaustion. A total of 170 not-for-profit service workers first

  12. Job control and coworker support improve employee job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagami, Makiko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2010-01-01

    We examined the prospective association of psychosocial job characteristics with employee job performance among 777 full-time employees at a manufacturing company in Japan, using data from a one-year follow-up survey. Psychosocial job characteristics were measured by the Job Content Questionnaire in 2008; job performance was evaluated using the item from the World Mental Health Survey Instrument in 2008 and 2009. The association between psychosocial job characteristics and job performance was tested using multiple regression analysis, controlling for demographic variables, work status, average working hours per day, job type and job performance in 2008. Job control and coworker support in 2008 were positively related to job performance in 2009. Stratified analyses revealed that job control for staff and coworker support for managers were positively related to job performance in 2009. These associations were prominent among men; however, supervisor support in 2008 was negatively related to job performance in 2009 among men. Job demand was not significantly related to job performance. Our findings suggest that it is worthwhile to enhance employees' job control and provide a mutually supportive environment to ensure positive employee job performance.

  13. Job crafting: Towards a new model of individual job redesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tims

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: For a long time, employees have been viewed as passive performers of their assigned job tasks. Recently, several scholars have argued that job design theory needs to address the influence of employees on their job designs.Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to fit job crafting in job design theory.Motivation for the study: The study was an attempt to shed more light on the types of proactive behaviours of individual employees at work. Moreover, we explored the concept of job crafting and its antecedents and consequences.Research design, approach and method: A literature study was conducted in which the focus was first on proactive behaviour of the employee and then on job crafting.Main findings: Job crafting can be seen as a specific form of proactive behaviour in which the employee initiates changes in the level of job demands and job resources. Job crafting may be facilitated by job and individual characteristics and may enable employees to fit their jobs to their personal knowledge, skills and abilities on the one hand and to their preferences and needs on the other hand.Practical/managerial implications: Job crafting may be a good way for employees to improve their work motivation and other positive work outcomes. Employees could be encouraged to exert more influence on their job characteristics.Contribution/value-add: This article describes a relatively new perspective on active job redesign by the individual, called job crafting, which has important implications for job design theories.

  14. Job Design for Mindful Work: The Boosting Effect of Psychosocial Safety Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, Emily J; Tuckey, Michelle R; Dollard, Maureen F

    2017-12-28

    Despite a surge in workplace mindfulness research, virtually nothing is known about how organizations can cultivate everyday mindfulness at work. Using the extended job demands-resources model, we explored daily psychological demands and job control as potential antecedents of daily mindfulness, and the moderating effect of psychosocial safety climate (PSC, which relates to the value organizations place on psychological health at work). We also examined the relationship between mindfulness and learning to augment understanding of the benefits of everyday mindfulness at work. A sample of 57 employees, primarily working in education, health care, and finance, completed a diary for five days within a 2-week period, covering mindfulness, psychological demands, job control, and learning. PSC was measured in a baseline survey, with individual ratings combined with those of up to four colleagues to tap objective (shared) climate. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that daily psychological demands were negatively related to daily mindfulness, and daily job control was positively related to daily mindfulness especially as PSC increased. Additionally, daily mindfulness was positively associated with daily workplace learning. This study is one of the first to identify work-related antecedents to everyday mindfulness. The findings suggest that (a) to support everyday mindfulness at work, jobs must be designed with manageable demands and a variety of tasks that allow for creativity and skill discretion, and (b) the benefits of mindfulness interventions for employee psychological health and well-being may not be sustainable unless employees have influence over when and how they do their work, in the "right" climate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Job Support, Coping, and Control: Assessment of Simultaneous Impacts Within the Occupational Stress Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brough, Paula; Drummond, Suzie; Biggs, Amanda

    2017-02-13

    The assessment of occupational stress is marred by an overwhelming adoption of simplistic research designs that generally fail to represent the complex reality of the occupational stress process. Informed by the theoretical tenants of both the transactional stress model and the job-demands-control-support model, this paper presents a rare simultaneous assessment of how two types of job demands (cognitive and emotional) are both moderated by job control and social support and mediated by coping for the prediction of work engagement and psychological strain over time. Self-report surveys were administered twice over 12 months to a sample of police-service workers and moderated mediation analyses were conducted on the matched sample of N = 2,481 respondents. The results offer support for the process of occupational stress by demonstrating how both accommodation and avoidance coping mediate the job-demands-outcome relationship over time. The results also demonstrate that this stressor-coping-strain process is simultaneously moderated by job support or job control. We found it interesting that this research also demonstrated that the estimation of work engagement was not unduly influenced by the type of job demands these police employees were exposed to. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Occupational coping self-efficacy explains distress and well-being in nurses beyond psychosocial job characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato ePisanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The main purpose of the present study was to extend the Job Demand Control Support (JDCS model analyzing the direct and interactive role of occupational coping self-efficacy (OCSE beliefs. Background: OCSE concern an individual's beliefs about one's ability to cope with occupational stressors. The interplay between occupational stressors, job resources and self-efficacy beliefs is poorly investigated. The present research attempts to address this gap.Design: Cross-sectional survey.Method: Questionnaire data from 1479 nurses (65% response were analyzed. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the direct and moderating role of OCSE in conjunction with job demands (i.e., time pressure, and two job resources: job control (i.e., decision latitude and skill discretion and social support (i.e., supervisor support and coworker support in predicting psychological distress and well-being.Results: Our findings indicated that high demands, low job control and low social support additively predicted the distress/well-being outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, psychological distress, and somatic complaints. Beyond the main effects, no significant interactive effects of demands, control, and support were found. Occupational coping self-efficacy (OCSE accounted for an additional 1% to 4% of the variance in the outcomes, after controlling for the JDCS variables. In addition, the results indicate that occupational coping self-efficacy buffers the association between low job control and the distress dimensions emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and psychological distress. Low control was detrimental only for nurses with low occupational coping self-efficacy.Conclusion: Our results suggest expanding the JDCS model incorporating individual characteristics such as occupational coping self-efficacy beliefs, for predicting psychological distress and well-being. Limitations of the study and practical implications

  17. The psychological well-being manifesting among master’s students in Industrial and Organisational Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Psychological well-being among master’s students is seen as a contributing factor towards having a meaningful, enjoyable and productive experience as a student.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide a qualitative description of the psychological well-being experiences of first-year students in a part-time coursework master’s degree in Industrial and Organisational Psychology (IOP in order to foster an empathetic understanding of their experiences.Motivation for the study: The understanding of their master’s students’ psychological wellbeing experiences will assist university IOP departments in facilitating the appropriate psychological containment to students and the optimisation of their resilience towards meaningfully completing their first year and perhaps also their master’s degree.Research design, approach and method: Qualitative research was conducted within a hermeneutic interpretive stance. Data were gathered from a focus group with 10 conveniently chosen participants. Thematic content analysis provided eight themes, which were interpreted and linked to the literature on psychological well-being.Main findings: Student distress caused by job demands leads to languishing and feeling overwhelmed. In contrast, student eustress resulting from job resources leads to flourishing, consisting of self-efficacy, locus of control and optimism.Practical implications: University IOP departments can use the information towards understanding their master’s students’ psychological well-being experiences, which could assist in the students’ successful and timeous completion of their studies.Contribution: The study contributes to the literature on master’s students’ real negative and positive experiences and psychological well-being, which university departments often deny or dismiss as idiosyncratic.Keywords: positive organisational behaviour; job demands; job resources; multiple roles; support system

  18. Psychological Empowerment and Work Engagement as Predictors of Work Satisfaction: A Sample of Hotel Employees .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Moura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With more organizations looking for employees who take initiative and respond creatively to the challenges of the job, engagement and psychological empowerment becomes important at both individual and organizational levels. Engaged employees are generally more satisfied with their work, committed and effective at work. According to the JDR model (Schaufeli and Bakker, 2004, engagement may be produced by two types of working conditions: job demands (i.e., role stress and job resources (i.e., psychological empowerment; self-efficacy. This study examines the role of psychological empowerment and work engagement as antecedents of job satisfaction. A cross sectional study using online questionnaires was conducted. The sample consisted of 152 Portuguese workers in hotels. Tourism is an important tool for profit and the Portuguese hotels are fundamental for the growth of the country. Employee satisfaction increases employee retention and increases productivity influencing the income / profits for hotels. Hierarchical multiple regressions analyses revealed that job satisfaction was significantly predicted by psychological empowerment and work engagement. Results support JDR model by showing that positive outcomes, such as job satisfaction, may be predicted by motivational process and job demands. On a practical level, JDR model provides a framework for understanding motivating workplaces and engaged and satisfied hotel employees.

  19. Construct validity of the Thai version of the job content questionnaire in a large population of heterogeneous occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phakthongsuk, Pitchaya

    2009-04-01

    To test the construct validity of the Thai version of the job content questionnaire (TJCQ). The present descriptive study recruited 10415 participants from all occupations according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations. The instrument consisted of a 48-item of the job content questionnaire. Eight items newly developed by the authors from in-depth interviews were added. Exploratory factor analysis showed six factor models of work hazards, decision latitude, psychological demand, social support, physical demand, and job security. However, supervisor and co-worker support were not distinguished into two factors and some items distributed differently along the factors extracted. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct of six latent factors, although the overall fit was moderately acceptable. Cronbach's alpha coefficients higher than 0.7, supported the internal consistency of TJCQ scales except for job security (0.55). These findings suggest that TJCQ is valid and reliable for assessing job stress among Thai populations.

  20. The effect of China exportations to the United States of America in the job demand of the manufacturing sector of Mexico 2004-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Mendoza Cota

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently the manufacturing sector of Mexico has experienced a reduced rate of growth. This study estimates the impact of the industrial activity of the U.S. and China on the demand for labor in the manufacturing sector of the northern border states of Mexico. With data on industrial activity, Chinese exports, wages and the peso-dollar exchange rate, a time series co-integration model is developed. The results show that exports from China to the Usa and manufacturing wages have affected labor demand negatively, while factors such as, the U.S. industrial production and the exchange rate tend to encourage manufacturing activity.

  1. Nationwide firefighter survey: the prevalence of lower back pain and its related psychological factors among Korean firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Gi; Seo, Ju-Il; Kim, KyooSang; Ahn, Yeon-Soon

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of lower back pain (LBP) and clarify the effect of work-related psychological factors on LBP. Nationwide survey data collected from male Korean firefighters (FIFS) were used. To identify the risk factors (work-related psychological factors such as job stress and depression) affecting LBP, the χ(2) test and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. The prevalence of LBP was 19.3% and was highest in the emergency medical service (31.8%) part of FF job types. Within job stress, an uncomfortable physical environment, high mental job demand and organizational injustice were associated with LBP. However, inadequate social support inversely associated with LBP. Depression and high-risk alcohol drinking were related to LBP. LBP was closely related to job stress, depression and alcohol intake. Proper interventions of psychological factors should therefore be addressed to control LBP in FIFS.

  2. Second-Order Growth Mixture Modeling in Organizational Psychology: An Application in the Study of Job Performance Using the Cusp Catastrophe Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Guido; Perinelli, Enrico; De Longis, Evelina; Theodorou, Annalisa

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, research in organizational psychology has witnessed a shift in attention from a mostly variable-focused approach, to a mostly person-focused approach. Indeed, it has been widely recognized that the study of worker's heterogeneity is a meaningful and necessary task of researchers dealing with human behavior in organizational contexts. As a consequence, there has been growing interest in the application of statistical analyses able to uncover latent sub-groups of workers. The present contribution was conceived as a tutorial for the application of one of these statistical analyses, namely second-order growth mixture modeling, and to illustrate its inner links with concepts from non-linear dynamic models. Throughout the paper, we provided (a) a discussion on the relationships between growth mixture modeling and the cusp catastrophe model; (b) Mplus syntaxes and output excerpts of a longitudinal analysis conducted on job performance (N = 420 employees rated once a year for four consecutive years); (c) an overview of two important topics regarding the correct implementation of growth mixture modeling (i.e., optimal number of classes and local maxima).

  3. Psychosocial job characteristics, wealth, and culture: differential effects on mental health in the UK and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Lazzarino, Antonio Ivan; Steptoe, Andrew; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2015-07-08

    Most research on the influence of psychosocial job characteristics on health status has been conducted within affluent Western economies. This research addresses the same topic in a middle-income Southeast Asian country, enabling comparison with a Western benchmark. We analysed and compared the Health Survey for England conducted in 2010 and the Thai Cohort Study data at 2005 baseline for workers aged 35-45 years. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess relationships between psychosocial job characteristics and health, measured as Adjusted Odd Ratios (AOR), controlling for potential covariates in final analyses. In both UK and Thai working adults, psychological distress was associated with job insecurity (AOR 2.58 and 2.32, respectively), inadequate coping with job demands (AOR 2.57 and 2.42), and low support by employers (AOR 1.93 and 1.84). Job autonomy was associated with psychological distress in the UK samples (AOR 2.61) but no relationship was found among Thais after adjusting for covariates (AOR 0.99). Low job security, inability to cope with job demands, and low employer support were associated with psychological distress both among Thai and UK workers. Job autonomy was an important part of a healthy work environment in Western cultures, but not in Thailand. This finding could reflect cultural differences with Thais less troubled by individualistic expression at work. Our study also highlights the implications for relevant workplace laws and regulations to minimise the adverse job effects. These public health strategies would promote mental health and wellbeing in the population.

  4. [Job stress among Japan Overseas Cooperation volunteers--using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shoko; Doi, Yuriko; Tsutsui, Sueharu; Makino, Mariko

    2004-11-01

    Mental health problems have recently increased among Japan Overseas Cooperation volunteers since 1965, when the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan International Cooperation Agency) launched this volunteer work project for improving hygiene and socioeconomic conditions in developing countries. There was little research on job stress among them dispatched despite previous surveys indicating job as an important stressor. To investigate stress and job-related stressors among them, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological study from October to December in 2003. The subjects were all 1,084 Japan Overseas Cooperation volunteers aged 20-40, who worked in 67 countries worldwide at the time of this study (485 and 599 males and females, 316, 332 and 436 for those staying overseas for 11, 7 and 4 months, respectively). Approximately 80% were involved in their dispatching occupational organizations as professionals in information technology, health & welfare, education, and research. Our main outcome measure used was the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire, which was developed to assess stress and job-related stressors or buffers for Japanese workers. Demographic and personality (Egogram) characteristics as well as other health information were obtained. The response rate was 86.9%. For psychological stress, prevalence was 5.5% (n = 49). Means (+/- SD) were 4.22 (+/- 3.98), and 4.89 (+/- 4.40) for males and females (p stress, prevalence was 2.9% (n = 26). Means (+/- SD) were 1.10 (+/- 1.68), and 1.41 (+/- 1.74) for males and females (p stress were high job demand, poor human relationships at work, low job suitability, low social support from supervisors and colleagues, and being dissatisfied with their life, according to multiple logistic regression analysis. The present study suggested that psychological stress was more prevalent than physical. It also implied a significant relationship between psychological stress and job-related stressors among the subjects of this study as

  5. Job strain and time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, J P

    1998-01-01

    The association between fertility and job strain defined as high job demands and low job control has not previously been studied. A follow-up study was conducted with prospective collection of information on job strain among women, achievement of pregnancy, and potential confounding variables....

  6. Job strain among rubber-glove-factory workers in central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Muang Muang; Howteerakul, Nopporn; Suwannapong, Nawarat; Jirachewee, Jirachai

    2010-01-01

    Job strain has become a major concern because of its potential impacts on worker well-being and performance. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of, and examine factors associated with, job strain among workers in a rubber-glove factory, in a central province of Thailand. A total of 200 workers aged 18-55 yr, who had worked at the factory for at least 6 months, completed the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) (Thai Version). Two of 5 scales in the JCQ were used to measure job strain, i.e.; job control and psychological job demand. The prevalence of job strain was 27.5%. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated two variables significantly associated with job strain: low supervisor social support (adjusted OR=3.08; 95%CI: 1.38-6.91) and high job insecurity (adjusted OR=2.25; 95%CI: 1.04-4.88). Effective training for supervisors, to create good relationships among workers and supervisors, and ensuring steady and secure jobs for good employees, are necessary.

  7. The Main Investigative Discipline Integrative Job Training: The need to achieve coherent educational influences and demands of the actors involved in the training process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Rojas-Marrero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article an assessment about the achievements of the influences and educational requirements consistent achieved through the implementation of the Main Investigative Discipline Integrative occupational training in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba is done. Its history, the mission of the University of Pedagogical Sciences regarding the training of their graduates. This is achieved from the design, implementation and evaluation of the Main Discipline Integrative Investigativa Job Training, that the apparent contradiction between the general training of any teacher is resolved, the particulars of every race and specific for each year study, based on the progressive domination of the modes of professional activity. It is based as a key idea: professional functions (skills which constitute the realization of the essence of the teaching profession, manifested in their professional performance.

  8. Connection between Job Motivation, Job Satisfaction and Work Performance in Romanian Trade Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Maria LUT

    2012-01-01

    On defining the connection between job motivation and job satisfaction and between job satisfaction and work performance is still not complete agreement among experts, given the complexity of the phenomena studied. Over time, the relationship between job motivation and job satisfaction has been addressed in many ways in the organizational psychology. The issue of the connection between job satisfaction and work performance is also at least as controversial as the issues mentioned above with r...

  9. The effects of job crafting on subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Peral

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Job crafting can result in a number of positive outcomes for teachers, such as increased meaningfulness and engagement at work. Increased work engagement and psychological meaningfulness may yield positive benefits for the practice of teaching, thus highlighting the pivotal role of job crafting.Research purpose: The study’s aim was to investigate the relationship between job crafting and subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers. Subjective well-being comprises psychological meaningfulness and work engagement. The potential mediating effect that psychological meaningfulness had on this relationship was further explored.Motivation for the study: Being in a highly stressful occupation, teachers need to continuously find ways to craft their working practices in order to deal effectively with their job demands and to capitalise on their available job resources. Furthermore, South Africa’s current education system calls for serious proactive measures to be taken to improve and rectify the current status, such as job crafting.Research approach, design and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was used and administered to a sample of South African high school teachers situated in Gauteng, South Africa (N = 251.Main findings: A positive relationship was found between job crafting (increasing structural resources and challenging job demands and work engagement. Furthermore, psychological meaningfulness mediated the relationship between job crafting and work engagement amongst the sampled high school teachers.Practical/managerial implications: Teachers who craft their work to better suit their preferences and needs will obtain greater meaning in their work and experience increased levels of work engagement. Training programmes and/or group-based interventions targeted around job crafting techniques may be particularly useful in the South African teaching context.Contribution/value-add: This study

  10. Using the Existential Criterion for Assessing the Personality of Overprotective and Overly Demanding Parents in the Families of Patients Who Have Sought Psychological Counseling for Parent-Child Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustin, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of applying the existential criterion of normal and abnormal personalities for assessing the personality of overprotective and overly demanding parents in 176 families of patients who have sought psychological counseling. It is shown that the position of overprotective parents is one-sided in relation to the…

  11. Emotional labor demands and compensating wage differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glomb, Theresa M; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D; Rotundo, Maria

    2004-08-01

    The concept of emotional labor demands and their effects on workers has received considerable attention in recent years, with most studies concentrating on stress, burnout, satisfaction, or other affective outcomes. This study extends the literature by examining the relationship between emotional labor demands and wages at the occupational level. Theories describing the expected effects of job demands and working conditions on wages are described. Results suggest that higher levels of emotional labor demands are associated with lower wage rates for jobs low in cognitive demands and with higher wage rates for jobs high in cognitive demands. Implications of these findings are discussed. (c) 2004 APA

  12. Reliability and validity of job content questionnaire for university research laboratory staff in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehzat, F; Huda, B Z; Tajuddin, S H Syed

    2014-03-01

    Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) has been proven a reliable and valid instrument to assess job stress in many countries and among various occupations. In Malaysia, both English and Malay versions of the JCQ have been administered to automotive workers, schoolteachers, and office workers. This study assessed the reliability and validity of the instrument with research laboratory staff in a university. A cross sectional study was conducted among 258 research laboratory staff in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). Malaysian laboratory staff who have worked for at least one year were randomly selected from nine faculties and institutes in the university that have research laboratory. A self-administered English and Malay version of Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) was used. Three major scales of JCQ: decision latitude, psychological job demands, and social support were assessed. Cronbach's alpha coefficients of two scales were acceptable, decision latitude and psychological job demands (0.70 and 0.72, respectively), while Cronbach's alpha coefficient for social support (0.86) was good. Exploratory factor analysis showed five factors that correspond closely to the theoretical construct of the questionnaire. The results of this research suggest that the JCQ is reliable and valid for examining psychosocial work situations and job strain among research laboratory staff. Further studies should be done for confirmative results, and further evaluation is needed on the decision authority subscale for this occupation.

  13. The mediating effects of team and self-efficacy on the relationship between transformational leadership, and job satisfaction and psychological well-being in healthcare professionals: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karina; Yarker, Joanna; Randall, Raymond; Munir, Fehmidah

    2009-09-01

    The importance of transformational leadership for the health and well-being of staff in the healthcare sector is increasingly acknowledged, however, there is less knowledge about the mechanisms that may explain the links between transformational leaders and employee health and well-being. To examine two possible psychological mechanisms that link transformational leadership behaviours to employee job satisfaction and well-being. Cross-sectional study design. The study took place in two elderly care centers in large Danish local government. Staff were predominantly healthcare assistants but also nurses and other healthcare-related professions participated in the study. 274 elderly care employees completed the questionnaire. Surveys were sent to all employees working at the centers. 91% were female, the average age was 45 years. A questionnaire was distributed to all members of staff in the elderly care centers and where employees were asked to rate their line manager's leadership style and were asked to evaluate their own level of self-efficacy as well as the level of efficacy in their team (team efficacy) and their job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Both team and self-efficacy were found to act as mediators, however, their effects differed. Self-efficacy was found to fully mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and well-being and team efficacy was found to partially mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction and fully mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and well-being. Within the pressurised environment faced by employees in the healthcare sector today transformational leaders may help ensure employees' job satisfaction and psychological well-being. They do so through the establishment of a sense of being in control as individuals but also as being part of a competent group.

  14. Nurse practitioner job content and stress effects on anxiety and depressive symptoms, and self-perceived health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Huang; Wang, Jane; Yang, Cheng-San; Fan, Jun-Yu

    2016-07-01

    We explored the impact of job content and stress on anxiety, depressive symptoms and self-perceived health status among nurse practitioners (NPs). Taiwan's NP roles vary between hospitals as a result of the diverse demands and complex tasks that cause job-related stress, potentially affecting the health of the NP. This study utilised a cross-sectional descriptive design with 161 NPs from regional hospitals participating. Data collection involved demographics, the Taiwan Nurse Stress Checklist, the Job Content Questionnaire, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, a General Health Status Checklist and salivary cortisol tests. NPs reported moderate job stress, similar job control to nurses, mild anxiety and depression, and below-average self-perceived health. Being a licensed NP, personal response, competence, and incompleteness of the personal arrangements subscales of job stress, and anxiety predicted self-perceived health after adjusting for other covariates. Job stress and anxiety affect NP health. NPs are a valuable resource, and the healthcare system demand is growing. Reasonable NP staffing, working hours, proper promotion systems, the causes of job stress, job content clarification and practical work shift scheduling need to be considered. The occupational safety and physical and psychological health of NPs are strongly associated with the quality of patient care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Work adjustment in cardiovascular disease: job characteristics and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'hagan, Fergal T; Thomas, Scott G

    2011-01-01

    To better understand social influences on work recovery, we studied the association between work status, work adjustment (WA), job demands, and social support (employer, family, physician) for return to work in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) patients. Multiple cross-sectional design with questionnaire data collected from patients (72% working; age = 57 ± 10.7 years) either at program entry (n = 126) or 6 to 12 months (n = 88) of CR exposure. Work adjustment was assessed by utilizing a visual analogue scale (WA VAS). Perceived social support from the employer, family, and physician was assessed using 5-point Likert scales. Physical demands (PD) and psychological job demands, and job control, were assessed utilizing the Job Content Questionnaire. Working patients expressed higher levels of employer support (4.2 ± 1.2 vs 3.6 ± 1.4, P working. Employer support was positively correlated with WA VAS (R = 0.34, P social support for return to work. Efforts to foster support from employers are an important consideration for the functional rehabilitation of these workers. The nature of the supportive relationship requires further investigation to determine the salient aspects that impact on work adjustment.

  16. Integrating Professional Programs in a Traditional Undergraduate Psychology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Bernard; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Four papers presented by psychology faculty members from Clemson University discuss how each person met the need for undergraduates to obtain job preparation in psychology. Topics cover industrial psychology, clinical psychology, teaching of psychology, and an interdisciplinary curriculum. (ND)

  17. Body fat distribution and job stress in Mexican-American men of the hispanic health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Eugenia; Wear, Mary L; Mueller, William H

    1992-01-01

    A positive relationship between psychosocial stress and central body fat distribution has been hypothesized. To test this hypothesis, two indices derived from principal components analysis of four skinfold measurements were studied in relation to imputed job stress characteristics (decision latitude, skill discretion, decision authority, and psychological demands) in Mexican-American men of the U.S. Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES). The two indices were fatness and central body fat distribution. Fatness was not significantly associated with any of the job stress characteristics before controlling for education. Once education was included in the equations, however, the relationship between fatness and two of the four job stress variables (decision authority and psychological demands) became statistically significant. Thus, for a given level of education, increasing job stress was associated with increasing fatness. Three of the four job stress characteristics were significantly associated with central body fat distribution before controlling for education. However, after education was entered into the regression equations as a proxy for social class, the relationships between central body fat distribution and the job stress variables were no longer significant. It thus appears that aspects of social class other than job stress are of equal or greater importance in predicting body fat distribution. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  18. An experimental study of the job demand-control model with measures of heart rate variability and salivary alpha-amylase: Evidence of increased stress responses to increased break autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Emma; Landolt, Kathleen; Hazi, Agnes; Dragano, Nico; Wright, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    We assessed in an experimental design whether the stress response towards a work task was moderated by the autonomy to choose a break during the assigned time to complete the task. This setting is defined in accordance with the theoretical framework of the job-demand-control (JDC) model of work related stress. The findings from naturalistic investigations of a stress-buffering effect of autonomy (or 'buffer hypothesis') are equivocal and the experimental evidence is limited, especially with relation to physiological indices of stress. Our objective was to investigate if increased autonomy in a particular domain (break time control) was related with adaptive physiology using objective physiological markers of stress; heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary alpha amylase (sAA). We used a within-subject design and the 60 female participants were randomly assigned to an autonomy (free timing of break) and standard conditions (fixed timing of break) of a word processing task in a simulated office environment in a random order. Participants reported increased perceptions of autonomy, no difference in demand and performed worse in the task in the break-time autonomy versus the standard condition. The results revealed support for the manipulation of increased autonomy, but in the opposing direction. Increased autonomy was related with dysregulated physiological reactivity, synonymous with typical increased stress responses. Potentially, our findings may indicate that autonomy is not necessary a resource but could become an additional stressor when it adds additional complexity while the amount of work (demands) remains unchanged. Further, our findings underscore the need to collect objective physiological evidence of stress to supplement self-reported information. Self-report biases may partially explain the inconsistent findings with the buffer hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Job Creation and Job Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups vs. established firms by taking into consideration the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define educationspecific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these to construct a mea...

  20. Job Creation and Job Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups versus established firms by considering the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define education-specific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these measures to construct...... a measure of “surplus job creation”, defined as jobs created on top of any simultaneous destruction of similar jobs in incumbent firms in the same region and industry. Using Danish employer-employee data from 2002–2007 that identify the start-ups and that cover almost the entire private sector......, these measures allow us to provide a more nuanced assessment of the role of entrepreneurial firms in the job-creation process than in previous studies. Our findings show that although start-ups are responsible for the entire overall net job creation, incumbents account for more than one-third of net job creation...

  1. A New Perspective on Job Lock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysse-Gaytandjieva, Anna; Groot, Wim; Pavlova, Milena

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the situation when employees fail to adapt to overall job dissatisfaction. By combining the existing knowledge in economics on job lock and in psychology on employees' feeling of being "stuck" at work, the paper explains why some employees fail to adapt when dissatisfied with their job. Thus, the paper aims to expand…

  2. El malestar por inestabilidad laboral y su relación con tensión y recursos personales Uneasiness due to Job instability and its relationship With psychological strain and personnal resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Leibovich de Figueroa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La inestabilidad laboral se ha tornado uno de los estresores psicosociales más relevantes en las últimas décadas y su percepción podría generar malestar y sufrimiento, desembocando en un estado de estrés con la consecuente elevación de tensión en uno o varios de sus canales de expresión, provocando así efectos deletéreos en la salud psico-física de los trabajadores. Nos preguntamos qué aspectos personales y laborales de los trabajadores estarían vinculados a un mayor malestar debido a la inestabilidad laboral y si éste es predictor de la tensión psicológica que manifiesta el trabajador. El IMPIL, en su versión reducida, junto con otras técnicas, fue administrado a una muestra de 90 empleados en relación de dependencia. Concluimos que la inestabilidad laboral impacta negativamente en el trabajador a través de uno de los canales de expresión: el malestar, sobre todo si existe un desajuste entre el nivel de instrucción y la tarea que realiza. A su vez, corroboramos que la inestabilidad laboral y el malestar que la misma genera producen altos niveles de tensión psicológica en el trabajador.In the last decades job instability has become one of the most important psychosocial stressors and its perception could generate uneasiness and suffering, leading to a stressful state with a consequent increase of strain through one or several of its channels of expression, producing deleterious effects in the psychophysical health of workers. We wonder which workers' personal and job features could be related to a greater uneasiness due to job instability and if this job instability is a predictor of the psychological strain expressed by them. The IMPIL, in its reduced version, and other techniques were administered to a sample of 90 salaried employees. We conclude that job instability has a negative impact on the worker through one of the channels of expression: uneasiness, most of all if there exists a maladjustement between the

  3. Predictors of job satisfaction for rural acute care registered nurses in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penz, Kelly; Stewart, Norma J; D'Arcy, Carl; Morgan, Debra

    2008-11-01

    This study examines predictors of job satisfaction among rural acute care registered nurses. The data are from a cross-sectional national survey, which was part of a larger project, The Nature of Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada. This analysis suggests that a combination of individual, workplace, and community characteristics are interrelated predictors of job satisfaction for rural acute care nurses. There were nine variables that accounted for 38% of the total variance in job satisfaction. Four variables alone (available and up-to-date equipment and supplies, satisfaction with scheduling and shifts, lower psychological job demands, and home community satisfaction) explained 33% of the variance. Recruitment and retention strategies in rural areas must acknowledge that rural nurses' work lives and community lives are inextricably intertwined. Attention to these issues will help ensure high-quality working environments and a continued commitment to quality nursing care in the rural hospital settings in Canada.

  4. [Job satisfaction, job burnout and their relationships with work'and patients' characteristics: a comparison between intensive care units (ICU) and not-intensive care units (not-ICU)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotti, Sara; Converso, Daniela; Loera, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Health worker's population is espoused to high level of stress, and several studies highlight differences between intensive care units (ICU) and non-intensive care unit (non-ICU). Particular features of the job in ICU concern responsibilities for critically patients, highly advanced technology and need for quick decision. Aims of this study are: (1) to examine differences between ICU's and not-ICU's workers on several dimensions describing work environment and workers' health; (2) investigate which specific work conditions have a role in determining psychological work reactions in ICU's and not-ICU's workers. 144 ICUs' and not-ICU's 114 workers employed in an Italian Hospital filled out a questionnaire concerning decision authority, autonomy, colleagues' and supervisors' support, physical and cognitive demands as antecedents; job satisfaction and job burnout (EE, DP) as consequences. 1) MANOVA highlighted how ICU workers reported significantly higher scores on depersonalization, job satisfaction, aggressive customers, while physical demands and proportionate customer expectations were significantly higher for not-ICU workers; (2) Six Multiple Linear Regressions were carried out. Those indicated decision authority, autonomy and supervisors' support as predictors of emotional exhaustions in ICU. In not-ICU only cognitive demands and colleagues' support are significant predictors. Depersonalization is predicted in ICU by colleagues' support. Predictors of job satisfaction both in ICU and not-ICU are: decision authority and colleagues support. Current study highlighted several differences among ICU and non-ICU workers' referred to work environment and psychological reactions.

  5. Integrating job scheduling and constrained network routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the NP-hard problem of scheduling jobs on resources such that the overall profit of executed jobs is maximized. Job demand must be sent through a constrained network to the resource before execution can begin. The problem has application in grid computing, where a number...

  6. Jobs API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Jobs API returns job openings across the federal government and includes all current openings posted on USAJobs.gov that are open to the public and located in...

  7. Job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    PODROUŽKOVÁ, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with job satisfaction. It is often given to a context with the attitude to work which is very much connected to job satisfaction. Thesis summarises all the pieces of information about job satisfacion, factors that affect it negatively and positively, interconnection of work satisfaction and work motivation, work behaviour and performance of workers, relationship of a man and work and at last general job satisfaction and its individual aspects. In the thesis I shortly pay...

  8. Caring for the Elderly at Work and Home: Can a Randomized Organizational Intervention Improve Psychological Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Thompson, Rebecca J; Lawson, Katie M; Bodner, Todd; Perrigino, Matthew B; Hammer, Leslie B; Buxton, Orfeu M; Almeida, David M; Moen, Phyllis; Hurtado, David A; Wipfli, Brad; Berkman, Lisa F; Bray, Jeremy W

    2017-12-07

    Although job stress models suggest that changing the work social environment to increase job resources improves psychological health, many intervention studies have weak designs and overlook influences of family caregiving demands. We tested the effects of an organizational intervention designed to increase supervisor social support for work and nonwork roles, and job control in a results-oriented work environment on the stress and psychological distress of health care employees who care for the elderly, while simultaneously considering their own family caregiving responsibilities. Using a group-randomized organizational field trial with an intent-to-treat design, 420 caregivers in 15 intervention extended-care nursing facilities were compared with 511 caregivers in 15 control facilities at 4 measurement times: preintervention and 6, 12, and 18 months. There were no main intervention effects showing improvements in stress and psychological distress when comparing intervention with control sites. Moderation analyses indicate that the intervention was more effective in reducing stress and psychological distress for caregivers who were also caring for other family members off the job (those with elders and those "sandwiched" with both child and elder caregiving responsibilities) compared with employees without caregiving demands. These findings extend previous studies by showing that the effect of organizational interventions designed to increase job resources to improve psychological health varies according to differences in nonwork caregiving demands. This research suggests that caregivers, especially those with "double-duty" elder caregiving at home and work and "triple-duty" responsibilities, including child care, may benefit from interventions designed to increase work-nonwork social support and job control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Predicting job-seeking intensity and job-seeking intention in the sample of unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study Ajzen' theory (1991 of planned behavior was used to predict job - seek intention and behavior among unemployed people (N = 650. In addition to theory of planned behavior variables (job - seek attitude, subjective norm, self - efficacy and controllability of job seek process we used several other psychological (financial pressure, self - mastery, self - esteem and depression and demographic (gender, age, education, marriage and lent of unemployment variables to build a model of predictors for both criterion variables. Financial pressure, intention to seek employment, job seek - self - efficacy, job - seek controllability, marriage and job - seek attitude predicted job - seeking behavior, while attitude toward job - seeking, subjective norm, job - seek self - efficacy and financial pressure predicted job seek - intention. Results are discussed in light of theory of planned behavior, current research of job - seeking behavior and recommendations are made for practice.

  10. Job Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bravená, Helena

    2009-01-01

    This bacherlor thesis deals with the importance of job analysis for personnel activities in the company. The aim of this work is to find the most suitable method of job analysis in a particular enterprise, and continues creating descriptions and specifications of each job.

  11. Job demands, job resources, and behavior in times of sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Daniel; Winter, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concept of presenteeism, that is, employees coming to work despite being sick, has recently received more attention in the literature. Presenteeism not only threatens employees' health but also substantially drains productivity and drives considerable costs. When they are sick...

  12. Organizational justice, psychological distress, and work engagement in Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Ishizaki, Masao; Shimazu, Akihito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Tabata, Masaji; Akiyama, Miki; Kitazume, Akiko; Kuroda, Mitsuyo

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the cross-sectional association between organizational justice (i.e., procedural justice and interactional justice) and psychological distress or work engagement, as well as the mediating roles of other job stressors (i.e., job demands and job control, or their combination, effort-reward imbalance [ERI], and worksite support). A total of 243 workers (185 males and 58 females) from a manufacturing factory in Japan were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire including the Organizational Justice Questionnaire, Job Content Questionnaire, Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, K6 scale, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and other covariates. Multiple mediation analyses with the bootstrap technique were conducted. In the bivariate analysis, procedural justice and interactional justice were significantly and negatively associated with psychological distress; they were significantly and positively associated with work engagement. In the mediation analysis, reward at work (or ERI) significantly mediated between procedural justice or interactional justice and psychological distress; worksite support significantly mediated between procedural justice or interactional justice and work engagement. The effects of organizational justice on psychological distress seem to be mediated by reward at work (or ERI) while those regarding work engagement may be mediated by worksite support to a large extent, at least in Japanese workers.

  13. How to Define the Content of a Job-Specific Worker's Health Surveillance for Hospital Physicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenburg, Martijn M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H.W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2015-01-01

    Background A job-specific Worker's Health Surveillance (WHS) for hospital physicians is a preventive occupational health strategy aiming at early detection of their diminished work-related health in order to improve or maintain physician's health and quality of care. This study addresses what steps should be taken to determine the content of a job-specific WHS for hospital physicians and outlines that content. Methods Based on four questions, decision trees were developed for physical and psychological job demands and for biological, chemical, and physical exposures to decide whether or not to include work-related health effects related to occupational exposures or aspects of health reflecting insufficient job requirements. Information was gathered locally through self-reporting and systematic observations at the workplace and from evidence in international publications. Results Information from the decision trees on the prevalence and impact of the health- or work-functioning effect led to inclusion of occupational exposures (e.g., biological agents, emotionally demanding situations), job requirements (e.g., sufficient vision, judging ability), or health effects (e.g., depressive symptoms, neck complaints). Additionally, following the Dutch guideline for occupational physicians and based on specific job demands, screening for cardiovascular diseases, work ability, drug use, and alcohol consumption was included. Targeted interventions were selected when a health or work functioning problem existed and were chosen based on evidence for effectiveness. Conclusion The process of developing a job-specific WHS for hospital physicians was described and the content presented, which might serve as an example for other jobs. Before implementation, it must first be tested for feasibility and acceptability. PMID:27014487

  14. Job satisfaction and intention to quit the job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suadicani, P; Bonde, J P; Olesen, K; Gyntelberg, F

    2013-03-01

    Negative psychosocial work conditions may influence the motivation of employees to adhere to their job. To elucidate the perception of psychosocial work conditions among Danish hospital employees who would quit their job if economically possible and those who would not. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees. The questionnaire gave information on elements of the psychosocial work environment (job demands, job influence, job support, management quality, exposure to bullying), general health status, sick-leave during the preceding year, life style (leisure time physical activity, alcohol intake and smoking habits), age, sex and profession. There were 1809 participants with a response rate of 65%. About a quarter (26%) reported that they would quit their job if economically possible; this rose to 40% among the 17% who considered their health mediocre or bad. In a final logistic regression model, six factors were identified as independently associated with the wish to quit or not: self-assessed health status, meaningfulness of the job, quality of collaboration among colleagues, age, trustworthiness of closest superior(s) and exposure to bullying. Based on these factors it was possible to identify groups with fewer than 15% wishing to quit, and similarly, groups where 50% or more would quit if this was economically possible. Psychosocial work conditions, in particular meaningfulness of the job, were independently associated with intention to quit the job if economically possible and relevant within different job categories.

  15. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, J.S.E.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Lange, A.H. de; Vinkenburg, C.J.; Kooij, D.T.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model,

  16. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Josje S. E.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; de Lange, Annet H.; Vinkenburg, Claartje J.; Kooij, Dorien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model,

  17. The Demand-Control Model: Specific demands, specific Control, and well-defined groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, J. de; Dollard, M.F.; Dormann, C.; Blanc, P.M.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Demand-Control Model (DCM), accompanied by three goals. Firstly, we used alternative, more focused, and multifaceted measures of both job demands and job control that are relevant and applicable to today's working contexts. Secondly, this study intended to

  18. Job performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tesařová, Markéta

    2008-01-01

    The goal of diploma thesis is to outline possible connections to job performance and to prove that the job performance issue is more and more actual and over and over discussed in business circles and also among HR managers and firm owners. Job performance management should be always placed in the middle of their concern. Because of permanent changes in business environment where organizations must face the competition managers should make an effort to implement evaluation system and performa...

  19. Job stress and the use of antidepressant medicine: a 3.5-year follow-up study among Danish employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielen, Karsten; Nygaard, Else; Rugulies, Reiner

    2011-01-01

    with high demands was found for high anticipated private social support and living with children. Among women, no effect of job characteristics on antidepressant use was found. Conclusion Among men, but not among women, high quantitative demands and low social support from colleagues were predictive......ABSTRACT Objectives To investigate if exposure to adverse psychological job characteristics predicts incident use of antidepressants, taking into account differential misclassification and residual confounding. Methods A prospective cohort study with a 3.5-year follow-up of 4661 Danish employees......, aged 40 and 50 years, drawn from a 10% random sample of the Danish population was carried out. Job characteristics were the predictor variables and use of antidepressants was the outcome variable. Survey data on psychosocial work environment were linked with register data on dispensing...

  20. How Positivity Links With Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Findings on the Mediating Role of Work-Life Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hod Orkibi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The positive characteristics that can help people juggle their work and personal roles and experience greater job satisfaction are attracting increased research attention. This study presents a conceptual model to account for the association between employees’ positive orientation (i.e., the tendency to evaluate self, life, and the future in a positive way and their job satisfaction (N = 108. As theorized, the results indicate that employees’ ability to manage their work-life balance fully mediates the relation between their positive orientation and job satisfaction. This suggests that a positive orientation serves as an adaptive personal resource that can facilitate employees’ ability to balance work and non-work demands and hence can foster job satisfaction. The practical implications for positive psychological interventions in organizational settings are discussed.

  1. How Positivity Links With Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Findings on the Mediating Role of Work-Life Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkibi, Hod; Brandt, Yaron Ilan

    2015-08-01

    The positive characteristics that can help people juggle their work and personal roles and experience greater job satisfaction are attracting increased research attention. This study presents a conceptual model to account for the association between employees' positive orientation (i.e., the tendency to evaluate self, life, and the future in a positive way) and their job satisfaction (N = 108). As theorized, the results indicate that employees' ability to manage their work-life balance fully mediates the relation between their positive orientation and job satisfaction. This suggests that a positive orientation serves as an adaptive personal resource that can facilitate employees' ability to balance work and non-work demands and hence can foster job satisfaction. The practical implications for positive psychological interventions in organizational settings are discussed.

  2. Influence of stress resiliency on RN job satisfaction and intent to stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, June H; Wu, Ying; Persily, Cynthia A; Simoni, Patricia S; Johnston, Patricia A; Marcischak, Terri L; Mott, Christine L; Gladden, Stephanie D

    2010-02-01

    Registered nurse (RN) job satisfaction is a major predictor of intent to stay and job turnover, serious concerns to health care leaders. Predictors of job satisfaction include autonomy, control over daily practice, nurse-physician collaboration, transformational leadership, group cohesion, job stress, structural empowerment, and psychological empowerment. In the model of psychological empowerment, stress resiliency is the product of persons' interpretive styles and influences psychological empowerment. This study has evaluated the influence of stress resiliency on job stress, psychological empowerment, job satisfaction, and intent to stay using causal modeling. Participants are 464 RNs employed in five acute care hospitals in West Virginia. The final model has provided a very good fit to the data. Stress resiliency is a predictor of psychological empowerment, situational stress, and job satisfaction. This study provides the first evidence of the influence of stress resiliency on job stress, psychological empowerment, job satisfaction, and intent to stay in a sample of RNs.

  3. Jobs Bog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Indledningen sætter Jobs Bog ind i den bibelske kontekst og redegør for hovedindhold og genre.......Indledningen sætter Jobs Bog ind i den bibelske kontekst og redegør for hovedindhold og genre....

  4. Work characteristics and determinants of job satisfaction in four age groups: university employees? point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Judith T; Donders, Nathalie C. G. M.; Bouwman-Brouwer, Karin M.; Van der Gulden, Joost W. J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate (a) differences in work characteristics and (b) determinants of job satisfaction among employees in different age groups. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire was filled in by 1,112 university employees, classified into four age groups. (a) Work characteristics were analysed with ANOVA while adjusting for sex and job classification. (b) Job satisfaction was regressed against job demands and job resources adapted from the Job Demands-Resources model. Results Statistic...

  5. [Work-related stress according to the Demand-Control Model and Minor Psychic Disorder in nursing workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanetto, Janete de Souza; Magalhães, Maria Cristina Cademartori; Maciel, Vanessa Oreda; Sant'Anna, Viviane Massena; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos Eduardo; Magnago, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza

    2013-10-01

    This was a cross-sectional study that aimed to assess the association between work-related stress according to the Demand-Control Model, and the occurrence of Minor Psychic Disorder (MPD) in nursing workers. The participants were 335 professionals, out of which 245 were nursing technicians, aged predominantly between 20 and 40 years. Data were collected using the Job Stress Scale and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20. The analysis was performed using descriptive and analytical statistics. The prevalence of suspected MPD was 20.6%. Workers classified in the quadrants active job and high strain of the Demand-Control Model presented higher potential for developing MPD compared with those classified in the quadrant low strain. In conclusion, stress affects the mental health of workers and the aspects related to high psychological demands and high control still require further insight in order to understand their influence on the disease processes of nursing workers.

  6. Work-related stress according to the demand-control model and minor psychic disorders in nursing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete de Souza Urbanetto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This was a cross-sectional study that aimed to assess the association between work-related stress according to the Demand-Control Model, and the occurrence of Minor Psychic Disorder (MPD in nursing workers. The participants were 335 professionals, out of which 245 were nursing technicians, aged predominantly between 20 and 40 years. Data were collected using the Job Stress Scale and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20. The analysis was performed using descriptive and analytical statistics. The prevalence of suspected MPD was 20.6%. Workers classified in the quadrants active job and high strain of the Demand-Control Model presented higher potential for developing MPD compared with those classified in the quadrant low strain. In conclusion, stress affects the mental health of workers and the aspects related to high psychological demands and high control still require further insight in order to understand their influence on the disease processes of nursing workers.

  7. Job crafting and its impact on work engagement and job satisfaction in mining and manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon T de Beer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate job crafting and its relationship with work engagement and job satisfaction within the South African context. This research is important as job crafting has been shown to have a positive influence on employee motivation. A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect primary data from organisations in the mining and manufacturing industries of South Africa (N = 470. The results of multi-group structural equation modelling showed that the original four-factor structure of the job crafting scale was supported by the data, but that a three-factor structure was necessary due to a discriminant validity concern regarding two job crafting dimensions. Regression results revealed that increasing structural job resources with challenging job demands, and increasing social job resources were significant predictors of work engagement in both groups. Contrary to expectations decreasing hindering job demands was a negative predictor of job satisfaction in the mining group. Furthermore, increasing social job resources was also a significant predictor of job satisfaction in both groups. This study indicates the importance of job crafting for work engagement and job satisfaction in organisations.

  8. Demand Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot E. Combs

    2017-01-01

    Price elasticity shows the responsiveness of demand to changes in price. Negative price elasticity of demand (PED) signifies the inverse relationship between price and demand. According to the equation, PED is -1.19 for widgets, which means that an increase in price of $1 would result in a contraction of demand of $1.19. Since the change in price corresponds with a more than proportionate change in demand, PED is said to be elastic. As a result, an increase in price would discourage consumers...

  9. Nurses' work demands and work-family conflict: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Dilek; Aycan, Zeynep

    2008-09-01

    Work-family conflict is a type of interrole conflict that occurs as a result of incompatible role pressures from the work and family domains. Work role characteristics that are associated with work demands refer to pressures arising from excessive workload and time pressures. Literature suggests that work demands such as number of hours worked, workload, shift work are positively associated with work-family conflict, which, in turn is related to poor mental health and negative organizational attitudes. The role of social support has been an issue of debate in the literature. This study examined social support both as a moderator and a main effect in the relationship among work demands, work-to-family conflict, and satisfaction with job and life. This study examined the extent to which work demands (i.e., work overload, irregular work schedules, long hours of work, and overtime work) were related to work-to-family conflict as well as life and job satisfaction of nurses in Turkey. The role of supervisory support in the relationship among work demands, work-to-family conflict, and satisfaction with job and life was also investigated. The sample was comprised of 243 participants: 106 academic nurses (43.6%) and 137 clinical nurses (56.4%). All of the respondents were female. The research instrument was a questionnaire comprising nine parts. The variables were measured under four categories: work demands, work support (i.e., supervisory support), work-to-family conflict and its outcomes (i.e., life and job satisfaction). The structural equation modeling results showed that work overload and irregular work schedules were the significant predictors of work-to-family conflict and that work-to-family conflict was associated with lower job and life satisfaction. Moderated multiple regression analyses showed that social support from the supervisor did not moderate the relationships among work demands, work-to-family conflict, and satisfaction with job and life. Exploratory

  10. Job resources and emotional exhaustion: The mediating role of learning opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruysseveldt, J. van; Verboon, P.; Smulders, P.G.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Job Demands-Resources model predicts that job demands increase and job resources decrease emotional exhaustion in employees. In this study, we investigated one possible mechanism for this, in order to provide a deeper insight into the role of job resources in this energy-depletion process. We

  11. Psychological workload is associated with weight gain between 1993 and 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gamborg, M; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: To examine associations between psychological workload and subsequent 6-y weight changes. METHODS: In total, 6704 Danish nurses, aged 45-65 y and employed both in 1993 and 1999, answered questionnaires about psychological workload, including busyness in job, job speed and job influence...... who attained influence in job over the 6-y period. CONCLUSION: : Psychological workload, particularly both low and high busyness in job and low influence in job, was associated with higher 6-y weight gain among female Danish nurses....

  12. Workers’ Age and the Impact of Psychological Factors on the Perception of Safety at Construction Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muhammad Dawood Idrees; Maria Hafeez; Jung-Yong Kim

    2017-01-01

    .... Several studies concluded that psychological factors such as workload, organizational relationships, mental stress, job security, and job satisfaction have significant effects on workers’ safety...

  13. A Study on the Job Stress Assessment in Korean Nuclear Power Plants based on KOSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seong Hwan; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Sook Hee; Jung, Kwang Hee; Jung, Yeon Sub [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Job stress is a harmful physical and emotional response that occurs when there is a poor match between job demands and the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. Stress-related disorders encompass a broad array of conditions, including psychological disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder) and other types of emotional strain (e.g., dissatisfaction, fatigue, tension, etc.), maladaptive behaviors (e.g., aggression, substance abuse), and cognitive impairment (e.g., concentration and memory problems). In turn, these conditions may lead to poor work performance or even injury. Job stress is also associated with various biological reactions that may lead ultimately to compromised health, such as cardiovascular disease or in extreme cases, death. In Korea, organizational job stress factors were investigated for the jobs in nuclear power plants that are operated based on procedures. Especially, the occupational stress scale for Korean employees (KOSS) was developed. The KOSS has 8 subscales by using a factor analysis and validation process in order to measure stress at work and to find methods for the prevention of stressors. In this point of view, the RHRI (Radiation Health Research Institute of KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power) assessed how wellsuited employees were for their job during their health examination in 2009. In this study the present condition of employee's stress level is investigated to find a way to manage their stressors

  14. Financial crisis and collapsed banks: psychological distress and work related factors among surviving employees--a nation-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snorradóttir, Ásta; Vilhjálmsson, Rúnar; Rafnsdóttir, Guðbjörg Linda; Tómasson, Kristinn

    2013-09-01

    The study considered psychological distress among surviving bank employees differently entangled in downsizing and restructuring following the financial crisis of 2008. A cross-sectional, nationwide study was conducted among surviving employees (N = 1880, response rate 68%). Multivariate analysis was conducted to assess factors associated with psychological distress. In the banks, where all employees experienced rapid and unpredictable organizational changes, psychological distress was higher among employees most entangled in the downsizing and restructuring process. Being subjected to downsizing within own department, salary cut, and transfer to another department, was directly related to increased psychological distress, controlling for background factors. The associations between downsizing, restructuring, and distress were reduced somewhat by adding job demands, job control, and empowering leadership to the model, however, adding social support had little effect on these associations. Employees most entangled in organizational changes are the most vulnerable and should be prioritized in workplace interventions during organizational changes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The work-based predictors of job engagement and job satisfaction experienced by community health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblet, Andrew J; Allisey, Amanda F; Nielsen, Ingrid L; Cotton, Stacey; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Page, Kathryn M

    Job engagement represents a critical resource for community-based health care agencies to achieve high levels of effectiveness. However, studies examining the organizational sources of job engagement among health care professionals have generally overlooked those workers based in community settings. This study drew on the demand-control model, in addition to stressors that are more specific to community health services (e.g., unrewarding management practices), to identify conditions that are closely associated with the engagement experienced by a community health workforce. Job satisfaction was also included as a way of assessing how the predictors of job engagement differ from those associated with other job attitudes. Health and allied health care professionals (n = 516) from two Australian community health services took part in the current investigation. Responses from the two organizations were pooled and analyzed using linear multiple regression. The analyses revealed that three working conditions were predictive of both job engagement and job satisfaction (i.e., job control, quantitative demands, and unrewarding management practices). There was some evidence of differential effects with cognitive demands being associated with job engagement, but not job satisfaction. The results provide important insights into the working conditions that, if addressed, could play key roles in building a more engaged and satisfied community health workforce. Furthermore, working conditions like job control and management practices are amenable to change and thus represent important areas where community health services could enhance the energetic and motivational resources of their employees.

  16. Psychological factors at work and musculoskeletal disorders: a one year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugajska, Joanna; Zołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota; Jędryka-Góral, Anna; Gasik, Robert; Hildt-Ciupińska, Katarzyna; Malińska, Marzena; Bedyńska, Sylwia

    2013-12-01

    The etiology of musculoskeletal disorders is complex, with physical and psychosocial working conditions playing an important role. This study aimed to determine the relationship between psychosocial work conditions, such as psychological job demands, decision latitude, social support and job insecurity and musculoskeletal complains (MSCs) and (repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) in a 1-year prospective study. The job content questionnaire, the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire and provocation tests were used to study 725 employees aged 20-70 years. Pain in the lower back (58 % of subjects), neck (57 %), wrists/hands (47 %) and upper back (44 %) was most frequent. The carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) (33.6 %), rotator cuff tendinitis (15.4 %), Guyon's canal syndrome (13.4 %), lateral epicondylitis (7.6 %), medial epicondylitis (5.3 %), tendinitis of forearm-wrist extensors (7.8 %) and tendinitis of forearm-wrist flexors (7.3 %) were the most frequent RSIs. Logistic analysis showed that increased psychological job demands statistically significantly increased the probability of lateral and medial epicondylitis, and increased control (decision latitude) statistically significantly decreased the risk of CTS. There was no relationship between job insecurity, social support and the studied RSIs. Psychosocial factors at work predict prevalence of MSCs and RSIs, irrespectively of demographic factors, e.g., age or gender, and organizational and physical factors.

  17. Connection between Job Motivation, Job Satisfaction and Work Performance in Romanian Trade Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Maria LUT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On defining the connection between job motivation and job satisfaction and between job satisfaction and work performance is still not complete agreement among experts, given the complexity of the phenomena studied. Over time, the relationship between job motivation and job satisfaction has been addressed in many ways in the organizational psychology. The issue of the connection between job satisfaction and work performance is also at least as controversial as the issues mentioned above with respect to these phenomena. Related to this connection, in the literature existed, over time, at least three points of view which held that: job satisfaction leads to work performance; work performance leads to job satisfaction; rewards are involved between job satisfaction and work performance. The paper aim is to present some aspects related to the connection between job motivation, job satisfaction and work performance. The issues presented in this paper lead to the conclusion that in the work process, the connection between job satisfaction and work performance or the connection between job motivation and job satisfaction are not constant or linear connection. These connections should be nuanced interpreted, depending on the conditions of occurrence. These conclusions are based on the results of a survey conducted among enterprises dealing mostly in trade sector, in Romanian Western Region.

  18. Análise ergonômica do trabalho em unidades de beneficiamento de produtos agrícolas: exigências laborais dos postos de seleção Ergonomic work analysis in agricultural products packinghouses: job demands of the selection workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso de Oliveira Braga

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O beneficiamento pós-colheita é uma atividade em grande expansão no Brasil. Neste estudo adotou-se a abordagem ergonômica para analisar as exigências laborais em unidades de beneficiamento de tomate de mesa (UB. Aplicou-se o método da Análise Ergonômica do Trabalho para identificar os postos de trabalho de maiores exigências laborais. Na pesquisa de campo envolvendo 61 operadores, foram utilizados o Método NASA TLX e o Questionário de Avaliação Visual. A exigência mental foi elevada nos postos de trabalho de bicas e seleção. A exigência visual foi elevada nas UB de baixos níveis de iluminância, e a exigência física foi alta nos postos de alimentação de todas UB e nas bicas das UB que não contavam com auxílio mecânico para movimentação de caixas.The post harvest processing is an activity in large expansion in Brazil. In this research, the ergonomic approach was adopted to analyze the job demands in fresh tomato packinghouses. The Ergonomic Work Analysis Method was adopted to identify the workplaces with the leading job demands. In the field research involving 61 workers, it was applied the NASA TLX method and the Visual Assesment Questionnaire. The mental demand was high at the selection and outlet workplaces. It was detected high visual demand in packinghouses with low illuminance levels as well as the physical demand at the loading cells workplaces in all the packinghouses and at the outlet workplaces in the packinghouses without mechanical help for the moving of the boxes.

  19. The cognitive/affective distinction of job insecurity: Validation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We administered a short version of the measure of job insecurity originally devised by De Witte (2000), which distinguishes between cognitive and affective job insecurity. Data on job satisfaction, commitment, psychological ill-health and emotional exhaustion were also gathered from employees in a variety of South African ...

  20. HUBUNGAN ANTARA PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPITAL DENGAN WORK ENGAGEMENT PADA KARYAWAN PT. BANK MEGA REGIONAL AREA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Ari Setyo Nugroho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the relationship between psychological capital with work engagement employees of PT. Bank Mega Regional Area Semarang. Psychological capital is an individual’s positive psychological state of development and is characterized by self- efficacy, optimism, hope and resiliency. Then, work engagement is defined as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. This study used proportional sampling technique. The subjects were all employees of PT. Bank Mega Regional Area Semarang which have staff levels (N=73. The research instrument was psychological capital scales with 28 items (α = 0.953 and work engagement scales with 29 items (α = 0.938. The results by simple regression analysis obtained rxy = 0.716, with p value = 0.000 (p <0.05. The results indicated that there was a positive correlation between psychological capital and work engagement. The higher psychological capital was higher work engagement. Coefficient of determination by 51,3, it meaning that psychological capital effectively contributed for 51,3 % of work engagement. The remaining 48,7 % determined by other factors that are not revealed in this study, for example: job resources and job demands. Keywords: Psychological capital, work engagement, employee

  1. Job Prospects for Chemical Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    After several lean years, chemical engineering (a popular discipline among women) is witnessing a higher job demand for new graduates. Companies show a trend toward specialty chemicals with resultant needs for more engineering talent. Other opportunities in the field include agriculture and food processing, environmental control, biotechnology,…

  2. Validity and reliability of the Persian (Farsi) version of the Job Content Questionnaire: a study among hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choobineh, A; Ghaem, H; Ahmedinejad, P

    2011-04-01

    Stress is an increasingly important occupational health problem, even in developing countries suc as the Islamic Republic of Iran. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) is a widely used self-administered to measure dimensions of job stress in the workplace. This study describes the preparation of a Persian (Farsi) language version of the questionnaire (P-JCQ). In the first stage, linguistic validation was done by forward and backward translation. In the psychometric evaluation stage, the reliability and validity of the P-JCQ were explored among 107 hospital nurses in Shiraz city. Cronbach alpha coefficients for decision latitude and psychological job demands scales were 0.54 and 0.58 respectively and ranged from 0.64 to 0.85 for other scales. Exploratory factor analysis showed 3 meaningful factors that could explain support, psychological job demands and physical loads and hazard exposure. The P-JCQ has satisfactory linguistic validity and psychometric properties, provided the recommended factor pattern is used.

  3. Job insecurity, organisational commitment and work engagement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chair of the Department of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, University of South Africa. E-mail: moshoan@ ... the experience of job insecurity is one of the main reported psychological states occurring through .... positive spinoff of high commitment is an employee who is happier at work, spends less time away from ...

  4. Psychology in its Place

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, John

    2008-01-01

    In 1996 Graham Richards published Putting Psychology in its Place: An introduction from a critical historical perspective. Here, I seek to consider what is or should be the ‘place’ of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education, and not just from a historical perspective. This raises issues about several contexts in which Psychology finds itself. In the Higher Education context itself, Psychology continues to be in demand. But what is offered in first degrees is largely dictat...

  5. Market design for rapid demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt; Tamirat, Tseganesh Wubale

    We suggest a market design for rapid demand response in electricity markets. The solution consists of remotely controlled switches, meters, forecasting models as well as a flexible auction market to set prices and select endusers job by job. The auction market motivates truth-telling and makes...... it simple to involve the endusers in advance and to activate demand response immediately. The collective solution is analyzed and economic simulations are conducted for the case of Kenya. Kenya has been su ering from unreliable electricity supply for many years and companies and households have learned...... as the Transmission System Operator (TSO) requests demand response and the winning endusers are disconnected immediately if the TSO accepts the result of the auction. The endusers are compensated with a uniform auction price job by job and the Aggregator receives part of the surplus. The simulation captures...

  6. Do time-invariant confounders explain away the association between job stress and workers' mental health? Evidence from Japanese occupational panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that job stress is negatively related to workers' mental health, but most recent studies have not controlled for unobserved time-invariant confounders. In the current study, we attempted to validate previous observations on the association between job stress and workers' mental health, by removing the effects of unobserved time-invariant confounders. We used data from three to four waves of an occupational Japanese cohort survey, focusing on 31,382 observations of 9741 individuals who participated in at least two consecutive waves. We estimated mean-centered fixed effects models to explain psychological distress in terms of the Kessler 6 (K6) scores (range: 0-24) by eight job stress indicators related to the job demands-control, effort-reward imbalance, and organizational injustice models. Mean-centered fixed effects models reduced the magnitude of the association between jobs stress and K6 scores to 44.8-54.2% of those observed from pooled ordinary least squares. However, the association remained highly significant even after controlling for unobserved time-invariant confounders for all job stress indicators. In addition, alternatively specified models showed the robustness of the results. In all, we concluded that the validity of major job stress models, which link job stress and workers' mental health, was robust, although unobserved time-invariant confounders led to an overestimation of the association. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Job Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerweck, Debra R.; Chauza, Phyllis J.

    This document consists of materials on Hiawatha (Kansas) High School's 1993 Job Olympics, a competition for high school students with disabilities. The materials are those included in a packet for student participants. A cover/information sheet details eligibility, entry deadline, date and place of competition, opening ceremonies, events, and a…

  8. Job Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerer, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an overview of job burnout, discusses the pioneering research and current theories of the burnout construct, along with the history of the main burnout assessment--the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Concludes that an understanding of the interaction between employee and his or her environment is critical for grasping the origin of burnout.…

  9. Primary School Principals' Job Satisfaction and Occupational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmody, Merike; Smyth, Emer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors associated with occupational stress and job satisfaction among Irish primary school principals. A principal's job has become increasingly demanding and complex in recent decades. However, there is little current research into their levels of stress and job satisfaction, particularly…

  10. Predictors of Job Stress among Secondary School Teachers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were analysed using descriptive analysis, t-test and Multiple Regression Statistical Analysis. The findings of this study revealed that situational factors (job demands, role and change) job and dispositional factors (control, relationship, and support) accounted for 78.1% of the variance in the teachers' job stress (R = 795 ...

  11. Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Refugee Children's Forced Repatriation: Social Workers' and Police Officers' Health and Job Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Johanna; Hansson, Jonas; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Ögren, Kenneth; Padyab, Mojgan

    2015-04-19

    During the past ten years the number of unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children has dramatically increased in Sweden. Some of them are permitted to stay in the receiving country, but some are forced back to their country of origin. Social workers and police officers are involved in these forced repatriations, and such complex situations may cause stressful working conditions. This study aimed to bridge the gap in knowledge of the relationship between general mental health and working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children who are due for forced repatriation. In addition, the role of psychosocial job characteristics in such relationships was investigated. A questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire, and the 12-item General Mental Health Questionnaire were distributed nationally. Univariate and multivariable regression models were used. Poorer mental health was associated with working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children among social workers but not among police officers. Psychological job demand was a significant predictor for general mental health among social workers, while psychological job demand, decision latitude, and marital status were predictors among police officers. Findings are discussed with special regard to the context of social work and police professions in Sweden.

  12. Workplace bullying and mental health among teachers in relation to psychosocial job characteristics and burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Bernotaite

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the study has been to assess the associations between psychological distress and exposure to workplace bullying, taking into account possible influence of adverse psychosocial job characteristics and occupational burnout in a sample of Kaunas (Lithuania teachers. Material and Methods: The study sample included 517 teachers from 13 secondary schools and was conducted in 2014. The participants filled in the anonymous questionnaire (response rate 71.3%. Twenty-two-item Negative Acts Questionnaire (H. Hoel and S. Einarsen was used for measuring the exposure to workplace bullying, Goldberg 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 – psychological distress, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI – occupational burnout, Karasek Demand-Control questionnaire – psychosocial job stressors. The IBM SPSS Statistics version 20.0 was used for performing the statistical analysis. Associations between psychological distress, exposure to workplace bullying, psychosocial job characteristics and occupational burnout were analyzed in the logistic regression and expressed in terms of odds ratios (OR. Statistical significance was determined using the 95% confidence interval (CI level. Results: Workplace bullying was prevalent among Kaunas teachers (occasional – 8.3%, severe – 2.9%. Twenty-five percent of teachers suffered from psychological distress. High emotional exhaustion was found in 25.6% of them, high depersonalization in 10.6% and low personal achievement in 33.7% of cases. Almost a half of respondents (47.4% reported job strain and 59.6% – low social support at work. Occasional and severe bullying was associated with psychological distress after adjusting to job strain, social support and emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment (adjusted OR was 3.27, 95% CI: 1.56–6.84 for occasional and 4.98, 95% CI: 1.27–19.62 for severe bullying. Conclusions: Occasional and severe bullying were strong

  13. Workplace bullying and mental health among teachers in relation to psychosocial job characteristics and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernotaite, Lina; Malinauskiene, Vilija

    2017-06-19

    The objective of the study has been to assess the associations between psychological distress and exposure to workplace bullying, taking into account possible influence of adverse psychosocial job characteristics and occupational burnout in a sample of Kaunas (Lithuania) teachers. The study sample included 517 teachers from 13 secondary schools and was conducted in 2014. The participants filled in the anonymous questionnaire (response rate 71.3%). Twenty-two-item Negative Acts Questionnaire (H. Hoel and S. Einarsen) was used for measuring the exposure to workplace bullying, Goldberg 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) - psychological distress, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) - occupational burnout, Karasek Demand-Control questionnaire - psychosocial job stressors. The IBM SPSS Statistics version 20.0 was used for performing the statistical analysis. Associations between psychological distress, exposure to workplace bullying, psychosocial job characteristics and occupational burnout were analyzed in the logistic regression and expressed in terms of odds ratios (OR). Statistical significance was determined using the 95% confidence interval (CI) level. Workplace bullying was prevalent among Kaunas teachers (occasional - 8.3%, severe - 2.9%). Twenty-five percent of teachers suffered from psychological distress. High emotional exhaustion was found in 25.6% of them, high depersonalization in 10.6% and low personal achievement in 33.7% of cases. Almost a half of respondents (47.4%) reported job strain and 59.6% - low social support at work. Occasional and severe bullying was associated with psychological distress after adjusting to job strain, social support and emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment (adjusted OR was 3.27, 95% CI: 1.56-6.84 for occasional and 4.98, 95% CI: 1.27-19.62 for severe bullying). Occasional and severe bullying were strong predictors for psychological distress. Burnout did not mediate those associations. The

  14. Is the Job Satisfaction-Job Performance Relationship Spurious? A Meta-Analytic Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Nathan A.

    2007-01-01

    The job satisfaction-job performance relationship has attracted much attention throughout the history of industrial and organizational psychology. Many researchers and most lay people believe that a causal relationship exists between satisfaction and performance. In the current study, however, analyses using meta-analytic data suggested that the…

  15. Job stress and intent to stay at work among registered female nurses working in Thai hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Yingyuad, Boonrord; Rawiworrakul, Tassanee; Jinayon, Adchara

    2014-01-01

    Job stress is one of the factors that increase the likelihood of turnover. Intent to leave work is one of the most accurate predictors of turnover. This cross-sectional study was created to evaluate the intent of nurses working at hospitals to continue working and to determine the relationship between job stress and intent to stay at work. The subjects were 514 female hospital nurses aged 21-58 years old, who had worked full time at the study hospitals for at least 1 year. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire, which included sections on demographic characteristics, the Thai version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), and intent to stay at work. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors related to intent to stay at work. The prevalences of high job strain and low intent to stay at work were 17.5 and 22.4%, respectively. The mean (SD) scores of the nurses for psychological job demand, decision latitude, workplace social support, and intent to stay at work were 33.5 (4.4), 70.7 (6.9), 23.8 (2.8), and 14.6 (2.9), respectively. Multiple regression analysis indicated that intent to stay at work was significantly correlated with only supervisor support among the nurses with high-strain jobs and with coworker support in nurses with active jobs. The findings suggest that different job types need different sources of social support in the workplace. Proactive steps by nurse managers to increase workplace social support might lead to an increase in intent to stay and reduce nursing turnover in hospitals and possibly other settings.

  16. Relation Between Job Stress Dimensions and Job Satisfaction in Workers of a Refinery Control Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Behjati Ardakani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Job stress can result from an imbalance between job demands and the abilities to cope them. Stress can affect individuals and lead to job dissatisfaction. This study was conducted to assess the influence of different job stress dimensions on job satisfaction in workers of a refinery control room located at the south of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study all 100 workers of an oil refinery control room were studied. Job stress and job satisfaction was measured using standard questionnaires provided by national institute of mental health (NIMH and Robbins respectively. After collecting, data were analyzed using SPSS ver.16 software. A general linear model was used to estimate the effect of different job stress dimensions on the job satisfaction. Results: In this study 62.08 percent of workers were categorized as having high level of stress. In job satisfaction case, 9.2, 27.6, 28.7, 16.1 and 18.4 of workers were classified as totally dissatisfied, dissatisfied, not satisfied nor dissatisfied, satisfied and totally satisfied, respectively. A Pearson correlation test revealed a significant negative correlation between job satisfaction and all studied dimensions of job stress (p= 0.01. In the general regression model, partial Eta squared was 0.03, 0.3 and 0.23 for respectively interpersonal relationships, physical conditions of work and job interest. Conclusion: This study showed that job satisfaction is mostly influenced by physical conditions and job interest dimensions of job stress. Therefore, for improvement of job satisfaction in workers, different parameters of these two dimensions of job stress should be considered.

  17. Employees' Job Satisfaction: A Test of the Job Characteristics Model Among Social Work Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanz, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    The present article describes an investigation of the Job Characteristics Model (JCM) by Hackman and Oldham (1976) for the prediction of job satisfaction of employees in social work areas. While there is considerable evidence for the JCM with respect to profit-oriented organizations, it was tested whether it can also be applied to the non-profit sector. The present study surveyed 734 holders of jobs in social work in Germany in order to assess their job satisfaction and the core variables of the JCM (i.e., the five job characteristics and the three psychological states). Regression and mediation analyses were used to examine the relations between these variables. The results showed that the expected relations were remarkably in accordance with the findings from the for-profit sector. All model variables correlated positively with job satisfaction, with the psychological states showing higher coefficients than the job characteristics. In addition, the influence of job characteristics on job satisfaction was significantly mediated through the psychological states. These findings were supported by a replication study. Implications of the JCM for practice, in particular for assessment and interventions in social work organizations, are discussed.

  18. Job Hazard Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Establishing proper job procedures is one of the benefits of conducting a job hazard analysis carefully studying and recording each step of a job, identifying existing or potential job hazards...

  19. Physiological stress responses in Filipino-American immigrant nurses: the effects of residence time, life-style, and job strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D E; James, G D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between measures of Americanization (the adoption of American life-style and culture) and physiological measures of stress in Filipino-American immigrants. Ambulatory blood pressure monitors and timed urine collections were used to evaluate blood pressure and urinary catecholamine excretion across the work, home, and sleep daily settings among 31 healthy, premenopausal, immigrant Filipino-American women employed as nurses or nurse's aides. Migration history and life-style were evaluated from questionnaire responses. Reported job strain, decision latitude, and psychological demand were obtained from the Job Content Questionnaire. Immigrants who had lived longer in the United States had elevated norepinephrine levels in the work and home settings (p American life-style or by measures of job strain.

  20. [Perceived job strain, anxiety, depression and musculo-skeletal disorders in social care workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, N

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between individual characteristics, physical and psychosocial work-related risk factors and the musculoskeletal pain among non-specialized personnel working in different kinds of social care. The study population consists of 342 employees of a cooperative for in-house, outpatient and scholar social care. The study was conducted using a cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, including questions about having or having had musculoskeletal symptoms (12 months prevalence), the perception of social support from co-workers and superiors, the perception of job strain according to the Karasek's demand/control model, and anxiety and depression according to the Goldberg's 9-items scales. In all groups prevalence rates of musculoskeletal complaints were high. A forward stepwise binary logistic regression analysis showed that symptoms from the low back were significantly related to psychological demands, and depression score; symptoms from the upper back were related to age, anxiety and depression; symptoms from the neck were related to psychological demands, authority over decisions, gender and anxiety. The results of the present study indicate that both low and upper back complaints and neck complaints are major health problems in social care workers. Musculoskeletal disorders seemed to be related both to job strain and to individual and emotional factors. The professional groups under study all are target for preventive interventions; these interventions need to be specified for each of the professional groups, and to include educational, organizational, and ergonomic measures.

  1. Low-Skilled Jobs and Student Jobs: Employers' Preferences in Slovakia and the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Kureková, Lucia Mýtna; Žilinčíková, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Massification of tertiary education, growing share of student workers on labour market and consequently increased competition for low-skilled jobs gave rise to the theory of crowding out of the less educated workers. This paper contributes to better understanding of temporary skills-qualifications mismatch typical for student workers by analysing the preferences of employers in low-skilled jobs and student jobs. We take labour market demand perspective and carry out exploratory analysis of jo...

  2. Employees Use Of Empathy To Improve Their Job Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Singh

    2014-01-01

    Being simply cognitively capable would be inadequate for employees to satisfy job performance requirements associated with their job behaviour. Before an employee performs his job, he must understand what it entails because the activities and behaviours associated with a particular job are defined largely by the expectations and demands of other people, both inside and outside any organization. For instance, a teachers role is defined by the expectations of his or her pupils, their parents, s...

  3. Job characteristics and mental health for older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Carthy, V J C; Cronly, J; Perry, I J

    2017-07-01

    Adverse job characteristics have been linked with increased incidence of depression and anxiety in working populations. However, the association between job characteristics and mental health, in an older working population while controlling for personality traits, is less well known. To examine the association between job characteristics (job demands and job control) and mental health (depression and anxiety) for older workers while controlling for personality traits. A sample of workers aged 50-69 years were recruited from a primary health care clinic in Southern Ireland. Job characteristics were measured using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire; demands (quantitative and cognitive) and control (influence at work and possibilities for development). Personality traits were measured using the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale and anxiety was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Descriptive analysis, simple and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. The final sample size was 1025 with an initial 67% response rate. Multiple linear regression analysis showed job characteristics (in particular, job demands) to be significant positive predictors of symptoms of depression and anxiety. The inverse was true for job control variables and symptoms of depression. Neither possibilities for development nor influence at work were associated with symptoms of anxiety. Our findings indicate that despite potential confounders, higher demands at work can impact the worker's mental health negatively. Reducing job demands and encouraging role development may benefit the mental health of older workers.

  4. Integrated Job Scheduling and Network Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Pisinger, David

    2013-01-01

    We consider an integrated job scheduling and network routing problem which appears in Grid Computing and production planning. The problem is to schedule a number of jobs at a finite set of machines, such that the overall profit of the executed jobs is maximized. Each job demands a number...... of resources which must be sent to the executing machine through a network with limited capacity. A job cannot start before all of its resources have arrived at the machine. The scheduling problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer Program (MIP) and proved to be NP-hard. An exact solution approach using Dantzig......, interior point stabilization is used to decrease the number of columns generated in the branch-and-price algorithm. The algorithm is experimentally evaluated on job scheduling instances for a Grid network. The Dantzig- Wolfe algorithm with stabilization is clearly superior, being able to solve large...

  5. O nexo causal em saúde/doença mental no trabalho: uma demanda para a psicologia The causal nexus on mental health/illness related to work: a new demand for psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Estabelecer o nexo causal em saúde/doença mental no trabalho tem se apresentado como uma nova demanda à psicologia como ciência e profissão nos seus diferentes campos de atuação. Este texto examina a interlocução entre trabalho e saúde/doença mental no percurso histórico da psicologia. Apresenta, também, alguns procedimentos referentes ao diagnóstico e à justificativa de nexo causal entre trabalho e quadros psicopatológicos com base na Portaria do 1339/99 do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil. Mesmo admitindo o reducionismo que a relação causal produz em se tratando de quadros psicopatológicos, a exigência legal a impõe para o reconhecimento como doenças relacionadas com o trabalho e o acesso aos benefícios previdenciários decorrentes.Establishing the causal nexus on mental health/illness related to work is a new demand for psychology as a science and as a profession in all fields of activity. This text examines the interlocution between work and mental health/illness in the course of the history of psychology. It also presents some procedures referring to the diagnosis and the justification of the causal nexus between work and psychopathological illness. Even if we consider the causal nexus as a reductionism in psychopathological illness, this is a legal requirement to be recognized as an illness related to work and to obtain social welfare agency benefits.

  6. JOB ANXIETY, ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND JOB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    facets of job anxiety were found to be significantly related to job satisfaction, (ii) facets of organizational commitment and over all organizational commitment was found to be significantly related to job satisfaction and (iii) age and experience showed significant correlation with job satisfaction. The study also suggested some.

  7. Education, underemployment and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujaat Farooq

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Education is an effective vehicle for producing the required skills to maintain economic growth. The benefits of education range from human to economic, social and cultural. In Pakistan, there is significant rise in the average level of education, but over time, more and more workers incapable to use their educational background on the job. Supply of labor may have outstripped the demand of labor in some professions, and high qualified peoples taking job on low positions. Such underemployment/overeducation has not been fully explored in Pakistan. The theme of paper is “underemployment symbolizes an inefficient usage of human resources and lost output for society”.The research is based on case study on clerical workers of SNGPL. By comparing their educational backgrounds with their nature of job, this paper examines the impact of overeducation on job satisfaction. Our results show that underemployment/overeducation is correlated with higher level of job dissatisfaction, reduced job involvement, impaired co-worker relationship, and more emphasis on future aspirations.

  8. IS WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT A MULTILEVEL STRESSOR LINKING JOB CONDITIONS TO MENTAL HEALTH? EVIDENCE FROM THE WORK, FAMILY AND HEALTH NETWORK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Kaduk, Anne; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie; Buxton, Orfeu M; O'Donnell, Emily; Almeida, David; Fox, Kimberly; Tranby, Eric; Oakes, J Michael; Casper, Lynne

    Most research on the work conditions and family responsibilities associated with work-family conflict and other measures of mental health uses the individual employee as the unit of analysis. We argue that work conditions are both individual psychosocial assessments and objective characteristics of the proximal work environment, necessitating multilevel analyses of both individual- and team-level work conditions on mental health. This study uses multilevel data on 748 high-tech professionals in 120 teams to investigate relationships between team- and individual-level job conditions, work-family conflict, and four mental health outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, perceived stress, and psychological distress). We find that work-to-family conflict is socially patterned across teams, as are job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Team-level job conditions predict team-level outcomes, while individuals' perceptions of their job conditions are better predictors of individuals' work-to-family conflict and mental health. Work-to-family conflict operates as a partial mediator between job demands and mental health outcomes. Our findings suggest that organizational leaders concerned about presenteeism, sickness absences, and productivity would do well to focus on changing job conditions in ways that reduce job demands and work-to-family conflict in order to promote employees' mental health. We show that both work-to-family conflict and job conditions can be fruitfully framed as team characteristics, shared appraisals held in common by team members. This challenges the framing of work-to-family conflict as a "private trouble" and provides support for work-to-family conflict as a structural mismatch grounded in the social and temporal organization of work.

  9. IS WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT A MULTILEVEL STRESSOR LINKING JOB CONDITIONS TO MENTAL HEALTH? EVIDENCE FROM THE WORK, FAMILY AND HEALTH NETWORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Kaduk, Anne; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie; Buxton, Orfeu M.; O’Donnell, Emily; Almeida, David; Fox, Kimberly; Tranby, Eric; Oakes, J. Michael; Casper, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Most research on the work conditions and family responsibilities associated with work-family conflict and other measures of mental health uses the individual employee as the unit of analysis. We argue that work conditions are both individual psychosocial assessments and objective characteristics of the proximal work environment, necessitating multilevel analyses of both individual- and team-level work conditions on mental health. Methodology/approach This study uses multilevel data on 748 high-tech professionals in 120 teams to investigate relationships between team- and individual-level job conditions, work-family conflict, and four mental health outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, perceived stress, and psychological distress). Findings We find that work-to-family conflict is socially patterned across teams, as are job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Team-level job conditions predict team-level outcomes, while individuals’ perceptions of their job conditions are better predictors of individuals’ work-to-family conflict and mental health. Work-to-family conflict operates as a partial mediator between job demands and mental health outcomes. Practical implications Our findings suggest that organizational leaders concerned about presenteeism, sickness absences, and productivity would do well to focus on changing job conditions in ways that reduce job demands and work-to-family conflict in order to promote employees’ mental health. Originality/value of the chapter We show that both work-to-family conflict and job conditions can be fruitfully framed as team characteristics, shared appraisals held in common by team members. This challenges the framing of work-to-family conflict as a “private trouble” and provides support for work-to-family conflict as a structural mismatch grounded in the social and temporal organization of work. PMID:25866431

  10. Job strain and risk indicators for cardiovascular disease in young female nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riese, H; Van Doornen, LJP; Houtman, ILD; De Geus, EJC

    This study examined the possible effects of job demands, decision latitude, and job-related social support on risk indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 165 female nurses. Job strain was measured with the Job Content Questionnaire; CVD risk was measured with insulin, total cholesterol,

  11. In demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, B. [Bridgestone Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    The paper explains how good relationships can help alleviate potential tyre shortages. Demand for large dump truck tyres (largely for China) has increased by 50% within 12 months. Bridgestone's manufacturing plants are operating at maximum capacity. The company supplies tyres to all vehicles at Scottish Coal's opencast coal mines. Its Tyre Management System (TMS) supplied free of charge to customers helps maximise tyre life and minimise downtime from data on pressure, tread and general conditions fed into the hand-held TMS computer. 3 photos.

  12. Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models...... the high rate of exit seen in the first years of exporting. Finally, when faced with multiple countries in which to export, some firms will choose to sequentially export in order to slowly learn more about its chances for success in untested markets....

  13. Psychosocial Work Factors, Blood Pressure and Psychological Strain in Male Bus Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    CENDALES, Boris; USECHE, Sergio; GÓMEZ, Viviola

    2014-01-01

    The research aim was to predict the bus operators’ blood pressure (BP) and psychological strain using a combination of the Job-Demand Control (JDC) and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models. The study was conducted with a sample of 139 bus operators in the city of Bogotá (Colombia), who answered a questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), the ERI Questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Four consecutive BP readings taken in the workplace were averaged to calculate an estimation of the bus operators’ BP. By conducting multiple linear regressions it was found that, taken together, JDC and ERI models explain 10% (F(11,139)=2,502; p=0.00) of systolic BP variance, and 34% (F(6,139)=8,638; p=0.00) of psychological strain variance. These results suggest that the JDC and ERI predictors provide complementary information which increases the probability of accurately model the bus operators’ health. PMID:24869893

  14. Interconsulta psicológica: demanda e assistência em hospital geral Interconsulta psicológica: demanda y asistencia en hospital general Consultation-liaison psychology: demand and assistance in general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nátali Castro Antunes Santos

    2011-06-01

    adaptación del paciente a la hospitalización (41%. El modelo adoptado referencia psicológica era apropiado en el contexto estudiado, con la participación del equipo multidisciplinario en la efectividad de la práctica.The consultation-liaison psychology in general hospitals represents a modality of clinical and a methodological tool used by psychologists in inpatient care, upon the request of other health professionals. The study aimed to characterize the psychological demands of the liaison in a general hospital, from the analysis of attendance records request. One hundred and seven patients were treated between January and June 2010, in which 53% of the participants were male and 57% of adults over 45 years. Most requests were performed by physicians (44% and nurses (38%, formally (59%, and previous contact between interconsultor and the applicant (85%. The main reasons given for the request liaison were: psychological symptoms related to illness (43% and identification of impairment in the patient's adaptation to hospitalization (41%. The psychological liaison model adopted was appropriate to the studied context, with engagement of the multidisciplinary team in the effectiveness of practice.

  15. Reliability and Validity of the Greek Version of the Job Content Questionnaire in Greek Health Care Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Argyriou, Evangelia; Bourna, Virginia; Bakoyannis, Giorgos

    2015-09-01

    The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), which is based on the Demand-Control-Support model, is designed to measure the psychosocial characteristics of the respondent's work, and has been identified to predict health and psychological outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of this instrument and the subsequent adaptation of its scales to the population of Greek health workers. The Greek version of the JCQ was developed by using forward- and back-translation in accordance with the JCQ policy. The reliability and validity of the measure were investigated in a sample of health workers working in a hospital in Athens, Greece. The internal consistency of the scales was examined based on Cronbach α coefficients, and the validity was evaluated subjecting the items of the three main scales of the JCQ (decision latitude, psychological job demands, and social support) to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The reliability of the scales was found to be acceptable for all the scales, except for the skill discretion subscale. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a slightly modified version of the original construct including several items to more than one factor. Our findings suggest that the Greek JCQ is reliable and valid for investigating psychosocial job characteristics among Greek health workers.

  16. HOW DO SERVANT LEADERS PROMOTE ENGAGEMENT? A BOTTOM-UP PERSPECTIVE OF JOB CRAFTING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Rui; Ma, Jianhong; Ming, Ying; Huo, Rongmian

    2017-01-01

    We drew on the literature addressing servant leadership and job crafting, self-determination theory, and the job demands-resources model, and hypothesized that employees who are supported by servant...

  17. WORKPLACE BULLYING AND MENTAL HEALTH AMONG TEACHERS IN RELATION TO PSYCHOSOCIAL JOB CHARACTERISTICS AND BURNOUT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lina Bernotaite; Vilija Malinauskiene

    2017-01-01

    Associations between psychological distress, exposure to workplace bullying, psychosocial job characteristics and occupational burnout were analyzed in the logistic regression and expressed in terms of odds ratios...

  18. The Effects of Level of Training on Employee Perceived Empowerment, Commitment and Job Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Backeberg, Pamela

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of level of training on employees' perceived psychological empowerment, commitment, and resultant job performance within the hospitality industry...

  19. Job matching: An interdisciplinary scoping study with implications for vocational rehabilitation counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nützi, Marina; Trezzini, Bruno; Medici, Lorenzo; Schwegler, Urban

    2017-02-01

    Matching a person's capabilities and characteristics with the demands and characteristics of their job is crucial for sustainable employment, in particular for persons with disabilities. The present study aims to summarize and synthesize conceptual and empirical knowledge on job matching (JM) from industrial and organizational psychology (IOP), vocational psychology (VP), and return to work (RTW) research. We conducted a scoping study applying Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) framework and using eight electronic databases from psychology, economics, and medicine. The literature search covered studies in English and German published between 1945 and 2015. A total of 312 studies were selected and analyzed. Of these, 205 were assigned to IOP, 45 to VP, 31 to both IOP and VP, and 17 to RTW research. Fourteen studies were allocated to both RTW and VP research, representing the field of vocational rehabilitation counseling. IOP and VP studies predominantly investigated the effects of JM on work-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction, tenure, or career development. RTW research focused on the development of mainly generic JM tools for job placement of persons with disabilities. Limited cross-fertilization between IOP and VP and the RTW context became evident. Unlike in IOP and VP, there is a dearth of JM research in the RTW context. Integrating the broad organizational and occupational JM knowledge from IOP and VP with the biopsychosocial framework of RTW could provide a sound basis for developing JM applications in vocational rehabilitation counseling that promote sustainable work reintegration of persons with disabilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Overcoming job stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000884.htm Overcoming job stress To use the sharing features on this page, ... stay healthy and feel better. Causes of Job Stress Although the cause of job stress is different ...