WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychological impact support

  1. Psychological impact of a possible radiation exposure including psychosocial support required in case of such a scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, Kaustubh

    2014-01-01

    In the early years of the Atomic Age, radiation accidents or exposure was limited to laboratories or facilities. After the major accidents at TMI, Goainia, Chernobyl, when a large proportion of the population were exposed, interest in the psychosocial aspects has developed. In order to understand the psychological impact, an understanding of the causation of symptoms is necessary. Stress, anxiety, fear, physiological correlates and psychological consequences are thus explained. The different clinical entities and the ways and means of tackling them are described. Further, 'psychological first aid' and ameliorating measures are discussed too. Finally, prevention of psychological impact including education, community support, information dissemination etc. is described. (author)

  2. 50 How can informal support impact child PTSD symptoms following a psychological trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    An estimated 20% of children who present to hospital emergency departments following potentially traumatic events (e.g., serious injuries, road traffic accidents, assaults) will develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a consequence. The development of PTSD can have a substantial impact on a child's developmental trajectory, including their emotional, social and educational wellbeing. Despite this, only a small proportion will access mental health services, with the majority relying on informal sources of support. Parents, in particular, are often the primary source of support. However, it remains unclear what types of parental responses may be effective, and parents themselves report experiencing uncertainty about the best approach. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined the capacity for specific aspects of parental responding in the aftermath of child trauma to facilitate or hinder children's psychological recovery. We conducted a longitudinal study of 132 parent-child pairs, recruited following the child's experience of trauma and subsequent attendance at one of four regional emergency departments. At an initial assessment, within 1 month post-trauma, we examined how parents appraised and responded to their child following the event, using both questionnaires and direct observations. Child-report questionnaires were used to assess PTSD symptom severity at 1 month, and at a follow up 6 months later. Children also reported on their own appraisals of the trauma and their coping behaviours, which were considered as potential mediators between parental support and later child symptoms. Controlling for relevant covariates and initial PTSD symptoms, parent negative appraisals of the trauma and encouragement of avoidant coping in children were associated with higher child-reported PTSD symptoms at 6 month follow-up. There was some evidence that children's own trauma related appraisals and coping styles mediated these effects. Findings indicate that

  3. Is the psychological impact of genetic testing moderated by support and sharing of test results to family and friends?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Julie; Dorval, Michel; Noguès, Catherine; Fabre, Roxane; Julian-Reynier, Claire

    2013-12-01

    Receiving the results of genetic tests for a breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility can be a stressful experience. Here we studied the effects of social support (SS) and the sharing of test results on the psychological impact of BRCA1/2 test result disclosure. We also compared carriers and non-carriers on sharing, SS and psychological impact. Five-hundred and twenty-two unaffected women were followed prospectively for 2 years after receiving their test results. Psychological impact was measured on the impact of event scale. Multivariate multi-level models were used, and all the analyses were stratified depending on mutation status (carriers vs non-carriers). Two weeks after receiving their BRCA1/2 results, carriers had shared their test results less frequently than non-carriers (p test results was not significantly associated with psychological impact. Availability of SS was significantly associated with better psychological adjustment across time among carriers (p importance of SS should be stressed, and possible ways of enlisting people in their entourage for this purpose should be discussed in the context of clinical encounters.

  4. A prospective study of the impact of child maltreatment and friend support on psychological distress trajectory: From adolescence to emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Jacinthe; Matte-Gagné, Célia; Daigneault, Isabelle; Blackburn, Marie-Eve; Hébert, Martine; McDuff, Pierre; Auclair, Julie; Veillette, Suzanne; Perron, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Transition into adulthood is a critical developmental period that may be influenced by adverse life events as well as by protective factors. This study aimed at investigating the effect of different forms of child maltreatment experienced prior to age 14 (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence), and of friend support at age 14 on the psychological distress trajectory from age 14 to 24. Participants were 605 adolescents from the general population involved in a 10-year longitudinal study. Psychological distress was evaluated at ages 14, 16, 18 and 24. Child maltreatment prior to 14 years was retrospectively assessed at 14 and 24 years while perception of support from friends was evaluated at age 14. Multilevel growth modeling indicated that psychological distress followed a significant decreasing curvilinear trajectory, with participants reporting fewer distressing psychological symptoms after 18 years. All three forms of child maltreatment, as well as their cumulative effect, predicted more psychological distress over 10 years above and beyond the protective effect of support from friends. Higher support from friends at age 14 was related to lower distress at baseline andover 10 years, beyond the effect of child maltreatment. Self-report nature of all measures, attrition, and measures of child maltreatment forms. Psychological distress decreased during the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Results also revealed the detrimental impact of child maltreatment and the promotive role of friend support, which underscore the importance of early intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Facing Spousal Cancer During Child-Rearing Years: Do Social Support and Hardiness Moderate the Impact of Psychological Distress on Quality of Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneseth, Mette; Hauken, May A; Matthiesen, Stig B; Gjestad, Rolf; Laberg, Jon C

    Partners of cancer patients report psychological distress and reduced quality of life. However, partners' mental health status and quality of life during child-rearing years and the influence of social support and hardiness on their well-being have not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to describe psychological distress, quality of life, social support, and hardiness of the partners facing spousal cancer during child-rearing years and investigate whether social support or hardiness moderated the relationship between psychological distress and quality of life. Cross-sectional data were collected in Norway from December 2013 to July 2015 as part of the Cancer-PEPSONE study. Five questionnaires were administered to 14 females and 21 males (n = 35). Participants reported more psychological distress and lower quality-of-life scores than other healthy Norwegian populations. Psychological distress seemed to be associated with their not being in control of their futures. Received social support moderated the effect of psychological distress on quality of life. Facing spousal cancer during child-rearing years seemed to have a substantial impact on partners' mental health and an adverse impact on their quality of life. Accordingly, these partners' self-care abilities may be reduced. Received social support may reduce the multiple burdens and consequently allow for enhancement of self-care. Interventions should aim to improve the social support provided to child-rearing partners, which may improve their quality of life. Providing adequate information about their partner's cancer illness and treatment may enhance their feelings of control, which may be beneficial for their mental health status.

  6. Impact of parental emotional support and coercive control on adolescents' self-esteem and psychological distress: results of a four-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreault-Bouchard, Anne-Marie; Dion, Jacinthe; Hains, Jennifer; Vandermeerschen, Jill; Laberge, Luc; Perron, Michel

    2013-08-01

    This study aims at investigating the impact of parental practices on youths' adjustment. In all, 605 adolescents completed questionnaires at ages 14, 16 and 18. Self-esteem, psychological distress as well as parental emotional support and coercive control were measured. Analyses based on individual growth models revealed that self-esteem increased with age, but psychological distress remained stable over time. Boys reported higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of psychological distress than girls. Maternal and paternal emotional support reinforced self-esteem over time. Maternal coercive control undermined self-esteem, but only at ages 16 and 18. Psychological distress decreased with parental emotional support but increased with parental coercive control at ages 14, 16 and 18. Overall, these results indicate that positive parental practices are related to youths' well-being. These findings support the importance of establishing intervention strategies designed to promote best practices among parents of teenagers to help them develop into well-adjusted adults. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Impact of Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of African American and European American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.

    2003-01-01

    Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…

  8. The Psychological Impact of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resick, Patricia A.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the psychological impact of rape on adult female victims, and explores typical patterns of recovery, types of symptoms, and variables affecting recovery. Explores moderating and preassault variables, within-assault variables such as acquaintance status and level of violence, and postassault variables such as social…

  9. The nature and psychological content of information psychological impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny G. Baranov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of theoretical analysis of «information-psychological impact» category. The study aims to determine the role and place of impacts of such kind in the upbringing process, and in education in general. The paper contrasts comparative analysis of existing scientific approaches to understanding the nature and psychological content of the concept of “information” and psychological impact. Based on the data mentioned above, the conclusion is made that the psychological impact is the influence of surrounding elements of the physical and social environment on the people, which change the course of their mental processes, mental state, psychological structure of consciousness and behaviour. In addition, the purposeful psychological impact carried out either by an individual or a collective entity can be direct or indirect (e.g. information psychological. Based on the performed analysis the conclusion is made that depending on their purpose and nature of influence, information and psychological impact can be manipulative (subject-object or developmental (subject-subject. Manipulative impact creates temporary, unstable mental forms, while developing impact creates stable personality forms. Both kinds of information and psychological influences can be observes in the educational process. The teacher selects types of influence based on his/her own pedagogical qualifications and teaching objectives: to develop the personality of the student or to form behavioural stereotypes.

  10. Social Support, Sense of Community, and Psychological Distress among College Students: Examining the Impact of University Housing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suitor, Daniel Troy

    2013-01-01

    Attending college can be a rewarding but stressful time for students. Colleges and universities across the nation are becoming more and more concerned with the mental health of their students. Although past research has explored how social support and sense of community help students make a better transition to college life, less is known about…

  11. Psychological Impact of Deploying in Support of the U.S. Response to Ebola: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Past Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Kartavya J; Delaney, Eileen M; Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; Johnston, Scott L

    2016-11-01

    To examine the potential psychological impact of deploying in support of the U.S. response to Ebola in west Africa by systematic review and meta-analysis. Peer-reviewed articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 were identified using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Thirty-two studies involving 26,869 persons were included in the systematic review; 13 studies involving 7,785 persons were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Reflecting the sociodemographics of the military, those who are younger, single, not living with family, have fewer years of work experience, lower education, and lower income are at increased risk for psychological distress, alcohol/drug misuse, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as a result of their perceived risk of infection. Effect sizes for post-traumatic stress disorder, depressive, and anxiety symptoms were considered small (SMD = 0.12, 95% CI = -0.23 to 0.47), moderate (SMD = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.24-0.51), and small (SMD = 0.08, 95% CI = -0.09 to 0.25), respectively; however, only the effect size for depressive symptoms was statistically significant. Deployed service members may return with clinically significant problems, the most notable of which is depression. Delivering resilience training and fostering altruistic acceptance may protect service members from developing mental health disorders. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. Factors Impacting the Psychological Adjustment of Saudi Arabian International Students in the United States: Self-Esteem, Social Support, and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundles, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    International populations face difficulties adjusting to a new culture. This is especially true for international students, who have to adjust to a new country and face academic demands concurrently. Research has explored various factors that impact psychological adjustment of international students and show the influence of self-esteem and social…

  13. Psychological Impact of AIDS on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfer, Myron L.

    There are at least three aspects to the psychological impact of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on children. First is the psychological response of the child with AIDS; second, the response of the child in a group at high risk for AIDS; and third, the psychological response of children in general to the perceived threat from AIDS.…

  14. Psychological impact, support and information needs for women with an abnormal Pap smear: comparative results of a questionnaire in three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Anna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive information on cervical cancer is currently available. Its effectiveness in reducing anxiety in women receiving abnormal Pap tests is not clear. We investigated current practices of communicating abnormal Pap results to evaluate women's reactions and determine the sources of information they use subsequently. Methods A self-administered questionnaire-based study was performed in 1475 women in France, Spain and Portugal who had received an abnormal Pap smear result in the 12 months prior to completing the questionnaire. Questions covered methods of communication of the result, emotional reactions, support received (from the physician and entourage, and information sources, using pre-specified check box options and rating scales. Data were analyzed by country. Results Pap test results were mostly communicated by phone to Spanish women (76%, while physician letters were common in France (59% and Portugal (36%. Frequent reactions were anxiety, panic and stress, which were less common in Spanish women than their French and Portuguese counterparts. After discussing with their physician, half of the participants were worried, despite rating highly the psychological support received. Over 90% of women in each country discussed their results with family or friends. Partners provided a high level of support. Overall, the abnormal diagnosis and consequences had a low to medium impact on daily, professional and family life and their relationships with their partner. Impact was higher in Spanish women than the French or Portuguese. Information on the diagnosis and its treatment was rated average, and nearly 80% of participants wanted more information, notably French women. Preferred sources were the physician and the Internet. Conclusions Women expressed a strong wish for more information about cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases, and that their physician play a major role in its provision and in support. There was a

  15. Psychological impact of nuclear disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behere, Prakash B.; Chougule, Kaveri N.; Syyed, S.

    2017-01-01

    There are major Nuclear Power plant disasters in world, one was Chernobyl, Ukraine 1986, and other was Fukushima, Japan 2011. There are many studies, which are evidence based to demonstrate short and long terms consequences of nuclear plant disasters. The psychological consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing serious illness like cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and safai workers are the highest risk groups. It is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment

  16. Negotiating Gender Norms to Support Men in Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Aisling; Richardson, Noel

    2018-01-01

    Underpinning a general pattern of higher suicide rates in men is the assumption that men do not ask for help or utilize the health-care system during times of psychological distress. There has been a failure to grapple with the dynamic of when, how and from whom men might ask for help during times of psychological distress, and what key barriers or enabling factors are likely to influence potential help-givers' capacity or willingness to offer help to men in psychological distress. The aim of this study was to investigate how masculine norms impact men's help-seeking as well as care givers' behaviors and willingness to support men in need of psychological help or perceived to be at risk of suicide. Focus groups ( n = 13) were used with "high-risk suicide" groups of men and community gatekeepers. The principles of grounded theory were used for data analysis. Three themes emerged: "negotiating ways to ask for, offer and accept help without compromising masculinity"; "making and sustaining contact with men in psychological distress"; and "navigating roles responsibilities and boundaries to support men in psychological distress." Approaches to suicide prevention need to take account of how masculine norms shape men's willingness to ask for and accept help during times of psychological distress as well as care givers willingness to offer help. The findings address a gap in the literature by looking beyond men's help-seeking as a passive, one dimensional construct, to a more dynamic triad of help-seeking/giving/taking behaviors that are embedded in the sociocultural context of men's lives.

  17. An evaluation of the impact of the European Association of Social Psychology: A response to Schruijer (2012)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hewstone, M.; Liebkind, K.; Lewicka, M.; Laszlo, J.; Voci, A.; Contarello, A.; Gomez, A.; Hantzi, A.; Bilewicz, M.; Guinote, A.; Graf, Sylvie; Petkova, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2012), s. 117-126 ISSN 0952-6951 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : social psychology * science * European Association of Social Psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.442, year: 2012

  18. The minyan as a psychological support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidlinger, S

    1997-08-01

    Most individuals participate in some of the rituals and/or regular activities of religious institutions such as churches or synagogues. Through such involvements, people are offered vital assistance in dealing with developmental changes, opportunities for personal development and for group support, and more generally, a sense of continuity and of meaning in life. This paper deals with only one small aspect of Jewish observance, an aspect of the centuries-old required weekly prayer groups-the minyan. The prime emphasis resides in the rarely recognized, nonliturgical dimension of this small group experience. Using psychoanalysis in the sense of a general psychology as background, I have considered the minyan as combining elements of a psychological support system and of a small group. In addition to the gratification of affiliative needs (social hunger) and the countering of loneliness and of isolation, this group experience helps its members maintain an intergenerational sense of personal identity and of self-esteem. In the face of marked life stressors such as death in the family, religious institutions such as the minyan, with its prescribed ritual steps for grieving (i.e., kaddish), fulfill especially significant preventive and restitutive mental health functions. I have also hypothesized that on a covert, fantasy level, the caring and nurturing family-like weekday minyan may even represent a mother-symbol (mother group) in line with people's universal need to establish a psychological union with others, thus restoring an earlier, conflict-free state of the child-mother bond. In an extended societal sense, the earlier emphasis in Western cultures on the virtual worship of individuality, autonomy, and independence has given way recently to a renewed appreciation of cooperation, communalism, and altruism. The minyan, as a small religious communal aggregate with its inherent climate of mutuality, reciprocity, and continuity, has, in a sense, anticipated these new

  19. Perceived Social Support and Assertiveness as a Predictor of Candidates Psychological Counselors' Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Bünyamin

    2016-01-01

    In this research, to what extent the variables of perceived social support (family, friends and special people) and assertiveness predicted the psychological well-being levels of candidate psychological counselors. The research group of this study included totally randomly selected 308 candidate psychological counselors including 174 females…

  20. Impact of Psychological Needs on Luxury Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Mao (Ning); M.J. McAleer (Michael); S. Bai (Shuyu)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper examines the impact of psychological needs on luxury consumption. Veblen’s Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) invented the term “conspicuous consumption” to describe luxury goods and services, in which Veblen indicated the purpose of luxury consumption was to display

  1. Impact decision support diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, Mark

    2014-10-01

    One way to frame the job of planetary defense is to “find the optimal approach for finding the optimal approach” to NEO mitigation. This requires a framework for defining in advance what should be done under various circumstances. The two-dimensional action matrix from the recent NRC report “Defending Planet Earth” can be generalized to a notional “Impact Decision Support Diagram” by extending it into a third dimension. The NRC action matrix incorporated two important axes: size and time-to-impact, but probability of impact is also critical (it is part of the definitions of both the Torino and Palermo scales). Uncertainty has been neglected, but is also crucial. It can be incorporated by subsuming it into the NEO size axis by redefining size to be three standard deviations greater than the best estimate, thereby providing a built-in conservative margin. The independent variable is time-to-impact, which is known with high precision. The other two axes are both quantitative assessments of uncertainty and are both time dependent. Thus, the diagram is entirely an expression of uncertainty. The true impact probability is either one or zero, and the true size does not change. The domain contains information about the current uncertainty, which changes with time (as opposed to reality, which does not change).

  2. Exchange relationships: examining psychological contracts and perceived organizational support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline A-M; Conway, Neil

    2005-07-01

    The authors surveyed 347 public sector employees on 4 measurement occasions to investigate the conceptual distinctiveness of the psychological contract and perceived organizational support (POS) and how they are associated over time. Results support the distinctiveness of the 2 concepts. In terms of their interrelationships over time, by drawing on psychological contract theory the authors found little support for a reciprocal relationship between POS and psychological contract fulfillment. Under an alternative set of hypotheses, by drawing on organizational support theory and by separating psychological contract fulfillment into its 2 components (perceived employer obligations and inducements), the authors found that perceived employer inducements were positively related to POS, which, in turn, was negatively related to perceived employer obligations. The results suggest that POS and the components of psychological contract fulfillment are more important in predicting organizational citizenship behavior than psychological contract fulfillment. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Telephone Crisis Support Workers' Psychological Distress and Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchingman, Taneile A; Wilson, Coralie J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian; Woodward, Alan

    2018-01-01

    In order to respond to crises with appropriate intervention, crisis workers are required to manage their own needs as well as the needs of those they respond to. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine whether telephone crisis support workers experience elevated symptoms of psychological distress and are impaired by elevated symptoms. Studies were identified in April 2015 by searching three databases, conducting a gray literature search, and forward and backward citation chaining. Of 113 identified studies, seven were included in the review. Results suggest that that telephone crisis support workers experience symptoms of vicarious traumatization, stress, burnout, and psychiatric disorders, and that they may not respond optimally to callers when experiencing elevated symptoms of distress. However, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn due to the paucity and methodological limitations of available data. While the most comprehensive search strategy possible was adopted, resource constraints meant that conference abstracts were not searched and authors were not contacted for additional unpublished information. There is an urgent need to identify the impact of telephone crisis support workers' role on their well-being, the determinants of worker well-being in the telephone crisis support context, and the extent to which well-being impacts their performance and caller outcomes. This will help inform strategies to optimize telephone crisis support workers' well-being and their delivery of support to callers.

  4. Social psychological-pedagogical support of singleparent family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslana Kazhuk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the definition of the concept of "incomplete family", describes the typology of single-parent families, the necessity of special social psychological and pedagogical support for children from such families and their parents has been proved. The analysis of various concepts of ―support‖has been made. The idea of psychological and pedagogical support of modern incomplete families has been determined. Key words: incomplete family, types of single-parent families, support, social support, psychological and pedagogical support of single-parent families.

  5. ON PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHIATRIC IMPACT OF PIRACY ON SEAFARERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aleksandrov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been discussed that being held hostage can have harmful short and often long-term physical, psychological, familial and social effects on the victims. This is a complex area of research and the data is sparse yet. The aim of our study is to present our experience concerning some psychological and psychiatric consequences on Bulgarian seamen victims of pirate's attack long captivity and to suggest a suitable methodology of a psychological investigation in such cases. Methods: Seven Bulgarian hostage survivors underwent comprehensive psychological and psychiatric assessments twenty days after pirate’s captivity release. Results and discussion: In general terms, the psychological and psychiatric impact on the victims is similar to that of being exposed to other serious life-threatening events, including terrorist incidents and natural disasters. All the subjects, who have been examined in our study, reported feelings of detachment and alienation from close others and startle by noises, nightmares and sleep disturbances. Anxiety symptoms, characterized by apprehension, tension and fear in particular situations, and some depressive features (depressive mood, lack of interest and activities, lassitude on a sub- clinical level were registered. Conclusion: Despite some limitations our report discusses important issues, concerning psychological and psychiatric consequences on Bulgarian seamen victims of pirate’s attack long captivity and present a suitable model of a psychological investigation in such cases and states the need of supportive care of the victims.

  6. Psychological impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on university staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Caroline; Carter, Frances; Boden, Joseph; Wilkinson, Tim; McKenzie, Jan; Ali, Anthony

    2016-02-19

    To assess the impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on the psychological functioning of university staff, to identify predictors of adverse psychological functioning and to survey how different aspects of work roles (academic, teaching, clinical, administrative) were affected. Eighteen months following the most severe earthquake, 119 staff from the University of Otago based in Christchurch completed a retrospective survey. This included demographic information, a measure of earthquake exposure, standardised and self-rated measures to identify psychological distress and measures of how people perceived different aspects of their work roles were impacted. A substantial minority of staff reported moderate-extreme difficulties on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) subscales 18 months following the most severe earthquake (Depression=9%; Anxiety=3%; Stress =13%). Predictors of distress were higher levels of exposure to earthquake-related stressors, neuroticism and prior mental health disorders. There was an association between impact and work roles that was hierarchical; academic and administrative roles were most affected, followed by teaching with the least impact on clinical roles. This study shows that psychological symptoms following a disaster are common, but in a retrospective survey most people report that these improve with time. A minority however, continue to report difficulties which persist even 18 months post disaster. It also gives insights into how different work roles were impacted and from this makes suggestions for how organisations can support staff over difficult times.

  7. The Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Psychological Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy F. Kubik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a relatively high prevalence of psychopathological conditions, which may have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention in the morbidly obese to achieve marked weight loss and improve physical comorbidities, yet its impact on psychological health has yet to be determined. A review of the literature identified a trend suggesting improvements in psychological health after bariatric surgery. Majority of mental health gain is likely attributed to weight loss and resultant gains in body image, self-esteem, and self-concept; however, other important factors contributing to postoperative mental health include a patient’s sense of taking control of his/her life and support from health care staff. Preoperative psychological health also plays an important role. In addition, the literature suggests similar benefit in the obese pediatric population. However, not all patients report psychological benefits after bariatric surgery. Some patients continue to struggle with weight loss, maintenance and regain, and resulting body image dissatisfaction. Severe preoperative psychopathology and patient expectation that life will dramatically change after surgery can also negatively impact psychological health after surgery. The health care team must address these issues in the perioperative period to maximize mental health gains after surgery.

  8. The impact of bariatric surgery on psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Jeremy F; Gill, Richdeep S; Laffin, Michael; Karmali, Shahzeer

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a relatively high prevalence of psychopathological conditions, which may have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention in the morbidly obese to achieve marked weight loss and improve physical comorbidities, yet its impact on psychological health has yet to be determined. A review of the literature identified a trend suggesting improvements in psychological health after bariatric surgery. Majority of mental health gain is likely attributed to weight loss and resultant gains in body image, self-esteem, and self-concept; however, other important factors contributing to postoperative mental health include a patient's sense of taking control of his/her life and support from health care staff. Preoperative psychological health also plays an important role. In addition, the literature suggests similar benefit in the obese pediatric population. However, not all patients report psychological benefits after bariatric surgery. Some patients continue to struggle with weight loss, maintenance and regain, and resulting body image dissatisfaction. Severe preoperative psychopathology and patient expectation that life will dramatically change after surgery can also negatively impact psychological health after surgery. The health care team must address these issues in the perioperative period to maximize mental health gains after surgery.

  9. Impact of Psychological Needs on Luxury Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Ning; McAleer, Michael; Bai, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper examines the impact of psychological needs on luxury consumption. Veblen’s Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) invented the term “conspicuous consumption” to describe luxury goods and services, in which Veblen indicated the purpose of luxury consumption was to display wealth and social status. This paper integrates the following two papers: __(1)__ Han and Zhou (2002), who proposed an integrative model, and argued that three variables, namely Country-of-Origin, Brand...

  10. IMPACT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STABILITY ON MANAGERS’ ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetelina Мihailova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The latest research performed in European countries shows that the psychosocial risks and the job related stress will become more and more important in the years to come due to their increasing spread. These trends will have even greater influence on healthcare managers' activities due to the specific nature of their jobs, which, in turn, increases the needs of efficient leadership. The purpose of the questionnaire held is to study the impact of healthcare managers’ psychological stability on the activities they perform in the course of their jobs. The analysis made shows that an individual’s performance depends on their motivation, abilities and organizational conditions and skills. What is also found out is that people with different types of behavioral control work in healthcare operative management. People with different types of psychological stability will be needed for the different management levels.

  11. Flooded homes, broken bonds, the meaning of home, psychological processes and their impact on psychological health in a disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Bob; Morbey, Hazel; Balogh, Ruth; Araoz, Gonzalo

    2009-06-01

    In 2005, Carlisle suffered severe flooding and 1600 houses were affected. A qualitative research project to study the social and health impacts was undertaken. People whose homes had been flooded and workers who had supported them were interviewed. The findings showed that there was severe disruption to people's lives and severe damage to their homes, and many suffered from psychological health issues. Phenomenological and transactional perspectives are utilised to analyse the psychological processes (identity, attachment, alienation and dialectics) underlying the meaning of home and their impact on psychological health. Proposals for policy and practice are made.

  12. Network Characteristics, Perceived Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the characteristics of the support networks of 106 mothers of children with ASD and their relationship to perceived social support, depressed mood, and subjective well-being. Using structural equation modeling, two competing sets of hypotheses were assessed: (1) that network characteristics would impact psychological adjustment…

  13. Teacher Views on Organizational Support and Psychological Contract Violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argon, Türkan; Ekinci, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between secondary school teachers' view regarding Organizational Support and Psychological Contract Violation. The study conducted with relational screening model included 230 secondary school teachers employed in Bolu central district in 2014-2015 academic year. Perceived Organizational Support Scale…

  14. Social support, locus of control, and psychological well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, KI; Buunk, BP; Sanderman, R

    1997-01-01

    Social support seems to be positively related to psychological well-being. Studies have shown that individual differences exist in the ability to mobilize and use sources of support. The current study focused on locus of control as a personality factor that might be related to this ability, In 2

  15. Community psychology practice: expanding the impact of psychology's work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Tom

    2014-11-01

    This article introduces the reader to community psychology practice by defining the field and its key principles and then illustrating through brief case stories what community psychology practice looks like in various employment settings. An exploration of the development of the field includes a review of the competencies of community psychology practice. Finally, the emerging opportunities for community psychology practice for psychologists are outlined. Well-publicized issues such as health disparities give psychologists an opportunity to bring social problems such as racism, sexism, homophobia, and income inequality to the forefront and to create community-wide efforts to improve the ways in which people live. Community psychology practice offers psychologists a format and a set of competencies for moving forward on this work by focusing on approaches that are ecological, community centered, population based, preventive, focused on systems change and empowerment, and multidisciplinary and that bring those most affected by the issues to the heart of the decision making. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Psychological skills training to support diabetes self-management: Qualitative assessment of nurses' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Helen; Garrett, Christopher; Amiel, Stephanie A; Ismail, Khalida; Winkley, Kirsty

    2016-10-01

    Evidence for the efficacy of psychological skills training as a method of supporting patients' self-management is growing, but there is a shortage of mental health providers with specialist diabetes knowledge to deliver them. Primary care nurses are now increasingly expected to learn and use these techniques. This study explores nurse experience of training in six psychological skills to support patients' self-management of type 2 diabetes. Semi-structured interviews elicited themes relating to nurses' experiences of participating in a trial of a psychological intervention, the Diabetes-6 study (D-6). Nurses were employed in GP surgeries in 5 South London boroughs. Thematic framework analysis was used to compare and contrast themes across participants. Nine nurses delivering the intervention (n=11), and 7 from the control intervention (n=12, no psychological element) were interviewed. Three key themes were identified: (i) positive and negative impact of D6 on nurses' practice: positives included patient empowerment; negatives included patients' capacity to engage; (ii) professional boundaries including concerns about over-stepping role as a nurse and (iii) concerns about degree of support from physicians at participating practices in integrating psychological and diabetes care. Primary care nurses report that psychological skills training can have a positive impact on patient care. Significant role adjustment is required, which may be aided by additional support from the practice team. Qualitative evaluation of effectiveness of psychological interventions may reveal processes that hinder or contribute to efficacy and translation. Appropriate support is necessary for primary care nurses to deliver psychological therapies with confidence. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Status of Cognitive Psychology Journals: An Impact Factor Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togia, Aspasia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…

  18. A Computerized Clinical Support System and Psychological Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1978-01-01

    Advocating "holistic" medicine, this article details the benefits to be derived from using a computerized clinical support system in a psychological laboratory focusing on internal healing where the client/patient becomes a committed partner utilizing biofeedback equipment, gaming, and simulation to achieve self-understanding and…

  19. Impact of job characteristics on psychological health of Chinese single working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, D Y; Tang, C S

    2001-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the impact of individual and contextual job characteristics of control, psychological and physical demand, and security on psychological distress of 193 Chinese single working women in Hong Kong. The mediating role of job satisfaction in the job characteristics-distress relation is also assessed. Multiple regression analysis results show that job satisfaction mediates the effects of job control and security in predicting psychological distress; whereas psychological job demand has an independent effect on mental distress after considering the effect of job satisfaction. This main effect model indicates that psychological distress is best predicted by small company size, high psychological job demand, and low job satisfaction. Results from a separate regression analysis fails to support the overall combined effect of job demand-control on psychological distress. However, a significant physical job demand-control interaction effect on mental distress is noted, which reduces slightly after controlling the effect of job satisfaction.

  20. Psychological impact of injuries in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A M

    1996-12-01

    Although research on the psychological impact of injury is in its infancy, this article reviews relevant literature focusing on post-injury emotional response, self-esteem, and the effect of mood disturbance on rehabilitation from sport injury. Injury is often accompanied by depression, tension, anger and low self-esteem, particularly in competitive, seriously injured athletes. Mood disturbance seems to relate to the athlete's perceived progress in rehabilitation and has been shown to negatively relate to attendance at rehabilitation sessions. This article also describes how the Emotional Responses of Athletes to Injury Questionnaire (ERAIQ) serves as a guide for the initial interview of an injured athlete. Interventions such as positive self-talk, relaxation, goal setting and healing imagery, all used by a faster healing group of athletes, and although not well researched, seem appropriate to assist athletes in coping with injury. Modelling interventions during injury rehabilitation have also been shown to have a positive effect on rehabilitation and should be used. These relationships are described in more depth and in the context of a theoretical model. Directions for future research are suggested.

  1. Demographic and psychological correlates of New Zealanders support for euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol Hj; Duck, Isabelle M; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-01-13

    To explore the distribution of New Zealanders' support towards the legalisation of euthanasia and examine demographic and psychological factors associated with these attitudes. 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) survey. This survey included an item on people's attitudes towards euthanasia, and information on their demographic and psychological characteristics. The majority of New Zealanders expressed support for euthanasia, which was assessed by asking "Suppose a person has a painful incurable disease. Do you think that doctors should be allowed by law to end the patient's life if the patient requests it?" Non-religious, liberal, younger, employed, non-parents and those living in rural areas were more supportive. Those of Pacific or Asian ethnicity, with lower income and higher deprivation, education and socio-economic status were less supportive. Furthermore, those high on extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism showed more support, while those high on agreeableness and honesty-humility exhibited less support. There is strong public support for euthanasia when people are asked whether doctors should be allowed by law to end the life of a patient with a painful incurable disease upon their request. There are reliable demographic and personality differences in support for euthanasia.

  2. The psychological impact of body contouring surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen Lorenzen, Mike; Poulsen, Lotte; Poulsen, Signe

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Body contouring surgery is associated with changes in body image and identity. The primary aim of the study was to investigate a multidisciplinary assessment of potential psychological challenges before and after body contouring surgery. METHODS: Eight pre- and post-operative patients...... relevant codes had been extracted. RESULTS: A total of seven psychological themes were iden- tified, indicating that surgery alone cannot improve the pa- tients’ psychological difficulties and that psychological care and management of the expected discomfort and body im- age is of considerable importance...... in providing continuity of care. CONCLUSIONS: The reported quality of life is of consider- able importance to patients undergoing body contouring surgery after massive weight loss. Our findings may provide useful information for surgeons and healthcare profes- sionals allowing them to develop patient education...

  3. Computerized systems of NPP operators support. (Psychological problems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashin, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Operator psychological problems arising in the work with NPP operators support computerized systems (OSCS) are considered. The conclusion is made that the OSCS intellectual application will bring the operator into dangerous dependence on his computerized assistant. To avoid this danger it is necessary by creation of the OSCS to divide specially the tasks areas of the operator and OSCS in order to assure the active role of the operator in the NPP control

  4. Psychological impact of prenatal diagnosis and post procedure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prenatal diagnosis is associated with psychological challenges, which may affect the response of women before, during or after the procedure, as well as their decision on the future of an affected pregnancy. This prospective study was to evaluate the psychological impact of prenatal diagnosis, factors that may be ...

  5. Variables Impacting Dispositional Empathy in Doctoral Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Amelia C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore variables impacting dispositional empathy in doctoral psychology students. While there is a great deal of research regarding empathy in practicing psychologists and mental health professionals, little is known about empathy in psychology trainees. This is especially surprising given the importance of…

  6. Psychiatric and Psychological Impact of Chronic Skin Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafferany, Mohammad; Pastolero, Paul

    2018-04-26

    Chronic skin disease has a devastating effect on a person's physical and psychological well-being. Skin disease significantly impacts all aspects of a patient's life including school, relationships, career choices, social and leisure activities, and sexual life. The physical, psychological, and social consequences affect not only the patients, but also caregivers and family members as well. Common psychological problems associated with skin disease include, but are not limited to, feelings of stress, anxiety, anger, depression, shame, social isolation, low self-esteem, and embarrassment. Besides psychopharmacology, multiple psychotherapeutic techniques have proved to be helpful in addressing the psychological sequelae of skin disease. © Copyright 2018 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  7. Satisfaction with support versus size of network: differential effects of social support on psychological distress in parents of pediatric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Felicity W K; Peterson, Amy M; Albrecht, Terrance L; Taub, Jeffrey W; Phipps, Sean; Penner, Louis A

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the direct and buffering effects of social support on longer-term global psychological distress among parents coping with pediatric cancer. In both sets of analyses, we examined whether these effects depended on the dimension of social support provided (i.e., satisfaction with support versus size of support network). Participants were 102 parents of pediatric cancer patients. At study entry, parents reported their trait anxiety, depression, and two dimensions of their social support network (satisfaction with support and size of support network). Parents subsequently reported their psychological distress in 3- and 9-month follow-up assessments. Parents' satisfaction with support had a direct effect on longer-term psychological distress; satisfaction was negatively associated with distress at both follow-ups. In contrast, size of support network buffered (moderated) the impact of trait anxiety and depression on later distress. Parents with smaller support networks and higher levels of trait anxiety and depression at baseline had higher levels of psychological distress at both follow-ups; for parents with larger support networks, there was no relationship. Social support can attenuate psychological distress in parents coping with pediatric cancer; however, the nature of the effect depends on the dimension of support. Whereas interventions that focus on increasing satisfaction with social support may benefit all parents, at-risk parents will likely benefit from interventions that ensure they have an adequate number of support resources. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Psychological Health

    OpenAIRE

    Kubik, Jeremy F.; Gill, Richdeep S.; Laffin, Michael; Karmali, Shahzeer

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a relatively high prevalence of psychopathological conditions, which may have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention in the morbidly obese to achieve marked weight loss and improve physical comorbidities, yet its impact on psychological health has yet to be determined. A review of the literature identified a trend suggesting improvements in psychological health after bariatric surgery. Majority of mental ...

  9. Coping, family social support, and psychological symptoms among student veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Daniel H; Riggs, Shelley A; Ruggero, Camilo

    2015-04-01

    With rising numbers of student veterans on today's college campuses, multicultural competence in college counseling centers increasingly includes an understanding of military culture and its relation to the psychological health and functioning of student veterans. Research on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with college student veterans' mental health is scarce. The current study examines the contributions of coping style and family social support on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in a student veteran sample. We also tested the moderating role of family social support in the relationship between coping style and psychological symptoms. Data from 136 student veterans were analyzed by using path analysis. Results revealed that avoidant coping and family social support significantly predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Avoidant coping also significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. In addition, findings indicated that family social support moderated the relationship between problem-focused coping and depression, as well as between avoidant coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression but not posttraumatic stress. Implications of results for college and university counselors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The psychological impact of living with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Allan; Olsen, Mette Z; Perrild, Hans J.D.

    2016-01-01

    with diabetes. METHOD: 502 people with diabetes over the age of 18 and 122 family members completed questionnaires online, by telephone or in person, including validated measures of diabetes-related distress, emotional well-being and quality of life as well as other measures of psychological well-being. RESULTS...

  11. Job strain and psychological distress among employed pregnant Thai women: role of social support and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Finnegan, Lorna; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L

    2014-08-01

    Most Thai women continue to work throughout their pregnancy; however, little is known about job strain and its relation to psychological distress. This study aimed to examine: (1) the direct effects of job strain, perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on psychological distress and (2) the moderating effect of perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping guided this cross-sectional study. Full-time employed pregnant women (N = 300) were recruited from three antenatal clinics in Thailand. Thai versions of the following instruments were used: the State-Anxiety Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (psychological distress), the Job Content Questionnaire (job strain and perceived workplace support), the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (perceived family support), and the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (coping strategies). Job strain with other predictors explained 54% of the variance in psychological distress. In the separate hierarchical multiple linear regression models, two types of coping strategies, seeking social support and wishful thinking, moderated the effects of job strain on psychological distress. Perceived family support had a direct effect in reducing psychological distress. Job strain is a significant contributor to psychological distress. The average levels of seeking social support and wishful thinking were most beneficial in moderating the negative impact of job strain on psychological distress. Since perceived workplace and family support did not have moderating effects, stress management programs for decreasing the levels of job strain should be developed.

  12. [The psychological and social support in patients with psoriasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Ziemecki, Piotr; Ziemecka, Anna; Partyka, Iwona

    2013-09-01

    The meaning of non medical forms of support in the treatment of psoriasis is discussed in the paper. Related with psoriasis negative self image and feeling of stigmatization cause various mental disorders. Stress, depression, mental condition affect the appearance of psoriasis. Because of numerous studies and identify the factors and relationships important for psoriasis, patients can take the appropriate psychological and social support. Relaxation techniques, cognitive-behavioral therapy and support groups have a positive effect on the treatment of psoriasis. They reduce the level of stress in the patient, learn emotional control, adequate self-esteem, which leads to the acceptance of the disease and improve the quality of life of the patient.

  13. Psychological impact of cerebral palsy on families: The African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajide A Olawale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychological stress associated with cerebral palsy (CP is known to be one of the most depressing conditions of families. In the traditional African society, some peculiar factors may contribute to the stress. Aims: The aims of this study were to identify and describe, from the African perspective, the psychological impact of CP on families and determine the strategies adopted by families in coping with it. Settings and Design: The study was a cross-sectional descriptive survey conducted in the Physiotherapy Department of a tertiary hospital. Materials and Methods: Participants were 52 parents of children with CP. They completed a questionnaire designed to determine the degree of psychological stress on the families and strategies adopted to cope with the stress. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to show responses in graphical formats. Results: Respondents agreed that having adequate knowledge of CP would help them cope well with the demands of taking care of children with CP. 38.5% of respondents said that people in the society accused them of some wrongdoing that has made their children to have CP. Personal problems experienced include loss of job, lack of concentration at work, loss of family joy, and derangement of financial affairs of the family. 26 (50% of them resort to religious/spiritual intervention as an alternative or complementary mode of treatment for their children while 28% resort to dependence on the extended family system for support. Conclusion: Families caring for children with CP generally have a positive attitude towards their children. However, there is need to educate the public on the causes of CP and treatment options available to families.

  14. Resilient Systemics to Telehealth Support for Clinical Psychiatry and Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Rodolfo A; De Giacomo, Piero; L'Abate, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Reliably expanding our clinical practice and lowering our overhead with telepsychiatry, telepsychology, distance counseling and online therapy, requires resilient and antifragile system and tools. When utilized appropriately these technologies may provide greater access to needed services to include more reliable treatment, consultation, supervision, and training. The wise and proper use of technology is fundamental to create and boost outstanding social results. We present, as an example, the main steps to achieve application resilience and antifragility at system level, for diagnostic and therapeutic telepractice and telehealth support, devoted to psychiatry and psychology application. This article presents a number of innovations that can take psychotherapy treatment, supervision, training, and research forward, towards increased effectiveness application.

  15. Impact of Stakeholder Psychological Empowerment on Project Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Pintardi Chandra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between psychological empowerment of stakeholders and project success is an important thing that must be known by project manager. This research developed and tested the model to predict how well the impact of stakeholder psychological empowerment on project success. Stakeholder psychological empowerment was defined to have five indicator variables covering intrinsic motivation, opportunity to perform, ability to perform, task behaviors, and contextual behaviors. Meanwhile, project success can be measured by cost performance, time performance, quality performance, profitability, and customer satisfaction. In this study, it was hypothesized that stakeholder psychological empowerment influenced project success. Based on the data obtained from a questionnaire survey carried out to 204 respondents, structural equation modeling (SEM was used for predicting the performance of project success. It was found that stakeholder psychological empowerment influenced project success, especially on the ability to perform of stakeholders.

  16. Supportive Group Factors, Course Pedagogy, and Multicultural Competency within Multicultural Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyer, Michael Ryan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between course pedagogy and supportive group factors with variables of multicultural competency and multicultural counseling self-efficacy at the completion of a multicultural psychology course. The participants were students in graduate clinical psychology, counseling psychology, and school psychology programs…

  17. Differential Psychological Impact of Internet Exposure on Internet Addicts

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Michela; Osborne, Lisa A.; Truzoli, Roberto; Reed, Phil

    2013-01-01

    The study explored the immediate impact of internet exposure on the mood and psychological states of internet addicts and low internet-users. Participants were given a battery of psychological tests to explore levels of internet addiction, mood, anxiety, depression, schizotypy, and autism traits. They were then given exposure to the internet for 15 min, and re-tested for mood and current anxiety. Internet addiction was associated with long-standing depression, impulsive nonconformity, and aut...

  18. The research impact of school psychology faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Marley W; Chan-Park, Christina Y

    2015-06-01

    Hirsch's (2005) h index has become one of the most popular indicators of research productivity for higher education faculty. However, the h index varies across academic disciplines so empirically established norms for each discipline are necessary. To that end, the current study collected h index values from Scopus and Google Scholar databases for 401 tenure-track faculty members from 109 school psychology training programs. Male faculty tended to be more senior than female faculty and a greater proportion of the male faculty held professorial rank. However, female faculty members outnumbered males at the assistant and associate professor ranks. Although strongly correlated (rho=.84), h index values from Google Scholar were higher than those from Scopus. h index distributions were positively skewed with many faculty having low values and a few faculty having high values. Faculty in doctoral training programs exhibited significantly larger h index values than faculty in specialist training programs and there were univariate differences in h index values across academic rank and sex, but sex differences were not significant after taking seniority into account. It was recommended that the h index be integrated with peer review and diverse other indicators when considering individual merit. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Network characteristics, perceived social support, and psychological adjustment in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Paul R

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the characteristics of the support networks of 106 mothers of children with ASD and their relationship to perceived social support, depressed mood, and subjective well-being. Using structural equation modeling, two competing sets of hypotheses were assessed: (1) that network characteristics would impact psychological adjustment directly, and (2) that network effects on adjustment would be indirect, mediated by perceived social support. Results primarily lent support to the latter hypotheses, with measures of network structure (network size) and function (proportion of network members providing emotional support) predicting increased levels of perceived social support which, in turn, predicted decreased depressed mood and increased well-being. Results also indicated that increased interpersonal strain in the maternal network was directly and indirectly associated with increased maternal depression, while being indirectly linked to reduced well-being. Study limitations and implications are discussed.

  20. Exposure to firearm: impact on psychological health in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saxena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of firearm exposure is one of the widespread prevailing problems in today’s world but at the same time it is least talked about. Its psychological effects vary from person to person and the degree of consequences has many variables to measure. The firearm exposure not only implies to an individual but also the whole gambit of social structures around him. Methods: A cross-section study on 505 subjects of the age group 20-45 years from central India was done, where routine social order depends upon massive armament of the citizen. We studied the relationship between socio-demographic variables and firearm exposure with variables of psychological domain of the WHOQOL-BREF. Multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to find the correlates among them. The objectives of the study were to study the attributes of socio demographic variables, which affects psychological health and exposure to firearms in the study population and to see the impact of exposure to firearms on psychological health. Results: Higher education is associated positively with psychological health. The desire to have a gun (OR=1.988, CI 1.306-3.024, p-value <.005 is showing a significant association with low psychological domain score of QOL. Being married (OR=.556, CI .344-.901, p-value <.005 and not Living in a joint family (OR=.581, CI .379-.891, p-value <.005 is associated with poor psychological health. Conclusions: Higher education is the best predictor for good psychological health. Semiskilled workers (farmers and laborers should be prioritized as high risk groups for adverse life situations. Firearm exposures have a significant impact on psychological health. So, policies directed at rural population should target at specific needs of community. 

  1. Exposure to firearm: impact on psychological health in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saxena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of firearm exposure is one of the widespread prevailing problems in today’s world but at the same time it is least talked about. Its psychological effects vary from person to person and the degree of consequences has many variables to measure. The firearm exposure not only implies to an individual but also the whole gambit of social structures around him. Methods: A cross-section study on 505 subjects of the age group 20-45 years from central India was done, where routine social order depends upon massive armament of the citizen. We studied the relationship between socio-demographic variables and firearm exposure with variables of psychological domain of the WHOQOL-BREF. Multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to find the correlates among them. The objectives of the study were to study the attributes of socio demographic variables, which affects psychological health and exposure to firearms in the study population and to see the impact of exposure to firearms on psychological health. Results: Higher education is associated positively with psychological health. The desire to have a gun (OR=1.988, CI 1.306-3.024, p-value <.005 is showing a significant association with low psychological domain score of QOL. Being married (OR=.556, CI .344-.901, p-value <.005 and not Living in a joint family (OR=.581, CI .379-.891, p-value <.005 is associated with poor psychological health. Conclusions: Higher education is the best predictor for good psychological health. Semiskilled workers (farmers and laborers should be prioritized as high risk groups for adverse life situations. Firearm exposures have a significant impact on psychological health. So, policies directed at rural population should target at specific needs of community.  

  2. Radio nuclear aggression. Psychological impact and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseaux, H.; Laroche, P.; Carbonnieres, H. de; Foehrenbach, H.

    2006-01-01

    Long before possible organic effects, exposure to ionizing radiations can provoke anxiety. In front of invisibility, the imagination quickly ignites. The terrorists have perfectly understood it. They are ready to use ionizing radiations as a weapon to remind traumatic images deeply rooted in people's memory. These images induce anxiety with all the clinical expressions connected to it. These symptoms require to be treated because of a possible anarchic development. For that purpose, plans have been elaborated to coordinate the different professional's actions. The coherence of medical management and communication aims to allow the most implicated people to find the way to face the events. When it is not possible, medico-psychological cells permit a specialized care. (author)

  3. Psychological Adjustment to Lung Cancer: the role of self-compassion and social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute Batista

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available // Introduction: The impact of the diagnosis of an oncologic disease is well-known in terms of psychological adjustment and quality of life. On the other hand it is known that depressive symptoms may also overlap the physical symptoms of cancer and cancer treatment, which may interfere in their detection and appropriate treatment approach.   Objectives: The aim of the current study was to explore the relationship between psychological adjustment to lung cancer, self-compassion, social support and emotional negative states in patients with lung cancer.   Method: Fifty-five patients diagnosed with lung cancer (38 men and 17 women with ages ranging from 44 to 87 years old participated in the study. A set of self-report instruments was used: the Mini Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (MiniMac, the Self-compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003, the Social Support Satisfaction Scale (SSSS and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21.   Results: Significant correlations were found between psychological adjustment, psychopathology, emotion regulation strategies (self-compassion, and social support. The predictive models for psychological adjustment and stress related symptomatology include self-compassion and social support as significant predictive variables. Regarding the predictive model for depressive symptomatology, mindfulness seems to be the only significant predictor.   Conclusions: Our findings suggest that these patients may benefit, in their therapeutic approach, from the development of this kind of strategies (new ways of relating themselves with their emotional experiences and quality of their social networks in order to promote a better psychological adjustment to their clinical condition.

  4. Psychological well-being of individuals after divorce: the role of social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kołodziej-Zaleska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Divorce is a transition period in which divorcing individuals face restructuring of the family system and adjustment to changes. The psychological well-being of divorcees can serve as an important indicator of the adjustment process. The achievement of well-being does not come easily for many reasons, one of which is the experience related to a sense of loss associated with the marriage break-up. Social support is a major relational resource for overcoming the crisis and successfully adjusting to post-divorce life. Participants and procedure The sample consisted of 157 individuals after divorce: 120 women and 37 men (mean age = 41.29. Instruments employed in the study included the Sense of Loss Scale (DS, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ-23, and sociodemographic data. Results Our results show that perceived social support is a partial mediator of the relationship between the sense of loss associated with divorce and the psychological well-being of individuals after divorce. For the vast majority of the respondents their parents, friends and acquaintances were the major source of support. About one third of the participants were given support by their siblings and their own children. Conclusions The study confirms the mediating role of support in building well-being after experiencing loss related to dissolution of marriage. This means that for divorced women and men perceived social support is one of the key resources that have a significant impact on achieving psychological well-being after divorce, since it is related to mitigating the negative impact of the sense of loss associated with marriage break-up.

  5. Supported Decision-Making: Implications from Positive Psychology for Assessment and Intervention in Rehabilitation and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanik, Hatice; Shogren, Karrie A; Blanck, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Purpose This article reviews existing literature on positive psychology, supported decision-making (SDM), employment, and disability. It examines interventions and assessments that have been empirically evaluated for the enhancement of decision-making and overall well-being of people with disabilities. Additionally, conceptual themes present in the literature were explored. Methods A systematic review was conducted across two databases (ERIC and PsychINFO) using various combination of keywords of 'disabilit*', work rehabilitation and employment terms, positive psychology terms, and SDM components. Seven database searches were conducted with diverse combinations of keywords, which identified 1425 results in total to be screened for relevance using their titles and abstracts. Database search was supplemented with hand searches of oft-cited journals, ancestral search, and supplemental search from grey literature. Results Only four studies were identified in the literature targeting SDM and positive psychology related constructs in the employment and job development context. Results across the studies indicated small to moderate impacts of the assessment and interventions on decision-making and engagement outcomes. Conceptually there are thematic areas of potential overlap, although they are limited in the explicit integration of theory in supported decision-making, positive psychology, disability, and employment. Conclusion Results suggest a need for additional scholarship in this area that focuses on theory development and integration as well as empirical work. Such work should examine the potential utility of considering positive psychological interventions when planning for SDM in the context of career development activities to enhance positive outcomes related to decision-making, self-determination, and other positive psychological constructs.

  6. Psychological Impact of Cyber-Bullying: Implications for School Counsellors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Jennifer; Beran, Tanya; Dittrick, Crystal J.

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-bullying is a significant problem for children today. This study provides evidence of the psychological impact of cyber-bullying among victimized children ages 10 to 17 years (M = 12.48, SD = 1.79) from 23 urban schools in a western province of Canada (N = 239). Students who were cyber-bullied reported high levels of anxious,…

  7. Beliefs, perceptions and psychological impact of Acne vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a paucity of reports in the literature detailing the assessment of the beliefs,perception and psychological impact of acne patients . This is the first study from Saudi Arabia designed to address this issue. Materials and methods: A voluntary self-completed questionnaire was used to collect data from acne ...

  8. The psychological impact of screening for type 2 diabetes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, M.C.; Snoek, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, there was little empirical data regarding the psychological impact of screening for type 2 diabetes. There is now some progress in this area, as evidenced by emerging population based studies reporting on the effects of screening for type 2 diabetes on perceived health status and

  9. Psychological impact of infertility among women in Benin City, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infertility has profound negative consequences especially for women in developing countries. The study evaluated the psychological impact of infertility among women in Benin City, Nigeria. The study was conducted between October 2004 and April 2006. A total of the 312 women (mean age = 31.27 years, SEM ± 0.32) ...

  10. Criteria Based Case Review: The Parent Child Psychological Support Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Bujia-Couso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Parent Child Psychological Support Program (PCPS was established in an area of South West Dublin in 2001. Since then until May 2008 it has offered its services to over 700 children and their parents. This preventative, parenting support service is available to all parents of children aged 3 to 18 months within its catchment area. During periodical visits, the infant’s development and growth are measured and parents receive specific information about their child’s progress. Parents are empowered in their parenting practices, thus promoting consistency and synchrony in parent-child interaction. Between 2001 and 2006, 538 parents and their infants participated in the Program. Out of these cases, 130 (24.16% were considered to require additional support and were included in the Monthly Meeting Case Review (MM based on initial concerns The aims of this study were: 1. to review the first five years of MM cases and to explore the socio-demographic profile of the MM cases in comparison to those not in need of additional support (non-MM and 2. To illustrate an approach to refining the case review process which will inform practice and provides the service providers with better understanding of the early detection of parent-child relation difficulties. In pursuing this goal the cases screened over five years of practice were analyzed to explore the structure of the different factors by using statistical techniques of data reduction, i.e. factor analysis. The results showed that the MM group differed on several socio-demographic dimensions from the non-MM group and there was a four factor structure underlying the case review decision process. Implications of this research are discussed.

  11. Restarting TMI unit one: social and psychological impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, J.; Soderstrom, J.; Bolin, R.; Copenhaver, E.; Carnes, S.

    1983-12-01

    A technical background is provided for preparing an environmental assessment of the social and psychological impacts of restarting the undamaged reactor at Three Mile Island (TMI). Its purpose is to define the factors that may cause impacts, to define what those impacts might be, and to make a preliminary assessment of how impacts could be mitigated. It does not attempt to predict or project the magnitude of impacts. Four major research activities were undertaken: a literature review, focus-group discussions, community profiling, and community surveys. As much as possible, impacts of the accident at Unit 2 were differentiated from the possible impacts of restarting Unit 1. It is concluded that restart will generate social conflict in the TMI vicinity which could lead to adverse effects. Furthermore, between 30 and 50 percent of the population possess characteristics which are associated with vulnerability to experiencing negative impacts. Adverse effects, however, can be reduced with a community-based mitigation strategy

  12. Restarting TMI unit one: social and psychological impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.; Soderstrom, J.; Bolin, R.; Copenhaver, E.; Carnes, S.

    1983-12-01

    A technical background is provided for preparing an environmental assessment of the social and psychological impacts of restarting the undamaged reactor at Three Mile Island (TMI). Its purpose is to define the factors that may cause impacts, to define what those impacts might be, and to make a preliminary assessment of how impacts could be mitigated. It does not attempt to predict or project the magnitude of impacts. Four major research activities were undertaken: a literature review, focus-group discussions, community profiling, and community surveys. As much as possible, impacts of the accident at Unit 2 were differentiated from the possible impacts of restarting Unit 1. It is concluded that restart will generate social conflict in the TMI vicinity which could lead to adverse effects. Furthermore, between 30 and 50 percent of the population possess characteristics which are associated with vulnerability to experiencing negative impacts. Adverse effects, however, can be reduced with a community-based mitigation strategy.

  13. Psychological predictors of cultural diversity support at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Annemarie M F; Derous, Eva; Born, Marise Ph

    2017-07-01

    As diversity management activities become more prominent worldwide it is important to understand psychological reactions to them to ensure success, but empirical evidence is lacking. This study investigated employees' and managers' intentions and behavior to promote cultural diversity at work in a variety of organizations in the Netherlands, using Ajzen's theory of planned behavior. Predictors of intentions to promote cultural diversity at work (N = 670) and actual behavior after 6 months were assessed among managers and employees using self-reports in a 2-wave survey design. Participants' average age at Time 1 was 38.26 years (SD = 11.86), 56% was female, and there were 78.1% Dutch ethnic majority and 21.9% ethnic minority participants. Attitude to cultural diversity promotion at work and perceived behavioral control (PBC) related positively to both individuals' intentions to promote cultural diversity at work, which in turn predicted behavior. The strongest driver, however, was attitude. Managers' reported PBC and behavior were higher compared to employees. This study supported the applicability of the theory of planned behavior to predict intentions and behavior to promote cultural diversity at work. With an increasingly diverse workforce, this study aimed to advance our understanding of drivers of individual reactions and behavior to support cultural diversity at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. SELF - EFFICACY, PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS, FAMILY SUPPORT, AND EATING BEHAVIOR ON TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Wijaya Ridi Putra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the leading causes of death and it is caused by genetics, nutrition, and unhealthy behaviors. Therefore, changes in lifestyle associated with eating behaviors in diabetes mellitus patients greatly impact on their quality of life. There are many factors related with changes in lifestyle of diabetes mellitus patients, especially eating behaviors. Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationships between self-efficacy, psychological stress, family support, and eating behaviors among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in Sidoarjo, Indonesia. Method: A total of 117 T2DM patients from the Sidoarjo Community Health Center were included in the analysis. Using SPSS IBM 21.0 program, Pearson product moment correlation was performed to analyze data. Results: The findings showed that self-efficacy and family support had positive relationship with eating behaviors (r = .692, p < .001; r = .683, p < .001, respectively. Psychological stress had negative relationship with eating behaviors (r = -.327, p < .001. Conclusion: Self-efficacy, family support, and psychological stress had relationship with eating behaviors. Nurses should pay attention to the factors to make T2DM patients into a long-term commitment toward healthy eating behaviors.

  15. The psychological impact of child sexual abuse on primary caregivers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symptoms of psychological distress experienced by caregivers after an incident of CSA included anxiety, fear, depression, anger, insomnia, and functional impairment. About half the care givers in the study (n= 19, 55.88%) showed support and protection for their children; others (n = 15, 44.12%) were hostile toward and ...

  16. Work support, psychological well-being and safety performance among nurses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kenchi C K

    2018-02-06

    This study investigated the mediating role of psychological well-being between work support and safety performance of 314 Hong Kong nurses, using self-reported questionnaires. Results showed that psychological well-being mediated the effects of work support on safety performance. The findings illustrate that work support was an important element to improve psychological well-being. This could generate better safety performance of the nurses. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  17. Hold on, for each other: supporting partners of cancer patients via eHealth and positive psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhle, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Partners of cancer patients are an essential pillar in the cancer trajectory. The patient’s cancer can have an enormous impact on the partner’s life and (mental) health. To support them, psychological interventions are needed. However, partners of cancer patients are often extremely busy and

  18. Hold on, for each other : supporting partners of cancer patients via eHealth and positive psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhle, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Partners of cancer patients are an essential pillar in the cancer trajectory. The patient’s cancer can have an enormous impact on the partner’s life and (mental) health. To support them, psychological interventions are needed. However, partners of cancer patients are often extremely busy and

  19. Stress and Psychological Support in Modern Military Operations: A Military Leader's Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cammaert, P. C

    2006-01-01

    ... to provide psychological support to deployed troops. Key factors in Stress Management are realistic training, fostering unit cohesion in arduous environments, communicating and providing time outs...

  20. Psychological and emotional needs, assessment, and support post-stroke: a multi-perspective qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Madeleine; Ryan, Tony; Gardiner, Clare; Jones, Amanda

    2017-03-01

    International stroke care guidelines recommend the routine assessment and management of psychological and emotional problems post-stroke. Understanding the experiences of those delivering and receiving these services is vital to improving the provision of psychological support post-stroke. To explore patients', carers', and health professionals' experiences of psychological need, assessment, and support post-stroke while in hospital and immediately post-discharge. Participants were recruited from seven specialist stroke services in the north of England. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with 31 stroke patients, 28 carers, and 66 health professionals. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Two central themes emerged minding the gap: psychological expertise, and protective factors perceived to reduce the need for formal psychological support. The lack of psychological expertise among healthcare professionals working on stroke units was a source of frustration and resulted in other disciplines assuming the role of a psychologist without the required skills and training. Multiple stakeholders discussed the importance of protective factors, including downward social comparison, social support, peer support, communication, and information provision, that were perceived to reduce the need for formal psychological support. Stroke patients need better access to psychological support, including information, advice, and peer or social support. More research is required to establish the effectiveness of alternative options to formal psychological support.

  1. Family support and acceptance, gay male identity formation, and psychological adjustment: a path model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizur, Y; Ziv, M

    2001-01-01

    While heterosexist family undermining has been demonstrated to be a developmental risk factor in the life of persons with same-gender orientation, the issue of protective family factors is both controversial and relatively neglected. In this study of Israeli gay males (N = 114), we focused on the interrelations of family support, family acceptance and family knowledge of gay orientation, and gay male identity formation, and their effects on mental health and self-esteem. A path model was proposed based on the hypotheses that family support, family acceptance, family knowledge, and gay identity formation have an impact on psychological adjustment, and that family support has an effect on gay identity formation that is mediated by family acceptance. The assessment of gay identity formation was based on an established stage model that was streamlined for cross-cultural practice by defining three basic processes of same-gender identity formation: self-definition, self-acceptance, and disclosure (Elizur & Mintzer, 2001). The testing of our conceptual path model demonstrated an excellent fit with the data. An alternative model that hypothesized effects of gay male identity on family acceptance and family knowledge did not fit the data. Interpreting these results, we propose that the main effect of family support/acceptance on gay identity is related to the process of disclosure, and that both general family support and family acceptance of same-gender orientation play a significant role in the psychological adjustment of gay men.

  2. Investigating the psychological impact of bank robbery: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask

    2014-06-01

    Despite numerous annual bank robberies worldwide, research in the psychological sequelae of bank robberies is sparse and characterized by several limitations. To overcome these limitations we investigated the psychological impact of bank robbery in a cohort study by comparing general levels of traumatization and somatization in employees never exposed to robbery and employees exposed to robbery at different degrees and time-points, while controlling for selected risk factors of posttraumatic distress. Multivariate regression analyses showed that only the acute directly exposed robbery group which had a significantly higher score on general traumatization and somatization compared to the control group whilst controlling for other factors. In conclusion, bank robbery exposure appears to be especially associated with psychological distress in the acute phase and in victims present during the robbery. After the acute phase, other factors appear more important in predicting general traumatization and somatization in bank employees compared to exposure to robbery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nurse safety outcomes: old problem, new solution - the differentiating roles of nurses' psychological capital and managerial support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetto, Yvonne; Xerri, Matthew; Farr-Wharton, Ben; Shacklock, Kate; Farr-Wharton, Rod; Trinchero, Elisabetta

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of nurses' psychological capital and managerial support, plus specific safety interventions (managerial safety priorities, safety training satisfaction), on nurses' in-role safety performance. Most hospitals in industrialized countries have adopted selective (often the least costly) aspects of safety, usually related to safety policies. However, patient safety remains a challenge in many countries. Research shows that training can be used to upskill employees in psychological capital, with statistically significant organizational and employee benefits, but this area is under-researched in nursing. Data were collected using a survey-based, self-report strategy. The emerging patterns of data were then compared with the findings of previous research. Quantitative survey data were collected during 2014 from 242 nurses working in six Australian hospitals. Two models were tested and analysed using covariance-based Structural Equation Modelling. Psychological capital and safety training satisfaction were important predictors of nurses' in-role safety performance and as predictors of nurses' perceptions of whether management implements what it espouses about safety ('managerial safety priorities'). Managerial support accounted for just under a third of psychological capital and together, psychological capital and managerial support, plus satisfaction with safety training, were important to nurses' perceptions of in-role safety performance. Organizations are likely to benefit from upskilling nurses and their managers to increase nurses' psychological capital and managerial support, which then will enhance nurses' satisfaction with training and in-role safety performance perceptions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Supporting the Basic Psychological Needs of Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangraw, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    A subtheory of self-determination theory, basic needs theory (BNT), examines the ways in which social-environmental factors interact with athletes' physical and psychological wellness. When the three psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness) identified in BNT are met in a sport setting, athletes' perceptions of well-being and…

  5. A survey of psychological support provision for people with inflammatory arthritis in secondary care in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dures, Emma; Almeida, Celia; Caesley, Judy; Peterson, Alice; Ambler, Nicholas; Morris, Marianne; Pollock, Jon; Hewlett, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    The consequences of inflammatory arthritis can include depression, anxiety and low mood, reducing patients' quality of life and increasing pressure on the healthcare system. Treatment guidelines recommend psychological support, but data are lacking on the provision available. A postal survey concerning psychological support provision was sent to rheumatology units in 143 acute trusts across England. Nurses from 73 rheumatology units (51%) responded. Overall, 73% rated their unit's psychological support provision as 'inadequate' and only 4% rated it as 'good'. Few units believed that psychological support did not fall within their remit (12%), yet only 8% had a psychologist in the team. Most units (68%) did not routinely screen patients to identify psychological difficulties. Referral to other service providers was reported in 42% of units, with 3% very satisfied with this provision. Within units, services containing elements of psychological support ranged from occupational therapy (81%) to psychology/counselling (14%). Psychological approaches used by team members ranged from shared decision making (77%) to cognitive-behavioural approaches (26%). The current barriers to providing psychological support were lack of clinical time and available training (86% and 74%, respectively), and delivery costs (74%). Future facilitators included management support (74%) and availability of skills training (74%). Rheumatology units viewed psychological support provision as part of their remit but rated their overall provision as inadequate, despite some team members using psychological skills. To improve provision, clinicians' training needs must be addressed and organizational support generated, and further research needs to define adequate psychological support provision from the patient perspective. © 2014 The Authors. Musculoskeletal Care published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The psychological impact of chronic environmental adversity: Responding to prolonged drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stain, Helen J; Kelly, Brian; Carr, Vaughan J; Lewin, Terry J; Fitzgerald, Michael; Fragar, Lyn

    2011-12-01

    The health effects of chronic environmental adversity have received insufficient attention, particularly those associated with the psychological impact of drought. Resilience or adaptive response to drought has received even less attention than vulnerability factors. This research examined factors associated with drought impact in rural and remote Australian communities. In 2008 postal surveys were completed by 302 adults (mean age 53 years; 57% female, 77% married) living in rural areas of prolonged drought exposure. Outcome measures were: (i) psychological distress (Kessler 10) and (ii) an index of concern or worry about drought. A range of predictor variables were assessed: adaptability (hopefulness, neuroticism), other adverse events, personal support and community connectedness, and sense of place, as a measure of connection to the local environment. Predictors of drought related worry differed from those associated with psychological distress levels. The former included socio-economic factors (living on a farm [Odds Ratio, OR 3.09], current employment [OR 3.64]), personal psychological characteristics (neuroticism [OR 1.29]), and greater connection with the environment (sense of place [OR 1.05]). On the other hand, psychological distress was associated chiefly with personal factors, such as higher neuroticism [OR 1.92], lower levels of hopefulness [OR 0.28], and lower perceived social support and community connectedness [OR 0.39]. Practical financial, employment and family factors were identified as important elements of drought impact, as to a lesser extent was sense of place, reflecting a confrontation with the consequences of chronic environmental degradation, while personal hopefulness may help mitigate the psychological impact of such adversity. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Introducing embedded indigenous psychological support teams: a suggested addition to psychological first aid in an international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Stewart, Amanda; Ahmad, Zeba S; Thoburn, John W; Furman, Rich; Lambert, Ashly J; Shelly, Lauren; Gunn, Ginger

    2012-01-01

    The current article introduces Embedded Indigenous Psychological Support Teams (IPST) as a possible addition to current disaster relief efforts. This article highlights psychological first aid in an international context by drawing on mainstream disaster relief models such as The American Red Cross, Critical Incident Stress Management, and Flexible Psychological First Aid. IPST are explained as teams utilizing techniques from both CISM and FPFA with a focus on resiliency. It is currently theorized that in utilizing IPST existing disaster relief models may be more effective in mitigating negative physical or mental health consequences post-disaster.

  8. [Relation of psychological distress after diagnosis of gastric cancer at a cancer screening center with psychological support from public health nurses and family members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Sakiko; Ozawa, Harumi

    2003-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the degree of psychological distress during the first 6 months after diagnosis of gastric cancer and investigate the relation to psychological support from public health nurses and family members. One hundred and five patients with stomach, colorectal, or esophagus cancer were mailed a questionnaire. They were asked questions concerning the level of shock on the day of diagnosis, at 1-week after the diagnosis, and at 6 months post diagnosis. In addition, their physical and psychological status was assessed at the 6-month time point. They were also asked about perceived psychological support from public health nurses and family members. The relation between psychological distress and such psychological support was then assessed using multiple regression analyses. The levels of shock on the day of diagnosis and after 1-week were both significantly related to the psychological support from public health nurses. Physical and psychological status at 6 months post diagnosis was significantly related to the level of psychological support from the patient's family members. The study revealed that psychological support from public health nurses improves the level of patient psychological distress during the first 1 week after the cancer diagnosis. Psychological support from family members facilitates the physical and psychological adjustment at 6 months post diagnosis. The results indicate that psychological support is important just after cancer diagnosis and for longer term adjustment, pointing to a major role of health care professionals alleviating problems associated with cancer diagnosis.

  9. The Effect of Organizational Support, Transformational Leadership, Personnel Empowerment, Work Engagement, Performance and Demographical Variables on the Factors of Psychological Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Rodoplu Şahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The relation with the work and the role of managers and organizational factors are effective on psychological capital and individual performance of employees. This article investigates the impact of the work engagement, performanmce, empowerment, organizational support and transformational leadership on psychological capital using survey data.

  10. Differential psychological impact of internet exposure on Internet addicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Romano

    Full Text Available The study explored the immediate impact of internet exposure on the mood and psychological states of internet addicts and low internet-users. Participants were given a battery of psychological tests to explore levels of internet addiction, mood, anxiety, depression, schizotypy, and autism traits. They were then given exposure to the internet for 15 min, and re-tested for mood and current anxiety. Internet addiction was associated with long-standing depression, impulsive nonconformity, and autism traits. High internet-users also showed a pronounced decrease in mood following internet use compared to the low internet-users. The immediate negative impact of exposure to the internet on the mood of internet addicts may contribute to increased usage by those individuals attempting to reduce their low mood by re-engaging rapidly in internet use.

  11. Differential psychological impact of internet exposure on Internet addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Michela; Osborne, Lisa A; Truzoli, Roberto; Reed, Phil

    2013-01-01

    The study explored the immediate impact of internet exposure on the mood and psychological states of internet addicts and low internet-users. Participants were given a battery of psychological tests to explore levels of internet addiction, mood, anxiety, depression, schizotypy, and autism traits. They were then given exposure to the internet for 15 min, and re-tested for mood and current anxiety. Internet addiction was associated with long-standing depression, impulsive nonconformity, and autism traits. High internet-users also showed a pronounced decrease in mood following internet use compared to the low internet-users. The immediate negative impact of exposure to the internet on the mood of internet addicts may contribute to increased usage by those individuals attempting to reduce their low mood by re-engaging rapidly in internet use.

  12. The psychological impact of the radiological accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A.B. de.

    1988-01-01

    This work describes the psychological impact of an accident caused by the violation of a capsule containing Cesium 137 in the city of Goiania, Goias, Brazil, in September of 1987. Its object is to confirm the importance of having mental health teams working, not only with accident victims, but also side by side with the rescue teams in the event of radiation accidents. (author) [pt

  13. Cyberbullying psychological impact on university students: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Redondo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of cyberbullying among study participants and examine the psychological impact on both cyber victims and cyber attackers, also analyzing gender differences in the impact. The sample consisted of 639 students from the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Bucaramanga branch, with an average age of 17.66 years (N = 303 boys, girls N = 334. For developing this analysis, the following instruments were used: (a Scale cyber aggressions; (B Scale cyber victimization; and (c Symptom Assessment Questionnaire-45 (SA-45. The results show that 27.5% of the sample has been attacked on occasion, and that the stalker was 26.7% over the past year. On the other hand, the results showed that there is a psychological impact (SA45 scales in both cyber victims and cyber aggressors. Gender differences in cyberbullying were evident only at some scales (primarily depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity and somatization, although they were not significant among the psychological symptoms reported in this study (except for scales related to Somatization and Phobic Anxiety. © Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Sociales

  14. Role of Social Support in Examining Acculturative Stress and Psychological Distress Among Asian American Immigrants and Three Sub-groups: Results from NLAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups.

  15. School Violence, Social Support and Psychological Health among Taiwanese Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Wei, Hsi-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines how peer social support mediates the association between school victimization and student psychological health among junior-high students in an Asian context (Taiwan), and further examines how gender and ethnicity differ in the interrelationships of school violence, peer social support and psychological health.…

  16. The psychological impact of genetic testing on parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinc, Leyla; Terzioglu, Fusun

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this descriptive study was to explore the psychological impact of genetic testing on parents whose children have been referred for genetic testing. Genetic tests enable individuals to be informed about their health status and to have the opportunity of early diagnosis and treatment of their diseases. However undergoing genetic testing and receiving a positive test result may also cause stress and anxiety. This descriptive study was carried out at the genetic departments of two university hospitals in Ankara. The sample of this study consisted of 128 individuals whose children have been referred for chromosomal analysis. Data were collected through using a semi-structured interview method with a data collection form and the anxiety inventory and analysed using the percentages and independent samples t-test. The majority of our participants experienced distress before genetic testing. Their general trait anxiety score before receiving the test results was 47.38, and following the test results the state anxiety score was 50.65. Having a previous child with an abnormality, a positive test result, and being a mother elevated the anxiety of individuals. This paper supports the findings of previous studies, which indicated that genetic test results might lead to anxiety in individuals and reveals the importance of genetic counselling. As the results of this study indicated, genetic testing causes distress and anxiety in individuals. Nurses can play an important role in minimizing anxiety of parents whose children undergo genetic testing by providing information about genetic testing and by taking part in the counselling process.

  17. Race/ethnicity, psychological resilience, and social support among OEF/OIF combat veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Matthew S; Leung, Desmond W; Pittman, James O E; Floto, Elizabeth; Afari, Niloofar

    2018-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between race/ethnicity and psychological resilience, and the moderating role of social support in this relationship among non-Hispanic White (n = 605), Hispanic (n = 107), African American (n = 141), and Asian American (n = 97) Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) combat veterans. Veterans were primarily male (88%) with a mean age of 31.4 years (SD = 8.35). An analysis of covariance showed that Asian American veterans reported significantly lower psychological resilience than non-Hispanic White veterans. The interaction of race/ethnicity and social support with psychological resilience was examined via linear regression. We found that the relationship between psychological resilience and social support significantly differed by race/ethnicity such that social support was positively associated with psychological resilience among non-Hispanic White veterans, but not among other racial/ethnic groups. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that show Asian American veterans report lower psychological resilience than non-Hispanic White veterans. Cultural differences in how and why individuals use social support may underlie racial/ethnic differences in the relationship between social support and psychological resilience. Future qualitative and quantitative research is encouraged to better understand how social support relates to psychological resilience among minority OEF/OIF combat veterans. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Profiling the Psychological Training and Support Needs of Oncology Staff, and Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Level 2 Psychological Support Training Program Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffan, Amanda J; Daniels, Jo; Osborn, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The importance of training non-psychology healthcare professionals to offer psychological support to people with cancer is becoming increasingly recognized. This small-scale pilot project sought to identify the training and support needs of oncology staff and to evaluate the effectiveness of a Level 2 Psychological Support Training Program workshop. Semi-structured interviews with five members of multidisciplinary oncology staff identified that training needs were primarily around communication skills, recognizing and dealing with emotions, offering support and empathy, and self-care. Pre and post-training questionnaires developed with these themes in mind revealed that the Level 2 Training Program workshops run in this network of hospitals are effective in increasing participants' levels of perceived knowledge and confidence across each of these domains. Recommendations are made for further enhancing this effectiveness.

  19. Does education buffer the impact of disability on psychological distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandemakers, Jornt J; Monden, Christiaan W S

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigates whether education buffers the impact of physical disability on psychological distress. It further investigates what makes education helpful, by examining whether cognitive ability and occupational class can explain the buffering effect of education. Two waves of the 1958 British National Child Development Study are used to test the hypothesis that the onset of a physical disability in early adulthood (age 23 to 33) has a smaller effect on psychological distress among higher educated people. In total 423 respondents (4.6%) experienced the onset of a physical disability between the ages of 23 and 33. We find that a higher educational level cushions the psychology impact of disability. Cognitive ability and occupational class protect against the effect of a disability too. The education buffer arises in part because individuals with a higher level of education have more cognitive abilities, but the better social position of those with higher levels of education appears to be of greater importance. Implications of these findings for the social gradient in health are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Supportive relationships--psychological effects of group counselling in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roessler, Kirsten K; Glintborg, Dorte; Ravn, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    -intensity aerobic exercise followed by eight weeks of group counselling (n=8) or vice versa (n=9). Interpersonal communication, emotional and relational aspects were observed and analysed throughout the period focusing on changes in health behaviour. The most salient findings showed supportive relationships...... encouraging in the group that had initial counselling sessions before the physical intervention. It can be concluded that group counselling sessions focusing on supportive relationships followed by high-intensity aerobic training have beneficial effects on wellbeing, health and exercise behaviour.......The objective of the present study was to examine the psychological impact of a group-oriented approach to disease management and health behaviour in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Seventeen overweight PCOS women were randomised in a crossover design of eight weeks high...

  1. Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Autonomy-Supportive Sibling Interactions: The Role of Mothers' and Siblings' Psychological Need Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Loeys, Tom; Mabbe, Elien; Gargurevich, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    Autonomy-supportive parenting yields manifold benefits. To gain more insight into the family-level dynamics involved in autonomy-supportive parenting, the present study addressed three issues. First, on the basis of self-determination theory, we examined whether mothers' satisfaction of the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness related to autonomy-supportive parenting. Second, we investigated maternal autonomy support as an intervening variable in the mother-child similarity in psychological need satisfaction. Third, we examined associations between autonomy-supportive parenting and autonomy-supportive sibling interactions. Participants were 154 mothers (M age = 39.45, SD = 3.96) and their two elementary school-age children (M age = 8.54, SD = 0.89 and M age = 10.38, SD = 0.87). Although mothers' psychological need satisfaction related only to maternal autonomy support in the younger siblings, autonomy-supportive parenting related to psychological need satisfaction in both siblings and to an autonomy-supportive interaction style between siblings. We discuss the importance of maternal autonomy support for family-level dynamics. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  2. Autonomy support, basic psychological needs and well-being in Mexican athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Walle, Jeanette; Balaguer, Isabel; Castillo, Isabel; Tristán, José

    2012-11-01

    Based on Basic Needs Theory, one of the mini-theories of Self-determination Theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002), the present study had two objectives: (a) to test a model in the Mexican sport context based on the following sequence: perceived coach autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and psychological well-being, and b) to analyze the mediational effect of the satisfaction of perceived coach autonomy support on indicators of psychological well-being (satisfaction with life and subjective vitality). Six hundred and sixty-nine young Mexican athletes (Boys = 339; Girls = 330; M(age) = 13.95) filled out a questionnaire assessing the study variables. Structural equations analyses revealed that perceived coach autonomy support predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Furthermore, basic need satisfaction predicted subjective vitality and satisfaction with life. Autonomy, competence and relatedness partially mediated the path from perceived coach autonomy support to psychological well-being in young Mexican athletes.

  3. The Impact of Parental Detention on the Psychological Wellbeing of Palestinian Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Shehadeh

    Full Text Available Since 1967, the Palestinian Occupied Territories are marked by a political conflict between Palestinians and Israel. During this conflict, about one fifth of the Palestinian population has been detained; about one quarter of these are parents. Although we know that father's incarceration might impact their children's psychological wellbeing, little is known about the impact of father's imprisonment on young children (under 11 years old, and when the incarceration is framed in contexts of political conflict. Therefore, this study aimed at gaining insight into the impact of parental detention on young children's psychological wellbeing, and the impact of witnessing the detention process itself.Based on the list of imprisoned Palestinian men with children living in the West Bank, a group of 79 (3- to 10-years old children was randomly composed. Above, through schools and health centers, a comparison sample of 99 children who didn't experience imprisonment of a family member was selected. Mothers of these children completed two cross-culturally validated questionnaires on their children's psychological wellbeing, the UCLA-PTSD-Index and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ.Results showed higher levels of PTSD and general mental health problems associated with father's capturing. Above, when the children watched the arrest process of their fathers, scores still increased further. Younger children tended to show higher SDQ scores, and children living in villages reported higher posttraumatic stress scores compared to children living in urban areas or refugee camps. Little gender differences were found.This study shows the important impact of parental detention on the psychological wellbeing for young children and urges for more psychological care and support for family members--in particular children--of detainees.

  4. The Impact of Parental Detention on the Psychological Wellbeing of Palestinian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Amer; Loots, Gerrit; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Derluyn, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Since 1967, the Palestinian Occupied Territories are marked by a political conflict between Palestinians and Israel. During this conflict, about one fifth of the Palestinian population has been detained; about one quarter of these are parents. Although we know that father's incarceration might impact their children's psychological wellbeing, little is known about the impact of father's imprisonment on young children (under 11 years old), and when the incarceration is framed in contexts of political conflict. Therefore, this study aimed at gaining insight into the impact of parental detention on young children's psychological wellbeing, and the impact of witnessing the detention process itself. Based on the list of imprisoned Palestinian men with children living in the West Bank, a group of 79 (3- to 10-years old) children was randomly composed. Above, through schools and health centers, a comparison sample of 99 children who didn't experience imprisonment of a family member was selected. Mothers of these children completed two cross-culturally validated questionnaires on their children's psychological wellbeing, the UCLA-PTSD-Index and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results showed higher levels of PTSD and general mental health problems associated with father's capturing. Above, when the children watched the arrest process of their fathers, scores still increased further. Younger children tended to show higher SDQ scores, and children living in villages reported higher posttraumatic stress scores compared to children living in urban areas or refugee camps. Little gender differences were found. This study shows the important impact of parental detention on the psychological wellbeing for young children and urges for more psychological care and support for family members--in particular children--of detainees.

  5. Psychological support for mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders via traditional Russian tea party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belopolskaya N.L.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to discuss the possibility of providing psychological support for mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders via traditional Russian tea party. Questionnaire results, according to which mothers of children with ASD are essentially focused on receiving psychological counseling in the area of child development and education are presented. However personal problems of the woman, including psychological weightiness is usually taken a back seat. The research supports a hypothesis that informal format of tea party allows mothers decreasing psychological distance with psychologist, feeling at ease. The article includes an analysis of psychological meetings focused on personal life questions of participants. The results obtained in the research showed effectiveness of this approach. The Russian tea party is a meeting form that fosters the growth of confidence toward psychologist, expanding the range of personal questions that could be discussed. The mothers had the opportunity of open communication with each other, reported psychological safety valve.

  6. Patient preferences for psychological support in inflammatory arthritis: A multicentre survey

    OpenAIRE

    Dures, E.; Almeida, C.; Caesley, J.; Peterson, A.; Ambler, N.; Morris, M.; Pollock, J.; Hewlett, S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Inflammatory arthritis (IA) can lead to anxiety, depression, pain and fatigue. Psychological support can improve quality of life and self-management; and European and American guidelines recommend support be offered. This study examined patient views on psychological support for their IA.\\ud \\ud Methods: A questionnaire designed by researchers, patient partners and clinicians was administered to 2280 patients with IA.\\ud \\ud Results: 1210 patients responded (53%): 74% women; mean ...

  7. Socioeconomic and psychological impact of treatment for unilateral intraocular retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, S E; Dimaras, H; Souka, A A; Ashry, M H; Gallie, B L

    2015-06-01

    To identify the socioeconomic and psychosocial impacts of clinical treatment decisions for advanced unilateral intraocular retinoblastoma. Retrospective observational case series. institutional study at Alexandria Main University Hospital. records of 66 unilateral retinoblastoma cases treated from May 2005 to May 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty cases were eligible (International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification [IIRC] group C, D or E). two treatment groups were compared: enucleation vs. salvage treatment. Salvage treatment eyes were further subdivided based on IIRC group. Six socioeconomic parameters (financial burden, financial impact, psychological, social, medical and tumor impacts) were scored. Parameter scores ranged from 0 to 3, for overall score range 0 (no adverse impact) to 18 (severe adverse impact). derived Socioeconomic scores were correlated with treatment and outcomes. The enucleation group (28 eyes) had a median overall Socioeconomic score of 4/18, significantly lower than the salvage treatment group (32 eyes), median score 11/18 (PSocioeconomic score varied with IIRC group. Attempted eye salvage failed in 25 children, due to uncontrolled tumor (44%) and socioeconomic impact of cumulative therapies (56%). Treatment duration and Socioeconomic score were higher for the 5 children in the salvage treatment group who developed metastatic disease compared to those without metastasis (Psocioeconomic and psychosocial impacts of attempted ocular salvage for unilateral intraocular retinoblastoma are severe, in comparison to primary enucleation. Primary enucleation is a good treatment for unilateral retinoblastoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of psychological stress on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hong-Yan; Cheng, Chung-Wah; Tang, Xu-Dong; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2014-10-21

    Psychological stress is an important factor for the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). More and more clinical and experimental evidence showed that IBS is a combination of irritable bowel and irritable brain. In the present review we discuss the potential role of psychological stress in the pathogenesis of IBS and provide comprehensive approaches in clinical treatment. Evidence from clinical and experimental studies showed that psychological stresses have marked impact on intestinal sensitivity, motility, secretion and permeability, and the underlying mechanism has a close correlation with mucosal immune activation, alterations in central nervous system, peripheral neurons and gastrointestinal microbiota. Stress-induced alterations in neuro-endocrine-immune pathways acts on the gut-brain axis and microbiota-gut-brain axis, and cause symptom flare-ups or exaggeration in IBS. IBS is a stress-sensitive disorder, therefore, the treatment of IBS should focus on managing stress and stress-induced responses. Now, non-pharmacological approaches and pharmacological strategies that target on stress-related alterations, such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, miscellaneous agents, 5-HT synthesis inhibitors, selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, and specific 5-HT receptor antagonists or agonists have shown a critical role in IBS management. A integrative approach for IBS management is a necessary.

  9. Relationship between Psychological Hardiness and Social Support with Adaptation: A Study on Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N hasan neghad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological hardiness is a personal factor and social support is regarded as an environmental factor that can facilitate adjustment to disease. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between adaptation with psychological hardiness and social support in individuals with Multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: Seventy two females with MS and 25 males with MSwere selected through randomized sampling from two MS centers. Main variables of the study including adaptation, psychological hardiness, and social supportwere assessed respectively by Adaptation Inventory, Personal Attitudes Survey, and Social Support Questionnaire. Results: Spearman correlation coefficients revealed that there are significant relationships between adaptation and psychological hardiness (p<0.0001, as well as between adaptation and social support (p<0.0001. In addition, Multiple linear Regression showed that psychological hardiness (β= -0.483 and social support (β= -0.240 can explain 35/1% of adaptation variance in individuals with MS. Psychological hardinessproved to have a more important role in adaptation of individuals with MS. Conclusion: The study data demonstrated that personal factors like psychological hardiness and environmental factors such as social support can predict adjustment in individuals with MS. In order to clarify mechanisms of these factors on adaptation in individuals with MS, morelongitudinal and experimental studiesare required. These results are alsoapplicable in designing therapeutic programs for individuals with MS.

  10. Elastic analysis of beam support impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.A.; Verma, V.K.; Youtsos, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of gaps present in the seismic supports of nuclear piping systems has been studied with the use of such large general purpose analysis codes as ANSYS. Exact analytical solutions to two simple beam impact problems are obtained to serve as benchmarks for the evaluation of the ability of such codes to model impact between beam elements and their supports. Bernoulli-Euler beam theory and modal analysis are used to obtain analytical solutions for the motion of simply supported and fixed ended beams after impact with a spring support at midspan. The solutions are valid up to the time the beam loses contact with the spring support. Numerical results are obtained which show that convergence for both contact force and bending moment at the point of impact is slower as spring stiffness is increased. Finite element solutions obtained with ANSYS are compared to analytical results and good agreement is obtained

  11. Ways forward for aquatic conservation: Applications of environmental psychology to support management objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Springett, Kate; Jefferson, Rebecca; Böck, Kerstin; Breckwoldt, Annette; Comby, Emeline; Cottet, Marylise; Hübner, Gundula; Le Lay, Yves-François; Shaw, Sylvie; Wyles, Kayleigh

    2016-01-15

    The success or failure of environmental management goals can be partially attributed to the support for such goals from the public. Despite this, environmental management is still dominated by a natural science approach with little input from disciplines that are concerned with the relationship between humans and the natural environment such as environmental psychology. Within the marine and freshwater environments, this is particularly concerning given the cultural and aesthetic significance of these environments to the public, coupled with the services delivered by freshwater and marine ecosystems, and the vulnerability of aquatic ecosystems to human-driven environmental perturbations. This paper documents nine case studies which use environmental psychology methods to support a range of aquatic management goals. Examples include understanding the drivers of public attitudes towards ecologically important but uncharismatic river species, impacts of marine litter on human well-being, efficacy of small-scale governance of tropical marine fisheries and the role of media in shaping attitudes towards. These case studies illustrate how environmental psychology and natural sciences can be used together to apply an interdisciplinary approach to the management of aquatic environments. Such an approach that actively takes into account the range of issues surrounding aquatic environment management is more likely to result in successful outcomes, from both human and environmental perspectives. Furthermore, the results illustrate that better understanding the societal importance of aquatic ecosystems can reduce conflict between social needs and ecological objectives, and help improve the governance of aquatic ecosystems. Thus, this paper concludes that an effective relationship between academics and practitioners requires fully utilising the skills, knowledge and experience from both sectors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The psychological impact of traffic injuries sustained in a road crash by bicyclists: A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craig, Ashley; Elbers, N.A.; Jagnoor, Jagnoor; Gopinath, Bamini; Kifley, Annette; Dinh, Michal; Pozzato, Ilaria; Ivers, Rebecca; Nicholas, Michael; Cameron, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the psychological impact of traffic injuries in bicyclists (cyclists) in comparison to car occupants who also sustained traffic injuries. Factors predictive of elevated psychological distress were also investigated. Methods: An inception

  13. Stress and Psychological Support in Modern Military Operations (Stress et aide psychologique dans les operations militaires modernes)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    NATO Task Group HFM-081/RTG on "Stress and Psychological Support in Modern Military Operations" has produced, in the form of a Military Leaders Guide, a series of guidelines for psychological support...

  14. Psychological processes mediate the impact of familial risk, social circumstances and life events on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinderman, Peter; Schwannauer, Matthias; Pontin, Eleanor; Tai, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread acceptance of the 'biopsychosocial model', the aetiology of mental health problems has provoked debate amongst researchers and practitioners for decades. The role of psychological factors in the development of mental health problems remains particularly contentious, and to date there has not been a large enough dataset to conduct the necessary multivariate analysis of whether psychological factors influence, or are influenced by, mental health. This study reports on the first empirical, multivariate, test of the relationships between the key elements of the biospychosocial model of mental ill-health. Participants were 32,827 (age 18-85 years) self-selected respondents from the general population who completed an open-access online battery of questionnaires hosted by the BBC. An initial confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the adequacy of the proposed factor structure and the relationships between latent and measured variables. The predictive path model was then tested whereby the latent variables of psychological processes were positioned as mediating between the causal latent variables (biological, social and circumstantial) and the outcome latent variables of mental health problems and well-being. This revealed an excellent fit to the data, S-B χ(2) (3199, N = 23,397) = 126654.8, pmental health difficulties, social deprivation, and traumatic or abusive life-experiences all strongly predicted higher levels of anxiety and depression. However, these relationships were strongly mediated by psychological processes; specifically lack of adaptive coping, rumination and self-blame. These results support a significant revision of the biopsychosocial model, as psychological processes determine the causal impact of biological, social, and circumstantial risk factors on mental health. This has clear implications for policy, education and clinical practice as psychological processes such as rumination and self-blame are amenable to evidence

  15. Evaluation of psychological support for victims of sexual violence in a conflict setting: results from Brazzaville, Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustache, Sarah; Moro, Marie-Rose; Roptin, Jacky; Souza, Renato; Gansou, Grégoire Magloire; Mbemba, Alain; Roederer, Thomas; Grais, Rebecca F; Gaboulaud, Valérie; Baubet, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the impact of psychological support in war and transcultural contexts and in particular, whether there are lasting benefits. Here, we present an evaluation of the late effect of post-rape psychological support provided to women in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. Methods Women who attended the Médecins Sans Frontières program for sexual violence in Brazzaville during the conflict were selected to evaluate the psychological consequences of rape and the late effect of post-rape psychological support. A total of 178 patients met the eligibility criteria: 1) Women aged more than 15 years; 2) raped by unknown person(s) wearing military clothes; 3) admitted to the program between the 1/1/2002 and the 30/4/2003; and 4) living in Brazzaville. Results The initial diagnosis according to DSM criteria showed a predominance of anxious disorders (54.1%) and acute stress disorders (24.6%). One to two years after the initial psychological care, 64 women were evaluated using the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ), the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF) and an assessment scale to address medico-psychological care in emergencies (EUMP). Two patients (3.1%) met the needed criteria for PTSD diagnosis from the TSQ. Among the 56 women evaluated using GAF both as pre and post-test, global functioning was significantly improved by initial post-rape support (50 women (89.3%) had extreme or medium impairment at first post-rape evaluation, and 16 (28.6%) after psychological care; p = 0.04). When interviewed one to two years later, the benefit was fully maintained (16 women (28.6%) presenting extreme or medium impairment). Conclusion We found the benefits of post-rape psychological support to be present and lasting in this conflict situation. However, we were unable to evaluate all women for the long-term impact, underscoring the difficulty of leading evaluation studies in unstable contexts. Future research is needed to validate these findings in

  16. Report of the psychological support given to victims of the Goiania radiological accident in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Lenice Cruvinel; Pereira, Maria Emilia Pontes

    1988-02-01

    The psychological support given to the victims of the Goiania accident are described. The assistance lasted two months on the average and was given while the victims were in the hospital and later on in the recuperation center

  17. Psychological support for orthognathic patients -- what do orthodontists want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juggins, K J; Feinmann, C; Shute, J; Cunningham, S J

    2006-06-01

    (1) To evaluate consultant orthodontist opinion on referral of orthognathic patients to a liaison psychiatrist or psychologist and (2) To investigate the value of training orthodontic specialists in recognition of patients with psychological profiles that might affect orthognathic outcome. Questionnaire-based study. A structured questionnaire was distributed to all consultant orthodontists in the UK. Approximately 40% of consultants thought that up to 10% of their orthognathic patients would benefit from psychological assessment by appropriately trained personnel. Twenty per cent of consultants were not certain what proportion of their patients would benefit from referral and over half the respondents said they do not refer any orthognathic patients for assessment. The most common reasons for referral were past/current psychiatric history (36%), unrealistic expectations (32%), 'gut instinct' (14%), no significant clinical problem (13%). Reasons not to refer were: nobody to refer to (30.5%), fear of patient reacting badly (15.8%), not sure who to refer to (14.7%), response from mental health team not useful (12.4%), waiting list too long (9.6%). The majority of clinicians felt they would benefit from training in this field (84.7%), as over 80% reported no teaching or training in psychological assessment/management. Although we have no evidence to prove that interdisciplinary care is better for patients, clinical experience and reports from clinicians working in large centres, tells us there are probable advantages. The development of a training programme for both orthodontists and mental health teams would seem to be beneficial for both clinicians and patients.

  18. Psychological distress in student nurses undertaking an educational programme with professional registration as a nurse: Their perceived barriers and facilitators in seeking psychological support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A E P

    2018-05-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Psychological distress is a major health concern, and university student populations are at a risk due to high academic, economic and interpersonal demands at this time. While a number of studies have been conducted looking at distress and service uptake amongst university students, there is a lack of comparative information in the student nurse population. Therefore, this study focuses on level of psychological distress and service uptake in student nurses during their training. Student nurses in training are acknowledged as particularly vulnerable to anxiety and depression. Anxiety and depression can interfere with educational achievement and interfere with working relationships, which are an important aspect of clinical practice. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study investigates psychological distress and service uptake in student nurses, in a single study, by measuring the level of distress and comparing this with adult nonpatient norms. The key findings suggest high levels of anxiety and depression and poor uptake of support in student nurses. The main barrier to seeking support was the fear of disclosure about their anxiety and/or depression, and feared impact on their suitability to train as a nurse. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Due to the fear of disclosure and low levels of support seeking, mental health nurses and academics have a key role to play in mental health literacy. It seems reasonable, given the key findings, to suggest that interventions be directed at decreasing anxiety and depression such as mindfulness training and other evidence-based strategies. It is recommended that psychological distress needs due attention from higher education sector and those health professionals involved in mental health service provision to support evidence-based strategies that target these issues. Introduction This study adds to the existing international evidence on psychological distress in the

  19. Future Orientation, Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment among Left-behind Children in Rural China: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Zhu, Maoling

    2017-01-01

    Existing research has found that parental migration may negatively impact the psychological adjustment of left-behind children. However, limited longitudinal research has examined if and how future orientation (individual protective factor) and social support (contextual protective factor) are associated with the indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction, school satisfaction, happiness, and loneliness) of left-behind children. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the differences in psychological adjustment between left-behind children and non-left behind children (comparison children) in rural areas, and explored the protective roles of future orientation and social support on the immediate (cross-sectional effects) and subsequent (lagged effects) status of psychological adjustment for both groups of children, respectively. The sample included 897 rural children ( M age = 14.09, SD = 1.40) who participated in two waves of surveys across six months. Among the participants, 227 were left-behind children with two parents migrating, 176 were with one parent migrating, and 485 were comparison children. Results showed that, (1) left-behind children reported lower levels of life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as a higher level of loneliness in both waves; (2) After controlling for several demographics and characteristics of parental migration among left-behind children, future orientation significantly predicted life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness in both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models, as well as loneliness in the longitudinal regression analysis. Social support predicted immediate life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as subsequent school satisfaction. Similar to left-behind children, comparison children who reported higher scores in future orientation, especially future expectation, were likely to have higher scores in most indicators of

  20. Future Orientation, Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment among Left-behind Children in Rural China: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobing Su

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing research has found that parental migration may negatively impact the psychological adjustment of left-behind children. However, limited longitudinal research has examined if and how future orientation (individual protective factor and social support (contextual protective factor are associated with the indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction, school satisfaction, happiness, and loneliness of left-behind children. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the differences in psychological adjustment between left-behind children and non-left behind children (comparison children in rural areas, and explored the protective roles of future orientation and social support on the immediate (cross-sectional effects and subsequent (lagged effects status of psychological adjustment for both groups of children, respectively. The sample included 897 rural children (Mage = 14.09, SD = 1.40 who participated in two waves of surveys across six months. Among the participants, 227 were left-behind children with two parents migrating, 176 were with one parent migrating, and 485 were comparison children. Results showed that, (1 left-behind children reported lower levels of life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as a higher level of loneliness in both waves; (2 After controlling for several demographics and characteristics of parental migration among left-behind children, future orientation significantly predicted life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness in both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models, as well as loneliness in the longitudinal regression analysis. Social support predicted immediate life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as subsequent school satisfaction. Similar to left-behind children, comparison children who reported higher scores in future orientation, especially future expectation, were likely to have higher scores in most indicators of

  1. Treatment of depressed mothers in home visiting: impact on psychological distress and social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Robert T; Putnam, Frank W; Altaye, Mekibib; Teeters, Angelique R; Stevens, Jack; Van Ginkel, Judith B

    2013-08-01

    Depression is prevalent in mothers receiving home visiting. Little is known about the impact of treatment on associated features of maternal depression in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a novel, adapted treatment for depressed mothers in home visiting on psychological distress and social functioning. In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT) was developed to treat depressed mothers in home visiting. A randomized clinical trial design was used in which subjects were 93 new mothers in a home visiting program. Mothers with major depressive disorder identified at 3 months postpartum were randomized into IH-CBT and ongoing home visiting (n = 47) or standard home visiting (SHV; n = 46) in which they received home visitation alone and could obtain treatment in the community. Measures of psychological distress, social support, and social network were measured at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and three-month follow-up. Clinical features of depression and home visiting parameters were examined as potential moderators. Subjects receiving IH-CBT reported decreased psychological distress at post-treatment (ES = 0.77) and follow-up (ES = 0.73). Examination of types of psychological distress indicated broad improvements at both time points. Those receiving IH-CBT reported increased social support over time relative to those in the SHV condition. Effect sizes were modest at post-treatment (ES = 0.38) but increased at follow-up (ES = 0.65). Improvements were seen in affiliative and belonginess aspects of social support, in contrast to tangible support which was statistically non-significant. Findings were not moderated by clinical features of depression or home visiting parameters. No group differences were found in size of and involvement with social networks. IH-CBT is effective in reducing psychological distress and improving perceived social support in depressed mothers receiving home visiting. To the extent that mothers are better

  2. Just world beliefs moderate the relationship of pain intensity and disability with psychological distress in chronic pain support group members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, Joanna L; Knussen, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The impact of pain beliefs on coping and adjustment is well established. However, less is known about how beliefs unrelated to pain might impact upon this experience. In particular, just world beliefs could impact upon and be influenced by chronic pain, given that pain is not experienced in a vacuum but instead is experienced in a social context where justice issues are potentially salient. The focus of this study was the ability of personal and general just world beliefs to moderate the relationships psychological distress held with pain intensity and disability in chronic pain. The sample (N=95) was recruited from members of arthritis and fibromyalgia support groups to investigate these social beliefs in a controlled community pain context. A cross-sectional, questionnaire design was adopted. The personal just world belief was endorsed significantly more than the general just world belief, and endorsement of the personal just world belief was negatively correlated with pain intensity, disability and psychological distress, while the general just world belief was unrelated to these variables. When interaction terms relating to personal and general just world beliefs were entered simultaneously into regression analyses, the personal just world belief did not predict psychological distress. However, pain intensity positively predicted psychological distress at low but not high levels of the general just world belief, while disability predicted psychological distress at low and high levels of this belief. This suggests that a strong general just world belief has implications for psychological well-being in chronic pain, and as such this belief may occupy a potential coping function in this context.

  3. Psychology of Social Support on Individuals and Society | Balogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These show the central nature of the concept of social support not only to the Yorubas but to most if not all societies. In other words, social support can been seen as a universal phenomenon. This cocept is what is expoused in the present paper with its relevance to the societal well being in general. African Journal for the ...

  4. Social support, psychological vulnerability, and HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Lena D; van den Berg, Jacob J; Chambers, Christopher S; Operario, Don

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has suggested a need to understand the social-psychological factors contributing to HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 adult African American MSM to examine their personal experiences about: (i) sources of social support, (ii) psychological responses to the presence or absence of social support and (iii) influences of social support on sexual behaviours. The majority of participants described limited positive encouragement and lack of emotional support from family, as well as few meaningful personal relationships. Feelings of isolation and mistrust about personal relationships led many participants to avoid emotional intimacy and seek physical intimacy through sexual encounters. Findings highlight a need for multilevel interventions that enhance social support networks and address the social-psychological, emotional and interpersonal factors that contribute to HIV risk among African American MSM.

  5. Psychological impact of third molar surgery: a 1-month prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, Ad; van Wijk, Arjen J.; Lindeboom, Jerome A.

    2011-01-01

    To prospectively examine the psychological impact of surgical third molar removal, and to identify possible psychological risk factors for the development of dental anxiety and symptoms of psychological trauma. Patients (N = 71) scheduled for surgical mandibular third molar removal were assessed

  6. The psychological impact of the Three Mile Island incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, P D; Houts, P S

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the psychological impact of the Three Mile Island incident. The results are based on data from a panel study of 403 persons living within five miles of Three Mile Island (TMI), and a telephone survey of 1,506 people living within 55 miles of that area. Active coping strategies were associated with continued high levels of distress. Having more friends was related to reduced distress, but introspection, taking protective actions, being active in organizations, and seeking out others were all related to higher levels of distress. High self-esteem was related to a decrease in symptoms and psychotropic drug use, and avoidance behaviors were related to higher than expected numbers of symptoms. Efforts to profile those who used different coping strategies were relatively unsuccessful. The results emphasize the need to consider the nature of the stressor when developing models of coping and response to stressful situations.

  7. Psychological impact of the Three Mile Island incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleary, P.D.; Houts, P.S.

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the psychological impact of the Three Mile Island incident. The results are based on data from a panel study of 403 persons living within five miles of Three Mile Island (TMI), and a telephone survey of 1,506 people living within 55 miles of that area. Active coping strategies were associated with continued high levels of distress. Having more friends was related to reduced distress, but introspection, taking protective actions, being active in organizations, and seeking out others were all related to higher levels of distress. High self-esteem was related to a decrease in symptoms and psychotropic drug use, and avoidance behaviors were related to higher than expected numbers of symptoms. Efforts to profile those who used different coping strategies were relatively unsuccessful. The results emphasize the need to consider the nature of the stressor when developing models of coping and response to stressful situations

  8. The psychological impact of aging on sexuality and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsberg, S A

    2000-01-01

    Aging has a powerful impact on the quality of relationships and sexual functioning. The psychological impact of aging after midlife is a particularly timely topic given improved medical and psychological understanding of sexuality in both women and men, as well as more effective treatment for age-related sexual dysfunctions. It is time to dispel the stereotype of the midlife relationship as the continuation of a traditional heterosexual marriage with grown or almost grown children in order to more effectively address emotional and sexual issues arising in relationships. Regardless of the length or nature of the relationship, however, its quality is enhanced by emotional intimacy, autonomy without too much distance, an ability to manage stress and distractions by external factors, and achieving a satisfying sexual equilibrium. Perception of the quality of the primary relationship and sexuality is influenced by the other factors in a person's life. Thus, the relationship must be examined and issues must be addressed taking these external factors into consideration. Among the most powerful external factors is one's occupation or avocation, as it tends to strongly influence one's sense of identity, self-esteem, and self-worth in all areas of life. To understand and treat effects of aging on sexuality, it is important to address the three components of sexual desire: drive, beliefs/values, and motivation, as well as the sexual equilibrium within the primary relationship. It is also essential to understand how the physiological changes in male and female sexual functioning affect desire and equilibrium. Other health-related changes that occur with aging must be recognized and addressed, including the fact that the oldest of old women will outlive their corresponding male cohort. Treatment implications for these issues are discussed.

  9. THE PROGRAM SUPPORT SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY OF CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Aleksandrovich Kislyakov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a description of the author’s program to support the social and psychological safety of children with intellectual disabilities enrolled in boarding school of VIII kind. The object of the study were children with intellectual disabilities. The subject of research – features of formation to children with intellectual disabilities the social and psychological safety. The methodological base are the special psychology (L.S. Vygotsky, S.L. Rubinstein, A. Speck. The results. Complex psychological and pedagogical support of social and psychological safety of children with intellectual disabilities reflects the content of psychological and pedagogical tasks (target function and technologies of their solution (instrumental function aimed at reducing internal and external risk factors. The target functions are: social and psychological adaptation, personal and developmental, the function of social support and psychological and pedagogical assistance, preventive and correctional function. Psycho-pedagogical objectives are the formation of skills of safe behavior and confront the dangers through the development of appropriate social skills, mental, physical and cognitive abilities, establishing a real and more comfortable with social contact (including municipal and educational environment, thereby ensuring individual protection and psychosocial well-being, support emotional balance, development of harmonious personality, to facilitate adaptation to the social environment, correction of risk factors of dysontogenesis. The program includes informative, technological and diagnostic modules. The basis for the construction of educational information in the field of security us based on the principle of integratively – interdisciplinary cooperation of academic subjects; a mix of mandatory core classes and extra-curricular and remedial work. Technological support included the following teaching methods: interactive (psychotechnical

  10. Dimensions of functional social support and psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, I S

    1991-11-01

    In the summer following graduation a sample of 125 female college graduates (mean age = 28) completed Cohen & Wills' ISEL (1985) which includes scales measuring four social support functions: belonging (social companionship), appraisal (availability of confidants), tangible (instrumental), and self-esteem support. In the summer and fall subject status on two outcome scales was ascertained: the Psychophysiologic Symptom Scale and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Reliability of the difference scores suggested that the ISEL scales do not measure entirely different constructs and the ISEL Self-esteem Scale is operationally redundant with the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale and the CES-D. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that the ISEL scales were related to symptoms. By contrast, standard longitudinal and prospective MLR analyses indicated that only the Belonging Scale was significantly related to future symptoms. The issues of confounding support with symptoms and the dimensionality of the subscales were discussed. The study suggests that specific functions of support take on greater importance during major life transitions and that any one supportive behaviour often serves multiple functions.

  11. Interventions to Support Integrated Psychological Care and Holistic Health Outcomes in Paediatrics

    OpenAIRE

    Shafran, Roz; Bennett, Sophie D.; McKenzie Smith, Mhairi

    2017-01-01

    There are strong calls from many national and international bodies for there to be a ‘holistic’ and integrated approach to the understanding and management of psychological and physical health needs. Such holistic approaches are characterized by the treatment of the whole person, taking into account mental and social factors, rather than just the symptoms of a disease. Holistic approaches can impact on mental and physical health and are cost-effective. Several psychological interventions have...

  12. Diabetes self management training and psychological support weekends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeesters, Hannah; Skinner, Chas; Martin, Jo

    2007-01-01

    A lack of knowledge in diabetes self management skills, such as insulin administration, glucose testing and diet, have been identified in a high percentage of adults with the condition ever since insulin treatment was first introduced (Watkins et al, 1967; Murata et al, 2003). Adult support weeke...

  13. Development and Validation of the Adolescent Psychological Need Support in Exercise Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emm-Collison, Lydia G; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B

    2016-10-01

    Grounded within self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, in press), three studies were conducted to develop and psychometrically test a measure of adolescents' perceptions of psychological need support for exercise (viz., for autonomy, competence, and relatedness): the Adolescent Psychological Need Support in Exercise Questionnaire (APNSEQ). In Study 1, 34 items were developed in collaboration with an expert panel. Through categorical confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory, responses from 433 adolescents were used to identify the best fitting and performing items in Study 2. Here, a three-factor nine-item measure showed good fit to the data. In Study 3, responses from an independent sample of 373 adolescents provided further evidence for the nine-item solution as well as for internal consistency, criterion validity, and invariance across gender and social agent (friends, family, and physical education teacher). The APNSEQ was supported as a measure of adolescents' perceptions of psychological need support within the context of exercise.

  14. Attachment as a Moderating Factor Between Social Support, Physical Health, and Psychological Symptoms

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    Kimberly A. Rapoza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.

  15. Perceived Organizational Support, Organizational Commitment and Psychological Well-Being: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaccio, Alexandra; Vandenberghe, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data (N=220), we examined the contribution of perceived organizational support and four mindsets of organizational commitment (affective, normative, perceived sacrifice associated with leaving and perceived lack of alternatives) to employee psychological well-being. In order to assess the contribution of support and commitment…

  16. The Effect of Perceived Psychological Need Support on Amotivation in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Kersey, Rachel; Spray, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators have a responsibility to create a learning environment that is viewed as supportive of students' psychological needs and which helps reduce amotivation. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of students' perceived need support on four dimensions of amotivation in physical education (PE) ("deficiency in…

  17. The influence of social support on psychological distress in Canadian adults with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Christie D; Fowler, Ken; Speed, David; Walsh, Anna

    2018-05-08

    Individuals with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) and bipolar II disorder (BD-II) are at higher risk for experiencing high levels of psychological distress and low levels of social support. The primary objectives of this study were to examine perceived social support and psychological distress among Canadian adults with self-reported BD-I or BD-II as diagnosed by a health professional and explore the relationship between types of social support and psychological distress within this sample. Using a cross-sectional, national datafile, 563 Canadian male and female adults (20-64 years) who reported being diagnosed with BD-I or BD-II were investigated using the Social Provisions Scale (SPS), and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). It was observed that while the BD-I or BD-II sample had significantly lower SPS scores and significantly higher K10 scores than the overall Canadian sample, age and support in the form of reassurance of worth and social integration were associated with decreased psychological distress. Further, a diagnosis of BD-I and BD-II was found to moderate the effect of social support on psychological distress. Despite the limitations, which include self-reported diagnosis of BD-I and BD-II and potential exclusion of those who are not diagnosed but have BD-I or BD-II, these findings suggest that reassurance of worth and social integration may act as protective factors for psychological distress among individuals with BD-I or BD-II.

  18. Creation and Support of the State of Psychological Safety of Pupils of Cadet Classes

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    Baeva I.A.,

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author's approach to the support of psychological safety in the educational process. As cadet classes make high demands to the capabilities and resources of the child, the task of tracking these educational programs in terms of psychological safety of children is particularly relevant. The study tested the assumption that the program support the state of psychological safety, implementing a risk-resource approach and aimed at updating / generation components of psychological safety (satisfaction, protection, reference, subjective well-being of the child in the Cadet educational environment, activity, will be effective when accompanied by cadet training programs. Testing of the developed program was carried out with students of third cadet classes (53 people in the experimental group and 26 in the control group. components and criteria of psychological safety of the younger schoolboy were determined on the basis of theoretical analysis. The methods of interrogation (questioning, testing, projective method examined the children, parents and teachers in the cadet classes to identify the initial and final levels of psychological safety of younger students. Statistical analysis were used cluster and discriminant analysis, chi-square test for contingency tables, sign test G. The article describes the features of the program, aimed at the formation and maintenance of psychological safety of younger pupils, pupils of cadet classes. The efficiency of it on all the selected criteria with a level of significance of not more than p <0,005. Ideas forming program can be used in the practice of psychological work in schools, as well as for further research of psychological safety of children in the educational environment of schools of different types and species.

  19. Study of the Psychological Profile in Diabetic Patient and its Relationship with their Social Support

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    Akbar Atadokht

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder that has negative effect on physical function, psychological condition, interpersonal, family and social relationship and in general, on psychological well being. The aim of this study was to investigate of psychological profile in diabetic patients and it's relatioship with social support.   Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 120 diabetic patients have been selected among of those that systematically refered to Diabetes Clinic of Emam Khomeini Hospital in order to follow their therapeutic process in Ardabil . Data gathering was accomplished by two tests: SCL-90-R and Social Support Scale. Finally data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and T-test on SPSS-17 software and p-value less than 0.05 considered as significant.   Results: Results showed that 70% of diabetic patients had problems in somatic complaint and obsession, 62.5% in sensitivity, 72.5% in depression, 62.5% in anxiety, 55% in hostility, 67.5% in paranoid thoughts, 27.5% in phobia and 37.5% in psychosis. Correlations between social support with somatic complaint, obsession, sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility and paranoid thoughts were negatively significant. Family support associated significantly with all of the psychological variables but friend Support had no significant correlation with them.   Conclusion: The range of psychological problems experienced by diabetic patients is more extensive and these problems have significant relationship with social support. Thus, attention to different dimensions of psychological health is necessary and social support-based interventions can be more effective.

  20. Scholarly Productivity and Impact of School Psychology Faculty in APA-Accredited Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapin, Sally L.; Kranzler, John H.; Daley, Matt L.

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to conduct a normative assessment of the research productivity and scholarly impact of tenured and tenure-track faculty in school psychology programs accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA). Using the PsycINFO database, productivity and impact were examined for the field as a whole and by…

  1. Athlete social support, negative social interactions and psychological health across a competitive sport season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFreese, J D; Smith, Alan L

    2014-12-01

    Social support and negative social interactions have implications for athlete psychological health, with potential to influence the links of stress-related experiences with burnout and well-being over time. Using a longitudinal design, perceived social support and negative social interactions were examined as potential moderators of the temporal stress-burnout and burnout-well-being relationships. American collegiate athletes (N = 465) completed reliable and valid online assessments of study variables at four time points during the competitive season. After controlling for dispositional and conceptually important variables, social support and negative social interactions did not moderate the stress-burnout or burnout-well-being relationships, respectively, but did simultaneously contribute to burnout and well-being across the competitive season. The results showcase the importance of sport-related social perceptions to athlete psychological outcomes over time and inform development of socially driven interventions to improve the psychological health of competitive athletes.

  2. The impact of a bariatric rehabilitation service on weight loss and psychological adjustment - study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollywood Amelia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective form of obesity management for those whose BMI is greater than 40 (or 35 with co morbidities. A minority of patients, however, either do not show the desired loss of excess weight or show weight regain by follow up. Research highlights some of the reasons for this variability, most of which centres on the absence of any psychological support with patients describing how although surgery fixes their body, psychological issues relating to dietary control, self esteem, coping and emotional eating remain neglected. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of a health psychology led bariatric rehabilitation service (BRS on patient health outcomes. The bariatric rehabilitation service will provide information, support and mentoring pre and post surgery and will address psychological issues such as dietary control, self esteem, coping and emotional eating. The package reflects the rehabilitation services now common place for patients post heart attack and stroke which have been shown to improve patient health outcomes. Methods/Design The study is a randomised control trial and patients will be allocated to receive either usual care or the bariatric rehabilitation service pre and post bariatric surgery. Follow up measures of weight loss and psychological issues will be taken at baseline (2 weeks preoperatively, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The contents of the bariatric service and the follow up measures are based on previous pilot work and have been developed further by the research team working closely with two patient support groups (BOSPA & WLSinfo. This study will take place in St Richard's Hospital in Chichester in the UK. Discussion It is predicted that a bariatric rehabilitation service will improve weight loss following surgery and will also facilitate changes in other psychological variables such as quality of life, dietary control, self esteem, coping and

  3. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women’s experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15–25 weeks’ gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803

  4. A THEORETICAL MODEL OF SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT WORK PROCESSES FOR MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTION TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Gennadevna Pronyushkina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the management of production team, in particular the developed theoretical model of socio-psychological support work processes for management of production team. The author of the research are formulated the purpose and objectives of social-psychological work on management of the production team. Developed in the study a theoretical model aimed at determining the conditions and the identification of features of effective management of the enterprise taking into account the socio-psychological characteristics of its staff. Tasks include: definition of the main characteristics of the production team and their severity, the analysis of these characteristics and identifying opportunities for their transformation, development of recommendations for management of social-psychological work on effects on the characteristics of the collective enterprise.Practical study of the activities of a number of businesses have shown the need to improve socio-psychological support of management processes production team: introducing a social and psychological planning team and develop the practice of sociological research on the state of the team, to ensure the smoothing of relations between workers and management through periodic meetings, creations of conditions for feedback, maintaining healthy competition among team members.

  5. Developing Psychological Culture of Schoolchildren as a Means of Supporting Implementation of Basic Education Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubrovina I.V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the social situation of development of children and adolescents in the modern society marked by rapid changes. The development of children and adolescents is described as ‘embedding into the culture’ through the education and is closely associated with the formation of their psychological culture. The paper analyses the conditions of personality development in modern children and adolescents, the factors which impede the communication and understanding of other people; it highlights the risks of escaping into the virtual reality or joining asocial groups. The paper also suggests important measures aimed at the formation of psychological culture in children in relation to age-specific tasks of development in primary school and adolescent ages. The development of psychological culture is regarded as the key means of supporting the implementation of modern educational standards as well as the foundation of psychological health in schoolchildren.

  6. The impact of psychological capital on job embeddedness and job performance among nurses: a structural equation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Zhao, Xiao Wen; Yang, Li Bin; Fan, Li Hua

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide empirical evidence on the relationships between psychological capital, job embeddedness and performance. This paper also seeks to present the theoretical development of psychological capital and job embeddedness in nursing research and their application to nursing practices. Psychological capital was recently identified as a core construct in the literature of positive psychology. However, there is considerably less evidence on its positive effects on job embeddedness and performance among nursing personnel. Questionnaires were distributed to approximately 1000 nurses employed in five university hospitals in Heilongjiang province in China. Data were collected in november 2009. the response rate was 73·3%. structural equation modelling was employed to test the proposed relationships. The results support the hypothesized model. This research outlined a strong relationship between the self-reported psychological capital, job embeddedness and performance of the nurses. The study findings suggest that improving the individual-accumulated psychological state of nurses will have a positive impact on their retention intention and job performance. These findings suggest that higher psychological capital increases the self-reported job embeddedness and performance of these nurses. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Improvement of psychological work in the system of moral and psychological support for the operational activities in the internal affairs personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir L. Kubyshko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since psychological work in the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation is one of the professional activities, the departments must perform the tasks of the following two tiers: professionally-based and system-wide. Those tasks of the first tier perform the tree groups of individual and group diagnostics, personal and professional development, and professional and psychological support. When implemented they are determined by system-wide goals, with the main one shaping the patriotic worldview, corporate culture and the significantprofessionalproperties of the employees. Objective. Within the framework of the approach mentioned above, the paper considers static and dynamic models of psychological work in the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation at the present stage, current issues and ways to resolve them are revealed. Progress Report. Based on the brief analysis of the static model of psychological work it is concluded that there are forces and means for the successful accomplishment of the assigned tasks which is confirmed by the external indicators. When considering the on-line dynamic model issues, the issues of scientific and methodological character are identifiedand also the corporate personnel and the systemwide (worldview typeof work are determined. Their essence and content are specified, and also the ways to constructively eliminate these issues are highlighted. Research results. The author emphasizes that the worldviewissues require special consideration as their solution demand a set of measures connected with the extension of the functional duties of the psychologists working in the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Conclusion. In the conditions of negative information and psychological impact on the professional and corporate consciousness of the Ministry of Internal Affairs employees, the increased attention of some researchers to the negative moments of the history of the police when its

  8. Trauma, post-migration living difficulties, and social support as predictors of psychological adjustment in resettled Sudanese refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Robert; Melville, Fritha; Steel, Zachary; Lacherez, Philippe

    2006-02-01

    This paper explores the impact of pre-migration trauma, post-migration living difficulties and social support on the current mental health of 63 resettled Sudanese refugees. A semistructured interview including questionnaires assessing sociodemographic information, pre-migration trauma, anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress, post-migration living difficulties and perceived social support were administered assisted by a bilingual community worker. Resettled refugees from Sudan evidenced a history of trauma. Less than 5% met criteria for posttraumatic stress but 25% reported clinically high levels of psychological distress. The results indicate that social support--particularly perceived social support from the migrant's ethnic community--play a significant role in predicting mental health outcomes. Pre-migration trauma, family status and gender were also associated with mental health outcomes. Refugees in Australia may constitute a particularly vulnerable group in terms of mental health outcomes. Culturally specific sequelae in terms of social isolation and acculturation may be particularly problematic for these migrants.

  9. The impact of the psychological contract, justice and individual differences: nurses take it personally when employers break promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwell, John; Gulyas, Andre

    2013-12-01

    To explore affective and attitudinal outcomes of aspects of the psychological contract, organizational justice and negative affectivity in nursing. Job satisfaction, mental health and commitment to organizations and the nursing profession is important for nurse retention. The psychological contract and organizational justice are related constructs that have been linked to these outcomes, as has the characteristic of negative affectivity. Rarely have the relationships between these concepts and outcomes been examined. Cross-sectional data were collected during November, 2007. Survey data collected on Registered Nurses and midwives from a large metropolitan hospital in Australia (n = 193, after removing missing cases and outliers) were analysed using structural equation modelling. The model used self-report measures of psychological contract obligations, fulfilment and breach, organizational justice and negative affectivity as predictors of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, career commitment and psychological distress. Goodness-of-fit statistics confirmed a well-fitting model. The model explained 49%, 29%, 60% and 47% of the variance in psychological distress, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and career commitment respectively. Findings support the influence of the psychological contract, fairness and individual differences on outcomes important to nurse retention. Keeping promises is more important than making promises that cannot be kept. The results support a discrepancy mechanism underlying fulfilment and breach. The impact of breach suggests that nurses take breach personally, whereas fulfilment may represent a global evaluation of discrepancies. Ultimately, fulfilling, rather than making promises, keeps nurses happy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Food in the City: Review of Psychological Impact of Growing Food in Urban Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhika Maheshwari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The activity of growing food is an integral part of human civilization and survival. The present paper attempts at exploring the psychological impact of growing edible greens in the context of urban environment. The review focuses on the impact of growing food, with primary focus on psychological impact and mental health. The findings indicate an encouraging trend in urban farming, though research activity and academic interest in the area of psychological impact of growing food seems limited. Additionally, the review throws light on the sparse research in developing countries on the said topic.

  11. Stressors, locus of control, and social support as consequences of affective psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, K; Guppy, A

    1997-04-01

    Tests of the influence of affective psychological well-being on stressors, locus of control, and social support in a 1-month follow-up study of 210 male and 34 female British accountants is reported. There was a marginally significant association between the level of psychological symptoms and subsequent reports of intensity of quantitative workload stressors. A significant interaction between psychological symptoms and a measure of depression-enthusiasm was found to predict subsequent locus of control. The results indicate a differential pattern of associations between aspects of affective well-being and subsequent reports of social support. The results also indicate that initially more frequent stressors are associated with subsequently less intense stressors of the same type. The findings highlight the dynamic and reciprocal nature of the occupational stress process.

  12. The Role of Wellbeing and Wellness: A Positive Psychological Model in Supporting Young People With ASCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Roncaglia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last 10 years sport psychology expanded its applicability in a variety of fields which have helped to address some of the challenges related to high level performance and sport competition. When we talk about performance in its wider sense, sport psychology is able to help develop a better understanding on how strategies can be adopted in improving general human performance levels. This includes increasing the knowledge of key concepts such as motivation, self-confidence and resilience. Furthermore performance in its wider sense helps in the understanding of the impact of stress and arousal and how these can affect both positively and negatively performance levels including appreciating individual differences as well as dynamics between groups of individuals. In this paper performance rather than solely be related to the field of competitive or professional sport has been discussed in people with ASCs and aims to explore how by adopting a positive psychological model in the formulation of individual assessments and subsequent interventions have led to improvement in individual skills, participation, engagement and ultimately quality of life. Positive psychological principles, such as the role of wellbeing and wellness, the PERMA Model has increased our understanding of human potentials, performance and wellbeing. The aim of this paper is to present and reflect on the applicability and benefits of adopting sport psychology models, the PERMA model and positive psychological principles in special education and care settings with the presentation and discussion of their theoretical and some practical implementation in two case studies.

  13. The impact of statins on psychological wellbeing: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neil Adrienne

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol-lowering medications such as statins have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which may be beneficial for treating depression and improving mood. However, evidence regarding their effects remains inconsistent, with some studies reporting links to mood disturbances. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to determine the impact of statins on psychological wellbeing of individuals with or without hypercholesterolemia. Methods Articles were identified using medical, health, psychiatric and social science databases, evaluated for quality, and data were synthesized and analyzed in RevMan-5 software using a random effects model. Results The 7 randomized controlled trials included in the analysis represented 2,105 participants. A test for overall effect demonstrated no statistically significant differences in psychological wellbeing between participants receiving statins or a placebo (standardized mean difference (SMD = -0.08, 95% CI -0.29 to 0.12; P = 0.42. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to separately analyze depression (n = 5 and mood (n = 2 outcomes; statins were associated with statistically significant improvements in mood scores (SMD = -0.43, 95% CI -0.61 to -0.24. Conclusions Our findings refute evidence of negative effects of statins on psychological outcomes, providing some support for mood-related benefits. Future studies could examine the effects of statins in depressed populations.

  14. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Schools: The Role of Educational Psychology in the Dissemination of Empirically Supported Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, John

    2010-01-01

    Educational psychology has recently experienced something of a revival in the provision of psychological therapy. This revival has aligned with general developments in evidence-based psychology. A product of this has been more frequent delivery of empirically supported therapies in practice settings, for example, anxiety reduction programmes in…

  15. Perceived social support and the psychological well-being of AIDS orphans in urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Sumiyo; Yasuoka, Junko; Ishikawa, Naoko; Poudel, Krishna C; Ragi, Allan; Jimba, Masamine

    2011-09-01

    Parental deaths due to AIDS seriously affect the psychological well-being of children. Social support may provide an effective resource in the care of vulnerable children in resource-limited settings. However, few studies have examined the relationships between social support and psychological well-being among AIDS orphans. This cross-sectional study was conducted to explore associations between perceived social support (PSS) and the psychological well-being of AIDS orphans, and to identify socio-demographic factors that are associated with PSS. Data were collected from 398 pairs of AIDS orphans (aged 10-18 years) and their caregivers in Nairobi, Kenya. The participants provided information on their socio-demographic characteristics, the children's PSS, and the children's psychological status (based on measures of depressive symptoms and self-esteem). Of the 398 pairs, 327 were included in the analysis. PSS scores of AIDS orphans showed significant correlations with depressive symptoms (ρ =-0.31, psiblings (β=3.044, p=0.016), were also associated with higher PSS scores. In particular, HIV-infected children (n=37) had higher scores of PSS from a special person (β=2.208, p=0.004), and children living with biological siblings (n=269) also had higher scores of PSS from both a special person (β=1.411, p=0.029) and friends (β=1.276, p=0.039). In conclusion, this study showed that PSS is positively associated with the psychological well-being of AIDS orphans. Siblings and special persons can be effective sources of social support for AIDS orphans, which help to promote their psychological well-being.

  16. Do Military Peacekeepers Want to Talk about Their Experiences? Perceived Psychological Support of UK Military Peacekeepers on Return from Deployment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenberg, Neil

    2006-01-01

    ...: To investigate the perceived psychological support requirements for service personnel on peacekeeping deployments when they return home from operations and examine their views on the requirement...

  17. Psychological distress in women at risk for hereditary breast cancer: the role of family communication and perceived social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Heijer, Mariska; Seynaeve, Caroline; Vanheusden, Kathleen; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Bartels, Carina C M; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B E; Tibben, Aad

    2011-12-01

    Hereditary breast cancer has a profound impact on individual family members and on their mutual communication and interactions. The way at-risk women cope with the threat of hereditary breast cancer may depend on the quality of family communication about hereditary breast cancer and on the perceived social support from family and friends. To examine the associations of family communication and social support with long-term psychological distress in a group of women at risk for hereditary breast cancer, who opted either for regular breast surveillance or prophylactic surgery. The study cohort consisted of 222 women at risk for hereditary breast cancer, who previously participated in a study on the psychological consequences of either regular breast cancer surveillance or prophylactic surgery. General and breast cancer specific distress, hereditary cancer-related family communication, perceived social support, and demographics were assessed. Using structural equation modelling, we found that open communication about hereditary cancer within the family was associated with less general and breast cancer specific distress. In addition, perceived support from family and friends was indirectly associated with less general and breast cancer-specific distress through open communication within the family. These findings indicate that family communication and perceived social support from friends and family are of paramount importance in the long-term adaptation to being at risk for hereditary breast cancer. Attention for these issues needs to be incorporated in the care of women at risk for hereditary breast cancer. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Parental Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment: The Role of Coping and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Marie-Helene; Melancon, Claudiane

    2013-01-01

    The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three…

  19. Parental Support for Basic Psychological Needs and Happiness: The Importance of Sense of Uniqueness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Omer Faruk; Demir, Meliksah

    2013-01-01

    Past empirical research relying on self-determination theory (SDT) has consistently shown that parental support of basic psychological needs (BPN) is associated with adolescent happiness. Yet, the specific mechanisms accounting for this link are still undetermined. The present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by testing a…

  20. Perceived Academic Control: Mediating the Effects of Optimism and Social Support on College Students' Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthig, Joelle C.; Haynes, Tara L.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.

    2009-01-01

    The first year of college presents numerous challenges experienced as overwhelming by some freshmen who may become overly stressed and depressed. This longitudinal study examined perceived academic control (PAC) as a mediator of optimism and social support's buffering effects on freshman students' psychological health. Multiple regressions…

  1. Educational Support Group in Changing Caregivers' Psychological Elder Abuse Behavior toward Caring for Institutionalized Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Wang, Jing-Jy; Yen, Maiofen; Liu, Tzu-Ti

    2009-01-01

    Institutionalized elderly who are frail and dependent are vulnerable to be abused by overwhelmed caregivers especially caregiver psychological abusive behavior is a growing but hidden problem with few evidence-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational support group in alleviating caregiver's…

  2. Interaction of social support and psychological stress on anxiety and depressive symptoms in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Gen; Wang, Shu-Sen; Peng, Rou-Jun; Qin, Tao; Shi, Yan-Xia; Teng, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Xi; Chen, Wei-Qing; Yuan, Zhong-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the association of psychological stress and social support with anxiety and depressive symptoms in Chinese newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Four hundred and one patients with breast cancer were recruited. Their demographic characteristics, psychological stress and social support were determined with a structured questionnaire, and their anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Psychological stressors caused by breast cancer diagnosed originated from five major sources, as determined by factor analysis. These included "Worrying about health being harmed, " "Fear of decline of physical function, " "Fear of work being harmed, " "Worry about daily life and social relationship being restricted, " and "Fear of family being harmed. " Hierarchical linear regression analysis indicated that, after adjusting for gender, age, marital status, educational level, and duration of illness, solid social support can alleviate such symptoms. The results of this study suggest that there are strong associations between patients' needs and psychological distress with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Social support might affect these associations in Chinese women with breast cancer.

  3. Effects of Perceived Social Support and Psychological Resilience on Social Media Addiction among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Okan; Tas, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of perceived social support and psychological resilience on social media addiction among university students. The research group was composed of 503 university students. The ages of participant students varied between 17 and 31 years old. 340 (67.6%) of the participants are female and 163 (32.4%) of them are…

  4. Psychological and Pedagogical Support of the Formation of Professional World Outlook of the University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Olga V.; Kirillova, Tatyana V.; Abramova, Lyudmila A.; Gavrilova, Irina V.; Vaibert, Margarita I.

    2017-01-01

    The research urgency is caused by necessity of the accumulation of human capital as the main factor of economic growth. The purpose of this article is to identify methods of psychological and pedagogical support of formation of professional outlook of the university students. Methodological basis of the research was the principle of acmeology,…

  5. Impact of Positive Emotions Enhancement on Physiological Processes and Psychological Functioning in Military Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa: time course and mechanisms of change. Journal of Clinical consulting Psychology 2002, 20, 267-274. [44...RTO-MP-HFM-181 14 - 1 Impact of Positive Emotions Enhancement on Physiological Processes and Psychological Functioning in Military Pilots...practical tool using different techniques in order to improve regulation of emotions before, during and after actions [3]. This psychological training is

  6. Psychological adjustment and victim-blaming among intimate partner violence offenders: The role of social support and stressful life events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Murgui

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence offenders often use victim-blaming attributions to explain their own violentbehavior. These attributions represent an important challenge for intervention programs for intimatepartnerviolence offenders. The main objectives of this study were to analyze both the influence of socialsupport and stressful life events on the psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depressivesymptomatology of intimate partner violence offenders and the relationship between offenders’psychological adjustment and their victim-blaming attributions. The sample consists of 314 men convictedof intimate partner violence who were referred to a community-based intervention program. Results froma structural equation model showed that social support and stressful life events were related topsychological adjustment. Psychological adjustment also was related to victim-blaming attributions amongintimate partner violence offenders. A better understanding of the relationships between psychologicaladjustment of intimate partner violence offenders and its determinants, as well as its impact on victimblamingattributions, may provide support to new intervention strategies. Implications of these results forimproving the effectiveness of intervention programs are discussed.

  7. Psychological Support, Puberty Suppression, and Psychosocial Functioning in Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosalia; Dunsford, Michael; Skagerberg, Elin; Holt, Victoria; Carmichael, Polly; Colizzi, Marco

    2015-11-01

    Puberty suppression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) is prescribed to relieve the distress associated with pubertal development in adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) and thereby to provide space for further exploration. However, there are limited longitudinal studies on puberty suppression outcome in GD. Also, studies on the effects of psychological support on its own on GD adolescents' well-being have not been reported. This study aimed to assess GD adolescents' global functioning after psychological support and puberty suppression. Two hundred one GD adolescents were included in this study. In a longitudinal design we evaluated adolescents' global functioning every 6 months from the first visit. All adolescents completed the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale (UGDS), a self-report measure of GD-related discomfort. We used the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) to assess the psychosocial functioning of adolescents. At baseline, GD adolescents showed poor functioning with a CGAS mean score of 57.7 ± 12.3. GD adolescents' global functioning improved significantly after 6 months of psychological support (CGAS mean score: 60.7 ± 12.5; P puberty suppression had significantly better psychosocial functioning after 12 months of GnRHa (67.4 ± 13.9) compared with when they had received only psychological support (60.9 ± 12.2, P = 0.001). Psychological support and puberty suppression were both associated with an improved global psychosocial functioning in GD adolescents. Both these interventions may be considered effective in the clinical management of psychosocial functioning difficulties in GD adolescents. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. HIV-Related Stigma, Social Support, and Psychological Distress Among Individuals Initiating ART in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcesepe, Angela; Tymejczyk, Olga; Remien, Robert; Gadisa, Tsigereda; Kulkarni, Sarah Gorrell; Hoffman, Susie; Melaku, Zenebe; Elul, Batya; Nash, Denis

    2018-02-16

    Recent World Health Organization HIV treatment guideline expansion may facilitate timely antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. However, large-scale success of universal treatment strategies requires a more comprehensive understanding of known barriers to early ART initiation. This work aims to advance a more comprehensive understanding of interrelationships among three known barriers to ART initiation: psychological distress, HIV-related stigma, and low social support. We analyzed cross-sectional interview data on 1175 adults initiating ART at six HIV treatment clinics in Ethiopia. Experience of each form of HIV-related stigma assessed (e.g., anticipatory, internalized, and enacted) was associated with increased odds of psychological distress. However, among those who reported enacted HIV-related stigma, there was no significant association between social support and psychological distress. Interventions to improve mental health among people living with HIV should consider incorporating components to address stigma, focusing on strategies to prevent or reduce the internalization of stigma, given the magnitude of the relationship between high internalized stigma and psychological distress. Interventions to increase social support may be insufficient to improve the mental health of people living with HIV who experienced enacted HIV-related stigma. Future research should examine alternative strategies to manage the mental health consequences of enacted HIV-related stigma, including coping skills training.

  9. Impact of Technical Support on Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Gajic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Technical support through co-creation of value in automotive paint processes and activities is essential to the success of paint manufacturing companies. This study aimed to explore the impact of technical support on customer satisfaction through value-in-use in the automotive paint market. A quantitative questionnaire survey involving a convenience sample of 169 respondents was used for data collection. The questionnaire design bore on the SERVPERF instrument with embedded value-in-use attributes. The data were analyzed by using SPSS 21 statistical methods exploratory factor analysis (EFA and multiple regression analysis (MRA. The findings of this study revealed that the key value-in-use attributes were relationship quality (trust, knowledge required for providing help in getting maximum product benefits, sharing of knowledge, and a range of product and service offerings that satisfy customer needs. Trust had the greatest impact on customer satisfaction. The results also revealed that service quality dimension assurance exerted the greatest positive impact on customer satisfaction.

  10. The Impact of TV Viewing Motivations on Psychological and Sociocultural Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Ming

    A study examined the impact of TV viewing motivations on 126 Asian students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Subjects were enrolled in a midsize university in the New England area. TV viewing motivation was measured by A. M. Rubin's TV Viewing Motivations Scale. Psychological adjustment was measured by W. Zung's Self Rating Depression…

  11. What impact do questionnaire length and monetary incentives have on mailed health psychology survey response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Kathryn A; Gatting, Lauren; Wardle, Jane

    2017-11-01

    Response rates to health-related surveys are declining. This study tested two strategies to improve the response rate to a health psychology survey mailed through English general practices: (1) sending a shortened questionnaire and (2) offering a monetary incentive to return a completed questionnaire. Randomized controlled trial. Adults (n = 4,241) aged 45-59 years, from four General Practices in South-East England, were mailed a survey on attitudes towards bowel cancer screening. Using a 2 × 4 factorial design, participants were randomized to receive a 'short' (four A4 pages) or a 'long' (seven A4 pages) questionnaire, and one of four monetary incentives to return a completed questionnaire - (1) no monetary incentive, (2) £2.50 shop voucher, (3) £5.00 shop voucher, and (4) inclusion in a £250 shop voucher prize draw. Age, gender, and area-level deprivation were obtained from the General Practices. The overall response rate was 41% (n = 1,589). Response to the 'short' questionnaire (42%) was not significantly different from the 'long' questionnaire (40%). The £2.50 incentive (43%) significantly improved response rates in univariate analyses, and remained significant after controlling for age, gender, area-level deprivation, and questionnaire length. The £5.00 (42%) and £250 prize draw (41%) incentives had no significant impact on response rates compared to no incentive (38%). A small monetary incentive (£2.50) may slightly increase response to a mailed health psychology survey. The length of the questionnaire (four pages vs. seven pages) did not influence response. Although frequently used, entry into a prize draw did not increase response. Achieving representative samples remains a challenge for health psychology. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Response rates to mailed questionnaires continue to decline, threatening the representativeness of data. Prize draw incentives are frequently used but there is little evidence

  12. The effect of social support derived from World of Warcraft on negative psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Huon; O'Connor, Erin; Obst, Patricia

    2009-10-01

    Previous research examining players of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) suggests that players form meaningful relationships with each other. Other research indicates that people may derive social support from online sources, and this social support has been associated with greater well-being. This study used an online survey of players (N = 206) of the MMOG World of Warcraft (WoW) to examine if social support can be derived from MMOGs and to examine its relationship with negative psychological symptoms. Players of WoW were found to derive social support from playing and a positive relationship was found between game engagement and levels of in-game social support. Higher levels of in-game social support were associated with fewer negative psychological symptoms, although this effect was not maintained after accounting for social support derived from the offline sources. Additionally, a small subsample of players (n = 21) who played for 44 to 82 hours per week (M = 63.33) was identified. These players had significantly lower levels of offline social support and higher levels of negative symptoms compared to the rest of the sample. This study provides evidence that social support can be derived from MMOGs and the associated potential to promote well-being but also highlights the potential harm from spending excessive hours playing.

  13. Impact of prior ICU experience on ICU patient family members' psychological distress: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Chrystal L; Taylor, Jessica Z

    2017-12-01

    To determine if current levels of anxiety, depression and acute stress disorder symptoms differ significantly among family members of intensive-care-unit patients depending upon previous intensive-care experience. This study used a prospective, descriptive study design. Family members (N=127) from patients admitted within a 72-hour timeframe to the medical, surgical, cardiac and neurological intensive care units were recruited from waiting rooms at a medium-sized community hospital in the Southeastern United States. Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, the Acute Stress Disorder Scale and a demographic questionnaire. A multivariate analysis revealed that family members of intensive-care-unit patients with a prior intensive-care experience within the past two years (n=56) were significantly more likely to report anxiety, depression and acute stress symptoms, Λ=0.92, F [4122]=2.70, p=0.034, partial η 2 =0.08, observed power=0.74. Results of this study show that family members' psychological distress is higher with previous familial or personal intensive-care experience. Nurses need to assess for psychological distress in ICU family members and identify those who could benefit from additional support services provided in collaboration with multidisciplinary support professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relational self-esteem, psychological well-being, and social support in children affected by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2015-12-01

    Self-esteem can be derived from the relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem). However, it is unclear what the importance of relational self-esteem is for mental health and whether social support from others promotes relational self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between relational self-esteem and a multitude of indicators of psychological well-being among children affected by HIV. We also examined how social support from others would affect relational self-esteem. Results indicated that relational self-esteem was positively associated with psychological well-being. Support from significant others rather than others predicted increased relational self-esteem. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Social and psychological determinants of participation in internet-based cancer support groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: In this study, we identified the social and psychological characteristics of Danish cancer patients that determine use of the internet for support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We invited 230 cancer patients taking part in a public rehabilitation program to participate in an internet module...... observed no difference between the two groups in quality of life or psychological well-being, while coping to some extent seemed related to participation in internet support groups. CONCLUSION: This study adds to the discussion on social inequality in internet use by cancer patients, showing that patients...... comprising training in the retrieval of cancer-related information from the internet and self-support groups. Persons who were motivated to join the internet groups (N = 100; 47%) were compared with persons who chose not to participate (N = 111) on the basis of self-reported baseline questionnaire data...

  16. Inauguration of the first Psychological Support Center for disaster victims in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jeongyee; Kim, Key-Yong; Panuncio, Rosel L; Choi, Namhee; Im, Sook-Bin

    2009-12-01

    Disasters can strike uncontrollably whenever or wherever, leaving horrendous marks of physical and psychological damage on people upon their passing. Asia remains the most widely affected area of the world, with high death tolls, casualties, and economic losses recorded in past years. In fact, a developed country like South Korea incurs huge deficits from disaster-related adversities. Restoration efforts and assistance for disaster survivors are generously provided by the Korean government. However, it is only recently that cases of postdisaster mental problems have been given attention. This article argues that, although material relief helps disaster victims to regain their physical losses, it is equally important to aid their psychological needs to prevent long-term mental health problems. This article highlights Korea's first regional Psychological Support Center for disaster victims, which can be accessed online. With this Center, the country continues to strive in providing her people with holistic approaches to further enhance each citizen's quality of life.

  17. Factors impacting on psychological wellbeing of international students in the health professions: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Robinson, Eddie; Penman, Joy; Hills, Danny

    2017-09-01

    There are increasing numbers of international students undertaking health professional courses, particularly in Western countries. These courses not only expose students to the usual stresses and strains of academic learning, but also require students to undertake clinical placements and practice-based learning. While much is known about general issues facing international students, less is known about factors that impact on those studying in the health professions. To explore what is known about factors that influence the psychological wellbeing of international students in the health professions. A scoping review. A range of databases were searched, including CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, Proquest and ERIC, as well as grey literature, reference lists and Google Scholar. The review included qualitative or quantitative primary peer reviewed research studies that focused on international undergraduate or postgraduate students in the health professions. The core concept underpinning the review was psychological issues, with the outcome being psychological and/or social wellbeing. Thematic analysis across studies was used to identify key themes emerging. A total of 13 studies were included in the review, from the disciplines of nursing, medicine and speech-language pathology. Four key factor groups emerged from the review: negotiating structures and systems, communication and learning, quality of life and self-care, and facing discrimination and social isolation. International health professional students face similar issues to other international students. The nature of their courses, however, also requires negotiating different health care systems, and managing a range of clinical practice issues including with communication, and isolation and discrimination from clinical staff and patients. Further research is needed to specifically explore factors impacting on student well-being and how international students can be appropriately prepared and supported for their

  18. Impacts of Psychological Science on National Security Agencies Post-9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Psychologists have been an integral part of national security agencies since World War I, when psychological science helped in personnel selection. A robust infrastructure supporting wider applications of psychology to military and intelligence problems developed further during World War II and the years following, primarily in the areas of…

  19. Psychological impact of sports activity in spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, M C; Cerasa, A; Di Lucente, L; Brunelli, S; Castellano, V; Traballesi, M

    2006-12-01

    To investigate whether sports activity is associated with better psychological profiles in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to evaluate the effect of demographic factors on psychological benefits. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Form X2 (STAI-X2), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire for extraversion (EPQ-R (E)) and the questionnaire for depression (QD) were administered in a cross-sectional study of 137 males with spinal cord injury including 52 tetraplegics and 85 paraplegics. The subjects were divided into two groups according to sports activity participation (high frequency vs no sports participation). Moreover, multiple regression analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of demographic variables, such as age, educational level, occupational status and marital status, on psychological variables. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the groups for anxiety (STAI-X2), extraversion (EPQ-R (E)) and depression (QD). In particular, SCI patients who did not practice sports showed higher anxiety and depression scores and lower extraversion scores than sports participants. In addition, with respect to the paraplegics, the tetraplegic group showed the lowest depression scores. Following multiple regression analysis, only the sports activity factor remained as an independent factor of anxiety scores. These findings demonstrate that sports activity is associated with better psychological status in SCI patients, irrespective of tetraplegia and paraplegia, and that psychological benefits are not emphasized by demographic factors.

  20. Understanding the psychology of seeking support to increase Health Science student engagement in academic support services. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Francis Hoyne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing student engagement within higher education academic support services is a constant challenge. Whilst engagement with support is positively associated with successful retention, and non-engagement connected to attrition, the most vulnerable students are often the least likely to engage. Our data has shown that Health Science students are reluctant to engage with academic support services despite being made aware of their academic deficiencies. The “psychology of seeking support” was used as a lens to identify some of the multifaceted issues around student engagement. The School of Health Sciences made attendance at support courses compulsory for those students who were below the benchmark score in a post entrance literacy test. Since the policy change was implemented, there has been a 50% reduction in the fail rate of “at risk” students in a core literacy unit. These findings are encouraging and will help reduce student attrition in the long term.

  1. Psychological well-being of parents and family caregivers of children with hearing impairment in south India: influence of behavioural problems in children and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driessche, Anne; Jotheeswaran, A T; Murthy, G V S; Pilot, Eva; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pant, Hira; Singh, Vivek; Dpk, Babu

    2014-08-01

    Parents of children with hearing impairment are at increased risk of mental health morbidities. We examined the predictive factors associated with caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities in parents and family caregivers of children with hearing impairment. In total, n = 201 parents and family caregivers of children with and without hearing impairment aged 3 to 16 years were recruited. Caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities were measured using the Zarit Burden scale and the World Health Organization's Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Presence of behavioural problems in children was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. After adjustment, low educational attainment and domestic violence were found to be associated with caregiving strain, whereas dissatisfaction with social support from family, behavioural problems in children, and domestic violence strongly predicted psychological morbidities. Addressing the mental healthcare needs of parents may help in downsizing the impact of psychological morbidities on the well-being of children with hearing impairment.

  2. Running to well-being: A comparative study on the impact of exercise on the physical and mental health of law and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skead, Natalie K; Rogers, Shane L

    Research indicates that, in comparison to other university students, law students are at greater risk of experiencing high levels of psychological distress. There is also a large body of literature supporting a general negative association between exercise and stress, anxiety and depression. However, we are not aware of any studies exploring the impact of exercise on the mental health of law students specifically. This article reports evidence of a negative association between exercise and psychological distress in 206 law and psychology students. Compared to psychology students, the law students not only reported greater psychological distress, but, in addition, there was a stronger association between their levels of distress and their levels of exercise. Based on the results of this study, we suggest a simple yet effective way law schools might support the mental health of their students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychological aspects of caregivers associated with family support in the therapeutic adherence of diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Teresa Domínguez - Guedea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the relationship of psychological aspects of family caregivers with the support that they offer to the diabetic patient’s adherence to treatment. The psychological aspects were: subjective well-being, attachment styles, coping strategies to problems and perceived social support. Methods: Joined in the study 29 family caregivers in a noneprobabilistic sample. Participants were contacted from three Mutual Aid Groups for diabetic and hypertensive patients in the city of Hermosillo, México. Questionnaires designed for the purposes of research were applied, as well as psychometric instruments previously validated in the cultural reference group. Results: The data showed that the psychological aspects that are statistically significant and negatively related to adherence therapy are avoidant attachment and negative affection, both associated to each other in a positive way, indicating that they occur in parallel. Avoidant attachment was positively associated with avoidant coping strategies and emotional disturbance, but negatively with secure attachment and material satisfaction. Negative affection were positively associated with emotional coping, but negatively with secure attachment and material satisfaction. Negative affect were positively associated with emotional confrontation, but negatively with positive affection, material satisfaction, emotional support and guidance support. Conclusions: More applied research in needed on the influence of family factors in achieving adherence to treatment, because so far, most work focuses more on the individual patient, disregarding the family factor.

  4. The Psychological Impact of Awaiting Breast Diagnosis: A Preliminary Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Sweeny is a social psychologist by training, but she applies the theories and methods of social psychology to address patients' experiences with their health and healthcare. Over the years, her work has examined topics ranging from bad news delivery to physician-patient communication to screening decisions. Her current research program focuses on the stressful but understudied experience of awaiting uncertain news, including news about one's health. She developed the uncertainty navigation model as a theoretical framework for understanding the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that emerge during the wait for health-relevant news. Her work has provided broad and novel insights into this difficult experience, including how waiting experiences unfold over time, the nature of distress during waiting periods, the relative effectiveness of various strategies people can use to cope with uncertainty, and the implications of stressful waiting periods for sleep and health. Dr. Sweeny’s work has been funded by the National Science Foundation and published in top journals, including Annals of Behavioral Medicine, Health Psychology Review, Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, Psychological Bulletin, and Psychological Science. She received the inaugural Early Career Award from the Social Personality Health Network, and in 2016 she was awarded the APA Distinguished Scientific Award for an Early Career Contribution to Health Psychology. In her other life, Dr. Sweeny is a Middle Eastern dance performer and instructor, a yoga enthusiast, and an avid hiker. If you are a person with a disability and require an assistive device, services or other reasonable accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program at (240) 276-5626 at least one week in advance of the lecture date to discuss your accommodation needs.

  5. The impact of anticipated stigma on psychological and physical health problems in the unemployed group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling T. O'Donnell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that the unemployed suffer increased psychological and physical health problems compared to their employed counterparts. Further, unemployment leads to an unwanted new social identity that is stigmatizing, and stigma is known to be a stressor causing psychological and physical health problems. However, it is not yet known whether being stigmatized as an unemployed group member is associated with psychological and physical health in this group. The current study tested the impact of anticipated stigma on psychological distress and physical health problems, operationalized as somatic symptoms, in a volunteer sample of unemployed people. Results revealed that anticipated stigma had a direct effect on both psychological distress and somatic symptoms, such that greater anticipated stigma significantly predicted higher levels of both. Moreover, the direct effect on somatic symptoms became non-significant when psychological distress was taken into account. Thus, to the extent that unemployed participants anticipated experiencing greater stigma, they also reported increased psychological distress, and this psychological distress predicted increased somatic symptoms. Our findings complement and extend the existing literature on the relationships between stigmatized identities, psychological distress and physical health problems, particularly in relation to the unemployed group. This group is important to consider both theoretically, given the unwanted and transient nature of the identity compared to other stigmatized identities, but also practically, as the findings indicate a need to orient to the perceived valence of the unemployed identity and its effects on psychological and physical health.

  6. Psychologic stress related to injury and impact on sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippert, Angela H; Smith, Aynsley M

    2008-05-01

    Injury rates are high among children and adolescent athletes. Psychosocial stressors, such as personality, history of stressors, and life event stress can influence injury occurrence. After injury, those same factors plus athletic identity, self-esteem, and significant others-such as parents, coaches, and teammates-can affect injury response, recovery and subsequent sport performance. Goal setting, positive self-talk, attribution theory, and relaxation or mental imagery are psychologic interventions that can help injured athletes cope with psychosocial stressors. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential influence that psychosocial stressors and psychologic interventions can have on injury occurrence, injury recovery, and sport performance.

  7. The Impact on Informal Supporters of Domestic Violence Survivors: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alison Clare; Williamson, Emma; Feder, Gene

    2017-12-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is experienced by 1 in 4 women in the United Kingdom during their lifetime, and most survivors will seek informal support from the people around them, even if they choose not to access help from professionals. Support from these relatives, friends, neighbors, and colleagues can provide a buffer against effects on the survivor's physical health, mental health, and quality of life, and has been shown to be protective against future abuse. There has been an absence of research studying members of survivors' networks and, in particular, investigating how the impact of DV might diffuse to affect them. A systematic literature review of reported research (either in peer-reviewed journals or in gray literature) was undertaken to explore the impacts of DV on survivor networks. Of the articles found, 24 had data relating to the topic area, though no study addressed the question directly. Framework analysis and meta-ethnography generated the following themes: physical health impacts, negative impacts on psychological well-being, direct impacts from the perpetrator, and beneficial impacts on psychological well-being. The studies in this review indicated that informal supporters may be experiencing substantial impact, including vicarious trauma and the risk of physical harm. Currently, there is little support available which is directly aimed at informal supporters of DV survivors, thus these findings have practical and policy implications, in order to acknowledge and meet their needs.

  8. The protective role of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction against psychological distress among Chinese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Danjun; Su, Shan; Wang, Lu; Liu, Fang

    2018-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychological distress, and to explore the combined protective roles of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction against psychological distress. Few studies have explored the combined protective effect of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction on nurses' mental health in the same theoretical framework. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, a self-developed Job Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale were used to survey 581 nurses. The hypothesized model of the relationships among self-esteem, perceived social support, job satisfaction and psychological distress was tested with structural equation modelling. The prevalence of psychological distress was 92.3%. Job satisfaction exerted the strongest direct protective effect against psychological distress, with perceived social support and self-esteem exerting the second and third strongest direct protective effects, respectively. Additionally, self-esteem had an indirect protective effect. Chinese nurses showed a surprisingly high prevalence of psychological distress. Job satisfaction, self-esteem and perceived social support were identified, in this order of importance, as protective factors against psychological distress. Nurse administrators should take measures to improve nurses' job satisfaction and social support, and hire individuals with high self-esteem as nurses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Psychological distress of older Chinese: exploring the roles of activities, social support, and subjective social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Min

    2014-03-01

    The goal of this research is to examine if the long neglected correlates such as social and leisure activities, social support, and subjective social status contribute to variations in psychological distress among older Chinese. Using data collected in one of the most developed areas in China-Suzhou city, Jiangsu province, the authors find that engaging in various exercises, living with both spouse and adult children, perceived availability of social support from others as well as believing in the importance of caring for other family members are particularly beneficial for mental health whereas the perception of relative deprivation and low life quality is detrimental to mental health for older Chinese. This work is among the first studies that comprehensively examined various important correlates of psychological distress and indicate the unique patterns of distress among the elderly in the most developed area in the contemporary China.

  10. Psychology as Field Experience: Impact on Attitudes Toward Social Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellman, Lynn A.; And Others

    An innovation in the teaching of undergraduate psychology courses is the implementation of a field experience that gives students the opportunity to apply newly learned skills and knowledge in a community setting. Changes in undergraduates' attitudes toward various delinquency interventions were examined as a result of participation in a…

  11. Psychological impact of amniocentesis on low-risk women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, A; Jønsson, M H

    1987-01-01

    anxiety and worry were used on four occasions to evaluate psychological changes during pregnancy. The anxiety level in the younger women decreased after amniocentesis and a further decrease was observed after the results were communicated to them. However, similar changes were seen in the group of younger...

  12. Impact of medication and psychological behaviour assessment by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug related problem (DRPs) is a key factor which will affect the outcome of therapy and safety. The aim of the present study is to assess the DRPs in T2DM patients and psychological aspects of patients by community pharmacists to observe the rate of DRP. Prospective randomized controlled intervention study involved ...

  13. The psychological impact of vitiligo in adult Sudanese patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Vitiligo is a chronic skin disease that causes loss of pigment, resulting in irregular pale patches of skin. The disease has profound psychological consequences. These effects range from mild embarrassment to a severe loss of self-confidence and social anxiety, especially for those who have lesions on exposed ...

  14. Psychological Support, Puberty Suppression, and Psychosocial Functioning in Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rosalia; Dunsford, Michael; Skagerberg, Elin; Holt, Victoria; Carmichael, Polly; Colizzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Puberty suppression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) is prescribed to relieve the distress associated with pubertal development in adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) and thereby to provide space for further exploration. However, there are limited longitudinal studies on puberty suppression outcome in GD. Also, studies on the effects of psychological support on its own on GD adolescents' well-being have not been reported.AIM: This study aimed to assess GD ado...

  15. The roles of social support and psychological distress in lung transplant candidacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kristin M; Burker, Eileen J; White, Hayley C

    2011-09-01

    Social support appears to be an important component in lung transplantation. However, the relationship between social support, psychological distress, and listing status has not been evaluated in lung transplant candidates. To evaluate the relationships between depression, anxiety, and social support in patients with end-stage lung disease being evaluated for transplantation and determine (1) relationships between social support, depression, anxiety, and coping via seeking emotional and instrumental support; (2) whether social support explains a significant proportion of the variance in depression and anxiety; and (3) whether these factors were associated with whether a patient was listed for transplant. For this observational study, patients completed self-report questionnaires after their pretransplant evaluations. Listing status was subsequently obtained from medical records. Participants were patients with end-stage lung disease evaluated for transplantation at a major hospital. Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey, COPE Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Social support was associated with depression, anxiety, and seeking support (P values social support explained a significant proportion of the variance in depression (9%), state anxiety (8%), and trait anxiety (7%; all P values anxiety, trait anxiety, or availability of social support. Results highlight the important role that coping via seeking support plays in transplant candidacy.

  16. The Use of Inflight Online Distance Education for Mission Support and Psychological Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardon, Austin; Nichol, Kenneth; Mardon, Catherine

    Time, too much of and the resulting boredom is a major psychological barrier to multi year inner solar system space missions. Cross training which could be facilitated by online in flight educational programs might serve mission purposes and distract astronauts from the natural multiyear boredom to and from Mars. The personnel selected will be motivated well educated and likely very intelligent. They might have even experience some educational online and computer based education during their educational history. Distance learning is become more and more common in the educational landscape in the world. The mission doctor might learn geology. The geologist might learn ship systems. The pilot might learn basic medical treatment. The advantage of having planned out learning schemes might have major morale boosting factors by giving the self motivated high achieving crew something to direct their energies toward. The time lag could be compensated for by AI spacecraft educational software. Also for recreational purposes archeology or cultural studies could be taught to give greater breadth of interest. Online educational institutions might even do curriculum for free if they could be used afterward and before. Many high achievers have diverse interests and this might boost morale by allowing them to learn about a field of study that they had always had an interest in but their career took them in a different direction

  17. The impact of psychological empowerment and organisational commitment on Chinese nurses' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Zhou, Wen-Bin; Qu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Research findings have shown that job satisfaction of Chinese nurses is at a low level. Limited studies have focused on the impact of psychological empowerment and organisational commitment on job satisfaction of Chinese nurses. The aim of this study is to describe job satisfaction, psychological empowerment and organisational commitment of Chinese nurses and to explore the impact of psychological empowerment and organisational commitment on the nurses' job satisfaction. A total of 726 nurses were recruited in a convenience sample from 10 tertiary hospitals. Data were collected using four questionnaires including Job Satisfaction Survey, Psychological Empowerment Scale, Organisational Commitment Scale and Demographic Questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, correlation and stepwise multiple regression were used for data analysis. Nurses' job satisfaction, psychological empowerment and organisational commitment were identified at moderate levels. Nurses' job satisfaction and psychological empowerment were significantly different in terms of age and length of service; nurse job satisfaction varied with respect to marital status. Findings further indicated that nurse job satisfaction was positively correlated with psychological empowerment and organisational commitment. Psychological empowerment, organisational commitment and marital status were significant predicting factors of nurse job satisfaction. This study provides evidence to help nursing managers and health policy-makers to develop intervention programs aimed at enhancing nurse job satisfaction and retaining nurses.

  18. The impact of psychological empowerment and organizational commitment on Chines nurses' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Bin; Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Qu, Hui

    2014-11-10

    Abstract Background: Research findings have shown that job satisfaction of Chinese nurses is at a low level. Limited studies have focused on the impact of psychological empowerment and organizational commitment on job satisfaction of Chinese nurses. Aims: The aim of this study is to describe job satisfaction, psychological empowerment and organizational commitment of Chinese nurses and to explore the impact of psychological empowerment and organizational commitment on the nurses' job satisfaction. Methods: A total of 726 nurses were recruited in a convenience sample from 10 tertiary hospitals. Data were collected using four questionnaires including Job Satisfaction Survey, Psychological Empowerment Scale, Organizational Commitment Scale and Demographic Questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, correlation and stepwise multiple regression were used for data analysis. Results: Nurses' job satisfaction, psychological empowerment, and organizational commitment were identified at moderate levels. Nurses' job satisfaction and psychological empowerment were significantly different in terms of age and length of service; nurse job satisfaction varied with respect to marital status. Findings further indicated that nurse job satisfaction was positively correlated with psychological empowerment and organizational commitment. Psychological empowerment, organizational commitment, and marital status were significant predicting factors of nurse job satisfaction. Conclusions: This study provides evidence to help nursing managers and health policy-makers to develop intervention programs aimed at enhancing nurse job satisfaction and retaining nurses.

  19. Impact of Neuro-Psychological Factors on Smoking-Associated Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, Hildegard M. [Experimental Oncology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-03-13

    Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation.

  20. Impact of Neuro-Psychological Factors on Smoking-Associated Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, Hildegard M.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation

  1. Bridging Human Reliability Analysis and Psychology, Part 2: A Cognitive Framework to Support HRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jing Xing

    2012-06-01

    This is the second of two papers that discuss the literature review conducted as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) effort to develop a hybrid human reliability analysis (HRA) method in response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020. This review was conducted with the goal of strengthening the technical basis within psychology, cognitive science and human factors for the hybrid HRA method being proposed. An overview of the literature review approach and high-level structure is provided in the first paper, whereas this paper presents the results of the review. The psychological literature review encompassed research spanning the entirety of human cognition and performance, and consequently produced an extensive list of psychological processes, mechanisms, and factors that contribute to human performance. To make sense of this large amount of information, the results of the literature review were organized into a cognitive framework that identifies causes of failure of macrocognition in humans, and connects those proximate causes to psychological mechanisms and performance influencing factors (PIFs) that can lead to the failure. This cognitive framework can serve as a tool to inform HRA. Beyond this, however, the cognitive framework has the potential to also support addressing human performance issues identified in Human Factors applications.

  2. Personal construct psychology: a theory to help understand professional development, a philosophy to support it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Paul R

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the reader to personal construct psychology as a theory to help understand the process of change in facilitative and mentoring relationships. Continuing professional development is critical if practitioners are to keep up to date with new ideas, techniques, and materials. However, is it important not only to consider what is learnt, it is also important to understand the how of learning in order to develop an approach that leads to lifelong learning. Mentoring, coaching, and appraisal are all facilitative processes that aim to encourage professionals to engage with their own development. This leads to differing degrees of both behavioural and attitudinal change. As a result, it is useful to have a theory that can help an individual to understand these changes and to identify any difficulties that are associated with them. Personal construct psychology has long been recognised as a potential framework for personal development. It has been used extensively in a broad range of domains, including clinical and educational psychology, management, and psychotherapy. Personal construct psychology is a useful theory for understanding the facilitative process because it enables the facilitator to form a conceptual framework to comprehend behavioural and attitudinal change. Its underlying philosophical approach also supports lifelong learning, given its emphasis on an enquiring mind and reflection, both of which are key to continuing professional development.

  3. [The role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and psychological distress among sexual-minority youths (SMY): a moderated mediation approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Félix-Antoine; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine

    Introduction Sexual-minority youths (SMY) report high rates of psychological distress such as depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation (Burton, Marshal, Chisolm, Sucato et Friedman, 2013; Williams & Chapman, 2011). Several studies confirm that the poor mental health outcomes are partly related to their high likelihood of experiencing homophobic victimization (Blais, Gervais, Boucher, Hébert & Lavoie, 2013; Taylor & Peter, 2011; Hughes, McCabe, Wilsnack, West & Boyd, 2010; Chamberland, Richard & Bernier, 2013). Whereas the development of a positive sexual minority identity is crucial for the mental health of SMY (Chamberland, Richard & Chevrier, 2011; Rosario, Schrimshaw & Hunter, 2011; Luhtanen, 2002), the victimization they experience put them at risk of internalizing societal homophobia and heterosexism (Meyer, 2003; Hatzenbuehler, 2009). It is important to identify variables that may influence the impact of distal and proximal factors that impact SMY's mental health.Objectives The objectives of this paper are 1) to document different forms of homophobic victimization experienced by SMY, according to gender and age, and 2) to test the potential moderating effect of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization, internalized homophobia and psychological distress.Method Data come from 228 SMY aged 14 to 22 years old recruited through online means as part of the Quebec Youth's Romantic Relationships Survey. The impact of homophobic victimization, parental support, and internalized homophobia on psychological distress is explored by a linear regression model including moderated mediation effects.Results Results show the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress as well as indirect significant relationship through internalized homophobia. The moderated mediation analysis also confirms the moderating role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress. Thus

  4. Psychological distress and academic self-perception among international medical students: the role of peer social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yukari; Klugar, Miloslav; Ivanova, Katerina; Oborna, Ivana

    2014-11-28

    Psychological distress among medical students is commonly observed during medical education and is generally related to poor academic self-perception. We evaluated the role of peer social support at medical schools in the association between psychological distress and academic self-perception. An online survey was conducted in a medical degree program for 138 international students educated in English in the Czech Republic. The Medical Student Well-Being Index was used to define the students' psychological distress. Perceived peer social support was investigated with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Poor academic self-perception was defined as the lowest 30% of a subscale score of the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure. Analyses evaluated the presence of additive interactions between psychological distress and peer social support on poor academic self-perception, adjusted for possible confounders. Both psychological distress and low peer social support were negatively associated with poor academic self-perception, adjusted for local language proficiency and social support from family. Students with psychological distress and low peer social support had an odds ratio of 11.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-56.6) for poor academic self-perception as compared with those without distress who had high peer social support. The presence of an additive interaction was confirmed in that the joint association was four times as large as what would have been expected to be on summing the individual risks of psychological distress and low peer social support (synergy index = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.3-14.9). Psychological distress and low peer social support may synergistically increase the probability of poor academic self-perception among international medical students. Promoting peer social relationships at medical school may interrupt the vicious cycle of psychological distress and poor academic performance.

  5. Interventions to Support Integrated Psychological Care and Holistic Health Outcomes in Paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafran, Roz; Bennett, Sophie D; McKenzie Smith, Mhairi

    2017-08-16

    There are strong calls from many national and international bodies for there to be a 'holistic' and integrated approach to the understanding and management of psychological and physical health needs. Such holistic approaches are characterized by the treatment of the whole person, taking into account mental and social factors, rather than just the symptoms of a disease. Holistic approaches can impact on mental and physical health and are cost-effective. Several psychological interventions have demonstrated efficacy in improving holistic health outcomes, for example Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Behavioural Therapies and Problem Solving Therapies. They have shown to impact upon a wide range of outcomes, including psychological distress, pain, physical health, medication adherence, and family outcomes. There is increasing recognition that the holistic goals of the child and family should be prioritised, and that interventions and outcomes should reflect these goals. A focus on holistic goals in therapy can be achieved through a combination of personalised goal-based outcomes in addition to symptom-based measures.

  6. The Impact of Psychological Traits on Judgments Related to Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwalla, Sobhesh Kumar; Desai, Naman; Tripathy, Arindam

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how two contradictory psychological traits, self-deception (SD) and professional skepticism (PS), affect managers and auditors assessments of the ethicality of various earnings management choices. Whereas, self-deception allows individuals to reduce cognitive dissonance (Festinger 1957) arising from their self-serving behavior which could be unethical (Audi 1988; Sanford 1988), professional skepticism or trait skepticism (Hurtt 2010) would force individuals to question suc...

  7. Coping with the psychological impact of automated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Nogami, T.; Inoue, T.; Mitsumori, K.; Taguchi, T.

    1991-01-01

    Japanese surveys and experiments have found that operators sometimes find it difficult to anticipate automatic processes, which in turn limits their ability to keep up with those processes. One of the factors which makes anticipation difficult is the lack of flexible communication between operators and computers - communication which is easier among human operators. At present the only way of dealing with this psychological effect is to ensure that trainees fully master the characteristics of the automated processes. (author)

  8. Training and post-disaster interventions for the psychological impacts on disaster-exposed employees: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Samantha K; Dunn, Rebecca; Amlôt, Richard; Greenberg, Neil; Rubin, G James

    2018-02-15

    When organisations are exposed to traumatic situations, such as disasters, often staff are not prepared for the potential psychological impact which can negatively affect their wellbeing. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on psychological interventions aimed at improving staff wellbeing during or after disasters. Four electronic literature databases were searched. Reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched. Fifteen articles were included. Five studies suggested that pre-disaster skills training and disaster education can improve employee confidence. Ten studies on post-disaster interventions revealed mixed findings on the effectiveness of psychological debriefing and limited evidence for cognitive behavioural therapy, psychoeducation and meditation. Pre-disaster training and education can improve employees' confidence in their ability to cope with disasters. The routine use of post-disaster psychological debriefings is not supported; further research is needed to determine if debriefing interventions could be useful in some circumstances. Further research is needed to provide more evidence on the potential positive effects of cognitive behavioural therapy, psychoeducation and meditation. More experimental studies on psychological disaster interventions are needed.

  9. Periodic and chaotic psychological stress variations as predicted by a social support buffered response model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Richard J.; Gallas, Jason A. C.; Schuldberg, David

    2017-08-01

    Recent work has introduced social dynamic models of people's stress-related processes, some including amelioration of stress symptoms by support from others. The effects of support may be ;direct;, depending only on the level of support, or ;buffering;, depending on the product of the level of support and level of stress. We focus here on the nonlinear buffering term and use a model involving three variables (and 12 control parameters), including stress as perceived by the individual, physical and psychological symptoms, and currently active social support. This model is quantified by a set of three nonlinear differential equations governing its stationary-state stability, temporal evolution (sometimes oscillatory), and how each variable affects the others. Chaos may appear with periodic forcing of an environmental stress parameter. Here we explore this model carefully as the strength and amplitude of this forcing, and an important psychological parameter relating to self-kindling in the stress response, are varied. Three significant observations are made: 1. There exist many complex but orderly regions of periodicity and chaos, 2. there are nested regions of increasing number of peaks per cycle that may cascade to chaos, and 3. there are areas where more than one state, e.g., a period-2 oscillation and chaos, coexist for the same parameters; which one is reached depends on initial conditions.

  10. Understanding the psychological impact of unconventional gas developments in affected communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Po-Hsin; Lyons, Kevin D.; Gudergan, Siegfried P.; Grimstad, Sidsel

    2017-01-01

    The rapid growth of unconventional gas developments has created widespread community concerns in many parts of the world. This study adds to the literature on the psychological impact of related developments by drawing upon Conservation of Resources (COR) theory and the concept of place attachment. In providing a holistic framework, it examines community residents’ appraisals of and emotional responses to impacts of an unconventional gas development, and establishes heterogeneity in these appraisals and responses among residents. The findings show that perceived negative impact on resources that encompass personal and communal resources due to the development contributes to negative emotions that can lead to deteriorated psychological well-being. Conversely, perceived positive impact on resources is conducive to positive emotions that in turn can foster residents’ psychological well-being. The findings further reveal that perceived impact on place attachment partially mediates the relationship between perceived impact on resources and negative emotions. Importantly, these effects differ in strength for residents characterized by different ages, lengths of residence, and distances of their properties from the development. Implications for how this framework can be applied to minimize unwanted impacts and be incorporated into social license that goes beyond the current model of community consultation are discussed. - Highlights: • The psychological impact of a gas project in a rural community is examined. • A sense of perceived loss to personal and communal resources is revealed. • Loss to resources leads to negative emotions mediated by loss to place attachment. • Heterogeneity in perceived impacts and emotional responses is evident.

  11. Impact of "JOBM": ISI Impact Factor Places the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" Third in Applied Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantula, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    The ISI Impact Factor for "JOBM" is 1.793, placing it third in the JCR rankings for journals in applied psychology with a sharply accelerating linear trend over the past 5 years. This article reviews the Impact Factor and raises questions regarding its reliability and validity and then considers a citation analysis of "JOBM" in light of the…

  12. Psychological trait and state characteristics, social support and attitudes to the surrogate pregnancy and baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, Olga B A

    2007-08-01

    Personality differences between surrogate mothers (SMs) who gestate and relinquish and intended mothers (IMs) who commission a genetically related or unrelated baby have been unexplored in the UK. Furthermore, the psychological effects of the arrangement have not been determined in a prospective longitudinal study, making this the first quantitative report of psychological functioning in SMs and IMs. SMs and IMs (n = 81: 61 surrogate, 20 intended) undergoing genetic or gestational surrogacy (4 groups) were assessed by postal questionnaire during the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Those with a positive outcome were assessed again in the first week, at 6 weeks and 6 months post-delivery of the surrogate baby. There were no significant differences between or within SM and IM groups on personality characteristics. Social support, marital harmony and state anxiety differed significantly (to P pregnancy and the baby were also observed between groups during pregnancy (to P surrogate arrangement are notable and occur over an extended period of time. It also shows that psychological screening and support prior to, during and following surrogacy is indicated.

  13. Psychological support of crime investigation with the involvement of minors in the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylova Yu.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the aims, tasks and fundamental principles of psychological support of crime investigation with the involvement of minors as a one of the aspects of criminalistical support of the preliminary investigation in the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation are revealed. Discusses the following areas of psychological support of investigation of criminal cases with participation of minors: participation of a psychologist in the investigative actions, the preliminary interviews with the aim of preparing minors for investigation, the business of the investigator in the choice of tactics of investigative actions and other issues, psychological examination of the minor, the receipt of additional information from minors using methods of applied psychology, compiling a subjective portrait of the alleged offender, psychological analysis of testimonies of minors and others. Also this article discusses the basic principles end actual techniques of interview of minor sexual abuses victims are examined including NICHD Protocol developed by the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, NICHD.

  14. The association between idiopathic environmental intolerance and psychological distress, and the influence of social support and recent major life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Rasmussen, Alice; Zachariae, Robert

    2012-01-01

    this association has not been clarified. The objective of this study was to examine the association between psychological distress and IEI and to determine whether the association is confounded by social support and major life events. Methods Data were collected by postal questionnaires; other results from...... consequences, as the dependent variables, and psychological distress, social support and major life events as the independent variables. Results Our study confirmed positive and statistically significant associations between psychological distress and IEI. The associations remained statistically significant...... after adjusting for major life events and social support. Conclusions The results suggest that the association between IEI and psychological distress cannot be explained by known risk factors. More studies, including longitudinal studies, are needed to determine the role of psychological distress...

  15. Maternal Psychological Control, Use of Supportive Parenting, and Childhood Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Andrew L; Fite, Paula J

    2016-06-01

    The current study, operating from a stress-process framework, examined the interactive effects of supportive parenting practices (i.e., mothers' use of positive communication, positive parenting, and parental involvement) and maternal psychological control on mother- and child-reported child depressive symptoms in a community-recruited sample of 9-12 year-olds. Discrepancies between reports of depressive symptoms were also examined. Maternal psychological control was uniquely associated with child-, not mother-, reported depressive symptoms. Parental involvement was uniquely associated with mother-, not child-, reported depressive symptoms. Positive parent-child communication was associated with both reports of child depressive symptoms at the bivariate level, but not when unique associations were examined. Positive parenting was unrelated to either report of depressive symptoms. No interaction effects were detected. The current findings highlight the differential importance of parenting practices on child depressive symptoms, and also indicate the necessity of gathering both parent and child reports of symptomatology and family functioning.

  16. Autonomy support for conflictual and stigmatized identities: Effects on ownership and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Netta; Legate, Nicole; Ryan, William S; Sedikides, Constantine; Cozzolino, Philip J

    2017-10-01

    Important others' perceptions influence self-perceptions. This presents a challenge for the critical developmental task of integrating all aspects of identity, as identities that are devalued or stigmatized by society are harder to own than valued ones. Across 3 studies, we tested the idea that conflictual or stigmatized identities are harder to own, or integrate into the self, than are nonconflictual ones, and we examine how receiving autonomy support for an identity-support for authentic identity exploration and expression-can facilitate ownership of that identity. Cross-sectional (n = 543), experience-sampling (n = 66), and experimental methods (n = 209) tested the dynamics of autonomy-supportive others on identity ownership. Data from these studies converge to show that conflictual identities are indeed harder to own than nonconflictual ones, but that autonomy support predicts greater ownership and psychological health, especially for conflictual identities. In the final study, we replicate these dynamics in 3 identities stigmatized by society: sexual minority, ethnic minority, and gender minority identities. Findings reveal the importance of integrating all aspects of identity-particularly those that are conflictual or stigmatized-into one's self-concept. We consider implications for counseling and clinical practice, as well as broadly for the psychological health of stigmatized individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The relationships between psychological strain, organizational support, affective commitment and turnover intentions of highly educated hospitality employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, D.M.; Rheede, van A.; Blomme, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of highly educated employees in the hospitality industry is growing rapidly. A predictor of turnover in the hospitality industry recently put forward, but not yet fully researched, is psychological strain. This chapter investigates the role of psychological strain and organizational support

  18. Children's Daily Well-Being: The Role of Mothers', Teachers', and Siblings' Autonomy Support and Psychological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Mabbe, Elien

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the unique relations between multiple sources (i.e., mothers, teachers, and siblings) of perceived daily autonomy support and psychological control and children's basic psychological needs and well-being. During 5 consecutive days, 2 children from 154 families (M[subscript age] youngest child = 8.54 years; SD = 0.89 and…

  19. Psychological impact of visible differences in patients with congenital craniofacial anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varun Pratap; Moss, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    Patients with craniofacial anomalies often have appearance concerns and related social anxiety which can affect their quality of life. This study assessed the psychological impact of facial and dental appearance in patients with craniofacial anomalies in comparison to a general population control group. The study involved 102 adult patients (51% male) with congenital craniofacial anomalies and 102 controls (49% male). Both groups completed the Nepali version of Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS) and the Psychological Impact of Dental Aesthetic Questionnaire (PIDAQ) in a clinical setting to assess appearance-related distress, avoidance, and anxiety. There was a significant difference between patients and controls on both PIDAQ (mean score for patients 33.25 ± 9.45 while for controls 27.52 ± 5.67, p experienced greater negative psychological impact of living with their appearance (PIDAQ) and more appearance-related distress (DAS) than controls. DAS scores were not associated with gender. There was no association of the place of residence (rural vs. urban) with PIDAQ or DAS59 scores. There is a significant psychological impact of altered facial and dental appearance in patients with craniofacial anomalies compared to controls. There was no effect of locality (rural/urban) on the psychological impact of facial and dental appearance in patients.

  20. HUBUNGAN RELIGIUSITAS, OPTIMISM, SOCIAL SUPPORT, DAN PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING PESERTA DIDIK MAN SE-KOTA MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farid Ilhamuddin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to know the relation between religiousity (X1 and psychological well being (Y, the relation between optimism (X2 and psychological well being (Y, as well as the relation between social support (X3 and psychological well being (Y of students of MAN in the entire Malang city. This study was a non-experimental study with causal relationship study plan. The result of this research showed that there was a positive significant between X1 and Y, X2 and Y, X3 and Y; X1, X2, X3 had strong linear relation with Y; the influence of the three independent     logical well being (Y, optimism (X2 dan psychological well being (Y, social support (X3 and psychological well being (Y student of MAN se-Kota Malang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan religiusitas (X1 dan psychological well being (Y, optimis (X2 dan psychological well being (Y, social support (X3 dan psychological well being (Y peserta didik MAN se-kota Malang. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah non experimental research dengan jenis penelitian causal relationship study. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada hubungan positif signifikan antara X1 dan Y, X2 dan Y, X3 dan Y; X1, X2, X3 memiliki hubungan linear yang kuat dengan Y; pengaruh ketiga variabel independen psychological well being (Y, optimism (X2 dan psychological well being (Y, social support (X3 dan psychological well being (Y peserta didik MAN se-Kota Malang.

  1. Psychological impact of colostomy pouch change and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Frances; White, Craig A; Kendall, Sally; Finlayson, Aileen; Urquhart, Mary; Williams, Isabel

    This article presents some of the findings from a multicentre cross-sectional correlational study to evaluate the relationship between colostomy pouch change and disposal practices and the patient's psychological wellbeing. Five questionnaires were used in a one-off interview with 86 patients. Patients were assessed at between one and four months postoperatively. Results from the Pouch Change and Disposal questionnaire showed that only 25% of patients found disposal of used appliances the most difficult part of their pouch change and disposal routine. Half felt that their body was out of their control and 33% reported avoiding social and leisure activities due to what was involved in their pouch change and disposal routine. Patients cited several factors, such as minimizing odour and having an appliance that could flush away, as factors which would help them to stop avoiding these activities. Stoma care nurses have a unique opportunity to improve the psychological wellbeing of their patients by considering the aspects of pouch change and disposal that pose the greatest challenge to individuals. Use of a modified version of the Pouch Change and Disposal questionnaire may be a useful tool in identifying those at risk of impaired quality of life.

  2. Strategies for fostering basic psychological needs support in high quality youth leadership programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Corliss; Harlow, Meghan; Kendellen, Kelsey

    2017-04-01

    Youth leadership programming has become an increasingly common context to foster basic psychological needs and promote youth development. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore strategies involved in fostering youth needs support within six leadership programs. Two leaders and 30 youth participated in semi-structured interviews to better understand the strategies used to foster needs support. Findings revealed that leaders were able to foster a sense of relatedness among youth through building trusting adult-youth relationships and nurturing an inclusive environment. Maximizing choice and negotiating youth voice helped to foster youth's autonomy. Finally, creating a task-oriented climate and providing intentional opportunities for skill-building helped to foster youth's competence. Findings suggest that training for leaders is critical in understanding what, and how strategies should be employed to help foster youth needs support in leadership programming. Limitations and future directions are outlined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychological Support Across the Deployment Cycle (L’aide psychologique au cours du cycle de deploiement)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    les meilleures pratiques de l’aide psychologique – avant, pendant et après les opérations –, et inventorié les instruments disponibles pour analyser le...moral d’une unité ainsi que les outils cliniques utilisés par les nations de l’OTAN et du PfP en vue d’évaluer, d’informer et d’intervenir auprès...practices in psychological support before, during and after operations, inventories of instruments used to survey unit morale as well and an

  4. The Impact of Multiple Roles on Psychological Distress among Japanese Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ayumi; Abe, Yasuyo; Date, Yutaka; Honda, Sumihisa

    2015-06-01

    There has been considerable interest in Japanese society in the problem of work-related stress leading to depressive symptoms, and an increasing number of primary houseworkers maintain paid employment. The purpose of this study was to examine the differential impact of multiple roles associated with psychological distress among Japanese workers. We studied 722 men and women aged 18-83 years in a cross-sectional study. The K10 questionnaire was used to examine psychological distress. The proportion of participants with psychological distress was higher in women (17.8%) compared with men (11.5%). Having three roles significantly decreased the risk of psychological distress [women: odds ratio (OR), 0.37-fold; men: OR, 0.41] compared with only one role. In working married women, there was significantly less psychological distress (OR, 0.27), and those with childrearing or caregiving responsibilities for elderly parents had significantly less psychological distress (OR, 0.38) than those with only an employment role. Similarly, working married men who had childrearing or caregiving responsibilities for elderly parents had significantly less psychological distress (OR, 0.41) than those who had only an employment role. The present study demonstrated that participants who had only an employment role had an increased risk of psychological distress. The degree of psychological distress was not determined solely by the number of roles. It is important to have balance between work and family life to reduce role conflict and/or role submersion, which in turn may reduce the risk of psychological distress.

  5. The activity approach to the psychological support of the 1st year university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Rozhdestvenskaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to approbating the method of negative emotion processing as the main component of the psychological support of the first-year students experiencing difficulties in adapting to university life. Many teachers associate the gradual development of intellectual activity and knowledge with teaching of school subjects. The work of P.Ya. Galperin’s disciples and followers (e.g. O.Karabanova, A.Liders, Yu.Frolov, N. Rozhdestvenskaya showed that the scientific method is universal and can be used to develop and improve various mental properties and activities. Using method «Perfection of Interpersonal Cognition Strategies» in psychological counseling based on P.Ya. Galperin’s theory promotes the development of adolescent reflexive mechanisms of understanding the personal characteristics of people, reducing the number of interpersonal conflicts with peers and adults, and also improving teachers’ understanding of the student personal characteristics. There are conditions under which the efficacy of mastering knowledge and cognitive skills are achieved. The educational experiment of studying the adaptation to university conditions in rural school graduates shows that mastering the cognitive processing of negative emotional experiences plays a leading role in the psychological adaptation of students. This method is an independent variable with respect to the three dependent ones, i.e. psychological adaptation in general, self-regulation of behaviour and communicative competence. The educational experiment carried out in accordance with the requirements of P.Ya. Galperin’s theory once again confirmed the high efficiency of P.Ya. Galperin’s methodology and showed that its potential capabilities are far from exhausted.

  6. The impact of psychological illness on outcome of corrosive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-22

    Feb 22, 2012 ... determine the presence and impact of psychiatric illness on the outcome of management. Materials and ... in the pediatric age group,[7] it is most times intentional ..... further confirms that the situation has not changed in over.

  7. Parental Rejection Following Sexual Orientation Disclosure: Impact on Internalized Homophobia, Social Support, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Julia A; Woodward, Eva N; Mereish, Ethan H; Pantalone, David W

    2015-09-01

    Sexual minority individuals face unique stressors because of their sexual identity. We explored associations between parental reactions to children's coming out, internalized homophobia (IH), social support, and mental health in a sample of 257 sexual minority adults. Path analyses revealed that higher IH and lower social support mediated the association between past parental rejection and current psychological distress. Mental health providers may benefit clients by utilizing interventions that challenge internalized stereotypes about homosexuality, increase social support, and process parental rejection, as well as focusing on how certain crucial experiences of rejection may impact clients' IH and mental health.

  8. Positive and negative psychological impact after secondary exposure to politically motivated violence among body handlers and rehabilitation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Shimon; Wexler, Isaiah D; Alkalay, Yasmin; Meiner, Zeev; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2008-12-01

    The positive and negative psychological impact of secondary exposure to politically motivated violence was examined among body handlers and hospital rehabilitation workers, 2 groups that differed in their proximity and immediacy to violent events. Survivors of politically motivated violence served as a comparison group. Body handlers experienced high levels of positive psychological impact and traumatic stress symptoms. Levels of positive psychological impact among on-scene body handlers were higher than those experienced by rehabilitation workers. Traumatic stress symptoms predicted positive psychological impact among body handlers. These findings indicate that proximity to stressors is associated with higher levels of positive and negative psychological impact. Physical proximity is a major contributory factor to both positive and negative psychological effects of secondary exposure to trauma.

  9. Operational Contract Support: Economic Impact Evaluation and Measures of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT OPERATIONAL CONTRACT SUPPORT: ECONOMIC IMPACT EVALUATION AND MEASURES...DATES COVERED MBA professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPERATIONAL CONTRACT SUPPORT: ECONOMIC IMPACT EVALUATION AND MEASURES OF EFFECTIVENESS 5...evaluation, expeditionary economics , operational contract support, measure of effectiveness 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 89 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  10. Psilocybin with psychological support improves emotional face recognition in treatment-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, J B; Freeman, T P; Leech, R; Hindocha, C; Lawn, W; Nutt, D J; Curran, H V; Carhart-Harris, R L

    2018-02-01

    Depressed patients robustly exhibit affective biases in emotional processing which are altered by SSRIs and predict clinical outcome. The objective of this study is to investigate whether psilocybin, recently shown to rapidly improve mood in treatment-resistant depression (TRD), alters patients' emotional processing biases. Seventeen patients with treatment-resistant depression completed a dynamic emotional face recognition task at baseline and 1 month later after two doses of psilocybin with psychological support. Sixteen controls completed the emotional recognition task over the same time frame but did not receive psilocybin. We found evidence for a group × time interaction on speed of emotion recognition (p = .035). At baseline, patients were slower at recognising facial emotions compared with controls (p psilocybin, this difference was remediated (p = .208). Emotion recognition was faster at follow-up compared with baseline in patients (p = .004, d = .876) but not controls (p = .263, d = .302). In patients, this change was significantly correlated with a reduction in anhedonia over the same time period (r = .640, p = .010). Psilocybin with psychological support appears to improve processing of emotional faces in treatment-resistant depression, and this correlates with reduced anhedonia. Placebo-controlled studies are warranted to follow up these preliminary findings.

  11. Αpproach techniques and psychological support in pediatric patients: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthoula Patsiala

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective approaches and psychological support of pediatric patients provided by health professionals are complex processes. The negative reactions and fear that pediatric patients develop during their hospitalization hamper cooperation with health professionals. The pediatric nursing staff is called upon to apply appropriate techniques for managing these situations.The purpose of this paper was to investigate, through contemporary literature review, methods of technical and psychological support of pediatric patients, applied by nurses in everyday clinical practice. The management of negative reactions and fear of pediatric patients requires individualized approach, given the uniqueness of each one of them. However, there are some general measures which may bring the ultimate results. According to literature some of them are: creation of a sincere relationship through targeted discussion, application of documented interactive educational programs to familiarize with nursing and medical procedures, distraction during painful acts, such as venipuncture or bladder catheterization, and finally high perception to identify nonverbal reactions.Awareness and familiarization of health professionals with appropriate methods will improve the relationship between pediatric patients and healthcare providers.

  12. Assessment of presurgical psychological screening in patients undergoing spine surgery: use and clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Arthur K; Young, Benjamin K; Riley, Lee H; Skolasky, Richard L

    2014-04-01

    Prospective survey. To determine the prevalence of use of presurgical psychological screening (PPS) among spine surgeons in the United States, identify factors associated with PPS use, evaluate surgeons' opinions of PPS, and investigate how PPS is applied in clinical practice. The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends PPS for patients undergoing back surgery. The prevalence of PPS is unknown. Thus, it may be difficult to improve preoperative care for such patients with psychological conditions. An online survey invitation was emailed to 340 spine surgeons. Questions addressed surgeon characteristics (eg, number of years in practice), practice characteristics (eg, practice type), inclusion of integrated rehabilitation and psychological services, and use of PPS. The impact of psychological factors on rehabilitation and recovery was assessed using an 11-point Likert scale (0, no impact; 10, highest impact). We analyzed the 110 (32%) responses with a χ(2) test (significance, Ppsychological factors on pain relief, adherence to therapy, and return to work (mean impact rating, >7.0); however, impact on return for follow-up was only moderate (mean rating, 5.8). A minority of surgeons reported using PPS. Surgeons were less likely to use PPS if they had completed residency or begun practice within 14 years, had fewer than 200 cases annually, or were university affiliated. This study highlights the need to advocate for the use of North American Spine Society guidelines regarding the use of PPS.

  13. The impact of psychological contract on organisational commitment: A study on public sector of Maldives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Hassan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact to psychological contract on the organisational commitment of public sector employees in Maldives. The research draws a sample of 100 respondents from ministry of Youth and Sports, Maldives, using simple random probability sampling technique. A Likert-Scale with 1-5 rating was used to obtain. The Questionnaire distributed included five variables to measure the Psychological Contract construct. These are ‘trust, ‘mutual obligation’, ‘perceived fairness, and ‘length of contract’. The dependent variable was organizational commitment (affective commitment, which is measured using ‘sense of belonging to the organization’, pride in organization membership’, and meaning associated with the work’. The data collected was processed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 22.0 for windows. The correlation analysis shows that the dimensions of psychological contract have positive correlation with affective commitment. The main results indicate that psychological contract dimension such as fulfillment of mutual obligations, perceived fairness and length of contract has a positive and significant impact on affective commitment. However this study found that psychological contract dimension, trust in employer has a positive correlation although it does not have a significant impact on affective commitment. Implications and suggestion for future researches are discussed.

  14. Psychology of Learning Spaces: Impact on Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Vincent J.; Santana, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    New research is emerging that focuses on the role the physical classroom space plays in the teaching-learning dynamic. The purpose of this exploratory research is to describe the students' and instructors' perspectives of how the classroom space and environment impact teaching and learning. Focus groups were utilized with data points coming from…

  15. The Importance of Partner Support and Psychological Status in Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Turan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The habit of smoking is more common in members of a family living in the same house. People with psychiatric symptoms smoke more cigarettes. We conducted a study to examine whether the psychological status of couples and partner support affects smoking cessation success. Methods: The outpatients who started taking a therapy for smoking cessation between July 2014 and January 2015 in our clinic were included in this prospective, single-center study. Each couple was assessed on the basis of the Marital Adjustment Scale (MAS and Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale (HADS. The smoking status of the participants was assessed after 6 months, and they filled out the Partner Interaction Questionnaire (PIQ. Results: Of 141 volunteers, 55% joined the smoking cessation program as couples. A total of 55.3% of the participants managed to quit smoking. Further, 42.3% of couples quitted smoking. Nearly 96.2% of couples had the same result regarding smoking cessation. The smoking cessation rate was significantly lower in couples with high anxiety depression scores (participant: p=0.028 and 0.037; partner: p=0.003 and 0.007, smoker partners (p<0.01, and participants with low marital adjustments (p<0.01. Logistic regression analysis showed that the independent parameters affecting smoking cessation success were support and the smoking status of partners (p<0.001 and 0.021, respectively. Conclusion: Partner support and psychological status were important parameters associated with smoking cessation. The presence of non-smoker partners made quitting smoking easier. Reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms and support of partners may help in smoking cessation.

  16. Impact of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Violence on Social Adjustment of School Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; Walsh, Kerryann

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to understand the pervasiveness and impact of physical, psychological, and sexual violence on the social adjustment of Grade 8 and 9 school children in the state of Tripura, India. The study participants, 160 boys and 160 girls, were randomly selected from classes in eight English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala city,…

  17. Biopsychosocial impact of the voice in relation to the psychological features in female student teachers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroek, L.F.P.; Thomas, G.; Kooijman, P.G.C.; Jong, F.I.C.R.S. de

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess biopsychosocial impact of the voice in relation to the psychological features in female student teachers. METHODS: This research was a cross-sectional study in 755 student teachers using general questionnaires, the Voice Handicap Inventory (VHI), Type D

  18. Street greenery and its physical and psychological impact on outdoor thermal comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemm, W.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Lenzholzer, S.; Hove, van B.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the benefits of street greenery for creating thermally comfortable streetscapes in moderate climates. It reports on investigations on the impact of street greenery on outdoor thermal comfort from a physical and psychological perspective. For this purpose, we examined nine

  19. The Impact of Missionary Service on the Spiritual Development and Psychological Wellbeing of Mormon College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Brian S.

    2017-01-01

    Mormon college students may leave or delay their studies to serve missions for their church, typically for 18 to 24 months. This dissertation studies the impact of serving a mission on the spiritual development and psychological wellbeing of these students. Using a two-factor ANOVA fixed-effects, nonexperimental design, five measurement scales on…

  20. The psychological impact of breast reconstruction after prophylactic or therapeutic mastectomy for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gopie, Jessica Premdee

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the psychological impact of two types of breast reconstruction after prophylactic or therapeutic mastectomy for breast cancer was investigated with a prospective study including 202 patients from different hospitals in the South-West of the Netherlands between 2007-2012. With

  1. The Impact of a Psychology Learning Community on Academic Success, Retention, and Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Kim; Spaulding, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Learning communities have become an integral part of the educational reform movement of the past two decades and have been heralded as a promising strategy for restructuring undergraduate education. This study used a matched control group design to examine the impact of participation in a psychology learning community (PLC) on a range of student…

  2. The Psychological Impact of Abuse on Men and Women with Severe Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsell, A. C.; Clare, I. C. H.; Murphy, G. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In other populations, the psychological impact of abuse has been conceptualized as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association (APA), 1994), but little is known about whether this is appropriate for adults with severe intellectual disabilities and very limited communication skills. Methods: An…

  3. Research Productivity and Scholarly Impact of APA-Accredited School Psychology Programs: 2005-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzler, John H.; Grapin, Sally L.; Daley, Matt L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the research productivity and scholarly impact of faculty in APA-accredited school psychology programs using data in the PsycINFO database from 2005 to 2009. We ranked doctoral programs on the basis of authorship credit, number of publications, and number of citations. In addition, we examined the primary publication outlets of…

  4. The Impact of Peer Review on Writing in a Psychology Course: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Naureen; Rose, Karen C.; Utell, Janine M.; Healey, Kathryn N.

    2014-01-01

    The authors assessed the impact of peer review on student writing in four sections of an undergraduate Developmental Psychology course. They hypothesized that peer review would result in better writing in the peer review group compared to the group with no peer review. Writing was rated independently by two instructors who were blind to the…

  5. The Psychological Impact of War and Abduction on Children in Northern Uganda: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokkedahl, Sarah Bøgelund; Oboke, Henry; Ovuga, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    studies conducted in Uganda from 2004-2014 using databases. Results: The psychological impact was found in many different domains ranging from mental health problems like PTSD, depression, anxiety, and psychosis to suicidal ideation, alcohol abuse, partner violence, child abuse, and feelings of guilt...

  6. Prevalence, Psychological Impact, and Coping of Cyberbully Victims among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Allison M.; Fremouw, William J.

    2012-01-01

    With the growth of technology, bullying has expanded into the technological realm. Labeled cyberbullying, individuals are utilizing technology, such as cell phones and the Internet, to bully and harass others with the intention of causing harm. The purpose of this study was to expand prevalence, psychological impact, and coping strategy research…

  7. Family and peer social support and their links to psychological distress among hurricane-exposed minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Donice M; Weems, Carl F

    2014-07-01

    Experiencing a disaster such as a hurricane places youth at a heightened risk for psychological distress such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. Social support may contribute to resilience following disasters, but the interrelations of different types of support, level of exposure, and different symptoms among youth is not well understood. This study examined associations among family and peer social support, level of hurricane exposure, and their links to psychological distress using both a large single-time assessment sample (N = 1,098) as well as a longitudinal sample followed over a 6-month period (n = 192). Higher levels of hurricane exposure were related to lower levels of social support from family and peers. Higher levels of family and peer social support demonstrated both concurrent and longitudinal associations with lower levels of psychological distress, with associations varying by social support source and psychological distress outcome. Findings also suggested that the protective effects of high peer social support may be diminished by high hurricane exposure. The results of this study further our understanding of the role of social support in hurricane-exposed youths' emotional functioning and point to the potential importance of efforts to bolster social support following disasters.

  8. A reflective learning report about the implementation and impacts of Psychological First Aid (PFA) in Gaza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Alison; Snider, Leslie; Sammour, Rania

    2016-01-01

    Psychological First Aid (PFA) is the recommended immediate psychosocial response during crises. As PFA is now widely implemented in crises worldwide, there are increasing calls to evaluate its effectiveness. World Vision used PFA as a fundamental component of their emergency response following the 2014 conflict in Gaza. Anecdotal reports from Gaza suggest a range of benefits for those who received PFA. Though not intending to undertake rigorous research, World Vision explored learnings about PFA in Gaza through Focus Group Discussions with PFA providers, Gazan women, men and children and a Key Informant Interview with a PFA trainer. The qualitative analyses aimed to determine if PFA helped individuals to feel safe, calm, connected to social supports, hopeful and efficacious - factors suggested by the disaster literature to promote coping and recovery (Hobfoll et al., 2007). Results show positive psychosocial benefits for children, women and men receiving PFA, confirming that PFA contributed to: safety, reduced distress, ability to engage in calming practices and to support each other, and a greater sense of control and hopefulness irrespective of their adverse circumstances. The data shows that PFA formed an important part of a continuum of care to meet psychosocial needs in Gaza and served as a gateway for addressing additional psychosocial support needs. A "whole-of-family" approach to PFA showed particularly strong impacts and strengthened relationships. Of note, the findings from World Vision's implementation of PFA in Gaza suggests that future PFA research go beyond a narrow focus on clinical outcomes, to a wider examination of psychosocial, familial and community-based outcomes.

  9. Impact of Vehicular Countdown Signals on Driving Psychologies and Behaviors: Taking China as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuquan Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Countdown signal control is a relatively new control mode that can inform a driver in advance about the remaining time to pass through intersections or the time needed to wait for other drivers and pedestrians. At present, few countries apply vehicular countdown signals. However, in China, some cities have applied vehicular countdown signals for years, though it is unclear how and how much such signals influence driving psychologies and behaviors compared with non-countdown signal controls. The present work aims to clarify the impact of vehicular countdown signals on driving psychologies and behaviors on the cognitive level. A questionnaire survey with 32 questions about driving psychologies and behaviors was designed, and an online survey was conducted. A total of 1051 valid questionnaires were received. The survey data were analyzed, and the main results indicate that most of the surveyed drivers prefer countdown signal controls and think that such controls can improve not only traffic safety but also traffic operational efficiency. The surveyed drivers also think that countdown signal controls have an impact on driving psychologies and behaviors and the survey results have demonstrated that the driving behaviors of female drivers surveyed are not conservative under the clear conditions of green countdown signal control. Further studies and methods concerning the effects of countdown signals on driving psychologies and behaviors are discussed.

  10. Antecedents of perceived coach autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors: coach psychological need satisfaction and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbings, Juliette; Taylor, Ian M; Spray, Christopher M

    2011-04-01

    Within the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, research has considered the consequences of coaches' autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors on various athlete outcomes (e.g., motivation and performance). The antecedents of such behaviors, however, have received little attention. Coaches (N = 443) from a variety of sports and competitive levels completed a self-report questionnaire to assess their psychological need satisfaction, well-being and perceived interpersonal behaviors toward their athletes. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that coaches' competence and autonomy need satisfaction positively predicted their levels of psychological well-being, as indexed by positive affect and subjective vitality. In turn, coaches' psychological well-being positively predicted their perceived autonomy support toward their athletes, and negatively predicted their perceived controlling behaviors. Overall, the results highlight the importance of coaching contexts that facilitate coaches' psychological need satisfaction and well-being, thereby increasing the likelihood of adaptive coach interpersonal behavior toward athletes.

  11. Criteria of psychological efficiency of realization system of psychology-pedagogical support of sports activity of sportsmen-disables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyko G.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the system of psychological pedagogical accompaniment of sporting activity is certain. In research the sportsmen of high qualification took part in sport of invalids. Prevailing high level of readiness of swimmers is rotined to self-realization in competition activity. On results procedure of self-appraisal 68,75 % sportsmen were attained optimum level of readiness, 14,58 % - base (sufficient, 14,58 % - middle (insufficient, 02,08 % - low (critical.

  12. A narrative review of binge eating disorder in adolescence: prevalence, impact, and psychological treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzilli E

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleonora Marzilli,1 Luca Cerniglia,2 Silvia Cimino1 1Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology, Psychology and Medicine Faculty, Sapienza – University of Rome, 2Department of Psychology, Psychology Faculty, International Telematic University Uninettuno, Rome, Italy Abstract: Binge eating disorder (BED represents one of the most problematic clinical conditions among youths. Research has shown that the developmental stage of adolescence is a critical stage for the onset of eating disorders (EDs, with a peak prevalence of BED at the age of 16–17 years. Several studies among adults with BED have underlined that it is associated with a broad spectrum of negative consequences, including higher concern about shape and weight, difficulties in social functioning, and emotional-behavioral problems. This review aimed to examine studies focused on the prevalence of BED in the adolescent population, its impact in terms of physical, social, and psychological outcomes, and possible strategies of psychological intervention. The review of international literature was made on paper material and electronic databases ProQuest, PsycArticles, and PsycInfo, and the Scopus index were used to verify the scientific relevance of the papers. Epidemiological research that examined the prevalence of BED in adolescent samples in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition showed a prevalence ranging from 1% to 4%. More recently, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of BED, in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria, reporting a prevalence of ~1%–5%. Studies that focused on the possible impact that BED may have on physical, psychological, and social functioning showed that adolescents with BED have an increased risk of developing various adverse consequences, including obesity, social problems, substance use, suicidality, and other psychological difficulties

  13. The Impact of Speed of Play in Gambling on Psychological and Behavioural Factors: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew; Griffiths, Mark D

    2018-06-01

    Conceptually, there is a common association between gambling games with fast speeds of play and problem gambling. This relationship however, is largely correlational in nature, which comes at the expense of carefully controlled empirical investigation. Research that does exist aimed towards investigating the impact of gambling speeds on psychological and behavioural factors, is in its relative infancy, and the research possesses disparate methodologies and variables of interest. The aims of the current review is therefore to evaluate and summarise the existing body of evidence relating to speed of play in gambling, as well as discuss how this evidence can be used to inform harm minimisation approaches aimed at facilitating self-control during gambling. Eleven studies were selected for review based on the inclusion criteria, comprising nine experimental and two qualitative studies (one self-report focus group study and one observational study). There was a consistent finding across studies that games with faster speeds of play were preferred and rated as more exciting for all gamblers, ranging from non-problem to problem gamblers. Of concern, was the repeated finding that fast games are particularly appealing to those suffering with a gambling problem. Behavioural results were more inconsistent across studies, though the general trend supports the notion that games with faster speeds of play encourage more wagers, longer game play, and caused players, particularly problem gamblers, to experience difficulty in ceasing gambling. The implications of these findings for gambling policy, harm minimisation approaches, and future research are discussed.

  14. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    HONDA, Ayumi; DATE, Yutaka; ABE, Yasuyo; AOYAGI, Kiyoshi; HONDA, Sumihisa

    2015-01-01

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20...

  15. Supportive Mental Health Self-Monitoring among Smartphone Users with Psychological Distress: Protocol for a Fully Mobile Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Till Beiwinkel; Stefan Hey; Olaf Bock; Wulf Rössler; Wulf Rössler; Wulf Rössler

    2017-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons...

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT ON PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS IN OLDER PERSONS: AN EXAMINATION OF INTERACTION PROCESSES IN AUSTRALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpley, Christopher; Hussain, Rafat; Wark, Stuart; Mcevoy, Mark; Attia, John

    2015-12-01

    Social support is proposed as a coping mechanism against anxiety and depression amongst older persons, but few data have examined how this occurs. This study assessed the contributions of two sub-components of social support as mediators against psychological distress-broadly defined as anxiety and depression. 1,560 men and 1,758 women from the Hunter Community Study (Australia) completed the Duke Social Support Scale and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. The Duke Social Support Scale examined the amount of social interaction and satisfaction with social interactions. Significant mediating effects of social support were found in the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale items measuring depression but not anxiety. Satisfaction with social support was a significant predictor of Kessler Psychological Distress Scale total score and Sadness items, but the amount of social support was not a predictor of stress. Social support may assist with symptoms of depression, i.e., specific sadness/depressed mood, but not necessarily with anxiety. Implications for policy and service delivery were discussed.

  17. Psychological Support as a Factor of the Training Process Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kosendiak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Supportive activities may be one of the ways of the training process optimization. Support involves both components of the training process, i.e. training and rest. The training support is aimed at the training load increase or at such orientation of the adaptation processes to meet the training goals as closely as possible. The different aims lay behind the methods that support the rest mechanisms. It is about increasing the peace of the regeneration and recovery processes. This term describes all activities aimed at restoring the full exercise capacity of the athlete after work. The psychological support of the training process can be one of the ways to minimize training disturbances and it should therefore be an essential part of the training process management in case of the top ranked athletes. To improve the psychological support system of the training process and to improve the system quality, it is necessary to analyze the current situation. That’s why, authors of the paper decided to ask the members of the Polish Olympic team competed at the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro on types of relaxation techniques they accepted and used before the competition. The relaxation techniques were deliberately limited to the pre-start relaxation techniques as the study was treated as a pilot study dedicated to the problem identification. Therefore, the authors of the paper formulated its aim, as the identification of the pre-start relaxation preferences of the Olympic team members. The following research questions were formulated to meet the aim of the study:  •     What types of the pre-start relaxation techniques are declared and accepted by the Olympians? •     Could the preferred pre-start relaxation techniques be considered rational, planned, and consciously implemented? A written interview with an online questionnaire was used as a research method. The study was conducted before the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de

  18. [Influence of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic of patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Zhao, Ping; Chen, Li-Jun; Qin, Hui-Qing; Shi, Wang-Hong; Guo, Wei; Zhen, Ying

    2012-03-01

    To explore the effects of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic of patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia and improve the level of diagnosis and treatment. From August 2009 to April 2010, 231 patients (obtained 217 effective responses) with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia were recruited. Among the patients, there were 123 males and 94 females, with an average age of (38.00 +/- 5.67) years (ranged from 15 to 66 years). Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used to test social support and psychological characteristic and compared the difference of psychological, personality traits and norm, then analyzed the effect of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic. Two hundred and seventeen (93.9%) patients completed the questionnaire. Compared with normal 16PF scores, there were significant differences in factor scores of intelligence, stability, excitability, perseverance,social boldness, vigilance, sophistication, experimental, independence and tonicity (P characteristic between patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia and norms. Improving social support level and optimizing personality traits can improve psychological profile of these patients.

  19. Is the Moderating Effect of Social Support on New Korean Mothers' Psychological Distress Contingent on Levels of Marital Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Tae

    2018-03-01

    This study examines how levels of marital quality change the effect of social support on postpartum psychological distress among new Korean mothers using the Panel Study on Korean Children (N = 1585). In accord with findings from previous studies, this study shows that low marital quality negatively affects new mothers' mental health, but that social support alleviates psychological distress independent of marital quality. The main finding of this research is that the moderating effect of social support is contingent on levels of marital quality. Aggregated social support moderates the effects of marital quality on new mothers' mental health only when the level of marital quality is low. Furthermore, each dimension of social support (emotional, informational, and instrumental) only has a moderating effect when marital quality is low. The findings highlight the fact that the moderating effect of social support varies with the individual context and so customized social support that fits individual needs matters for the mental health of new mothers.

  20. Psychological workshops for children and adolescents suffering from malignant disease: The model of psychosocial support during hospitalization and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klikovac Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric psycho-oncology within psycho-oncology is a highly developed scientific discipline in the world, both at the level of basic research and the development of theoretical concepts and at the practical level, which refers to the creation and implementation of various models of psychosocial support to children and young people who are suffering from various malignant diseases and their families during all stages of the demanding oncology treatment. One of the models of psychosocial support for children are workshops, as a form of group psychological treatment in which children and young people who are in distress, crisis, shock and even trauma, acquire a new positive experience and which provides new insights and knowledge to empower and boost the quality of life for overcoming severe malignant disease and treatment through meaningful games, all of which leads to overcoming the 'downtime' and regression and encouraging further psychological development. The outcome of workshop activities are various products (drawings, photographs, videos, posters, written material, but also positive feelings and behaviours in children and adolescents. The main objectives of introducing psychological workshops at the department of pediatric hematology-oncology in our community are, on the one hand, to provide professional counselling and support to children and young people during hospitalization and, on the other, to introduce a standard psychological procedure and quality psychological practice of group psychological counselling for sick children and young people in the hospital environment.

  1. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ayumi; Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Honda, Sumihisa

    2016-01-01

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work.

  2. Past personal history of dysphoria, social support, and psychological distress following conjugal bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, J C; Kasl, S; Jacobs, S

    1994-07-01

    This study describe the course and risk factors of psychological distress following bereavement, controlling for factors often omitted from studies of grief: psychiatric history, social support, and coping choices of the bereaved. Spouses of patients hospitalized for serious illness or elective surgery were systematically screened and followed longitudinally through the recovery or death of the hospitalized patient. Of 440 respondents, 154 were bereaved within 2 months. Spouses were interviewed in their homes by trained interviewers at intake and 2, 6, 13, and 25 months postintake. Dependent variables were measured with the CES-D (depressive symptoms) and the PERI (general anxiety and hopelessness/helplessness) scales. Independent variables were measured with the SADS-L (past personal history of dysphoria) and the Lazarus' Ways of Coping scale as well as sociodemographic measures. Lifetime prevalence of a brief period of dysphoric mood among spouses before the patient's illness was 22%; past personal history of dysphoric mood was related to female sex, smaller networks, and more depression and anxiety during the hospitalization of their spouses. Newly widowed persons with a past history of dysphoria perceived their networks to be relatively nonsupportive, but devoted similar amounts of coping effort to seeking social support and reported similar amounts of social interaction compared with persons with no history of dysphoria. Persons with a past history of dysphoria reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, general anxiety, and hopelessness/helplessness through 25 months postbereavement, yet their recovery trajectory was similar to those without a past history of dysphoria. It was concluded that a past history of subsyndromal symptomatology in conjunction with a stressful life event such as bereavement increases one's vulnerability to excess psychological distress.

  3. The impact of the work conditions of allied health professionals on satisfaction, commitment and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwell, John; Noblet, Andrew; Demir, Defne; Steane, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Allied health professionals are integral to the effective delivery of hospital-based health care, yet little is known about the working conditions associated with the attitudinal and health outcomes of these employees. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the demand-control-support model, in combination with organizational justice variables, predicts the employee-level outcomes of allied health professionals. Allied health professionals from an Australian health care organization were surveyed, with 113 (52.6%) participating. The survey included measures of job demands, job control, social support, organizational justice, satisfaction, commitment and psychological distress. Multiple regression analyses reveal that the additive demand-control-support model predicts the outcome variables of job satisfaction, organizational commitment and psychological distress, whereas the organizational justice variables predicted organizational commitment and psychological distress. Further, both work and nonwork sources of support, in addition to specific justice dimensions, were closely associated with employee-level outcomes. When coupled with previous research involving social support and organizational justice, the findings from this study suggest that initiatives aimed at strengthening supervisor and nonwork support, while enhancing perceptions of organizational fairness, may offer useful avenues for increasing the levels of satisfaction, commitment and well-being experienced by allied health professionals.

  4. Exploration of the psychological impact and adaptation to cardiac events in South Asians in the UK: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Mimi; Stevenson, Fiona; Walters, Kate

    2016-07-08

    There is little research on how different ethnic groups adapt after an acute cardiac event. This qualitative study explores between-ethnicity and within-ethnicity variation in adaptation, and the psychological impact of an acute cardiac event among UK South Asian and white British people. We purposively sampled people by ethnic group from general practices in London who had a new myocardial infarction, angina or acute arrhythmia in the preceding 18 months. We conducted 28 semistructured interviews for exploring the psychological symptoms, experiences and adaptations following a cardiac event among South Asians (Indian and Bangladeshi) in comparison to white British people. Data were analysed using a thematic 'framework' approach. Findings showed heterogeneity in experiences of the cardiac event and its subsequent psychological and physical impact. Adaptation to the event related predominantly to life circumstances, personal attitudes and employment status. Anxiety and low mood symptoms were common sequelae, especially in the Bangladeshi group. Indian men tended to normalise symptoms and the cardiac event, and reported less negative mood symptoms than other groups. Fear of physical exertion, particularly heavy lifting, persisted across the groups. Some people across all ethnic groups indicated the need for more psychological therapy postcardiac event. Socioeconomic circumstances, age and prior work status appeared to be more important in relation to adaptation after a cardiac event than ethnic status. Heterogeneity in views and experiences related to the socioeconomic background, age and work status of the participants along with some cultural influences. Rehabilitation programmes should be flexibly tailored for individuals in particular and where relevant, specific support should be provided for returning to work. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Exploration of the psychological impact and adaptation to cardiac events in South Asians in the UK: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Mimi; Stevenson, Fiona; Walters, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is little research on how different ethnic groups adapt after an acute cardiac event. This qualitative study explores between-ethnicity and within-ethnicity variation in adaptation, and the psychological impact of an acute cardiac event among UK South Asian and white British people. Setting We purposively sampled people by ethnic group from general practices in London who had a new myocardial infarction, angina or acute arrhythmia in the preceding 18 months. Participants We conducted 28 semistructured interviews for exploring the psychological symptoms, experiences and adaptations following a cardiac event among South Asians (Indian and Bangladeshi) in comparison to white British people. Data were analysed using a thematic ‘framework’ approach. Results Findings showed heterogeneity in experiences of the cardiac event and its subsequent psychological and physical impact. Adaptation to the event related predominantly to life circumstances, personal attitudes and employment status. Anxiety and low mood symptoms were common sequelae, especially in the Bangladeshi group. Indian men tended to normalise symptoms and the cardiac event, and reported less negative mood symptoms than other groups. Fear of physical exertion, particularly heavy lifting, persisted across the groups. Some people across all ethnic groups indicated the need for more psychological therapy postcardiac event. Socioeconomic circumstances, age and prior work status appeared to be more important in relation to adaptation after a cardiac event than ethnic status. Conclusions Heterogeneity in views and experiences related to the socioeconomic background, age and work status of the participants along with some cultural influences. Rehabilitation programmes should be flexibly tailored for individuals in particular and where relevant, specific support should be provided for returning to work. PMID:27401355

  6. Mischaracterizing social psychology to support the laudable goal of increasing its political diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagly, Alice H

    2015-01-01

    Duarte et al.'s arguments for increasing political diversity in social psychology are based on mischaracterizations of social psychology as fundamentally flawed in understanding stereotype accuracy and the effects of attitudes on information processing. I correct their misunderstandings while agreeing with their view that political diversity, along with other forms of diversity, stands to benefit social psychology.

  7. Psychological impact on dispatched local lay rescuers performing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, Jolande A; Beesems, Stefanie G; De Haan, Rob J; Koster, Rudolph W

    2015-07-01

    We studied the short-term psychological impact and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related symptoms in lay rescuers performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) after a text message (TM)-alert for out-of-hospital-cardiac arrest, and assessed which factors contribute to a higher level of PTSD-related symptoms. The lay rescuers received a TM-alert and simultaneously an email with a link to an online questionnaire. We analyzed all questionnaires from February 2013 until October 2014 measuring the short-term psychological impact. We interviewed by telephone all first arriving lay rescuers performing bystander CPR and assessed PTSD-related symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale (IES) 4-6 weeks after the resuscitation. IES-scores 0-8 reflected no stress, 9-25 mild, 26-43 moderate, and 44-75 severe stress. A score ≥ 26 indicated PTSD symptomatology. Of all alerted lay rescuers, 6572 completed the online questionnaire. Of these, 1955 responded to the alert and 507 assisted in the resuscitation. We interviewed 203 first arriving rescuers of whom 189 completed the IES. Of these, 41% perceived no/mild short-term impact, 46% bearable impact and 13% severe impact. On the IES, 81% scored no stress and 19% scored mild stress. None scored moderate or severe stress. Using a multivariable logistic regression model we identified three factors with an independent impact on mild stress level: no automated external defibrillator connected by the lay rescuer, severe short-term impact, and no (very) positive experience. Lay rescuers alerted by text messages, do not show PTSD-related symptoms 4-6 weeks after performing bystander CPR, even if they perceive severe short-term psychological impact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of positive psychological capital on employee well-being over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, James B; Luthans, Fred; Smith, Ronda M; Palmer, Noel F

    2010-01-01

    The recently recognized core construct of psychological capital or PsyCap (consisting of the positive psychological resources of efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience) has been demonstrated to be related to various employee attitudinal, behavioral, and performance outcomes. However, to date, the impact of this positive core construct over time and on important employee well-being outcomes has not been tested. This study meets this need by analyzing the relationship between a broad cross-section of employees' (N = 280) level of PsyCap and two measures of psychological well-being over time. The results indicated that employees' PsyCap was related to both measures of well-being and, importantly, that PsyCap explained additional variance in these well-being measures over time. The limitations, needed future research, and practical implications conclude the article.

  9. Modelling Social Psychological Support within the System of Inclusive Higher Education: The Experience of Novosibirsk State Technical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmuk L.A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of modelling the specific structure of social psychological support of students with disabilities in the context of inclusive education development. The article reveals the functions, system character and means of application of this structure in the course of realization of professional and educational paths. The authors analyze different models of social psychological support in the university and address the question of the efficiency of these models and their compliance with resources and demands of the university. The problem of the optimal model is considered. The authors suggest outsourcing as a solution for universities with limited number of assistive resources and small amount of students with disabilities. Developing the model implies taking into account perceptions and assessments of social psychological support in students with disabilities in each step of their professional path.

  10. The impact of psychological stress on immune function in the athletic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, A; Hucklebridge, F

    2001-01-01

    In many ways, the physiological and immune consequences of acute bursts of physical exercise parallel the effect of an acute psychological stressor. Similarly, the net effects of endurance training resemble chronic psychological stress, whereas the physiological milieu associated with overtraining resembles that of melancholic depression. We suggest that the prolonged psychological stress often associated with athletic training and competition may make athletes more vulnerable to the negative health effects of training. Furthermore, a relationship between anxiety and life events on susceptibility to injury is well documented. Individual differences in self-confidence and self-esteem are also known to relate to the occurrence of injury as well as recovery from injury. We suggest that these two observations may be linked. It is the purpose of this paper to review the most recent evidence that psychological stress does impact upon the balance of the immune system in such a way as to be relevant to health outcomes and that the athletic population, in particular those with low self-esteem, may be especially vulnerable due to the probable synergistic effects of both physical and psychological stress.

  11. Workers’ Age and the Impact of Psychological Factors on the Perception of Safety at Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dawood Idrees

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The safety of construction workers is always a major concern at construction sites as the construction industry is inherently dangerous with many factors influencing worker safety. Several studies concluded that psychological factors such as workload, organizational relationships, mental stress, job security, and job satisfaction have significant effects on workers’ safety. However, research on psychological factors that are characteristic of different age groups have been limited. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of psychological factors on the perception of worker safety for two different age groups. After an extensive literature review, different psychological factors were identified, and a hypothetical research model was developed based on psychological factors that could affect workers’ perception of safety. A survey instrument was developed, and data were collected from seven different construction sites in Pakistan. Structural equation modeling (SEM was employed to test the hypothetical model for both age groups. The results revealed that workload and job satisfaction are significantly dominant factors on workers’ perception of safety in older workers, whereas organizational relationships, mental stress, and job security are dominant factors for younger workers at construction sites.

  12. Psychological Impact of Chemotherapy for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia on Patients and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherief, Laila M; Kamal, Naglaa M; Abdalrahman, Hadel M; Youssef, Doaa M; Abd Alhady, Mohamed A; Ali, Adel S A; Abd Elbasset, Maha Aly; Hashim, Hiatham M

    2015-12-01

    To assess the self-esteem of pediatric patients on chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and psychological status of their parents.The psychological status of 178 children receiving chemotherapy for ALL and their parents was assessed using parenting stress index (PSI) to determine the degree of stress the parents are exposed to using parent's and child's domains. Self-esteem Scale was used to determine the psychological status of patients.The study revealed significant low level of self-esteem in 84.83% of patients. Their parents had significant psychological stress. PSI was significantly associated with parents' low sense of competence, negative attachment to their children, feeling of high restriction, high depression, poor relation to spouse, high social isolation variables of parent's domains. It was significantly associated with low distraction, negative parents' reinforcement, low acceptability, and high demanding variables of child's domains. Long duration of disease was the most detrimental factor among demographic data of the patients.Chemotherapy for ALL has a significant impact on the psychological status of both patients and their parents with high prevalence of low self-esteem in children and high degree of stress in their parents.

  13. The impact of psychological trauma on wages in post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Elizabeth A M; Rios-Avila, Fernando; Lecy, Jesse D

    2013-11-01

    In the last three decades, armed conflict has increasingly been fought among civilian populations, resulting in greater physical and mental tolls. Soldiers returning from combat with psychological trauma are now receiving medical and policy attention for reintegration into the workforce. However, there is little attention on the impacts and options available to civilians who may face similar problems achieving labor force success after exposure to war-related trauma. Using the Bosnia and Herzegovina Living Standards Measurement Survey for years 2001-2004, we study wage attainment for 7659 respondents in relation to a series of psychological trauma measures which correspond to those used in PTSD diagnosis. In standard OLS regression, all subcomponents of PTSD have a negative impact; however, once unobserved individual heterogeneity is taken into account, some of the individual elements of psychological trauma have positive impacts on wage attainment. This is one of the first studies to find evidence of Posttraumatic Growth using information beyond psychometric instruments. The impact of the PTSD condition itself is insignificant in both models, and we do not find evidence of selection bias. We determine that the traditional means of predicting wages in labor economics are relevant in a post-conflict environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Urban green spaces' effectiveness as a psychological buffer for the negative health impact of noise pollution: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel Mario; Dimitrova, Donka Dimitrova

    2014-01-01

    Noise pollution is one of the four major pollutions in the world. Little evidence exists about the actual preventive benefits of psychological noise attenuation by urban green spaces, especially from the perspective of environmental medicine and, to the best of our knowledge, there is not a systematic analysis on this topic. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate whether there is conclusive scientific evidence for the effectiveness of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer for the negative impact of noise pollution on human health and to promote an evidence-based approach toward this still growing environmental hazard. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for experimental and epidemiological studies published before June 04, 2013 in English and Spanish. Data was independently extracted in two step process by the authors. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies qualitative assessment was performed. We found moderate evidence that the presence of vegetation can generally reduce the negative perception of noise (supported with an electroencephalogram test in one of the experimental studies; consistent with the data from two epidemiological studies; one experiment found no effect and one was inconclusive about the positive effect). This review fills a gap in the literature and could help researchers further clarify the proper implementation of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer in areas with population exposed to chronic noise pollution.

  15. Psychological impact on house staff of an initial versus subsequent emergency medicine rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagappan, K; Grlic, N; Steinberg, M; Pollack, S

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the psychological impact of a 4-week emergency medicine (EM) rotation on residents undergoing their first EM experience. These findings were compared to the psychological impact the rotation had on residents with prior EM experience. Data were obtained from a post hoc analysis of a previous study. Prerotation and postrotation psychological distress levels were assessed over a 4-week EM rotation. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Dissociative Experience Scale that together comprise a total of 14 psychometric scales. All scales were given at the beginning and end of the initial EM rotation for the academic year of 1994-1995. All information was coded and confidential. Eighteen junior residents (9/18 EM [50%]) were analyzed as a group and compared to 53 residents (34/51 EM [66%]) with prior exposure to the authors' emergency department. Residents doing their first EM rotation (N = 18) showed improvement in 13 of 14 scales (P = .002). Of the 13 scales that improved, 3 improved significantly: Brief Symptom Inventory = anxiety (P = .002) and Dissociative Experience Scale = absorption (P = .001) and other (P = .001). Residents with prior EM experience (N = 53) displayed worsening in 9 of 13 scales (P = not significant) and no change in 1. Residents undergoing their first EM rotation showed a significant decrease in psychological distress over the 4-week period. Residents with prior EM experience did not show a similar change.

  16. Psychological impact of female genital mutilation among adolescent Egyptian girls: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Magdy R; Shaaban, Mohamed M; Meky, Heba K; Amin Arafa, Mohamed E; Mohamed, Tamer Y; Gharib, Waleed F; Ahmed, Abeer B

    2017-08-01

    Worldwide, at least 200 million women and girls have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM). The medical and sexual consequences have been documented, but the psychological impact has not been studied to the same extent. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between FGM and psychiatric problems among adolescent girls. A total of 204 girls, aged 14-19 years, were included in a cross-sectional study conducted at Suez Canal University Hospitals. All participants completed an Arabic-validated, structured questionnaire covering nine symptom scales. Sociodemographic data were also collected. Main outcome measures were the prevalence of psychiatric problems among adolescent girls who had undergone FGM. Overall, 66.2% of girls had undergone FGM. The percentage in rural areas was 91.8%, compared with 43.0% in urban areas. There were no significant differences between the FGM and non-FGM groups as regards religion, educational and socioeconomic levels. FGM girls had a significantly higher level of psychological problems with regard to somatisation, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety and hostility compared with non-FGM girls (p < .0001). FGM is a traumatic experience that may leave a lasting psychological mark and a negative impact on the psychological status of affected girls.

  17. On the development of professional standards of specialist in the field of educational psychology (psycho-pedagogical students support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Zabrodin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss two models (two types of organizations of educational psychological service, which has a fundamental difference in the workplace of a school psychologist: at school (educational institution or out of school (in counseling centers, PPMS center, PMPC, psychologist’s office in district or city departments of local authorities. We prove that the currently being developed professional standards of specialist in the field of educational psychology (activity on psychological and pedagogical support of students aimed at the development of a national counseling service in Russia, should provide a combination of both models and ensure interactions between psychologists working within an institution with experts from the district (city psychological centers, offices or counseling centers.

  18. An intelligent ecosystem to support the psychological diagnosis and intervention of children under social vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesántez-Avilés, Fernando; Cevallos-León Wong, Verónica; Robles-Bykbaev, Vladimir; Borck-Vintimilla, Estefanía.; Flores-Andrade, Santiago; Pineda-Villa, Yenner; Pacurucu-Pacurucu, Ana

    2015-12-01

    When children are taken apart from their parents because of many violence situations, they are taken to foster homes, where they share place with kids who have lived similar situations. United Nations Children's Fund (2014) refer that Children who have been abused or neglected, often may have low self-esteem and other emotional problems, which can lead, at worst, to risky behaviors and self-harm . They also could tend to internalize that behavior, repeating the pattern of violence and abuse as a response to their environment. In this line, the latest estimates provided by SOS Children's Village International show a global complex picture: around 24 million of children in the world live in foster homes, one billion of children live in conflict-affected areas; and, furthermore, there is a lack of mental health professionals in most of the countries. On those grounds, in this paper we propose an intelligent ecosystem to provide support for psychologists during the psychodiagnosis and intervention with children, especially the ones who are in foster homes. Currently, the system is able to automatically determine some psychological traits, according to responses provided by each patient. One part of the diagnostic system is based on two psychological tests: the Draw-A-Person test and the Draw-A-Family test. The results obtained on the first stage let the system establish different challenges according to the skills that the evaluated child needs to develop. Our proposed approach was tested in a population of 124 children (93 school students, and 31 living in shelters), and has achieved encouraging results (80% of precision in patient's profile determination).

  19. Residents' experiences of relationships with nurses in community-based supported housing - a qualitative study based on Giorgi's method of analysis and self psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønning, Solrun Brenk; Bjørkly, Stål

    2017-01-01

    One of the prioritizations in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 is the provision of community mental health and social care services, such as supported housing. The ongoing process of such deinstitutionalization has raised issues concerning the impact on users' quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore how residents in supported housing experience receiving professional help and how they perceived their relationships with nurses. The second aim was to investigate the relevance of Giorgi's method of analysis and self psychology in analyzing these experiences. Four residents were interviewed individually. The interviews were based on a semi-structured interview guide and analyzed by Giorgi's method of analysis. Relations were interpreted within self psychology. The residents reported that they not only felt safe in the community but also felt a greater awareness of wanting to appear normal. They seemed to have an easier daily life and felt that the personnel met their selfobject needs when routines allowed for it. Professional awareness of empathic attunement and selfobject roles might enhance residents' self-cohesiveness. The interviews were analyzed by Giorgi's method of analysis, and the use of clinical concepts from self psychology was chosen to achieve a more dynamic understanding of the participants' relational experiences and needs in supported housing.

  20. Influence of work-family-school role conflicts and social support on psychological wellbeing among registered nurses pursuing advanced degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijuan; Song, Rhayun

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine how work-family-school role conflict and social support influence psychological well-being among registered nurses pursuing an advanced degree. A cross-sectional, correlational study design was used. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 320 registered nurses pursuing an advanced nursing degree at 13 hospitals in Korea, from June to October 2011. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling with the AMOS program. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to evaluate the measurement model prior to the testing of study hypotheses before and after controlling for extraneous variables. The fit parameters of the modified model (χ(2)/df=2.01, GFI=0.91, AGFI=0.89, CFI=0.92, SRMR=0.068, and RMSEA=0.065) indicated its suitability as the research model. This model explained 45% of the variance in work-related psychological well-being and 52% of the variance in general psychological well-being. Both social support and work-family-school role conflict exerted significant effects on work-related psychological well-being and general psychological well-being. The findings of the present study imply that work-family-school role conflict influences the psychological well-being of registered nurses pursuing an advanced degree. It is necessary for nursing administrators to develop strategies to help registered nurses to manage their multiple roles and improve both their work-related psychological well-being and their general psychological well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of comprehensive psychological training on mental health of recruits in Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shi-ying; Zhang, Lan

    2015-04-01

    To examine the effect of comprehensive psychological training on the mental health of recruits and to provide basis for promoting mental health among recruits in Xinjiang. From September to December, 2013, a convenience sampling was used to select 613 recruits from Xinjiang. These recruits were assigned to the training group (n=306) and the control group (n=307). The Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire,the Questionnaire of Armymen's Emotion Regulation Types and the Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scale were used to evaluate the levels of mental health at the baseline and at the end of comprehensive psychological training. After comprehensive psychological training, the negative coping style score of the training group were significantly lower than the control group (P=0.000), and there were difference in cognitive focus (P=0.000) and behavior restrain (P=0.005); also, there was significant difference in social support scale (Pemotion regulation and all factors (Pappeal and self comfort (Pappeal, behavior restrain, and self comfort (all P<0.05). Comprehensive psychological training is useful in improving the mental health of recruits.

  2. Interactive associations of parental support, demands, and psychological control, over adolescents' beliefs about the legitimacy of parental authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Carlos; Cumsille, Patricio; Martínez, M Loreto

    2018-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between parental support, demand, psychological control and adolescents' beliefs about the legitimacy of parental authority for personal and multifaceted issues in a sample of 1342 Chilean adolescents (M = 16.38, SD = 1.24, age range 14-20). Results from multiple regression analyses separated by age indicated that demand was positively associated with adolescents' beliefs about the legitimacy of parental authority for personal and multifaceted issues and that psychological control was negatively associated with adolescents' legitimacy beliefs concerning personal issues. Furthermore, parental support moderated the relationship between parental demand and adolescents' beliefs about parental legitimacy for personal and multifaceted issues: those who display high levels of demand showed stronger beliefs about parental legitimacy at high level of support. These results support the interactive effect of parental support and demand on adolescent development. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Experience with breast cancer, pre-screening perceived susceptibility and the psychological impact of screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Absetz, Pilvikki; Aro, Arja R; Sutton, Stephen R

    2003-01-01

    responded to the follow-ups. Psychological impact was measured as anxiety (STAI-S), depression (BDI), health-related concerns (IAS), and breast cancer-specific beliefs and concerns. Data was analyzed with repeated measures analyses of variance, with estimates of effect size based on Eta-squared. Women......This prospective study examined whether the psychological impact of organized mammography screening is influenced by women's pre-existing experience with breast cancer and perceived susceptibility (PS) to the disease. From a target population of 16,886, a random sample of women with a normal...... with breast cancer experience had higher risk perception already before screening invitation; after screening they were also more distressed. Women with high PS were more distressed than women with low PS also at pre-invitation. The distress was not alleviated by screening, but instead remained even after...

  4. Residents’ experiences of relationships with nurses in community-based supported housing – a qualitative study based on Giorgi’s method of analysis and self psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rønning SB

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solrun Brenk Rønning, Stål Bjørkly Faculty of Health Sciences and Social Care, Molde University College, Molde, Norway Abstract: One of the prioritizations in the World Health Organization’s (WHO Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020 is the provision of community mental health and social care services, such as supported housing. The ongoing process of such deinstitutionalization has raised issues concerning the impact on users’ quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore how residents in supported housing experience receiving professional help and how they perceived their relationships with nurses. The second aim was to investigate the relevance of Giorgi’s method of analysis and self psychology in analyzing these experiences. Four residents were interviewed individually. The interviews were based on a semi-structured interview guide and analyzed by Giorgi’s method of analysis. Relations were interpreted within self psychology. The residents reported that they not only felt safe in the community but also felt a greater awareness of wanting to appear normal. They seemed to have an easier daily life and felt that the personnel met their selfobject needs when routines allowed for it. Professional awareness of empathic attunement and selfobject roles might enhance residents’ self-cohesiveness. The interviews were analyzed by Giorgi’s method of analysis, and the use of clinical concepts from self psychology was chosen to achieve a more dynamic understanding of the participants’ relational experiences and needs in supported housing. Keywords: mental health, nursing relationship, self psychology, supported housing, experiences

  5. The relative contributions of function, perceived psychological burden and partner support to cognitive distress in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Susan M; Bond, Malcolm J; Harrington, Ann; Belan, Ingrid

    2016-09-01

    Bladder cancer is a genitourinary disease of increasing incidence. Despite improvements in treatment, outcomes remain equivocal with high recurrence rates. It is associated with poor psychosocial outcomes due to reduced functioning of the genitourinary system. The objective of these analyses was to query whether reported loss of function or the perception of psychological burden caused by this functional impedance was the key to understanding psychosocial outcomes. The sample comprised 119 participants with a confirmed diagnosis of bladder cancer. They completed a self-report questionnaire comprising the Bladder Cancer Index, Mini-mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale, Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale and standard sociodemographic details. Simple mediation and serial mediation were used to explore the potential for psychological burden to mediate associations between loss of function and cognitive distress, and the potential additional contribution of positive partner support on these relationships. Age and duration of cancer were considered as covariates. Simple mediation demonstrated that the association between function and cognitive distress was fully mediated by perceived psychological burden. Serial mediation, which allowed for the addition of partner support, again demonstrated full mediation, with partner support being the key predictive variable. These analyses emphasise the importance of an appreciation of individuals' interpretation of the burden occasioned by bladder cancer and the role of a supportive partner. The implications for management discussions and support services in alleviating negative psychological outcomes in bladder cancer are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The social and psychological impact of endometriosis on women's lives: a critical narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Culley, Lorraine; Law, Caroline; Hudson, Nicky; Denny, E.; Mitchell, H.; Baumgarten, M.; Raine-Fenning, N.

    2013-01-01

    The attached file is a pre – copy – editing, author produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Human Reproduction Update following peer review. The definitive publisher – authenticated version (Culley, L, Law, C, Hudson, N, Denny, E, Mitchell, H, Baumgarten, M, Raine – Fenning, N (2013) The social and psychological impact of endometriosis on women’s lives: a critical narrative review. Hum. Reprod. Update 19 (6): 625 – 639) is available online at: http://humupd.oxfordjournals.org/...

  7. A narrative review of binge eating disorder in adolescence: prevalence, impact, and psychological treatment strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzilli, Eleonora; Cerniglia, Luca; Cimino, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) represents one of the most problematic clinical conditions among youths. Research has shown that the developmental stage of adolescence is a critical stage for the onset of eating disorders (EDs), with a peak prevalence of BED at the age of 16–17 years. Several studies among adults with BED have underlined that it is associated with a broad spectrum of negative consequences, including higher concern about shape and weight, difficulties in social functioning, and emotional-behavioral problems. This review aimed to examine studies focused on the prevalence of BED in the adolescent population, its impact in terms of physical, social, and psychological outcomes, and possible strategies of psychological intervention. The review of international literature was made on paper material and electronic databases ProQuest, PsycArticles, and PsycInfo, and the Scopus index were used to verify the scientific relevance of the papers. Epidemiological research that examined the prevalence of BED in adolescent samples in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition showed a prevalence ranging from 1% to 4%. More recently, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of BED, in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria, reporting a prevalence of ~1%–5%. Studies that focused on the possible impact that BED may have on physical, psychological, and social functioning showed that adolescents with BED have an increased risk of developing various adverse consequences, including obesity, social problems, substance use, suicidality, and other psychological difficulties, especially in the internalizing area. Despite the evidence, to date, reviews on possible and effective psychological treatment for BED among young population are rare and focused primarily on adolescent females. PMID:29379325

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teede, H; Deeks, A; Moran, L

    2010-06-30

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is of clinical and public health importance as it is very common, affecting up to one in five women of reproductive age. It has significant and diverse clinical implications including reproductive (infertility, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism), metabolic (insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, adverse cardiovascular risk profiles) and psychological features (increased anxiety, depression and worsened quality of life). Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous condition and, as such, clinical and research agendas are broad and involve many disciplines. The phenotype varies widely depending on life stage, genotype, ethnicity and environmental factors including lifestyle and bodyweight. Importantly, PCOS has unique interactions with the ever increasing obesity prevalence worldwide as obesity-induced insulin resistance significantly exacerbates all the features of PCOS. Furthermore, it has clinical implications across the lifespan and is relevant to related family members with an increased risk for metabolic conditions reported in first-degree relatives. Therapy should focus on both the short and long-term reproductive, metabolic and psychological features. Given the aetiological role of insulin resistance and the impact of obesity on both hyperinsulinaemia and hyperandrogenism, multidisciplinary lifestyle improvement aimed at normalising insulin resistance, improving androgen status and aiding weight management is recognised as a crucial initial treatment strategy. Modest weight loss of 5% to 10% of initial body weight has been demonstrated to improve many of the features of PCOS. Management should focus on support, education, addressing psychological factors and strongly emphasising healthy lifestyle with targeted medical therapy as required. Monitoring and management of long-term metabolic complications is also an important part of routine clinical care. Comprehensive evidence-based guidelines are

  9. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is of clinical and public health importance as it is very common, affecting up to one in five women of reproductive age. It has significant and diverse clinical implications including reproductive (infertility, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism), metabolic (insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, adverse cardiovascular risk profiles) and psychological features (increased anxiety, depression and worsened quality of life). Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous condition and, as such, clinical and research agendas are broad and involve many disciplines. The phenotype varies widely depending on life stage, genotype, ethnicity and environmental factors including lifestyle and bodyweight. Importantly, PCOS has unique interactions with the ever increasing obesity prevalence worldwide as obesity-induced insulin resistance significantly exacerbates all the features of PCOS. Furthermore, it has clinical implications across the lifespan and is relevant to related family members with an increased risk for metabolic conditions reported in first-degree relatives. Therapy should focus on both the short and long-term reproductive, metabolic and psychological features. Given the aetiological role of insulin resistance and the impact of obesity on both hyperinsulinaemia and hyperandrogenism, multidisciplinary lifestyle improvement aimed at normalising insulin resistance, improving androgen status and aiding weight management is recognised as a crucial initial treatment strategy. Modest weight loss of 5% to 10% of initial body weight has been demonstrated to improve many of the features of PCOS. Management should focus on support, education, addressing psychological factors and strongly emphasising healthy lifestyle with targeted medical therapy as required. Monitoring and management of long-term metabolic complications is also an important part of routine clinical care. Comprehensive evidence-based guidelines are

  10. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeks A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is of clinical and public health importance as it is very common, affecting up to one in five women of reproductive age. It has significant and diverse clinical implications including reproductive (infertility, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, metabolic (insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, adverse cardiovascular risk profiles and psychological features (increased anxiety, depression and worsened quality of life. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous condition and, as such, clinical and research agendas are broad and involve many disciplines. The phenotype varies widely depending on life stage, genotype, ethnicity and environmental factors including lifestyle and bodyweight. Importantly, PCOS has unique interactions with the ever increasing obesity prevalence worldwide as obesity-induced insulin resistance significantly exacerbates all the features of PCOS. Furthermore, it has clinical implications across the lifespan and is relevant to related family members with an increased risk for metabolic conditions reported in first-degree relatives. Therapy should focus on both the short and long-term reproductive, metabolic and psychological features. Given the aetiological role of insulin resistance and the impact of obesity on both hyperinsulinaemia and hyperandrogenism, multidisciplinary lifestyle improvement aimed at normalising insulin resistance, improving androgen status and aiding weight management is recognised as a crucial initial treatment strategy. Modest weight loss of 5% to 10% of initial body weight has been demonstrated to improve many of the features of PCOS. Management should focus on support, education, addressing psychological factors and strongly emphasising healthy lifestyle with targeted medical therapy as required. Monitoring and management of long-term metabolic complications is also an important part of routine clinical care. Comprehensive

  11. The impact of parental social support on promoting children's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of parental social support on promoting children's physical activities. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... succe ss at school, while less attention was given to the child's involvement in the physical educat ion

  12. The Impact of Medicaid Peer Support Utilization on Cost

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in The Impact of Medicaid Peer Support Utilization on Cost, published in Volume 4, Issue 1 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  13. The identification of high potential archers based on relative psychological coping skills variables: A Support Vector Machine approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Zahari; Muazu Musa, Rabiu; Majeed, A. P. P. Abdul; Razali Abdullah, Mohamad; Aizzat Zakaria, Muhammad; Muaz Alim, Muhammad; Arif Mat Jizat, Jessnor; Fauzi Ibrahim, Mohamad

    2018-03-01

    Support Vector Machine (SVM) has been revealed to be a powerful learning algorithm for classification and prediction. However, the use of SVM for prediction and classification in sport is at its inception. The present study classified and predicted high and low potential archers from a collection of psychological coping skills variables trained on different SVMs. 50 youth archers with the average age and standard deviation of (17.0 ±.056) gathered from various archery programmes completed a one end shooting score test. Psychological coping skills inventory which evaluates the archers level of related coping skills were filled out by the archers prior to their shooting tests. k-means cluster analysis was applied to cluster the archers based on their scores on variables assessed. SVM models, i.e. linear and fine radial basis function (RBF) kernel functions, were trained on the psychological variables. The k-means clustered the archers into high psychologically prepared archers (HPPA) and low psychologically prepared archers (LPPA), respectively. It was demonstrated that the linear SVM exhibited good accuracy and precision throughout the exercise with an accuracy of 92% and considerably fewer error rate for the prediction of the HPPA and the LPPA as compared to the fine RBF SVM. The findings of this investigation can be valuable to coaches and sports managers to recognise high potential athletes from the selected psychological coping skills variables examined which would consequently save time and energy during talent identification and development programme.

  14. Predictive validity of social support relative to psychological well-being in men with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintala, Diana H

    2013-11-01

    Compare predictive validity (relative to psychological well-being) of long and short versions of 2 measures of social support for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Sixty-nine men with SCI completed (a) a long and short version of the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL), (b) a structured interview regarding the frequency with which a person receives 11 kinds of support from each of their most important supporters (maximum of 5), and (c) a global measure of the same 11 kinds of support. Approximately 3 years later they completed 4 measures of psychological well-being--the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CESD), the Life Satisfaction Index A (LSIA), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Comparisons were made among the social support measures with regard to their ability to predict each of the 4 measures of psychological well-being at a later point in time. The long version of the ISEL had more predictive power than the long version of the structured interview. The long version of the ISEL is a good choice for measuring social support in persons with SCI and the short ISEL may be an acceptable choice when minimizing respondent burden is critical if the number of response options is increased to 4. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Perceived family and friend support and the psychological well-being of American and Chinese elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, John; Deng, Rong; Ingersoll, Travis Sky; Witt, Heather; Swain, Melanie

    2012-12-01

    This study examines two sources of informal support-perceived family and friend support-and the psychological well-being-self-esteem, depression and loneliness-of 150 Chinese and 145 American elders. There were no significant differences between the elderly American and Chinese persons' mean scores on family and friend support. The multiple linear regression analyses with interaction terms (country x family support and country x friend support), however, indicated that the relationship between family support and depression and family support and loneliness was stronger for the Chinese elderly than the US elderly. Conversely, the relationship between friend support and depression and friend support and loneliness is stronger for US elderly than Chinese elderly. The implications of these findings for social work practice in both countries is discussed.

  16. Community exposure to asbestos in Casale Monferrato: from research on psychological impact to a community needs-centered healthcare organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Granieri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Asbestos exposure has a negative impact on both the physical health of the population, and on its psychological and community components. Usually such issues are addressed via top-down strategies, but this approach is unable to address the interpersonal processes connected to living in a specific context. METHOD: The work carried on in Casale Monferrato since 2006 proceeds in the opposite direction: promoting a different interaction between health system policy-makers and administrators, field actions, and system thinking. Our goal was to create a reliable model that could fit into other contexts, while being flexible and adapting to specific backgrounds. Starting from the results obtained during a first assessment phase, a psychoanalytic group was arranged, aimed at promoting the symbolization and signification of the emotions related to the ill-fated prognosis. RESULTS: The clinical work offers a space for handling the illness and its psychological impact, in order to achieve: 1 a subjective perception of themselves as not impotent and alone; 2 improved abilities of caregivers to manage the disease; 3 enhanced quality of residual life. CONCLUSIONS: An integrated multidimensional intervention promotes resilience in the community, but it requires time, for patients, relatives, and the professionals involved. Only with the combined support of oncologists and the entire ward staff will an internal trust be free to grow within a somato-psychic space able to accommodate and sustain the participants during the final stages of their own life, or that of someone close to them.

  17. Chinese Immigrant Parents' Perspectives on Psychological Well-Being, Acculturative Stress, and Support: Implications for Multicultural Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chieh; Li, Huijun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated Chinese immigrant parents' perspectives on Chinese immigrant children's psychological well-being, acculturative stress, and sources of support. We conducted focus groups with 22 Chinese immigrant parents of school-aged children (16 mothers and 6 fathers); obtained participants' sociocultural and linguistic backgrounds and…

  18. Psychological Health and Meaning in Life: Stress, Social Support, and Religious Coping in Latina/Latino Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Marianne G.; O'Brien, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of (a) gender, (b) perceived stress, (c) social support from family and significant other, and (d) positive and negative dimensions of religious coping to the prediction of the psychological health and meaning in life among 179 Central American immigrants from El Salvador and Guatemala. Findings…

  19. Relationship of Psychological Well-Being with Perceived Stress, Coping Styles, and Social Support amongst University Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulrajah, Annette Ananthi; Harun, Lily Mastura Haji

    The aim of this study was to: (a) explore the levels of four factors (psychological well-being, perceived stress, coping styles, and social support) among undergraduates; (b) acquire an accurate description of the demographic variables; (c) explore the relationships among the four factors after controlling for the possible intervening demographic…

  20. Report of the activities carried out by the Psychological Support Group in the Goiania radiological accident in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The report analyzes the characteristics and attitudes of the population directly involved in the Goiania radiological accident. The inhabitants of the affected area were interviewed in their residence. Factual information about the accidents were given and specific psychological support were received whenever necessary

  1. The Structural Relationships of Social Support, Mother's Psychological Status, and Maternal Sensitivity to Attachment Security in Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Byeong Seok

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how social support, mother's psychological status, and maternal sensitivity affected attachment security in children with disabilities by using the structural equation model (SEM). Subjects were 141 pairs of children with disabilities and theirs mothers. Empirical data was obtained through a series of…

  2. Pre-Hurricane Perceived Social Support Protects against Psychological Distress: A Longitudinal Analysis of Low-Income Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we examined the influence of pre-disaster perceived social support on post-disaster psychological distress among survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Method: Participants (N = 386) were low-income mothers between 18 and 34 years of age at baseline (M = 26.4, SD = 4.43). The majority (84.8%) was African American; 10.4%…

  3. The Effects of Autonomy Support versus Psychological Control and Work Engagement versus Academic Burnout on Adolescents' Use of Avoidance Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationships among Taiwanese ninth graders' perceptions of autonomy support versus psychological control in the classroom context, work engagement versus academic burnout, and their avoidance of help seeking as well as self-handicapping behaviors. Four hundred and thirty-five ninth-grade Taiwanese students completed a…

  4. Examining the psychological sense of community for individuals with serious mental illness residing in supported housing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret

    2011-08-01

    The psychological sense of community is an important aspect of community life; yet, it remains largely unexamined among individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). Sense of community represents the strength of bonding among community members; and this social phenomenon likely impacts the process by which individuals with SMI integrate into community life. The current study examined sense of community (SOC) for individuals with SMI by assessing the relationships between neighborhood experiences, unique factors related to SMI (e.g., mental illness diagnosis), and sense of community in the neighborhood. Participants were 402 residents of supported housing programs who used mental health services in South Carolina. Hierarchical linear regression was utilized to determine which components of community life helped to explain variability in sense of community. In total, 214 participants reported that it is very important for them to feel a sense of community in their neighborhoods. Neighbor relations, neighborhood safety, neighborhood satisfaction, neighborhood tolerance for mental illness, and housing site type emerged as significant explanatory variables of sense of community. These findings have implications for interventions aimed at enhancing SOC and community integration for individuals with SMI.

  5. Improving job satisfaction of Chinese doctors: the positive effects of perceived organizational support and psychological capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J; Sun, W; Wang, Y; Yang, X; Wang, L

    2013-10-01

    The huge population basic and the transformational changes to healthcare system in China have gained wide public attention in recent years. Along with these issues is a growing literature about doctor's job satisfaction; however, more is known about its negative related factors. Thus, this study was an attempt to assess the level of job satisfaction among Chinese doctors and to explore factors that enhance their job satisfaction. Cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period of September/October 2010. A questionnaire containing job satisfaction assessed by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), demographic characteristics, work conditions, psychological capital (PsyCap) and perceived organizational support (POS) was distributed to 1300 registered doctors in Liaoning province. A total of 984 respondents became our subjects (effective response rate 75.7%). Hierarchical regression was performed to explore the factors associated with satisfaction. The average MSQ score was 65.86 (level ranking for MSQ, 20-100) in our study population. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that POS (β = 0.412, P work environment and developing doctors' PsyCap should be considered by health administrators in order to promote job satisfaction among Chinese doctors. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO THE PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF THE INVESTIGATOR ON A PERSON BEING INTERROGATED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cherevko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is an interaction with a person being interrogated organized by an investigator with the use of his interests, needs and other individual-mental features, his reinforcement, which must be done through secretive, invisible influence in an organized situation encouraging to do deeds desirable for investigation. The object of the research is interrogation as the most psychologized investigative action. The methodological basis of the research is made by the systematic and logical approach aimed at neutralization of watchfulness of the interrogated, penetration into his inner world influencing both rational and irrational spheres of mental make-up, actualization of the unity of understanding and experience. In this research general scientific and specific scientific methods of cognition are used. General scientific methods of the research are represented by systemic structural, comparative, formal and legal, statistical methods. The approach to the psychological impact on a person being interrogated as a systemic phenomenon has enabled to develop a conceptual model presented in the form of a diagram made up of four blocks reflecting emotional background sources of interrogation procedures, the interrogated case, interaction and basic methods of psychological influence, the leading of which is persuasion. Suggestion is purposeful influence on feelings and volitional pressure acts as pressure maintenance, complementary, used depending on the situational behaviour of the interrogated. Methods of implementation of each of these methods of psychological influence are also considered in this article.

  7. Comparison of the Psychological Impacts of Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Cutaneous Diseases: Vitiligo and Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seongmin; Kim, Miri; Park, Chang Ook; Hann, Seung-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitiligo and atopic dermatitis (AD) are common dermatological disorders which may cause significant psychological and social distress leading to impaired quality of life (QoL) in patients. Objective We evaluated the degree of psychological stress and impairment of QoL in vitiligo patients as compared with AD patients and normal controls (NCs). Methods A total of 60 patients from each group and 60 NCs were enrolled. Five questionnaires on depression (Beck depression inventory, BDI), state anxiety (SA) and trait anxiety (TA), interaction anxiousness (IAS), private body consciousness (PBC) and dermatologic QoL were used. Results The vitiligo patients had a significantly higher level of TA (pvitiligo groups, all of the indexes except body consciousness were higher in AD patients than in vitiligo patients: BDI (pvitiligo lesions was not a significant variable in the analysis of the contribution of clinical variables of vitiligo on psychological stress and QoL. Conclusion Vitiligo, which is not accompanied by any symptoms, involves less psychological impact than AD, which is accompanied by itching. Compared to NCs, however, the elevated general anxiety and body consciousness in patients with vitiligo suggests that they may be more concerned with the aggravation of hypopigmented patches than difficulties in social interactions. PMID:24371393

  8. The impact of an electronic clinical decision support for pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    State-of-the-art electronic radiology workflow can provide clinical decision support (CDS) for specialised imaging requests, but there has been limited work on the clinical impact of CDS in PE, particularly in resource-constrained environments. Objective. To determine the impact of an electronic CDS for PE on the efficiency ...

  9. Supporting Knowledge Mobilization and Research Impact Strategies in Grant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, David; Jensen, Krista E.; Johnny, Michael; Poetz, Anneliese

    2016-01-01

    Each application to the National Science Foundation (NSF) must contain a Broader Impact (BI) strategy. Similarly, grant applications for most research funders in Canada and the UK require strategies to support the translation of research into impacts on society; however, the guidance provided to researchers is too general to inform the specific…

  10. Psychological safety and social support in groupware adoption : a multi-level assessment in education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, J.J.L.; Jong, de A.; Wetzels, M.G.M.; Ruyter, de J.C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the authors propose that psychological safety, a sense of interpersonal trust and being valued in a work team, is an important determinant of groupware technology adoption in an educational setting. They develop and test a model of antecedents and consequences of psychological safety.

  11. Predicting long-term citation impact of articles in social and personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Nick; Koval, Peter

    2010-06-01

    The citation impact of a comprehensive sample of articles published in social and personality psychology journals in 1998 was evaluated. Potential predictors of the 10-yr. citation impact of 1580 articles from 37 journals were investigated, including number of authors, number of references, journal impact factor, author nationality, and article length, using linear regression. The impact factor of the journal in which articles appeared was the primary predictor of the citations that they accrued, accounting for 30% of the total variance. Articles with greater length, more references, and more authors were cited relatively often, although the citation advantage of longer articles was not proportionate to their length. A citation advantage was also enjoyed by authors from the United States of America, Canada, and the United Kingdom. 37% of the variance in the total number of citations was accounted for by the study variables.

  12. A case study of school support and the psychological, emotional and behavioural consequences of HIV and AIDS on adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikhia, Olubusayo Aduke; Mohangi, Kesh

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have reported a huge increase in the numbers of orphaned adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa and its effects on their psychological, emotional and behavioural development. Yet, their needs are seldom recognised or adequately addressed in policy and programmes.This article uses a qualitative study to report the experiences of 11 orphaned adolescents (5 boys and 6 girls aged between 15 and 18 years) affected by HIV and AIDS in a secondary school (in Atteridgeville, Pretoria, South Africa) and the school support provided by them. The primary data-generation strategies were informal interviews and the Beck Youth Inventories-II (BYI-II) (adopted to measure the participants' level of emotional, behavioural and psychological problems). All interview transcriptions with the participants were thematically analysed. BYI-II data were subjected to T scores (in percentages) to know the participant's psychological, behavioural and emotional problems in order to compare it with their perceptions on the degree of support provided by the school. Result shows that participants have a high prevalence of psychological, behavioural and emotional problems and that the school support provided to them (teachers' support, the general school environment and the degree of discrimination, labelling and bullying that exists in the school) was not sufficient. The participants, however, reported a high level of support from the principal. In conclusion, we have suggested the urgent need for teachers to acquire and possess basic knowledge and skills in caring and paying attention to learners affected by HIV and AIDS and for government agencies and NGOs working with HIV-and AIDS-affected children, to focus on proposals that address the psychological, behavioural and emotional problems in such affected adolescents.

  13. The relationships between perceived organizational support, affective commitment, psychological contract breach, organizational citizenship behaviour and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Agarwal, Upasna A; Khatri, Naresh

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the factors that mediate and moderate the relationships of perceived organizational support with work engagement and organization citizenship behaviour. Specifically, affective commitment is posited to mediate and psychological contract breach to moderate the above relationships. Nurses play a critical role in delivering exemplary health care. For nurses to perform at their best, they need to experience high engagement, which can be achieved by providing them necessary organizational support and proper working environment. Data were collected via a self-reported survey instrument. A questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 750 nurses in nine large hospitals in India during 2013-2014. Four hundred and seventy-five nurses (63%) responded to the survey. Hierarchical multiple regression was used for statistical analysis of the moderated-mediation model. Affective commitment was found to mediate the positive relationships between perceived organizational support and work outcomes (work engagement, organizational citizenship behaviour). The perception of unfulfilled expectations (psychological contract breach) was found to moderate the perceived organizational support-work outcome relationships adversely. The results of this study indicate that perceived organizational support exerts its influence on work-related outcomes and highlight the importance of taking organizational context, such as perceptions of psychological contract breach, into consideration when making sense of the influence of perceived organizational support on affective commitment, work engagement and citizenship behaviours of nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Impact of Support Services on Associate Level Nursing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby-Parker, Michelle N.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the research was to show the impact of the implementation of support services on admissions and graduation from nursing programs. The use of support services has been linked to higher levels of success in nursing students in the classroom and the work place. As nursing schools experience pressure to increase the student capacity to…

  15. Social-psychological principles of community-based conservation and conservancy motivation: attaining goals within an autonomy-supportive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Daniel; Stokes, Michael

    2008-12-01

    Community-based natural resource conservation programs in developing nations face many implementation challenges underpinned by social-psychological mechanisms. One challenge is garnering local support in an economically and socially sustainable fashion despite economic hardship and historical alienation from local resources. Unfortunately, conservationists' limited understanding of the social-psychological mechanisms underlying participatory conservation impedes the search for appropriate solutions. We address this issue by revealing key underlying social-psychological mechanisms of participatory conservation. Different administrative designs create social atmospheres that differentially affect endorsement of conservation goals. Certain forms of endorsement may be less effective motivators and less economically and socially sustainable than others. From a literature review we found that conservation initiatives endorsed primarily for nonautonomous instrumental reasons, such as to avoid economic fines or to secure economic rewards, are less motivating than those endorsed for autonomous reasons, such as for the opportunity for personal expression and growth. We suggest that successful participatory programs promote autonomous endorsement of conservation through an administrative framework of autonomy support-free and open democratic participation in management, substantive recognition and inclusion of local stakeholder identity, and respectful, noncoercive social interaction. This framework of the autonomy-supportive environment (self-determination theory) has important implications for future research into program design and incentive-based conservation and identifies a testable social-psychological theory of conservancy motivation.

  16. The impact of psychological capital on job burnout of Chinese nurses: the mediator role of organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiaxi; Jiang, Xihua; Zhang, Jiaxi; Xiao, Runxuan; Song, Yunyun; Feng, Xi; Zhang, Yan; Miao, Danmin

    2013-01-01

    Nursing has a high risk of job burnout, but only a few studies have explored its influencing factors from an organizational perspective. The present study explores the impact of psychological capital on job burnout by investigating the mediating effect of organizational commitment on this relationship. A total of 473 female nurses from four large general hospitals in Xi'an City of China were selected as participants. Data were collected via the Psychological Capital Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Organizational Commitment Scale. Both psychological capital and organizational commitment were significantly correlated to job burnout. Structural equation modelling indicated that organizational commitment partially mediated the relationship between psychological capital and job burnout. The final model revealed a significant path from psychological capital to job burnout through organizational commitment. These findings extended prior reports and shed some light on the influence of psychological capital on job burnout.

  17. Psychological impact of isotretinoin treatment in patients with moderate and severe acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simić, Dubravka; Situm, Mirna; Letica, Edita; Penavić, Jasna Zeljko; Zivković, Maja Vurnek; Tomić, Teo

    2009-12-01

    Acne patients are subject to different degree of psychosocial distress. The emotional impact of acne vulgaris due to disfigurement caused by the disease is undisputed. Most common reactions to the acne are depression and anxiety. The use of isotretinoin, one of the most effective options in acne treatment, increases depression symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychological status of the patients with moderate to severe acne and to compare patients treated with isotretinoin with patients treated with vitamin C. A total of 85 patients suffering from acne vulgaris were included in the study. The results of this study do not find a significant correlation between the use of isotretinoin and the psychological effects of the drug.

  18. The idea of a moral psychology: the impact of psychoanalysis on philosophy in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Jonathan

    2003-10-01

    In this paper the author addresses the question of the significance of psychoanalysis for moral psychology via a more specific question: the impact of psychoanalysis on British philosophy in the twentieth century. He argues that there has been no influence of any real significance, and offers intellectual reasons why not. However, he also argues that there has recently emerged the possibility for a future engagement between psychoanalysis and philosophy, and he offers a history of the emergence of this possibility. In particular, the author discusses how the emerging interest within philosophy to work out a satisfying approach to naturalist moral psychology leads it to a concern with internal mental structure and, most importantly, to transformations of intrapsychic structures. He believes that this will lead philosophy to take a greater interest in psychoanalysis.

  19. Thoughts and recommendations concerning impact and productivity in school psychology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daniel H

    2011-12-01

    Having been personally involved in several examinations of productivity in various sub-disciplines of psychology, I read with great interest the articles in this special issue. I commend the authors for engaging in this activity, as I feel that a field benefits from occasional self-examinations. In this commentary, I caution against placing too much emphasis on impact factors, arguing that they are not measured without error and unethical behaviors could increase if they are weighted too heavily. I recommend examinations of methodological trends, whether implications for practice are based on observational data, whether female participation in the publication process matches their participation as members of the field, and finally including other characteristics in defining highly productive scholars that would attract potential graduate students. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: an open-label feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Bolstridge, Mark; Rucker, James; Day, Camilla M J; Erritzoe, David; Kaelen, Mendel; Bloomfield, Michael; Rickard, James A; Forbes, Ben; Feilding, Amanda; Taylor, David; Pilling, Steve; Curran, Valerie H; Nutt, David J

    2016-07-01

    Psilocybin is a serotonin receptor agonist that occurs naturally in some mushroom species. Recent studies have assessed the therapeutic potential of psilocybin for various conditions, including end-of-life anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and smoking and alcohol dependence, with promising preliminary results. Here, we aimed to investigate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of psilocybin in patients with unipolar treatment-resistant depression. In this open-label feasibility trial, 12 patients (six men, six women) with moderate-to-severe, unipolar, treatment-resistant major depression received two oral doses of psilocybin (10 mg and 25 mg, 7 days apart) in a supportive setting. There was no control group. Psychological support was provided before, during, and after each session. The primary outcome measure for feasibility was patient-reported intensity of psilocybin's effects. Patients were monitored for adverse reactions during the dosing sessions and subsequent clinic and remote follow-up. Depressive symptoms were assessed with standard assessments from 1 week to 3 months after treatment, with the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS) serving as the primary efficacy outcome. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN14426797. Psilocybin's acute psychedelic effects typically became detectable 30-60 min after dosing, peaked 2-3 h after dosing, and subsided to negligible levels at least 6 h after dosing. Mean self-rated intensity (on a 0-1 scale) was 0·51 (SD 0·36) for the low-dose session and 0·75 (SD 0·27) for the high-dose session. Psilocybin was well tolerated by all of the patients, and no serious or unexpected adverse events occurred. The adverse reactions we noted were transient anxiety during drug onset (all patients), transient confusion or thought disorder (nine patients), mild and transient nausea (four patients), and transient headache (four patients). Relative to baseline, depressive symptoms were markedly reduced 1

  1. Male Infertility and Its Impact on Women’s Sexual Behaviors: Need Attention to Psychological Problem as A Psychological Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghavi

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Male infertility may be associated with sexual disorders in the partner. Attention to psychological need and rehabilitation in infertile couples may be helping them to increase mental health and quality of life in these people.

  2. Subjective need for psychological support (PsySupp) in parents of children and adolescents with disorders of sex development (dsd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennecke, Elena; Werner-Rosen, Knut; Thyen, Ute; Kleinemeier, Eva; Lux, Anke; Jürgensen, Martina; Grüters, Annette; Köhler, Birgit

    2015-10-01

    Disorders/diversity of sex development (dsd) is an umbrella term for congenital conditions often diagnosed within childhood. As most parents are unprepared for this situation, psychological support (PsySupp) is recommended. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which parents express a need for PsySupp. Three hundred twenty-nine parents of children with dsd were included; 40.4 % of the parents indicated to have a need for PsySupp, only 50 % of this group received it adequately. The diagnoses partial gonadal dysgenesis, partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (pAIS) and disorders of androgen synthesis are associated with a high need for PsySupp in parents (54, 65, and 50 %). Sex assignment surgery neither reduced nor increased the need for PsySupp. Taking a picture, radiography, laparoscopy, gonadal biopsy, gonadectomy and hormonal puberty induction are associated with a high need for PsySupp. There was no association between the need for PsySupp and the parents' perception of the appearance of the genitalia. Having a child with dsd is associated with a high need for PsySupp in parents. In particular, parents of children with XY-dsd with androgen effects other than hypospadias expressed a high need of PsySupp. PsySupp for parents should be an obligatory part of interdisciplinary care to reduce fears and concerns. What is known • In parents, having a child with dsd provokes insecurities and fears. Hence, psychological support is recommended as part of the interdisciplinary care. What is new • This is the first study investigating the subjective need for psychological support in a large sample of parents of children with dsd in Germany. We present data on the subjective need for psychological support of the parents, related diagnoses and factors, which should be considered in psychological counselling.

  3. Importance of family/social support and impact on adherence to diabetic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller TA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tricia A Miller, M Robin DiMatteoDepartment of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA, USAAbstract: Diabetes mellitus affects 24 million individuals in the US. In order to manage their diabetes successfully, patients must adhere to treatment regimens that include dietary restrictions, physical activity goals, and self-monitoring of glucose levels. Numerous factors affect patients' ability to adhere properly, eg, self-efficacy, treatment expectations, health beliefs, and lack of social support. Consequently, diabetes management can be quite complex, requiring lifelong commitment and drastic changes to the patient's lifestyle. Empirical studies have shown positive and significant relationships between social support and treatment adherence among patients with diabetes. Social support from family provides patients with practical help and can buffer the stresses of living with illness. However, the exact mechanism by which social support affects patient adherence is not yet completely understood. Further research is needed to address how the differences in types of support, such as functional or emotional support, are linked to outcomes for patients. The purpose of this review is to summarize what is known of the impact of social and family support on treatment adherence in patients with diabetes and to explore the current methods and interventions used to facilitate family support for diabetic patients.Keywords: patient adherence, patient compliance, diabetes management, support, family, social

  4. The psychological impact of arthritis: the effects of illness perception and coping.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zyrianova, Y

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Coping and illness perception are considered to be important contributors in the relationship between physical and psychological factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the complex relationship of coping and illness perception on physical and psychological factors in RA using a structural model. METHODS: We assessed coping, illness perception, depression, anxiety, pain, arthritis-related disability and perceived social support in 68 adults with RA. RESULTS: Greater pain was detected in patients with increased scores on passive coping scale, greater severity of physical disability and increased depression and anxiety. Illness perception was found to be a mediator in the relationship between physical disability and passive coping on one hand and depression, anxiety and pain on the other. CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesised structural model has proven to be a useful paradigm for understanding the associations between multiple factors in RA presentation: clinical, emotional, personal and cognitive.

  5. Advanced Cancer Patients' Perceptions of Dignity: The Impact of Psychologically Distressing Symptoms and Preparatory Grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulou, Sotiria; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Katsaragakis, Stylianos; Papazoglou, Irene; Zygogianni, Anna; Galanos, Antonis; Mystakidou, Kyriaki

    2018-04-01

    The present study assesses the relationship between patient dignity in advanced cancer and the following variables: psychological distress, preparatory grief, and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The sample consisted of 120 patients with advanced cancer. The self-administered questionnaires were as follows: the Preparatory Grief in Advanced Cancer Patients (PGAC), the Patient Dignity Inventory-Greek (PDI-Gr), the Greek Schedule for Attitudes toward Hastened Death (G-SAHD), and the Greek version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (G-HADS). Moderate to strong statistically significant correlations were found between the 4 subscales of PDI-Gr (psychological distress, body image and role identity, self-esteem, and social support) with G-HADS, G-SAHD, and PGAC ( P dignity among patients with advanced cancer. Clinicians should assess and attend to dignity-distressing factors in the care of patients with advanced cancer.

  6. A review of empirically supported psychological therapies for mood disorders in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollon, Steven D.; Ponniah, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Background The mood disorders are prevalent and problematic. We review randomized controlled psychotherapy trials to find those that are empirically supported with respect to acute symptom reduction and the prevention of subsequent relapse and recurrence. Methods We searched the PsycINFO and PubMed databases and the reference sections of chapters and journal articles to identify appropriate articles. Results One hundred twenty-five studies were found evaluating treatment efficacy for the various mood disorders. With respect to the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), and behavior therapy (BT) are efficacious and specific and brief dynamic therapy (BDT) and emotion-focused therapy (EFT) are possibly efficacious. CBT is efficacious and specific, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) efficacious, and BDT and EFT possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence following treatment termination and IPT and CBT are each possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence if continued or maintained. IPT is possibly efficacious in the treatment of dysthymic disorder. With respect to bipolar disorder, CBT and family-focused therapy (FFT) are efficacious and interpersonal social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) possibly efficacious as adjuncts to medication in the treatment of depression. Psycho-education (PE) is efficacious in the prevention of mania/hypomania (and possibly depression) and FFT is efficacious and IPSRT and CBT possibly efficacious in preventing bipolar episodes. Conclusions The newer psychological interventions are as efficacious as and more enduring than medications in the treatment of MDD and may enhance the efficacy of medications in the treatment of bipolar disorder. PMID:20830696

  7. University students' perspectives on a psychology of death and dying course: exploring motivation to enroll, goals, and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Jennifer L

    2013-10-01

    This study provides an in-depth investigation of the motivations, goals, and impact on 23 university students enrolled in a Psychology of Death and Dying course. Through a grounded theory analysis of precourse perspective and postcourse reflection assignments, several key themes emerged. Participants were motivated to enroll in the course by their self-identified lack of knowledge on the topic and its professional and personal relevance. They identified three main course goals: cognitive comfort, preparation to support others, and personal growth. At the end of the course, participants noted heightened awareness of personal mortality and increased comfort with death-related topics, as well as reduced fear, surprise at the depth of the thanatology field, and enriched context for their experiences with death and dying. The implications of the results for death educators, researchers, and students are discussed.

  8. Change management of mergers: the impact on NHS staff and their psychological contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortvriend, Penny

    2004-08-01

    The NHS has experienced a significant amount of organisational change and restructuring, which has included numerous mergers and de-mergers, since the Labour party came to power in the UK in 1997. However, to date there has been little in the way of evaluation of such changes, particularly the impact of organisational restructuring on the staff involved. This paper examines the human aspect of a merger, and subsequent de-merger, within a primary care trust (PCT) in the North of England, using a focus group methodology. The findings demonstrate that leadership and management styles have a significant impact on staff experiencing such changes. In addition, the psychological contract can be damaged due to the impact of several factors, inducing exit or intention to leave. Employees experienced a constant cycle of change with little time for stabilisation or adjustment, leading to negativity and lowered motivation at times.

  9. Application of attachment theory for psychological support in palliative medicine during the terminal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Yvonne; Koehler, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    The situation leading to the death of a close relative is a unique and irrevocable experience of separation which evokes a state of emotional strain for the patient and the family. This situation therefore is an especially effective trigger of the so-called 'attachment system'. Attachment research in recent decades has shown that already in early infancy every person develops special attachment strategies activated in cases whenever a person cannot cope on its own with dangers. Only four such patterns of attachment have been specified, namely 'secure', 'insecure-avoidant', 'insecure-ambivalent/enmeshed' and 'disoriented/disorganized'. Since the dying are usually brought to the hospital by members of the family, the doctor responsible for treatment can perceive with unusual clarity the patterns of attachment within the family system, and can integrate such observation into her treatment strategy. This article suggests an attachment-informed therapy in the field of palliative medicine. It seems apparent that such approaches provided by the attachment theory for relief during the terminal phase are not only relevant in a palliative context but also applicable within the overall field of medicine and care-giving relating to terminal patients and their families. To the doctor familiar with the attachment patterns and the conditions of their formation, clinical observation easily reveals which pattern is active among the dying and the accompanying members of the family. Here, cases are used to show how these insights can be realized in the psychotherapeutic care of patients and their families on a palliative ward. For example, in a case of 'avoidant' attachment, denied emotions can be addressed carefully and still existent hopes for protection and support can be reinforced; in a case of so-called 'ambivalent-enmeshed' attachment, overly intense relationships can be disentangled, and in a case of 'disorganized' attachment, emotion regulation can be supported and clarity

  10. Community centers of UNESCO-Chernobyl programme-psychological support model for population in a post-catastrophe crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnets, O. [UNESCO-Chernobyl Programme Project (Ukraine)

    1998-07-01

    Community Centers for Psycho-social Rehabilitation created within UNESCO - Chernobyl Programme (Project no 64) is aimed at providing psychological support to population suffered from the catastrophe. Centers are located in communities that in different ways suffered from Chernobyl - people evacuated and relocated from the contaminated territories, people who are still living in contaminated regions, employees of the nuclear power plant etc. Centres are providing psychological support to people suffered from Chernobyl catastrophe, trough developing adaptive behavior models under living conditions that changed - both ecological and social and economic crises, developing of personal and social responsibility in community members. The professionals of Community Centers implement activities aimed on coping victimization, on community interaction and communities restructuring. They are working with all age and social groups in the communities, with acute crises and suicide prevention, creating mutual support mechanisms. Centres performance results in decrease of psycho-social tension and anxiety in population. Centers present successfully functioning model of social and psychological support under complicated ecological and social conditions in post soviet countries. They have accumulated unique professional and organizational experience of efficient work in, a post-catastrophe period under social and economic crisis. (author)

  11. Community centers of UNESCO-Chernobyl programme-psychological support model for population in a post-catastrophe crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnets, O.

    1998-01-01

    Community Centers for Psycho-social Rehabilitation created within UNESCO - Chernobyl Programme (Project no 64) is aimed at providing psychological support to population suffered from the catastrophe. Centers are located in communities that in different ways suffered from Chernobyl - people evacuated and relocated from the contaminated territories, people who are still living in contaminated regions, employees of the nuclear power plant etc. Centres are providing psychological support to people suffered from Chernobyl catastrophe, trough developing adaptive behavior models under living conditions that changed - both ecological and social and economic crises, developing of personal and social responsibility in community members. The professionals of Community Centers implement activities aimed on coping victimization, on community interaction and communities restructuring. They are working with all age and social groups in the communities, with acute crises and suicide prevention, creating mutual support mechanisms. Centres performance results in decrease of psycho-social tension and anxiety in population. Centers present successfully functioning model of social and psychological support under complicated ecological and social conditions in post soviet countries. They have accumulated unique professional and organizational experience of efficient work in, a post-catastrophe period under social and economic crisis. (author)

  12. Management of the Psychological Impact of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Perspective of Doctors and Patients-The ENMENTE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Jiménez, Ignacio; Gobbo Montoya, Milena; Panadero, Abel; Cañas, Mercedes; Modino, Yolanda; Romero de Santos, Cristina; Guardiola, Jordi; Carmona, Loreto; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel

    2017-09-01

    To explore the perception of patients and gastroenterologists specialized in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on the impact of psychological factors on IBD course and its management. Online surveys were sent to patients with IBD recruited from a national patient association and IBD specialists recruited from a national scientific society. These surveys were based on the results of a focus group and discussion group that explored the psychological aspects of IBD. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed, and the physicians' responses regarding impact and management were compared with those of a random patient sample. Responses were obtained from 170 physicians and 903 patients. Most patients emphasized the impact of psychological aspects, namely anxiety and depression, related to suffering from IBD, with 28% declaring that they perceived health professionals to not be interested in this area. A third of the physicians declared not feeling qualified to detect psychological problems. Although 50% of doctors stated that they regularly enquire about these aspects in their clinics, the patients perceived that this was done only 25% of the time. Both groups agreed on the need of a psychologist in IBD care teams. A discrepancy exists between physician and patient perceptions of the impact of psychological aspects in IBD, with patients perceiving higher impact and more under treatment than physicians. Given the influence of these aspects on patient well-being, it seems advisable to enrich professionals' training, improve the clinical management of psychological aspects of IBD, and probably include psychologists in IBD care teams.

  13. Impact of Hypnosis Intervention in Alleviating Psychological and Physical Symptoms During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Zuhrah; Low, Wah Yun; Hassan, Jamiyah

    2016-04-01

    Physical symptoms (e.g., vomiting) and psychological symptoms (stress, anxiety, and depression) during pregnancy are common. Various strategies such as hypnosis are available to reduce these symptoms. The objective of the authors in this study is to investigate the impact of a hypnosis intervention in reducing physical and psychological symptoms during pregnancy. A pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design was employed in this study. The hypnosis intervention was given to the experimental group participants at weeks 16 (baseline), 20 (time point 1), 28 (time point 2), and 36 (time point 3) of their pregnancy. Participants in the control group received only the traditional antenatal care. Participants from both groups completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and a Pregnancy Symptoms Checklist at weeks 16, 20, 28 and 36 of pregnancy. Results indicated that stress and anxiety symptoms were significantly reduced for the experimental group, but not for the control group. Although mean differences for the depressive symptoms were not significant, the experimental group had lower symptoms at time point 3. The physical symptoms' results showed significant group differences at time point 3, indicating a reduction in the experience of physical symptoms for the experimental group participants. Our study showed that hypnosis intervention during pregnancy aided in reducing physical and psychological symptoms during pregnancy.

  14. Psychological impact of genetic testing for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser, B; Collins, V; Warren, R; Gaff, C; St John, D J B; Young, M-A; Harrop, K; Brown, J; Halliday, J

    2004-12-01

    The psychological impact of predictive genetic testing for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) was assessed in 114 individuals (32 carriers and 82 non-carriers) attending familial cancer clinics, using mailed self-administered questionnaires prior to, 2 weeks, 4 months and 12 months after carrier status disclosure. Compared to baseline, carriers showed a significant increase in mean scores for intrusive and avoidant thoughts about colorectal cancer 2 weeks (t = 2.49; p = 0.014) and a significant decrease in mean depression scores 2 weeks post-notification of result (t = -3.98; p depression scores 2 weeks, 4 months and 12 months post-notification. Significant decreases from baseline for mean state anxiety scores were also observed for non-carriers 2 weeks post-notification (t = -3.99; p < 0.001). These data indicate that predictive genetic testing for HNPCC leads to psychological benefits amongst non-carriers, and no adverse psychological outcomes were observed amongst carriers.

  15. PSYCHOLOGICAL AMORTIZATION FACTORS FOR MEDIA IMPACT IN DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN FROM DIFFERENT SOCIAL GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I. Makhovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this publication is to analyze the domestic and foreign psychological researches on influence of TV-programs on social, cognitive and emotional development of children. Methods. Methods involve a comparative historical and psychological analysis of papers, manuscripts and archival records of television companies. Results. The present study demonstrates that educational television, subsequently on-line resources for children, affect operative cognitive functions, increase cognitive motivation, and contribute to the formation of other important cognitive and social skills. However, the impact on children on-screen resources depends on the status and education level of the family. Scientific novelty. Much attention is given to the fact that it is the first attempt to provide historical and psychological analysis of world-wide studies of the effects of children’s television, from the main countries-producers of TV and video programs for children of different age – Russia, USA, Germany, France, Israel, etc. Criteria and matrix for comparison of heterogeneous researches, the domestic theory of child development, cultural-historical approach, the theory of stage formation of mental actions, activity theory had been chosen. Practical significance of the research is that these criteria can be used to assess any of the videos, their educational potential. Psychologists involved in the process of television production, this article will help to simulate the learning process taking into account the age of the children and their socio-cultural origin. 

  16. Mediating Role of Perceived Organizational Support on the Impact of Psychol ogical Capital on Organizational Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Erdem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Employees’ loyalty toward organizations is decreasing gradually recently. This phenomenon negatively affects the dimensions of organizational behavior directly or indirectly. In this study, the effect of psychological capital on organizational identification, and the mediating role of perceived org anizational support in this association are explored. Thereby, data based on the government employees in Bitlis Province (n=478 are analyzed (exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, regression analysis and it is supported that psychological capital increases positively and significantly perceived organizational support and organizational identification. Besides, the mediating role of organizational support in the association between psychological capital and organizational identification is supporte d using tree step regression analysis and Sobel Test

  17. Using Support Vector Machine on EEG for Advertisement Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The advertising industry depends on an effective assessment of the impact of advertising as a key performance metric for their products. However, current assessment methods have relied on either indirect inference from observing changes in consumer behavior after the launch of an advertising campaign, which has long cycle times and requires an ad campaign to have already have been launched (often meaning costs having been sunk. Or through surveys or focus groups, which have a potential for experimental biases, peer pressure, and other psychological and sociological phenomena that can reduce the effectiveness of the study. In this paper, we investigate a new approach to assess the impact of advertisement by utilizing low-cost EEG headbands to record and assess the measurable impact of advertising on the brain. Our evaluation shows the desired performance of our method based on user experiment with 30 recruited subjects after watching 220 different advertisements. We believe the proposed SVM method can be further developed to a general and scalable methodology that can enable advertising agencies to assess impact rapidly, quantitatively, and without bias.

  18. Using Support Vector Machine on EEG for Advertisement Impact Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhen; Wu, Chao; Wang, Xiaoyi; Supratak, Akara; Wang, Pan; Guo, Yike

    2018-01-01

    The advertising industry depends on an effective assessment of the impact of advertising as a key performance metric for their products. However, current assessment methods have relied on either indirect inference from observing changes in consumer behavior after the launch of an advertising campaign, which has long cycle times and requires an ad campaign to have already have been launched (often meaning costs having been sunk). Or through surveys or focus groups, which have a potential for experimental biases, peer pressure, and other psychological and sociological phenomena that can reduce the effectiveness of the study. In this paper, we investigate a new approach to assess the impact of advertisement by utilizing low-cost EEG headbands to record and assess the measurable impact of advertising on the brain. Our evaluation shows the desired performance of our method based on user experiment with 30 recruited subjects after watching 220 different advertisements. We believe the proposed SVM method can be further developed to a general and scalable methodology that can enable advertising agencies to assess impact rapidly, quantitatively, and without bias.

  19. Are there more than cross-sectional relationships of social support and support networks with functional limitations and psychological distress in early rheumatoid arthritis? the European Research on Incapacitating Diseases and Social Support Longitudinal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demange, V.; Guillemin, F.; Suurmeijer, T.P.; Moum, T.; Doeglas, D.; Briancon, S.; van den Heuvel, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether greater social support and support network are cross-sectionally associated with less functional limitations and psychological distress in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA); whether this association is constant over time; and whether increases in social

  20. Usability of eyetracking computer systems and impact on psychological wellbeing in patients with advanced amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Katharina; Rüger, Wolfgang; Joos, Markus; Schmitz-Peiffer, Henning; Storch, Alexander; Hermann, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    Restrictions in communicative abilities are well known in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but only few approaches in terms of evaluation of supportive technologies have been made. We aimed to assess the use and perceived usability of eye-tracking computer devices (ETCS) of severely impacted patients with ALS in an independent, direct manner and relate it to psychological well-being. ETCS enable active communication and social participation in the quadriplegic and anarthric disease state. Therefore, ETCS-based versions of widely used psychosocial questionnaires (ADI-12, SeiQoL-DW, WHO-5) as well as structured questions on communicative functioning and ETCS usage were developed to assess ALS patients, their next of kin and professional caregivers. Eleven patients (ALSFRS-R: 5.3 ± 5.9; ALS duration: 6.5 ± 3.8 years, range 1‒12; 82% invasively ventilated), nine next of kin and 10 professional caregivers could be assessed. Patients reported a mean use of their personal ETCS of 9.1 h per d (range 0.5‒16), with a high user satisfaction, preservation of communicative abilities and subjective indispensability of the ETCS. ETCS use was associated with higher psychological well-being. Next of kin and professional caregivers also nominated some critical aspect, which remains to be clarified. Our results strengthen the evidence that preserved mental autonomy influences psychological well-being in ALS and might even modify disease course and end-of-life-decisions in ALS.

  1. Towards Resilient Telehealth Support for Clinical Psychiatry and Psychology: A Strategic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Rodolfo A; De Giacomo, Piero; L'Abate, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have increasingly shown a willingness to adopt Internet, mHealth and telehealth applications as a part of managing their health. Recent technological advances in the use of the Internet and video technologies has greatly impacted the provision of psychotherapy and other clinical services as well as how the training of psychotherapists may be conducted. When utilized appropriately these technologies may provide greater access to needed services to include treatment, consultation, supervision, and training. The major issue in such a development is whether online interventions will be structured or unstructured. The proper use of technology is fundamental to create and boost outstanding results. We present a strategic review and, as an example, the main steps to develop and achieve application resilience and antifragility at system level, for diagnostic and therapeutic telepractice and telehealth support. This article presents a number of innovations that can take psychotherapy treatment, supervision, training, and research forward, towards increased effectiveness application.

  2. A cross-cultural investigation into the relationships among parental support for basic psychological needs, sense of uniqueness, and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simşek, Omer Faruk; Demir, Melikşah

    2014-01-01

    A significant number of empirical studies have reported that parental support for basic psychological needs is a robust correlate of adolescent happiness. Yet, less is known about the mechanisms responsible for this link. The present study proposed a model suggesting that personal sense of uniqueness explains why satisfaction of basic psychological needs in parent-child relationships is related to happiness. This mediational model was tested among late adolescents in Turkey and the United States. Analyses relying on structural equation modeling and bootstrapping supported the model in both cultures. Implications of the findings for theory and cross-cultural research are discussed. Directions for future research that could improve our understanding of the dynamic interplay between basic needs, sense of uniqueness and well-being are provided.

  3. Going with the Grain of Cognition: Applying insights from psychology to build support for childhood vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Rossen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vaccination is widely considered to be one of the most successful public health interventions. Yet, the effective delivery of vaccination depends upon public willingness to vaccinate. Recently, many countries have faced problems with vaccine hesitancy, where a growing number of parents perceive vaccination to be unsafe or unnecessary, leading some to delay or refuse vaccines for their children. Effective intervention strategies for countering this problem are currently sorely lacking, however. Here, we propose that this may be because existing strategies are grounded more in intuition than insights from psychology. Consequently, such strategies are sometimes at variance with basic psychological principles and assumptions. By going against the grain of cognition, such strategies potentially run the risk of undermining persuasive efforts to reduce vaccine hesitancy. We demonstrate this by drawing on key insights from cognitive and social psychology to show how various known features of human psychology can lead many intuitively appealing intervention strategies to backfire, yielding unintended and undesirable repercussions. We conclude with a summary of potential avenues of investigation that may be more effective in addressing vaccine hesitancy. Our key message is that intervention strategies must be crafted that go with the grain of cognition by incorporating key insights from the psychological sciences.

  4. Course design via Equivalency Theory supports equivalent student grades and satisfaction in online and face-to-face psychology classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGarratt-Reed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association (APA has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses. Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a case study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting online students with an equivalent learning experience, we recommend that future research investigates means of successfully facilitating collaborative group-work assessment

  5. The Psychologic and Psychosocial Impact of Otoplasty on Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Niehaus, Richard; Keller, Emanuel; Henrich, Gerhard; Papadopoulos, Othon N; Staudenmaier, Rainer; Kovacs, Laszlo; Peter Herschbach; Pototschnig, Hanno; Machens, Hans-Günther

    2015-11-01

    psychologic benefits, such as "satisfaction with appearance" (body image) and "different areas of life," self-confidence, and self-esteem as well as lower level of depression support meaningfulness of otoplasty. Therapeutic, III: Retrospective cohort or comparative study.

  6. The use of counselling principles and skills to develop practitioner-athlete relationships by practitioners who provide sport psychology support

    OpenAIRE

    Longstaff, Fran; Gervis, Misia

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how practitioners who provide sport psychology support use counselling principles and skills to develop practitioner-athlete relationships. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirteen competent practitioners (Mean age = 41.2 ± 10.9 years old, five men, eight women). Thematic analysis revealed that the participants used a range of counselling principles to develop practitioner-athlete relationships including: the facilitative conditions, self-disclosure, counsel...

  7. The Psychological Adaptation of CF Augmentees: Effects of Personality, Situational Appraisals, Social Support, and Prior Stressors on Operational Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    operational readiness Megan M. Thompson DRDC Toronto Monique A. M. Gignac Division of Population Health, University of Toronto Donald R. McCreary DRDC...support are related to increased mortality rates in population health studies (Berkman & Syme, 1994; House, Landis , & Umberson, 2003). Interestingly...of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 1146-1163. 55. House, J. S., Landis , K. R., & Umberson, D. (2003). Social relationships and health. In P

  8. SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF YOUTH SUSCEPTIBILITY TO THE INTERNET IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Vorobyeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Today, the process of socialization of modern youth takes place in absoutely other circumstances in comparison with former generations. The social activity of young people and teenagers is being developed not only in real but also in virtual space. The Internet environment, where new generation representatives actively manifest themselves, has significant effect on their life goals and behaviour. This influence can be positive and useful, on the one hand, and negative, on the other, deforming human mind and own personality. The aim of the present article is to identify, describe and analyze social and psychological factors of youth susceptibility to psychological and informational impact of the Internet environment.Methodology and research methods. A method of sociological questioning was applied to find out the characteristics of young people behaviour in virtual space, degree of their involvement in “a world web”, and intensity of the Web-based interaction. Psychodiagnostic methods by A. V. Smirnov “Semantic universals of the information and cultural environment” were used for studying the peculiarities of young people attitude to the Internet.Results and scientific novelty. The features of attitudes of young people towards the use of the Internet, degree of their virtual environment immersion, frequency of usage and behaviour models on the Internet are considered. A risk group among examinees (data sample – n = 277, 14–25 years is marked out and characterized. The representatives of this group showed high activity on the Internet, however, they do not draw attention to the Internet content: their relation to virtual space is based on aprioristic recognition of its need and usefulness with the accompanying denial of any propaganda of dangerous ideas and behaviour models which can endanger psychological health, own wellbeing and wellbeing of other people.Practical significance. The data obtained can be used for

  9. The impact of demographic and psychological characteristics and cost behaviors on views towards the luxury restaurant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Haji Mirza Hossein Yazdi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of psychological characteristics, materialism, unity, uniqueness, hedonism, and perfectionism, and demographic characteristics including gender, age and income as well as the costing behavior (price on the views towards the luxury restaurant. The results show that perfectionism and uniqueness had a direct impact on the consumer's views towards luxury restaurant. On the other hand, the demographic characteristics such as age, income and education had a positive relationship with the consumer's views towards the luxury restaurant. Finally, a new hypothesis as the relationship between price and service quality and customer atti-tudes was examined in this study and it was concluded that there was a significant positive rela-tionship between price and customer’s views. The results of the research data also confirmed the relationship between price and service quality.

  10. Psychological Contract and Organizational Change: Assessing M-As’ Impact on Survivors of Pharmaceuticals in Puerto Rico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz E. Quiñones González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mergers and acquisitions (M-A affect the psychological contract of employees. This study assessed the impact of the M-A on survivors’ psychological contract, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and whether credible explanation moderated employees’ reactions. Statistical analyses were performed on data gathered from 196 respondents of two pharmaceuticals in Puerto Rico. Results revealed an inverse correlation between perceived psychological contract violation (PCV and the variables job satisfaction and organizational commitment. They also confirmed the direct correlation between PCV and the variable turnover intention. This study found an effect of the moderating variable credible explanation on the variables job satisfaction and organizational commitment. An understanding of psychological contract theory may reduce the perceived violation and its impact on employees’ attitudes.

  11. Impact of Supported Housing on Social Relationships Among Homeless Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Maria J; Kasprow, Wesley J; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2017-02-01

    This study examined social network structure and function among a sample of 460 homeless veterans who participated in an experimental trial of the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supported Housing (HUD-VASH) program. Participants were randomly assigned to HUD-VASH (housing subsidies and case management), case management only, or standard care. Mixed-model longitudinal analysis was used to compare treatment groups on social network outcomes over 18 months. Veterans in HUD-VASH reported significantly greater increases in social support than veterans in the two other groups, as well as greater frequency of contacts, availability of tangible and emotional support, and satisfaction with nonkin relationships over time. These gains largely involved relationships with providers and other veterans encountered in treatment. Supported housing may play a pivotal role in fostering constructive new relationships with persons associated with service programs but may have a more limited impact on natural support networks.

  12. Effectiveness of Partner Social Support Predicts Enduring Psychological Distress after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rini, Christine; Redd, William H.; Austin, Jane; Mosher, Catherine E.; Meschian, Yeraz Markarian; Isola, Luis; Scigliano, Eileen; Moskowitz, Craig H.; Papadopoulos, Esperanza; Labay, Larissa E.; Rowley, Scott; Burkhalter, Jack E.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; DuHamel, Katherine N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) survivors who are 1 to 3 years posttransplant are challenged by the need to resume valued social roles and activities--a task that may be complicated by enduring transplant-related psychological distress common in this patient population. The present study investigated whether transplant…

  13. A socio-psychological perspective on team ambidexterity: The contingency role of supportive leadership behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.J.P.; Kostopoulos, K.C.; Mihalache, R.O.; Papalexandris, A

    2016-01-01

    In addressing the notion of team ambidexterity, we propose that socio-psychological factors (i.e., team cohesion and team efficacy) may help team members to resolve paradoxical challenges and to combine exploratory and exploitative learning efforts. In addition, we theorize that senior executives

  14. Non-suicidal self-injury in trans people: associations with psychological symptoms, victimization, interpersonal functioning, and perceived social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Witcomb, Gemma; Thurston, Megan; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of systematic research in the area of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in trans people. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of NSSI in trans people and the associations with intra- and interpersonal problems. Participants were 155 untreated individuals with a diagnosis of transsexualism (according to International Classification of Disease-10 criteria) attending a national gender identity clinic. All participants completed the Self-Injury Questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale, the Experiences of Transphobia Scale, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-32, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. The sample consisted of 66.5% trans women and 33.5% trans men and 36.8% of them had a history of engaging in NSSI. The prevalence of NSSI was significantly higher in trans men (57.7%) compared with trans women (26.2%). Trans individuals with NSSI reported more psychological and interpersonal problems and perceived less social support compared with trans individuals without NSSI. Moreover, the probability of having experienced physical harassment related to being trans was highest in trans women with NSSI (compared with those without NSSI). The study found that with respect to psychological symptoms, trans women reported significantly more intrapersonal and interpersonal symptoms compared with trans men. Finally, the results of the regression analysis showed that the probability of engaging in NSSI by trans individuals was significantly positively related to a younger age, being trans male, and reporting more psychological symptoms. The high levels of NSSI behavior and its association with interpersonal and interpersonal difficulties and lack of social support need to be taken into consideration when assessing trans individuals. The effect of cross-sex hormones and sex reassignment surgery on psychological functioning, including NSSI behavior

  15. Family support in the transition to adulthood in Portugal--its effects on identity capital development, uncertainty management and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, José Egídio; Mendonça, Marina; Coimbra, Susana; Fontaine, Anne Marie

    2014-12-01

    In a familistic southern European society such as the Portuguese, the family has historically played a prominent role in supporting the negotiation of transition pathways into adulthood. The present study aimed at capturing (1) the relative weight of parental financial support and autonomy support in contributing to the youngsters' psychological well-being (PWB), and (2) the mediating role of identity capital and uncertainty management in this relationship. A total of 620 participants completed measures of parental support, identity capital, uncertainty management and PWB. Autonomy support was found to be the strongest predictor of PWB, both directly and indirectly through its effects on identity capital and the use of target focused uncertainty management strategies. Conversely, financial support evidenced only a minor indirect impact through the mediation of tangible identity capital. Autonomy stimulation may constitute one of the most developmentally determinant family challenges in assisting the process of coming of age in Portugal. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing the scholarly impact of health psychology: a citation analysis of articles published from 1993 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Dominick L; Saxbe, Darby; Tomiyama, A Janet; Glenn, Beth A; Low, Carissa A; Hanoch, Yaniv; Motivala, Sarosh J; Meeker, Daniella

    2010-09-01

    We conducted a citation analysis to explore the impact of articles published in Health Psychology and determine whether the journal is fulfilling its stated mission. Six years of articles (N = 408) representing three editorial tenures from 1993-2003 were selected for analysis. Articles were coded for several dimensions enabling examination of the relationship of article features to subsequent citations rates. Journals citing articles published in Health Psychology were classified into four categories: (1) psychology, (2) medicine, (3) public health and health policy, and (4) other journals. The majority of citations of Health Psychology articles were in psychology journals, followed closely by medical journals. Studies reporting data collected from college students, and discussing the theoretical implications of findings, were more likely to be cited in psychology journals, whereas studies reporting data from clinical populations, and discussing the practice implications of findings, were more likely to be cited in medical journals. Time since publication and page length were both associated with increased citation counts, and review articles were cited more frequently than observational studies. Articles published in Health Psychology have a wide reach, informing psychology, medicine, public health and health policy. Certain characteristics of articles affect their subsequent pattern of citation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Comparison of Basic Psychological Needs, Social Support and Stressful events in Addicts and Non-addicts: gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahele Mohammadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare basic psychological needs, stressful life events, and social support in addicts and non-addicts. The study was a causal-comparative research. Two hundreds residents of Khorramabad were chosen by available sampling (130 healthy and 70 addicts and were asked to respond to Basic Psychological Need Scale La Guardia, Ryan, Couchman & Deci, Multi-facet Perceived Social Support Scale Zimet, Powell, Farley, Werkman, & Berkoff, Addiction Acceptance Scale Weed, Butcher, McKenna, & Ben-Porath, and Weekly Stress Inventory Brantley, Jones & Boudreaux. Results of analysis of variance and and discriminant analysis showed singnificant differences between men and women. The results also showed significant differences  competency and friend social support in the two groups of men, and autonomy, competency and family social support in the two groups of women. Discriminant analysis revealed that stressful life events and competency predict addiction in men. and relationship and family social support predict addiction in women.Results were discussed according to different protecting factors in men and women and possible reciprocal relationships between addiction and protecting factors.

  18. Psychological Availability between Self-Initiated Expatriates and Host Country Nationals during Their Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Supportive Supervisor Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannesari, Milad; Wang, Zhongming; McCall, Jacob; Zheng, Boyang

    2017-01-01

    This research examined the role of psychological availability as a means of psychological engagement between self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) and their host-country nationals (HCNs) colleagues during their work and interaction adjustment. To reveal this process, this study presented the concept of psychological availability, which refers to an individual’s belief that they are physically, cognitively, and emotionally ready or confident to engage the self with their colleagues, as a mediator between proactive personality and adjustment. Also, it investigated the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability and how it was moderated by supportive supervisor relations. We hypothesized, this relationship would be weakened/strengthened when SIEs and HCNs received low/high level of support from their supervisor. This study was conducted as a quantitative study, data was used from 342 SIEs and 342 HCNs working in mainland China. Our finding supported the hypothesis that psychological availability mediated the relationship between proactive personality and their adjustment to an international work environment; in addition, the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability would be stronger when the level of superiors relations support is high between SIEs and HCNs. This study demonstrated the value of proactive personality as an antecedent effect and supportive supervisor relations as a moderating effect, and investigated how these factors can lead to a sense of psychological availability and boost psychological engagement between SIEs and HCNs in order to improve the adjustment between them. PMID:29225587

  19. Psychological Availability between Self-Initiated Expatriates and Host Country Nationals during Their Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Supportive Supervisor Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Jannesari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research examined the role of psychological availability as a means of psychological engagement between self-initiated expatriates (SIEs and their host-country nationals (HCNs colleagues during their work and interaction adjustment. To reveal this process, this study presented the concept of psychological availability, which refers to an individual’s belief that they are physically, cognitively, and emotionally ready or confident to engage the self with their colleagues, as a mediator between proactive personality and adjustment. Also, it investigated the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability and how it was moderated by supportive supervisor relations. We hypothesized, this relationship would be weakened/strengthened when SIEs and HCNs received low/high level of support from their supervisor. This study was conducted as a quantitative study, data was used from 342 SIEs and 342 HCNs working in mainland China. Our finding supported the hypothesis that psychological availability mediated the relationship between proactive personality and their adjustment to an international work environment; in addition, the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability would be stronger when the level of superiors relations support is high between SIEs and HCNs. This study demonstrated the value of proactive personality as an antecedent effect and supportive supervisor relations as a moderating effect, and investigated how these factors can lead to a sense of psychological availability and boost psychological engagement between SIEs and HCNs in order to improve the adjustment between them.

  20. Social support and psychological well-being in gender dysphoria: a comparison of patients with matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Amanda; Bouman, Walter P; Arcelus, Jon; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-12-01

    There is a paucity of research in the area of social support and psychological well-being among people with gender dysphoria. The present study aimed to investigate levels of social support among individuals with gender dysphoria compared with a matched control group. It also aimed to examine the relationship between social support and psychological well-being. Participants were 103 individuals diagnosed with gender dysphoria (according to ICD-10 criteria) attending a national gender identity clinic and an age- and gender-matched nonclinical control group recruited via social networking websites. All participants completed measures of social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, MSPSS), psychopathology (Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, SCL), quality of life (Short Form 36 version 2, SF), and life satisfaction (Personal Wellbeing Index, PWI). Trans women reported significantly lower MSPSS total and MSPSS family scores compared with control women, although these differences in levels of social support were no longer significant when SCL depression was controlled for. No significant differences were found between trans men and any other group. MSPSS scores did not significantly predict SCL subscales but did predict both SF subscales and PWI total scores. Trans women perceived themselves to be lacking social support. Given that social support is beneficial to quality of life and life satisfaction in those with gender dysphoria, this is of great concern. Though these findings have been derived from correlational results, extended research may highlight the value of clinicians helping trans women to seek out and maintain social support. Additionally, efforts could be made to educate and challenge attitudes of nontrans people towards those with gender dysphoria. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Tailored educational supportive care programme on sleep quality and psychological distress in patients with heart failure: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yia-Ling; Chiou, Ai-Fu; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Lin, Kuan-Chia

    2016-09-01

    Up to 74% of patients with heart failure report poor sleep in Taiwan. Poor symptom management or sleep hygiene may affect patients' sleep quality. An effective educational programme was important to improve patients' sleep quality and psychological distress. However, research related to sleep disturbance in patients with heart failure is limited in Taiwan. To examine the effects of a tailored educational supportive care programme on sleep disturbance and psychological distress in patients with heart failure. randomised controlled trial. Eighty-four patients with heart failure were recruited from an outpatient department of a medical centre in Taipei, Taiwan. Patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n=43) or the control group (n=41). Patients in the intervention group received a 12-week tailored educational supportive care programme including individualised education on sleep hygiene, self-care, emotional support through a monthly nursing visit at home, and telephone follow-up counselling every 2 weeks. The control group received routine nursing care. Data were collected at baseline, the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks after patients' enrollment. Outcome measures included sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, anxiety, and depression. The intervention group exhibited significant improvement in the level of sleep quality and daytime sleepiness after 12 weeks of the supportive nursing care programme, whereas the control group exhibited no significant differences. Anxiety and depression scores were increased significantly in the control group at the 12th week (p.05). Compared with the control group, the intervention group had significantly greater improvement in sleep quality (β=-2.22, pquality and psychological distress in patients with heart failure. We suggested that this supportive nursing care programme should be applied to clinical practice in cardiovascular nursing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of an intervention program for female victims of intimate partner violence on psychological symptoms and perceived social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina B. Hansen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has documented severe mental health problems in female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV. Therefore, providing effective treatment is pivotal. Few studies have investigated the effects of intervention programs on reducing the harmful consequences of IPV. Objective: The present study examined the effects of a specific three-phase intervention program for female victims of IPV on psychological symptoms (PTSD, anxiety, and depression and perceived social support. Given that many of the women dropped out before and during the intervention program, potential differences in initial levels of psychological symptoms, perceived social support, as well as descriptive variables were explored between the women who completed the whole program and the groups of women who dropped out prematurely. Method: The initial sample consisted of 212 female victims of IPV. Symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and level of perceived social support were measured with validated scales before the start of the intervention and after completion of each treatment phase. Results: Results showed a significant effect of the intervention program on reducing psychological symptoms and increasing levels of perceived social support. Effect sizes ranged from medium to very high. Significant positive effects were found for each of the treatment phases. There were no significant differences between the women who completed the whole program and those women who dropped out prematurely in terms of initial level of symptoms and perceived social support as well as descriptive characteristics. Conclusions: Specifically developed intervention programs for female victims of IPV are effective in reducing the harmful personal consequences of IPV. Future studies should consider employing controlled study designs and address the issue of high drop out rates found in intervention studies.

  3. Bullying, Social Support, and Psychological Distress: Findings From RELACHS Cohorts of East London's White British and Bangladeshi Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; Silva, Maria Joao; Harding, Seeromanie; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to test whether bullying in adolescents relates to poor mental health and whether social support mitigated this effect. In 2001, 28 schools in East London were randomly selected for surveys of two representative mixed ability classes: year 7 (11-12 years) and year 9 (13-14 years). Repeated measures were obtained from the same pupils 2 years later, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (total difficulties score [TDS]) as a measure of psychological distress. A simple one-level random intercepts model with measurements nested within pupils was used to investigate the effects of bullying and social support from friends and family on TDS. We also assessed whether culturally congruent friendships offered a mental health advantage. Bullying was associated with a higher mean TDS (coefficient, 95% confidence interval: White British: 2.15, 1.41-2.88; Bangladeshi: 1.65, .91-2.4); a high level of family social support was associated with a lower TDS (White British: -2.36, -3.33 to -1.39; Bangladeshi: -2.34, -3.15 to -.149). Social support from friends was helpful for White British adolescents (-1.06, -2.07 to -.04). Culturally congruent friendships offered no general advantage. Bullying is associated with psychological distress; family social support is independently associated with less psychological distress. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Life stress versus traumatic stress: The impact of life events on psychological functioning in children with and without serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Victoria W; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2016-01-01

    To determine the differential impact of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and other stressful life events on psychological functioning in 2 groups of children: those with cancer and those without history of serious illness. Children with cancer age 8-17 (n = 254) and age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-matched controls (n = 142) completed self-report measures of stressful life events and psychological functioning. Stressful life events included those that may meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) A1 criteria (PTEs; 9 events) and others that would likely not (other events; 21 events). Children with cancer endorsed significantly more PTEs than control children. There were no differences between groups in number of other events experienced. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that number of other events accounted for significant variance in psychological functioning, above and beyond group status, demographic factors (age and socioeconomic status), and number of PTEs. The number of cumulative other events experienced is a significant predictor of psychological functioning in both youth with serious illness and controls. In contrast, cumulative PTEs appear to have a minor (albeit significant) impact on children's psychological functioning. Assessment of psychological functioning would benefit from a thorough history of stressful life events, regardless of their potential traumatic impact. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The psychological and social impact of female genital mutilation: A holistic conceptual framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Glover

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The current research aimed to gain an understanding of women’s experiences of FGM to develop an evidence based holistic conceptual framework for professionals dealing with the impact of FGM and responses required for survivors and their children. Method: Using a grounded theory approach, qualitative semi-structured interviews were carried out with 20 women survivors of FGM. Results: Participant’s related culture, religion, role of men, lack of education, female identity and deception as the major factors influencing their understanding and the impact of FGM. Their experiences of FGM, as well as being influenced by their conceptualisation of the practice, led to effects on their emotional life, relationships, identity, and physical body. The fear resulting from FGM that women described affected their ability to enhance their resilience. All the core categories of emotional, relational, identity, and physical impact, as well as resilience, were further influenced by the key stages of womanhood; including menstruation, marriage and childbirth. Women voiced their views that all the above issues were compounded by their needs not being met and the lack of meaningful and effective service responses. Conclusions: There are complex systems and relationships that influence the psychological and social impact of FGM. These have core implications for clinical and policy in relation to maternity and healthcare services.

  6. The impact of resilience and perceived organisational support on employee engagement in a competitive sales environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anel Meintjes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Understanding the impact of resilience and perceived organisational support on employee engagement in a competitive sales environment. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between resilience, perceived organisational support and employee engagement among pharmaceutical sales employees in a competitive sales environment; and to establish whether resilience and perceived organisational support hold predictive value for employee engagement. Motivation for the study: Limited research has focused on the unique context of employee engagement as a construct in professional sales. A broader understanding of resilience and perceived organisational support can provide sales organisations with a lever to create an environment where sales employees are more fully engaged. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative, exploratory, cross-sectional survey approach was used. A sample of 125 sales representatives from a South African pharmaceutical organisation participated in the research. The measuring instruments included the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES, Brief Resilience Scale (BRS and the Perceived Organisational Support Scale (POS. Main findings: Perceived organisational support, but not resilience impacted employee engagement in a competitive sales environment. Practical and managerial implications: Sales organisations’ interventions to improve sales employee engagement should focus on perceived organisational support. Contribution: The individual role of each construct provided insight into the sales context. The relationship between the constructs offered a different lens through which the drivers of employee engagement in sales can be viewed. This study contributes towards sales literature by including positive psychology and organisational support in a model of employee engagement.

  7. COGNITIVE-STYLE APPROACH TO PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT OF THE GIFTED PUPILS MOUNTAIN SCHOOLS OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Paliy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The differential-cognitological point of view, giftedness is “a systemic quality of a personality that develops throughout life and determines their abilities to achieve exceptionally high results in one or more activities compared to those of other people”. Herewith, it is the fundamental concept of general aptitude, under which “the level of general abilities development that determines the range of activities in which a person can achieve great success” is understood. Within the structure of general aptitude intellectual giftedness is singled out as the level of development, as well as the type of organization of individual mental experience, which ensure an opportunity of creative intellectual activity, i. e. an activity, related to the creation of subjectively and objectively new ideas, to the use of innovative approaches to solving problems and openness to controversial aspects of the situation and so on. In order to identify talented children and adults the value of intellectual quotient (IQ is still most commonly used. Psychometric approach (the measurement of psychic phenomena with the help of standardized IQ tests to the diagnosis of intellectual giftedness, which is dominant in psychological diagnostics today, by definition, cannot “measure” the phenomena of an individual psyche, since the modern level of psychological science does not allow to proceed to psychological diagnosis, let alone prediction of a certain person`s behavior, on the basis of individual results in performing a psychological test (psychometric test of intelligence, personality questionnaire, projective methods etc. In our opinion, many problems in psychological and pedagogical support of gifted children could be avoided by making use of cognitive-style approach to diagnosis of intellectual giftedness, creative abilities, propensities and peculiar mental traits of a separate individuality. Objectivity of such an approach is corroborated by the results

  8. The psychology of social class: How socioeconomic status impacts thought, feelings, and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manstead, Antony S R

    2018-04-01

    Drawing on recent research on the psychology of social class, I argue that the material conditions in which people grow up and live have a lasting impact on their personal and social identities and that this influences both the way they think and feel about their social environment and key aspects of their social behaviour. Relative to middle-class counterparts, lower/working-class individuals are less likely to define themselves in terms of their socioeconomic status and are more likely to have interdependent self-concepts; they are also more inclined to explain social events in situational terms, as a result of having a lower sense of personal control. Working-class people score higher on measures of empathy and are more likely to help others in distress. The widely held view that working-class individuals are more prejudiced towards immigrants and ethnic minorities is shown to be a function of economic threat, in that highly educated people also express prejudice towards these groups when the latter are described as highly educated and therefore pose an economic threat. The fact that middle-class norms of independence prevail in universities and prestigious workplaces makes working-class people less likely to apply for positions in such institutions, less likely to be selected and less likely to stay if selected. In other words, social class differences in identity, cognition, feelings, and behaviour make it less likely that working-class individuals can benefit from educational and occupational opportunities to improve their material circumstances. This means that redistributive policies are needed to break the cycle of deprivation that limits opportunities and threatens social cohesion. © 2018 The Author. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  9. The impact of congenital heart diseases on the quality of life of patients and their families in Saudi Arabia. Biological, psychological, and social dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad S. Azhar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the impact of congenital heart diseases (CHDs on bio-psychosocial aspects of the quality of life (QOL of patients and their families. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between May 2014 and August 2015, including children aged <16 years, and followed-up at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for CHD. A broad questionnaire was administered to investigate biological, psychological, and social dimensions of afflicted children, their parents, and siblings. Outcomes were computed as impact scores (0-100% for each dimension and family member. Results: A total of 180 children (104 [57.8%] males; mean age ± standard deviation [SD] = 5.65 ± 4.8 years were included. There were 25% children complaining of recurrent respiratory infections, 35% of frequent hospitalizations, 38.9% had milestone delay, and 12 (6.7% only had a social security registration. Mothers declared difficulty coping with their children’s disease in 20% of cases and 22.2% reported being depressed. Mean ± SD impact scores in afflicted children were: 26.1 ± 26.2 (biological, 28.7 ± 28.8 (psychological, and (20.2 ± 25.7 social dimensions. Mothers’ impact scores were higher than fathers’. Complex CHDs had an additional impact, and children from families with less knowledge on CHD had relatively greater impact scores. Conclusion: Congenital heart diseases impact all aspects of QOL of patients and their families, and are associated with high comorbidity. Social and psychological support and education for patients and their parents are crucial factors for improving QOL.

  10. Health Psychology and life after cancer: Recognizing the need for continued support

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, Teresa; Ivers, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Research and clinical practice in oncology has focused on prevention, detection and the improvement of cancer treatments. However, there is something missing from this representation of the cancer trajectory. There is little attention given to life after treatment has ended, that period when the patient moves into what is termed ‘long-term survivorship’. There is a growing interest within Health Psychology in the quality of life of those whose lives have been prolonged by early detection and ...

  11. Developing Psychological Culture of Schoolchildren as a Means of Supporting Implementation of Basic Education Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Dubrovina I.V.; Lubovsky D.V.,

    2018-01-01

    The paper reviews the social situation of development of children and adolescents in the modern society marked by rapid changes. The development of children and adolescents is described as ‘embedding into the culture’ through the education and is closely associated with the formation of their psychological culture. The paper analyses the conditions of personality development in modern children and adolescents, the factors which impede the communication and understanding of other people; it hi...

  12. Socio-Psychological Impact of Outdoor Sculptures in Nigeria Urban Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Francis Ebunola Oladugbagbe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One major element that finds expression at road intersections, parks, gardens, square and open spaces in the urban landscape are outdoor sculptures. Of great significance is the historical information they disseminate, the visual impressions they convey and the aesthetic value they add to the quality of the city. From 1960s and after the civil war, the uses of sculptures for embellishments in public places have increased tremendously in Nigeria. However, outdoor sculpture for the purpose of recreation and relaxation in our built environment has not been adequately addressed scholastically in Nigeria. This paper, therefore, focuses on the social values derivable from the use of sculpture in urban design and the losses that could accrue to the social system if not adequately managed. The values of these sculptures to the socio-psychological development of Nigerians and the beautification of the urban environment are equally emphasized. The study shows that incorporating sculptures into public places without doubt will heighten public appreciation and aesthetic perception and make Nigerian cities unique and vibrant.Keywords: Nigeria urban cities; socio-psychological impact; outdoor sculptures.

  13. Psychological resilience and the gene regulatory impact of posttraumatic stress in Nepali child soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Worthman, Carol M; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Luitel, Nagendra P; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; McCreath, Heather; Seeman, Teresa E; Crimmins, Eileen M; Cole, Steven W

    2016-07-19

    Adverse social conditions in early life have been linked to increased expression of proinflammatory genes and reduced expression of antiviral genes in circulating immune cells-the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA). However, it remains unclear whether such effects are specific to the Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) cultural environments in which previous research has been conducted. To assess the roles of early adversity and individual psychological resilience in immune system gene regulation within a non-WEIRD population, we evaluated CTRA gene-expression profiles in 254 former child soldiers and matched noncombatant civilians 5 y after the People's War in Nepal. CTRA gene expression was up-regulated in former child soldiers. These effects were linked to the degree of experienced trauma and associated distress-that is, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity-more than to child soldier status per se. Self-perceived psychological resilience was associated with marked buffering of CTRA activation such that PTSD-affected former child soldiers with high levels of personal resilience showed molecular profiles comparable to those of PTSD-free civilians. These results suggest that CTRA responses to early life adversity are not restricted to WEIRD cultural contexts and they underscore the key role of resilience in determining the molecular impact of adverse environments.

  14. "Great Ideas" in Russian Psychology: Personality Impact on Psychophysiological Functions and Causal Approach to Self- determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Mironenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian psychology has brought into the world science at least two great ideas: the conditioned reflex (Pavlov and the zone of proximal development (Vygotsky. These concepts were formulated before “iron curtain” fell. Since then Russian science dropped out from the view of western colleagues for decades. Now it is challenged to re-join international mainstream. Are we in a position to contribute?A key concept for Russian psychology is personality impact on psycho-physiological functions and causal approach to self-determination. The concept of selfdetermination appeared in Western theories in 1980-es and since then it has been developed in the context of teleological humanitarian approach. In Russian science the concept of self-determination dates back to 1934, when it was defined by Rubinstein as “sub’ekt”. Self-determination of ontogenesis of psycho physiological functions resulting from confluence of ontogenesis and social development was explicated by Russian scientists whose theoretical reasoning and empirical results are compared to Western counterparts.

  15. Meta-analysis for psychological impact of breast reconstruction in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanjing; Lv, Xiaoai; Xu, Xiaohong; Gao, Xiufei; Wang, Bei

    2018-07-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of breast reconstruction on the psychological aspects in patients with breast cancer. A literature search on PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect and Google scholar databases was conducted up to September 2017. The pooled risk radio (RR) or standard mean difference (SMD) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 5 studies were included in this meta-analysis. There were 551 breast cancer patients receiving mastectomy plus breast reconstruction and 574 breast cancer patients receiving mastectomy alone. The results showed that breast reconstruction can significantly decrease the incidence of anxiety (RR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.47-0.82, P = 0.0006)/depression (RR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.32-0.93, P = 0.02) and scale score for evaluating anxiety (SMD = - 0.20, 95% CI - 0.37 to - 0.03, P = 0.02)/depression (SMD = - 0.22, 95% CI - 0.39 to - 0.66, P = 0.007) compared with mastectomy alone. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy was benefit for improving the psychological damages in patients with breast cancer.

  16. The psychological impact of dependency in adults with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: A qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ashley Mai; Christopher, Gary; Jenkinson, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis can limit functional capacity, producing various degrees of disability and psychological distress. Semi-structured interviews explored the experiences of adults with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis being physically dependent on other people for help in daily life, and whether physical dependency affects their psychological well-being. Thematic analysis generated six themes: loss of independence and self-identity, an invisible illness, anxieties of today and the future, catch-22, internalised anger, and acceptance of the condition. The findings provide insight into the psychological impact of dependency. Implications for intervention include better education relating to chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis for family members, carers, and friends; ways to communicate their needs to others who may not understand chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis; and awareness that acceptance of the condition could improve psychological well-being.

  17. Psychological Pathways Linking Social Support to Health Outcomes: A Visit with the “Ghosts” of Research Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Bert N.; Bowen, Kimberly; Carlisle, McKenzie; Birmingham, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary models postulate the importance of psychological mechanisms linking perceived and received social support to physical health outcomes. In this review, we examine studies that directly tested the potential psychological mechanisms responsible for links between social support and health-relevant physiological processes (1980s to 2010). Inconsistent with existing theoretical models, no evidence was found that psychological mechanisms such as depression, perceived stress, and other affective processes are directly responsible for links between support and health. We discuss the importance of considering statistical/design issues, emerging conceptual perspectives, and limitations of our existing models for future research aimed at elucidating the psychological mechanisms responsible for links between social support and physical health outcomes. PMID:22326104

  18. Is weight gain really a catalyst for broader recovery?: The impact of weight gain on psychological symptoms in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurso, Erin C; Ciao, Anna C; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Lock, James D; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The main aims of this study were to describe change in psychological outcomes for adolescents with anorexia nervosa across two treatments, and to explore predictors of change, including baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as weight gain over time. Participants were 121 adolescents with anorexia nervosa from a two-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial who received either family-based treatment or individual adolescent supportive psychotherapy. Psychological symptoms (i.e., eating disorder psychopathology, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem) were assessed at baseline, end of treatment, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Conditional multilevel growth models were used to test for predictors of slope for each outcome. Most psychological symptoms improved significantly from baseline to 12 month follow-up, regardless of treatment type. Depressive symptoms and dietary restraint were most improved, weight and shape concerns were least improved, and self-esteem was not at all improved. Weight gain emerged as a significant predictor of improved eating disorder pathology, with earlier weight gain having a greater impact on symptom improvement than later weight gain. Adolescents who presented with more severe, complex, and enduring clinical presentations (i.e., longer duration of illness, greater eating disorder pathology, binge-eating/purging subtype) also appeared to benefit more psychologically from treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of professional nursing practice environment and psychological empowerment on nurses' work engagement: test of structural equation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Liu, Yanhui

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of professional nursing practice environment and psychological empowerment on nurses' work engagement. Previous researchers have acknowledged the positive influence that nurse work environment and psychological empowerment have on engagement. However, less is known about the mechanisms that explain the links between them. A predictive, non-experimental design was used to test the model in a random sample of 300 clinical nurses from two tertiary first class hospitals of Tianjin, China. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and the Psychological Empowerment Scale were used to measure the study variables. Structural equation modelling revealed a good fit of the model to the data based on various fit indices (P = 0.371, χ(2) /df = 1.056, goodness of fit index = 0.967), which indicated that both professional practice environment and psychological empowerment could positively influence work engagement directly, and professional practice environment could also indirectly influence work engagement through the mediation of psychological empowerment. The study hypotheses were supported. Psychological empowerment was found to mediate the relationship between practice environments and work engagement. Administrators should provide a professional nursing practice environment and empower nurses psychologically to increase nurse engagement. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Social Support and Psychological Well-Being in Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines predictors of social support and mental health among 36 lesbian and 39 heterosexual couples who were waiting to adopt. Lesbian preadoptive partners perceived less support from family than heterosexual partners but similar levels of support from friends. Lesbian and heterosexual partners reported similar levels of well-being.…

  1. Impact of recurrent changes in the work environment on nurses' psychological well-being and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Rik; Vlerick, Peter; Gemmel, Paul; Van Maele, Georges; De Backer, Guy

    2006-12-01

    This paper is a report of a study of how the occurrence and appraisal of recurrent changes in the work environment of hospital nurses affect psychological well-being (i.e. job satisfaction, eustress and distress) and absence through illness. Many researchers have demonstrated the impact of major organizational changes on employees' psychological well-being, but only a few have focused on the permanent consequences in work conditions. In a contemporary healthcare setting, an increased number of recurrent operational changes has become a normal characteristic of nurses' work environment. Specific work situations have frequently been associated with occupational stress, whereas employees' appraisal of recurrent changes as stressors and their relation to psychological well-being and health outcomes (i.e. sickness absence) have been dismissed. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 2003 with 2094 Registered Nurses in 10 general hospitals. Logistic regressions were used to investigate the impact on psychological well-being and prospectively measured rates of sickness absence (frequency and duration). The occurrence of changes in the work environment (in the past 6 months) had had a negative impact on staff psychological well-being. Nurses who had been confronted with changes scored statistically significantly higher for distress. Changes appraised as threatening were negatively related to job satisfaction and eustress, and positively related to distress and sickness absence (frequency and duration). Changes appraised as challenging were positively related to job satisfaction and eustress but had no impact on distress and sickness absence. Future research should take into consideration the impact of the occurrence and appraisal of recurrent changes in the work environment of healthcare employees (i.e. Registered Nurses) on psychological well-being and sickness absence. This should also be considered by managers when dealing with these nursing workforce

  2. Pre-hurricane perceived social support protects against psychological distress: A longitudinal analysis of low-income mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, SR; Chan, CS; Rhodes, JE

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we examined the influence of pre-disaster perceived social support on post-disaster psychological distress among survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Method: Participants (N = 386) were low-income mothers between 18 and 34 years of age at baseline (M = 26.4, SD = 4.43). The majority (84.8) was African American; 10.4 identified as Caucasian, 3.2 identified as Hispanic, and 1.8 identified as other. Participants were enrolled in an educational intervention study in 2004 and ...

  3. Caregiving: The impact on emotional support for single women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnley, C S

    1987-01-01

    Even though filial caregivers are typically daughters rather than sons, examinations of caregiving have not adequately considered the impact of gender and marital status differences on the support systems that mediate the strain of caring. Because of competing demands on time and energy, caregivers make many changes in their personal activities while maintaining work and immediate family responsibilities. The friendships that provide emotional support for singles are perceived as less important than familial relationships. Therefore, the assumption is made that the single adult daughter has less to give up as compared to her married siblings. The parallel emotional support systems of the married and single caregivers go unrecognized. This study of never-married women over age 30 reveals that these caregivers essentially foreclosed social relationships in order to provide care. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Impact of Quran in Treatment of the Psychological Disorder and Spiritual Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saged, Ali Ali Gobaili; Mohd Yusoff, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli; Abdul Latif, Faizuri; Hilmi, Syed Mohammad; Al-Rahmi, Waleed Mugahed; Al-Samman, Ahmed; Alias, Norma; Zeki, Akram M

    2018-02-26

    This paper studies the effect of Quranic therapy on psychological diseases and spiritual diseases. The experiments have been conducted on a random sample with 121 patients from both genders. The procedures that have been followed were different sessions with the patients, who were given some verses from the Holy Quran to listen within a specific period of time. After that, each patient was given a remedy program. This study aimed to measure the effectiveness and responsiveness of patients to receive treatment through Quran. This study highlighted the employment of a quantitative research, which achieved its objective through validity and reliability. The results of the effectiveness factor came after ability and willingness and gave a result of 92.6% for those who support the contention that the Quran has a significant healing influence. Also, some of the patients who regularly attended Quranic therapy sessions have been successfully cured, 81.8% of the sample believe that Quranic therapy sessions support their health needs. This study has empirically proved that the sound of the Holy Quran is an effective treatment for those who suffer from spiritual and psychological issues. Folk medicine and other traditional methods of treatment are important field of study that require further investigation. The study also illustrates that it's highly important for patient to have confidence in his doctor or healer. Furthermore, our results show that the ability and willingness positively and significantly are related to the effectiveness and responsiveness, also effectiveness positively and significantly related to the responsiveness. Therefore, the patients satisfied to receive treatment through Quran and they have the ability and willingness to do so as they believe that Quran is an essential part of their life.

  5. Coaching Psychology: An Approach to Practice for Educational Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Coaching psychology is a distinct sub-discipline of academic and applied psychology that focuses on the enhancement of performance, development and well-being in the broader population. Applied in educational contexts, the practice of coaching psychology has the potential to have a positive impact by supporting children and adults to achieve…

  6. Social, economic, and psychological impacts of MDR-TB treatment in Tijuana, Mexico: a patient's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, M D; Quezada, L; Bhat, P; Moser, K; Smith, J; Perez, H; Laniado-Laborin, R; Estrada-Guzman, J; Rodwell, T C

    2013-07-01

    The State of Baja California, Mexico, had the highest prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Mexico in 2009. To understand the socio-economic burden of MDR-TB disease and its treatment on patients in Tijuana and Mexicali, Mexico. From July to November 2009, qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 patients enrolled in a US-Mexico binational MDR-TB treatment program, Puentes de Esperanza (Bridges of Hope), which was designed to support MDR-TB patients. In-depth interviews were coded to identify major themes in patient experiences of MDR-TB diagnosis and care. While some patients were able to maintain their pre-MDR-TB lives to a limited extent, most patients reported losing their sense of identity due to their inability to work, social isolation, and stigmatization from family and friends. The majority of participants expressed appreciation for Puentes' role in 'saving their lives'. Being diagnosed with MDR-TB and undergoing treatment imposes significant psychological, social and economic stress on patients. Strong social support elements within Puentes helped alleviate these burdens. Improvements to the program might include peer-support groups for patients undergoing treatment and transitioning back into the community after treatment.

  7. Frequently cited journals in forensic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steve

    2012-02-01

    Works cited in six forensic psychology journals published 2008-2010 were counted to identify the most frequently cited journals. The sample of works cited (N = 21,776) was not a definitive ranked list of important journals in forensic psychology, but was large enough to indicate high-impact journals. The list of frequently cited publications included more general psychiatry and psychology journals than titles specific to forensic psychology. The implications of the proportion of general versus specific titles for collections supporting research in forensic psychology were discussed.

  8. The impact of volunteering on the volunteer: findings from a peer support programme for family carers of people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Georgina; Sinclair, James B; Brooks, Alice; Sullivan, Theresa; Ahmad, Shaheen; Poland, Fiona

    2017-03-01

    With an ageing population, there are increasing numbers of experienced family carers (FCs) who could provide peer support to newer carers in a similar care situation. The aims of this paper are to: (i) use a cross-sectional study design to compare characteristics of volunteers and recipients of a peer support programme for FCs of people with dementia, in terms of demographic background, social networks and psychological well-being; and (ii) use a longitudinal study design to explore the overall impact of the programme on the volunteers in terms of psychological well-being. Data were collected from programmes run in Norfolk, Northamptonshire, Berkshire and four London boroughs between October 2009 and March 2013. The volunteer role entailed empathic listening and encouragement over a 10-month period. Both carer support volunteers (N = 87) and recipient FCs (N = 109) provided baseline demographic information. Data on social networks, personal growth, self-efficacy, service use and well-being (SF-12; EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; Control, Autonomy, Self-Realisation, Pleasure-19) were collected prior to the start of the intervention (N = 43) and at either 3- to 5 month or 10 month follow-up (N = 21). Volunteers were more likely than recipients of support to be female and to have cared for a parent/grandparent rather than spouse. Volunteers were also more psychologically well than support recipients in terms of personal growth, depression and perceived well-being. The longitudinal analysis identified small but significant declines in personal growth and autonomy and a positive correlation between the volunteers' duration of involvement and perceived well-being. These findings suggest that carers who volunteer for emotional support roles are resilient and are at little psychological risk from volunteering. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Impact of Multiple Roles on Psychological Distress among Japanese Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Honda

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that participants who had only an employment role had an increased risk of psychological distress. The degree of psychological distress was not determined solely by the number of roles. It is important to have balance between work and family life to reduce role conflict and/or role submersion, which in turn may reduce the risk of psychological distress.

  10. Psychological counselling in problematic diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek, F. J.; Skinner, T. C.

    2002-01-01

    -destructive behaviour, but future research should substantiate these preliminary findings. Behaviour family therapy proved beneficial in terms of resolving family conflicts, but did not impact glycaemic control. Conclusions: Evidence to support the effect of psychological treatment in problematic diabetes is still......Background: In past decades clinicians have increasingly recognized the importance of psychological support for people with diabetes and their families, and many have recommended integrating psychological counselling into routine diabetes care. It is therefore important to consider whether...... psychological interventions in diabetes are effective in improving clinical outcomes. Methods: This review was limited to the literature reporting on the treatment of five common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management: depression, eating disorders, anxiety/stress, self...

  11. The Motivational Outcomes of Psychological Need Support among Pre-Service Teachers: Multicultural and Self-determination Theory Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haya Kaplan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study employed a self-determination theory (SDT framework to explore pre-service teachers’ perceptions of their professional training in relation to motivational outcomes. We hypothesized that students’ perceptions of basic psychological need support will be positively associated with their sense of relatedness, competence, and autonomous motivation and negatively associated with controlled motivation. Sense of relatedness, competence, and autonomous motivation were hypothesized to be positively associated with personal accomplishment, engagement, and self-exploration and negatively associated with emotional exhaustion. The study was conducted within a multicultural context, which enabled exploration of the hypotheses among students from two different cultural backgrounds. Based on the universality of SDT, we expected that the general models would be similar for both cultures, although some mean level and correlational paths may be different. The sample (N = 308; mean age 23.4 consisted of Muslim Arab-Bedouin (55.3% and Jewish (44.7% pre-service teachers enrolled in the same teachers’ college in Israel. The participants completed self-report surveys assessing their sense of basic psychological need support, autonomous and controlled motivation, self-accomplishment, engagement, self-exploration, and emotional exhaustion. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that need support contributed positively to autonomous motivation, sense of relatedness, and sense of competence in both cultures. Autonomous motivation contributed positively to sense of self-accomplishment, engagement, and self-exploration. Competence in turn was positively related to engagement and negatively related to emotional exhaustion, and relatedness was associated with engagement only among the Bedouin students, and with self-accomplishment only among the Jewish students. These results indicate that sense of need support is highly important regardless

  12. Daily goal progress is facilitated by spousal support and promotes psychological, physical, and relational well-being throughout adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubiak, Brittany K.; Feeney, Brooke C.

    2016-01-01

    In two daily-diary studies, we tested the consequences and precursors of daily goal progress throughout the adult lifespan. Attachment theory posits that exploration—including the pursuit of autonomous goals—promotes well-being across the lifespan and is facilitated by support from close others. For both young-adult newlyweds (Study 1) and married couples in late adulthood (Study 2), daily independent goal progress predicted same-day and next-day improvements in psychological, physical, and relational well-being. Specifically, when participants made more progress on their goals than usual on one day, they reported increases in positive affect, sleep quality, and relationship quality, and decreased physical symptoms, the following day (as well as concurrently). Additionally, spousal support (i.e., availability, encouragement, and noninterference) enabled same-day and next-day goal progress. Mediational analyses showed indirect links between spousal support and well-being through goal progress. Some effects were moderated by attachment orientation in the newlywed sample; individuals with greater insecure attachment benefited most from goal progress, and spousal support enabled goal progress most strongly for individuals with less anxious attachment. Overall, these results support and extend attachment theoretical propositions regarding the importance of the exploration system across the adult lifespan. They contribute to existing literature by demonstrating wide-ranging consequences of successful exploration for well-being and by providing evidence for the importance of both exploration and support for exploration into late adulthood. PMID:27560610

  13. Fibromyalgia has a larger impact on physical health than on psychological health, yet both are markedly affected: the al-Ándalus project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A; Ortega, Francisco B; Casimiro, Antonio J; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    To characterize a representative sample of fibromyalgia women based on a set of relevant factors known to be related to this disease. To distinguish specific factors of the disease from other symptoms that might also exist in non-fibromyalgia women. To test whether fibromyalgia affects more severely physical or psychological outcomes. A total of 459 fibromyalgia women vs. 214 non-fibromyalgia (control) women from Southern Spain (Andalusia) took part in this cross-sectional study. Several instruments were used to assess tenderness, impact of fibromyalgia, fatigue, health-related quality of life, mental health, and cognitive performance. Overall, fibromyalgia women showed a worse status in pain, fatigue, health-related quality of life, depression, and anxiety than controls (P fibromyalgia and controls were observed in cognitive and memory performance, except for delayed recall, but the observed effect size was low (~0.25). The effect size observed for the global physical component (~3.3) was larger than that for the global psychological component (~1.3), all P fibromyalgia as a polysymptomatic distress condition with pain as its main symptom. Our findings support that fibromyalgia seems to have a greater impact on physical than on psychological outcomes, though both are largely affected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of a multifaceted community-based falls prevention program on balance-related psychologic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiatrault, Johanne; Gauvin, Lise; Richard, Lucie; Robitaille, Yvonne; Laforest, Sophie; Fournier, Michel; Corriveau, Hélène

    2008-10-01

    To assess the impact of a multifaceted falls prevention program including exercise and educational components on perceived balance and balance confidence among community-dwelling seniors. Quasi-experimental design. Community-based organizations. Two hundred community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and over recruited by community-based organizations. A 12-week multifaceted falls prevention program including 3 components (a 1-hour group exercise class held twice a week, a 30-minute home exercise module to be performed at least once a week, a 30-minute educational class held once a week). Perceived balance and balance confidence. Multivariate analysis showed that the program was successful in increasing perceived balance in experimental participants. However, balance confidence was not improved by program participation. A multifaceted community-based falls prevention program that was successful in improving balance performance among community-dwelling seniors also had a positive impact on perceived balance. However, the program did not improve participants' balance confidence. These results suggest that balance confidence has determinants other than balance and that new components and/or modifications of existing components of the program are required to achieve maximal benefits for seniors in terms of physical and psychologic outcomes.

  15. Psychological first aid: a consensus-derived, empirically supported, competency-based training model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Everly, George S; Brown, Lisa M; Wendelboe, Aaron M; Abd Hamid, Nor Hashidah; Tallchief, Vicki L; Links, Jonathan M

    2014-04-01

    Surges in demand for professional mental health services occasioned by disasters represent a major public health challenge. To build response capacity, numerous psychological first aid (PFA) training models for professional and lay audiences have been developed that, although often concurring on broad intervention aims, have not systematically addressed pedagogical elements necessary for optimal learning or teaching. We describe a competency-based model of PFA training developed under the auspices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association of Schools of Public Health. We explain the approach used for developing and refining the competency set and summarize the observable knowledge, skills, and attitudes underlying the 6 core competency domains. We discuss the strategies for model dissemination, validation, and adoption in professional and lay communities.

  16. Energy drinks: psychological effects and impact on well-being and quality of life-a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Waguih William; Ugochukwu, Chio; Bagot, Kara; Khalili, David; Zaky, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The market and degree of consumption of energy drinks have exponentially expanded while studies that assess their psychological effects and impact on quality of life remain in the early stages, albeit on the rise. This review aims to examine the literature for evidence of the psychological effects of energy drinks and their impact on the sense of well-being and quality of life. Studies were identified through Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO searches from the dates of 1990 to 2011, published in English, using the keywords energy or tonic drinks, psychological effects, caffeine and cognitive functions, mood, sleep, quality of life, well-being, and mental illness. Three authors agreed independently on including 41 studies that met specific selection criteria. The literature reveals that people most commonly consume energy drinks to promote wakefulness, to increase energy, and to enhance the experience of alcohol intoxication. A number of studies reveal that individuals who consume energy drinks with alcohol were more inclined to be involved in risk-taking behaviors. There was also excessive daytime sleepiness the day following energy drink consumption. Contrary to expectations, the impact of energy drinks on quality of life and well-being was equivocal. Energy drinks have mixed psychological and well-being effects. There is a need to investigate the different contexts in which energy drinks are consumed and the impact on mental health, especially in the psychiatrically ill.

  17. The Impact of Resource Constraints on the Psychological Well-Being of Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeble, Marisa L.; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of resource constraints on the psychological well-being of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV), testing whether resource constraints is one mechanism that partially mediates the relationship between IPV and women's well-being. Although within-woman changes in resource constraints did not mediate the…

  18. An Overview and Analysis of Journal Operations, Journal Publication Patterns, and Journal Impact in School Psychology and Related Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Randy G.; Cooley, Kathryn M.; Arnett, James E.; Fagan, Thomas K.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Hingle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the results of three studies designed to understand better the journal operations, publishing practices, and impact of school psychology journals in recent years. The first study presents the results of a survey focusing on journal operations and peer-review practices that was completed by 61 journal editors of school…

  19. The impact of Einsteinian relativity and quantum physics theories on conceptualizations of the self in psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechberger, Elke Ruth

    1999-11-01

    Prior to the 1600s c.e., the church was the final authority for theories about the universe and humanity's role within it. However, when the mathematical theories put forth by scientists such as Copernicus and Galileo refuted traditional theological explanations about the cosmos, a shift to science as the premiere authority for theories was established, a tradition which continues to this day. In the following century, the work of Newton set forth a theory of the universe operating as a machine, where all things were potentially knowable, measurable, and predictable. His mechanistic hypotheses helped substantiate a corollary philosophy known as modernism. In the early 1900s, Einstein's theories about light and relativity began to indicate a universe significantly less absolute. His work set the stage for the development of quantum physics theories, whose hallmarks are probability, uncertainty, and complementarity. Quantum physics theories helped substantiate the philosophy known as postmodernism, where truth is nonexistent, reality is a subjectively constructed phenomenon, and the concept of an individual self is considered an illusion. Given that developments in physics have had profound impact across academic disciplines, including psychology, this study examine the effect of major revolutions in physics to corollary developments in theories about the self in psychology. It is the assertion of this work that modernist conceptualization of the self is one that is highly individualistic and defined in mechanistic terms, whereas the postmodern conceptualization of the self is significantly more socially constructed and has more interpersonally fluid, amorphous boundaries. Implications for conceptualizations of the self from either the modern or postmodern paradigm are discussed, as well as suggestions for future theory development.

  20. Unmitigated agency, social support, and psychological adjustment in men with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Stanton, Annette L

    2011-04-01

    Unmitigated agency (UA), a gender-linked characteristic, has been associated with poorer cancer adjustment. Support from one's social network typically predicts adjustment but may be poorly matched to UA. The influence of UA on the utility of social support on adjustment over time is examined. Men with cancer (N=55) were assessed initially and 6 months later on three indicators of adjustment. Multilevel modeling analyses varied by adjustment indicator. UA was associated with increased cancer-related psychosocial symptoms but not depressive symptoms or cancer-related thought intrusion. Social support predicted fewer depressive symptoms and less cancer-related thought intrusion. However, a cross-level interaction revealed that the utility of social support on cancer-related thought intrusion was weaker for men with greater levels of UA. Men with cancer likely respond differently to changes in social support depending on their endorsement of UA. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Social Welfare and the Psychology of Food Sharing: Short-Term Hunger Increases Support for Social Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene; Jensen, Niels Holm

    2014-01-01

    Do politically irrelevant events influence important policy opinions? Previous research on social welfare attitudes has emphasized the role of political factors such as economic self-interest and ideology. Here, we demonstrate that attitudes to social welfare are also influenced by short-term flu......—we consistently find that hungry individuals act in a greedier manner but describe themselves as more cooperative and express greater support for social welfare.......Do politically irrelevant events influence important policy opinions? Previous research on social welfare attitudes has emphasized the role of political factors such as economic self-interest and ideology. Here, we demonstrate that attitudes to social welfare are also influenced by short......-term fluctuations in hunger. Using theories in evolutionary psychology, we predict that hungry individuals will be greedier and take more resources from others while also attempting to induce others to share by signaling cooperative intentions and expressing support for sharing, including evolutionarily novel forms...

  2. Tailored online cognitive behavioural therapy with or without therapist support calls to target psychological distress in adults receiving haemodialysis: A feasibility randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Joanna L; Moss-Morris, Rona; Norton, Sam; Picariello, Federica; Game, David; Carroll, Amy; Spencer, Jonathan; McCrone, Paul; Hotopf, Matthew; Yardley, Lucy; Chilcot, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    Psychological distress is prevalent in haemodialysis (HD) patients yet access to psychotherapy remains limited. This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of online cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) tailored for HD patients, with or without therapist support, for managing psychological distress. This feasibility randomised controlled trial recruited patients from a UK HD centre. Following psychological distress screens, patients with mild-moderate psychological distress (Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ-9; score: 5-19 and/or Generalised Anxiety Disorder; GAD-7 score: 5-14) who met remaining inclusion criteria were approached for consent. Consenters were individually randomised (1:1) to online-CBT or online-CBT plus three therapist support calls. Outcomes included recruitment, retention, and adherence rates. Exploratory change analyses were performed for: psychological distress, quality of life (QoL), illness perceptions, and costs. The statistician was blinded to allocation. 182 (44%) out of 410 patients approached completed psychological distress screens. 26% found screening unacceptable; a further 30% found it unfeasible. Psychological distress was detected in 101 (55%) patients, 60 of these met remaining inclusion criteria. The primary reason for ineligibility was poor computer literacy (N=17, 53%). Twenty-five patients were randomised to the supported (N=18) or unsupported arm (N=7); 92% were retained at follow-up. No differences in psychological distress or cost-effectiveness were observed. No trial adverse events occurred. Online CBT appears feasible but only for computer literate patients who identify with the label psychological distress. A definitive trial using the current methods for psychological distress screening and online care delivery is unfeasible. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02352870. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Despite some concerns, impact study reveals support for nuke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of 37 Hartsville, Tennessee community leaders indicates the community supports construction of a nuclear generating plant and does not see any major environmental impacts. The leaders do anticipate growth-related disruptions during the construction phase. The ERDA-sponsored social impact study is being conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to serve as a guide in planning future energy projects and for comparison with a coal-fired project under development in Georgia. Statistics from the survey are summarized. General observations note that the leaders tend to overestimate opposition to the nuclear plant and that local concerns focus on housing and traffic problems. The Tennessee Valley Authority is supplying funds for a mitigation plan, which is generally well received by the community

  4. Association of depressive symptomology and psychological trauma with diabetes control among older American Indian women: Does social support matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, R Turner; Noonan, Carolyn; Gonzales, Kelly; Winchester, Blythe; Bradley, Vickie L

    2017-04-01

    Among older American Indian women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we examined the association between mental health and T2DM control and if social support modifies the association. Survey data were linked to T2DM medical record information. Mental health measures were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale and the National Anxiety Disorders Screening Day instrument. T2DM control was all HbA1c values taken post mental health measures. There was not a significant association between depressive symptomatology and higher HbA1c although increased depressive symptomatology was associated with higher HbA1c values among participants with low social support. There was a significant association between psychological trauma and higher HbA1c values 12months [mean 7.5, 95% CI 7.0-8.0 for no trauma vs. mean 7.0, 95% CI 6.3-7.6 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.7-9.1 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)] and 6months later [mean 7.2, 95% CI 6.7-7.7 for no trauma vs. mean HbA1c 6.8, 95% CI 6.2-7.4 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.6-9.2 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)]. High social support attenuated the association between psychological trauma and HbA1c values. T2DM programs may consider activities that would strengthen participants' social support and thereby building on an intrinsic community strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of depressive symptomology and psychological trauma with diabetes control among older American Indian women: Does social support matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Carolyn; Gonzales, Kelly; Winchester, Blythe; Bradley, Vickie L.

    2017-01-01

    Aims Among older American Indian women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we examined the association between mental health and T2DM control and if social support modifies the association. Methods Survey data were linked to T2DM medical record information. Mental health measures were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression Scale and the National Anxiety Disorders Screening Day instrument. T2DM control was all HbA1c values taken post mental health measures. Results There was not a significant association between depressive symptomatology and higher HbA1c although increased depressive symptomatology was associated with higher HbA1c values among participants with low social support. There was a significant association between psychological trauma and higher HbA1c values 12 months [mean 7.5, 95% CI 7.0–8.0 for no trauma vs. mean 7.0, 95% CI 6.3–7.6 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.7–9.1 for trauma with =1 symptom(s)] and 6 months later [mean 7.2, 95% CI 6.7–7.7 for no trauma vs. mean HbA1c 6.8, 95% CI 6.2–7.4 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.6–9.2 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)]. High social support attenuated the association between psychological trauma and HbA1c values. Conclusions T2DM programs may consider activities that would strengthen participants’ social support and thereby building on an intrinsic community strength. PMID:28161383

  6. How can we deal with mental distress in the dissection room?-An evaluation of the need for psychological support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckers, Anja; Brinkmann, Anke; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Traue, Harald C; Boeckers, Tobias M

    2010-12-20

    The dissection course (DC) is an essential part of the preclinical medical curriculum that mediates professionalism. The process of dissecting, however, has an inherent additional stress potential. Our study determined student mental stress, their need of psychological support and factors influencing this need. A quantitative longitudinal query before, during and after the DC was performed including the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) as well as self-formulated questions used a 5-point Likert scale. Half of the students who anticipated dissection to be a stress factor reported that this declined significantly over time. Instead, student fear of not being able to cope with the work load increased significantly. As many as 64% of the students favored psychological support on the first course day, while 75% rejected this during the period of dissection and 39% appreciated this after the course. Moreover, 42% emphasized the importance of the funeral ceremony. Additionally, 75% documented their need for support in coping with stress and learning strategies. Gender, previous medical training, and BSI levels were identified as psychosocial influence factors. A majority of students named friends, members of their family or workmates as partners with whom they could talk about mental stress. Our results document the need to develop an optimum support during the DC taking into account the ascertained indicators. Exemplarily the Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology at Ulm University suggests several options like a step by step approach for optimization. These measures reduce mental stress and help students to cope with it by the development of "detached concern" towards their "first patient" as this will decisively influence their future professional behavior. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The Impact of Nature Experience on Willingness to Support Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaradic, Patricia A.; Pergams, Oliver R. W.; Kareiva, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that willingness to financially support conservation depends on one's experience with nature. In order to test this hypothesis, we used a novel time-lagged correlation analysis to look at times series data concerning nature participation, and evaluate its relationship with future conservation support (measured as contributions to conservation NGOs). Our results suggest that the type and timing of nature experience may determine future conservation investment. Time spent hiking or backpacking is correlated with increased conservation contributions 11–12 years later. On the other hand, contributions are negatively correlated with past time spent on activities such as public lands visitation or fishing. Our results suggest that each hiker or backpacker translates to $200–$300 annually in future NGO contributions. We project that the recent decline in popularity of hiking and backpacking will negatively impact conservation NGO contributions from approximately 2010–2011 through at least 2018. PMID:19809511

  8. The Impact of Adolescent Stuttering and Other Speech Problems on Psychological Well-Being in Adulthood: Evidence from a Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline; Shepstone, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Developmental stuttering is associated with increased risk of psychological distress and mental health difficulties. Less is known about the impact of other developmental speech problems on psychological outcomes, or the impact of stuttering and speech problems once other predictors have been adjusted for. Aims: To determine the impact…

  9. Measurement of Psychological Entitlement in 28 Countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M.; Piotrowski, J.; Cieciuch, J.; Calogero, R.M.; Van Hiel, A.; Argentero, P.; Baltatescu, S.; Baran, T.; Bardhwaj, G.; Bukowski, M.; Chargazia, M.; Clinton, A.; Halik, M.H.; Ilisko, D.; Khachatryan, N.; Klicperová-Baker, Martina; Košťál, Jaroslav; Kovacs, M.; Letovancova, E.; Liik, K.; Marganski, A.; Michałowski, J.; Nord, I.; Paspalanova, E.; de Leon, P.P.; Techera, J.; Rojas, M.; Różycka, J.; Sawicka, A.; Seibt, B.; Semkiv, I.; Tiliouine, H.; Truong, H.K.; Van den Bos, K.; Wills-Herrera, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2017), s. 207-217 ISSN 1015-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-11062S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : psychological entitlement * Entitlement Attitudes Questionnaire * cross-cultural research * measurement invariance Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 2.328, year: 2016 http://econtent.hogrefe.com/doi/abs/10.1027/1015-5759/a000286

  10. Understanding psychological stress, its biological processes, and impact on primary headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Justin M; Thebarge, Ronald W

    2006-10-01

    Psychological stress is generally acknowledged to be a central contributor to primary headache. Stress results from any challenge or threat, either real or perceived, to normal functioning. The stress response is the body's activation of physiological systems, namely the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, to protect and restore functioning. Chronic activation of the stress response can lead to wear and tear that eventually can predispose an individual to disease. There are multiple ways that stress and headache are closely related. Stress can (a) be a predisposing factor that contributes to headache disorder onset, (b) accelerate the progression of the headache disorder into a chronic condition, and (c) precipitate and exacerbate individual headache episodes. How stress impacts headache is not often understood. However, stress is assumed to affect primary headache by directly impacting pain production and modulation processes at both the peripheral and central levels. Stress can also independently worsen headache-related disability and quality of life. Finally, the headache experience itself can serve as a stressor that compromises an individual's health and well-being. With the prominent role that stress plays in headache, there are implications for the evaluation of stress and the use of stress reduction strategies at the various stages of headache disorder onset and progression. Future directions can help to develop a better empirical understanding of the pattern of the stress and headache connections and the mechanisms that explain the connections. Further research can also examine the interactive effects of stress and other factors that impact headache disorder onset, course, and adjustment.

  11. Cultural differences in the relationships among autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, subjective vitality, and effort in British and Chinese physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ian M; Lonsdale, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Using basic psychological needs theory (BPNT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) as our guiding framework, we explored cultural differences in the relationships among physical education students' perceptions of teacher autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, subjective vitality and effort in class. Seven hundred and fifteen students (age range from 13 to 15 years) from the U.K. and Hong Kong, China, completed a multisection inventory during a timetabled physical education class. Multilevel analyses revealed that the relationships among autonomy support, subjective vitality and effort were mediated by students' perceptions of psychological need satisfaction. The relationship between autonomy support and perceptions of competence was stronger in the Chinese sample, compared with the U.K. sample. In addition, the relationship between perceptions of relatedness and effort was not significant in the Chinese students. The findings generally support the pan-cultural utility of BPNT and imply that a teacher-created autonomy supportive environment may promote positive student experiences in both cultures.

  12. Predicting adolescent problematic online game use from teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and school engagement: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chengfu; Li, Xian; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Problematic online game use (POGU) has become a serious global public health concern among adolescents. However, its influencing factors and mediating mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study provides the first longitudinal design to test stage-environment fit theory empirically in POGU. A total of 356 Chinese students reported on teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, school engagement, and POGU in the autumn of their 7th-9th grade years. Path analyses supported the proposed pathway: 7th grade teacher autonomy support increased 8th grade basic psychological needs satisfaction, which in turn increased 9th grade school engagement, which ultimately decreased 9th grade POGU. Furthermore, 7th grade teacher autonomy support directly increased 9th grade school engagement, which in turn decreased 9th grade POGU. These findings suggest that teacher autonomy support is an important protective predictor of adolescent POGU, and basic psychological needs satisfaction and school engagement are the primary mediators in this association.

  13. What is the impact of shift work on the psychological functioning and resilience of nurses? An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahghighi, Mozhdeh; Rees, Clare S; Brown, Janie A; Breen, Lauren J; Hegney, Desley

    2017-09-01

    To synthesize existing research to determine if nurses who work shifts have poorer psychological functioning and resilience than nurses who do not work shifts. Research exploring the impact of shift work on the psychological functioning and resilience of nurses is limited compared with research investigating the impact of shifts on physical outcomes. Integrative literature review. Relevant databases were searched from January 1995-August 2016 using the combination of keywords: nurse, shift work; rotating roster; night shift; resilient; hardiness; coping; well-being; burnout; mental health; occupational stress; compassion fatigue; compassion satisfaction; stress; anxiety; depression. Two authors independently performed the integrative review processes proposed by Whittemore and Knafl and a quality assessment using the mixed-methods appraisal tool by Pluye et al. A total of 37 articles were included in the review (32 quantitative, 4 qualitative and 1 mixed-methods). Approximately half of the studies directly compared nurse shift workers with non-shift workers. Findings were grouped according to the following main outcomes: (1) general psychological well-being/quality of life; (2) Job satisfaction/burnout; (3) Depression, anxiety and stress; and (4) Resilience/coping. We did not find definitive evidence that shift work is associated with poorer psychological functioning in nurses. Overall, the findings suggest that the impact of shift work on nurse psychological functioning is dependent on several contextual and individual factors. More studies are required which directly compare the psychological outcomes and resilience of nurse shift workers with non-shift workers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Research of the Occupational Psychological Impact Factors Based on the Frequent Item Mining of the Transactional Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Dongmei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the massive reading of data mining and association rules mining documents, this paper will start from compressing transactional database and propose the frequent complementary item storage structure of the transactional database. According to the previous analysis, this paper will also study the association rules mining algorithm based on the frequent complementary item storage structure of the transactional database. At last, this paper will apply this mining algorithm in the test results analysis module of team psychological health assessment system, and will extract the relationship between each psychological impact factor, so as to provide certain guidance for psychologists in their mental illness treatment.

  15. From undocumented to lawfully present: Do changes to legal status impact psychological wellbeing among latino immigrant young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patler, Caitlin; Laster Pirtle, Whitney

    2018-02-01

    Exclusionary immigration policies, as a form of structural racism, have led to a sizeable undocumented population that is largely barred from access to resources in the United States. Existing research suggests that undocumented immigration status detrimentally impacts mobility, yet few studies have tested the impacts of legal status on psychological wellbeing. Most importantly, we know little about how changes to legal status impact wellbeing. Announced in 2012, the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program allows eligible undocumented youth to apply for temporary lawful status. Drawing on cross-sectional survey data from 487 Latino immigrant young adults in California collected in 2014 and 2015, we analyze the predictors of three specialized outcomes related to immigrants' psychological wellbeing-distress, negative emotions, and deportation worry before and after a transition from undocumented to lawfully present status. Results show that retrospective reports of past psychological wellness, when all respondents were undocumented, are predicted primarily by socioeconomic status. However, reports of current psychological wellness are predicted by DACA status. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the positive emotional consequences of transitioning out of undocumented status for immigrant young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness: role of socioeconomic position, psychological well-being and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcikova, Z; Madarasova Geckova, A; Orosova, O; van Dijk, J P; Reijneveld, S A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks and the contribution of socioeconomic position, family structure, social support from family and well-being to this association. We obtained data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3, 49.0% males; response rate 93%). Respondents completed questionnaires on how often they had been drunk in the last 4 weeks, whether their parents were divorced, their socioeconomic position (education of parents, family affluence), the composition of the household (one or two parents/step-parents), social support from the family and their own well-being. Parental divorce was found to have an effect on adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks, as well as high socioeconomic position, low social support from the family and high depression/anxiety. The effect of divorce on drunkenness decreased only slightly after adding social support into the model. Our findings indicate that parental divorce has a persistent influence on risk behavior independent of the influence of socioeconomic position and well-being. Parental divorce may increase the likelihood of drunkenness more than other factors such as low parental support and poor socioeconomic position. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Human Behavior and Performance Support for ISS Operations and Astronaut Selections: NASA Operational Psychology for Six-Crew Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderArk, Steve; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert; Cockrell, Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance group at NASA Johnson Space Center provides psychological support services and behavioral health monitoring for ISS astronauts and their families. The ISS began as an austere outpost with minimal comforts of home and minimal communication capabilities with family, friends, and colleagues outside of the Mission Control Center. Since 1998, the work of international partners involved in the Space Flight Human Behavior and Performance Working Group has prepared high-level requirements for behavioral monitoring and support. The "buffet" of services from which crewmembers can choose has increased substantially. Through the process of development, implementation, reviewing effectiveness and modifying as needed, the NASA and Wyle team have proven successful in managing the psychological health and well being of the crews and families with which they work. Increasing the crew size from three to six brought additional challenges. For the first time, all partners had to collaborate at the planning and implementation level, and the U.S. served as mentor to extrapolate their experiences to the others. Parity in available resources, upmass, and stowage had to be worked out. Steady progress was made in improving off-hours living and making provisions for new technologies within a system that has difficulty moving quickly on certifications. In some respect, the BHP support team fell victim to its previous successes. With increasing numbers of crewmembers in training, requests to engage our services spiraled upward. With finite people and funds, a cap had to placed on many services to ensure that parity could be maintained. The evolution of NASA BHP services as the ISS progressed from three- to six-crew composition will be reviewed, and future challenges that may be encountered as the ISS matures in its assembly-complete state will be discussed.

  18. Psychological Impact of Chemotherapy for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia on Patients and Their Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Sherief, Laila M.; Kamal, Naglaa M.; Abdalrahman, Hadel M.; Youssef, Doaa M.; Alhady, Mohamed A Abd; Ali, Adel SA; Elbasset, Maha Aly Abd; Hashim, Hiatham M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To assess the self-esteem of pediatric patients on chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and psychological status of their parents. The psychological status of 178 children receiving chemotherapy for ALL and their parents was assessed using parenting stress index (PSI) to determine the degree of stress the parents are exposed to using parent's and child's domains. Self-esteem Scale was used to determine the psychological status of patients. The study revealed significan...

  19. Parental Divorce and Adolescent Drunkenness : Role of Socioeconomic Position, Psychological Well-Being and Social Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomcikova, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J. P.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks and the contribution of socioeconomic position, family structure, social support from family and well-being to this association. Methods: We

  20. FAMILY PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT DURING THE CHILD’S INPATIENT TREATMENT (BY THE EXAMPLE OF AN UROANDROLOGY DEPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mazurova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: to study the peculiarities of parents' emotional responses to the stress caused by their child’s hospitalization and operation to distinguish risk factors of losing personality potential by family members. Study participants and methods. The empirical study involved 82 parents (15 fathers and 67 mothers and 76 children of preschool, primary school and juvenile age. A package of techniques involving analysis of medical cards, observation, structured conversation, mental stress calculation questionnaire, the “Incomplete sentences” technique, systematization of results and mathematical data treatment methods was defined. Theoretical analysis of the issue of emotional response of parents to stressful situations connected with their child’s congenital malformations and the need in operative intervention was made. Results. It was shown that all members of a family as a single system are subject to stress. The reaction of parents to their child’s operation depends on their personal characteristics, system of beliefs and life attitudes. Conclusions. The emotional condition of parents influences their child’s psychological condition and the efficacy of treatment. Supporting the family psychologically during pre- and post-operative stages allows to reduce the level of emotional discomfort of children and their parents.

  1. The impact of windows and daylight on acute-care nurses' physiological, psychological, and behavioral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Rana Sagha; Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey; Williams, Gary; Chung, Susan Sung Eun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the physiological and psychological effects of windows and daylight on registered nurses. To date, evidence has indicated that appropriate environmental lighting with characteristics similar to natural light can improve mood, alertness, and performance. The restorative effects of windows also have been documented. Hospital workspaces generally lack windows and daylight, and the impact of the lack of windows and daylight on healthcare employees' well being has not been thoroughly investigated. Data were collected using multiple methods with a quasi-experimental approach (i.e., biological measurements, behavioral mapping, and analysis of archival data) in an acute-care nursing unit with two wards that have similar environmental and organizational conditions, and similar patient populations and acuity, but different availability of windows in the nursing stations. Findings indicated that blood pressure (p windows and daylight. A possible micro-restorative effect of windows and daylight may result in lowered blood pressure and increased oxygen saturation and a positive effect on circadian rhythms (as suggested by body temperature) and morning sleepiness. Critical care/intensive care, lighting, nursing, quality care, work environment.

  2. Psychological impact of providing women with personalised 10-year breast cancer risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, David P; Southworth, Jake; Howell, Anthony; Harvie, Michelle; Stavrinos, Paula; Watterson, Donna; Sampson, Sarah; Evans, D Gareth; Donnelly, Louise S

    2018-05-08

    The Predicting Risk of Cancer at Screening (PROCAS) study estimated 10-year breast cancer risk for 53,596 women attending NHS Breast Screening Programme. The present study, nested within the PROCAS study, aimed to assess the psychological impact of receiving breast cancer risk estimates, based on: (a) the Tyrer-Cuzick (T-C) algorithm including breast density or (b) T-C including breast density plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), versus (c) comparison women awaiting results. A sample of 2138 women from the PROCAS study was stratified by testing groups: T-C only, T-C(+SNPs) and comparison women; and by 10-year risk estimates received: 'moderate' (5-7.99%), 'average' (2-4.99%) or 'below average' (<1.99%) risk. Postal questionnaires were returned by 765 (36%) women. Overall state anxiety and cancer worry were low, and similar for women in T-C only and T-C(+SNPs) groups. Women in both T-C only and T-C(+SNPs) groups showed lower-state anxiety but slightly higher cancer worry than comparison women awaiting results. Risk information had no consistent effects on intentions to change behaviour. Most women were satisfied with information provided. There was considerable variation in understanding. No major harms of providing women with 10-year breast cancer risk estimates were detected. Research to establish the feasibility of risk-stratified breast screening is warranted.

  3. The impact of psychological stress on men's judgements of female body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Tovée, Martin J

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that the experience of psychological stress may influence physical attractiveness ideals, but most evidence in favour of this hypothesis remains archival. The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate the impact of stress on men's judgements of female body size. Men were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they took part in a task that heightened stress (experimental group, n = 41) or in which they did not take part in such a task (control group, n = 40). Both groups rated the attractiveness of female bodies varying in size from emaciated to obese, completed a measure of appetite sensation, and had their body mass indices (BMIs) measured. Between-groups analyses showed that the experimental group was matched with the control group in terms of mean age, BMI, and appetite sensation. Further analyses showed that men in the experimental group rated a significantly heavier female body size as maximally attractive than the control group. Men in the experimental group also rated heavier female bodies as more attractive and idealised a wider range of female figures than did the control group. This study found that the experience of stress was associated with a preference among men for heavier female body sizes. These results indicate that human attractiveness judgements are sensitive to variations in local ecologies and reflect adaptive strategies for dealing with changing environmental conditions.

  4. The impact of psychological stress on men's judgements of female body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Swami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous work has suggested that the experience of psychological stress may influence physical attractiveness ideals, but most evidence in favour of this hypothesis remains archival. The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate the impact of stress on men's judgements of female body size. METHODS: Men were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they took part in a task that heightened stress (experimental group, n = 41 or in which they did not take part in such a task (control group, n = 40. Both groups rated the attractiveness of female bodies varying in size from emaciated to obese, completed a measure of appetite sensation, and had their body mass indices (BMIs measured. RESULTS: Between-groups analyses showed that the experimental group was matched with the control group in terms of mean age, BMI, and appetite sensation. Further analyses showed that men in the experimental group rated a significantly heavier female body size as maximally attractive than the control group. Men in the experimental group also rated heavier female bodies as more attractive and idealised a wider range of female figures than did the control group. CONCLUSION: This study found that the experience of stress was associated with a preference among men for heavier female body sizes. These results indicate that human attractiveness judgements are sensitive to variations in local ecologies and reflect adaptive strategies for dealing with changing environmental conditions.

  5. Impact of Psychological Stress on Pain Perception in an Animal Model of Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Siomara; Cruz, Myrella L; Seguinot, Inevy I; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; Appleyard, Caroline B

    2017-10-01

    Pain in patients with endometriosis is considered a significant source of stress but does not always correlate with severity of the condition. We have demonstrated that stress can worsen endometriosis in an animal model. Here, we tested the impact of a psychological stress protocol on pain thresholds and pain receptors. Endometriosis was induced in female rats by suturing uterine horn tissue next to the intestinal mesentery. Sham rats had sutures only. Rats were exposed to water avoidance stress for 7 consecutive days or handled for 5 minutes (no stress). Fecal pellets and serum corticosterone (CORT) levels were measured as an index of anxiety. Pain perception was assessed using hot plate and Von Frey tests. Substance P, enkephalin, endomorphin-2, Mu opioid receptor (MOR), and neurokinin-1 receptor expression in the spinal cord were measured by immunohistochemistry. Fecal pellets and CORT were significantly higher in the endo-stress (ES) group than endo-no stress (ENS; P stress groups (SNS; P stress reversed the allodynic effect caused by endo ( P stress develop more severe symptoms but interestingly stress seems to have beneficial effects on abdominal allodynia, which could be a consequence of the stress-induced analgesia phenomenon.

  6. Mediating role of psychological well-being in the relationship between organizational support and nurses' outcomes: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan Sharif, Saeed; Ahadzadeh, Ashraf Sadat; Sharif Nia, Hamid

    2018-04-01

    To examine the relationship between organizational support for nursing practice and nurse-assessed quality of care and nurses' job satisfaction in hospital settings and to investigate the mediating role of psychological well-being in the aforementioned relationships. There has been growing concern about quality of care in healthcare organizations. The past research has documented the effect of nurse practice environment on nurses' quality of care and job satisfaction. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism behind these associations. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken. Data were collected from two large public hospitals in Iran between February - March 2017. A sample of 345 nurses participated in the study. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and partial least squared-structural equation modelling. The results showed that nurses' perception of organizational support was related to their quality of care, job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Also, there was a positive relationship between nurses' psychological well-being and their quality of care and job satisfaction. Moreover, psychological well-being partially mediated the relationship between organizational support with nurse-assessed quality of care and nurses' job satisfaction. The findings suggest that organizational support for nursing practice and psychological well-being are two factors that contribute to caring behaviour of nurses and their job satisfaction. Also, positively perceived organizational support generates favourable psychological well-being which in turn enhances nurses' quality of care and job satisfaction. The findings highlight the importance of establishing a supportive nurse practice environment and paying attention to the nurses' psychological well-being in healthcare sectors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Psychological impact of genetic counseling for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: the role of cancer history, gender, age, and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenbring, Monika I; Kreddig, Nina; Deges, Gabriele; Epplen, Joerg T; Kunstmann, Erdmute; Stemmler, Susanne; Schulmann, Karsten; Willert, Joerg; Schmiegel, Wolf

    2011-04-01

    We prospectively examined the impact of an initial interdisciplinary genetic counseling (human geneticist, oncologist, and psycho-oncologist) on feelings of anxiety with a special focus on subgroups related to personal cancer history, gender, age, and education. At baseline, cancer-affected men revealed a significantly higher level of anxiety than unaffected men (pDepression Scale-A cases can be predicted by general distress (Brief Symptom Inventory) as well as by hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer-related cognitions of intrusion and avoidance (impact of event scale) with a correct classification of 86%. Although initial hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer counseling leads to an overall reduction of anxiety, differential effects of cancer history, gender, and age focus on subgroups of cancer-affected men, who may display unexpectedly high anxiety scores at baseline. Especially younger men do not seem to reduce this high anxiety level. Baseline anxiety was mainly determined by maladaptive situation-specific cognitions. Therefore, consulters should be more aware of anxiety-related cognitions in cancer-affected younger men.

  8. The impact of psychological capital on mental health among Iranian nurses: considering the mediating role of job burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiri, Mehrdad; Nargesian, Abbas; Dastpish, Farinaz; Sharifi, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The role of nurses in providing high quality healthcare to patients is so important that creating a desirable working environment to enhance their overall performance is unavoidable. This paper aimed to explore the impact of psychological capital on mental health by investigating the mediating effects of job burnout on this relationship. The data used in this research was obtained via a survey conducted among selected Iranian nurses in public hospitals. In total, 450 questionnaires were distributed and 384 were completed and returned. Collected data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Findings showed that there is a significant relationship between psychological capital, job burnout and mental health; also, there is a significant negative relationship between psychological capital and job burnout, and a significant positive relationship between psychological capital and mental health. The results have several important practical implications for human resource management in Iranian public hospitals. According to the results of this study, reducing job burnout is an important factor in enhancing psychological capital and can positively enhance nurses' mental health.

  9. Supporting cancer patients and their carers: the contribution of art therapy and clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gudrun; Browning, Mary

    2009-11-01

    The value of various types of psychosocial support for people with cancer is now becoming well established. Typically the term 'psychosocial' includes: counselling and psychotherapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, education and information, and social support. The research literature sometimes fails to clarify the exact nature of the different approaches and their relative efficacy. Inevitably, even within a specific type of therapeutic approach, there is variation owing to the professional background and skills of different practitioners. This article describes the relative contributions made by an art psychotherapist and a clinical psychologist working together in a cancer and palliative care service in Wales. The referrals come from the same sources and tend to be for similar types of problem. The assessment and formulation processes are also broadly similar. Interventions, however, are markedly different. These are described in some detail through case study examples.

  10. Supervisor Support Buffers Daily Psychological and Physiological Reactivity to Work-to-Family Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, David M.; Davis, Kelly D.; Lee, Soomi; Lawson, Katie M.; Walter, Kim; Moen, Phyllis

    2015-01-01

    Using a daily diary design, the current study assessed within-person associations of work-to-family conflict with negative affect and salivary cortisol. Furthermore, we investigated whether supervisor support moderated these associations. Over eight consecutive days, 131 working parents employed by an information technology company answered telephone interviews about stressors and mood that occurred in the previous 24 hours. On Days 2–4 of the study protocol, they also provided five saliva sa...

  11. On the article of V. A. Mashin 'Computerized systems of NPP operators support. (Psychological problems)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prushinskij, B.Ya.

    1995-01-01

    Basic aspects of V.A. Mashin's article on NPP operator support computerized systems and problems of man-machine interrelation are analyzed. Sharing in the significant degree Mashin's point of view the author of this article considers that the most important aspects of this problem consist in dividing the responsibility for NPP safe operation between all participants of the NPP creation and operation and in the area of practical experience in assuring control functions reliability

  12. Violence toward physicians in emergency departments of Morocco: prevalence, predictive factors, and psychological impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekraoui Aicha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anyone working in the hospital may become a victim of violence. The effects of violence can range in intensity and include the following: minor physical injuries, serious physical injuries, temporary or permanent physical disability, psychological trauma, and death. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of exposure, characteristics, and psychological impact of violence toward hospital-based emergency physicians in Morocco. Methods This was a survey including emergency physicians who ensured emergency service during the last fortnight. The variables studied were those related to the victim (age and gender, and those related to aggression: assaulter gender, number, time, reason (delay of consultation and/or care, acute drunkenness, neuropsychiatric disease, and type (verbal abuse, verbal threat and/or physical assault. After the questionnaire was completed, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI of Spielberg was applied to all participants. Results A total of 60 physicians have achieved permanence in emergency department during the 15 days preceding the questionnaire response. The mean age was 24 ± 1 year and 57% were male. A total of 42 (70% had been exposed to violence. The violence occurred at night n = 16 (27%, afternoon n = 13 (22%, evening n = 7 (12% and morning n = 6 (10%. Reasons for violence were: the delay of consultation or care in n = 31 (52% cases, acute drunkenness in n = 10 (17% cases and neuropsychiatric disease in n = 3 (5% cases. Twenty eight (47% participants stated that they experienced verbal abuse, n = 18 (30% verbal threat and n = 5 (8.3% physical assault. Exposure to some form of violence was related to a higher median [interquartile range, IQR] state anxiety point (SAP; (51 [46-59] vs 39 [34-46]; P P = 0,01. Conclusions This study revealed a high prevalence (70% of violence toward doctors in Morocco emergency departments. The exposure of physicians to some form of violence is greater

  13. Supportive care needs and psychological distress and/or quality of life in ambulatory advanced colorectal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Nobuhiro; Takiguchi, Shuji; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Okuyama, Toru; Nakaguchi, Tomohiro; Kubota, Yosuke; Ito, Yoshinori; Sugano, Koji; Wada, Makoto; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2017-12-01

    Although currently many advanced colorectal cancer patients continuously receive chemotherapy, there are very few findings with regard to the supportive care needs of such patients. The purposes of this study were to investigate the patients' perceived needs and the association with psychological distress and/or quality of life, and to clarify the characteristics of patients with a high degree of unmet needs. Ambulatory colorectal cancer patients who were receiving chemotherapy were asked to complete the Short-Form Supportive Care Needs Survey questionnaire, which covers five domains of need (health system and information, psychological, physical, care and support, and sexuality needs), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire. Complete data were available for 100 patients. Almost all of the top 10 most common unmet needs belonged to the psychological domain. The patients' total needs were significantly associated with both psychological distress (r = 0.65, P quality of life (r = -0.38, P patients' needs and psychological distress and/or quality of life suggest that interventions that respond to patients' needs may be one possible strategy for ameliorating psychological distress and enhancing quality of life. Female patients' needs should be evaluated more carefully. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Positive Psychological Capital on Employee Attitudes, Behaviors, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, James B.; Reichard, Rebecca J.; Luthans, Fred; Mhatre, Ketan H.

    2011-01-01

    The positive core construct of psychological capital (or simply PsyCap), consisting of the psychological resources of hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism, has recently been demonstrated to be open to human resource development (HRD) and performance management. The research stream on PsyCap has now grown to the point that a quantitative…

  15. Journal Impact Factors and Self-Citations: Implications for Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anseel, Frederik; Duyck, Wouter; De Baene, Wouter; Brysbaert, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Comments on the study by J. G. Adair and N. Vohra (see record 2003-02034-002) of changes in the number of references and citations in psychology journals as a consequence of the current knowledge explosion. They made a striking observation of the sometimes excessive number of self-citations in psychology journals. However, after this illustration,…

  16. The impact of adolescent stuttering and other speech problems on psychological well-being in adulthood: evidence from a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline; Shepstone, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Developmental stuttering is associated with increased risk of psychological distress and mental health difficulties. Less is known about the impact of other developmental speech problems on psychological outcomes, or the impact of stuttering and speech problems once other predictors have been adjusted for. To determine the impact of parent-reported adolescent stuttering and other speech difficulties on psychological distress and associated symptoms as measured by the Rutter Malaise Inventory. A British birth cohort dataset provided information about 217 cohort members who stuttered and 301 cohort members who had other kinds of speech problem at age 16 according to parental report, and 15,694 cohort members who had experienced neither stuttering nor other speech difficulties. The main analyses concerned associations between adolescent stuttering or speech difficulty and score on the Rutter Malaise Inventory at age 42. Other factors that had previously been shown to be associated with score on the Malaise Inventory were also included in the analyses. In the adjusted analyses that controlled for other predictors, cohort members who were reported to stutter had higher malaise scores than controls overall, indicating a higher level of psychological distress, but they were not at significantly more likely to have malaise scores in the range indicating a risk of serious mental health difficulties. Cohort members who were reported to have other speech difficulties during adolescence had malaise scores that overall did not differ significantly from those of controls in the adjusted analyses, but they were at significantly greater risk of serious mental health difficulties. These findings support those of other studies that indicate an association between stuttering and psychological distress. This study is the first to have shown that adolescents who experience speech difficulties other than stuttering are more likely than controls to be at risk of poorer mental health in

  17. Science Supports Education: The Behavioral Research Base for Psychology's Top 20 Principles for Enhancing Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucariello, Joan M.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Anderman, Eric M.; Dwyer, Carol; Ormiston, Heather; Skiba, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Psychological science has much to contribute to preK-12 education because substantial psychological research exists on the processes of learning, teaching, motivation, classroom management, social interaction, communication, and assessment. This article details the psychological science that led to the identification, by the American Psychological…

  18. Supervisor Support Buffers Daily Psychological and Physiological Reactivity to Work-to-Family Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, David M; Davis, Kelly D; Lee, Soomi; Lawson, Katie M; Walter, Kim; Moen, Phyllis

    2016-02-01

    Using a daily diary design, the current study assessed within-person associations of work-to-family conflict with negative affect and salivary cortisol. Furthermore, we investigated whether supervisor support moderated these associations. Over eight consecutive days, 131 working parents employed by an information technology company answered telephone interviews about stressors and mood that occurred in the previous 24 hours. On Days 2-4 of the study protocol, they also provided five saliva samples throughout the day that were assayed for cortisol. Results indicated a high degree of day-to-day fluctuation in work-to-family conflict, with employed parents having greater negative affect and poorer cortisol regulation on days with higher work-to-family conflict compared to days when they experience lower work-to-family conflict. These associations were buffered, however, when individuals had supervisors who offered support. Discussion centers on the use of dynamic assessments of work-to-family conflict and employee well-being.

  19. Integrating emotional and psychological support into the end-stage renal disease pathway: a protocol for mixed methods research to identify patients' lower-level support needs and how these can most effectively be addressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Francesca; Taylor, Celia; Baharani, Jyoti; Nicholas, Johann; Combes, Gill

    2016-08-02

    As a result of difficulties related to their illness, diagnosis and treatment, patients with end-stage renal disease experience significant emotional and psychological problems, which untreated can have considerable negative impact on their health and wellbeing. Despite evidence that patients desire improved support, management of their psychosocial problems, particularly at the lower-level, remains sub-optimal. There is limited understanding of the specific support that patients need and want, from whom, and when, and also a lack of data on what helps and hinders renal staff in identifying and responding to their patients' support needs, and how barriers to doing so might be overcome. Through this research we therefore seek to determine what, when, and how, support for patients with lower-level emotional and psychological problems should be integrated into the end-stage renal disease pathway. The research will involve two linked, multicentre studies, designed to identify and consider the perspectives of patients at five different stages of the end-stage renal disease pathway (Study 1), and renal staff working with them (Study 2). A convergent, parallel mixed methods design will be employed for both studies, with quantitative and qualitative data collected separately. For each study, the data sets will be analysed separately and the results then compared or combined using interpretive analysis. A further stage of synthesis will employ data-driven thematic analysis to identify: triangulation and frequency of themes across pathway stages; patterns and plausible explanations of effects. There is an important need for this research given the high frequency of lower-level distress experienced by end-stage renal disease patients and lack of progress to date in integrating support for their lower-level psychosocial needs into the care pathway. Use of a mixed methods design across the two studies will generate a holistic patient and healthcare professional perspective that

  20. Psychological well-being, dental esthetics, and psychosocial impacts in adolescent orthodontic patients: A prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao; Wang, Yun-Ji; Deng, Feng; Liu, Pang-Li; Wu, Yan

    2018-01-01

    We examined the role of adolescent orthodontic patients' psychological well-being attributes (self-esteem, general body image, and positive and negative affects) and the clinical indicators of dental esthetics (orthodontists' ratings on the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need-Aesthetic Component [IOTN-AC]), and their changes from pretreatment to posttreatment as predictors of the psychosocial impact of dental esthetics. In this prospective longitudinal study, 1090 adolescent orthodontic patients seeking treatment at the Stomatological Hospital of Chongqing Medical University in China (mean age, 14.25 years; SD, 2.03 years) were assessed before treatment, and 68.99% (n = 752) were assessed after treatment. All subjects completed a questionnaire measuring psychological well-being attributes and 3 components of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics (perceptive, cognitive-affective, and social-functional). Clinical indicators of dental esthetics were measured by 3 orthodontists using the IOTN-AC. Substantial enhancement from pretreatment to posttreatment was found in all 3 Psychosocial Impacts of Dental Aesthetics components, confirming the positive effects of orthodontic treatment on oral health-related quality of life. Psychosocial impact of dental esthetics at baseline and improvement from pretreatment to posttreatment were found to be predicted by the patients' psychological well-being attributes (self-esteem, general body image, and negative affect) and the clinical indicators (orthodontists' rating on the IOTN-AC) at baseline, as well as their pretreatment to posttreatment change. Psychological well-being attributes had comparable or greater contribution to the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics at baseline as well as greater improvement after treatment than the clinical indicators. These biopsychological models explained 29% to 43% of the variances in psychosocial impacts of dental esthetics outcome at baseline and about 33% of the variance in

  1. The interactive role of job stress and organizational perceived support on psychological capital and job deviation behavior of hospital's nurses and staffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Ghasemzadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of job stress is an inevitable part of professional life and in the activities and efficiency is reflected in the organization. This study aimed to identify and predict the relationship between psychological capital and job deviation behavior through job stress regarding the moderating role of perceived organizational support. This study is correlation by using descriptive methods for applied goals. Standard questionnaire was used to collect data. 180 participants was estimated and stratified random sampling. The results showed the significance of the relationship between the variables except the relationship between deviant behaviors with psychological capital. Also, the interactive role of job stress and perceived organizational support on psychological capital and job deviation behavior was confirmed. This means that for the hospital's nurses and staffs with job stress, increasing perceived organizational support associated with enhancing psychological capital and decreasing job deviation behavior. These results emphasize necessity of recognizing interactive role of job stress and perceived organizational support in psychological capital and job deviation behavior

  2. Impact of generic substitution decision support on electronic prescribing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Shane P; Chen, Qingxia; Johnson, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of generic substitution decision support on electronic (e-) prescribing of generic medications. The authors analyzed retrospective outpatient e-prescribing data from an academic medical center and affiliated network for July 1, 2005-September 30, 2008 using an interrupted time-series design to assess the rate of generic prescribing before and after implementing generic substitution decision support. To assess background secular trends, e-prescribing was compared with a concurrent random sample of hand-generated prescriptions. Proportion of generic medications prescribed before and after the intervention, evaluated over time, and compared with a sample of prescriptions generated without e-prescribing. The proportion of generic medication prescriptions increased from 32.1% to 54.2% after the intervention (22.1% increase, 95% CI 21.9% to 22.3%), with no diminution in magnitude of improvement post-intervention. In the concurrent control group, increases in proportion of generic prescriptions (29.3% to 31.4% to 37.4% in the pre-intervention, post-intervention, and end-of-study periods, respectively) were not commensurate with the intervention. There was a larger change in generic prescribing rates among authorized prescribers (24.6%) than nurses (18.5%; adjusted OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.63). Two years after the intervention, the proportion of generic prescribing remained significantly higher for e-prescriptions (58.1%; 95% CI 57.5% to 58.7%) than for hand-generated prescriptions ordered at the same time (37.4%; 95% CI 34.9% to 39.9%) (p<0.0001). Generic prescribing increased significantly in every specialty. Implementation of generic substitution decision support was associated with dramatic and sustained improvements in the rate of outpatient generic e-prescribing across all specialties.

  3. Assessing the Scholarly Impact of Health Psychology: A Citation Analysis of Articles Published From 1993 to 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Frosch, DL; Saxbe, D; Tomiyama, AJ; Glenn, BA; Low, CA; Hanoch, Y; Motivala, SJ; Meeker, D

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a citation analysis to explore the impact of articles published in Health Psychology and determine whether the journal is fulfilling its stated mission. Design: Six years of articles (N = 408) representing three editorial tenures from 1993-2003 were selected for analysis. Main Outcome Measures: Articles were coded for several dimensions enabling examination of the relationship of article features to subsequent citations rates. Journals citing articles published in Heal...

  4. The psychological impact of IVF failure after two or more cycles of IVF with a mild versus standard treatment strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Klerk, Cora; Macklon, Nick; Heijnen, E.M.; Eijkemans, René; Fauser, Bart; Passchier, Jan; Hunfeld, Joke

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Failure of IVF treatment after a number of cycles can be devastating for couples. Although mild IVF strategies reduce the psychological burden of treatment, failure may cause feelings of regret that a more aggressive approach, including the transfer of two embryos, was not employed. In this study, the impact of treatment failure after two or more cycles on stress was studied, following treatment with a mild versus a standard treatment strategy. Methods: Randomized cont...

  5. Psychological impact of family history risk assessment in primary care: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Linda; Emery, Jon D; Prevost, A Toby; Sutton, Stephen; Walter, Fiona M

    2014-08-01

    Routine family history risk assessment for chronic diseases could enable primary care practitioners to efficiently identify at-risk patients and promote preventive management strategies. To investigate patients' understanding and responses to family history risk assessment in primary care. A mixed methods study set in 10 Eastern England general practices. Participants in a family history questionnaire validation study were triaged into population or increased risk for four chronic diseases (type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, colorectal cancer). Questionnaires completed immediately prior to the family history consultation (baseline) and 4 weeks later (follow-up) assessed the psychological impact, including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores. Semi-structured interviews explored the meaning participants gave to their personal familial disease risk. Four hundred and fifty-three participants completed both baseline and follow-up questionnaires and 30 were interviewed. At follow-up, there was no increase in anxiety among either group, or differences between the groups [difference in mean change 0.02, 95% confidence interval -2.04, 2.08, P = 0.98]. There were no significant changes over time in self-rated health in either group. At follow-up, participants at increased risk (n = 153) were more likely to have recent changes to behaviour and they had stronger intentions to make changes to diet (P = 0.001), physical activity (P = 0.006) and to seek further information in the future than those at population risk (n = 300; P assessment for familial risk of chronic diseases may be undertaken in primary care without causing anxiety or reducing self-rated health. Patient responses to family history risk assessment may inform promotion of preventive management strategies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Antecedents of Chinese parents' autonomy support and psychological control: the interplay between parents' self-development socialization goals and adolescents' school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Chan, Hoi-Wing; Lin, Li

    2012-11-01

    Despite ample evidence for the benefits of parental autonomy support and the harms of parental psychological control to Chinese adolescents' well-being, little is known about what foreshadows these parenting behaviors among Chinese parents. The current research addressed this gap in the literature. It tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of self-development socialization goals (i.e., regarding a positive sense of self in terms of holding optimistic attitudes toward oneself, feeling autonomous in one's actions, and establishing one's independence from others, as important for adolescents to develop) and adolescents' school performance may interact to predict parental autonomy support and psychological control in urban China. Three hundred and forty-one Chinese seventh graders (mean age = 13.30 years, 58 % female) and their parents (186 mothers and 155 fathers) participated. Parents reported on their own and their spouses' endorsement of self-development socialization goals; adolescents reported on parental autonomy support and psychological control; and adolescents' grades were obtained from school records. Significant interactions were found between parents' socialization goals and adolescents' grades in predicting parenting behaviors. When adolescents were doing well at school, the stronger parents' endorsement of self-development socialization goals, the greater their autonomy support and the lesser their psychological control; when adolescents were doing poorly at school, regardless of parents' socialization goals, their autonomy support was relatively low and their psychological control was relatively high. These findings highlight a tension between parental concerns over adolescents' self-development and academic success, which needs to be resolved to promote autonomy support and prevent psychological control among urban Chinese parents.

  7. Reproductive Decision-Making in MMR Mutation Carriers After Results Disclosure: Impact of Psychological Status in Childbearing Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffour, Jacqueline; Combes, Audrey; Crapez, Evelyne; Boissière-Michot, Florence; Bibeau, Frédéric; Senesse, Pierre; Ychou, Marc; Courraud, Julie; de Forges, Hélène; Roca, Lise

    2016-06-01

    Reproductive techniques such as prenatal diagnosis (PND) or preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), although debated, are legally forbidden in France in case of Lynch syndrome. The preference of mutation carriers about their reproductive options is not systematically considered in France. We aimed to prospectively assess the reproductive preferences of mismatch repair mutation carriers consulting in our institution (2003-2010, n = 100). We also considered the short- and long-term post-disclosure psychological impact using the Impact of Events Scale-Revised questionnaire to measure the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in those patients. Complete data were obtained for 34 respondents (17 males, 17 females, median age of 33.5 years [22-59]). Seventeen respondents (57 %) preferred spontaneous natural conception versus 28 % and 35 % choosing PND and PGD, respectively. At results disclosure, respondents mainly explained their distress by fear of premature death (43 %) and transmitting mutated genes (42 %). One year later, this last fear remained predominant in 55 % of subjects. None of the main socio-demographical, psychological or medical variables (including fear of transmitting mutations) was significantly associated with the reproductive preferences. Results disclosure had a real and time-decreasing psychological impact on mutation carriers. Reproductive techniques, expected to decrease the hereditary risk, were not significantly preferred to natural conception.

  8. Appraisal Support from Natural Mentors, Self-worth, and Psychological Distress: Examining the Experiences of Underrepresented Students Transitioning Through College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M; Albright, Jamie; Wittrup, Audrey; Negrete, Andrea; Billingsley, Janelle

    2018-05-01

    The current study explored whether cumulative appraisal support from as many as five natural mentors (i.e., nonparental adults from youth's pre-existing social networks who serve a mentoring role in youth's lives) led to reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety via improved global self-worth among underrepresented college students. Participants in the current study included 340 college students (69% female) attending a 4-year, predominantly White institution of higher education. Participants were first-generation college students, students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, and/or students from underrepresented racial/ethnic minority groups. Participants completed surveys during the Fall and Spring of their first year of college and in the Spring of their second and third years of college. Results of the structural equation model (including gender, race/ethnicity, and extraversion as covariates) indicated that greater total appraisal support from natural mentoring relationships predicted decreases in students' psychological distress via increases in self-worth (indirect effects assessed via boot-strapped confidence intervals; 95% CI). The strength of association between appraisal support and self-worth was not moderated by the proportion of academic natural mentors. Findings from the current study extend previous research by measuring multiple natural mentoring relationships and pinpointing supportive exchanges that may be of particular consequence for the promotion of healthy youth development. Institutional efforts to reinforce pre-existing natural mentoring relationships and encourage the onset of new natural mentoring relationships may serve to bolster the well-being and success of underrepresented students attending predominantly White universities.

  9. Positive results of clinical educational support in situations of psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavormina, Dominique

    2014-11-01

    Education is a complex process that involves the individual in the course of his entire life and leads to the maturation and the overall development of his personality. The educational process involves the complete growth of each and completes the infinite possibilities that every child has potential since birth. Education also is a necessity for the human being, as only adequate environmental stimulation causes the mental processes to begin. In fact, the higher intellectual functions, such as language, thought, memory, emerge only from social and educational experiences of the child. The educational surgery creates experiences and learning that allow the person to change by improving the efficiency of synaptic connections. Clinical pedagogy has developed in Italy in the last decades of the twentieth century with the aim of research and experimenting educational purposes suitable for different situations in order to provide each subject with appropriate development opportunities. Clinical pedagogical support is offered in the form of artistic or bodily activities and represents for the individual a positive environment that allows the development of different brain areas and the potential inherent in them. The various methods are suitable for any situation of existential discomfort, which are understood as moments of personal growth.

  10. Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: six-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Bolstridge, M; Day, C M J; Rucker, J; Watts, R; Erritzoe, D E; Kaelen, M; Giribaldi, B; Bloomfield, M; Pilling, S; Rickard, J A; Forbes, B; Feilding, A; Taylor, D; Curran, H V; Nutt, D J

    2018-02-01

    Recent clinical trials are reporting marked improvements in mental health outcomes with psychedelic drug-assisted psychotherapy. Here, we report on safety and efficacy outcomes for up to 6 months in an open-label trial of psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression. Twenty patients (six females) with (mostly) severe, unipolar, treatment-resistant major depression received two oral doses of psilocybin (10 and 25 mg, 7 days apart) in a supportive setting. Depressive symptoms were assessed from 1 week to 6 months post-treatment, with the self-rated QIDS-SR16 as the primary outcome measure. Treatment was generally well tolerated. Relative to baseline, marked reductions in depressive symptoms were observed for the first 5 weeks post-treatment (Cohen's d = 2.2 at week 1 and 2.3 at week 5, both p psilocybin. Reductions in depressive symptoms at 5 weeks were predicted by the quality of the acute psychedelic experience. Although limited conclusions can be drawn about treatment efficacy from open-label trials, tolerability was good, effect sizes large and symptom improvements appeared rapidly after just two psilocybin treatment sessions and remained significant 6 months post-treatment in a treatment-resistant cohort. Psilocybin represents a promising paradigm for unresponsive depression that warrants further research in double-blind randomised control trials.

  11. Suicide literacy predicts the provision of more appropriate support to people experiencing psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruwys, Tegan; An, Soontae; Chang, Melissa Xue-Ling; Lee, Hannah

    2018-06-01

    Mental health literacy has been hailed as a public health priority to reduce stigma and increase help seeking. We examined the effect of suicide literacy on the type of help provided to those experiencing suicidal ideation. A community sample of 363 Australians were randomly assigned to read one of three messages from a member of their social network (the target). The target reported symptoms consistent with either (1) subclinical distress, (2) clinical depression, or (3) suicidal ideation. Participants were most likely to recommend social support and least likely to recommend professional help. Suicide literacy interacted with the target's presentation, such that participants with higher suicide literacy who considered a suicidal target were less likely to recommend self-help or no action, and more likely to recommend professional help. Suicide literacy was also associated with lower suicide stigma, and unexpectedly, this indirectly predicted more reluctance to recommend professional help. Overall, results indicated that the relationship between mental health literacy, stigma, and provision of help is not straightforward. While suicide literacy was associated with greater sensitivity to a person's risk of suicide, it also predicted fewer recommendations for professional help overall, partly due to the stigma associated with seeking professional help. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Social Media Use and Well-Being in People with Physical Disabilities: Influence of SNS and Online Community Uses on Social Support, Depression, and Psychological Disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H Erin; Cho, Jaehee

    2018-04-13

    This study examined the relationships across social media use, social support, depression, and general psychological disposition among people with movement or mobility disabilities in Korea. First, with survey data (n = 91) collected from users of social network sites (SNSs) and online communities, hypotheses regarding positive associations between intensity of an individual's engagement in social media and four different types of social support-emotional, instrumental, informational, and appraisal support-were tested as well as hypotheses regarding mediation effects of the social support variables in the association between social media use and depression. Second, through focus group interviews (n = 15), influences of social media use on social support were more thoroughly explored as well as their influences on general psychological disposition. Results from hierarchical regression analyses confirmed that both intensity of SNS use and online community use significantly predicted instrumental, informational, and appraisal support, while they did not predict emotional support. Further regression and Sobel tests showed that higher levels of intensity of SNS use and of online community use both led to lower levels of depression through the mediation of instrumental and informational support. Analysis of the interviews further revealed the positive roles of social media use in building social support and healthy psychological dispositions. However, analysis also revealed some negative consequences of and limitations to social media use for those with physical disabilities. These findings expand our knowledge of the context and implications of engaging in online social activities for people with physical disabilities.

  13. Supportive Mental Health Self-Monitoring among Smartphone Users with Psychological Distress: Protocol for a Fully Mobile Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Beiwinkel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile health (mHealth could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons with moderate to high distress. Over a 4-week period, the intervention will be compared to a self-monitoring without intervention group and a passive control group. Telephone interviews will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention (4 weeks, and 12-week follow-up to assess study outcomes. The primary outcome will be improvement of mental health. Secondary outcomes will include well-being, intentions toward help-seeking and help-seeking behavior, user activation, attitudes toward mental-health services, perceived stigmatization, smartphone app quality, user satisfaction, engagement, and adherence with the intervention. Additionally, data from the user’s daily life as collected during self-monitoring will be used to investigate risk and protective factors of mental health in real-world settings. Therefore, this study will allow us to demonstrate the effectiveness of a smartphone application as a widely accessible and low-cost intervention to improve mental health on a population level. It also allows to identify new assessment approaches in the field of psychiatric epidemiology.

  14. Supportive Mental Health Self-Monitoring among Smartphone Users with Psychological Distress: Protocol for a Fully Mobile Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiwinkel, Till; Hey, Stefan; Bock, Olaf; Rössler, Wulf

    2017-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons with moderate to high distress. Over a 4-week period, the intervention will be compared to a self-monitoring without intervention group and a passive control group. Telephone interviews will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention (4 weeks), and 12-week follow-up to assess study outcomes. The primary outcome will be improvement of mental health. Secondary outcomes will include well-being, intentions toward help-seeking and help-seeking behavior, user activation, attitudes toward mental-health services, perceived stigmatization, smartphone app quality, user satisfaction, engagement, and adherence with the intervention. Additionally, data from the user’s daily life as collected during self-monitoring will be used to investigate risk and protective factors of mental health in real-world settings. Therefore, this study will allow us to demonstrate the effectiveness of a smartphone application as a widely accessible and low-cost intervention to improve mental health on a population level. It also allows to identify new assessment approaches in the field of psychiatric epidemiology. PMID:28983477

  15. Supportive Mental Health Self-Monitoring among Smartphone Users with Psychological Distress: Protocol for a Fully Mobile Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiwinkel, Till; Hey, Stefan; Bock, Olaf; Rössler, Wulf

    2017-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N  = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons with moderate to high distress. Over a 4-week period, the intervention will be compared to a self-monitoring without intervention group and a passive control group. Telephone interviews will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention (4 weeks), and 12-week follow-up to assess study outcomes. The primary outcome will be improvement of mental health. Secondary outcomes will include well-being, intentions toward help-seeking and help-seeking behavior, user activation, attitudes toward mental-health services, perceived stigmatization, smartphone app quality, user satisfaction, engagement, and adherence with the intervention. Additionally, data from the user's daily life as collected during self-monitoring will be used to investigate risk and protective factors of mental health in real-world settings. Therefore, this study will allow us to demonstrate the effectiveness of a smartphone application as a widely accessible and low-cost intervention to improve mental health on a population level. It also allows to identify new assessment approaches in the field of psychiatric epidemiology.

  16. Associations of Occupational Stressors, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Capital with Work Engagement among Chinese Female Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment, perceived organizational support (POS, and psychological capital (PsyCap and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330 completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%. Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes’ asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.

  17. Associations of Occupational Stressors, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Capital with Work Engagement among Chinese Female Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Li; Zou, Futing; Hao, Junhui; Wu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330) completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.

  18. Impact of psychological screening on routine outpatient care of hematopoietic cell transplantation survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoodin, Flora; Zhao, Lili; Carey, Jillian; Levine, John E; Kitko, Carrie

    2013-10-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients are at high risk for psychological distress, with reported prevalence rates as high as 40%. Although published guidelines advocate periodic routine screening, it is unclear how screening affects management of psychological symptoms at routine post-HCT outpatient clinic visits. We hypothesized that providers will be more likely to act on patients' psychological symptoms if a screening survey is completed and reviewed before a clinic visit. We used a brief, diagnostically focused Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), to assess for depressive disorders, anxiety, substance abuse, and problems in occupational or interpersonal functioning (functional disruption). Adult HCT survivors were randomized to complete the PHQ before meeting with their medical provider (n = 50; experimental group) or afterwards (n = 51; control group). Providers used the experimental group PHQ results at their discretion during the visits. Both providers and patients rated their satisfaction with management of psychological concerns after the visit. The prevalence of clinically significant depression (21%), anxiety (14%), or suicidal ideation (8%) did not differ between the 2 groups. Patients in the experimental group were significantly more likely to have discussion of psychological symptoms than the control group (68% versus 49%, P = .05). Medical providers were significantly more satisfied with the management of psychological issues for the experimental group (P routine care of hematopoietic cell transplantation survivors, stimulates discussion of psychological symptoms, and improves provider satisfaction with psychological symptom management. Future research will evaluate whether serial prospective administration improves patient outcomes. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bireysel Farklılıklar İle Psikolojik Sözleşme İhlali Arasındaki İlişkide Üstün Desteğinin Aracılık Rolü (The Mediating Role Of Supervisor Support In The Relationship Between Individual Differences And Psychological Contract Breach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Nur KARABEY

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the individual differences that are effective in the formation of psychological contract breach perception and to examine whether perceived supervisor support has a mediating role in the effect of these differences. Psychological contract refers to each part’s evaluation regarding what will be presented to and received from the other in the employee- organization relationship. Psychological contract breach reflects employee’s assessment that the employer did not bear its responsibilities. It was investigated whether individual differences such as positive affectivity, equity sensitivity and reciprocation wariness has an impact on psychological contract breach and it was addressed whether perceived supervisor support has a mediating role in the impact of these variables. A field study based on random sampling was conducted on a firm having 1500 employees operating in service industry and data were gathered through question forms from 285 employees. After demonstrating the dimensional structures of variables through confirmatory factor analysis, path analysis was conducted through structural equation modelling. It was found that equity sensitivity, reciprocation wariness and positive affectivity didn’t affect psychological contract breach. But perceived supervisor support was found to have a mediation role in the relationship between positive affectivity and psychological contract breach.

  20. The moderating impact of childhood adversity profiles and conflict on psychological health and suicidal behaviour in the Northern Ireland population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Margaret; O'Neill, Siobhan; Murphy, Sam; Armour, Cherie; Ferry, Finola; Bunting, Brendan

    2018-04-01

    Childhood adversities are key etiological factors in the onset and persistence of psychopathology. In Northern Ireland the Troubles also impacted on the population's psychological health. This study used data from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress a collaborative epidemiological study which used the WMH-CIDI to assess mental health disorders in a nationally representative sample (Part 2, n = 1986). The aims of the study were to assess co-occurrences of childhood adversities and investigate the impact of adversity profiles and conflict experience on psychopathology and suicidal behaviour. Latent Class Analysis uncovered 3 discrete childhood adversity profiles, a low, medium, and high risk class. Individuals from higher risk adversity profiles displayed significantly increased odds of having psychological problems, with conflict exposure also impacting on psychopathology. However, the study revealed that the impact of conflict exposure on suicidal behaviour was moderated by latent class membership and that some adversity may actually be protective. The findings highlight the need to consider that, while adversity can have a negative impact on psychopathology, a lack of adversity early in life may hinder some people from developing adequate coping strategies. Further research is required to identify adversity patterns and other interacting factors that are protective. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Demographic Features, Beliefs And Socio–Psychological Impact Of Acne Vulgaris Among Its Sufferers In Two Towns In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaraoha CI

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available There is paucity of reports in the demographic knowledge, belief and socio-psychological impact of acne vulgaris sufferers towards the disorder in a black population. This is the first study from Nigeria designed to address this issue. A total of 174 facial acne sufferers completed a self-administered questionnaire, which contained several items mentioning different areas in their belief, knowledge, perception, severity, socio-psychological impact and medication attention. The findings were discussed and compared to those of the Caucasians. The occurrence of the disorder was higher in females (65.0% compared to the males (35.0%. About 54.0% of the female subjects indicated increase in severity of the disorder during their pre-menstrual period. Also 64.9% of acne sufferers indicated increase in severity during the rainy season, while 93.1% of the population implicated stress to perpetuate the severity of the disorder. Most (75.7% of the acne sufferers believed that it is caused by oily diet, 40.8% thought that it is hereditary, while barely 5.2% had at sometime sought doctor's attention. Non- prescription products used by acne sufferers were cleansers and cream/lotions. Psychological abnormalities experienced by the sufferers included social inhibition, depression and anxiety. Pain and discomfort are the psychosomatic symptoms. No major differences were found in the beliefs, misconception and socio-psychological impact of acne sufferers in a black population (Nigeria compared to the Caucasians. There is need to improve the understanding of the disorder in Nigeria through health education programmes

  2. "It Doesn't All Just Stop at 18": Psychological Adjustment and Support Needs of Adults Born With Cleft Lip and/or Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Nicola Marie; Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Rumsey, Nichola

    2015-09-01

    Cleft in the lip and/or the palate (CL/P) is considered to be a lifelong condition, yet relatively little is known about the long-term outcomes for patients. Existing literature is largely outdated and conflicted, with an almost exclusive focus on medical aspects and deficits. To explore the psychological adjustment and possible support needs of a large number of adults born with CL/P from their own perspective. Fifty-two individual telephone interviews eliciting qualitative data. Qualitative analysis identified five themes. Participants reported a range of challenges in relation to discharge from the service, additional surgery as an adult, social and romantic relationships, higher education, vocational achievement, and access to psychological support. The findings imply that most adults with a cleft adjust well to these challenges and report many positive outcomes. For a minority of patients, issues attributed to the cleft may continue to cause distress in adulthood. Adults with CL/P may require psychological support, information about the heritability of cleft, signposting and referrals from nonspecialists, support regarding further treatment, and opportunities to take part in research and activities. New issues arising in adulthood, such as entering the workplace, forming long-term relationships, and starting a family, may warrant both further investigation and additional support. Further work is needed to identify the factors that contribute to psychological distress and resilience, as well as the timing of particular points of risk and opportunity for personal growth.

  3. Fostering self-endorsed motivation to change in patients with an eating disorder: the role of perceived autonomy support and psychological need satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Verstuyf, Joke; Boone, Liesbet; Smets, Jos

    2014-09-01

    Although several studies have established the beneficial effects of self-endorsed forms of motivation for lasting therapeutic change, the way patients with an eating disorder can be encouraged to volitionally pursue change has received less attention. On the basis of Self-Determination Theory, this longitudinal study addressed the role of an autonomy-supportive environment and psychological need satisfaction in fostering self-endorsed motivation for change and subsequent weight gain. Female inpatients (n = 84) with mainly anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa filled out questionnaires at the onset of, during, and at the end of treatment regarding their perceived autonomy support from parents, staff members, and fellow patients, their psychological need satisfaction, and their reasons for undertaking change. Furthermore, the body mass index (BMI) of the patients at the onset and end of treatment was assessed by the staff. Path analyses were used to investigate the relations between these constructs. At the start of treatment, perceived parental autonomy support related positively to self-endorsed motivation through psychological need satisfaction. Perceived staff and fellow patients autonomy support related to changes in self-endorsed motivation over the course of treatment through fostering change in psychological need satisfaction. Finally, relative increases in self-endorsed motivation related to relative increases in BMI throughout treatment in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa. These results point to the importance of an autonomy-supportive context for facilitating self-endorsed motivation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Impact of psychological problems in chemical warfare survivors with severe ophthalmologic complication, a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, Gholamhosein; Ghasemi, Hassan; Mousavi, Batool; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Rahnama, Parvin; Jafari, Farhad; Afshin-Majd, Siamak; Sadeghi Naeeni, Maryam; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi

    2012-04-12

    Sulfur mustard (SM) has been used as a chemical warfare agent since the early twentieth century. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated SM induced ocular injuries, few of those studies have also focused on the psychological health status of victims. This study has evaluated the most prominent influences on the psychological health status of patients with severe SM induced ocular injuries. This descriptive study was conducted on 149 Iranian war veterans with severe SM induced eye injuries. The psychological health status of all patients was assessed using the Iranian standardized Symptom Check List 90-Revised (SCL90-R) questionnaire. The results of patients' Global Severity Index (GSI) were compared with the optimal cut-off point of 0.4 that has previously been calculated for GSI in Iranian community. The Mann-Whitney U test, T tests and effect sizes (using Cohen's d) were employed as statistical methods. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. The mean age of patients was 44.86 (SD=8.7) and mean duration of disease was 21.58 (SD=1.20) years. Rate of exposure was once in 99 (66.4%) cases. The mean GSI (1.46) of the study group was higher compared to standardized cut off point (0.4) of the Iranian community. The results of this study showed that the mean of total GSI score was higher in participants with lower educational levels (effect size=0.507), unemployment (effect size=0.464) and having more than 3 children (effect size=0.62). Among the participants, 87 (58.4%) cases had a positive psychological history for hospitalization or receiving outpatient cares previously and 62 (41.6%) cases had a negative psychological history. In addition, the mean of GSI in participants with negative psychological history was lower than those with positive psychological history (Mean Change Difference=-0.621 with SD=0.120). There was a significant difference between positive and negative psychological history with respect to GSI (Pchemical survivors are

  5. Psychological harm after PANE: NEPA's requirement to consider psychological damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, W.S. III

    1984-01-01

    In Metropolitan Edison Co. v. People Against Nuclear Energy (PANE), the Supreme Court held that the National Environmental Policy Act does not require the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to consider the probable impact of its actions on psychological health. The Court's opinion, however, supports the conclusion that NEPA generally requires federal agencies to consider such probable impacts. This article examines the scope of federal responsibility following this decision. It delineates the causal relationship test that the Court adopted in PANE, and discusses possible obstacles to the consideration of psychological impacts under NEPA. It divides federal actions into four categories, then considers the benefits and burdens of the ruling using the NRC's responsibility to consider psychological health effects before licensing new nuclear reactors. 221 references

  6. Psychological impact of serial prostate-specific antigen tests in Japanese men waiting for prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Minoru; Nukui, Akinori; Kamai, Takao

    2017-02-01

    It is common to repeat prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements for men with intermediate PSA elevation before prostate biopsy. In this scenario, men with persistently elevated PSA values may have considerable psychological distress. We attempted to determine whether elevated PSA values have psychological effects on these men in association with the timing of measurement, PSA kinetics, and biopsy results. In order to investigate the initial and late effects of PSA tests on psychological distress during serial measurements, two groups of men with screen-positive results (PSA ≥3 ng/ml) were studied-205 men whose first questionnaires regarding anxiety and depression were taken at initial screening (group A), and 103 men whose questionnaires were taken at repeated measurement for prior PSA elevation (group B). The level of distress was generally low. There were no significant differences in distress between the two groups, suggesting a constant psychological effect by elevated PSA values over a long period of time. The distress of men in group A increased significantly as PSA levels rose and decreased when they fell to normal range. On the other hand, the distress of men in group B did not change regardless of PSA kinetics, indicating that their psychological condition seemed susceptible to subtle PSA change only in the initial phase of measurements. Unexpectedly, men with benign results showed insignificant but higher distress after prostate biopsy. Although a small fraction of men have psychological distress caused by changes in PSA levels, the benefits, risks (psychological and physical), and limitations of PSA tests must be adequately explained to the patients before entering the screening program.

  7. Associations between work environment and psychological distress after a workplace terror attack: the importance of role expectations, predictability and leader support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Knardahl, Stein; Heir, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing terrorism is associated with high levels of psychological distress among survivors. The aim of the present study was to examine whether work environmental factors such as role clarity and predictability, role conflicts, and leader support may protect against elevated levels of psychological distress after a workplace terrorist attack. Data from approximately 1800 ministerial employees were collected ten months after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack which targeted the Norwegian ministries. The results show that after a traumatic event, lower role conflicts, higher role clarity, higher predictability, and higher leader support were independently associated with lower psychological distress. These findings suggest that the workplace environment may be a facilitator of employees' mental health after stressful events.

  8. Islamic Constructs of Nursi’s Perspective and Their Impacts on Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA TEKKE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed new constructs to the field of Islamic psychology. It is particularly noteworthy to articulate the views of Said Nursi in the context of Islamic psychology. Based on fundamental aims of Qur’an, it clearly shows that Tawhid (Belief in God, Nubuwwa (Awareness of Prophetic Teaching, Hashr (Belief in Resurrection, and Ibadah (Worship as for main constructs of Qur'an greatly influential on a person's belief and thought.The proposed four constructs were thoroughly scrutinized to determine the possible meanings with human belief and thought. In line with chosen method, this paper applies the views of Nursi as a device for synthesizing arguments. Islamic psychology clearly indicates the Tawhid and  Nubuwwa, called shahadah, are fundamental of Islamic belief and thought and included with awareness of hereafter and doing worship. The other constructs of Hashr and Ibadah are also essential for an Islamic psychology model for understanding human personality. They were conceptually evaluated within the context of psychology, as indicatives of the concept of Islamic personality. These four constructs can be interpreted as inner experience depicting human’s emotions, desires, wishes, and intentions. Thus, they are strongly suggested to employ in newly developing Islamic personality scales.

  9. Toward a mediation model for nurses' well-being and psychological distress effects of quality of leadership and social support at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Mulder, Regina H; König, Christoph; Anselmann, Veronika

    2017-04-01

    Given the lack of active nurses in industrialized countries throughout the world, in combination with demographic changes, it is of utmost importance to protect nurses' well-being and to prevent psychological distress, because of their strong association with premature occupational leave. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of quality of leadership and social support at work on well-being and psychological distress of nurses and to determine whether nurses' overcommitment mediates the relationship between the abovementioned determinants and the outcomes. A cross-sectional survey design was used to gather our data. This study utilized part of the database of the Nurses' Early Exit Study. A total of 34,771 nurses (covering all nurse qualifications) working in hospitals, nursing homes, and home-care institutions in 8 European countries filled out a questionnaire (response rate = 51.4%). For all model variables (job satisfaction, satisfaction with salary, positive affectivity, personal burnout, negative affectivity, quality of leadership, social support from immediate supervisor, social support from near colleagues, and overcommitment), psychometrically sound, that is, valid and reliable measures were used. Outcomes from testing a structural equation mediation model indicated that, respectively, positive and negative influences of leadership quality and social support from supervisor and colleagues on nurses' well-being and psychological distress are partially mediated, that is, reduced, by nurses' overcommitment. Social work environment is highly important in relation to nurses' well-being and psychological distress.

  10. Antecedents of Chinese Parents' Autonomy Support and Psychological Control: The Interplay between Parents' Self-Development Socialization Goals and Adolescents' School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Chan, Hoi-Wing; Lin, Li

    2012-01-01

    Despite ample evidence for the benefits of parental autonomy support and the harms of parental psychological control to Chinese adolescents' well-being, little is known about what foreshadows these parenting behaviors among Chinese parents. The current research addressed this gap in the literature. It tested the hypothesis that parents'…

  11. Effect of environmental change in radiography room and psychological impact on young patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Chil; Seok, Eun Jo

    2007-01-01

    The attempt to enhance the environment of hospitals has increased recently to minimize young patients' anxiety about tests and inspections. This gives more satisfaction with the medical service to kids and young patients. The department of radiology endeavors to improve the conditions of existing radiography rooms to help young patients psychologically feel relaxed. This facilitates the process of inspections. This paper examines the relationship between the environment of radiography rooms and its effect on young patients' state of mind. 94 patients at the age of five were observed before and after the improvement of environment of the hospital. Positive results about the psychological state of the young patients were shown after the change of the environment. The result of this paper gives an idea that the modification of hospital environment has a critical importance to the young patients' psychological state. By this conclusion it may help to improve the quality of the medical service

  12. THE IMPACT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT ON RELATIONSHIP QUALITY IN FINANCIAL SERVICES MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pepur

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical arguments of the psychological contracts arise from the social exchange theory. According to this theory, all the parties involved in any type of relationships want to build a relationship based on mutual respect and fairness. The main goal of this paper is to explore the influence that psychological contracts have on the quality of the business-to-business relationship in the financial services market. The research conducted in this paper continued the pioneer work of Kingshott and Pecotich (2007 and by extending their conceptual model it provided the theoretical and practical insights specific to the business-to-business market. In the empirical part of the paper, the relationship between hotels and financial institutions in the Republic of Croatia is tested using the canonical correlation analysis. The results of the analysis confirm that the psychological contracts have an influence on the relationship quality between the partners in the financial services market.

  13. Impact of Psychological Variables on Playing Ability of University Level Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan Tufekcioglu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out the relationship between psychological variables and soccer playing ability among the university level male players. 42 soccer players representing different universities who participated in inter university competitions were selected as the subjects of the study. The dependent variable was soccer playing ability and independent variables were the selected psychological variables. Soccer playing ability was determined through a 10 point scale at the time of competitions. Psychological variables included achievement motivation, anxiety, self-concept and aggression. The data was statistically analyzed using Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis using SPSS. It was concluded that soccer playing ability has a positive correlation with achievement motivation and self-concept whereas anxiety and aggression have a negative correlation with soccer playing ability.

  14. Effect of environmental change in radiography room and psychological impact on young patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Chil; Seok, Eun Jo [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    The attempt to enhance the environment of hospitals has increased recently to minimize young patients' anxiety about tests and inspections. This gives more satisfaction with the medical service to kids and young patients. The department of radiology endeavors to improve the conditions of existing radiography rooms to help young patients psychologically feel relaxed. This facilitates the process of inspections. This paper examines the relationship between the environment of radiography rooms and its effect on young patients' state of mind. 94 patients at the age of five were observed before and after the improvement of environment of the hospital. Positive results about the psychological state of the young patients were shown after the change of the environment. The result of this paper gives an idea that the modification of hospital environment has a critical importance to the young patients' psychological state. By this conclusion it may help to improve the quality of the medical service.

  15. Do psychological job demands, decision control and social support predictreturn to work three months after a return-to-work (RTW) programme? The rapid-RTW cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haveraaen, Lise A; Skarpaas, Lisebet S; Berg, John E; Aas, Randi W

    2015-01-01

    Long-term sickness absence is a considerable health and economic problem in the industrialised world. Factors that might predict return to work (RTW) are therefore of interest. To examine the impact of psychosocial work characteristics on RTW three months after the end of a RTW programme. A cohort study of 251 sick-listed employees from 40 different treatment and rehabilitation services in Norway recruited from February to December 2012. The Job Content Questionnaire was used to gather information on the psychosocial work conditions. Full or partial RTW was measured three months after the end of the RTW programme, using data from the national sickness absence register. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between the psychosocial work characteristics and RTW. Having low psychological job demands (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9), high co-worker- (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.5-5.8), and supervisor support (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6-7.3), and being in a low-strain job (low job demands and high control) (OR = 4.6, 95% CI: 1.1-18.6) were predictive of being in work three months after the end of the RTW programme, after adjusting for several potential prognostic factors. Interventions aimed at returning people to work might benefit from putting more emphasise on psychosocial work characteristics in the future.

  16. Survey of editors and reviewers of high-impact psychology journals: statistical and research design problems in submitted manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alex; Reeder, Rachelle; Hyun, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    The authors surveyed 21 editors and reviewers from major psychology journals to identify and describe the statistical and design errors they encounter most often and to get their advice regarding prevention of these problems. Content analysis of the text responses revealed themes in 3 major areas: (a) problems with research design and reporting (e.g., lack of an a priori power analysis, lack of congruence between research questions and study design/analysis, failure to adequately describe statistical procedures); (b) inappropriate data analysis (e.g., improper use of analysis of variance, too many statistical tests without adjustments, inadequate strategy for addressing missing data); and (c) misinterpretation of results. If researchers attended to these common methodological and analytic issues, the scientific quality of manuscripts submitted to high-impact psychology journals might be significantly improved.

  17. The psychological impact of a dual-disaster caused by earthquakes and radioactive contamination in Ichinoseki after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsu, Tomihisa; Takaoka, Kota; Uemura, Saho; Kono, Akiko; Saito, Akihiko; Kawakami, Norito; Nakazato, Michiko; Shimizu, Eiji

    2014-05-20

    The psychological impact of dual-disasters (earthquakes and a nuclear accident), on affected communities is unknown. This study investigated the impact of a dual-disaster (earthquakes and radioactive contamination) on the prevalence of psychological distress in a landlocked city within the Tohoku area, Japan. A cross-sectional mail-in survey with a random sample of inhabitants from Ichinoseki city was conducted eleven months after the disasters, and data from 902 respondents were analyzed by logistic regression models, with multiple imputation methodology. The K6 was used to determine psychological distress. The estimated prevalence of psychological distress was 48.0 percent. House damage due to earthquakes and anxiety about radioactive contamination were significantly associated with psychological distress (p earthquake and radioactive contamination appeared additive.

  18. The impact of supportive nursing care on the needs of men with prostate cancer: a study across seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockle-Hearne, J; Charnay-Sonnek, F; Denis, L; Fairbanks, H E; Kelly, D; Kav, S; Leonard, K; van Muilekom, E; Fernandez-Ortega, P; Jensen, B T; Faithfull, S

    2013-10-15

    Prostate cancer is for many men a chronic disease with a long life expectancy after treatment. The impact of prostate cancer therapy on men has been well defined, however, explanation of the consequences of cancer treatment has not been modelled against the wider variables of long-term health-care provision. The aim of this study was to explore the parameters of unmet supportive care needs in men with prostate cancer in relation to the experience of nursing care. A survey was conducted among a volunteer sample of 1001 men with prostate cancer living in seven European countries. At the time of the survey, 81% of the men had some unmet supportive care needs including psychological, sexual and health system and information needs. Logistic regression indicated that lack of post-treatment nursing care significantly predicted unmet need. Critically, men's contact with nurses and/or receipt of advice and support from nurses, for several different aspects of nursing care significantly had an impact on men's outcomes. Unmet need is related not only to disease and treatment factors but is also associated with the supportive care men received. Imperative to improving men's treatment outcomes is to also consider the access to nursing and the components of supportive care provided, especially after therapy.

  19. Impact of emotional competence on supportive care needs, anxiety and depression symptoms of cancer patients: a multiple mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, A-S; Lelorain, S; Mahieuxe, M; Christophe, V

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of intrapersonal and interpersonal emotional competence on cancer patients' supportive care needs, as mediated by anxiety and depression symptoms. Cross-sectional design: 137 cancer patients (42% breast or ovarian cancer, 58% gastrointestinal cancer) in 4 French hospitals completed the Profile of Emotional Competence (PEC), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Supportive Care Needs Survey Short Form (SCNS-SF). Bootstrap methods with PROCESS Macro were used to test multiple mediation models. Emotional competence presented a direct or indirect beneficial effect on the satisfaction of supportive care needs, anxiety and depression symptoms. As expected, anxiety and depression symptoms had also strong positive correlations with unmet needs. All multiple mediation models were significant, except for physical needs: intrapersonal and interpersonal emotional competence impacted anxiety and depression symptoms, which in turn impacted psychological, sexual, care/support, and information needs. These innovative results show the important effect of patients' emotional competence on their supportive care need satisfaction, as mediated by anxiety and depression. Consequently, patients with high emotional competence may require less psychosocial input from medical clinicians. Thus, emotional competence may be integrated into health models and psychosocial interventions to improve patient adjustment. Further investigation is, however, needed to know which are the most beneficial specific emotional competences and at what point of the cancer pathway.

  20. An evaluation of psychological distress and social support of survivors and contacts of Ebola virus disease infection and their relatives in Lagos, Nigeria: a cross sectional study--2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Sheikh, Taiwo Lateef; Gidado, Saheed; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick; Olayinka, Adebola; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Shuaib, Faisal; Adeyemi, Joseph; Uzoma, Ogbonna; Ahmed, Abubakar; Doherty, Funmi; Nyanti, Sarah Beysolow; Nzuki, Charles Kyalo; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Oyemakinde, Akin; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Abdus-Salam, Ismail Adeshina; Obiako, Reginald O

    2015-08-27

    By September 2014, an outbreak of Ebola Viral Disease (EVD) in West African countries of Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Senegal and Nigeria, had recorded over 4500 and 2200 probable or confirmed cases and deaths respectively. EVD, an emerging infectious disease, can create fear and panic among patients, contacts and relatives, which could be a risk factor for psychological distress. Psychological distress among this subgroup could have public health implication for control of EVD, because of potential effects on patient management and contact tracing. We determined the Prevalence, pattern and factors associated with psychological distress among survivors and contacts of EVD and their relatives. In a descriptive cross sectional study, we used General Health Questionnaire to assess psychological distress and Oslo Social Support Scale to assess social support among 117 participants who survived EVD, listed as EVD contacts or their relatives at Ebola Emergency Operation Center in Lagos, Nigeria. Factors associated with psychological distress were determined using chi square/odds ratio and adjusted odds ratio. The mean age and standard deviation of participants was 34 +/ - 9.6 years. Of 117 participants, 78 (66.7%) were females, 77 (65.8%) had a tertiary education and 45 (38.5%) were health workers. Most frequently occurring psychological distress were inability to concentrate (37.6%) and loss of sleep over worry (33.3%). Losing a relation to EVD outbreak (OR = 6.0, 95% CI, 1.2-32.9) was significantly associated with feeling unhappy or depressed while being a health worker was protective (OR = 0.4, 95% CI, 0.2-0.9). Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) showed losing a relation (AOR = 5.7, 95% CI, 1.2-28.0) was a predictor of "feeling unhappy or depressed", loss of a relation (AOR = 10.1, 95% CI, 1.7-60.7) was a predictor of inability to concentrate. Survivors and contacts of EVD and their relations develop psychological distress. Development of psychological distress could be

  1. Couples' Support-Related Communication, Psychological Distress, and Relationship Satisfaction among Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon; Sherman, Marne; Ross, Stephanie; Ostroff, Jamie; Heyman, Richard E.; Fox, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    This study examined associations between couple communication about cancer and psychological distress and relationship satisfaction of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. One hundred forty-eight couples completed a videotaped discussion of a cancer-related issue and a general issue. Patients completed measures of psychological distress…

  2. Diabetic patients: Psychological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adili, Fatemeh; Larijani, Bagher; Haghighatpanah, Mohammadreza

    2006-11-01

    This study was undertaken to consider the psychological aspect of diabetes with regard to improving clinical outcomes. The review was limited to literature reports on the causes, solutions, and treatments of some common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management. A literature search was undertaken using Pub-Med, CINAHL, Proquest, Elsevier, Blackwell Synergy, Ovid, Ebsco, Rose net, and Google websites, including studies published in English journals between 1995 and 2006. Therefore about 88 articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In earlier studies, relatively little empirical research was found to substantiate the effect of psychological counseling in complicated diabetes. The greatest deficits were seen in areas of mental health, self-esteem parent impact, and family cohesion. There were some different factors, which influence the psychological aspect of diabetic patients, such as age, gender, place of living, familial and social support, motivation, energy, life satisfaction, and lifestyle. There are various types of solutions for coping with the psychological problems in diabetic clients. The most essential solution lies in educating the patients and healthcare providers on the subject. Before initiating each educational intervention, a thorough assessment would be crucial. Treatment plans may benefit from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior family therapy, improving family communication, problem-solving skills, and providing motivation for diabetic patients. Moreover, it seems that the close collaboration between diabetologists and psychologists would be fruitful.

  3. Assessment of the Impact of Pre-military and Military Trauma on the Physical and Psychological Well-Being of Female and Male Active Duty Soldiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knudson, Kathryn

    1996-01-01

    ...-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The analyses examined the relationships between trauma, social support/unit cohesion, health risks and a history of reported symptoms of PTSD and other psychological and physical problems...

  4. Visualizing the Impact of Art: An Update and Comparison of Current Psychological Models of Art Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelowski, Matthew; Markey, Patrick S; Lauring, Jon O; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a renaissance of empirical and psychological approaches to art study, especially regarding cognitive models of art processing experience. This new emphasis on modeling has often become the basis for our theoretical understanding of human interaction with art. Models also often define areas of focus and hypotheses for new empirical research, and are increasingly important for connecting psychological theory to discussions of the brain. However, models are often made by different researchers, with quite different emphases or visual styles. Inputs and psychological outcomes may be differently considered, or can be under-reported with regards to key functional components. Thus, we may lose the major theoretical improvements and ability for comparison that can be had with models. To begin addressing this, this paper presents a theoretical assessment, comparison, and new articulation of a selection of key contemporary cognitive or information-processing-based approaches detailing the mechanisms underlying the viewing of art. We review six major models in contemporary psychological aesthetics. We in turn present redesigns of these models using a unified visual form, in some cases making additions or creating new models where none had previously existed. We also frame these approaches in respect to their targeted outputs (e.g., emotion, appraisal, physiological reaction) and their strengths within a more general framework of early, intermediate, and later processing stages. This is used as a basis for general comparison and discussion of implications and future directions for modeling, and for theoretically understanding our engagement with visual art.

  5. Impact of Psychological Hardiness and Self-Monitoring on Teacher Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkutlu, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the moderating effects of psychological hardiness and self-monitoring on the linkage between organizational politics and teacher burnout. Totally 1344 teachers from 112 high schools chosen by random method in Ankara, Istanbul, Adana, Antalya, Samsun, Kahramanmaras, Adiyaman and Gaziantep in 2010-2011…

  6. Psychological Impact of Life as Refugees: A Pilot Study on a Syrian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychological assessment showed a high proportion of respondents (56 %) suffering from one or more of the following: anger, fearfulness, nervousness, difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, hopelessness about the future and spells of terror and panic (Figure 3). Some of the respondents refused to answer to some of ...

  7. Changing Women's Self-Perceptions: The Impact of a Psychology of Women Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roma M.

    Feminist therapy, a form of psychotherapy which reflects an androgynous view of sex roles, strives to identify the constraints of traditional sex role expectations and to help women take control of their lives. Women's studies courses may also achieve similar goals. Female students (N=32) enrolled in a psychology of women course were tested to…

  8. Neglect and perceived stigmatization impact psychological distress of orphans in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharin Hermenau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has shown that orphans in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk for mental health problems. Exposure to maltreatment and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatization are related to orphans’ psychological distress. Yet, researchers stress the need for more research in low-income countries to identify which factors of being an orphan may lead to psychological distress. Objectives: The present study aims to systematically investigate orphans’ experiences of maltreatment and stigmatization to identify factors that relate to their psychological distress. Methods: In total, 89 Tanzanian children who had lost at least one parent were compared to 89 matched non-orphans (mean age: 11 years; 51% boys. We measured exposure to maltreatment and perceived stigmatization as an orphan. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Children's Depression Inventory, the UCLA PTSD Index for Children, and the Reactive–Proactive Questionnaire. Results: Orphans reported significantly more experiences of neglect, but not of abuse. A group comparison revealed more depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and aggressive behavior among orphans. Neglect, abuse, and stigmatization correlated with orphans’ internalizing and externalizing problems, yet only neglect and stigmatization were related to orphans’ depression severity. Perceived stigmatization moderated the relationship between neglect and depression. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that orphans in Tanzania are at increased risk of experiencing neglect. Maltreatment and perceived stigmatization may play a role in orphans’ psychological distress. Culturally appropriate and evidence-based interventions may help to prevent maltreatment and stigmatization of orphans.

  9. Psychological Impact of Women's Name Change at Marriage: Literature Review and Implications for Further Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dralle, Penelope Wasson; Mackiewicz, Kathelynne

    1981-01-01

    Reviewed the published research on the psychological significance of names and name changes. Found little data pertaining to the implications of a woman changing or retaining her surname at marriage. Suggests such research would have relevance for individual personality development, marital and family relationships, and social and cultural…

  10. Psychological Impact of Life as Refugees: A Pilot Study on a Syrian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate types and prevalence of psychological distresses endured by Syrian refugees at Alzatary Camp in Jordan. Methods: This observational study was conducted over a period of 2 months (November and December, 2012) at Alzatary Camp for Syrian refugees in Jordan. A validated questionnaire was ...

  11. Visualizing the Impact of Art: An Update and Comparison of Current Psychological Models of Art Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelowski, Matthew; Markey, Patrick S.; Lauring, Jon O.; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a renaissance of empirical and psychological approaches to art study, especially regarding cognitive models of art processing experience. This new emphasis on modeling has often become the basis for our theoretical understanding of human interaction with art. Models also often define areas of focus and hypotheses for new empirical research, and are increasingly important for connecting psychological theory to discussions of the brain. However, models are often made by different researchers, with quite different emphases or visual styles. Inputs and psychological outcomes may be differently considered, or can be under-reported with regards to key functional components. Thus, we may lose the major theoretical improvements and ability for comparison that can be had with models. To begin addressing this, this paper presents a theoretical assessment, comparison, and new articulation of a selection of key contemporary cognitive or information-processing-based approaches detailing the mechanisms underlying the viewing of art. We review six major models in contemporary psychological aesthetics. We in turn present redesigns of these models using a unified visual form, in some cases making additions or creating new models where none had previously existed. We also frame these approaches in respect to their targeted outputs (e.g., emotion, appraisal, physiological reaction) and their strengths within a more general framework of early, intermediate, and later processing stages. This is used as a basis for general comparison and discussion of implications and future directions for modeling, and for theoretically understanding our engagement with visual art. PMID:27199697

  12. The impact of advertising on children’s psychological wellbeing and life satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opree, S.J.; Buijzen, M.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: It is generally believed that children’s advertising exposure decreases life satisfaction. This paper aims to investigate whether and how it does by examining the relation between advertising exposure and life satisfaction (Aim 1), as well as the mediating roles of psychological wellbeing

  13. The impact of advertising on children's psychological wellbeing and life satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opree, S.J.; Buijzen, M.A.; Reijmersdal, E.A. van

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: It is generally believed that children's advertising exposure decreases life satisfaction. This study aims to investigate whether and how it does by examining the relation between advertising exposure and life satisfaction (aim 1), as well as the mediating roles of psychological wellbeing

  14. INTERNET FORUM AS AN ENVIRONMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT OF MARRIED COUPLES FROM THE FAMILIES OF MIGRANT WORKERS IN A SITUATION OF FORCED SEPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gritsenko Valentina Vasilievna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to describe the psychological characteristics of communication of forum members concerning the situation of forced separation of married couples in a situation of labor migration. Practical relevance and novelty of the work is to identify opportunities of the Internet environment for psychological support for migrant workers’ families. Through the method of content analysis of materials of the Internet forums, the motives for applying for psychological support of family members to the participants of virtual communication in the situations of labor migration are identified, the reactions of the forum members on the suggested topics are analyzed. It is noted that the actuality of applying to the Internet resources often occurs at the stage of taking a decision of labor migration, rarely - at the stage of separation, as a rule, by the remaining partner. Most forum members assess a situation of going of one of the partners to work critically, describing negative scenarios. The article deals with coping strategies described on the forum which are estimated as the point of support, the expansion of psychological experience in a situation of forced separation. The examples of adaptive, not adaptive or relatively adaptive coping mechanisms implemented by the Forum members are given. The final conclusion of the article is an overview of possibility of communication in the Internet forums to search for effective strategies for coping with the situation of forced separation due to migration.

  15. Social support differentially moderates the impact of neuroticism and extraversion on mental wellbeing among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, J E; Lawlor, B A

    2012-10-01

    Personality affects psychological wellbeing, and social support networks may mediate this effect. This may be particularly pertinent in later life, when social structures change significantly, and can lead to a decline in psychological wellbeing. To examine, in an older population, whether the relationships between neuroticism and extraversion and mental wellbeing are moderated by available social support networks. We gathered information from 536 community-dwelling older adults, regarding personality, social support networks, depressive symptomatology, anxiety and perceived stress, as well as controlling for age and gender. Neuroticism and extraversion interacted with social support networks to determine psychological wellbeing (depression, stress and anxiety). High scores on the social support networks measure appear to be protective against the deleterious effects of high scores on the neuroticism scale on psychological wellbeing. Meanwhile, individuals high in extraversion appear to require large social support networks in order to maintain psychological wellbeing. Large familial and friendship social support networks are associated with good psychological wellbeing. To optimise psychological wellbeing in older adults, improving social support networks may be differentially effective for different personality types.

  16. Air quality impact analysis in support of the new production reactor environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, D.L.

    1991-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this air quality impact analysis for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this work was to provide Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) with the required estimates of ground-level concentrations of five criteria air pollutants at the Hanford Site boundary from each of the stationary sources associated with the new production reactor (NPR) and its supporting facilities. The DOE proposes to provide new production capacity for the primary production of tritium and secondary production of plutonium to support the US nuclear weapons program. Three alternative reactor technologies are being considered by DOE: the light-water reactor, the low-temperature, heavy-water reactor, and the modular high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor. In this study, PNL provided estimates of the impacts of the proposed action on the ground-level concentration of the criteria air pollutants for each of the alternative technologies. The criteria pollutants were sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, total suspended particulates, and particulates with a diameter of less than 10 microns. Ground-level concentrations were estimated for the peak construction phase activities expected to occur in 1997 and for the operational phase activities beginning in the year 2000. Ground-level concentrations of the primary air pollutants were estimated to be well below any of the applicable national or state ambient air quality standards. 12 refs., 19 tabs

  17. [Impact of SPA therapy with sulphureous mineral water on quality of life and psychological distress in chronic plaque psoriasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, M; Filippelli, A

    2014-01-01

    The plaque psoriasis, one of the most common form of psoriasis, is a chronic inflammatory disease. This pathology can cause devastating effects on quality of life and social relations with significant physical and psychological distress. Currently among the therapeutic agents available for the treatment of psoriasis is including SPA therapy, whose mechanism of action is only partially known, as well as very few studies examined the impact of this therapy on the quality of life. On the basis of these considerations, the research analyzed the effectiveness of SPA bath therapy (BLT) and its impact on quality of life and psychological distress in patients suffering from chronic plaque psoriasis. The study was conducted on 35 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis: 23% male and 77% female; mean age:56 ± 19 years; age range:17-85 years. The subjects were treated, for 2 weeks, with sulphureous SPA bath therapy from Terme of Telese SpA (Benevento-Italy). At the beginning and at the end of the SPA treatment considered was evaluated: the itching symptom (using NRS scale); the PASI Index; the impact on quality of life (using SF-36 and DLQI questionnaires) and on psychological distress (using ZUNG -tests). At the end of the SPA treatment, the mean values ± SD, compared to baseline, have showed a significant (p 1.0 ± 1.0) and PASI score (4 ± 4-->1.7 ± 2) with an improvement in quality of life and psichological distress as demonstrated by SF-36, DLQI and ZUNG tests. The data of this research show that the sulphureous SPA bath therapy can be considered very useful in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis for the improving of the quality of life and social relationship.

  18. The relationship between physical functional limitations, and psychological distress: Considering a possible mediating role of pain, social support and sense of mastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Flåten Backe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine associations between selected physical functional limitations related to performing daily activities and psychological distress. We also aimed to investigate if these associations vary across age (moderation, and to explore pain, sense of mastery and social support as potential moderators and mediators. The study was based on pooled data from two rounds (2008 and 2012 of a Norwegian nationally representative cross-sectional health survey (N = 8520 including individuals aged ≥ 16 years (Age groups = 16–44 and ≥ 45 years. Physical functional limitations comprised decreased ability to: i climb stairs, ii carry objects, or iii both. Psychological distress was measured as anxiety and depressive symptoms occurring separately or in combination (CAD. Of respondents reporting physical functional limitations, 8–14% reported depressive symptoms, 5–7% anxiety symptoms, and 13–28% reported CAD. Physical functional limitations were significantly associated with all three forms of psychological distress, particularly among individuals 16–44 years, and were more strongly related to CAD than to anxiety or depression occurring separately. The association with CAD was twice as strong when both types of physical functional limitations were present. Pain, sense of mastery and social support were significant modifiers of depression, whereas all three were significant mediators of the relationship between physical functional limitations and anxiety, depression and CAD. Sense of mastery mediated the relationship between physical functional limitations and CAD, but most strongly among those 16–44 years. Social support was only a significant mediator among those ≥ 45 years. Close associations between physical functional limitations and psychological distress highlight special needs among individuals experiencing daily functional limitations. The results also suggest that pain, low social support, and low sense of

  19. The relationship between physical functional limitations, and psychological distress: Considering a possible mediating role of pain, social support and sense of mastery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, Ingeborg Flåten; Patil, Grete Grindal; Nes, Ragnhild Bang; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations between selected physical functional limitations related to performing daily activities and psychological distress. We also aimed to investigate if these associations vary across age (moderation), and to explore pain, sense of mastery and social support as potential moderators and mediators. The study was based on pooled data from two rounds (2008 and 2012) of a Norwegian nationally representative cross-sectional health survey (N = 8520) including individuals aged ≥ 16 years (Age groups = 16-44 and ≥ 45 years). Physical functional limitations comprised decreased ability to: i) climb stairs, ii) carry objects, or iii) both. Psychological distress was measured as anxiety and depressive symptoms occurring separately or in combination (CAD). Of respondents reporting physical functional limitations, 8-14% reported depressive symptoms, 5-7% anxiety symptoms, and 13-28% reported CAD. Physical functional limitations were significantly associated with all three forms of psychological distress, particularly among individuals 16-44 years, and were more strongly related to CAD than to anxiety or depression occurring separately. The association with CAD was twice as strong when both types of physical functional limitations were present. Pain, sense of mastery and social support were significant modifiers of depression, whereas all three were significant mediators of the relationship between physical functional limitations and anxiety, depression and CAD. Sense of mastery mediated the relationship between physical functional limitations and CAD, but most strongly among those 16-44 years. Social support was only a significant mediator among those [Formula: see text] 45 years. Close associations between physical functional limitations and psychological distress highlight special needs among individuals experiencing daily functional limitations. The results also suggest that pain, low social support, and low sense of mastery may

  20. What should be prioritised in the development of an online intervention designed to support midwives in work-related psychological distress? An exploratory Delphi Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Pezaro

    2015-09-01

    This study outlines how consensus in the development of an online intervention designed to support midwives in work-related psychological distress may be achieved. Study outcomes will steer the design and development of an intervention, and highlight the most salient themes and elements to be included within an online intervention